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Sample records for activated microglia produce

  1. Activated microglia enhance neurogenesis via trypsinogen secretion.

    PubMed

    Nikolakopoulou, Angeliki M; Dutta, Ranjan; Chen, Zhihong; Miller, Robert H; Trapp, Bruce D

    2013-05-21

    White matter neurons in multiple sclerosis brains are destroyed during demyelination and then replaced in some chronic multiple sclerosis lesions that exhibit a morphologically distinct population of activated microglia [Chang A, et al. (2008) Brain 131(Pt 9):2366-2375]. Here we investigated whether activated microglia secrete factors that promote the generation of neurons from white matter cells. Adult rat brain microglia (resting or activated with lipopolysaccharide) were isolated by flow cytometry and cocultured with neonatal rat optic nerve cells in separate but media-connected chambers. Optic nerve cells cocultured with activated microglia showed a significant increase in the number of cells of neuronal phenotype, identified by neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin (TUJ-1) labeling, compared with cultures with resting microglia. To investigate the possible source of the TUJ-1-positive cells, A2B5-positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and A2B5-negative cells were isolated and cocultured with resting and activated microglia. Significantly more TUJ-1-positive cells were generated from A2B5-negative cells (∼70%) than from A2B5-positive cells (~30%). Mass spectrometry analysis of microglia culture media identified protease serine 2 (PRSS2) as a factor secreted by activated, but not resting, microglia. When added to optic nerve cultures, PRSS2 significantly increased neurogenesis, whereas the serine protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, decreased activated microglia-induced neurogenesis. Collectively our data provide evidence that activated microglia increase neurogenesis through secretion of PRSS2.

  2. Microglia is activated by astrocytes in trimethyltin intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, Claudia . E-mail: claudia.roehl@gmx.net; Sievers, Jobst

    2005-04-01

    Microglia participates in most acute and chronic neuropathologies and its activation appears to involve interactions with neurons and other glial cells. Trimethyltin (TMT)-induced brain damage is a well-characterized model of neurodegeneration, in which microglial activation occurs before neuronal degeneration. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the role of astroglia in TMT-induced microgliosis by using nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and morphological changes as parameters for microglial activation. Our investigation discusses (a) whether microglial cells can be activated directly by TMT; (b) if astroglial cells are capable of triggering or modulating microglial activation; (c) how the morphology and survival of microglia and astrocytes are affected by TMT treatment; and (d) whether microglial-astroglial interactions depend on direct cell contact or on soluble factors. Our results show that microglia are more vulnerable to TMT than astrocytes are and cannot be activated directly by TMT with regard to the examined parameters. In bilayer coculture with viable astroglial cells, microglia produce NO in significant amounts at subcytotoxic concentrations of TMT (20 {mu}mol/l). At these TMT concentrations, microglial cells in coculture convert into small round cells without cell processes, whereas flat, fibroblast-like astrocytes convert into thin process bearing stellate cells with a dense and compact cell body. We conclude that astrocytes trigger microglial activation after treatment with TMT, although the mechanisms of this interaction remain unknown.

  3. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1β from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  4. Telmisartan prevention of LPS-induced microglia activation involves M2 microglia polarization via CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuan; Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yurong; Wang, Yunjie; He, Ling; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Huang, Zhangjian; Liao, Hong; Li, Jia; Saavedra, Juan M; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Brain inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurological diseases. During brain inflammation, microglia cells are activated, producing neurotoxic molecules and neurotrophic factors depending on their pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. It has been demonstrated that Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) ameliorate brain inflammation and reduce M1 microglia activation. The ARB telmisartan suppresses glutamate-induced upregulation of inflammatory genes in cultured primary neurons. We wished to clarify whether telmisartan, in addition, prevents microglia activation through polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. We found that telmisartan promoted M2 polarization and reduced M1 polarization in LPS-stimulated BV2 and primary microglia cells, effects partially dependent on PPARγ activation. The promoting effects of telmisartan on M2 polarization, were attenuated by an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor or AMPK knockdown, indicating that AMPK activation participates on telmisartan effects. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, telmisartan enhancement of M2 gene expression was prevented by the inhibitor STO-609 and siRNA of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ), an upstream kinase of AMPK. Furthermore, telmisartan enhanced brain AMPK activation and M2 gene expression in a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. In addition, telmisartan reduced the LPS-induced sickness behavior in this in vivo model, and this effect was prevented by prior administration of an AMPK inhibitor. Our results indicate that telmisartan can be considered as a novel AMPK activator, suppressing microglia activation by promoting M2 polarization. Telmisartan may provide a novel, safe therapeutic approach to treat brain disorders associated with enhanced inflammation.

  5. Microglia.

    PubMed

    Perry, V Hugh

    2016-06-01

    The concept of the immunological privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has had a profound influence on studies of interactions between the immune system and the CNS. At one time there was considerable debate as to whether there were any cells in the CNS of myeloid origin, but we now know that there are a number of populations of myeloid cells in specialized compartments of the CNS and that there is an ongoing bidirectional dialogue between the CNS and the immune system. We briefly review what we know of the different myeloid populations, in particular the microglia: their phenotype and function; their role in CNS homeostasis; and also their role in pathology, focusing on chronic neurodegeneration.

  6. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J Mark

    2016-04-29

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1(GFP) mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR(WT) background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27033597

  7. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J Mark

    2016-04-29

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1(GFP) mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR(WT) background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Neural progenitor cells regulate microglia functions and activity.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Kira I; Andres, Robert H; Fukuhara, Takeshi; Bieri, Gregor; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; He, Yingbo; Guzman, Raphael; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2012-11-01

    We found mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to have a secretory protein profile distinct from other brain cells and to modulate microglial activation, proliferation and phagocytosis. NPC-derived vascular endothelial growth factor was necessary and sufficient to exert at least some of these effects in mice. Thus, neural precursor cells may not only be shaped by microglia, but also regulate microglia functions and activity.

  9. Early microglia activation in a mouse model of chronic glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Alejandra; Steele, Michael R.; Vetter, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in microglial cell activation and distribution are associated with neuronal decline in the CNS, particularly under pathological conditions. Activated microglia converge on the initial site of axonal degeneration in human glaucoma, yet, their part in its pathophysiology remains unresolved. To begin with, it is unknown whether microglia activation precedes or is a late consequence of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurodegeneration. Here, we address this critical element in DBA/2J (D2) mice, an established model of chronic inherited glaucoma, using as a control the congenic substrain DBA/2J Gpnmb+/SjJ (D2G), which is not affected by glaucoma. We analyzed the spatial distribution and timecourse of microglial changes in the retina, as well as within the proximal optic nerve prior to and throughout ages when neurodegeneration has been reported. Exclusively in D2 mice, we detected early microglia clustering in the inner central retina and unmyelinated optic nerve regions, with microglia activation peaking by 3 months of age. Between 5 and 8 months of age, activated microglia persisted and concentrated in the optic disc, but also localized to the retinal periphery. Collectively, our findings suggest microglia activation is an early alteration in the retina and optic nerve in D2 glaucoma, potentially contributing to disease onset or progression. Ultimately, detection of microglial activation may have value in early disease diagnosis, while modulation of microglial responses may alter disease progression. PMID:21246546

  10. Neuromelanin activates microglia and induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons: implications for progression of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Phillips, Kester; Wielgus, Albert R.; Liu, Jie; Albertini, Alberto; Zucca, Fabio A.; Faust, Rudolph; Qian, Steven Y.; Miller, David S.; Chignell, Colin F.; Wilson, Belinda; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Przedborski, Serge; Joset, Danielle; Loike, John; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Sulzer, David; Zecca, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a progressive loss of neuromelanin (NM)-containing dopamine (DA) neurons in substantia nigra (SN) which is associated with microgliosis and presence of extracellular NM. Herein, we have investigated the interplay between microglia and human NM on the degeneration of SN dopaminergic neurons. Although NM particles are phagocytised and degraded by microglia within minutes in vitro, extracellular NM particles induce microglial activation and ensuing production of superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and pro-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, NM produces, in a microglia-depended manner, neurodegeneration in primary ventral midbrain cultures. Neurodegeneration was effectively attenuated with microglia derived from mice deficient in macrophage antigen complex-1 (Mac-1), a microglial integrin receptor involved in the initiation of phagocytosis. Neuronal loss was also attenuated with microglia derived from mice deficient in phagocytic oxidase (PHOX), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, that is responsible for superoxide and H2O2 production, or apocyanin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. In vivo, NM injected into rat SN produces microgliosis and a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons. Thus, these results show that extracellular NM can activate microglia, which in turn, may induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. Our study may have far-reaching implications, both pathogenic and therapeutic. PMID:19957214

  11. Neuroprotective potential of molecular hydrogen against perinatal brain injury via suppression of activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenji; Kotani, Tomomi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Mano, Yukio; Nakano, Tomoko; Ushida, Takafumi; Li, Hua; Miki, Rika; Sumigama, Seiji; Iwase, Akira; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Ohno, Kinji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Suzumura, Akio; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to inflammation in utero is related to perinatal brain injury, which is itself associated with high rates of long-term morbidity and mortality in children. Novel therapeutic interventions during the perinatal period are required to prevent inflammation, but its pathogenesis is incompletely understood. Activated microglia are known to play a central role in brain injury by producing a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines and releasing oxidative products. The study is aimed to investigate the preventative potential of molecular hydrogen (H2), which is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent without mutagenicity. Pregnant ICR mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally on embryonic day 17 to create a model of perinatal brain injury caused by prenatal inflammation. In this model, the effect of maternal administration of hydrogen water (HW) on pups was also evaluated. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage and activation of microglia were determined in the fetal brains. H2 reduced the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative damage and microglial activation in the fetal brains. Next, we investigated how H2 contributes to neuroprotection, focusing on microglia, using primary cultured microglia and neurons. H2 prevented LPS- or cytokine-induced generation of reactive oxidative species by microglia and reduced LPS-induced microglial neurotoxicity. Finally, we identified several molecules influenced by H2, involved in the process of activating microglia. These results suggested that H2 holds promise for the prevention of inflammation related to perinatal brain injury. PMID:26709014

  12. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737

  13. Microglia mechanics: immune activation alters traction forces and durotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Lars; Koser, David E.; Shahapure, Rajesh; Gautier, Hélène O. B.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Gather, Malte C.; Ulbricht, Elke; Franze, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are key players in the primary immune response of the central nervous system. They are highly active and motile cells that chemically and mechanically interact with their environment. While the impact of chemical signaling on microglia function has been studied in much detail, the current understanding of mechanical signaling is very limited. When cultured on compliant substrates, primary microglial cells adapted their spread area, morphology, and actin cytoskeleton to the stiffness of their environment. Traction force microscopy revealed that forces exerted by microglia increase with substrate stiffness until reaching a plateau at a shear modulus of ~5 kPa. When cultured on substrates incorporating stiffness gradients, microglia preferentially migrated toward stiffer regions, a process termed durotaxis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune-activation of microglia led to changes in traction forces, increased migration velocities and an amplification of durotaxis. We finally developed a mathematical model connecting traction forces with the durotactic behavior of migrating microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that microglia are susceptible to mechanical signals, which could be important during central nervous system development and pathologies. Stiffness gradients in tissue surrounding neural implants such as electrodes, for example, could mechanically attract microglial cells, thus facilitating foreign body reactions detrimental to electrode functioning. PMID:26441534

  14. Microglia mechanics: immune activation alters traction forces and durotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Lars; Koser, David E; Shahapure, Rajesh; Gautier, Hélène O B; Holzapfel, Gerhard A; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Gather, Malte C; Ulbricht, Elke; Franze, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are key players in the primary immune response of the central nervous system. They are highly active and motile cells that chemically and mechanically interact with their environment. While the impact of chemical signaling on microglia function has been studied in much detail, the current understanding of mechanical signaling is very limited. When cultured on compliant substrates, primary microglial cells adapted their spread area, morphology, and actin cytoskeleton to the stiffness of their environment. Traction force microscopy revealed that forces exerted by microglia increase with substrate stiffness until reaching a plateau at a shear modulus of ~5 kPa. When cultured on substrates incorporating stiffness gradients, microglia preferentially migrated toward stiffer regions, a process termed durotaxis. Lipopolysaccharide-induced immune-activation of microglia led to changes in traction forces, increased migration velocities and an amplification of durotaxis. We finally developed a mathematical model connecting traction forces with the durotactic behavior of migrating microglial cells. Our results demonstrate that microglia are susceptible to mechanical signals, which could be important during central nervous system development and pathologies. Stiffness gradients in tissue surrounding neural implants such as electrodes, for example, could mechanically attract microglial cells, thus facilitating foreign body reactions detrimental to electrode functioning. PMID:26441534

  15. Functionally charged nanosize particles differentially activate BV2 microglia.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Nanosize (860-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) were coated with carboxyl (COOH-) or dimethyl amino (CH3)2-N- groups to give a net negative or p...

  16. Satellite microglia show spontaneous electrical activity that is uncorrelated with activity of the attached neuron.

    PubMed

    Wogram, Emile; Wendt, Stefan; Matyash, Marina; Pivneva, Tatyana; Draguhn, Andreas; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain. We have studied a subpopulation of microglia, called satellite microglia. This cell type is defined by a close morphological soma-to-soma association with a neuron, indicative of a direct functional interaction. Indeed, ultrastructural analysis revealed closely attached plasma membranes of satellite microglia and neurons. However, we found no apparent morphological specializations of the contact, and biocytin injection into satellite microglia showed no dye-coupling with the apposed neurons or any other cell. Likewise, evoked local field potentials or action potentials and postsynaptic potentials of the associated neuron did not lead to any transmembrane currents or non-capacitive changes in the membrane potential of the satellite microglia in the cortex and hippocampus. Both satellite and non-satellite microglia, however, showed spontaneous transient membrane depolarizations that were not correlated with neuronal activity. These events could be divided into fast-rising and slow-rising depolarizations, which showed different characteristics in satellite and non-satellite microglia. Fast-rising and slow-rising potentials differed with regard to voltage dependence. The frequency of these events was not affected by the application of tetrodotoxin, but the fast-rising event frequency decreased after application of GABA. We conclude that microglia show spontaneous electrical activity that is uncorrelated with the activity of adjacent neurons.

  17. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  18. Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Ruth M; Thompson, Vanessa M; Kitt, Meagan M; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W; Frank, Matthew G; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Stamper, Christopher E; Hennessey, Patrick A; Watkins, Linda R; Spencer, Robert L; Lowry, Christopher A; Maier, Steven F

    2015-03-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher corticosterone levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal corticosterone levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia and prevented Escherichia coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia.

  19. Microglia protect against brain injury and their selective elimination dysregulates neuronal network activity after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Gergely; Martinecz, Bernadett; Lénárt, Nikolett; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Orsolits, Barbara; Judák, Linda; Császár, Eszter; Fekete, Rebeka; West, Brian L.; Katona, Gergely; Rózsa, Balázs; Dénes, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the main immune cells of the brain and contribute to common brain diseases. However, it is unclear how microglia influence neuronal activity and survival in the injured brain in vivo. Here we develop a precisely controlled model of brain injury induced by cerebral ischaemia combined with fast in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and selective microglial manipulation. We show that selective elimination of microglia leads to a striking, 60% increase in infarct size, which is reversed by microglial repopulation. Microglia-mediated protection includes reduction of excitotoxic injury, since an absence of microglia leads to dysregulated neuronal calcium responses, calcium overload and increased neuronal death. Furthermore, the incidence of spreading depolarization (SD) is markedly reduced in the absence of microglia. Thus, microglia are involved in changes in neuronal network activity and SD after brain injury in vivo that could have important implications for common brain diseases. PMID:27139776

  20. FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli K1 type 1 fimbriae activates BV-2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jongseok; Shin, Sooan; Teng, C.-H.; Hong, Suk Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik . E-mail: kwangkim@jhmi.edu

    2005-09-02

    The generation of intense inflammation in the subarachnoid space in response to meningitis-causing bacteria contributes to brain dysfunction and neuronal injury in bacterial meningitis. Microglia, the major immune effector cells in the central nervous system (CNS), become activated by bacterial components to produce proinflammatory immune mediators. In this study, we showed that FimH adhesin, a tip component of type 1 fimbriae of meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1, activated the murine microglial cell line, BV-2, which resulted in the production of nitric oxide and the release of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK and p-38, and nuclear factor-{kappa}B were involved in FimH adhesin-mediated microglial activation. These findings suggest that FimH adhesin contributes to the CNS inflammatory response by virtue of activating microglia in E. coli meningitis.

  1. Up-regulation of glutamine synthesis in microglia activated with endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Takezawa, Yosuke; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2015-03-30

    We previously verified that newborn rat brain-derived microglia have the ability to uptake (14)C-glutamate (Glu) through glutamate transporter-1. A given amount of Glu incorporated into microglia was suspected to be metabolized to glutamine (Gln). However, the ability of microglia to do this had not been demonstrated. Thus, in the present study we examined the possibility that primary rat microglia metabolize Glu into Gln. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting studies indicated that the microglia express glutamine synthetase (GS) protein. As expected from these results, GS activity was actually detected in microglia, although the specific activity was lower than that of astrocytes. Considering this microglial property, it seemed possible that the taken Glu is metabolized to Gln in the cells. To investigate this possibility, we exposed microglia to [(13)C]Glu-containing medium and analyzed the change of Glu to Gln in a nuclear magnetic resonance examination. The results clarified that non-stimulated microglia hardly changed Glu to Gln, but when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide the microglia significantly metabolized [(13)C]Glu to [(13)C]Gln. Microglia were thus, strongly suggested to metabolize Glu to Gln via GS activity when activated in the inflammatory/pathological state of the nervous system. PMID:25681623

  2. Up-regulation of glutamine synthesis in microglia activated with endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Takezawa, Yosuke; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2015-03-30

    We previously verified that newborn rat brain-derived microglia have the ability to uptake (14)C-glutamate (Glu) through glutamate transporter-1. A given amount of Glu incorporated into microglia was suspected to be metabolized to glutamine (Gln). However, the ability of microglia to do this had not been demonstrated. Thus, in the present study we examined the possibility that primary rat microglia metabolize Glu into Gln. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting studies indicated that the microglia express glutamine synthetase (GS) protein. As expected from these results, GS activity was actually detected in microglia, although the specific activity was lower than that of astrocytes. Considering this microglial property, it seemed possible that the taken Glu is metabolized to Gln in the cells. To investigate this possibility, we exposed microglia to [(13)C]Glu-containing medium and analyzed the change of Glu to Gln in a nuclear magnetic resonance examination. The results clarified that non-stimulated microglia hardly changed Glu to Gln, but when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide the microglia significantly metabolized [(13)C]Glu to [(13)C]Gln. Microglia were thus, strongly suggested to metabolize Glu to Gln via GS activity when activated in the inflammatory/pathological state of the nervous system.

  3. Activation status of human microglia is dependent on lesion formation stage and remyelination in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Ummenthum, Kimberley; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla D A M; Gerritsen, Wouter H; Peferoen-Baert, Regina M B; van der Valk, Paul; Dijkstra, Christine D; Amor, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Similar to macrophages, microglia adopt diverse activation states and contribute to repair and tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, we show that in vitro M1-polarized (proinflammatory) human adult microglia express the distinctive markers CD74, CD40, CD86, and CCR7, whereas M2 (anti-inflammatory) microglia express mannose receptor and the anti-inflammatory cytokine CCL22. The expression of these markers was assessed in clusters of activated microglia in normal-appearing white matter (preactive lesions) and areas of remyelination, representing reparative multiple sclerosis lesions. We show that activated microglia in preactive and remyelinating lesions express CD74, CD40, CD86, and the M2 markers CCL22 and CD209, but not mannose receptor. To examine whether this intermediate microglia profile is static or dynamic and thus susceptible to changes in the microenvironment, we polarized microglia into M1 or M2 phenotype in vitro and then subsequently treated them with the opposing polarization regimen. These studies revealed that expression of CD40, CXCL10, and mannose receptor is dynamic and that microglia, like macrophages, can switch between M1 and M2 phenotypic profiles. Taken together, our data define the differential activation states of microglia during lesion development in multiple sclerosis-affected CNS tissues and underscore the plasticity of human adult microglia in vitro.

  4. Exercise reduces activation of microglia isolated from hippocampus and brain of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with low-grade neuroinflammation that includes basal increases in proinflammatory cytokines and expression of inflammatory markers on microglia. Exercise can reduce neuroinflammation following infection in aged animals, but whether exercise modulates basal changes in microglia activation is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated changes in basal microglia activation in cells isolated from the hippocampus and remaining brain following running-wheel access. Methods Adult (4 months) and aged (22 months) male and female BALB/c mice were housed with or without running wheels for 10 weeks. Microglia were isolated from the hippocampus or remaining brain. Flow cytometry was used to determine microglia (CD11b+ and CD45low) that co-labeled with CD86, CD206, and MHC II. Results Aged mice showed a greater proportion of CD86 and MHC II positive microglia. In aged females, access to a running wheel decreased proportion of CD86+ and MHC II+ microglia in the hippocampus whereas aged males in the running group showed a decrease in the proportion of CD86+ microglia in the brain and an increase in the proportion of MHC II+ microglia in hippocampus and brain. Conclusion Overall, these data indicate that running-wheel access modulates microglia activation, but these effects vary by age, sex, and brain region. PMID:24044641

  5. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Lui, Hansen; Zhang, Jiasheng; Makinson, Stefanie R; Cahill, Michelle K; Kelley, Kevin W; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Shang, Yulei; Oldham, Michael C; Martens, Lauren Herl; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Sloan, Steven A; Hsieh, Christine L; Kim, Charles C; Bigio, Eileen H; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R; Seeley, William W; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Borroni, Barbara; Ghidoni, Roberta; Farese, Robert V; Paz, Jeanne T; Barres, Ben A; Huang, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Microglia maintain homeostasis in the brain, but whether aberrant microglial activation can cause neurodegeneration remains controversial. Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased complement production, and enhanced synaptic pruning in microglia. During aging, Grn(-/-) mice show profound microglia infiltration and preferential elimination of inhibitory synapses in the ventral thalamus, which lead to hyperexcitability in the thalamocortical circuits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like grooming behaviors. Remarkably, deleting C1qa gene significantly reduces synaptic pruning by Grn(-/-) microglia and mitigates neurodegeneration, behavioral phenotypes, and premature mortality in Grn(-/-) mice. Together, our results uncover a previously unrecognized role of progranulin in suppressing aberrant microglia activation during aging. These results represent an important conceptual advance that complement activation and microglia-mediated synaptic pruning are major drivers, rather than consequences, of neurodegeneration caused by progranulin deficiency.

  6. Progranulin Deficiency Promotes Circuit-Specific Synaptic Pruning by Microglia via Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Lui, Hansen; Zhang, Jiasheng; Makinson, Stefanie R; Cahill, Michelle K; Kelley, Kevin W; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Shang, Yulei; Oldham, Michael C; Martens, Lauren Herl; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Sloan, Steven A; Hsieh, Christine L; Kim, Charles C; Bigio, Eileen H; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Rademakers, Rosa; Mackenzie, Ian R; Seeley, William W; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L; Borroni, Barbara; Ghidoni, Roberta; Farese, Robert V; Paz, Jeanne T; Barres, Ben A; Huang, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Microglia maintain homeostasis in the brain, but whether aberrant microglial activation can cause neurodegeneration remains controversial. Here, we use transcriptome profiling to demonstrate that deficiency in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) gene progranulin (Grn) leads to an age-dependent, progressive upregulation of lysosomal and innate immunity genes, increased complement production, and enhanced synaptic pruning in microglia. During aging, Grn(-/-) mice show profound microglia infiltration and preferential elimination of inhibitory synapses in the ventral thalamus, which lead to hyperexcitability in the thalamocortical circuits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like grooming behaviors. Remarkably, deleting C1qa gene significantly reduces synaptic pruning by Grn(-/-) microglia and mitigates neurodegeneration, behavioral phenotypes, and premature mortality in Grn(-/-) mice. Together, our results uncover a previously unrecognized role of progranulin in suppressing aberrant microglia activation during aging. These results represent an important conceptual advance that complement activation and microglia-mediated synaptic pruning are major drivers, rather than consequences, of neurodegeneration caused by progranulin deficiency. PMID:27114033

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor contributes to spinal long-term potentiation and mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Yang, Tao; Wei, Xiao; Liu, Yong; Xin, Wen-Jun; Chen, Yuan; Pang, Rui-Ping; Zang, Ying; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo

    2011-02-01

    It has been shown that following peripheral nerve injury brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released by activated microglia contributes to neuropathic pain, but whether BDNF affects the function of microglia is still unknown. In the present work we found that spinal application of BDNF, which induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of C-fiber evoked field potentials, activated spinal microglia in naïve animals, while pretreatment with microglia inhibitor minocycline blocked BDNF-induced LTP. In addition, following LTP induction by BDNF, both phosphorylated Src-family kinases (p-SFKs) and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) were up-regulated only in spinal microglia but not in neurons and astrocytes, whilst spinal application of SFKs inhibitor (PP2 or SU6656) or p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) blocked BDNF-induced LTP and suppressed microglial activation. As spinal LTP at C-fiber synapses is considered to underlie neuropathic pain, we subsequently examined whether BDNF may contribute to mechanical hypersensitivity by activation of spinal microglia using spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Following SNI BDNF and TrkB receptor were up-regulated mainly in dorsal horn neurons and in activated microglia, and p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK were increased exclusively in microglia. Intrathecal injection of BDNF scavenger TrkB-Fc starting before SNI, which prevented the behavioral sign of neuropathic pain, suppressed both microglial activation and the up-regulation of p-SFKs and p-p38 MAPK produced by SNI. Thus, the increased BDNF/TrkB signaling in spinal dorsal horn may contribute to neuropathic pain by activation of microglia following peripheral nerve injury and inhibition of SFKs or p38 MAPK may selectively inhibit microglia in spinal dorsal horn.

  8. 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A, two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia suppress microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Jingling; Xu, Jing; Cui, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yuanqiang; Jin, Da-Qing

    2016-01-26

    Microglia activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases by producing neurotoxic factors. In the present study, we found that two diterpenes isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia, 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A suppressed NO and PGE2 production by inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. The diterpenes also inhibited the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the mechanism involved the NF-κB but not Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, the two diterpenes also attenuate microglia activation-mediated neuronal death. These results suggest that 15-O-Acetyl-3-O-benzoylcharaciol and helioscopinolide A may provide potential therapeutic strategy for various neuroinflammatory diseases.

  9. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  10. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  11. Microglia-derived TNFα induces apoptosis in neural precursor cells via transcriptional activation of the Bcl-2 family member Puma

    PubMed Central

    Guadagno, J; Xu, X; Karajgikar, M; Brown, A; Cregan, S P

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a common feature of acute neurological conditions such as stroke and spinal cord injury, as well as neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that acute neuroinflammation can adversely affect the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) and thereby limit the capacity for regeneration and repair. However, the mechanisms by which neuroinflammatory processes induce NPC death remain unclear. Microglia are key mediators of neuroinflammation and when activated to induce a pro-inflammatory state produce a number of factors that could affect NPC survival. Importantly, in the present study we demonstrate that tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) produced by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia is necessary and sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mouse NPCs in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces NPC apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway regulated by the Bcl-2 family protein Bax. BH3-only proteins are known to play a key role in regulating Bax activation and we demonstrate that microglia-derived TNFα induces the expression of the BH3-only family member Puma in NPCs via an NF-κB-dependent mechanism. Specifically, we show that NF-κB is activated in NPCs treated with conditioned media from activated microglia and that Puma induction and NPC apoptosis is blocked by the NF-κB inhibitor BAY-117082. Importantly, we have determined that NPC apoptosis induced by activated microglia-derived TNFα is attenuated in Puma-deficient NPCs, indicating that Puma induction is required for NPC death. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that Puma-deficient NPCs exhibit an ∼13-fold increase in survival as compared with wild-type NPCs following transplantation into the inflammatory environment of the injured spinal cord in vivo. In summary, we have identified a key signaling pathway that regulates neuroinflammation induced apoptosis

  12. Cytokine-producing microglia have an altered beta-amyloid load in aged APP/PS1 Tg mice.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Alicia A; Ilkjær, Laura; Clausen, Bettina H; Villadsen, Birgitte; Dissing-Olesen, Lasse; Bendixen, Anita T M; Lyck, Lise; Lambertsen, Kate L; Finsen, Bente

    2015-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and chronic neuroinflammation are significant neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Microglial cells in aged brains have potential to produce cytokines such as TNF and IL-1 family members (IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra) and to phagocytose Aβ in Alzheimer's disease, however the inter-relationship between these processes is poorly understood. Here we show that % Aβ plaque load followed a sigmoidal trajectory with age in the neocortex of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice, and correlated positively with soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42. Aβ measures were moderately correlated with mRNA levels of CD11b, TNF, and IL-1Ra. Cytokine production and Aβ load were assessed in neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia by flow cytometry. Whereas most microglia in aged mice produced IL-1Ra, relatively low proportions of microglia produced TNF, IL-1α, and IL-1β. However, microglial production of these latter cytokines was generally increased in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Microglia that phagocytosed endogenously-produced Aβ were only observed in APP/PS1 Tg mice. Differences in phagocytic index and total Aβ load were observed in microglia with specific cytokine profiles. Both phagocytic index and total Aβ load were higher in IL-1α(+) and IL-1Ra(+) microglia, than microglia that did not produce these cytokines. In contrast, total Aβ load was lower in IL-1β(+) and TNF(+) microglia, compared to IL-1β(-) and TNF(-) microglia, and TNF(+) microglia also had a lower phagocytic index. Using GFP bone marrow chimeric mice, we confirmed that the majority of neocortical CD11b(+)(CD45(+)) microglia were resident cells (GFP(-)) in APP/PS1 Tg mice, even after selectively analysing CD11b(+)CD45(high) cells, which are typically considered to be infiltrating cells. Together, our data demonstrate that cytokine expression is selectively correlated with age and Aβ pathology, and is associated with an altered Aβ load in phagocytic microglia from APP/PS1 Tg mice. These findings have

  13. Microglia activity modulated by T cell Ig and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-wei; Zhu, Xin-li; Qin, Li-ming; Qian, Hai-jun; Wang, Yiner

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are the main innate immune cells in the central nervous system that are actively involved in maintaining brain homeostasis and diseases. T cell Ig and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) plays critical roles in both the adaptive and the innate immune system and is an emerging therapeutic target for treatment of various disorders. In the brain Tim-3 is specifically expressed on microglia but its functional role is unclear. Here, we showed that Tim-3 was up-regulated on microglia by ATP or LPS stimulation. Tim-3 activation with antibodies increased microglia expression of TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-1β. Blocking of Tim-3 with antibodies decreased the microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Tim-3 blocking alleviated the detrimental effect of microglia on neurons and promoted NG2 cell differentiation in co-cultures. Finally, MAPKs namely ERK1/2 and JNK proteins were phosphorylated upon Tim-3 activation in microglia. Data indicated that Tim-3 modulates microglia activity and regulates the interaction of microglia-neural cells.

  14. PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Machlovi, Saima Ishaq; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E

    2014-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [(11)C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD.

  15. PACAP27 prevents Parkinson-like neuronal loss and motor deficits but not microglia activation induced by prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Nikolopoulou, Anastasia; Machlovi, Saima Ishaq; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a major risk factor in Parkinson disease (PD). Alternative approaches are needed to treat inflammation, as anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can produce devastating side effects, including heart attack and stroke. New therapeutic strategies that target factors downstream of COX-2, such as prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), hold tremendous promise because they will not alter the homeostatic balance offered by COX-2 derived prostanoids. In the current studies, we report that repeated microinfusion of PGJ2 into the substantia nigra of non-transgenic mice, induces three stages of pathology that mimic the slow-onset cellular and behavioral pathology of PD: mild (one injection) when only motor deficits are detectable, intermediate (two injections) when neuronal and motor deficits as well as microglia activation are detectable, and severe (four injections) when dopaminergic neuronal loss is massive accompanied by microglia activation and motor deficits. Microglia activation was evaluated in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C](R)PK11195 to provide a regional estimation of brain inflammation. PACAP27 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor deficits induced by PGJ2, without preventing microglia activation. The latter could be problematic in that persistent microglia activation can exert long-term deleterious effects on neurons and behavior. In conclusion, this PGJ2-induced mouse model that mimics in part chronic inflammation, exhibits slow-onset PD-like pathology and is optimal for testing diagnostic tools such as PET, as well as therapies designed to target the integrated signaling across neurons and microglia, to fully benefit patients with PD. PMID:24970746

  16. Type II Activation of Macrophages and Microglia by Immune Complexes Enhances Th17 Biasing in an IL-6-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Sarrabeth; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages can be activated into several distinct activation states. One of these states, type II activation, has a regulatory phenotype characterized by decreased IL-12 and increased IL-10, and has been shown to bias naïve CD4+ T cells to a Th2 response. Microglia, the resident macrophage-like cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important contributors to neuroinflammation and, thus, we investigated if type II activated microglia could bias CD4+ T cell responses in a similar manner as type II activated macrophages. Using immune complex ligation in the presence of LPS to induce type II activation, we found that both type II macrophages and type II microglia biased CD4+ T cell responses in vitro to express increased levels of IL-17A and CD124. The enhanced IL-17A production occurred independently of IL-6, and IL-10 and IL-12, which were key regulators of IFN-γ production, but were not involved in the increased IL-17A. Finally, we found that another type II-activating compound, glatiramer acetate, did not bias CD4+ T cells to produce enhanced IL-17A. Taken together, this study demonstrates that microglia can be type II activated and, similarly to type II macrophages, can bias CD4+ T cell responses; however, depending on the type II stimulus, the effect on CD4+ T cell subset differentiation may vary. PMID:27732670

  17. A three-dimensional collagen construct to model lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of BV2 microglia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We report a novel method of culturing microglia in three dimension (3D) using collagen as a substrate. By culturing microglia within a matrix, we aim to emulate the physical state of microglia embedded within parenchyma. Methods BV2 microglia cell suspensions were prepared with type I collagen and cast into culture plates. To characterise the BV2 microglia cultured in 3D, the cultures were evaluated for their viability, cell morphology and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. Conventional monolayer cultures (grown on uncoated and collagen-coated polystyrene) were set up concurrently for comparison. Results BV2 microglia in 3D collagen matrices were viable at 48 hrs of culture and exhibit a ramified morphology with multiplanar cytoplasmic projections. Following stimulation with 1 μg/ml LPS, microglia cultured in 3D collagen gels increase their expression of nitric oxide (NO) and CD40, indicating their capacity to become activated within the matrix. Up to 97.8% of BV2 microglia grown in 3D cultures gained CD40 positivity in response to LPS, compared to approximately 60% of cells grown in a monolayer (P < .05). BV2 microglia in 3D collagen gels also showed increased mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and the chemoattractant MCP-1 following LPS stimulation. Conclusions In summary, BV2 microglia cultured in 3D collagen hydrogels exhibit multiplanar cytoplasmic projections and undergo a characteristic and robust activation response to LPS. This culture system is accessible to a wide range of analyses and provides a useful new in vitro tool for research into microglial activation. PMID:25074682

  18. Endotoxin-Induced Systemic Inflammation Activates Microglia: [11C]PBR28 Positron Emission Tomography in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Hannestad, Jonas; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Schafbauer, Thomas; Lim, Keunpoong; Kloczynski, Tracy; Morris, Evan D.; Carson, Richard E; Ding, Yu-Shin; Cosgrove, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    inflammation produces a robust increase in the level of TSPO that is readily detected with [11C]PBR28 PET. The effect of LPS on [11C]PBR28 binding is likely mediated by inflammatory cytokines. Activation of microglia may be a mechanism through which systemic inflammatory processes influence the course of diseases such as Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, and possibly depression. PMID:22776451

  19. Involvement of Microglia Activation in the Lead Induced Long-Term Potentiation Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Shen, Xue-Feng; Che, Hong-Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Luo, Wen-Jing

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of Lead (Pb), a known neurotoxicant, can impair spatial learning and memory probably via impairing the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as hippocampal neuronal injury. Activation of hippocampal microglia also impairs spatial learning and memory. Thus, we raised the hypothesis that activation of microglia is involved in the Pb exposure induced hippocampal LTP impairment and neuronal injury. To test this hypothesis and clarify its underlying mechanisms, we investigated the Pb-exposure on the microglia activation, cytokine release, hippocampal LTP level as well as neuronal injury in in vivo or in vitro model. The changes of these parameters were also observed after pretreatment with minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor. Long-term low dose Pb exposure (100 ppm for 8 weeks) caused significant reduction of LTP in acute slice preparations, meanwhile, such treatment also significantly increased hippocampal microglia activation as well as neuronal injury. In vitro Pb-exposure also induced significantly increase of microglia activation, up-regulate the release of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia culture alone as well as neuronal injury in the co-culture with hippocampal neurons. Inhibiting the microglia activation with minocycline significantly reversed the above-mentioned Pb-exposure induced changes. Our results showed that Pb can cause microglia activation, which can up-regulate the level of IL-1β, TNF-α and iNOS, these proinflammatory factors may cause hippocampal neuronal injury as well as LTP deficits. PMID:22952811

  20. Activation of microglia by endotoxin suppresses the secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) through the action of protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKS).

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuichi; Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Tohyama, Yoko; Kurihara, Tadashi; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2008-07-01

    The ability of microglia to produce/secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro was examined. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that nonstimulated microglia release limited amounts of GDNF with molecular sizes of 14 and 17 kDa. However, the secreted amounts significantly decreased when the microglia were activated with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Comparison of the amounts of GDNF in the cells and the conditioned medium between the nonstimulated microglia and LPS-stimulated microglia clarified that the secretion of GDNF, but not its production, is strongly suppressed when the microglia are activated with LPS. The inhibitor experiments suggested that the GDNF secretion is depressed by a signaling cascade associated with protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). As expected from the above results, a PKC activator suppressed the secretion of GDNF in nonstimulated microglia. Taken together, these results demonstrated that microglia have the ability to produce and secrete GDNF in vitro, and that the secretion is suppressed by stimulation with endotoxin, probably due to a signaling mechanism involving PKCalpha and/or MAPKs.

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of 6-Paradol in Focal Cerebral Ischemia Involves the Attenuation of Neuroinflammatory Responses in Activated Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hyuk; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Kim, Sun Yeou; Shin, Dong Yun; Choi, Ji Woong

    2015-01-01

    Paradols are non-pungent and biotransformed metabolites of shogaols and reduce inflammatory responses as well as oxidative stress as shogaols. Recently, shogaol has been noted to possess therapeutic potential against several central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including cerebral ischemia, by reducing neuroinflammation in microglia. Therefore, paradol could be used to improve neuroinflammation-associated CNS disorders. Here, we synthesized paradol derivatives (2- to 10-paradols). Through the initial screening for anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia, 6-paradol was chosen to be the most effective compound without cytotoxicity. Pretreatment with 6-paradol reduced neuroinflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia by a concentration-dependent manner, which includes reduced NO production by inhibiting iNOS upregulation and lowered secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). To pursue whether the beneficial in vitro effects of 6-paradol leads towards in vivo therapeutic effects on transient focal cerebral ischemia characterized by neuroinflammation, we employed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)/reperfusion (M/R). Administration of 6-paradol immediately after reperfusion significantly reduced brain damage in M/R-challenged mice as assessed by brain infarction, neurological deficit, and neural cell survival and death. Furthermore, as observed in cultured microglia, 6-paradol administration markedly reduced neuroinflammation in M/R-challenged brains by attenuating microglial activation and reducing the number of cells expressing iNOS and TNF-α, both of which are known to be produced in microglia following M/R challenge. Collectively, this study provides evidences that 6-paradol effectively protects brain after cerebral ischemia, likely by attenuating neuroinflammation in microglia, suggesting it as a potential therapeutic agent to treat cerebral ischemia. PMID:25789481

  2. Presenilin 2 influences miR146 level and activity in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Jayadev, Suman; Case, Amanda; Alajajian, Betty; Eastman, Alison J.; Möller, Thomas; Garden, Gwenn A.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, are the primary defenders against microbes and critical to CNS remodeling. Dysregulation of microglial behavior can lead to unchecked pro-inflammatory activity and subsequent neurodegeneration. The molecular mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and microglial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases are not well-understood. It is known that patients with Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutations develop autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease. We have shown that a lack of normal PS2 function is associated with exaggerated microglia pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. To identify pathways by which PS2 regulates microglia and determine how PS2 dysfunction may lead to altered inflammatory pathways, we pursued an unbiased array approach to assess differential expression of microRNAs between murine PS2 knockout (KO) and wild-type microglia. We identified miR146, a negative regulator of monocyte pro-inflammatory response, as constitutively down-regulated in PS2 KO microglia. Consistent with a state of miR146 suppression, we found that PS2 KO microglia express higher levels of the miR146 target protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1, and have increased NFκB transcriptional activity. We hypothesize that PS2 impacts microglial responses through modulation of miR146a. PS2 dysfunction, through aging or mutation, may contribute to neurodegeneration by influencing the pro-inflammatory behavior of microglia. PMID:23952003

  3. Rapidly activated epidermal growth factor receptor mediates lipopolysaccharide-triggered migration of microglia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in microglia activation characterized by cell morphology changes, cytokine production and cell migration; and the biochemical regulation of the microglia migration is a potential therapeutic target following CNS inflammatory damages. However, the role of EGFR in microglia motility after inflammatory stimulation remains unknown. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to trigger rapid EGFR phosphorylation within 10 min, which was sustained during long-term stimulation in both primary microglial cells and the cultured BV2 microglial cells, furthermore, blocking EGFR phosphorylation by AG1478 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia. In addition, LPS could initiate calcium oscillation in microglia during live-cell recording, however, an intracellular calcium chelator and a selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not an extracellular calcium chelator, remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced EGFR phosphorylation in BV2 microglia cells. As EGFR is not a traditional receptor for LPS, these findings suggest that the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR is attributed to the LPS-triggered intracellular calcium mobilization. By examining the downstream signals of EGFR, we further proved that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for EGFR-mediated microglia migration, because ERK inhibition attenuated the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia that had been induced by either LPS or EGF. Collectively, these results suggest that LPS could trigger the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent ERK activation through mobilizing calcium activity, which underlies the microglia migration in an inflammatory condition.

  4. Vitamin D3 alters microglia immune activation by an IL-10 dependent SOCS3 mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boontanrart, Mandy; Hall, Samuel D; Spanier, Justin A; Hayes, Colleen E; Olson, Julie K

    2016-03-15

    Microglia become activated immune cells during infection or disease in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanisms that downregulate activated microglia to prevent immune-mediated damage are not completely understood. Vitamin D3 has been suggested to have immunomodulatory affects, and high levels of vitamin D3 have been correlated with a decreased risk for developing some neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the synthesis of active vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, within the CNS, but its cellular source and neuroprotective actions remain unknown. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether microglia can respond to vitamin D3 and whether vitamin D3 alters immune activation of microglia. We have previously shown that microglia become activated by IFNγ or LPS or by infection with virus to express pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules. In this study, activated microglia increased the expression of the vitamin D receptor and Cyp27b1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form, thereby enhancing their responsiveness to vitamin D3. Most importantly, the activated microglia exposed to vitamin D3 had reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα, and increased expression of IL-10. The reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on IL-10 induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). Therefore, vitamin D3 increases the expression of IL-10 creating a feedback loop via SOCS3 that downregulates the pro-inflammatory immune response by activated microglia which would likewise prevent immune mediated damage in the CNS. PMID:26943970

  5. Vitamin D3 alters microglia immune activation by an IL-10 dependent SOCS3 mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boontanrart, Mandy; Hall, Samuel D; Spanier, Justin A; Hayes, Colleen E; Olson, Julie K

    2016-03-15

    Microglia become activated immune cells during infection or disease in the central nervous system (CNS). However, the mechanisms that downregulate activated microglia to prevent immune-mediated damage are not completely understood. Vitamin D3 has been suggested to have immunomodulatory affects, and high levels of vitamin D3 have been correlated with a decreased risk for developing some neurological diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated the synthesis of active vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, within the CNS, but its cellular source and neuroprotective actions remain unknown. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether microglia can respond to vitamin D3 and whether vitamin D3 alters immune activation of microglia. We have previously shown that microglia become activated by IFNγ or LPS or by infection with virus to express pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and effector molecules. In this study, activated microglia increased the expression of the vitamin D receptor and Cyp27b1, which encodes the enzyme for converting vitamin D3 into its active form, thereby enhancing their responsiveness to vitamin D3. Most importantly, the activated microglia exposed to vitamin D3 had reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα, and increased expression of IL-10. The reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines was dependent on IL-10 induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3). Therefore, vitamin D3 increases the expression of IL-10 creating a feedback loop via SOCS3 that downregulates the pro-inflammatory immune response by activated microglia which would likewise prevent immune mediated damage in the CNS.

  6. The role of N-glycan modification of TNFR1 in inflammatory microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhang, Dongmei; Tao, Tao; Sun, Xiaolei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Guizhou; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Wangrui; Ke, Kaifu; Shen, Aiguo

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that microglia activation and the autocrine loop of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) greatly contribute to the pathogenesis of several CNS diseases. TNFα exerts its biological effects by interacting with two different receptors: TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2. The classic proinflammatory activity of TNFα is mainly mediated by TNFR1. In the present study, we found that TNFR1 was modificated by N-glycosylation on Asn151 and Asn202 in microglia. The N-glycosylation of TNFR1 could facilitate its capability of binding to TNFα and further promote the formation of TNFα autocrine loop in microglia stimulated by TNFα, resulting in excessive microglia activation and CNS inflammation. All these processes were related to TNFR1-mediated NF-κB pathways. Elimination of N-glycosylation did not affect the subcellular transportation and cell surface localization of TNFR1, but suppressed ligand-binding affinity. These findings indicated that the N-glycosylation of TNFR1 played an important role during microglia activation in CNS inflammation. By this study, we aimed to provide some valuable experimental evidence for a better understanding of the significance of protein glycosylation in microglia inflammatory activation and CNS disease.

  7. Progranulin promotes activation of microglia/macrophage after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanshan; Tai, Chao; Petkau, Terri L; Zhang, Si; Liao, Chengyong; Dong, Zhifang; Wen, Wendy; Chang, Qing; Tian Wang, Yu; MacVicar, Brian A; Leavitt, Blair R; Jia, William; Cynader, Max S

    2013-09-12

    Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency accounts for up to 10% of frontotemporal lobe dementia. PGRN has also been implicated in neuroinflammation in acute and chronic neurological disorders. Here we report that both protein and mRNA levels of cortical and hippocampal PGRN are significantly enhanced following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. We also identify intense PGRN immunoreactivity that colocalizes with CD11b in seizure-induced animals, suggesting that PGRN elevation occurs primarily in activated microglia and macrophages. To test the role of PGRN in activation of microglia/macrophages, we apply recombinant PGRN protein directly into the hippocampal formation, and observe no change in the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus. However, with pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, PGRN application significantly increases the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages in the dentate gyrus, without affecting the extent of hilar cell death. In addition, the number of CD11b(+) microglia/macrophages induced by status epilepticus is not significantly different between PGRN knockout mice and wildtype. Our findings suggest that status epilepticus induces PGRN expression, and that PGRN potentiates but is not required for seizure-induced microglia/macrophage activation.

  8. Neural progenitor cell apoptosis and differentiation were affected by activated microglia in spinal cord slice culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuqing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Su, Huanxing; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2014-03-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation offers great potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). NPCs may replace lost neurons or oligodendrocytes and act as a source of neurotrophic factors to support survival of remaining cells. However, their efficiency was limited by poor survival after transplantation, and they tended more to differentiate into astrocytes, but not neurons and oligodendrocytes. This study investigated whether activated microglia is a factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Organotypic spinal cord slice (SCS) culture was used to mimic the local environment after SCI, and NPCs were co-cultured with them to share the culture medium. After specific depletion of microglia in the SCSs with clodronate loaded liposome, the apoptotic rate of NPCs decreased, more NPCs differentiated into neurons, and glial differentiation was impaired. This suggested that microglia may impair NPC survival, and neuronal differentiation, but improve astrocyte differentiation. In NPC transplantation strategy for SCI, microglia would be manipulated to improve the survival and neuronal differentiation of NPCs.

  9. 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through inhibition of microglia activation and promotion of remyelination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jieru; Cai, Wei; Jin, Min; Xu, Jingwei; Wang, Yanan; Xiao, Yichuan; Hao, Li; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Yanyun; Han, Jie; Huang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The under controlled microglia activation plays important roles in inflammatory demyelination diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the means to modulate microglia activation as a therapeutic modality and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that administration of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), by using both preventive and therapeutic treatment protocols, significantly suppresses disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice. The treatment effect of GRA on EAE is attributed to its regulatory effect on microglia. GRA-modulated microglia significantly decreased pro-inflammatory profile in the CNS through suppression of MAPK signal pathway. The ameliorated CNS pro-inflammatory profile prevented the recruitment of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS, which alleviated inflammation-induced demyelination. In addition, GRA treatment promoted remyelination in the CNS of EAE mice. The induced remyelination can be mediated by the overcome of inflammation-induced blockade of brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in microglia, as well as enhancing oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that GRA-modulated microglia suppresses EAE through inhibiting microglia activation-mediated CNS inflammation, and promoting neuroprotective effect of microglia, which represents a potential therapeutic strategy for MS and maybe other neuroinflammatory diseases associated with microglia activation.

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia induce death of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and impede their development.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Campbell, L; Zheng, B; Fan, L; Cai, Z; Rhodes, P

    2010-03-17

    Damage to oligodendrocyte (OL) progenitor cells (OPCs) and hypomyelination are two hallmark features of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the most common form of brain damage in premature infants. Clinical and animal studies have linked the incidence of PVL to maternal infection/inflammation, and activated microglia have been proposed to play a central role. However, the precise mechanism of how activated microglia adversely affects the survival and development of OPCs is still not clear. Here we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia are deleterious to OPCs, that is, impeding OL lineage progression, reducing the production of myelin basic protein (MBP), and mediating OPC death. We further demonstrate that LPS-activated microglia mediate OPC death by two distinct mechanisms in a time-dependent manner. The early phase of cell damage occurs within 24 h after LPS treatment, which is mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent oxidative damage and is prevented by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a general inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The delayed cell death is evident at 48 h after LPS treatment, is mediated by cytokines, and is prevented by blocking the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF), but not by l-NAME. Furthermore, microglia-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were significantly suppressed by LPS, and exogenous IGF-1 and CNTF synergistically protected OLs from death induced by LPS-treated microglia conditioned medium, indicating that a deficiency in trophic support may also be involved in OL death. Our finding that LPS-activated microglia not only induce two waves of cell death but also greatly impair OL development may shed some light on the mechanisms underlying selective white matter damage and hypomyelination in PVL.

  11. LXW7 ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia injury and attenuates inflammatory responses in activated microglia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fang, T.; Zhou, D.; Lu, L.; Tong, X.; Wu, J.; Yi, L.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in ischemic stroke, when activated microglia release excessive pro-inflammatory mediators. The inhibition of integrin αvβ3 improves outcomes in rat focal cerebral ischemia models. However, the mechanisms by which microglia are neuroprotective remain unclear. This study evaluated whether post-ischemic treatment with another integrin αvβ3 inhibitor, the cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide-cGRGDdvc (LXW7), alleviates cerebral ischemic injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of LXW7 in activated microglia within rat focal cerebral ischemia models was examined. A total of 108 Sprague-Dawley rats (250–280 g) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 2 h, the rats were given an intravenous injection of LXW7 (100 μg/kg) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Neurological scores, infarct volumes, brain water content (BWC) and histology alterations were determined. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)], and Iba1-positive activated microglia, within peri-ischemic brain tissue, were assessed with ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Infarct volumes and BWC were significantly lower in LXW7-treated rats compared to those in the MCAO + PBS (control) group. The LXW7 treatment lowered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. There was a reduction of Iba1-positive activated microglia, and the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were attenuated. However, there was no difference in the Zea Longa scores between the ischemia and LXW7 groups. The results suggest that LXW7 protected against focal cerebral ischemia and attenuated inflammation in activated microglia. LXW7 may be neuroprotective during acute MCAO-induced brain damage and microglia-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27533766

  12. Effects of tetramethylpyrazine on microglia activation in spinal cord compression injury of mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Won; Moon, Ja-Young; Seong, Ju-Won; Song, Sang-Hoon; Cheong, Young-Jin; Kang, Chulhun; Sohn, Nak-Won

    2013-01-01

    Secondary mechanisms, including inflammation and microglia activation, serve as targets for the development and application of pharmacological strategies in the management of spinal cord injury (SCI). Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an active ingredient of Ligusticum wallichii (chuanxiong), has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against SCI. However, it remains uncertain whether the inflammation-suppressive effects of TMP play a modulatory role over microglia activation in SCI. The present study investigated the effects of TMP on microglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in spinal cord compression injury in mice. For a real-time PCR measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, SCI was induced in mice by the clip compression method (30 g force, 1 min) and TMP (15 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered once, 30 minutes before the SCI induction. For immunohistochemistry, TMP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment was given three times during the first 48 hours after the SCI. 30 mg/kg of TMP treatment reduced the up-regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA in the spinal tissue at four hours after the SCI induction. TMP also significantly attenuated microglia activation and neutrophil infiltration at 48 hours after the SCI induction. In addition, iNOS expression in the spinal tissue was attenuated with TMP treatment. These results suggest that TMP plays a modulatory role in microglia activation and may protect the spinal cord from or potentially delay secondary spinal cord injury. PMID:24228606

  13. Inhibition of Microglia Activation as a Phenotypic Assay in Early Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Figuera-Losada, Mariana; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    Complex biological processes such as inflammation, cell death, migration, proliferation, and the release of biologically active molecules can be used as outcomes in phenotypic assays during early stages of drug discovery. Although target-based approaches have been widely used over the past decades, a disproportionate number of first-in-class drugs have been identified using phenotypic screening. This review details phenotypic assays based on inhibition of microglial activation and their utility in primary and secondary screening, target validation, and pathway elucidation. The role of microglia, both in normal as well as in pathological conditions such as chronic neurodegenerative diseases, is reviewed. Methodologies to assess microglia activation in vitro are discussed in detail, and classes of therapeutic drugs known to decrease the proinflammatory and cytotoxic responses of activated microglia are appraised, including inhibitors of glutaminase, cystine/glutamate antiporter, nuclear factor κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. PMID:23945875

  14. Activated microglia cause reversible apoptosis of pheochromocytoma cells, inducing their cell death by phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hornik, Tamara C; Vilalta, Anna; Brown, Guy C

    2016-01-01

    Some apoptotic processes, such as phosphatidylserine exposure, are potentially reversible and do not necessarily lead to cell death. However, phosphatidylserine exposure can induce phagocytosis of a cell, resulting in cell death by phagocytosis: phagoptosis. Phagoptosis of neurons by microglia might contribute to neuropathology, whereas phagoptosis of tumour cells by macrophages might limit cancer. Here, we examined the mechanisms by which BV-2 microglia killed co-cultured pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells that were either undifferentiated or differentiated into neuronal cells. We found that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharide rapidly phagocytosed PC12 cells. Activated microglia caused reversible phosphatidylserine exposure on and reversible caspase activation in PC12 cells, and caspase inhibition prevented phosphatidylserine exposur and decreased subsequent phagocytosis. Nitric oxide was necessary and sufficient to induce the reversible phosphatidylserine exposure and phagocytosis. The PC12 cells were not dead at the time they were phagocytised, and inhibition of their phagocytosis left viable cells. Cell loss was inhibited by blocking phagocytosis mediated by phosphatidylserine, MFG-E8, vitronectin receptors or P2Y6 receptors. Thus, activated microglia can induce reversible apoptosis of target cells, which is insufficient to cause apoptotic cell death, but sufficient to induce their phagocytosis and therefore cell death by phagoptosis.

  15. MicroRNA-125b regulates microglia activation and motor neuron death in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, C; Napoli, G; Amadio, S; Spalloni, A; Apolloni, S; Longone, P; Volonté, C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the means by which microglia self-regulate the neuroinflammatory response helps modulating their reaction during neurodegeneration. In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), classical NF-κB pathway is related to persistent microglia activation and motor neuron injury; however, mechanisms of negative control of NF-κB activity remain unexplored. One of the major players in the termination of classical NF-κB pathway is the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20, which has recognized anti-inflammatory functions. Lately, microRNAs are emerging as potent fine-tuners of neuroinflammation and reported to be regulated in ALS, for instance, by purinergic P2X7 receptor activation. In this work, we uncover an interplay between miR-125b and A20 protein in the modulation of classical NF-κB signaling in microglia. In particular, we establish the existence of a pathological circuit in which termination of A20 function by miR-125b strengthens and prolongs the noxious P2X7 receptor-dependent activation of NF-κB in microglia, with deleterious consequences on motor neurons. We prove that, by restoring A20 levels, miR-125b inhibition then sustains motor neuron survival. These results introduce miR-125b as a key mediator of microglia dynamics in ALS. PMID:26794445

  16. Distinct activation profiles in microglia of different ages: a systematic study in isolated embryonic to aged microglial cultures.

    PubMed

    Lai, A Y; Dibal, C D; Armitage, G A; Winship, I R; Todd, K G

    2013-12-19

    Microglia have been implicated in disease progression for several age-related brain disorders. However, while microglia's contribution to the progression of these disorders is accepted, the effect of aging on their endogenous cellular characteristics has received limited attention. In fact, a comprehensive study of how the structure and function of microglia changes as a function of developmental age has yet to be performed. Here, we describe the functional response characteristics of primary microglial cultures prepared from embryonic, neonatal (Neo), 2-3month-old, 6-8month-old, 9-11month-old, and 13-15month-old rats. Microglial morphology, glutamate (GLU) uptake, and release of trophic and inflammatory factors were assessed under basal conditions and in microglia activated with adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) or lipopolysaccharide. We found that microglia from different age groups were both morphologically and functionally distinct. Upon activation by ATP, Neo microglia were the most reactive, upregulating nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor release as well as GLU uptake. This upregulation translated into neurotoxicity in microglia-neuron co-cultures that were not observed with microglia of different developmental ages. Interestingly, 13-15month-old microglia exhibited similar activation profiles to Neo microglia, whereas microglia from younger adults and embryos were activated less by ATP. Our data also identify age-dependent differences in purinergic receptor subtype expression that contribute to the regulation of neuronal survival. Combined, our data demonstrate that microglial activation and purinergic receptor profiles vary non-linearly with developmental age, a potentially important finding for studies examining the role of microglia in neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Microvesicles released from microglia stimulate synaptic activity via enhanced sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Flavia; Turola, Elena; Riganti, Loredana; Caleo, Matteo; Gabrielli, Martina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Novellino, Luisa; Clementi, Emilio; Giussani, Paola; Viani, Paola; Matteoli, Michela; Verderio, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) released into the brain microenvironment are emerging as a novel way of cell-to-cell communication. We have recently shown that microglia, the immune cells of the brain, shed MVs upon activation but their possible role in microglia-to-neuron communication has never been explored. To investigate whether MVs affect neurotransmission, we analysed spontaneous release of glutamate in neurons exposed to MVs and found a dose-dependent increase in miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency without changes in mEPSC amplitude. Paired-pulse recording analysis of evoked neurotransmission showed that MVs mainly act at the presynaptic site, by increasing release probability. In line with the enhancement of excitatory transmission in vitro, injection of MVs into the rat visual cortex caused an acute increase in the amplitude of field potentials evoked by visual stimuli. Stimulation of synaptic activity occurred via enhanced sphingolipid metabolism. Indeed, MVs promoted ceramide and sphingosine production in neurons, while the increase of excitatory transmission induced by MVs was prevented by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of sphingosine synthesis. These data identify microglia-derived MVs as a new mechanism by which microglia influence synaptic activity and highlight the involvement of neuronal sphingosine in this microglia-to-neuron signalling pathway. PMID:22246184

  18. Linking Activation of Microglia and Peripheral Monocytic Cells to the Pathophysiology of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuta; Yu, Zhiqian; Sakai, Mai; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of studies have identified microglial activation in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Relatively fewer, but robust, studies have detected activation of peripheral monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders. Considering the origin of microglia, as well as neuropsychoimmune interactions in the context of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, it is reasonable to speculate that microglia interact with peripheral monocytic cells in relevance with the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders; however, these interactions have drawn little attention. In this review, we summarize findings relevant to activation of microglia and monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders, discuss the potential association between these cell types and disease pathogenesis, and propose perspectives for future research on these processes. PMID:27375431

  19. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V; Cubano, Luis A; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N; Eaton, Misty J; Harrison, Jeffrey K; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  20. Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rolón-Reyes, Kimberleve; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Inyushin, Mikhail; Skatchkov, Serguei N.; Eaton, Misty J.; Harrison, Jeffrey K.; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and fatal brain cancers due to the highly invasive nature of glioma cells. Microglia infiltrate most glioma tumors and, therefore, make up an important component of the glioma microenvironment. In the tumor environment, microglia release factors that lead to the degradation of the extracellular matrix and stimulate signaling pathways to promote glioma cell invasion. In the present study, we demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, we found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. This upregulation occurred in rodent C6 and GL261 as well as in human glioma cell lines with varying levels of invasiveness (U-87MG, A172, and HS683). siRNA knock-down of Pyk2 protein and pharmacological blockade by the Pyk2/focal-adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-562,271 reversed the stimulatory effect of microglia on glioma migration in all cell lines. A lower concentration of PF-562,271 that selectively inhibits FAK, but not Pyk2, did not have any effect on glioma cell migration. Moreover, with the use of the CD11b-HSVTK microglia ablation mouse model we demonstrated that elimination of microglia in the implanted tumors (GL261 glioma cells were used for brain implantation) by the local in-tumor administration of Ganciclovir, significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Pyk2 at Tyr579/580 in implanted tumor cells. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial cells activate glioma cell migration/dispersal through the pro-migratory Pyk2 signaling pathway in glioma cells. PMID:26098895

  1. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process. PMID:26688329

  2. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process.

  3. Kainic acid induces expression of caveolin-1 in activated microglia in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Shigeko; Matsuda, Wakoto; Tooyama, Ikuo; Yasuhara, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1, a major constituent of caveolae, has been implicated in endocytosis, signal transduction and cholesterol transport in a wide variety of cells. In the present study, the expression of caveolin-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in rat brain with or without systemic injection of kainic acid (KA). Caveolin-1 immunoreactivity was observed in capillary walls in brains of control rats. From one to seven days after KA injection, caveolin-1 immunoreactivity appeared in activated microglia in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and other brain regions. The strongest immunoreactivity of microglia was seen after 3 days after KA administration. The expression of caveolin-1 was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The induction of caveolin-1 expression in microglia activated in response to kainic acid administration suggests its possible role in a modulation of inflammation. PMID:23690214

  4. Chronic caffeine ingestion causes microglia activation, but not proliferation in the healthy brain.

    PubMed

    Steger, Rob; Kamal, Arifa; Lutchman, Sara; Intrabartolo, Liliana; Sohail, Rabia; Brumberg, Joshua C

    2014-07-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world which contributes to behavioral and metabolic changes when ingested. Within the central nervous system (CNS), caffeine has a high affinity for A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Serving as an antagonist, caffeine affects the ability of adenosine to bind to these receptors. Caffeine has been shown to alter neuronal functioning through increasing spontaneous firing. However, the effects of caffeine on non-neuronal cells in the CNS have not been studied extensively. Microglia are one phenotype of non-neuronal glia within the CNS. Acting as phagocytes, they contribute to the immune defense system of the brain and express A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Caffeine, therefore, may affect microglia. In order to test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice were randomly placed into one of three groups: control, low caffeine (0.3 g/L water) and high caffeine (1.0 g/L water) and were allowed to drink freely for 30 days. Following 30 days, brain sections were stained to reveal microglia. Morphological reconstructions and density measurements were examined in cortical and subcortical areas including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and striatum. Results indicate that microglial density throughout the brain is decreased in the caffeine groups as compared to the control. Caffeine also impacted microglia morphology shortening process length and decreasing branching. These results suggest that chronic caffeine ingestion has a systemic impact on microglia density and their activation.

  5. Chronic caffeine ingestion causes microglia activation, but not proliferation in the healthy brain

    PubMed Central

    Steger, Rob; Kamal, Arifa; Lutchman, Sara; Intrabartolo, Liliana; Sohail, Rabia; Brumberg, Joshua C.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive drug in the world which contributes to behavioral and metabolic changes when ingested. Within the central nervous system (CNS), caffeine has a high affinity for A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Serving as an antagonist, caffeine affects the ability for adenosine to bind to these receptors. Caffeine has been shown to alter neuronal functioning through increasing spontaneous firing. However, the effects of caffeine on non-neuronal cells in the CNS has been not been studied extensively. Microglia are one phenotype of non-neuronal glia within the CNS. Acting as phagocytes, they contribute to the immune defense system of the brain and express A1 and A2a adenosine receptors. Caffeine, therefore, may affect microglia. In order to test this hypothesis, CD-1 mice were randomly placed into one of three groups: control, low caffeine (0.3g/L water) and high caffeine (1.0g/L water) and were allowed to drink freely for 30 days. Following 30 days, brain sections were stained to reveal microglia. Morphological reconstructions and density measurements were examined in cortical and subcortical areas including the primary sensory cortex, primary motor cortex and striatum. Results indicate that microglial density throughout the brain is decreased in the caffeine groups as compared to the control. Caffeine also impacted microglia morphology shortening process length and decreasing branching. These results suggest that chronic caffeine ingestion has a systemic impact on microglia density and their activation. PMID:24881873

  6. Brazilian Green Propolis Suppresses the Hypoxia-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Aiqin; Takayama, Fumiko; Liu, Yicong; Harada, Yuka; Wu, Shizheng; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, which drives microglia to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-6. Considering the fact that propolis has hepatoprotective, antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis may have protective effects against the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, propolis (50 μg/mL) was found to significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, by MG6 microglia following hypoxic exposure (1% O2, 24 h). Furthermore, propolis significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in microglia. Moreover, systemic treatment with propolis (8.33 mg/kg, 2 times/day, i.p.) for 7 days significantly suppressed the microglial expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker for oxidative damaged DNA, in the somatosensory cortex of mice subjected to hypoxia exposure (10% O2, 4 h). These observations indicate that propolis suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses through inhibition of the NF-κB activation in microglia. Furthermore, increased generation of ROS from the mitochondria is responsible for the NF-κB activation. Therefore, propolis may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:23983903

  7. Microglia activated by IL-4 or IFN-gamma differentially induce neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis from adult stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Butovsky, Oleg; Ziv, Yaniv; Schwartz, Adi; Landa, Gennady; Talpalar, Adolfo E; Pluchino, Stefano; Martino, Gianvito; Schwartz, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Cell renewal in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is limited, and is blocked in inflammatory brain conditions. We show that both neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis of adult neural progenitor cells in mice are blocked by inflammation-associated (endotoxin-activated) microglia, but induced by microglia activated by cytokines (IL-4 or low level of IFN-gamma) associated with T-helper cells. Blockage was correlated with up-regulation of microglial production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The effect induced by IL-4-activated microglia was mediated, at least in part, by insulin-like growth factor-I. The IL-4-activated microglia showed a bias towards oligodendrogenesis whereas the IFN-gamma-activated microglia showed a bias towards neurogenesis. It thus appears that microglial phenotype critically affects their ability to support or impair cell renewal from adult stem cell.

  8. Microglia and neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihong; Trapp, Bruce D

    2016-01-01

    Microglia were first identified over a century ago, but our knowledge about their ontogeny and functions has significantly expanded only recently. Microglia colonize the central nervous system (CNS) in utero and play essential roles in brain development. Once neural development is completed, microglia function as the resident innate immune cells of the CNS by surveying their microenvironment and becoming activated when the CNS is challenged by infection, injury, or disease. Despite the traditional view of microglia as being destructive in neurological diseases, recent studies have shown that microglia maintain CNS homeostasis and protect the CNS under various pathological conditions. Microglia can be prophylactically activated by modeling infection with systemic lipopolysaccharide injections and these activated microglia can protect the brain from traumatic injury through modulation of neuronal synapses. Microglia can also protect the CNS by promoting neurogenesis, clearing debris, and suppressing inflammation in diseases such as stroke, autism, and Alzheimer's. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the CNS. Despite the traditional view of microglia as being destructive in neurological diseases, recent studies have shown that they maintain tissue homeostasis and protect the CNS under various pathological conditions. They achieve so by clearing debris, promoting neurogenesis, suppressing inflammation and stripping inhibitory synapses. This review summarizes recent advances of our understanding on the multi-dimensional neuroprotective roles of microglia.

  9. ELECTROSTATIC CHARGE ON NANO-PARTICLES ACTIVATES CNS MACROPHAGES (MICROGLIA).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanometer size particles carry free radical activity on their surface and can produce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated damage upon impact to target cells. The initiating event of phage cell activation (i.e., the oxidative burst) is unknown, although many proximal events have been i...

  10. miR-Let7A Modulates Autophagy Induction in LPS-Activated Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi

    2015-01-01

    Microglia regulate the secretion of various immunomediators in central nervous system diseases. Microglial autophagy is the crucial process for cell's survival and cytokine productions. Recent studies have reported that several microRNAs are involved in the autophagy system. miR-Let7A is such a microRNA that plays a role in various inflammation responses, and is magnified as a key modulator particularly in the autophagy system. In present study, we investigated whether miR-Let7A is involved in autophagy in activating microglia. Overexpression of miR-Let7A in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells promoted the induction of the autophagy related factors such as LC3II, Beclin1, and ATG3. Our results suggest a potential role of miR-Let7A in the autophagy process of microglia during CNS inflammation. PMID:26113790

  11. Dual role of superoxide dismutase 2 induced in activated microglia: oxidative stress tolerance and convergence of inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Takemoto, Takuya; Itoh, Kouichi; Ishida, Atsuhiko; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-09-11

    Microglia are activated quickly in response to external pathogens or cell debris and clear these substances via the inflammatory response. However, excessive activation of microglia can be harmful to host cells due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is reportedly induced under various inflammatory conditions in the central nervous system. We herein demonstrated that activated microglia strongly express SOD2 and examined the role of SOD2, focusing on regulation of the microglial activity and the susceptibility of microglia to oxidative stress. When rat primary microglia were treated with LPS, poly(I:C), peptidoglycan, or CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, respectively, the mRNA and protein levels of SOD2 largely increased. However, an increased expression of SOD2 was not detected in the primary neurons or astrocytes, indicating that SOD2 is specifically induced in microglia under inflammatory conditions. The activated microglia showed high tolerance to oxidative stress, whereas SOD2 knockdown conferred vulnerability to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the production of proinflammatory cytokines was increased in the activated microglia treated with SOD2 siRNA compared with that observed in the control siRNA-treated cells. Pretreatment with NADPH oxidase inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium and apocynin, decreased in not only reactive oxygen species generation but also the proinflammatory cytokine expression. Notably, SOD2 knockdown largely potentiated the nuclear factor κB activity in the activated microglia. Taken together, increased SOD2 conferred tolerance to oxidative stress in the microglia and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by attenuating the nuclear factor κB activity. Therefore, SOD2 might regulate neuroinflammation by controlling the microglial activities.

  12. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation.

  13. Immune activation promotes depression one month after diffuse brain injury: a role for primed microglia

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Ashley M.; Gensel, John C.; Huang, Yan; Popovich, Phillip G.; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Godbout, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with a higher incidence of depression. The majority of individuals who suffer a TBI are juveniles and young adults and thus, the risk of a lifetime of depressive complications is a significant concern. The etiology of increased TBI-associated depression is unclear, but may be inflammatory-related with increased brain sensitivity to secondary inflammatory challenges (e.g., stressors, infection, and injury). Methods Adult male BALB/c mice received a sham (n=52) or midline fluid percussion injury (TBI) (n=57). Neuroinflammation, motor coordination (rotarod), and depressive behaviors (social withdrawal, immobility in the tail suspension test, and anhedonia) were assessed 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, 7 d, or 30 d later. Moreover, 30 d after surgery, sham and TBI mice received a peripheral injection of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and microglia activation and behavior were determined. Results Diffuse TBI caused inflammation, peripheral cell recruitment, and microglia activation immediately after injury coinciding with motor coordination deficits. These transient events resolved within 7 d. Nonetheless, 30 days post-TBI a population of de-ramified and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)II+ (primed) microglia were detected. After a peripheral LPS challenge, the inflammatory cytokine response in primed microglia of TBI mice was exaggerated compared to microglia of controls. Furthermore, this LPS-induced microglia reactivity 30 d after TBI was associated with the onset of depressive-like behavior. Conclusions These results implicate a primed and immune-reactive microglial population as a possible triggering mechanism for the development of depressive complications after TBI. PMID:24289885

  14. Presenilin 2 influences miR146 level and activity in microglia.

    PubMed

    Jayadev, Suman; Case, Amanda; Alajajian, Betty; Eastman, Alison J; Möller, Thomas; Garden, Gwenn A

    2013-12-01

    Microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the CNS, are the primary defenders against microbes and critical to CNS remodeling. Dysregulation of microglial behavior can lead to unchecked pro-inflammatory activity and subsequent neurodegeneration. The molecular mechanisms leading to chronic inflammation and microglial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases are not well-understood. It is known that patients with Presenilin 2 (PS2) mutations develop autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease. We have shown that a lack of normal PS2 function is associated with exaggerated microglia pro-inflammatory responses in vitro. To identify pathways by which PS2 regulates microglia and determine how PS2 dysfunction may lead to altered inflammatory pathways, we pursued an unbiased array approach to assess differential expression of microRNAs between murine PS2 knockout (KO) and wild-type microglia. We identified miR146, a negative regulator of monocyte pro-inflammatory response, as constitutively down-regulated in PS2 KO microglia. Consistent with a state of miR146 suppression, we found that PS2 KO microglia express higher levels of the miR146 target protein interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1, and have increased NFκB transcriptional activity. We hypothesize that PS2 impacts microglial responses through modulation of miR146a. PS2 dysfunction, through aging or mutation, may contribute to neurodegeneration by influencing the pro-inflammatory behavior of microglia. Presenilin 2 (PS2), a membrane associated protease, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously shown that PS2 plays an important role in curbing the proinflammatory response in microglia. Here, we report the novel finding that PS2 participates in maintaining the basal and cytokine induced expression of the innate immunity regulating microRNA, miR146. These data suggest one mechanism by which PS2 works to reign in proinflammatory microglial behavior and that PS2 dysfunction or

  15. Pinoresinol from the fruits of Forsythia koreana inhibits inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Won; Mahesh, Ramalingam; Lee, Jong Gu; Lee, Seung Ho; Kim, Young Shik; Park, Yong-Ki

    2010-08-23

    The activation of microglia plays an important role in a variety of brain disorders by the excessive production of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokines. We investigated here whether pinoresinol isolated from the fruits of Forsythia koreana Nakai inhibits the inflammatory responses in LPS-activated microglia. Pinoresinol inhibited the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in LPS-activated primary microglia. Also, pinoresinol attenuated mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-activation. However, most of these inhibitory effects of pinoresinol have been mediated by extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and the NF-kappaB dependent. The results suggest that pinoresinol attenuates inflammatory responses of microglia and could be potentially useful in modulation of inflammatory status in brain disorders.

  16. Macroglia-microglia interactions via TSPO signaling regulates microglial activation in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minhua; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Lian; Ma, Wenxin; Rodriguez, Ignacio R; Fariss, Robert N; Wong, Wai T

    2014-03-01

    Chronic retinal inflammation in the form of activated microglia and macrophages are implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases of the retina, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. However, molecular biomarkers and targeted therapies for immune cell activation in these disorders are currently lacking. To address this, we investigated the involvement and role of translocator protein (TSPO), a biomarker of microglial and astrocyte gliosis in brain degeneration, in the context of retinal inflammation. Here, we find that TSPO is acutely and specifically upregulated in retinal microglia in separate mouse models of retinal inflammation and injury. Concomitantly, its endogenous ligand, diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), is upregulated in the macroglia of the mouse retina such as astrocytes and Müller cells. In addition, we discover that TSPO-mediated signaling in microglia via DBI-derived ligands negatively regulates features of microglial activation, including reactive oxygen species production, TNF-α expression and secretion, and microglial proliferation. The inducibility and effects of DBI-TSPO signaling in the retina reveal a mechanism of coordinated macroglia-microglia interactions, the function of which is to limit the magnitude of inflammatory responses after their initiation, facilitating a return to baseline quiescence. Our results indicate that TSPO is a promising molecular marker for imaging inflammatory cell activation in the retina and highlight DBI-TSPO signaling as a potential target for immodulatory therapies.

  17. Functionally Charged Polystyrene Particles Activate Immortalized Mouse Microglia (BV2): Cellular and Genomic Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Same size (~850-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) with net negative (carboxyl, COOH-) or positive (dimethyl amino, CH3)2

  18. How microglia kill neurons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Guy C; Vilalta, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident brain macrophages that become inflammatory activated in most brain pathologies. Microglia normally protect neurons, but may accidentally kill neurons when attempting to limit infections or damage, and this may be more common with degenerative disease as there was no significant selection pressure on the aged brain in the past. A number of mechanisms by which activated microglia kill neurons have been identified, including: (i) stimulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) to produce superoxide and derivative oxidants, (ii) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) producing NO and derivative oxidants, (iii) release of glutamate and glutaminase, (iv) release of TNFα, (v) release of cathepsin B, (vi) phagocytosis of stressed neurons, and (vii) decreased release of nutritive BDNF and IGF-1. PHOX stimulation contributes to microglial activation, but is not directly neurotoxic unless NO is present. NO is normally neuroprotective, but can react with superoxide to produce neurotoxic peroxynitrite, or in the presence of hypoxia inhibit mitochondrial respiration. Glutamate can be released by glia or neurons, but is neurotoxic only if the neurons are depolarised, for example as a result of mitochondrial inhibition. TNFα is normally neuroprotective, but can become toxic if caspase-8 or NF-κB activation are inhibited. If the above mechanisms do not kill neurons, they may still stress the neurons sufficiently to make them susceptible to phagocytosis by activated microglia. We review here whether microglial killing of neurons is an artefact, makes evolutionary sense or contributes in common neuropathologies and by what mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  19. Soluble factors released by Toxoplasma gondii-infected astrocytes down-modulate nitric oxide production by gamma interferon-activated microglia and prevent neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Rozenfeld, Claudia; Martinez, Rodrigo; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T; Bozza, Marcelo T; Lima, Flávia R S; Pires, Ana Lúcia; Silva, Patrícia M; Bonomo, Adriana; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; De Souza, Wanderley; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo

    2003-04-01

    The maintenance of a benign chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection is mainly dependent on the persistent presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in the central nervous system (CNS). However, IFN-gamma-activated microglia are paradoxically involved in parasitism control and in tissue damage during a broad range of CNS pathologies. In this way, nitric oxide (NO), the main toxic metabolite produced by IFN-gamma-activated microglia, may cause neuronal injury during T. gondii infection. Despite the potential NO toxicity, neurodegeneration is not a common finding during chronic T. gondii infection. In this work, we describe a significant down-modulation of NO production by IFN-gamma-activated microglia in the presence of conditioned medium of T. gondii-infected astrocytes (CMi). The inhibition of NO production was paralleled with recovery of neurite outgrowth when neurons were cocultured with IFN-gamma-activated microglia in the presence of CMi. Moreover, the modulation of NO secretion and the neuroprotective effect were shown to be dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by T. gondii-infected astrocytes and autocrine secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) by microglia. These events were partially eliminated when infected astrocytes were treated with aspirin and cocultures were treated with anti-IL-10 neutralizing antibodies and RP-8-Br cyclic AMP (cAMP), a protein kinase A inhibitor. Further, the modulatory effects of CMi were mimicked by the presence of exogenous PGE(2) and by forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator. Altogether, these data point to a T. gondii-triggered regulatory mechanism involving PGE(2) secretion by astrocytes and cAMP-dependent IL-10 secretion by microglia. This may reduce host tissue inflammation, thus avoiding neuron damage during an established Th1 protective immune response. PMID:12654825

  20. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  1. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Neurogenesis and Microglia Activation in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Pikhovych, Anton; Stolberg, Nina Paloma; Jessica Flitsch, Lea; Walter, Helene Luise; Graf, Rudolf; Fink, Gereon Rudolf; Schroeter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested as an adjuvant tool to promote recovery of function after stroke, but the mechanisms of its action to date remain poorly understood. Moreover, studies aimed at unraveling those mechanisms have essentially been limited to the rat, where tDCS activates resident microglia as well as endogenous neural stem cells. Here we studied the effects of tDCS on microglia activation and neurogenesis in the mouse brain. Male wild-type mice were subjected to multisession tDCS of either anodal or cathodal polarity; sham-stimulated mice served as control. Activated microglia in the cerebral cortex and neuroblasts generated in the subventricular zone as the major neural stem cell niche were assessed immunohistochemically. Multisession tDCS at a sublesional charge density led to a polarity-dependent downregulation of the constitutive expression of Iba1 by microglia in the mouse cortex. In contrast, both anodal and, to an even greater extent, cathodal tDCS induced neurogenesis from the subventricular zone. Data suggest that tDCS elicits its action through multifacetted mechanisms, including immunomodulation and neurogenesis, and thus support the idea of using tDCS to induce regeneration and to promote recovery of function. Furthermore, data suggest that the effects of tDCS may be animal- and polarity-specific. PMID:27403166

  2. Classical and Alternative Activation of Cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Rat Microglia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Murphy, Joseph; MacAdam, David; Osterbauer, Christopher; Baseer, Imaan; Hall, Mary L; Feher, Domonkos; Williams, Phillip

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that an in vitro exposure to cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might result in classical and alternative activation of rat neonatal microglia. Using Escherichia coli LPS-primed microglia as a positive control, this study revealed that treatment of rat microglia with Oscillatoria sp. LPS for 17 h in vitro resulted in both classical and alternative activation as well as concomitant pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator release, in a concentration-dependent manner: (1) treatment with 0.1-10 000 ng/ml Oscillatoria sp. LPS resulted in minimal lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) release, induced concentration-dependent and statistically significant O2 (-) generation, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release, generation of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2/CXCL2), interferon γ-induced protein 10 kDa (IP-10/CXCL-10), (MIP-1α/CCL3), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), and the alternative activation cytokine IL-10; (3) in contrast, treatment with 100 000 ng/ml Oscillatoria sp. LPS appeared to damage the microglia cell membrane, because it resulted in minimal O2 (-) generation, statistically significant LDH release, and a decrease in the generation of all the cytokines and chemokines investigated, with the exception of IL-1α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1/CXCL1) generation, which was increased. Thus, our results provide experimental support for our working hypothesis, namely that Oscillatoria sp. LPS induces classical and alternative activation of rat brain microglia in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, namely 0.1-10 000 ng/ml Oscillatoria sp. LPS, when microglia cells were shown to be viable. Furthermore, should cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. LPS gain

  3. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration produces microglia-like NG2 glial cells in the rat substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Inden, Masatoshi; Minamino, Hideaki; Abe, Mari; Takata, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Neuron/glial 2 (NG2)-expressing cells are often referred to as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. NG2-expressing cells have also been identified as multipotent progenitor cells. However, microglia-like NG2 glial cells have not been fully examined in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we chose two rat models of PD, i.e., intranigral or intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), since the cell bodies of dopamine (DA) neurons, which form a nigrostriatal pathway, are in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) while their nerve terminals are in the striatum. In the nigral 6-OHDA-injected model, activated NG2-positive cells were detected in the SNpc but not in the striatum. In contrast, in the striatal 6-OHDA-injected model, these cells were detected in both the SNpc and the striatum. In both models, activated NG2-positive cells were located close to surviving tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the SNpc. In addition, activated NG2-positive cells in the SNpc coexpressed ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), a microglia/macrophage marker. Interestingly, these double-positive glial cells coexpressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These results suggest that microglia-like NG2 glial cells may help protect DA neurons and may lead to new therapeutic targets in PD.

  4. Minocycline attenuates microglia activation and blocks the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizures.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jayne; Fox, Patrick D; Condello, Carlo; Bartolini, Alyssa; Koh, Sookyong

    2012-05-01

    Innate immunity mediated by microglia appears to play a crucial role in initiating and propagating seizure-induced inflammatory responses. To address the role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy, we first examined the time course of microglia activation following kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KA-SE) in Cx3cr1(GFP/+) transgenic mice whose microglia are fluorescently labeled. We then determined whether this seizure-induced microglia activation primes the central immune response to overreact and to increase the susceptibility to a second seizure later in life. We used an inhibitor of microglia activation, minocycline, to block the seizure-induced inflammation to determine whether innate immunity plays a causal role in mediating the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizure. First status epilepticus was induced at postnatal day (P) 25 and a second status at P39. KA-SE at P25 caused nearly a two-fold increase in microglia activation within 24h. Significant seizure-induced activation persisted for 7 days and returned to baseline by 14 days. P39 animals with prior exposure to KA-SE not only responded with greater microglial activation in response to "second hit" of KA, but shorter latency to express seizures. Inhibition of seizure-induced inflammation by 7 day minocycline post-treatment abrogated both the exaggerated microglia activation and the increased susceptibility to the second seizure later in life. The priming effect of early-life seizures is accompanied by modified and rapidly reactivated microglia. Our results suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy after SE may be useful to block the epileptogenic process and mitigate the long-term damaging effects of early-life seizures. PMID:22366182

  5. Progranulin Is a Chemoattractant for Microglia and Stimulates Their Endocytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pickford, Fiona; Marcus, Jacob; Camargo, Luiz Miguel; Xiao, Qiurong; Graham, Danielle; Mo, Jan-Rung; Burkhardt, Matthew; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Crispino, Jamie; Hering, Heike; Hutton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Mutations resulting in progranulin haploinsufficiency cause disease in patients with a subset of frontotemporal lobar degeneration; however, the biological functions of progranulin in the brain remain unknown. To address this subject, the present study initially assessed changes in gene expression and cytokine secretion in rat primary cortical neurons treated with progranulin. Molecular pathways enriched in the progranulin gene set included cell adhesion and cell motility pathways and pathways involved in growth and development. Secretion of cytokines and several chemokines linked to chemoattraction but not inflammation were also increased from progranulin-treated primary neurons. Therefore, whether progranulin is involved in recruitment of immune cells in the brain was investigated. Localized lentiviral expression of progranulin in C57BL/6 mice resulted in an increase of Iba1-positive microglia around the injection site. Moreover, progranulin alone was sufficient to promote migration of primary mouse microglia in vitro. Primary microglia and C4B8 cells demonstrated more endocytosis of amyloid β1-42 when treated with progranulin. These data demonstrate that progranulin acts as a chemoattractant in the brain to recruit or activate microglia and can increase endocytosis of extracellular peptides such as amyloid β. PMID:21224065

  6. Activation and function of murine primary microglia in the absence of the prion protein.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lívia P; Linden, Rafael; Mariante, Rafael M

    2015-09-15

    The prion protein (PrP(C)) is predominantly expressed in the nervous and immune systems and is involved in relevant cell signaling. Microglia participate in neuroimmune interactions, and their regulatory mechanisms are critical for both health and disease. Despite recent reports with a microglial cell line, little is known about the relevance of PrP(C) in brain microglia. We investigated the role of PrP(C) in mouse primary microglia, and found no differences between wild type and Prnp-null cells in cell morphology or the expression of a microglial marker. Translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus also did not differ, nor did cytokine production. The levels of iNOS were also similar and, finally, microglia of either genotype showed no differences in either rates of phagocytosis or migration, even following activation. Thus, functional roles of PrP(C) in primary microglial cells are - if present - much more subtle than in transformed microglial cell lines.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of Thymoquinone in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Taka, Equar; Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Goodman, Carl B.; Redmon, Natalie; Flores-Rozas, Hernan; Reams, Renee; Darling-Reed, Selina; Soliman, Karam F.A.

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ), the main pharmacological active ingredient within the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) is believed to be responsible for therapeutic effects on chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, asthma and neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory role of TQ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 murine microglia cells. The results obtained indicated that TQ was effective in reducing NO2- with an IC50 of 5.04 μM, relative to selective iNOS inhibitor LNIL- L-N6-(1-Iminoethyl)lysine (IC50 4.09 μM). TQ mediated reduction in NO2- was found to parallel the decline of iNOS protein expression as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In the next study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TQ on ninety – six (96) cytokines using a RayBio AAM-CYT-3 and 4 cytokine antibody protein array. Data obtained establish a baseline protein expression profile characteristic of resting BV-2 cells in the order of osteopontin > MIP-1alpha > MIP-1g > IGF-1 and MCP-I. In the presence of LPS [1ug/ml], activated BV-2 cells produced a sharp rise in specific pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokine’s IL-6, IL-12p40/70, CCL12 /MCP-5, CCL2 / MCP-1, and G-CSF which were attenuated by the addition of TQ (10μM). The TQ mediated attenuation of MCP-5, MCP-1 and IL-6 protein in supernatants from activated BV-2 cells were corroborated by independent ELISA and mRNA expression profiling using RT2 Profiler PCR cytokine arrays. Moreover, the data obtained from the RT2 PCR demonstrated a similar pattern where the LPS mediated elevation of mRNA for IL-6, CCL12 /MCP-5, CCL2 / MCP-1 were significantly attenuated by TQ (10μM). Also, in this study, consistent data were obtained for both protein antibody array densitometry and ELISA assays. In addition, TQ was found to reduce LPS mediated elevation in gene expression of Cxcl10 and a number of other cytokines in the panel. These findings demonstrate the significant anti-inflammatory properties of

  8. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated alternative activation of microglia is protective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stirling, David P; Cummins, Karen; Mishra, Manoj; Teo, Wulin; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Improving neurological outcome after spinal cord injury is a major clinical challenge because axons, once severed, do not regenerate but 'dieback' from the lesion site. Although microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the brain and spinal cord respond rapidly to spinal cord injury, their role in subsequent injury or repair remains unclear. To assess the role of microglia in spinal cord white matter injury we used time-lapse two-photon and spectral confocal imaging of green fluorescent protein-labelled microglia, yellow fluorescent protein-labelled axons, and Nile Red-labelled myelin of living murine spinal cord and revealed dynamic changes in white matter elements after laser-induced spinal cord injury in real time. Importantly, our model of acute axonal injury closely mimics the axonopathy described in well-characterized clinically relevant models of spinal cord injury including contusive-, compressive- and transection-based models. Time-lapse recordings revealed that microglia were associated with some acute pathophysiological changes in axons and myelin acutely after laser-induced spinal cord injury. These pathophysiological changes included myelin and axonal spheroid formation, spectral shifts in Nile Red emission spectra in axonal endbulbs detected with spectral microscopy, and 'bystander' degeneration of axons that survived the initial injury, but then succumbed to secondary degeneration. Surprisingly, modulation of microglial-mediated release of neurotoxic molecules failed to protect axons and myelin. In contrast, sterile stimulation of microglia with the specific toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam2CSK4 robustly increased the microglial response to ablation, reduced secondary degeneration of central myelinated fibres, and induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. Conversely, Tlr2 knock out: Thy1 yellow fluorescent protein double transgenic mice experienced greater axonal dieback than littermate controls. Thus, promoting an alternative

  9. Structure-activity relationship study of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis on lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Han, Na; Yao, Xuechun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-06-01

    To explore the relationship of the dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis to their anti-inflammatory activities, series of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans were isolated and assessed by testing their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 mouse microglia. It was found, for the first time, that dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans which have S-biphenyl and methylenedioxy groups strongly inhibited LPS-induced microglia activation. The methoxy group on the cyclooctadiene introduced more effectiveness, but the presence of an acetyl group on the cyclooctadiene or hydroxyl group on C-7 decreased the inhibitory activity.

  10. Astragaloside IV inhibits microglia activation via glucocorticoid receptor mediated signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Shuai; Shi, Hai-Lian; Huang, Fei; Peterson, Karin E.; Wu, Hui; Lan, Yun-Yi; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Yi-Xin; Woods, Tyson; Du, Min; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of microglia activation may provide therapeutic treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases. Astragaloside IV (ASI) with anti-inflammatory properties has been tested as a therapeutic drug in clinical trials of China. However, the mechanism of ASI inhibiting neuroinflammation is unknown. In this study, we showed that ASI inhibited microglia activation both in vivo and in vitro. It could enhance glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-luciferase activity and facilitate GR nuclear translocation in microglial cells. Molecular docking and TR-FRET GR competitive binding experiments demonstrated that ASI could bind to GR in spite of relative low affinity. Meanwhile, ASI modulated GR-mediated signaling pathway, including dephosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, I κB and NF κB, therefore, decreased downstream production of proinflammatory mediators. Suppression of microglial BV-2 activation by ASI was abrogated by GR inhibitor, RU486 or GR siRNA. Similarly, RU486 counteracted the alleviative effect of ASI on microgliosis and neuronal injury in vivo. Our findings demonstrated that ASI inhibited microglia activation at least partially by activating the glucocorticoid pathway, suggesting its possible therapeutic potential for neuroinflammation in neurological diseases. PMID:26750705

  11. A novel technique for morphometric quantification of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced microglia activation

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Moll, Katherine M.; Kang, Hongyi; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Vates, G. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic catastrophe and poor outcome is typically attributed to vasospasm; however, there is also evidence that SAH causes a pro-inflammatory state and these two phenomena may be interrelated. SAH causes activation of microglia, but the time course and degree of microglial activation after SAH and its link to poor patient outcome and vasospasm remains unknown. New Method Transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the control of the CX3CR1 locus, in which microglia are endogenously fluorescent, were randomly assigned to control or SAH groups. Immunohistochemistry for CD-68 and CD-31 was performed at different time points after SAH. Using confocal microscopy and MatLab software, we have developed a novel technique to detect and quantify the stages of microglial activation and return to quiescence using an automated computerized morphometric analysis. Results We detected a statistically significant decrease in microglial process complexity 2 and 7 days following SAH. In addition, we detected a statistically significant increase in microglial domain volume 1 day following SAH; however, microglial domain volume returned to baseline by 2 days. Comparison with Existing Method Most techniques for microglia assessment are qualitative, not quantitative, and are therefore inadequate to address the effects of anti-inflammatory drug treatment or other therapies after SAH. Conclusions Using novel image analysis techniques we were able to reproducibly quantify activation of microglia following SAH, which will improve our ability to study the biology of microglial activation, and may ultimately improve management of disease progression and response to therapies directed at microglial activation. PMID:24735531

  12. Prenatal immune activation causes hippocampal synaptic deficits in the absence of overt microglia anomalies.

    PubMed

    Giovanoli, Sandra; Weber-Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Schedlowski, Manfred; Meyer, Urs; Engler, Harald

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults can increase the risk of developing neuropsychiatric disorder in later life, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. These brain disorders are also characterized by pre- and postsynaptic deficits. Using a well-established mouse model of maternal exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid [poly(I:C)], we examined whether prenatal immune activation might cause synaptic deficits in the hippocampal formation of pubescent and adult offspring. Based on the widely appreciated role of microglia in synaptic pruning, we further explored possible associations between synaptic deficits and microglia anomalies in offspring of poly(I:C)-exposed and control mothers. We found that prenatal immune activation induced an adult onset of presynaptic hippocampal deficits (as evaluated by synaptophysin and bassoon density). The early-life insult further caused postsynaptic hippocampal deficits in pubescence (as evaluated by PSD95 and SynGAP density), some of which persisted into adulthood. In contrast, prenatal immune activation did not change microglia (or astrocyte) density, nor did it alter their activation phenotypes. The prenatal manipulation did also not cause signs of persistent systemic inflammation. Despite the absence of overt glial anomalies or systemic inflammation, adult offspring exposed to prenatal immune activation displayed increased hippocampal IL-1β levels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that age-dependent synaptic deficits and abnormal pro-inflammatory cytokine expression can occur during postnatal brain maturation in the absence of microglial anomalies or systemic inflammation.

  13. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6-OHDA and activates microglia through the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Wang, Mingyu; McNutt, Michael A; Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Baogang; Lu, Shijun; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Zhihui

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative and immune attacks from the environment or microglia have been implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons of Parkinson's disease. The role of IgG which is an important immunologic molecule in the process of Parkinson's disease has been unclear. Evidence suggests that IgG can be produced by neurons in addition to its traditionally recognized source B lymphocytes, but its function in neurons is poorly understood. In this study, extensive expression of neuron-derived IgG was demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of human and rat mesencephalon. With an in vitro Parkinson's disease model, we found that neuron-derived IgG can improve the survival and reduce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity, and also depress the release of NO from microglia triggered by 6-hydroxydopamine. Expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in microglia was elevated to protective levels by neuron-derived IgG at a physiologic level via the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways and microglial activation could be attenuated by IgG blocking. All these data suggested that neuron-derived IgG may exert a self-protective function by activating microglia properly, and IgG may be involved in maintaining immunity homeostasis in the central nervous system and serve as an active factor under pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

  14. Neuroinflammation and Depression: Microglia Activation, Extracellular Microvesicles and microRNA Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Brites, Dora; Fernandes, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammation are often associated with the emergence of depression symptoms, while diagnosed depressed patients show increased levels of circulating cytokines. Further studies revealed the activation of the brain immune cell microglia in depressed patients with a greater magnitude in individuals that committed suicide, indicating a crucial role for neuroinflammation in depression brain pathogenesis. Rapid advances in the understanding of microglial and astrocytic neurobiology were obtained in the past 15-20 years. Indeed, recent data reveal that microglia play an important role in managing neuronal cell death, neurogenesis, and synaptic interactions, besides their involvement in immune-response generating cytokines. The communication between microglia and neurons is essential to synchronize these diverse functions with brain activity. Evidence is accumulating that secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), comprising ectosomes and exosomes with a size ranging from 0.1-1 μm, are key players in intercellular signaling. These EVs may carry specific proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). Transfer of exosomes to neurons was shown to be mediated by oligodendrocytes, microglia and astrocytes that may either be supportive to neurons, or instead disseminate the disease. Interestingly, several recent reports have identified changes in miRNAs in depressed patients, which target not only crucial pathways associated with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory but also the production of neurotrophic factors and immune cell modulation. In this article, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation in the emergence of depression, namely dynamic alterations in the status of microglia response to stimulation, and how their activation phenotypes may have an etiological role in neurodegeneneration, in particular in depressive-like behavior. We will overview the involvement of miRNAs, exosomes, ectosomes and microglia in regulating critical pathways associated with

  15. Neuroinflammation and Depression: Microglia Activation, Extracellular Microvesicles and microRNA Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Brites, Dora; Fernandes, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammation are often associated with the emergence of depression symptoms, while diagnosed depressed patients show increased levels of circulating cytokines. Further studies revealed the activation of the brain immune cell microglia in depressed patients with a greater magnitude in individuals that committed suicide, indicating a crucial role for neuroinflammation in depression brain pathogenesis. Rapid advances in the understanding of microglial and astrocytic neurobiology were obtained in the past 15–20 years. Indeed, recent data reveal that microglia play an important role in managing neuronal cell death, neurogenesis, and synaptic interactions, besides their involvement in immune-response generating cytokines. The communication between microglia and neurons is essential to synchronize these diverse functions with brain activity. Evidence is accumulating that secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), comprising ectosomes and exosomes with a size ranging from 0.1–1 μm, are key players in intercellular signaling. These EVs may carry specific proteins, mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). Transfer of exosomes to neurons was shown to be mediated by oligodendrocytes, microglia and astrocytes that may either be supportive to neurons, or instead disseminate the disease. Interestingly, several recent reports have identified changes in miRNAs in depressed patients, which target not only crucial pathways associated with synaptic plasticity, learning and memory but also the production of neurotrophic factors and immune cell modulation. In this article, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation in the emergence of depression, namely dynamic alterations in the status of microglia response to stimulation, and how their activation phenotypes may have an etiological role in neurodegeneneration, in particular in depressive-like behavior. We will overview the involvement of miRNAs, exosomes, ectosomes and microglia in regulating critical pathways associated with

  16. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Selective nanovector mediated treatment of activated proinflammatory microglia/macrophages in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Papa, Simonetta; Rossi, Filippo; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mariani, Alessandro; De Paola, Massimiliano; Caron, Ilaria; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Sammali, Eliana; Colombo, Claudio; Gobbi, Marco; Canovi, Mara; Lucchetti, Jacopo; Peviani, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Forloni, Gianluigi; Perale, Giuseppe; Moscatelli, Davide; Veglianese, Pietro

    2013-11-26

    Much evidence shows that acute and chronic inflammation in spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by immune cell infiltration and release of inflammatory mediators, is implicated in development of the secondary injury phase that occurs after spinal cord trauma and in the worsening of damage. Activation of microglia/macrophages and the associated inflammatory response appears to be a self-propelling mechanism that leads to progressive neurodegeneration and development of persisting pain state. Recent advances in polymer science have provided a huge amount of innovations leading to increased interest for polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery tools to treat SCI. In this study, we tested and evaluated in vitro and in vivo a new drug delivery nanocarrier: minocycline loaded in NPs composed by a polymer based on poly-ε-caprolactone and polyethylene glycol. These NPs are able to selectively target and modulate, specifically, the activated proinflammatory microglia/macrophages in subacute progression of the secondary injury in SCI mouse model. After minocycline-NPs treatment, we demonstrate a reduced activation and proliferation of microglia/macrophages around the lesion site and a reduction of cells with round shape phagocytic-like phenotype in favor of a more arborized resting-like phenotype with low CD68 staining. Treatment here proposed limits, up to 15 days tested, the proinflammatory stimulus associated with microglia/macrophage activation. This was demonstrated by reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and persistent reduced expression of CD68 in traumatized site. The nanocarrier drug delivery tool developed here shows potential advantages over the conventionally administered anti-inflammatory therapy, maximizing therapeutic efficiency and reducing side effects.

  18. Glucosamine suppresses platelet-activating factor-induced activation of microglia through inhibition of store-operated calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Im, Seung-Soon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Bae, Jae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Microglia activation and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators are implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent lipid mediator synthesized by microglia, is known to stimulate microglia functional responses. In this study, we determined that endogenous PAF exert autocrine effects on microglia activation, as well as the underlying mechanism involved. We also investigated the effect of D-glucosamine (GlcN) on PAF-induced cellular activation in human HMO6 microglial cells. PAF induced sustained intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) increase through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PAF also induced pro-inflammatory markers through NFκB/COX-2 signaling. GlcN significantly inhibited PAF-induced Ca(2+) influx and ROS generation without significant cytotoxicity. GlcN downregulated excessive expression of pro-inflammatory markers and promoted filopodia formation through NFκB/COX-2 inhibition in PAF-stimulated HMO6 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that GlcN may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. PMID:26745504

  19. Linalool Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation in BV2 Microglia Cells by Activating Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Lv, Ou; Zhou, Fenggang; Li, Qingsong; Wu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yongri

    2015-07-01

    Linalool, a natural compound of the essential oils, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of linalool in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of linalool. The production of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, NO, and PGE2 as well as Nrf2, HO-1 expression were detected. Our results showed that linalool inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, NO, and PGE2 production in a dose-dependent manner. Linalool also inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Treatment of linalool induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and expression of HO-1. In addition, our results showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of linalool was attenuated by transfection with Nrf2 siRNA. In conclusion, these results suggested that linalool inhibits LPS-induced inflammation in BV2 microglia cells by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  20. Microglia in Glia-Neuron Co-cultures Exhibit Robust Phagocytic Activity Without Concomitant Inflammation or Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra C; Kyle, Michele; Beaman-Hall, Carol M; Monaco, Edward A; Cullen, Matthew; Vallano, Mary Lou

    2015-10-01

    A simple method to co-culture granule neurons and glia from a single brain region is described, and microglia activation profiles are assessed in response to naturally occurring neuronal apoptosis, excitotoxin-induced neuronal death, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) addition. Using neonatal rat cerebellar cortex as a tissue source, glial proliferation is regulated by omission or addition of the mitotic inhibitor cytosine arabinoside (AraC). After 7-8 days in vitro, microglia in AraC(-) cultures are abundant and activated based on their amoeboid morphology, expressions of ED1 and Iba1, and ability to phagocytose polystyrene beads and the majority of neurons undergoing spontaneous apoptosis. Microglia and phagocytic activities are sparse in AraC(+) cultures. Following exposure to excitotoxic kainate concentrations, microglia in AraC(-) cultures phagocytose most dead neurons within 24 h without exacerbating neuronal loss or mounting a strong or sustained inflammatory response. LPS addition induces a robust inflammatory response, based on microglial expressions of TNF-α, COX-2 and iNOS proteins, and mRNAs, whereas these markers are essentially undetectable in control cultures. Thus, the functional effector state of microglia is primed for phagocytosis but not inflammation or cytotoxicity even after kainate exposure that triggers death in the majority of neurons. This model should prove useful in studying the progressive activation states of microglia and factors that promote their conversion to inflammatory and cytotoxic phenotypes.

  1. Neurogenic Niche Microglia Undergo Positional Remodeling and Progressive Activation Contributing to Age-Associated Reductions in Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Solano Fonseca, Rene; Mahesula, Swetha; Apple, Deana M; Raghunathan, Rekha; Dugan, Allison; Cardona, Astrid; O'Connor, Jason; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2016-04-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist throughout life in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of the mammalian forebrain. During aging NSC function is diminished through an unclear mechanism. In this study, we establish microglia, the immune cells of the brain, as integral niche cells within the V-SVZ that undergo age-associated repositioning in the V-SVZ. Microglia become activated early before NSC deficits during aging resulting in an antineurogenic microenvironment due to increased inflammatory cytokine secretion. These age-associated changes were not observed in non-neurogenic brain regions, suggesting V-SVZ microglia are specialized. Using a sustained inflammatory model in young adult mice, we induced microglia activation and inflammation that was accompanied by reduced NSC proliferation in the V-SVZ. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed secreted factors from activated microglia reduced proliferation and neuron production compared to secreted factors from resting microglia. Our results suggest that age-associated chronic inflammation contributes to declines in NSC function within the aging neurogenic niche. PMID:26857912

  2. Identification of a chronic non-neurodegenerative microglia activation state in a mouse model of peroxisomal β-oxidation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Verheijden, Simon; Beckers, Lien; Casazza, Andrea; Butovsky, Oleg; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Baes, Myriam

    2015-09-01

    The functional diversity and molecular adaptations of reactive microglia in the chronically inflamed central nervous system (CNS) are poorly understood. We previously showed that mice lacking multifunctional protein 2 (MFP2), a pivotal enzyme in peroxisomal β-oxidation, persistently accumulate reactive myeloid cells in the gray matter of the CNS. Here, we show that the increased numbers of myeloid cells solely derive from the proliferation of resident microglia and not from infiltrating monocytes. We defined the signature of Mfp2(-/-) microglia by gene expression profiling after acute isolation, which was validated by quantitative polymerase reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric analysis. The features of Mfp2(-/-) microglia were compared with those from SOD1(G93A) mice, an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model. In contrast to the neurodegenerative milieu of SOD1(G93A) spinal cord, neurons were intact in Mfp2(-/-) brain and Mfp2(-/-) microglia lacked signs of phagocytic and neurotoxic activity. The chronically reactive state of Mfp2(-/-) microglia was accompanied by the downregulation of markers that specify the unique microglial signature in homeostatic conditions. In contrast, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and downstream glycolytic and protein translation pathways were induced, indicative of metabolic adaptations. Mfp2(-/-) microglia were immunologically activated but not polarized to a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype. A peripheral lipopolysaccharide challenge provoked an exaggerated inflammatory response in Mfp2(-/-) brain, consistent with a primed state. Taken together, we demonstrate that chronic activation of resident microglia does not necessarily lead to phagocytosis nor overt neurotoxicity.

  3. Effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} inhibitor, on TLR-4-dependent activation of murine microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Chan; Kim, Sun-Hee; Jeong, Min-Woo; Baek, Nam-in; Kim, Kyong-Tai . E-mail: ktk@postech.ac.kr

    2005-11-11

    In microglia, Toll-like receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiate innate immune responses upon interaction with infectious agents. The effect of rottlerin, a PKC-{delta} specific inhibitor, on TLR-4-mediated signaling was investigated in murine microglia stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and taxol. Pretreatment of microglia cells with rottlerin decreased LPS- and taxol-induced nitric oxide production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 99.1 {+-} 1.5 nM). Through MTT and FACS analysis, we found that the inhibition effect of rottlerin was not due to microglial cell death. Rottlerin pretreatment also attenuated LPS-induced phosphorylation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, and expression of type II nitric oxide synthase. In addition, microglial phagocytosis in response to TLR-4 activation was diminished in which rottlerin was pretreated. Together, these data raise the possibility that certain PKC-{delta} specific inhibitors can modulate TLR-4-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression, and can alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases in central nervous system.

  4. Single-wall carbon nanohorns inhibited activation of microglia induced by lipopolysaccharide through blocking of Sirt3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihong; Zhang, Jinqian; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Li; Yang, Yanlong; Chang, Tao; Zhang, Xingye; Xiang, Guoan; Cao, Yongmei; Shi, Zujin; Zhao, Ming; Gao, Guodong

    2013-02-01

    Single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) have been demonstrated to accumulate in cytotoxic levels within organs of various animal models and cell types, which emerge as a wide range of promising biomedical imaging. Septic encephalopathy (SE) is an early sign of sepsis and associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Microglia activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage. Inhibition of microglia activation may have therapeutic benefits, which can alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated the functional changes of mice microglia cell lines pre-treated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by SWNHs. To address this question, the research about direct role of SWNHs on the growth, proliferation, and apoptosis of microglia cell lines in mice (N9 and BV2) pre-treated with or without LPS had been performed. Our results indicate that the particle diameter of SWNHs in water is between 342 to 712 nm. The images in scanning electron microscope showed that SWNHs on polystyrene surface are individual particles. LPS induced activation of mice microglia, promoted its growth and proliferation, and inhibited its apoptosis. SWNHs inhibited proliferation, delayed mitotic entry, and promoted apoptosis of mice microglia cells. The effects followed gradually increasing cultured time and concentrations of SWNHs, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. SWNHs induced a significantly increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase of mice microglia cells in a dose-manner dependent of SWNHs, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. The transmission electron microscope images showed that individual spherical SWNH particles smaller than 100 nm in diameters were localized inside lysosomes of mice microglia cells. SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth and proliferation of mice microglia cells, and promoted its apoptosis, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. SWNHs inhibited expression

  5. Fluoxetine prevents oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Kang, So R; Yune, Tae Y

    2015-05-01

    Oligodendrocyte cell death and axon demyelination after spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to be important secondary injuries contributing to permanent neurological disability. Thus, blocking oligodendrocyte cell death should be considered for therapeutic intervention after SCI. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug, alleviates oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after SCI. After injury at the T9 level with a Precision Systems and Instrumentation (Lexington, KY) device, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered once a day for the indicated time points. Immunostaining with CD11b (OX-42) antibody and quantification analysis showed that microglia activation was significantly inhibited by fluoxetine at 5 days after injury. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and expression of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF), which is known to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death through the p75 neurotrophin receptor after SCI. In addition, fluoxetine attenuated activation of Ras homolog gene family member A and decreased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun and, ultimately, alleviated caspase-3 activation and significantly reduced cell death of oligodendrocytes at 5 days after SCI. Further, the decrease of myelin basic protein, myelin loss, and axon loss in white matter was also significantly blocked by fluoxetine, as compared to vehicle control. These results suggest that fluoxetine inhibits oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation and p38-MAPK activation, followed by pro-NGF production after SCI, and provide a potential usage of fluoxetine for a therapeutic agent after acute SCI in humans.

  6. Fluoxetine Prevents Oligodendrocyte Cell Death by Inhibiting Microglia Activation after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Y.; Kang, So R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oligodendrocyte cell death and axon demyelination after spinal cord injury (SCI) are known to be important secondary injuries contributing to permanent neurological disability. Thus, blocking oligodendrocyte cell death should be considered for therapeutic intervention after SCI. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine, an antidepressant drug, alleviates oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation after SCI. After injury at the T9 level with a Precision Systems and Instrumentation (Lexington, KY) device, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered once a day for the indicated time points. Immunostaining with CD11b (OX-42) antibody and quantification analysis showed that microglia activation was significantly inhibited by fluoxetine at 5 days after injury. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) and expression of pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF), which is known to mediate oligodendrocyte cell death through the p75 neurotrophin receptor after SCI. In addition, fluoxetine attenuated activation of Ras homolog gene family member A and decreased the level of phosphorylated c-Jun and, ultimately, alleviated caspase-3 activation and significantly reduced cell death of oligodendrocytes at 5 days after SCI. Further, the decrease of myelin basic protein, myelin loss, and axon loss in white matter was also significantly blocked by fluoxetine, as compared to vehicle control. These results suggest that fluoxetine inhibits oligodendrocyte cell death by inhibiting microglia activation and p38-MAPK activation, followed by pro-NGF production after SCI, and provide a potential usage of fluoxetine for a therapeutic agent after acute SCI in humans. PMID:25366938

  7. Protective action of erythropoietin on neuronal damage induced by activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Wenker, Shirley D; Chamorro, María E; Vittori, Daniela C; Nesse, Alcira B

    2013-04-01

    Inflammation is a physiological defense response, but may also represent a potential pathological process in neurological diseases. In this regard, microglia have a crucial role in either progression or amelioration of degenerative neuronal damage. Because of the role of hypoxia in pro-inflammatory mechanisms in the nervous system, and the potential anti-inflammatory protective effect of erythropoietin (Epo), we focused our investigation on the role of this factor on activation of microglia and neuroprotection. Activation of microglial cells (EOC-2) was achieved by chemical hypoxia induced by cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ) and characterized by increased levels of nitrite, tumor necrosis factor-α and reactive oxygen species production, as well as up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Under these conditions, cell proliferation data and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining demonstrated a mitogenic effect of chemical hypoxia. Even though pre-treatment with Epo did not prevent nitrite production, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression or tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, it prevented the oxidative stress induced by CoCl2 as well as cell proliferation. Neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y) cultured in the presence of conditioned medium from activated EOC-2 cells or macrophages (RAW 264.7) developed significant apoptosis, an effect that was abolished by Epo via Epo/Epo receptor activation. The results show that even though Epo did not exert a direct anti-inflammatory effect on microglia activation, it did increase the resistance of neurons to subsequent damage from pro-inflammatory agents. In addition to its anti-apoptotic ability, the Epo antioxidant effect may have an indirect influence on neuronal survival by modulation of the pro-inflammatory environment. PMID:23384249

  8. Activation of microglia and astrocytes in the nucleus tractus solitarius during ventilatory acclimatization to 10% hypoxia in unanesthetized mice.

    PubMed

    Tadmouri, A; Champagnat, J; Morin-Surun, M P

    2014-05-01

    Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is the integrative sensory relay of autonomic functions in the brainstem. To explore the nonneuronal cellular basis of central chemosensitivity during the first 24 hr of ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VHA), we have investigated glial activation markers in the NTS. Conscious mice (C57/BL6) were placed in a hermetic hypoxia chamber containing a plethysmograph to record ventilation. After 4 days of habituation to the normoxic environment, mice were subjected to physiological hypoxia (10% O2 ) for 1, 6, or 24 hr. To dissociate interactions between microglia and astrocytes, another group received daily minocycline, a microglia activation blocker. By immunochemical localization of astrocytes (GFAP), activated microglia (Cd11b), and total microglia (Iba-1), we identified an oxygen-sensing glial layer in the NTS, in which astrocytes are first activated after 1-6 hr of hypoxia, followed by microglia after 6-24 hr of hypoxia. Minocycline administration suppressed microglial activation and decreased astrocyte activation at 6 hr and VHA at 24 hr of hypoxia. These results suggest that astrocytes contribute to the neuronal response during the first hour of hypoxia, whereas microglial cells, via cross-talk with astrocytes, are involved in the VHA during the first 24 hr of acclimatization.

  9. Selective up-regulation of GLT-1 in cultured astrocytes exposed to soluble mediators released by activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Tilleux, Sébastien; Goursaud, Stéphanie; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Impaired glial glutamate uptake is commonly involved in neuronal damages observed in acute and chronic nervous disorders. As nervous insults are frequently associated with local inflammation involving microglia, this study aims at exploring the link between activated microglia and altered glutamate uptake in astrocytes. The regulation of the expression and activity of type 1 glutamate transporter (GLT-1) was examined after exposing cultures of rat astrocytes to conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia cultures. Significant increases in GLT-1 mRNA expression and dihydrokainate sensitive uptake of aspartate were observed after 72h of treatment. These effects were reproduced by direct exposure of the astrocyte cultures to tumor necrosis factor alpha, a major cytokine released by activated microglia. The regulation of GLT-1 activity in response to inflammatory stimuli was also evidenced in cells exposed to dibutyryl cAMP, recognised as a model of reactive astrocytes in which the expression of this glutamate transporter is constitutively enhanced. Taken together, these results suggest that the GLT-1-dependent control of glutamate neurotransmission by either naive or chemically activated astrocytes is influenced by microglia-mediated inflammation. PMID:19428805

  10. In vivo analysis of the time and spatial activation pattern of microglia in the retina following laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Reichhart, Nadine; Hernandez-Matas, Carlos; Zabulis, Xenophon; Kociok, Norbert; Brockmann, Claudia; Joussen, Antonia M; Strauss, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    Microglia play a major role in retinal neovascularization and degeneration and are thus potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In vivo assessment of microglia behavior in disease models can provide important information to understand patho-mechanisms and develop therapeutic strategies. Although scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) permits the monitoring of microglia in transgenic mice with microglia-specific GFP expression, there are fundamental limitations in reliable identification and quantification of activated cells. Therefore, we aimed to improve the SLO-based analysis of microglia using enhanced image processing with subsequent testing in laser-induced neovascularization (CNV). CNV was induced by argon laser in MacGreen mice. Microglia was visualized in vivo by SLO in the fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) mode and verified ex vivo using retinal preparations. Three image processing algorithms based on different analysis of sequences of images were tested. The amount of recorded frames was limiting the effectiveness of the different algorithms. Best results from short recordings were obtained with a pixel averaging algorithm, further used to quantify spatial and temporal distribution of activated microglia in CNV. Morphologically, different microglia populations were detected in the inner and outer retinal layers. In CNV, the peak of microglia activation occurred in the inner layer at day 4 after laser, lacking an acute reaction. Besides, the spatial distribution of the activation changed by the time over the inner retina. No significant time and spatial changes were observed in the outer layer. An increase in laser power did not increase number of activated microglia. The SLO, in conjunction with enhanced image processing, is suitable for in vivo quantification of microglia activation. This surprisingly revealed that laser damage at the outer retina led to more reactive microglia in the inner retina, shedding light upon a new perspective to approach

  11. Cell type-specific roles for tissue plasminogen activator released by neurons or microglia after excitotoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Siao, Chia-Jen; Fernandez, Susana R; Tsirka, Stella E

    2003-04-15

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plays important roles in the brain after excitotoxic injury. It is released by both neurons and microglia and mediates neuronal death and microglial activation. Mice lacking tPA are resistant to excitotoxicity and show very limited microglial activation. Activated microglia are neurotoxic in culture, but this phenomenon is not well documented in vivo. To further understand the sequence of events through which tPA mediates microglial activation and neurodegeneration, we have generated mice that exhibit restricted expression of tPA through introduction of tPA transgenes under the control of neuronal- or microglial-specific promoters into tPA-deficient mice. Neither strain of transgenic mice shows abnormal brain morphology or inflammation in the absence of injury, and unilateral intrahippocampal kainate injections into the transgenic mice induced excitotoxicity and microglial activation reminiscent of wild-type mice. However, there are differences in the kinetics of the resulting pathology. The neuronal tPA-expressing mice exhibit accelerated microglial activation compared with wild-type or microglial tPA-expressing mice. However, microglial tPA-expressing mice exhibit greater neurodegeneration. These data suggest a model in which tPA plays different roles after kainate injection depending on whether it is released by neurons or microglia. We propose that tPA, initially secreted from injured neurons, acts as a cytokine to activate microglia at the site of injury. These activated microglia then secrete additional tPA, which promotes extracellular matrix degradation, neurodegeneration, and self-proliferation. We suggest that an approach to attenuate microglia-mediated neuronal death in vivo might be to pharmacologically prevent microglial activation.

  12. TGFβ1 inhibits IFNγ-mediated microglia activation and protects mDA neurons from IFNγ-driven neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolai; Zöller, Tanja; Krieglstein, Kerstin; Spittau, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been reported as a common feature of familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a growing body of evidence indicates that onset and progression of PD correlates with the extent of neuroinflammatory responses involving Interferon γ (IFNγ). Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) has been shown to be a major player in the regulation of microglia activation states and functions and, thus, might be a potential therapeutic agent by shaping microglial activation phenotypes during the course of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. In this study, we demonstrate that TGFβ1 is able to block IFNγ-induced microglia activation by attenuating STAT1 phosphorylation and IFNγRα expression. Moreover, we identified a set of genes involved in microglial IFNγ signaling transduction that were significantly down-regulated upon TGFβ1 treatment, resulting in decreased sensitivity of microglia toward IFNγ stimuli. Interestingly, genes mediating negative regulation of IFNγ signaling, such as SOCS2 and SOCS6, were up-regulated after TGFβ1 treatment. Finally, we demonstrate that TGFβ1 is capable of protecting midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons from IFNγ-driven neurotoxicity in mixed neuron-glia cultures derived from embryonic day 14 (E14) midbrain tissue. Together, these data underline the importance of TGFβ1 as a key immunoregulatory factor for microglia by silencing IFNγ-mediated microglia activation and, thereby, rescuing mDA neurons from IFNγ-induced neurotoxicity. Interferon γ (IFNγ) is a potent pro-inflammatory factor that triggers the activation of microglia and the subsequent release of neurotoxic factors. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is able to inhibit the IFNγ-mediated activation of microglia, which is characterized by the release of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). By decreasing the expression of IFNγ-induced genes as well as the signaling receptor IFNγR1, TGFβ1

  13. Stress is critical for LPS-induced activation of microglia and damage in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Oliva, A M; de Pablos, R M; Villarán, R F; Argüelles, S; Venero, J L; Machado, A; Cano, J

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is insensitive to strong inflammatory stimulus under normal conditions and one of the most severely affected areas in Alzheimer's disease. We have analyzed the effect of chronic stress for 9 days in the hippocampus unilaterally injected with LPS. In non-stressed rats, LPS injection failed to activate microglia although a subset of degenerating cells in the CA1 area was evident. This effect was not accompanied by loss of Neu-N positive neurons in the CA1 area. In stressed rats, LPS injection had a dramatic effect in activating microglia along with astrogliosis and BDNF mRNA induction. NeuN immunostaining demonstrated a loss of about 50% of CA1 pyramidal neurons under these conditions. Fluoro jade B histochemistry demonstrated the presence of degenerating cells in most of CA1 area. Mechanistically, combination of chronic stress and LPS resulted in prominent activation of MAPKs including JNK, p38 and ERK clearly different from LPS injection in controls. Further, LPS+stress induced a dramatic decrease in phosphorylated levels of both Akt and CREB, which fully supports a consistent deleterious state in the hippocampal system under these conditions. Treatment with RU486, a potent inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor activation, significantly protected animals against the deleterious effects observed in LPS-stressed animals.

  14. Fumarates modulate microglia activation through a novel HCAR2 signaling pathway and rescue synaptic dysregulation in inflamed CNS.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Benedetta; Rossi, Silvia; Morando, Sara; Cordano, Christian; Bragoni, Alberto; Motta, Caterina; Usai, Cesare; Wipke, Brian T; Scannevin, Robert H; Mancardi, Giovanni L; Centonze, Diego; Kerlero de Rosbo, Nicole; Uccelli, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), recently approved as an oral immunomodulatory treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), metabolizes to monomethyl fumarate (MMF) which crosses the blood-brain barrier and has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in experimental studies. We postulated that MMF exerts neuroprotective effects through modulation of microglia activation, a critical component of the neuroinflammatory cascade that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases such as MS. To ascertain our hypothesis and define the mechanistic pathways involved in the modulating effect of fumarates, we used real-time PCR and biochemical assays to assess changes in the molecular and functional phenotype of microglia, quantitative Western blotting to monitor activation of postulated pathway components, and ex vivo whole-cell patch clamp recording of excitatory post-synaptic currents in corticostriatal slices from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS, to study synaptic transmission. We show that exposure to MMF switches the molecular and functional phenotype of activated microglia from classically activated, pro-inflammatory type to alternatively activated, neuroprotective one, through activation of the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2 (HCAR2). We validate a downstream pathway mediated through the AMPK-Sirt1 axis resulting in deacetylation, and thereby inhibition, of NF-κB and, consequently, of secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules. We demonstrate through ex vivo monitoring of spontaneous glutamate-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents of single neurons in corticostriatal slices from EAE mice that the neuroprotective effect of DMF was exerted on neurons at pre-synaptic terminals by modulating glutamate release. By exposing control slices to untreated and MMF-treated activated microglia, we confirm the modulating effect of MMF on microglia function and, thereby, its indirect neuroprotective effect at post-synaptic level. These

  15. MMP-3 secreted from endothelial cells of blood vessels after spinal cord injury activates microglia, leading to oligodendrocyte cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2015-10-01

    The activation of microglia after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to secondary damage by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, leading to cell death of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Here, we show that matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3) produced and secreted in the endothelial cells of blood vessels after SCI mediates microglial activation. MMP-3 was produced and secreted in bEnd.3 cells, a mouse brain-derived endothelial cell line, by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/RO). OGD/RO-induced MMP-3 expression and activity was also significantly inhibited by ghrelin, which was dependent on the ghrelin receptor GHS-R1a. Furthermore, the secreted MMP-3 from OGD/RO-induced bEnd.3 cells activated BV-2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. We also found that microglial activation after SCI was attenuated in MMP-3 knockout (KO) mice compared with wild type (WT) mice. Both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and pro-nerve growth factor (proNGF) production were more inhibited in MMP-3 KO than WT mice at 5d after injury. When WT mice were treated with Mmp-3 siRNA after injury, MMP-3 activity, microglial activation, p38MAPK activation and proNGF expression were significantly inhibited. Ghrelin treatment also significantly inhibited MMP-3 expression and activation after SCI, which was dependent on GHS-R1a. Finally, RhoA activation and oligodendrocyte cell death after injury were attenuated by Mmp-3 siRNA or ghrelin treatment compared with vehicle control. Thus, our study indicates that MMP-3 produced in blood vessel endothelial cells after SCI serves as an endogenous molecule for microglial activation followed by p38MAPK activation and proNGF production, and further indicates that the protective effect of ghrelin on oligodendrocytes cell death may be at least partly mediated by the inhibition of MMP-3-induced microglial activation after SCI.

  16. Multimodal imaging reveals temporal and spatial microglia and matrix metalloproteinase activity after experimental stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zinnhardt, Bastian; Viel, Thomas; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Vrachimis, Alexis; Wagner, Stefan; Breyholz, Hans-Jörg; Faust, Andreas; Hermann, Sven; Kopka, Klaus; Faber, Cornelius; Dollé, Frédéric; Pappata, Sabina; Planas, Anna M; Tavitian, Bertrand; Schäfers, Michael; Sorokin, Lydia M; Kuhlmann, Michael T; Jacobs, Andreas H

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the most common cause of death and disability from neurologic disease in humans. Activation of microglia and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is involved in positively and negatively affecting stroke outcome. Novel, noninvasive, multimodal imaging methods visualizing microglial and MMP alterations were employed. The spatio-temporal dynamics of these parameters were studied in relation to blood flow changes. Micro positron emission tomography (μPET) using [18F]BR-351 showed MMP activity within the first days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo), followed by increased [18F]DPA-714 uptake as a marker for microglia activation with a maximum at 14 days after tMCAo. The inflammatory response was spatially located in the infarct core and in adjacent (penumbral) tissue. For the first time, multimodal imaging based on PET, single photon emission computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed insight into the spatio-temporal distribution of critical parameters of poststroke inflammation. This allows further evaluation of novel treatment paradigms targeting the postischemic inflammation. PMID:26126867

  17. TLR4-activated microglia require IFN-γ to induce severe neuronal dysfunction and death in situ.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Ismini E; Lewen, Andrea; Galow, Lukas V; Cesetti, Tiziana; Scheffel, Jörg; Regen, Tommy; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Kann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Microglia (tissue-resident macrophages) represent the main cell type of the innate immune system in the CNS; however, the mechanisms that control the activation of microglia are widely unknown. We systematically explored microglial activation and functional microglia-neuron interactions in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, i.e., postnatal cortical tissue that lacks adaptive immunity. We applied electrophysiological recordings of local field potential and extracellular K(+) concentration, immunohistochemistry, design-based stereology, morphometry, Sholl analysis, and biochemical analyses. We show that chronic activation with either bacterial lipopolysaccharide through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or leukocyte cytokine IFN-γ induces reactive phenotypes in microglia associated with morphological changes, population expansion, CD11b and CD68 up-regulation, and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO) release. Notably, these reactive phenotypes only moderately alter intrinsic neuronal excitability and gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz), which emerge from precise synaptic communication of glutamatergic pyramidal cells and fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons, in local hippocampal networks. Short-term synaptic plasticity and extracellular potassium homeostasis during neural excitation, also reflecting astrocyte function, are unaffected. In contrast, the coactivation of TLR4 and IFN-γ receptors results in neuronal dysfunction and death, caused mainly by enhanced microglial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release, because iNOS inhibition is neuroprotective. Thus, activation of TLR4 in microglia in situ requires concomitant IFN-γ receptor signaling from peripheral immune cells, such as T helper type 1 and natural killer cells, to unleash neurotoxicity and inflammation-induced neurodegeneration. Our findings provide crucial mechanistic insight into the complex process of microglia activation, with

  18. Suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation and inflammation in microglia by physically modified saline.

    PubMed

    Khasnavis, Saurabh; Jana, Arundhati; Roy, Avik; Mazumder, Monalisa; Bhushan, Bharat; Wood, Tony; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-24

    Chronic inflammation involving activated microglia and astroglia is becoming a hallmark of many human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Although NF-κB is a multifunctional transcription factor, it is an important target for controlling inflammation as the transcription of many proinflammatory molecules depends on the activation of NF-κB. Here, we have undertaken a novel approach to attenuate NF-κB activation and associated inflammation in activated glial cells. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanostructures that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not normal saline, RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen), and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification) were found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase in activated microglia. Similarly, RNS60 also inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase in activated astroglia. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by RNS60 suggests that RNS60 exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB. Interestingly, RNS60 induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt and rapidly up-regulated IκBα, a specific endogenous inhibitor of NF-κB. Inhibition of PI 3-kinase and Akt by either chemical inhibitors or dominant-negative mutants abrogated the RNS60-mediated up-regulation of IκBα. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RNS60 induced the activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) via the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway and that RNS60 up-regulated IκBα via CREB. These results describe a novel anti-inflammatory property of RNS60 via type IA PI 3-kinase-Akt-CREB-mediated up-regulation of IκBα, which may be of therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Suppression of Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Inflammation in Microglia by Physically Modified Saline*

    PubMed Central

    Khasnavis, Saurabh; Jana, Arundhati; Roy, Avik; Mazumder, Monalisa; Bhushan, Bharat; Wood, Tony; Ghosh, Supurna; Watson, Richard; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation involving activated microglia and astroglia is becoming a hallmark of many human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Although NF-κB is a multifunctional transcription factor, it is an important target for controlling inflammation as the transcription of many proinflammatory molecules depends on the activation of NF-κB. Here, we have undertaken a novel approach to attenuate NF-κB activation and associated inflammation in activated glial cells. RNS60 is a 0.9% saline solution containing charge-stabilized nanostructures that are generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille (TCP) flow under elevated oxygen pressure. RNS60, but not normal saline, RNS10.3 (TCP-modified saline without excess oxygen), and PNS60 (saline containing excess oxygen without TCP modification) were found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible NO synthase in activated microglia. Similarly, RNS60 also inhibited the expression of inducible NO synthase in activated astroglia. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by RNS60 suggests that RNS60 exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of NF-κB. Interestingly, RNS60 induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt and rapidly up-regulated IκBα, a specific endogenous inhibitor of NF-κB. Inhibition of PI 3-kinase and Akt by either chemical inhibitors or dominant-negative mutants abrogated the RNS60-mediated up-regulation of IκBα. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RNS60 induced the activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) via the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway and that RNS60 up-regulated IκBα via CREB. These results describe a novel anti-inflammatory property of RNS60 via type IA PI 3-kinase-Akt-CREB-mediated up-regulation of IκBα, which may be of therapeutic benefit in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22753407

  20. Somatostatin modulates insulin-degrading-enzyme metabolism: implications for the regulation of microglia activity in AD.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Grazia; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Boraso, Mariaserena; Viviani, Barbara; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) into senile plaques and the impairment of somatostatin-mediated neurotransmission are key pathological events in the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin-degrading-enzyme (IDE) is one of the main extracellular protease targeting Aβ, and thus it represents an interesting pharmacological target for AD therapy. We show that the active form of somatostatin-14 regulates IDE activity by affecting its expression and secretion in microglia cells. A similar effect can also be observed when adding octreotide. Following a previous observation where somatostatin directly interacts with IDE, here we demonstrate that somatostatin regulates Aβ catabolism by modulating IDE proteolytic activity in IDE gene-silencing experiments. As a whole, these data indicate the relevant role played by somatostatin and, potentially, by analogue octreotide, in preventing Aβ accumulation by partially restoring IDE activity.

  1. Early activation of microglia and astrocytes in mouse models of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Cvetanovic, M; Ingram, M; Orr, H; Opal, P

    2015-03-19

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an incurable, dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease of the cerebellum caused by a polyglutamine-repeat expansion in the protein ataxin-1 (ATXN1). While analysis of human autopsy material indicates significant glial pathology in SCA1, previous research has focused on characterizing neuronal dysfunction. In this study, we characterized astrocytic and microglial response in SCA1 using a comprehensive array of mouse models. We have discovered that astrocytes and microglia are activated very early in SCA1 pathogenesis even when mutant ATXN1 expression was limited to Purkinje neurons. Glial activation occurred in the absence of neuronal death, suggesting that glial activation results from signals emanating from dysfunctional neurons. Finally, in all different models examined glial activation closely correlated with disease progression, supporting the development of glial-based biomarkers to follow disease progression.

  2. Thymosin β4 inhibits microglia activation through microRNA 146a in neonatal rats following hypoxia injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Huang, Yan-xia; Song, Jian-wen; Ma, Qiao-mei

    2015-12-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, including hypoxic injury of the developing brain. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), the major G-actin-sequestering molecule, has an anti-inflammatory effect and has been used to treat various neurological diseases. However, the effect of Tβ4 on hypoxia-induced microglia activation in the developing brain remains unclear. We investigate here the effect of Tβ4 on microglia activation of neonatal rats after hypoxia exposure. Tβ4 treatment was carried out on 1-day-old rats and BV-2 cells. Tβ4 expression in microglia was determined by quantitative real time-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nitric oxide (NO) was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β, and microRNA 146a expression was determined by quantitative real time-PCR. We showed that Tβ4 treatment significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory mediators in the cerebellum of neonatal rats following hypoxia injury. Increased expression of endogenous Tβ4 in microglia was observed both in hypoxic rats and in BV-2 cells. Tβ4 treatment significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of hypoxia-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, and NO. Remarkably, microRNA 146a expression was found to have increased in Tβ4-treated BV-2 cells. We demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effect of Tβ4 in neonatal rats following hypoxic brain injury. More importantly, our data reveal, for the first time, that Tβ4 inhibits microglia activation in vitro. Therefore, this study contributes to understanding the role and mechanism of Tβ4 function in central nervous system diseases.

  3. Microglia Induce Neurotoxic IL-17+ γδ T Cells Dependent on TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Derkow, Katja; Krüger, Christina; Dembny, Paul; Lehnardt, Seija

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17) acts as a key regulator in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. γδ T cells are an important innate source of IL-17. Both IL-17+ γδ T cells and microglia, the major resident immune cells of the brain, are involved in various CNS disorders such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. Also, activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways contributes to CNS damage. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation and interaction of these cellular and molecular components remain unclear. Objective In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between γδ T cells and microglia activated by TLRs in the context of neuronal damage. To this end, co-cultures of IL-17+ γδ T cells, neurons, and microglia were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, ELISA and multiplex immunoassays. Results We report here that IL-17+ γδ T cells but not naïve γδ T cells induce a dose- and time-dependent decrease of neuronal viability in vitro. While direct stimulation of γδ T cells with various TLR ligands did not result in up-regulation of CD69, CD25, or in IL-17 secretion, supernatants of microglia stimulated by ligands specific for TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, or TLR9 induced activation of γδ T cells through IL-1β and IL-23, as indicated by up-regulation of CD69 and CD25 and by secretion of vast amounts of IL-17. This effect was dependent on the TLR adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) expressed by both γδ T cells and microglia, but did not require the expression of TLRs by γδ T cells. Similarly to cytokine-primed IL-17+ γδ T cells, IL-17+ γδ T cells induced by supernatants derived from TLR-activated microglia also caused neurotoxicity in vitro. While these neurotoxic effects required stimulation of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR9 in microglia, neuronal injury mediated by bone marrow-derived macrophages did not require TLR signaling. Neurotoxicity mediated by IL-17+ γδ T cells required a direct cell

  4. Interferon-gamma produced by microglia and the neuropeptide PACAP have opposite effects on the viability of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Johanna; Koivuniemi, Raili; Korhonen, Laura; Lindholm, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation is part of many neurological disorders and immune reactions may influence neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) contributing to the disease process. Our knowledge about the interplay between different cell types in brain inflammation are not fully understood. It is important to know the mechanisms and factors involved in order to enhance regeneration and brain repair. We show here that NPCs express receptors for interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), and IFNgamma activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein-1. IFNgamma reduced cell proliferation in NPCs by upregulation of the cell cycle protein p21 as well as induced cell death of NPCs by activating caspase-3. Studies of putative factors for rescue showed that the neuropeptide, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) increased cell viability, the levels of p-Bad and reduced caspase-3 activation in the NPCs. Medium from cultured microglia contained IFNgamma and decreased the viability of NPCs, whilst blocking with anti-IFNgamma antibodies counteracted this effect. The results show that NPCs are negatively influenced by IFNgamma whereas PACAP is able to modulate its action. The interplay between IFNgamma released from immune cells and PACAP is of importance in brain inflammation and may affect the regeneration and recruitment of NPCs in immune diseases. The observed effects of IFNgamma on NPCs deserve to be taken into account in human anti-viral therapies particularly in children with higher rates of brain stem cell proliferation.

  5. Minocycline attenuates pain by inhibiting spinal microglia activation in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Shan; Yang, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Huang, Wen; Li, Zhao-Shen; Zhang, Yong

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms associated with diabetes-induced neuropathic pain are complex and poorly understood. In order to understand the involvement of spinal microglia activity in diabetic pain, the present study investigated whether minocycline treatment is able to attenuate diabetic pain using a rat model. Diabetes was induced using a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Minocycline was then intrathecally administered to the rats. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were tested weekly. The expression of OX-42, Iba-1, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were examined in the spinal cord in order to evaluate the activation of microglia. The present study demonstrated that rats with STZ-induced diabetes exhibited increased mean plasma glucose concentration, decreased mean body weight and significant pain hypersensitivity compared with control rats. PWT and PWL values of rats with STZ-induced diabetes increased following treatment with minocycline. No differences were observed in expression levels of the microglial activity markers (OX-42, Iba-1 and phospho-p38 MAPK) between rats with STZ-induced diabetes and control rats. However, TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS expression levels were higher in rats with STZ-induced diabetes compared with control rats. Following treatment with minocycline markers of microglial activation, including cytokines and iNOS, were downregulated in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. The results of the present study indicated that minocycline treatment may inhibit spinal microglial activation and attenuate diabetic pain in rats with STZ-induced diabetes.

  6. Deletion of caspase-8 in mouse myeloid cells blocks microglia pro-inflammatory activation and confers protection in MPTP neurodegeneration model

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Edel; Burguillos, Miguel Angel; Carrillo-Jimenez, Alejandro; Oliva-Martin, María José; Santiago, Martiniano; Rodhe, Johanna; Joseph, Bertrand; Venero, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence involves sustained pro-inflammatory microglia activation in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently uncovered a completely novel and unexpected role for caspase-8 and its downstream substrates caspase-3/7 in the control of microglia activation and associated neurotoxicity to dopaminergic cells. To demonstrate the genetic evidence, mice bearing a floxed allele of CASP8 were crossed onto a transgenic line expressing Cre under the control of Lysozyme 2 gene. Analysis of caspase-8 gene deletion in brain microglia demonstrated a high efficiency in activated but not in resident microglia. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of microglia activation, or with MPTP, which promotes specific dopaminergic cell damage and consequent reactive microgliosis. In neither of these models, CASP8 deletion appeared to affect the overall number of microglia expressing the pan specific microglia marker, Iba1. In contrast, CD16/CD32 expression, a microglial pro-inflammatory marker, was found to be negatively affected upon CASP8 deletion. Expression of additional proinflammatory markers were also found to be reduced in response to lipopolysaccharide. Of importance, reduced pro-inflammatory microglia activation was accompanied by a significant protection of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic system in the MPTP mouse model of PD. PMID:26405176

  7. Deletion of caspase-8 in mouse myeloid cells blocks microglia pro-inflammatory activation and confers protection in MPTP neurodegeneration model.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Edel; Burguillos, Miguel Angel; Carrillo-Jimenez, Alejandro; Oliva-Martin, María José; Santiago, Martiniano; Rodhe, Johanna; Joseph, Bertrand; Venero, Jose Luis

    2015-09-01

    Increasing evidence involves sustained pro-inflammatory microglia activation in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently uncovered a completely novel and unexpected role for caspase-8 and its downstream substrates caspase-3/7 in the control of microglia activation and associated neurotoxicity to dopaminergic cells. To demonstrate the genetic evidence, mice bearing a floxed allele ofCASP8 were crossed onto a transgenic line expressing Cre under the control of Lysozyme 2 gene. Analysis of caspase-8 gene deletion in brain microglia demonstrated a high efficiency in activated but not in resident microglia. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of microglia activation, or with MPTP, which promotes specific dopaminergic cell damage and consequent reactive microgliosis. In neither of these models, CASP8 deletion appeared to affect the overall number of microglia expressing the pan specific microglia marker, Iba1. In contrast, CD16/CD32 expression, a microglial pro-inflammatory marker, was found to be negatively affected upon CASP8 deletion. Expression of additional proinflammatory markers were also found to be reduced in response to lipopolysaccharide. Of importance, reduced pro-inflammatory microglia activation was accompanied by a significant protection of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic system in the MPTP mouse model of PD.

  8. Identification of Glial Activation Markers by Comparison of Transcriptome Changes between Astrocytes and Microglia following Innate Immune Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Silvia; Woods, Tyson A.; Mukherjee, Piyali; Sturdevant, Dan; Peterson, Karin E.

    2015-01-01

    The activation of astrocytes and microglia is often associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Understanding how activation alters the transcriptome of these cells may offer valuable insight regarding how activation of these cells mediate neurological damage. Furthermore, identifying common and unique pathways of gene expression during activation may provide new insight into the distinct roles these cells have in the CNS during infection and inflammation. Since recent studies indicate that TLR7 recognizes not only viral RNA but also microRNAs that are released by damaged neurons and elevated during neurological diseases, we first examined the response of glial cells to TLR7 stimulation using microarray analysis. Microglia were found to generate a much stronger response to TLR7 activation than astrocytes, both in the number of genes induced as well as fold induction. Although the primary pathways induced by both cell types were directly linked to immune responses, microglia also induced pathways associated with cellular proliferation, while astrocytes did not. Targeted analysis of a subset of the upregulated genes identified unique mRNA, including Ifi202b which was only upregulated by microglia and was found to be induced during both retroviral and bunyavirus infections in the CNS. In addition, other genes including Birc3 and Gpr84 as well as two expressed sequences AW112010 and BC023105 were found to be induced in both microglia and astrocytes and were upregulated in the CNS following virus infection. Thus, expression of these genes may a useful measurement of glial activation during insult or injury to the CNS. PMID:26214311

  9. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia. PMID:25782915

  10. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    PubMed

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia.

  11. Sequential activation of microglia and astrocyte cytokine expression precedes increased Iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity following systemic immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Villanueva, Emmanuel; Navarro, Elisa; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-02-01

    Activation of the peripheral immune system elicits a coordinated response from the central nervous system. Key to this immune to brain communication is that glia, microglia, and astrocytes, interpret and propagate inflammatory signals in the brain that influence physiological and behavioral responses. One issue in glial biology is that morphological analysis alone is used to report on glial activation state. Therefore, our objective was to compare behavioral responses after in vivo immune (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) challenge to glial specific mRNA and morphological profiles. Here, LPS challenge induced an immediate but transient sickness response with decreased locomotion and social interaction. Corresponding with active sickness behavior (2-12 h), inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression was elevated in enriched microglia and astrocytes. Although proinflammatory cytokine expression in microglia peaked 2-4 h after LPS, astrocyte cytokine, and chemokine induction was delayed and peaked at 12 h. Morphological alterations in microglia (Iba-1(+)) and astrocytes (GFAP(+)), however, were undetected during this 2-12 h timeframe. Increased Iba-1 immunoreactivity and de-ramified microglia were evident 24 and 48 h after LPS but corresponded to the resolution phase of activation. Morphological alterations in astrocytes were undetected after LPS. Additionally, glial cytokine expression did not correlate with morphology after four repeated LPS injections. In fact, repeated LPS challenge was associated with immune and behavioral tolerance and a less inflammatory microglial profile compared with acute LPS challenge. Overall, induction of glial cytokine expression was sequential, aligned with active sickness behavior, and preceded increased Iba-1 or GFAP immunoreactivity after LPS challenge.

  12. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis and their inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Yang, Zhiyou; Yao, Xuechun; Wang, Hua; Han, Na; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Four dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, schisanchinins A-D, and 10 known compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including MS, UV and IR, NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC). The stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the biphenyl configuration were determined using NOESY, as well as analysis of CD spectra. In vitro activity assays showed that 11 of the 14 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in primary murine BV2 microglia cells.

  13. Botanical Polyphenols Mitigate Microglial Activation and Microglia-Induced Neurotoxicity: Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Dennis Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Cui, Jiankun; Lubahn, Dennis B; Gu, Zezong; Sun, Grace Y

    2016-09-01

    Microglia play a significant role in the generation and propagation of oxidative/nitrosative stress, and are the basis of neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Upon stimulation by endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), these cells release pro-inflammatory factors which can exert harmful effects on surrounding neurons, leading to secondary neuronal damage and cell death. Our previous studies demonstrated the effects of botanical polyphenols to mitigate inflammatory responses induced by LPS, and highlighted an important role for cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) upstream of the pro-inflammatory pathways (Chuang et al. in J Neuroinflammation 12(1):199, 2015. doi: 10.1186/s12974-015-0419-0 ). In this study, we investigate the action of botanical compounds and assess whether suppression of cPLA2 in microglia is involved in the neurotoxic effects on neurons. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used to test the neurotoxicity of conditioned medium from stimulated microglial cells, and WST-1 assay was used to assess for the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells. Botanicals such as quercetin and honokiol (but not cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, 3CG) were effective in inhibiting LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and phosphorylation of cPLA2. Conditioned medium from BV-2 cells stimulated with LPS or IFNγ caused neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells. Decrease in cell viability could be ameliorated by pharmacological inhibitors for cPLA2 as well as by down-regulating cPLA2 with siRNA. Botanicals effective in inhibition of LPS-induced NO and cPLA2 phosphorylation were also effective in ameliorating microglial-induced neurotoxicity. Results demonstrated cytotoxic factors from activated microglial cells to cause damaging effects to neurons and potential use of botanical polyphenols to ameliorate the neurotoxic effects. PMID:27339657

  14. Microglia activation: one of the checkpoints in the CNS inflammation caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in rodent model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Wu, Feng; He, Ai; Zeng, Xin; Ouyang, Li-si; Liu, Ming-she; Zheng, Huan-qin; Lei, Wan-long; Wu, Zhong-dao; Lv, Zhi-yue

    2015-09-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a rodent nematode. Adult worms of A. cantonensis live in the pulmonary arteries of rats; humans are non-permissive hosts like the mice. The larva cannot develop into an adult worm and only causes serious eosinophilic meningitis or meningo-encephalitis if humans or mice eat food containing larva of A. cantonensis in the third stage. The differing consequences largely depend on differing immune responses of hosts to parasite during A. cantonensis invasion and development. To further understand the reasons why mice and rats attain different outcomes in A. cantonensis infection, we used the HE staining to observe the pathological changes of infected mice and rats. In addition, we measured mRNA levels of some cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, Eotaxin, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-17A, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS) in brain tissues of mice and rats by real-time PCR. The result showed that brain inflammation in mice was more serious than in rats. Meanwhile, mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS increased after mice were infected. In contrast, mRNA levels of these cytokines in rats brain tissues decreased at post- infection 21 days. These cytokines mostly were secreted by activated microglia in central nervous system. Microglia of mice and rats were showed by Iba-1 (microglia marker) staining. In micee brains, microglia got together and had more significant activation than in rats brains. The results demonstrate that mice and rats have different CNS inflammation after infection by A. cantonensis, and it is in line with other researchers' reported findings. In conclusion, it is suggested that microglia activation is probably to be one of the most important factors in angiostrongyliasis from our study. PMID:26002828

  15. PARP-1 Inhibition Attenuates Neuronal Loss, Microglia Activation and Neurological Deficits after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Loane, David J.; Zhao, Zaorui; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Hanscom, Marie; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Faden, Alan I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal cell death as well as microglial activation and related neurotoxicity that contribute to subsequent neurological dysfunction. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) induces neuronal cell death through activation of caspase-independent mechanisms, including release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and microglial activation. Administration of PJ34, a selective PARP-1 inhibitor, reduced cell death of primary cortical neurons exposed to N-Methyl-N'-Nitro-N-Nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a potent inducer of AIF-dependent cell death. PJ34 also attenuated lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced activation of BV2 or primary microglia, limiting NF-κB activity and iNOS expression as well as decreasing generation of reactive oxygen species and TNFα. Systemic administration of PJ34 starting as late as 24 h after controlled cortical impact resulted in improved motor function recovery in mice with TBI. Stereological analysis demonstrated that PJ34 treatment reduced the lesion volume, attenuated neuronal cell loss in the cortex and thalamus, and reduced microglial activation in the TBI cortex. PJ34 treatment did not improve cognitive performance in a Morris water maze test or reduce neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus. Overall, our data indicate that PJ34 has a significant, albeit selective, neuroprotective effect after experimental TBI, and its therapeutic effect may be from multipotential actions on neuronal cell death and neuroinflammatory pathways. PMID:24476502

  16. Classical activation of microglia in CD200-deficient mice is a consequence of blood brain barrier permeability and infiltration of peripheral cells.

    PubMed

    Denieffe, Stephanie; Kelly, Ronan J; McDonald, Claire; Lyons, Anthony; Lynch, Marina A

    2013-11-01

    The interaction between CD200, expressed on several cell types, and its receptor CD200R, expressed on cells of the myeloid lineage, has been shown to be an important factor in modulating inflammation in macrophage function in several conditions including colitis and arthritis. More recently its modulatory effect on microglial activation has been identified and CD200-deficiency has been associated with increased microglial activation accompanied by increased production of inflammatory cytokines. The response of glia prepared from CD200-deficient mice to stimuli like lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is markedly greater than the response of cells prepared from wildtype mice and, consistent with this, is the recent observation that expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and signalling through NFκB are increased in microglia prepared from CD200-deficient mice. Here we show that glia from CD200-deficient mice are also more responsive to interferon-γ (IFNγ) which triggers classical activation of microglia. We investigated the effects of CD200-deficiency in vivo and report that there is an increase in expression of several markers of microglial activation including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which is a hallmark of classically-activated microglia. These changes are accompanied by increased IFNγ, and the evidence suggests that this is produced by infiltrating cells including T cells and macrophages. We propose that these cells enter the brain as a consequence of increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability in CD200-deficient mice and that infiltration is assisted by increased expression of the chemokines, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IFNγ-induced protein-10 (IP-10) and RANTES. This may have implications in neurodegenerative diseases where BBB permeability is compromised.

  17. Activated microglia impairs neuroglial interaction by opening Cx43 hemichannels in hippocampal astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Abudara, Verónica; Roux, Lisa; Dallérac, Glenn; Matias, Isabelle; Dulong, Jérôme; Mothet, Jean Pierre; Rouach, Nathalie; Giaume, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Glia plays an active role in neuronal functions and dysfunctions, some of which depend on the expression of astrocyte connexins, the gap junction channel and hemichannel proteins. Under neuroinflammation triggered by the endotoxin lipopolysacharide (LPS), microglia is primary stimulated and releases proinflammatory agents affecting astrocytes and neurons. Here, we investigate the effects of such microglial activation on astrocyte connexin-based channel functions and their consequences on synaptic activity in an ex vivo model. We found that LPS induces astroglial hemichannel opening in acute hippocampal slices while no change is observed in gap junctional communication. Based on pharmacological and genetic approaches we found that the LPS-induced hemichannel opening is mainly due to Cx43 hemichannel activity. This process primarily requires a microglial stimulation resulting in the release of at least two proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α. Consequences of the hemichannel-mediated increase in membrane permeability are a calcium rise in astrocytes and an enhanced glutamate release associated to a reduction in excitatory synaptic activity of pyramidal neurons in response to Schaffer's collateral stimulation. As a whole our findings point out astroglial hemichannels as key determinants of the impairment of synaptic transmission during neuroinflammation.

  18. The azetidine derivative, KHG26792 protects against ATP-induced activation of NFAT and MAPK pathways through P2X7 receptor in microglia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Cho, Chang Hun; Kim, Jiae; Hahn, Hoh-Gyu; Choi, Soo Young; Yang, Seung-Ju; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Azetidine derivatives are of interest for drug development because they may be useful therapeutic agents. However, their mechanisms of action remain to be completely elucidated. Here, we have investigated the effects of 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) on ATP-induced activation of NFAT and MAPK through P2X7 receptor in the BV-2 mouse microglial cell line. KHG26792 decreased ATP-induced TNF-α release from BV-2 microglia by suppressing, at least partly, P2X7 receptor stimulation. KHG26792 also inhibited the ATP-induced increase in IL-6, PGE2, NO, ROS, CXCL2, and CCL3. ATP induced NFAT activation through P2X7 receptor, with KHG26792 reducing the ATP-induced NFAT activation. KHG26792 inhibited an ATP-induced increase in iNOS protein and ERK phosphorylation. KHG26792 prevented an ATP-induced increase in MMP-9 activity through the P2X7 receptor as a result of degradation of TIMP-1 by cathepsin B. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the role of KHG26792 in the inhibition of TNF-α produced via P2X7 receptor-mediated activation of NFAT and MAPK pathways in ATP-treated BV-2 cells. This study highlights the potential use of KHG26792 as a therapeutic agent for the many diseases of the CNS related to activated microglia.

  19. Microglia activation regulates GluR1 phosphorylation in chronic unpredictable stress-induced cognitive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingchao; Li, Juan; Dai, Peng; Zhao, Fang; Zheng, Gang; Jing, Jinfei; Wang, Jiye; Luo, Wenjing; Chen, Jingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is considered to be a major risk factor in the development of psychopathological syndromes in humans. Cognitive impairments and long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments are increasingly recognized as major components of depression, anxiety disorders and other stress-related chronic psychological illnesses. It seems timely to systematically study the potentially underlying neurobiological mechanisms of altered cognitive and synaptic plasticity in the course of chronic stress. In the present study, a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced a cognitive impairment in spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and a hippocampal LTP impairment. CUS also induced hippocampal microglial activation and attenuated phosphorylation of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1 or GluA1). Moreover, chronic treatment with the selective microglial activation blocker, minocycline (120 mg/kg per day), beginning 3 d before CUS treatment and continuing through the behavioral testing period, prevented the CUS-induced impairments of spatial memory and LTP induction. Additional studies showed that minocycline-induced inhibition of microglia activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of GluR1. These results suggest that hippocampal microglial activation modulates the level of GluR1 phosphorylation and might play a causal role in CUS-induced cognitive and LTP disturbances.

  20. Microglia in mouse retina contralateral to experimental glaucoma exhibit multiple signs of activation in all retinal layers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucomatous optic neuropathy, a leading cause of blindness, can progress despite control of intraocular pressure - currently the main risk factor and target for treatment. Glaucoma progression shares mechanisms with neurodegenerative disease, including microglia activation. In the present model of ocular hypertension (OHT), we have recently described morphological signs of retinal microglia activation and MHC-II upregulation in both the untreated contralateral eyes and OHT eyes. By using immunostaining, we sought to analyze and quantify additional signs of microglia activation and differences depending on the retinal layer. Methods Two groups of adult Swiss mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n = 12), and lasered (n = 12). In the lasered animals, both OHT eyes and contralateral eyes were analyzed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against Iba-1, MHC-II, CD68, CD86, and Ym1. The Iba-1+ cell number in the plexiform layers (PL) and the photoreceptor outer segment (OS), Iba-1+ arbor area in the PL, and area of the retina occupied by Iba-1+ cells in the nerve fiber layer-ganglion cell layer (NFL-GCL) were quantified. Results The main findings in contralateral eyes and OHT eyes were: i) ameboid microglia in the NFL-GCL and OS; ii) the retraction of processes in all retinal layers; iii) a higher level of branching in PL and in the OS; iv) soma displacement to the nearest cell layers in the PL and OS; v) the reorientation of processes in the OS; vi) MHC-II upregulation in all retinal layers; vii) increased CD68 immunostaining; and viii) CD86 immunolabeling in ameboid cells. In comparison with the control group, a significant increase in the microglial number in the PL, OS, and in the area occupied by Iba-1+ cells in the NFL-GCL, and significant reduction of the arbor area in the PL. In addition, rounded Iba-1+ CD86+ cells in the NFL-GCL, OS and Ym1+ cells, and rod-like microglia in the NFL-GCL were restricted to OHT eyes

  1. Nanostructured TiO2 surfaces promote polarized activation of microglia, but not astrocytes, toward a proinflammatory profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Astis, Silvia; Corradini, Irene; Morini, Raffaella; Rodighiero, Simona; Tomasoni, Romana; Lenardi, Cristina; Verderio, Claudia; Milani, Paolo; Matteoli, Michela

    2013-10-01

    Activation of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, has been implicated in the inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The classic activation state (M1) is characterized by high capacity to present antigens, high production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines. Classically activated cells act as potent effectors that drive the inflammatory response and may mediate detrimental effects on neural cells. The second phenotype (M2) is an alternative, apparently beneficial, activation state, more related to a fine tuning of inflammation, scavenging of debris, promotion of angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and repair. Specific environmental chemical signals are able to induce these different polarization states. We provide here evidence that nanostructured substrates are able, exclusively in virtue of their physical properties, to push microglia toward the proinflammatory activation phenotype, with an efficacy which reflects the graded nanoscale rugosity. The acquisition of a proinflammatory phenotype appears specific for microglia and not astrocytes, indicating that these two cell types, although sharing common innate immune responses, respond differently to external physical stimuli.

  2. Thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 reduces ischemic stroke-induced microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, and ameliorates brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aijuan; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Xiao; Shao, Jiaxiang; Fu, Ningzhen; Shen, Fanxia; Fu, Yi; Xia, Weiliang

    2016-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is thought to be involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. We have previously shown that TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 attenuates BV2 microglia activation by suppression of ERK pathway, but its effect is not tested in vivo. The present study aims to explore the role of TXA2R on microglia/macrophages activation after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in mice. Adult male ICR mice underwent 90-min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Immediately and 24 h after reperfusion, SQ29548 was administered twice to the ipsilateral ventricle (10 μl, 2.6 μmol/ml, per dose). Cerebral infarction volume, inflammatory cytokines release and microglia/macrophages activation were measured using the cresyl violet method, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunofluorescence double staining, respectively. Expression of TXA2R was significantly increased in the ipsilateral brain tissue after ischemia/reperfusion, which was also found to co-localize with activated microglia/macrophages in the infarct area. Administration of SQ29548 inhibited microglia/macrophages activation and enrichment, including both M1 and M2 phenotypes, and attenuated ischemia-induced IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α up-regulation and iNOS release. TXA2R antagonist SQ29548 inhibited ischemia-induced inflammatory response and furthermore reduced microglia/macrophages activation and ischemic/reperfusion brain injury. PMID:27775054

  3. Lanostane triterpenoids from Ganoderma curtisii and their NO production inhibitory activities of LPS-induced microglia.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Xie, Ting; Zou, Lu-Hui; Wei, Qian; Qiu, Li; Chen, Li-Xia

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-nine lanostane triterpenoids (1-29) were obtained from the EtOH extract of fruiting bodies of the Ganoderma curtisii. Among them, compound 1 was a new lanostane triterpenoid and compounds 2-5 were isolated from the genus Ganoderma for the first time and their structures were unambiguously identified in this work. The NMR data of the four known lanostane triterpenoids (2-5) were reported for the first time because their structures were all tentatively characterized by interpreting the MS data from the methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum or from the metabolites in rat bile after oral administration of crude extract of the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum using fragmentation rules. Their anti-inflammatory activities were tested by measuring their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 microglia cells activated by lipopolysaccharide. Their IC50 values were in a range from 3.65±0.41 to 28.04±2.81μM. PMID:27335254

  4. Protection of neurons and microglia against ethanol in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists.

    PubMed

    Kane, Cynthia J M; Phelan, Kevin D; Han, Lihong; Smith, Renea R; Xie, Jin; Douglas, James C; Drew, Paul D

    2011-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from ethanol exposure to the developing fetus and are the most common cause of mental retardation in the United States. These disorders are characterized by a variety of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative anomalies which result in significant lifetime disabilities. Thus, novel therapies are required to limit the devastating consequences of FASD. Neuropathology associated with FASD can occur throughout the central nervous system (CNS), but is particularly well characterized in the developing cerebellum. Rodent models of FASD have previously demonstrated that both Purkinje cells and granule cells, which are the two major types of neurons in the cerebellum, are highly susceptible to the toxic effects of ethanol. The current studies demonstrate that ethanol decreases the viability of cultured cerebellar granule cells and microglial cells. Interestingly, microglia have dual functionality in the CNS. They provide trophic and protective support to neurons. However, they may also become pathologically activated and produce inflammatory molecules toxic to parenchymal cells including neurons. The findings in this study demonstrate that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists 15-deoxy-Δ12,15 prostaglandin J2 and pioglitazone protect cultured granule cells and microglia from the toxic effects of ethanol. Furthermore, investigations using a newly developed mouse model of FASD and stereological cell counting methods in the cerebellum elucidate that ethanol administration to neonates is toxic to both Purkinje cell neurons as well as microglia, and that in vivo administration of PPAR-γ agonists protects these cells. In composite, these studies suggest that PPAR-γ agonists may be effective in limiting ethanol-induced toxicity to the developing CNS.

  5. Aspirin-Triggered Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Alternative Activation of Microglia and Reduces Alzheimer Disease–Like Pathology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Rodrigo; Kitazawa, Masashi; Passos, Giselle F.; Baglietto-Vargas, David; Cheng, David; Cribbs, David H.; LaFerla, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia play an essential role in innate immunity, homeostasis, and neurotropic support in the central nervous system. In Alzheimer disease (AD), these cells may affect disease progression by modulating the buildup of β-amyloid (Aβ) or releasing proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances. Discovering agents capable of increasing Aβ uptake by phagocytic cells is of potential therapeutic interest for AD. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenous lipid mediator with potent anti-inflammatory properties directly involved in inflammatory resolution, an active process essential for appropriate host responses, tissue protection, and the return to homeostasis. Herein, we demonstrate that aspirin-triggered LXA4 (15 μg/kg) s.c., twice a day, reduced NF-κB activation and levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as increased levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β. Such changes in the cerebral milieu resulted in recruitment of microglia in an alternative phenotype, as characterized by the up-regulation of YM1 and arginase-1 and the down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. Microglia in an alternative phenotype–positive cells demonstrated improved phagocytic function, promoting clearance of Aβ deposits and ultimately leading to reduction in synaptotoxicity and improvement in cognition. Our data indicate that activating LXA4 signaling may represent a novel therapeutic approach for AD. PMID:23506847

  6. Respiratory Viral Infection in Neonatal Piglets Causes Marked Microglia Activation in the Hippocampus and Deficits in Spatial Learning

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Monica R. P.; Burton, Michael D.; Conrad, Matthew S.; Rytych, Jennifer L.; Van Alstine, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults during sensitive periods can affect hippocampal development and function, but little is known about peripheral infection, especially in humans and other animals whose brain is gyrencephalic and experiences major perinatal growth. Using a piglet model, the present study showed that inoculation on postnatal day 7 with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) caused microglial activation within the hippocampus with 82% and 43% of isolated microglia being MHC II+ 13 and 20 d after inoculation, respectively. In control piglets, <5% of microglia isolated from the hippocampus were MHC II+. PRRSV piglets were febrile (p < 0.0001), anorectic (p < 0.0001), and weighed less at the end of the study (p = 0.002) compared with control piglets. Increased inflammatory gene expression (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) was seen across multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus, whereas reductions in CD200, NGF, and MBP were evident. In a test of spatial learning, PRRSV piglets took longer to acquire the task, had a longer latency to choice, and had a higher total distance moved. Overall, these data demonstrate that viral respiratory infection is associated with a marked increase in activated microglia in the hippocampus, neuroinflammation, and impaired performance in a spatial cognitive task. As respiratory infections are common in human neonates and infants, approaches to regulate microglial cell activity are likely to be important. PMID:24501353

  7. Microglia Ontology and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    ElAli, Ayman; Rivest, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Microglia constitute the powerhouse of the innate immune system in the brain. It is now widely accepted that they are monocytic-derived cells that infiltrate the developing brain at the early embryonic stages, and acquire a resting phenotype characterized by the presence of dense branching processes, called ramifications. Microglia use these dynamic ramifications as sentinels to sense and detect any occurring alteration in brain homeostasis. Once a danger signal is detected, such as molecular factors associated to brain damage or infection, they get activated by acquiring a less ramified phenotype, and mount adequate responses that range from phagocyting cell debris to secreting inflammatory and trophic factors. Here, we review the origin of microglia and we summarize the main molecular signals involved in controlling their function under physiological conditions. In addition, their implication in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and stress is discussed. PMID:27446922

  8. C/EBPβ expression in activated microglia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Valente, Tony; Mancera, Pilar; Tusell, Josep M; Serratosa, Joan; Saura, Josep

    2012-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to play a pathogenic role in many neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study we demonstrate that the expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase-2 (NOS2), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with interferon-γ is higher in microglial-enriched cultures from G93A-SOD1 mice, an ALS animal model, than from wild type mice. The levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor that regulates proinflammatory gene expression, are also upregulated in activated G93A-SOD1 microglial cells. In vivo, systemic lipopolysaccharide also induces an exacerbated neuroinflammatory response in G93A-SOD1 mice versus wild type mice, with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD11b, nitric oxide synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, proinflammatory cytokines, and C/EBPβ. Finally, we report that C/EBPβ is expressed by microglia in the spinal cord of ALS patients. This is the first demonstration to our knowledge of microglial C/EBPβ expression in human disease. Altogether these findings indicate that G93A-SOD1 expression results in an exacerbated pattern of neuroinflammation and suggest that C/EBPβ is a candidate to regulate the expression of potentially neurotoxic genes in microglial cells in ALS.

  9. Chronic stress enhances microglia activation and exacerbates death of nigral dopaminergic neurons under conditions of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease linked to progressive movement disorders and is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that is believed to contribute to its pathogenesis. Since sensitivity to inflammation is not the same in all brain structures, the aim of this work was to test whether physiological conditions as stress could enhance susceptibility to inflammation in the substantia nigra, where death of dopaminergic neurons takes place in Parkinson’s disease. Methods To achieve our aim, we induced an inflammatory process in nonstressed and stressed rats (subject to a chronic variate stress) by a single intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide, a potent proinflammogen. The effect of this treatment was evaluated on inflammatory markers as well as on neuronal and glial populations. Results Data showed a synergistic effect between inflammation and stress, thus resulting in higher microglial activation and expression of proinflammatory markers. More important, the higher inflammatory response seen in stressed animals was associated with a higher rate of death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the most characteristic feature seen in Parkinson’s disease. This effect was dependent on glucocorticoids. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that stress sensitises midbrain microglia to further inflammatory stimulus. This suggests that stress may be an important risk factor in the degenerative processes and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24565378

  10. Perineuronal nets of extracellular matrix around hippocampal interneurons resist destruction by activated microglia in trimethyltin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Schüppel, Karin; Brauer, Kurt; Härtig, Wolfgang; Grosche, Jens; Earley, Bernadette; Leonard, Brian E; Brückner, Gert

    2002-12-27

    The destruction of the extracellular matrix by inflammatory processes may induce neuronal dysfunction and accelerate neurodegeneration. We describe that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan-immunoreactive perineuronal nets and the enwrapped interneurons persisted 2 weeks after trimethyltin intoxication of rats (TMT, 8 mg/kg, i.p.) in all regions of the severely affected hippocampus and dentate gyrus, whereas the diffuse immunoreactivity around the CA2 pyramidal cells was reduced. Fluoro-Jade staining of degenerating neurons and staining of microglia by Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin showed that net-associated neurons survived in the vicinity of damaged pyramidal cells and that perineuronal nets were not removed by activated microglia. We conclude that the extracellular matrix of perineuronal nets resists destruction after TMT treatment in the inflamed neural tissue. A permanent reconstitution of matrix components may be one of the factors that may support the viability of distinct types of neurons during neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N

    2017-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions.

  12. Impaired Spatial Learning Memory after Isoflurane Anesthesia or Appendectomy in Aged Mice is Associated with Microglia Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Lin; Ma, Rui-Hua; Fang, Hao; Xue, Zhang-Gang; Liao, Qing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been one of the most common problems in elderly patients following surgery. But the specific mechanism of POCD is still not clear. To further understand the reason of these postoperative behavioral deficits, we evaluated the spatial learning memory of both adult (3 months) and aged (18 months) male mice, 3 or 28 days after isoflurane (Iso) exposure for two hours or appendectomy (App). Hippocampal microglia activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ expression were also evaluated at day 3, day 14 and day 28 after Iso exposure or appendectomy. Results showed that spatial learning memory of aged, but not adult, mice was impaired after Iso exposure or appendectomy, accompanied with more hippocampal microglia activation and IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ overexpression. These findings suggest that the cognitive deficits of elderly patients who have undergone surgeries are quite possibly caused by hippocampal microglia overactivation and the subsequent inflammation. PMID:26380557

  13. Regulation of caspase-3 processing by cIAP2 controls the switch between pro-inflammatory activation and cell death in microglia

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, E; Rodhe, J; Burguillos, M A; Venero, J L; Joseph, B

    2014-01-01

    The activation of microglia, resident immune cells of the central nervous system, and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are typical features of neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. An unexpected role of caspase-3, commonly known to have executioner role for apoptosis, was uncovered in the microglia activation process. A central question emerging from this finding is what prevents caspase-3 during the microglia activation from killing those cells? Caspase-3 activation occurs as a two-step process, where the zymogen is first cleaved by upstream caspases, such as caspase-8, to form intermediate, yet still active, p19/p12 complex; thereafter, autocatalytic processing generates the fully mature p17/p12 form of the enzyme. Here, we show that the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) expression upon microglia activation prevents the conversion of caspase-3 p19 subunit to p17 subunit and is responsible for restraining caspase-3 in terms of activity and subcellular localization. We demonstrate that counteracting the repressive effect of cIAP2 on caspase-3 activation, using small interfering RNA targeting cIAP2 or a SMAC mimetic such as the BV6 compound, reduced the pro-inflammatory activation of microglia cells and promoted their death. We propose that the different caspase-3 functions in microglia, and potentially other cell types, reside in the active caspase-3 complexes formed. These results also could indicate cIAP2 as a possible therapeutic target to modulate microglia pro-inflammatory activation and associated neurotoxicity observed in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:25501826

  14. Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates motor dysfunction and modulates microglia activation in Parkinson's disease alpha-synuclein transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Chanju; Hyun Song, Joo; Shim, Insop; Kim, Youn-Sub; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has a critical role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which leads to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that bee venom (BV) has beneficial effects on PD symptoms in human patients or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxin-induced PD mice. This study investigated whether treatment with BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) would improve the motor dysfunction and pathological features of PD in human A53T α-Syn mutant transgenic (A53T Tg) mice. The motor dysfunction of A53T Tg mice was assessed using the pole test. The levels of α-Syn, microglia and the M1/M2 phenotype in the spinal cord were evaluated by immunofluorescence. bvPLA2 treatment significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction in A53T Tg mice. In addition, bvPLA2 significantly reduced the expression of α-Syn, the activation and numbers of microglia, and the ratio of M1/M2 in A53T Tg mice. These results suggest that bvPLA2 could be a promising treatment option for PD. PMID:27388550

  15. Bee venom phospholipase A2 ameliorates motor dysfunction and modulates microglia activation in Parkinson's disease alpha-synuclein transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Chanju; Hyun Song, Joo; Shim, Insop; Kim, Youn-Sub; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has a critical role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which leads to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that bee venom (BV) has beneficial effects on PD symptoms in human patients or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxin-induced PD mice. This study investigated whether treatment with BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) would improve the motor dysfunction and pathological features of PD in human A53T α-Syn mutant transgenic (A53T Tg) mice. The motor dysfunction of A53T Tg mice was assessed using the pole test. The levels of α-Syn, microglia and the M1/M2 phenotype in the spinal cord were evaluated by immunofluorescence. bvPLA2 treatment significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction in A53T Tg mice. In addition, bvPLA2 significantly reduced the expression of α-Syn, the activation and numbers of microglia, and the ratio of M1/M2 in A53T Tg mice. These results suggest that bvPLA2 could be a promising treatment option for PD. PMID:27388550

  16. Activated iron-containing microglia in the human hippocampus identified by magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeineh, Michael M.; Chen, Yuanxin; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Hammond, Robert; Vogel, Hannes; Rutt, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Although amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary pathology play important roles in Alzheimer disease (AD), our understanding of AD is incomplete, and the contribution of microglia and iron to neurodegeneration is unknown. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is exquisitely sensitive to microscopic iron. To explore iron-associated neuroinflammatory AD pathology, we studied AD and control human brain specimens by (1) performing ultra-high resolution ex vivo 7 Tesla MRI, (2) coregistering the MRI with successive histologic staining for iron, microglia, amyloid beta, and tau, and (3) quantifying the relationship between magnetic resonance signal intensity and histological staining. In AD, we identified numerous small MR hypointensities primarily within the subiculum that were best explained by the combination of microscopic iron and activated microglia (p = 0.025), in contradistinction to the relatively lesser contribution of tau or amyloid. Neuropathologically, this suggests that microglial-mediated neurodegeneration may occur in the hippocampal formation in AD and is detectable by ultra-high resolution MRI. PMID:26190634

  17. [Functions of microglia in the healthy brain: focus on neuroplasticity].

    PubMed

    Tishkina, A O; Stepanichev, M Iu; Aniol, V A; Guliaeva, N V

    2014-01-01

    Microglia is in the center of modern research because it is involved in neuroinflammation processes, which is considered as an important part of pathogenesis of many brain pathologies. On the contrary, normal physiological functions of microglia are less studied. Here we review modern data on functioning of microglia in the healthy brain. We consider involvement of microglia in angiogenesis, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, long-term potentiation, and the mechanisms of microglia-neuron interaction. We further consider modern concept on active interaction of microglia with neurons in developing and healthy mature brain and the essential role of microglia in neuroplasticity mechanisms at various levels.

  18. Effects of local lidocaine treatment before and after median nerve injury on mechanical hypersensitivity and microglia activation in rat cuneate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chang; Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Chih-Li; Chou, Shiu-Huey; Tsai, Yi-Ju

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between microglia activation in the cuneate nucleus (CN) and behavioral hypersensitivity after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the median nerve. We also investigated effects of local lidocaine pre- and post-treatment on microglia activation and development of hypersensitivity in this model. By immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, little immunoreactivity of OX-42, a microglia activation marker, was detected in the CN of normal rats. As early as 1 day after CCI, there was a significant increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity in the lesion side of CN, which reached a maximum at 14 days. Microinjection of minocycline, a microglia activation inhibitor, into the CN 1 day after CCI attenuated injury-induced behavioral hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the animals received 1%, 2% or 5% lidocaine 15 min prior to median nerve CCI (pre-treatment), 5h (early post-treatment) or 1 day (late post-treatment) after median nerve CCI. Pre-treatment and early post-treatment with 2% and 5% lidocaine, but not 1% lidocaine, attenuated OX-42 immunoreactivity and behavioral hypersensitivity following median nerve injury. Late post-treatment with 1%, 2%, or 5% lidocaine failed to decrease OX-42 immunoreactivity and mechanical hypersensitivity in CCI rats. In conclusion, median nerve injury-induced microglia activation in the CN modulated development of behavioral hypersensitivity. High-concentration lidocaine was effective in decreasing microglia activation in the CN and in attenuating neuropathic pain sensations at the early stage following nerve injury, when microglia had not yet been activated.

  19. Increased neuroplasticity and hippocampal microglia activation in a mice model of rapid antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Muzio, Luca; Brambilla, Valentina; Calcaterra, Lorenza; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Martino, Gianvito; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-09-15

    The search for biomarkers of antidepressant effects focused on pathways regulating synaptic plasticity, and on activated inflammatory markers. Repeated Sleep Deprivation (SD) provides a model treatment to reverse-translate antidepressant effects from in vivo clinical psychiatry to model organisms. We studied the effects of repeated SD alone (ASD) or combined with exercise on a slow spinning wheel (SSW), in 116 C57BL/6J male mice divided in three groups (ASD, SSW, untreated). Forced Swimming Test (FST) was used to detect antidepressant-like effects. Unbiased evaluation of the transcriptional responses were obtained in the hippocampus by Illumina Bead Chip Array system, then confirmed with real time PCR. Spine densities in granular neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG) were assayed by standard Golgi staining. Activation of Microglial/Macrophages cells was evaluated by immunufluorescence analysis for Iba1. Rates of cell proliferation was estimated pulsing mice with the S-phase tracer 5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IdU). All SD procedures caused a decreasing of floating time at FST, and increased expression of the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1. In addition, SSW also increased expression of the Microglia/Macrophages genes Iba-1 and chemokine receptors Cx3cR1 and CxcR4, of the canonical Wnt signaling gene Wnt7a, and of dendritic spines in CA4 neurons of the DG. SSW up-regulated both the number of Iba1+ cells and rates of cell proliferation in the subgranular region of the DG. The antidepressant-like effects of SD dissociated both, from hippocampal neuroplasticity in the DG (not occurring after ASD), and from microglial activation (not preventing behavioral response when occurring). The increase in dendritic spine density in the DG after SD and exercise was associated with an up-regulation of Wnt 7a, and with activation of the innate immune system of the brain. Increased Arc/Arg3.1 suggests however increased neuroplasticity, which could be common to all fast-acting antidepressants

  20. Centrally Delivered BACE1 Inhibitor Activates Microglia, and Reverses Amyloid Pathology and Cognitive Deficit in Aged Tg2576 Mice.

    PubMed

    Thakker, Deepak R; Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Weatherspoon, Marcy R; Harrison, Jonathan; Pierdomenico, Maria; Heisel, Jennifer M; Thompson, Lorin A; Haskell, Roy; Grace, James E; Taylor, Sarah J; Albright, Charles F; Shafer, Lisa L

    2015-04-29

    Multiple small-molecule inhibitors of the β-secretase enzyme (BACE1) are under preclinical or clinical investigation for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior work has illustrated robust lowering of central amyloid β (Aβ) after acute administration of BACE1 inhibitors. However, very few studies have assessed the overall impact of chronically administered BACE1 inhibitors on brain amyloid burden, neuropathology, and behavioral function in aged preclinical models. We investigated the effects of a potent nonbrain-penetrant BACE1 inhibitor, delivered directly to the brain using intracerebroventricular infusion in an aged transgenic mouse model. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the BACE1 inhibitor (0.3-23.5 μg/d) for 8 weeks, initiated in 17-month-old Tg2576 mice, produced dose-dependent increases in brain inhibitor concentrations (0.2-13 μm). BACE1 inhibition significantly reversed the behavioral deficit in contextual fear conditioning, and reduced brain Aβ levels, plaque burden, and associated pathology (e.g., dystrophic neurites), with maximal effects attained with ∼1 μg/d dose. Strikingly, the BACE1 inhibitor also reversed amyloid pathology below baseline levels (amyloid burden at the start of treatment), without adversely affecting cerebral amyloid angiopathy, microhemorrhages, myelination, or neuromuscular function. Inhibitor-mediated decline in brain amyloid pathology was associated with an increase in microglial ramification. This is the first demonstration of chronically administered BACE1 inhibitor to activate microglia, reverse brain amyloid pathology, and elicit functional improvement in an aged transgenic mouse model. Thus, engagement of novel glial-mediated clearance mechanisms may drive disease-modifying therapeutic benefit with BACE1 inhibition in AD. PMID:25926467

  1. Third Harmonic Generation microscopy as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of microglia BV-2 and breast cancer cells activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavgiotaki, E.; Filippidis, G.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.; Markomanolaki, H.; Kalognomou, M.; Agelaki, S.; Georgoulias, V.; Athanassakis, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques have created new opportunities of research in the biomedical field. Specifically, Third Harmonic Generation (THG) seems to be a suitable noninvasive imaging tool for the delineation and quantification of biological structures at the microscopic level. The aim of this study was to extract information as to the activation state of different cell types by using the THG imaging microscopy as a diagnostic tool. BV-2 microglia cell line was used as a representative biological model enabling the study of resting and activated state of the cells linked to various pathological conditions. Third Harmonic Generation (THG) and Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) measurements were simultaneously collected from stained breast cancer cells, by employing a single homemade experimental apparatus and it was shown that high THG signals mostly arise from lipid bodies. Continuously, BV-2 microglia cells were examined with or without activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to discriminate between control and activated cells based on the quantification of THG signals. Statistically quantification was accomplished in both mean area and mean intensity values of THG. The values for mean total area and mean THG intensity values have been increased in activated versus the non-activated cells. Similar studies of quantification are underway in breast cancer cells for the exact discrimination on different cell lines. Furthermore, laser polarization dependence of SHG and THG signal in unstained biological samples is investigated.

  2. Valproic acid attenuates microgliosis in injured spinal cord and purinergic P2X4 receptor expression in activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hsin; Wang, Chih-Yen; Chen, Po-See; Wang, Jing-Wen; Chuang, De-Maw; Yang, Chung-Shi; Tzeng, Shun-Fen

    2013-05-01

    Peripheral injection with a high dose of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, into animals with mild or moderate spinal cord injury (SCI) for 1 week can reduce spinal cord tissue loss and promote hindlimb locomotor recovery. A purinergic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subtype, P2X4 receptor (P2X4 R), has been considered as a potential target to diminish SCI-associated inflammatory responses. In this study, using a minipump-based infusion system, we found that intraspinal infusion with VPA for 3 days into injured spinal cord significantly improved hindlimb locomotion of rats with severe SCI induced by a 10-g NYU impactor dropping from the height of 50 mm onto the spinal T9/10 segment. The neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord tissues were significantly preserved in VPA-treated rats compared with those observed in vehicle-treated animals. Moreover, the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and astrocytes in the injured spinal cord was attenuated in the animal group receiving VPA infusion. VPA also significantly reduced P2X4 R expression post-SCI. Furthermore, in vitro study indicated that VPA, but not the other HDAC inhibitors, sodium butyrate and trichostatin A (TSA), caused downregulation of P2X4 R in microglia activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-triggered signaling was involved in the effect of VPA on the inhibition of P2X4 R gene expression. In addition to the findings from others, our results also provide important evidence to show the inhibitory effect of VPA on P2X4 R expression in activated microglia, which may contribute to reduction of SCI-induced gliosis and subsequently preservation of spinal cord tissues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Indomethacin treatment reduces microglia activation and increases numbers of neuroblasts in the subventricular zone and ischaemic striatum after focal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Rosana S; Cardoso, Marcelo M; Sampaio, Arthur O; Barbosa, Mario Santos; Souza, Celice C; DA Silva, Michelle C; Ferreira, Elane Magno N; Freire, Marco Aurelio M; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Gomes-Leal, Walace

    2016-09-01

    Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die in the ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored the effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation and neuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted to endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline (i.p.) for 7 days, being perfused after 8 or 14 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess neuronal loss (anti-NeuN), microglial activation (anti-Iba1, ED1) and migrating neuroblasts (anti-DCX) by counting NeuN, ED1 and DCX-positive cells in the ischaemic striatum or SVZ. Indomethacin treatment reduced microglia activation and the number of ED1+ cells in both 8 and 14 days post injury as compared with controls. There was an increase in the number of DCX+ cells in both SVZ and striatum at the same survival times. Moreover, there was a decrease in the number of NeuN+ cells in indomethacin-treated animals as compared with the control group at 8 days but not after 14 days post injury. Our results suggest that indomethacin treatment modulates microglia activation, contributing to increased neuroblast proliferation in the SVZ and migration to the ischaemic striatum following stroke. PMID:27581930

  4. Intracerebral transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alternatively activates microglia and ameliorates neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tuo; Gong, Kai; Ao, Qiang; Yan, Yufang; Song, Bo; Huang, Hongyun; Zhang, Xiufang; Gong, Yandao

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells might have therapeutic effects in preventing pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising new cell source for regenerative therapy. However, whether transplantation of ADSCs could actually ameliorate the neuropathological deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the mechanisms involved has not yet been established. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of intracerebral ADSC transplantation on AD pathology and spatial learning/memory of APP/PS1 double transgenic AD model mice. Results showed that ADSC transplantation dramatically reduced β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide deposition and significantly restored the learning/memory function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. It was observed that in both regions of the hippocampus and the cortex there were more activated microglia, which preferentially surrounded and infiltrated into plaques after ADSC transplantation. The activated microglia exhibited an alternatively activated phenotype, as indicated by their decreased expression levels of proinflammatory factors and elevated expression levels of alternative activation markers, as well as Aβ-degrading enzymes. In conclusion, ADSC transplantation could modulate microglial activation in AD mice, mitigate AD symptoms, and alleviate cognitive decline, all of which suggest ADSC transplantation as a promising choice for AD therapy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation.

  5. A Nurr1/CoREST transrepression pathway attenuates neurotoxic inflammation in activated microglia and astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Saijo, Kaoru; Winner, Beate; Carson, Christian T.; Collier, Jana G.; Boyer, Leah; Rosenfeld, Michael G.; Gage, Fred H.; Glass, Christopher K.

    2009-01-01

    Nurr1, an orphan nuclear receptor, plays an essential role in the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. Rare mutations in Nurr1 are associated with familial Parkinson’s disease, but the underlying basis for this relationship has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that Nurr1 unexpectedly functions to inhibit expression of pro-inflammatory neurotoxic mediators in both microglia and astrocytes. Reduced Nurr1 expression results in exaggerated inflammatory responses in microglia that are further amplified by astrocytes, leading to the production of factors that cause death of tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons. Nurr1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by docking to NF-κB-p65 on target inflammatory gene promoters in a signal-dependent manner. Subsequently, Nurr1 recruits the CoREST corepressor complex, resulting in clearance of NF-κB-p65 and transcriptional repression. These studies suggest that Nurr1 protects against loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease in part by limiting the production of neurotoxic mediators by microglia and astrocytes. PMID:19345186

  6. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA-induced a phenotype of activated microglia in BV-2 cells requires epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and proHB-EGF shedding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activation of microglia, the primary component of the innate immune response in the brain, is a hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other pathological conditions such as stroke or CNS infection. In response to a variety of insults, microglial cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines that are often involved in neuronal injury, and play an important role in the recognition, engulfment, and clearance of apoptotic cells and/or invading microbes. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA), an enzyme that interacts with cells involved in the systemic immune/inflammatory response, has been found up-regulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of AD patients. However, despite several approaches, its functions in mediating CNS inflammation remain unknown. In the present study, the role of sPLA2-IIA was examined by investigating its direct effects on microglial cells. Methods Primary and immortalized microglial cells were stimulated by sPLA2-IIA in order to characterize the cytokine-like actions of the phospholipase. The hallmarks of activated microglia analyzed include: mitogenic response, phagocytic capabilities and induction of inflammatory mediators. In addition, we studied several of the potential molecular mechanisms involved in those events. Results The direct exposure of microglial cells to sPLA2-IIA stimulated, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, their phagocytic and proliferative capabilities. sPLA2-IIA also triggered the synthesis of the inflammatory proteins COX-2 and TNFα. In addition, EGFR phosphorylation and shedding of the membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (pro-HB-EGF) ectodomain, as well as a rapid activation/phosphorylation of the classical survival proteins ERK, P70S6K and rS6 were induced upon sPLA2-IIA treatment. We further demonstrated that the presence of an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (GM6001), an ADAM

  7. Microglia Lacking E Prostanoid Receptor Subtype 2 Have Enhanced Aβ Phagocytosis yet Lack Aβ-Activated Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shie, Feng-Shiun; Breyer, Richard M.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are focused on enhanced clearance of neurotoxic Aβ peptides from brain. Microglia can be neuroprotective by phagocytosing Aβ; however, this comes at the cost of activated innate immunity that causes paracrine damage to neurons. Here, we show that ablation of E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) significantly increased microglial-mediated clearance of Aβ peptides from AD brain sections and enhanced microglial Aβ phagocytosis in cell culture. The enhanced phagocytosis was PKC-dependent and was associated with elevated microglial secretion of the chemoattractant chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1. This suggested that microglial activation is negatively regulated by EP2 signaling through suppression of prophagocytic cytokine secretion. However, despite this enhancement of Aβ phagocytosis, lack of EP2 completely suppressed Aβ-activated microglia-mediated paracrine neurotoxicity. These data demonstrate that blockade of microglial EP2 is a highly desirable mechanism for AD therapy that can maximize neuroprotective actions while minimizing bystander damage to neurons. PMID:15793296

  8. Microglia during development and aging.

    PubMed

    Harry, G Jean

    2013-09-01

    Microglia are critical nervous system-specific cells influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury, and repair. They contribute to neuronal proliferation and differentiation, pruning of dying neurons, synaptic remodeling and clearance of debris and aberrant proteins. Colonization of the brain occurs during gestation with an expansion following birth with localization stimulated by programmed neuronal death, synaptic pruning, and axonal degeneration. Changes in microglia phenotype relate to cellular processes including specific neurotransmitter, pattern recognition, or immune-related receptor activation. Upon activation, microglia cells have the capacity to release a number of substances, e.g., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, which could be detrimental or beneficial to the surrounding cells. With aging, microglia shift their morphology and may display diminished capacity for normal functions related to migration, clearance, and the ability to shift from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state to regulate injury and repair. This shift in microglia potentially contributes to increased susceptibility and neurodegeneration as a function of age. In the current review, information is provided on the colonization of the brain by microglia, the expression of various pattern recognition receptors to regulate migration and phagocytosis, and the shift in related functions that occur in normal aging.

  9. HIV-1 gp120 enhances outward potassium current via CXCR4 and cAMP-dependent PKA signaling in cultured rat microglia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Changshui; Liu, Jianuo; Chen, Lina; Liang, Shangdong; Fujii, Nobutaka; Tamamura, Hirokazu; Xiong, Huangui

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are critical cells in mediating the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. We hypothesize that HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) activates microglia by enhancing outward K+ currents, resulting in microglia secretion of neurotoxins and consequent neuronal dysfunction and death. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of gp120 on outward K+ current in cultured rat microglia. Application of gp120 enhanced outward K+ current in a dose-dependent manner, which was blocked by voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel blockers. Western blot analysis revealed that gp120 produced an elevated expression of Kv channel proteins. Examination of activation and inactivation of outward K+ currents showed that gp120 shifted membrane potentials for activation and steady-state inactivation. The gp120-associated enhancement of outward K+ current was blocked by a CXCR4 receptor antagonist T140 or by a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, suggesting the involvement of chemokine receptor CXCR4 and PKA in gp120-mediated enhancement of outward K+ current. Biological significance of gp120-induced enhancement of microglia outward K+ current was demonstrated by experimental results showing the neurotoxic activity of gp120-stimulated microglia, evaluated by TUNEL staining and MTT assay, was significantly attenuated by Kv channel blockers. Taken together, these results suggest that gp120 induces microglia neurotoxic activity by enhancing microglia outward K+ current and that microglia Kv channels may function as a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:21438014

  10. Bioaccessible (poly)phenol metabolites from raspberry protect neural cells from oxidative stress and attenuate microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Gonçalo; Nanni, Sara; Figueira, Inês; Ivanov, Ines; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Pinto, Paula; Silva, Rui F M; Brites, Dora; Santos, Cláudia N

    2017-01-15

    Neuroinflammation is an integral part of the neurodegeneration process inherent to several aging dysfunctions. Within the central nervous system, microglia are the effective immune cells, responsible for neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, raspberries were subjected to in vitro digestion simulation to obtain the components that result from the gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, which would be bioaccessible and available for blood uptake. Both the original raspberry extract and the gastrointestinal bioaccessible (GIB) fraction protected neuronal and microglia cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, at low concentrations. Furthermore, this neuroprotective capacity was independent of intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms. We show for the first time that raspberry metabolites present in the GIB fraction significantly inhibited microglial pro-inflammatory activation by LPS, through the inhibition of Iba1 expression, TNF-α release and NO production. Altogether, this study reveals that raspberry polyphenols may present a dietary route to the retardation or amelioration of neurodegenerative-related dysfunctions. PMID:27542476

  11. Prenatal immune activation in mice blocks the effects of environmental enrichment on exploratory behavior and microglia density.

    PubMed

    Buschert, Jens; Sakalem, Marna E; Saffari, Roja; Hohoff, Christa; Rothermundt, Matthias; Arolt, Volker; Zhang, Weiqi; Ambrée, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Adverse environmental factors including prenatal maternal infection are capable of inducing long-lasting behavioral and neural alterations which can enhance the risk to develop schizophrenia. It is so far not clear whether supportive postnatal environments are able to modify such prenatally-induced alterations. In rodent models, environmental enrichment influences behavior and cognition, for instance by affecting endocrinologic, immunologic, and neuroplastic parameters. The current study was designed to elucidate the influence of postnatal environmental enrichment on schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations induced by prenatal polyI:C immune stimulation at gestational day 9 in mice. Adult offspring were tested for amphetamine-induced locomotion, social interaction, and problem-solving behavior as well as expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and associated molecules, microglia density and adult neurogenesis. Prenatal polyI:C treatment resulted in increased dopamine sensitivity and dopamine D2 receptor expression in adult offspring which was not reversed by environmental enrichment. Prenatal immune activation prevented the effects of environmental enrichment which increased exploratory behavior and microglia density in NaCl treated mice. Problem-solving behavior as well as the number of immature neurons was affected by neither prenatal immune stimulation nor postnatal environmental enrichment. The behavioral and neural alterations that persist into adulthood could not generally be modified by environmental enrichment. This might be due to early neurodevelopmental disturbances which could not be rescued or compensated for at a later developmental stage.

  12. Intrathecal Infusion of Hydrogen-Rich Normal Saline Attenuates Neuropathic Pain via Inhibition of Activation of Spinal Astrocytes and Microglia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuejun; Xiang, Zhenghua; Yang, Liqun; Huang, Shengdong; Lu, Zhijie; Sun, Yuming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are key molecules that mediate neuropathic pain. Although hydrogen is an established antioxidant, its effect on chronic pain has not been characterized. This study was to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of hydrogen-rich normal saline induced analgesia. Methodology/Principal findings In a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by L5 spinal nerve ligation (L5 SNL), intrathecal injection of hydrogen-rich normal saline relieved L5 SNL-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Importantly, repeated administration of hydrogen-rich normal saline did not lead to tolerance. Preemptive treatment with hydrogen-rich normal saline prevented development of neuropathic pain behavior. Immunofluorochrome analysis revealed that hydrogen-rich normal saline treatment significantly attenuated L5 SNL-induced increase of 8-hydroxyguanosine immunoreactive cells in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. Western blot analysis of SDS/PAGE-fractionated tyrosine-nitrated proteins showed that L5 SNL led to increased expression of tyrosine-nitrated Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the spinal cord, and hydrogen-rich normal saline administration reversed the tyrosine-nitrated MnSOD overexpression. We also showed that the analgesic effect of hydrogen-rich normal saline was associated with decreased activation of astrocytes and microglia, attenuated expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the spinal cord. Conclusion/Significance Intrathecal injection of hydrogen-rich normal saline produced analgesic effect in neuropathic rat. Hydrogen-rich normal saline-induced analgesia in neuropathic rats is mediated by reducing the activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia, which is induced by overproduction of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite. PMID:24857932

  13. Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia

    PubMed Central

    Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo; de Oliveira, Antonio C Pinheiro; Gräf, Sybille; Bhatia, Harsharan S; Hüll, Michael; Muñoz, Eduardo; Fiebich, Bernd L

    2007-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several mediators, which contribute to the neuronal demise in several diseases including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of microglial activation has been shown to confer protection against different types of brain injury. Recent evidence suggests that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant properties. It has been also shown that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity. Previous findings have demonstrated that this compound is able to reduce neuronal injury in different models, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol is able to reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary rat microglia. Methods Primary microglial cell cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of neonatal rats. Microglial cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of resveratrol (1–50 μM). After 24 h incubation, culture media were collected to measure the production of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2α using enzyme immunoassays. Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS. Expression of mPGES-1 at the mRNA level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Results Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2α, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated

  14. Neonatal peripheral immune challenge activates microglia and inhibits neurogenesis in the developing murine hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter L P; Hagberg, Henrik; Naylor, Andrew S; Mallard, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The early postnatal period represents an important window in rodent hippocampal development with peak hilar neurogenesis and widespread microgliogenesis occurring in the first week of life. Inflammation occurring during this period may negatively influence development, potentially facilitating or increasing susceptibility to later-life pathology. We administered the Gram-negative bacterial coat protein lipopolysaccharide (LPS) systemically at postnatal day 5 (1 mg/kg i.p.) and assessed potential effects on microgliogenesis, inflammation and neurogenesis in the developing hippocampus. LPS administration led to an acute but transient increase in absolute number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-immunoreactive microglia, a change attributable to increased proliferation of central nervous system-resident microglia/microglial precursor cells but not infiltration of peripheral monocyte-derived macrophages. qRT-PCR analysis of hippocampal gene expression showed these LPS-mediated changes to be associated with persistent dysregulation of genes associated with both M1 and M2 microglial phenotypes, indicating prolonged alteration in hippocampal inflammatory status. Further, analysis of progenitor cell regulation in the hippocampal subgranular zone revealed a transient inhibition of the neuronal differentiation pathway up to 2 weeks after LPS administration, a change occurring specifically through effects on type 3 neural progenitor cells and independently of altered cell proliferation or survival of newly born cells. Together, our results show that systemic inflammation occurring during the early neonatal period is sufficient to alter inflammatory status and dysregulate the ongoing process of neurogenesis in the developing hippocampal germinal niche.

  15. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hye Young; Kim, Nam Deuk; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Wun Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. -- Highlights: ► DADS attenuates production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ► DADS downregulates levels of iNOS and COX-2. ► DADS inhibits production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. ► DADS exhibits these effects by suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

  16. Folic Acid Is Able to Polarize the Inflammatory Response in LPS Activated Microglia by Regulating Multiple Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Rosaria; Porro, Chiara; Trotta, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the ability of folic acid to modulate the inflammatory responses of LPS activated BV-2 microglia cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. To this aim, the BV-2 cell line was exposed to LPS as a proinflammatory response inducer, in presence or absence of various concentrations of folic acid. The production of nitric oxide (NO) was determined by the Griess test. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS), nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, MAPKs protein, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by western blotting. TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as iNOS dependent NO production, resulted significantly inhibited by folic acid pretreatment in LPS-activated BV-2 cells. We also observed that folic acid dose-dependently upregulated both SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in BV-2 cells, leading to an increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, p-IκBα, which indirectly reflects NF-κB complex activation, and JNK phosphorylation resulted dose-dependently downregulated by folic acid pretreatment of LPS-activated cells, whereas p38 MAPK phosphorylation resulted significantly upregulated by folic acid treatment. Overall, these results demonstrated that folic acid was able to modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells, shifting proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses through regulating multiple signaling pathways. PMID:27738387

  17. Fluoro-Jade B staining as useful tool to identify activated microglia and astrocytes in a mouse transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Damjanac, Milena; Rioux Bilan, Agnès; Barrier, Laurence; Pontcharraud, Raymond; Anne, Cantereau; Hugon, Jacques; Page, Guylène

    2007-01-12

    Fluoro-Jade B is known as a high affinity fluorescent marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration during acute neuronal distress. However, one study suggested that fluoro-Jade B stains reactive astroglia in the primate cerebral cortex. In this study, we analyzed the staining of fluoro-Jade B alone or combined with specific markers for detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or activated CD68 microglia in the double APP(SL)/PS1 KI transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which display a massive neuronal loss in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Our results showed that fluoro-Jade B did not stain normal and degenerating neurons in this double mouse transgenic model. Fluoro-Jade B was co-localized with Abeta in the core of amyloid deposits and in glia-like cells expressing Abeta. Furthermore, fluoro-Jade B was co-localized with CD68/macrosialin, a specific marker of activated microglia, and with GFAP for astrocytes in APP(SL)/PS1 KI transgenic mice of AD. Taken together, these findings showed that fluoro-Jade B can be used to label activated microglia and astrocytes which are abundant in the brain of these AD transgenic mice. It could stain degenerating neurons as a result of acute insult while it could label activated microglia and astrocytes during a chronic neuronal degenerative process such as AD for example.

  18. Walnut extract inhibits LPS-induced activation of BV-2 microglia via internalization of TLR4: possible involvement of phospholipase D2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Walnuts are a rich source of essential fatty acids, including the polyunsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA). Essential fatty acids have been shown to modulate a number of cellular processes in the brain, including the activation state of microglia. Microglial acti...

  19. Probucol inhibits LPS-induced microglia activation and ameliorates brain ischemic injury in normal and hyperlipidemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yeon Suk; Park, Jung Hwa; Kim, Hyunha; Kim, So Young; Hwang, Ji Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Bae, Sun Sik; Choi, Byung Tae; Lee, Sae-Won; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence suggests that probucol, a lipid-lowering agent with anti-oxidant activities, may be useful for the treatment of ischemic stroke with hyperlipidemia via reduction in cholesterol and neuroinflammation. In this study we examined whether probucol could protect against brain ischemic injury via anti-neuroinflammatory action in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. Methods: Primary mouse microglia and murine BV2 microglia were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 3 h, and the release NO, PGE2, IL-1β and IL-6, as well as the changes in NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways were assessed. ApoE KO mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 0.004%, 0.02%, 0.1% (wt/wt) probucol for 10 weeks, whereas normal C57BL/6J mice received probucol (3, 10, 30 mg·kg-1·d-1, po) for 4 d. Then all the mice were subjected to focal cerebral ischemia through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The neurological deficits were scored 24 h after the surgery, and then brains were removed for measuring the cerebral infarct size and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Results: In LPS-treated BV2 cells and primary microglial cells, pretreatment with probucol (1, 5, 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the release of NO, PGE2, IL-1β and IL-6, which occurred at the transcription levels. Furthermore, the inhibitory actions of probucol were associated with the downregulation of the NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways. In the normal mice with MCAO, pre-administration of probucol dose-dependently decreased the infarct volume and improved neurological function. These effects were accompanied by the decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2, IL-1, IL-6). In ApoE KO mice fed a high-fat diet, pre-administration of 0.1% probucol significantly reduced the infarct volume, improved the neurological deficits following MCAO, and decreased the total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Probucol inhibits LPS-induced microglia activation and

  20. Pleiotrophin promotes microglia proliferation and secretion of neurotrophic factors by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jiayin; Ding, Minghui; Zhang, Aiwu; Xiao, Zijian; Qi, Weiwei; Luo, Ning; Di, Wei; Tao, Yuqian; Fang, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an effective neuroprotective factor and its expression is strikingly increased in microglia after ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, whether PTN could provide neurotrophic support to neurons by regulating microglia function is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PTN was induced in microglia after oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion. PTN promoted the proliferation of microglia by enhancing the G1 to S phase transition. PTN also stimulated the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in microglia, but did not upregulate the expression of proinflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS. Mechanistically, we found that PTN increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in microglia in both concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. In addition, ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abolished the proliferation and G1 to S phase transition of microglia stimulated by PTN, and inhibited the production of BDNF, CNTF and NGF induced by PTN. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that PTN-ERK1/2 pathway plays important role in regulating microglia growth and secretion of neurotrophic factors. These findings provide new insight into the neuroprotective role of PTN and suggest that PTN is a new target for therapeutic intervention of stroke.

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide through endocannabinoids release in microglia activation during the course of CNS regeneration in the medicinal leech.

    PubMed

    Arafah, Karim; Croix, Dominique; Vizioli, Jacopo; Desmons, Annie; Fournier, Isabelle; Salzet, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The medicinal leech is notable for its capacity to regenerate its central nervous system (CNS) following mechanical trauma. Using an electrochemical nitric oxide (NO)-selective electrode to measure NO levels, we found that the time course of NO release in the injured leech CNS is partially under the control of endocannabinoids, namely, N-arachidonyl ethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Relative quantification of these endocannabinoids was performed by stable isotope dilution (2AGd8 and AAEd8) coupled to mass spectrometry in course of regeneration process or adenosine triphosphate (ATP) treatment. Data show that 2-AG levels rose to a maximum about 30 min after injury or ATP treatment, and returned to baseline levels 4 h after injury. In same conditions, AEA levels also rapidly (within 5 min) dropped after injury or ATP treatment to the nerve cord, but did not fully return to baseline levels within 4 h of injury. In correlation with these data, chemoattraction activities of endocannabinoids on isolated leech microglial cells have been shown in vitro and in vivo reflecting that control over NO production is accompanied by the controlled chemoattraction of microglia directed from the periphery to the lesion site for neuronal repair purposes. Taken together, our results show that in the leech, after injury concurrent with ATP production, purinergic receptor activation, NO production, microglia recruitment, and accumulation to lesion site, a fine imbalance occurs in the endocannabinoid system. These events can bring explanations about the ability of the leech CNS to regenerate after a trauma and the key role of endocannabinoids in this phenomenon. PMID:23355252

  2. Mechanisms involved in the modulation of astroglial resistance to oxidative stress induced by activated microglia: antioxidative systems, peroxide elimination, radical generation, lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Röhl, Claudia; Armbrust, Elisabeth; Herbst, Eva; Jess, Anne; Gülden, Michael; Maser, Edmund; Rimbach, Gerald; Bösch-Saadatmandi, Christine

    2010-05-01

    Microglia and astrocytes are the cellular key players in many neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce the expression of antioxidative enzymes in astrocytes and render them more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved with respect to the cellular action of different peroxides, the ability to detoxify peroxides, and the status of further antioxidative systems. Astrocytes were treated for 3 days with medium conditioned by purified quiescent (microglia-conditioned medium, MCM[-]) or LPS-activated (MCM[+]) microglia. MCM[+] reduced the cytotoxicity of the organic cumene hydroperoxide in addition to that of H2O2. Increased peroxide resistance was not accompanied by an improved ability of astrocytes to remove H2O2 or an increased expression/activity of peroxide eliminating antioxidative enzymes. Neither peroxide-induced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation were selectively affected in MCM[+] treated astrocytes. The glutathione content of peroxide resistant astrocytes, however, was increased and superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase were found to be upregulated. These changes are likely to contribute to the higher peroxide resistance of MCM[+] treated astrocytes by improving their ability to detoxify reactive oxygen radicals and oxidation products. For C6 astroglioma cells a protective effect of microglia-derived factors could not be observed, underlining the difference of primary cells and cell lines concerning their mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance. Our results indicate the importance of microglial-astroglial cell interactions during neuroinflammatory processes.

  3. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in part via downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK activation in microglial and attenuates microglia activation in lipopolysaccharide treatment mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chongfei; Yu, Lifeng; Kong, Lingbo; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Juliang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Zhu, Jinyu; Hao, Dingjun

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation.

  4. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide Induced Inflammation in Part via Downregulated NF-κB and p38/JNK Activation in Microglial and Attenuates Microglia Activation in Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Zhang, Juliang; Zhu, Qingsheng; Zhu, Jinyu; Hao, Dingjun

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies designed to inhibit the activation of microglia may lead to significant advancement in the treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a naturally occurring redox cofactor that acts as an essential nutrient, antioxidant, and has been reported to exert potent immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of PQQ was investigated in LPS treated primary microglia cells. Our observations showed that pretreatment with PQQ significantly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 and suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-a, IL-1b, IL-6, MCP-1 and MIP-1a in LPS treated primary microglia cells. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the phosphorylation level of p65, p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways were also inhibited by PQQ in LPS stimulated primary microglia cells. Further a systemic LPS treatment acute inflammation murine brain model was used to study the suppressive effects of PQQ against neuroinflammation in vivo. Mice treated with PQQ demonstrated marked attenuation of neuroinflammation based on Western blotting and immunohistochemistry analysis of Iba1-against antibody in the brain tissue. Indicated that PQQ protected primary cortical neurons against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. These results collectively suggested that PQQ might be a promising therapeutic agent for alleviating the progress of neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. PMID:25314304

  5. COL-3, a chemically modified tetracycline, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia activation and cytokine expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Edan, Rawan Abdulhameed; Luqmani, Yunus A; Masocha, Willias

    2013-01-01

    Microglia activation results in release of proinflammatory molecules including cytokines, which contribute to neuronal damage in the central nervous system (CNS) if not controlled. Tetracycline antibiotics such as minocycline inhibit microglial activation and cytokine expression during CNS inflammation. In the present study we found that administration of chemically modified tetracycline-3 (COL-3), inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial and p38 MAPK activation, as well as the increase in TNF-α, but not IL-1β expression, in the brains of BALB/c mice. COL-3 has been described to have no antibacterial activity. We observed that COL-3 had no activity against a Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli; however surprisingly, COL-3 had antibacterial activity against a Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Our data show that COL-3 has some antibacterial activity against S. aureus, inhibits LPS-induced neuroinflammation, and displays potential as a therapeutic agent for treatment of conditions involving CNS inflammation.

  6. Strategies to increase the activity of microglia as efficient protectors of the brain against infections

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Roland; Ribes, Sandra; Djukic, Marija; Eiffert, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are comparatively rare. Based on the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose and kill pathogens and on clinical findings in immunocompromised patients with CNS infections, we hypothesize that an intact microglial function is crucial to protect the brain from infections. Phagocytosis of pathogens by microglial cells can be stimulated by agonists of receptors of the innate immune system. Enhancing this pathway to increase the resistance of the brain to infections entails the risk of inducing collateral damage to the nervous tissue. The diversity of microglial cells opens avenue to selectively stimulate sub-populations responsible for the defence against pathogens without stimulating sub-populations which are responsible for collateral damage to the nervous tissue. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid, increased phagocytosis of bacteria by microglial cells in vitro without a measurable proinflammatory effect. It was tested clinically apparently without severe side effects. Glatiramer acetate increased phagocytosis of latex beads by microglia and monocytes, and dimethyl fumarate enhanced elimination of human immunodeficiency virus from infected macrophages without inducing a release of proinflammatory compounds. Therefore, the discovery of compounds which stimulate the elimination of pathogens without collateral damage of neuronal structures appears an achievable goal. PEA and, with limitations, glatiramer acetate and dimethyl fumarate appear promising candidates. PMID:24904283

  7. Strategies to increase the activity of microglia as efficient protectors of the brain against infections.

    PubMed

    Nau, Roland; Ribes, Sandra; Djukic, Marija; Eiffert, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are comparatively rare. Based on the ability of microglial cells to phagocytose and kill pathogens and on clinical findings in immunocompromised patients with CNS infections, we hypothesize that an intact microglial function is crucial to protect the brain from infections. Phagocytosis of pathogens by microglial cells can be stimulated by agonists of receptors of the innate immune system. Enhancing this pathway to increase the resistance of the brain to infections entails the risk of inducing collateral damage to the nervous tissue. The diversity of microglial cells opens avenue to selectively stimulate sub-populations responsible for the defence against pathogens without stimulating sub-populations which are responsible for collateral damage to the nervous tissue. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid, increased phagocytosis of bacteria by microglial cells in vitro without a measurable proinflammatory effect. It was tested clinically apparently without severe side effects. Glatiramer acetate increased phagocytosis of latex beads by microglia and monocytes, and dimethyl fumarate enhanced elimination of human immunodeficiency virus from infected macrophages without inducing a release of proinflammatory compounds. Therefore, the discovery of compounds which stimulate the elimination of pathogens without collateral damage of neuronal structures appears an achievable goal. PEA and, with limitations, glatiramer acetate and dimethyl fumarate appear promising candidates. PMID:24904283

  8. Reciprocal modulation of C/EBP-α and C/EBP-β by IL-13 in activated microglia prevents neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung Chuan; Yang, Cheng Ning; Hung, Yi Wen; Lee, Wen Jane; Tien, Hsing Ru; Shen, Chin Chang; Sheehan, Jason; Chou, Chiang Ting; Sheu, Meei Ling

    2013-11-01

    In response to aggravation by activated microglia, IL-13 can significantly enhance ER stress induction, apoptosis, and death via reciprocal signaling through CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP-α) and C/EBP-beta (C/EBP-β). This reciprocal signaling promotes neuronal survival. Since the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/heme oxygenase 1 (PPAR-γ/HO-1) by IL-13 plays a crucial role in the promotion of and protection from activated microglia, respectively; here, we investigated the role of IL-13 in regulating C/EBPs in activated microglia and determined its correlation with neuronal function. The results revealed that IL-13 significantly enhanced C/EBP-α/COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in LPS-treated microglial cells. Paradoxically, IL-13 abolished C/EBP-β/PPAR-γ/HO-1 expression. IL-13 also enhanced ER stress-evoked calpain activation by promoting the association of C/EBP-β and PPAR-γ. SiRNA-C/EBP-α effectively reversed the combined LPS-activated caspase-12 activation and IL-13-induced apoptosis. In contrast, siRNA-C/EBP-β partially increased microglial cell apoptosis. By NeuN immunochemistry and CD11b staining, there was improvement in the loss of CA3 neuronal cells after intrahippocampal injection of IL-13. This suggests that IL-13-enhanced PLA2 activity regulates COX-2/PGE2 expression through C/EBP-α activation. In parallel, ER stress-related calpain downregulates the PPAR-γ/HO-1 pathway via C/EBP-β and leads to aggravated death of activated microglia via IL-13, thereby preventing cerebral inflammation and neuronal injury. PMID:23881867

  9. Age-related decline of myelin proteins is highly correlated with activation of astrocytes and microglia in the rat CNS.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Fu, Han; Chen, Jun

    2013-11-01

    It has been shown that aging can greatly influence the integrity and ultrastructure of white matter and the myelin sheath; however, studies regarding the effects of aging on the expression of myelin proteins are still limited. In the present study, immunohistochemical mapping was used to investigate the overall expression of myelin basic protein (Mbp) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (Mog) in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats in postnatal months 2, 5, 18 and 26. Astrocyte and microglia activation was also detected by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) staining and western blotting. A significant decline of Mbp and Mog was identified as a universal alteration in the CNS of aged rats. Aging also induced significant astrocyte and microglial activation. Correlation analysis indicated a negative correlation between the reduction of age‑related myelin proteins and glial activation in aging. This correlation of myelin breakdown and glial activation in aging may reveal new evidence in connecting the inflammation and myelin breakdown mechanism of age‑related neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Dual polarization of microglia isolated from mixed glial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ju, Lili; Zeng, Hui; Chen, Yun; Wu, Yanhong; Wang, Beibei; Xu, Qunyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microglia are versatile immune effector cells of the CNS and are sensitive to various stimuli. The different methods used to isolate microglia may affect some of their characteristics, such as their polarization state. The influence of cell sorting methods on the polarization state of microglia has never been studied. Mixed glial culture system (MGCS) and magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) are two methods that are commonly used to purify microglia. This study compares the immunological states between microglia isolated by MGCS and microglia isolated by MACS. We show that microglia isolated by MGCS exhibit a stronger immune-activated state than microglia isolated by MACS. They present an elevated phagocytic ability and high levels of markers associated with classical activation (M1) and alternative activation (M2). In addition, high levels of M1-type and M2-type chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and transforming growth factor-β1 were detected in the culture medium of mixed glial cells. Our results show that microglia isolated by MGCS are in an immune-activated state, whereas microglia isolated by MACS appear to be closer to their primary in vivo state. Therefore, the immune status of microglia, depending on the protocol used to purify them, should be carefully considered in neuropathology research.

  11. Janus-faced microglia: beneficial and detrimental consequences of microglial phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Abiega, Oihane; Shahraz, Anahita; Neumann, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are the resident brain macrophages and they have been traditionally studied as orchestrators of the brain inflammatory response during infections and disease. In addition, microglia has a more benign, less explored role as the brain professional phagocytes. Phagocytosis is a term coined from the Greek to describe the receptor-mediated engulfment and degradation of dead cells and microbes. In addition, microglia phagocytoses brain-specific cargo, such as axonal and myelin debris in spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, amyloid-β deposits in Alzheimer's disease, and supernumerary synapses in postnatal development. Common mechanisms of recognition, engulfment, and degradation of the different types of cargo are assumed, but very little is known about the shared and specific molecules involved in the phagocytosis of each target by microglia. More importantly, the functional consequences of microglial phagocytosis remain largely unexplored. Overall, phagocytosis is considered a beneficial phenomenon, since it eliminates dead cells and induces an anti-inflammatory response. However, phagocytosis can also activate the respiratory burst, which produces toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Phagocytosis has been traditionally studied in pathological conditions, leading to the assumption that microglia have to be activated in order to become efficient phagocytes. Recent data, however, has shown that unchallenged microglia phagocytose apoptotic cells during development and in adult neurogenic niches, suggesting an overlooked role in brain remodeling throughout the normal lifespan. The present review will summarize the current state of the literature regarding the role of microglial phagocytosis in maintaining tissue homeostasis in health as in disease. PMID:23386811

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of α-Galactosylceramide Analogs in Activated Microglia: Involvement of the p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Sun; Park, Seung Bum; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, anti-inflammatory agents that control microglial activation can serve as potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we designed and synthesized α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) analogs to exert anti-inflammatory effects in activated microglia. We performed biological evaluations of 25 α-GalCer analogs and observed an interesting preliminary structure-activity relationship in their inhibitory influence on NO release and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. After identification of 4d and 4e as hit compounds, we further investigated the underlying mechanism of their anti-inflammatory effects using RT-PCR analysis. We confirmed that 4d and 4e regulate the expression of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level and the expression of TNF-α at the post-transcriptional level. In addition, both 4d and 4e inhibited LPS-induced DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK without affecting other MAP kinases. When we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of a p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor, SB203580, on microglial activation, we observed an identical inhibitory pattern as that of 4d and 4e, not only on NO and TNF-α production but also on the DNA binding activities of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results suggest that p38 MAPK plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of 4d and 4e via the modulation of NF-κB and AP-1 activities. PMID:24523867

  13. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J Y; Li, S C; Sun, Y X; Zhang, X S; Dong, Z Z; Zhong, P; Sun, X R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P < 0.01 on the 4th day) and improved the spatial memory of the AD mice in the water maze test. Meanwhile, treadmill exercise significantly increased the number of BDNF-positive cells and decreased the ratios of activated microglia in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise did not significantly alleviate the accumulation of β-amyloid in either the cerebral cortex or the hippocampus of the AD mice (P > 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  14. Microglia During Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Harry, G. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are critical nervous system-specific cells influencing brain development, maintenance of the neural environment, response to injury, and repair. They contribute to neuronal proliferation and differentiation, pruning of dying neurons, synaptic remodeling and clearance of debris and aberrant proteins. Colonization of the brain occurs during gestation with an expansion following birth with localization stimulated by programmed neuronal death, synaptic pruning, andaxonal degeneration. Changes inmicroglia phenotype relate to cellular processes including specific neurotransmitter, pattern recognition, or immune-related receptor activation. Upon activation, microglia cells have the capacity to release a number of substances, e.g., cytokines, chemokines, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species, which could be detrimental or beneficial to the surrounding cells. With aging, microglia shift their morphology and may display diminished capacity for normal functions related to migration, clearance, and the ability to shift from a pro-inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory state to regulate injury and repair. This shift in microgliapotentially contributes to increased susceptibility and neurodegeneration as a function of age. In the current review, information is provided on the colonization of the brain by microglia, the expression of various pattern recognition receptors to regulate migration and phagocytosis, and the shift in related functions that occur in normal aging. PMID:23644076

  15. Inhibition of the activation and recruitment of microglia-like cells protects against neomycin-induced ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan; Yu, Huiqian; Yu, Hui; Honglin, Mei; Ni, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Guo, Luo; He, Yingzi; Xue, Zhen; Ni, Yusu; Li, Jin; Feng, Yi; Chen, Yan; Shao, Ruijin; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2015-02-01

    One of the most unfortunate side effects of aminoglycoside (AG) antibiotics such as neomycin is that they target sensory hair cells (HCs) and can cause permanent hearing impairment. We have observed HC loss and microglia-like cell (MLC) activation in the inner ear (cochlea) following neomycin administration. We focused on CX3CL1, a membrane-bound glycoprotein expressed on neurons and endothelial cells, as a way to understand how the MLCs are activated and the role these cells play in HC loss. CX3CL1 is the exclusive ligand for CX3CR1, which is a chemokine receptor expressed on the surface of macrophages and MLCs. In vitro experiments showed that the expression levels of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 increased in the cochlea upon neomycin treatment, and CX3CL1 was expressed on HCs, while CX3CR1 was expressed on MLCs. When cultured with 1 μg/mL exogenous CX3CL1, MLCs were activated by CX3CL1, and the cytokine level was increased in the cochleae leading to apoptosis in the HCs. In CX3CR1 knockout mice, a significantly greater number of cochlear HCs survived than in wild-type mice when the cochlear explants were cultured with neomycin in vitro. Furthermore, inhibiting the activation of MLCs with minocycline reduced the neomycin-induced HC loss and improved the hearing function in neomycin-treated mice in vivo. Our results demonstrate that CX3CL1-induced MLC activation plays an important role in the induction of HC death and provide evidence for CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 as promising new therapeutic targets for the prevention of hearing loss.

  16. Protective Microglia and Their Regulation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Le, Weidong; Wu, Junjiao; Tang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the brains of patients with PD, microglia have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects, depending on their activation state. In this review, we focus on recent research demonstrating the neuroprotective role of microglia in PD. Accumulating evidence indicates that the protective mechanisms of microglia may result from their regulation of transrepression pathways via nuclear receptors, anti-inflammatory responses, neuron–microglia crosstalk, histone modification, and microRNA regulation. All of these mechanisms work together to suppress the production of neurotoxic inflammatory components. However, during the progression of PD, the detrimental effects of inflammation overpower the protective actions of microglia. Therefore, an in-depth exploration of the mechanisms underlying microglial neuroprotection, and a means of promoting the transformation of microglia to the protective phenotype, are urgently needed for the treatment of PD. PMID:27708561

  17. Changes in Neuronal Excitability by Activated Microglia: Differential Na(+) Current Upregulation in Pyramid-Shaped and Bipolar Neurons by TNF-α and IL-18.

    PubMed

    Klapal, Lars; Igelhorst, Birte A; Dietzel-Meyer, Irmgard D

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to hippocampal cultures upregulates Na(+) current densities (INavD) of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a major cytokine released by activated microglia, upregulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, the upregulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the upregulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18), are released from activated microglia, we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5-10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose-response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines, microglial cells upregulate Na(+) current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released, this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger upregulation of

  18. Changes in Neuronal Excitability by Activated Microglia: Differential Na+ Current Upregulation in Pyramid-Shaped and Bipolar Neurons by TNF-α and IL-18

    PubMed Central

    Klapal, Lars; Igelhorst, Birte A.; Dietzel-Meyer, Irmgard D.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are activated during pathological events in the brain and are capable of releasing various types of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of 5% microglia activated by 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to hippocampal cultures upregulates Na+ current densities (INavD) of bipolar as well as pyramid-shaped neurons, thereby increasing their excitability. Deactivation of microglia by the addition of 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) decreases INavD below control levels suggesting that the residual activated microglial cells influence neuronal excitability in control cultures. Preincubation of hippocampal cultures with 10 ng/ml tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a major cytokine released by activated microglia, upregulated INavD significantly by ~30% in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, the upregulation only reached an increase of ~14%. Incubation of the cultures with antibodies against either TNF-receptor 1 or 2 blocked the upregulation of INavD in bipolar cells, whereas in pyramid-shaped cells, increases in INavD were exclusively blocked by antibodies against TNF-receptor 2, suggesting that both cell types respond differently to TNF-α exposure. Since additional cytokines, such as interleukin-18 (IL-18), are released from activated microglia, we tested potential effects of IL-18 on INavD in both cell types. Exposure to 5–10 ng/ml IL-18 for 4 days increased INavD in both pyramid-shaped as well as bipolar neurons, albeit the dose–response curves were shifted to lower concentrations in bipolar cells. Our results suggest that by secretion of cytokines, microglial cells upregulate Na+ current densities in bipolar and pyramid-shaped neurons to some extent differentially. Depending on the exact cytokine composition and concentration released, this could change the balance between the activity of inhibitory bipolar and excitatory pyramid-shaped cells. Since bipolar cells show a larger upregulation of

  19. The microglia in healthy and diseased retina.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Eter, Nicole; Heiduschka, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system and, also the retina. They fulfil several tasks of surveillance in the healthy retina. In case of an injury or disease, microglia become activated and tries to repair the damage. However, in a lot of cases it does not work, and microglia deteriorate the situation by releasing toxic and pro-inflammatory compounds. Moreover, they further promote degenerative processes by attacking and phagocytosing damaged neurones and photoreceptors that otherwise would possibly have the chance to survive. Such deleterious action of the microglia has been observed in degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors, and it takes place in hereditary diseases, infections as well as in case of traumatic or light injuries. Therefore, a number of attempts has been undertaken so far to inhibit the microglia, with varying success. The task remains to study behaviour of the microglia and their interaction with other retinal cell populations in more detail with respect to released factors and expressed receptors including the time points of the corresponding events. The goal has to be to find a better balance between helpful and detrimental actions of the microglia.

  20. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E.; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M.; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R.; Bickford, Paula C.; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells. PMID:26424600

  1. Novel Molecular Insights into Classical and Alternative Activation States of Microglia as Revealed by Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC)-based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bell-Temin, Harris; Culver-Cochran, Ashley E; Chaput, Dale; Carlson, Christina M; Kuehl, Melanie; Burkhardt, Brant R; Bickford, Paula C; Liu, Bin; Stevens, Stanley M

    2015-12-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have been shown to display a complex spectrum of roles that span from neurotrophic to neurotoxic depending on their activation status. Microglia can be classified into four stages of activation, M1, which most closely matches the classical (pro-inflammatory) activation stage, and the alternative activation stages M2a, M2b, and M2c. The alternative activation stages have not yet been comprehensively analyzed through unbiased, global-scale protein expression profiling. In this study, BV2 mouse immortalized microglial cells were stimulated with agonists specific for each of the four stages and total protein expression for 4644 protein groups was quantified using SILAC-based proteomic analysis. After validating induction of the various stages through a targeted cytokine assay and Western blotting of activation states, the data revealed novel insights into the similarities and differences between the various states. The data identify several protein groups whose expression in the anti-inflammatory, pro-healing activation states are altered presumably to curtail inflammatory activation through differential protein expression, in the M2a state including CD74, LYN, SQST1, TLR2, and CD14. The differential expression of these proteins promotes healing, limits phagocytosis, and limits activation of reactive nitrogen species through toll-like receptor cascades. The M2c state appears to center around the down-regulation of a key member in the formation of actin-rich phagosomes, SLP-76. In addition, the proteomic data identified a novel activation marker, DAB2, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is significantly different between M2a and either M1 or M2b states. Western blot analysis of mouse primary microglia stimulated with the various agonists of the classical and alternative activation states revealed a similar trend of DAB2 expression compared with BV2 cells.

  2. Maternal inflammation leads to impaired glutamate homeostasis and up-regulation of glutamate carboxypeptidase II in activated microglia in the fetal/newborn rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Bassam, Bassam; Thomas, Ajit G; Williams, Monica; Liu, Jinhuan; Nance, Elizabeth; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara S; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-10-01

    Astrocyte dysfunction and excessive activation of glutamatergic systems have been implicated in a number of neurologic disorders, including periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy (CP). However, the role of chorioamnionitis on glutamate homeostasis in the fetal and neonatal brains is not clearly understood. We have previously shown that intrauterine endotoxin administration results in intense microglial 'activation' and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the periventricular region (PVR) of the neonatal rabbit brain. In this study, we assessed the effect of maternal inflammation on key components of the glutamate pathway and its relationship to astrocyte and microglial activation in the fetal and neonatal New Zealand white rabbit brain. We found that intrauterine endotoxin exposure at gestational day 28 (G28) induced acute and prolonged glutamate elevation in the PVR of fetal (G29, 1day post-injury) and postnatal day 1 (PND1, 3days post-injury) brains along with prominent morphological changes in the astrocytes (soma hypertrophy and retracted processes) in the white matter tracts. There was a significant increase in glutaminase and N-Methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR2 subunit expression along with decreased glial L-glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in the PVR at G29, that would promote acute dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis. This was accompanied with significantly decreased TGF-β1 at PND1 in CP kits indicating ongoing neuroinflammation. We also show for the first time that glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) was significantly increased in the activated microglia at the periventricular white matter area in both G29 and PND1 CP kits. This was confirmed by in vitro studies demonstrating that LPS activated primary microglia markedly upregulate GCPII enzymatic activity. These results suggest that maternal intrauterine endotoxin exposure results in early onset and long-lasting dysregulation of glutamate homeostasis, which may be mediated by

  3. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed. PMID:19459212

  4. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed.

  5. Inhibition of UDP/P2Y6 purinergic signaling prevents phagocytosis of viable neurons by activated microglia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Neher, Jonas J; Neniskyte, Urte; Hornik, Tamara; Brown, Guy C

    2014-09-01

    Microglia activated through Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 or -4 can cause neuronal death by phagocytosing otherwise-viable neurons-a form of cell death called "phagoptosis." UDP release from neurons has been shown to provoke microglial phagocytosis of neurons via microglial P2Y6 receptors, but whether inhibition of this process affects neuronal survival is unknown. We tested here whether inhibition of P2Y6 signaling could prevent neuronal death in inflammatory conditions, and whether UDP signaling can induce phagoptosis of stressed but viable neurons. We find that delayed neuronal loss and death in mixed neuronal/glial cultures induced by the TLR ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid was prevented by: apyrase (to degrade nucleotides), Reactive Blue 2 (to inhibit purinergic signaling), or MRS2578 (to specifically block P2Y6 receptors). In each case, inflammatory activation of microglia was not affected, and the rescued neurons remained viable for at least 7 days. Blocking P2Y6 receptors with MRS2578 also prevented phagoptosis of neurons induced by 250 nM amyloid beta 1-42, 5 μM peroxynitrite, or 50 μM 3-morpholinosydnonimine (which releases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species). Furthermore, the P2Y6 receptor agonist UDP by itself was sufficient to stimulate microglial phagocytosis and to induce rapid neuronal loss that was prevented by eliminating microglia or inhibiting phagocytosis. In vivo, injection of LPS into rat striatum induced microglial activation and delayed neuronal loss and blocking P2Y6 receptors with MRS2578 prevented this neuronal loss. Thus, blocking UDP/P2Y6 signaling is sufficient to prevent neuronal loss and death induced by a wide range of stimuli that activate microglial phagocytosis of neurons.

  6. Activated microglia mediate axoglial disruption that contributes to axonal injury in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Howell, Owain W; Rundle, Jon L; Garg, Anurag; Komada, Masayuki; Brophy, Peter J; Reynolds, Richard

    2010-10-01

    The complex manifestations of chronic multiple sclerosis (MS)are due in part to widespread axonal abnormalities that affect lesional and nonlesional areas in the central nervous system. We describe an association between microglial activation and axon/oligodendrocyte pathology at nodal and paranodal domains in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS cases and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The extent of paranodal axoglial (neurofascin-155(+)/Caspr1(+)) disruption correlated with local microglial inflammation and axonal injury (expression of nonphosphorylated neurofilaments) in MS NAWM. These changes were independent of demyelinating lesions and did not correlate with the density of infiltrating lymphocytes. Similar axoglial alterations were seen in the subcortical white matter of Parkinson disease cases and in preclinical EAE, at a time point when there is microglial activation before the infiltration of immune cells. Disruption of the axoglial unit in adjuvant-immunized animals was reversible and coincided with the resolution of microglial inflammation; paranodal damage and microglial inflammation persisted in chronic EAE. Axoglial integrity could be preserved by the administration of minocycline, which inhibited microglial activation, in actively immunized animals. These data indicate that, in MS NAWM, permanent disruption to axoglial domains in an environment of microglial inflammation is an early indicator of axonal injury that likely affects nerve conduction and may contribute to physiologic dysfunction.

  7. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  8. Microglia and their CX3CR1 signaling are involved in hippocampal- but not olfactory bulb-related memory and neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Ronen; Kreisel, Tirzah; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Yirmiya, Raz

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that microglia play an important role in cognitive and neuroplasticity processes, at least partly via microglial CX3C receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling. Furthermore, microglia are responsive to environmental enrichment (EE), which modulates learning, memory and neurogenesis. In the present study we examined the role of microglial CX3CR1 signaling in hippocampal- and olfactory-bulb (OB)-related memory and neurogenesis in homozygous mice with microglia-specific transgenic expression of GFP under the CX3CR1 promoter (CX3CR1(-/-) mice), in which the CX3CR1 gene is functionally deleted, as well as heterozygous CX3CR1(+/-) and WT controls. We report that the CX3CR1-deficient mice displayed better hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and olfactory recognition, along with increased number and soma size of hippocampal microglia, suggestive of mild activation status, but no changes in OB microglia. A similar increase in hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and microglia number was also induced by pharmacological inhibition of CX3CR1 signaling, using chronic (2weeks) i.c.v. administration of CX3CR1 blocking antibody. In control mice, EE improved hippocampal-dependent memory and neurogenesis, and increased hippocampal microglia number and soma size, whereas odor enrichment (OE) improved olfactory recognition and OB neurogenesis without changing OB microglia status. In CX3CR1-deficient mice, EE and OE did not produce any further improvement in memory functioning or neurogenesis and had no effect on microglial status. These results support the notion that in the hippocampus microglia and their interactions with neurons via the CX3CR1 play an important role in memory functioning and neurogenesis, whereas in the OB microglia do not seem to be involved in these processes.

  9. Validation of Flow Cytometry and Magnetic Bead-Based Methods to Enrich CNS Single Cell Suspensions for Quiescent Microglia.

    PubMed

    Volden, T A; Reyelts, C D; Hoke, T A; Arikkath, J; Bonasera, S J

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes within the CNS parenchyma that intimately interact with neurons and astrocytes to remodel synapses and extracellular matrix. We briefly review studies elucidating the molecular pathways that underlie microglial surveillance, activation, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis; we additionally place these studies in a clinical context. We describe and validate an inexpensive and simple approach to obtain enriched single cell suspensions of quiescent parenchymal and perivascular microglia from the mouse cerebellum and hypothalamus. Following preparation of regional CNS single cell suspensions, we remove myelin debris, and then perform two serial enrichment steps for cells expressing surface CD11b. Myelin depletion and CD11b enrichment are both accomplished using antigen-specific magnetic beads in an automated cell separation system. Flow cytometry of the resultant suspensions shows a significant enrichment for CD11b(+)/CD45(+) cells (perivascular microglia) and CD11b(+)/CD45(-) cells (parenchymal microglia) compared to starting suspensions. Of note, cells from these enriched suspensions minimally express Aif1 (aka Iba1), suggesting that the enrichment process does not evoke significant microglial activation. However, these cells readily respond to a functional challenge (LPS) with significant changes in the expression of molecules specifically associated with microglia. We conclude that methods employing a combination of magnetic-bead based sorting and flow cytometry produce suspensions highly enriched for microglia that are appropriate for a variety of molecular and cellular assays.

  10. Activated microglia in ischemic stroke penumbra upregulate MCP-1 and CCR2 expression in response to lysophosphatidylcholine derived from adjacent neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Inose, Yuri; Kato, Yoichiro; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki

    2015-06-01

    In acute stage of ischemic stroke, the surrounding zone of fresh infarcts is termed penumbra, where microglia are activated in response to damaged cell-derived proinflammatory mediators. Rescuing penumbra by regulating inflammatory activity would minimize infarct volume, which positively correlates with functional outcome. To elucidate mechanisms by which inflammation occurs in penumbra, we performed immunohistochemical investigations using autopsied human brains affected by acute, subacute and chronic stages of cerebral infarction as well as cell culture experiments using a murine microglia-derived cell line (BV-2). In penumbra of fresh infarcts, immunoreactivity for secretory phospholipase A2 group X (sPLA2 -X), which is responsible for the production and release of the proinflammatory mediator lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), was intensely detected in neurons and astrocytes. Furthermore, immunoreactivities for the LPC receptors G protein-coupled receptor 132 (G2A) and P2X purinoreceptor 7 (P2X7R), as well as the CC chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR2, were detectable in activated microglia. Prior to cell culture experiments, it was confirmed that BV-2 cells were immunoreactive for ionized Ca(2+) -binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1), G2A, P2X7R, MCP-1 and CCR2. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that MCP-1 and CCR2 mRNA expression levels were significantly increased by LPC stimulation. The LPC-driven increase in MCP-1 transcripts was lowered by blockade of G2A or P2X7R or by inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) or inhibitor of κBα kinase. The LPC-driven increase in CCR2 transcripts was lowered by blockade of G2A or P2X7R or by inhibition of ROCK, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinanse, extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase, or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The present results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that in acute stage of ischemic stroke, the sPLA2

  11. SEMA4D compromises blood-brain barrier, activates microglia, and inhibits remyelination in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ernest S; Jonason, Alan; Reilly, Christine; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Fisher, Terrence; Doherty, Michael; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Mallow, Crystal; Cornelius, Chad; Leonard, John E; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Pham, Trinh; Seils, Jennifer; Bussler, Holm; Torno, Sebold; Kirk, Renee; Howell, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Bowers, William J; John, Gareth; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse disease pathophysiology. Signaling cascades initiated by semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) induce glial activation, neuronal process collapse, inhibit migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and disrupt endothelial tight junctions forming the BBB. To target SEMA4D, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse, rat, monkey and human SEMA4D with high affinity and blocks interaction between SEMA4D and its cognate receptors. In vitro, anti-SEMA4D reverses the inhibitory effects of recombinant SEMA4D on OPC survival and differentiation. In vivo, anti-SEMA4D significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple rodent models by preserving BBB integrity and axonal myelination and can be shown to promote migration of OPC to the site of lesions and improve myelin status following chemically-induced demyelination. Our study underscores SEMA4D as a key factor in CNS disease and supports the further development of antibody-based inhibition of SEMA4D as a novel therapeutic strategy for MS and other neurologic diseases with evidence of demyelination and/or compromise to the neurovascular unit. PMID:25461192

  12. SEMA4D compromises blood-brain barrier, activates microglia, and inhibits remyelination in neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ernest S; Jonason, Alan; Reilly, Christine; Veeraraghavan, Janaki; Fisher, Terrence; Doherty, Michael; Klimatcheva, Ekaterina; Mallow, Crystal; Cornelius, Chad; Leonard, John E; Marchi, Nicola; Janigro, Damir; Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Pham, Trinh; Seils, Jennifer; Bussler, Holm; Torno, Sebold; Kirk, Renee; Howell, Alan; Evans, Elizabeth E; Paris, Mark; Bowers, William J; John, Gareth; Zauderer, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of CNS, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, localized myelin destruction, and progressive neuronal degeneration. There exists a significant need to identify novel therapeutic targets and strategies that effectively and safely disrupt and even reverse disease pathophysiology. Signaling cascades initiated by semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D) induce glial activation, neuronal process collapse, inhibit migration and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and disrupt endothelial tight junctions forming the BBB. To target SEMA4D, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognizes mouse, rat, monkey and human SEMA4D with high affinity and blocks interaction between SEMA4D and its cognate receptors. In vitro, anti-SEMA4D reverses the inhibitory effects of recombinant SEMA4D on OPC survival and differentiation. In vivo, anti-SEMA4D significantly attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in multiple rodent models by preserving BBB integrity and axonal myelination and can be shown to promote migration of OPC to the site of lesions and improve myelin status following chemically-induced demyelination. Our study underscores SEMA4D as a key factor in CNS disease and supports the further development of antibody-based inhibition of SEMA4D as a novel therapeutic strategy for MS and other neurologic diseases with evidence of demyelination and/or compromise to the neurovascular unit.

  13. Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptors inhibit mechanical allodynia and spinal microglia activation in the early phase of neuropathic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Chen, Yajuan; Ruan, Liqin; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-04-01

    Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptors are exclusively expressed in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, their functional roles are poorly understood. This study was aimed to determine the effect of MrgC receptors on pain hypersensitivity in the early phase of neuropathic pain and its underlying mechanisms. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) at 1 or 10nmol attenuated mechanical allodynia one day after L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) surgery. I.t. BAM8-22 (10 nmol) inhibited SNL-induced microglia activation in the spinal dorsal horn on day 2 post-SNL. The BAM8-22 treatment also abolished SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). On the other hand, SNL, but not sham, surgery reduced the expression of MrgC receptor mRNA in the injured L5 DRG without changing thier levels in the adjacent uninjured L4 or L6 DRG on day 2 following the surgery. These results suggest that the activation of MrgC receptors can relieve pain hypersensitivity by the inhibition of nNOS increase in DRG neurons and microglia activation in the spinal dorsal horn in the early time following peripheral nerve injury. This study provides evidence that MrgC receptors could be targeted as a novel therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects.

  14. Sirtuin 3 regulates Foxo3a-mediated antioxidant pathway in microglia.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, P; Karthikeyan, A; Lu, J; Ling, E-A; Dheen, S T

    2015-12-17

    Microglia are the prime cellular sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic activation of microglia has been linked to aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) since they produce excessive amounts of ROS for a prolonged duration leading to oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at investigating the expression and role of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), a protein deacetylase which is implicated in regulating cellular ROS levels. It has been shown that Sirt3 reduces cellular ROS levels by deacetylating forkhead box O 3a (Foxo3a), a transcription factor which transactivates antioxidant genes, catalase (Cat) and manganese superoxide dismutase (mnSod). In the present study, Sirt3 immunoreactivity was localized in the ameboid microglial cells distributed in the corpus callosum (CC) of the early postnatal rat brain and diminished in the ramified microglial cells in the CC of the adult rat brain. A marked induction of Sirt3 expression was seen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia in vivo and in vitro as well as in adult rat brains subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Knockdown of Sirt3 in microglia led to an increase in the cellular and mitochondrial ROS and decrease in the expression of antioxidant, mnSod which is indicative of the function of Sirt3 in ROS regulation in microglia. Conversely, Sirt3 overexpression led to increase in the expression of antioxidants Cat and mnSod. Further, increase in the expression and nuclear translocation of Foxo3a was observed following Sirt3 overexpression, suggesting that Sirt3 regulates ROS by inducing the expression of antioxidants via activation of Foxo3a. The above results point to an antioxidant defense mechanism presented by Sirt3 through the activation of Foxo3a, in microglia.

  15. Electrophysiological and Histological Characterization of Rod-Cone Retinal Degeneration and Microglia Activation in a Mouse Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Dennis Y.; Lotfi, Parisa; Simons, David L.; Sardiello, Marco; Wu, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome Type B or Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIB (MPS IIIB) is a neurodegenerative autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder in which patients suffer severe vision loss from associated retinopathy. Here we sought to study the underlying retinal functional and morphological changes associated with MPS IIIB disease progression using the established model of MPS IIIB, the B6.129S6-Naglu(tm1Efn)/J mouse line. Electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded from MPS IIIB and wild-type (WT) mice at the age of 28 and 46 weeks, and retinal tissues were subsequently collected for immunohistochemistry analysis. At the 28th week, rod a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly diminished in MPS IIIB compared to WT mice. The cone a- and b-waves of MPS IIIB mice were not significantly different from those of the control at the 28th week but were significantly diminished at the 46th week, when MPS IIIB mice showed a major loss of rods and rod bipolar cells in both central and peripheral regions and a minor loss of cones in the periphery. Activation of microglia and neovascularization were also detected in the MPS IIIB retina. The new findings that cones and rod bipolar cells also undergo degeneration, and that retinal microglia are activated, will inform future development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:26607664

  16. The influence of microglia activation on the efficacy of amitriptyline, doxepin, milnacipran, venlafaxine and fluoxetine in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Zychowska, Magdalena; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2015-02-15

    The analgesic properties of antidepressants are often used in the treatment of neuropathy; however their influence on glial cells in maintaining neuropathic pain is unknown. Our studies examined the neuropathic pain-relieving properties after intraperitoneal injection of amitriptyline, doxepin, milnacipran, venlafaxine and fluoxetine 7 days after sciatic nerve injury (CCI) in rats and its influence on microglia/macrophages (IBA-1) and astroglia (GFAP) activation in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using Western blot. All tested antidepressants significantly reduced CCI-induced allodynia but hyperalgesia was only antagonised by fluoxetine, doxepine and venlafaxine. The strongest analgesia was observed after fluoxetine administration. Western blot analysis showed the upregulation of the IBA-1 in the lumbar spinal cord and DRG after amitriptyline or milnacipran administration in CCI-exposed rats, whereas after fluoxetine the downregulation was observed. The administration of doxepin did not change the IBA-1 protein level in both studied structures; however venlafaxine decreased the IBA-1 only in the DRG. No changes in the GFAP level in both structures were observed after any of listed above antidepressants administration. Chronic minocycline treatment enhanced amitriptyline and milnacipran, but did not fluoxetine analgesia under neuropathic pain in rats. Our results suggest that nerve injury-induced pain is related with the activation of microglia, which is diminished by fluoxetine treatment in the neuropathic pain model. PMID:25460025

  17. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia

    SciTech Connect

    Koshida, Ryusuke Oishi, Hisashi Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-17

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia. - Highlights: • GM-CSF alters the phenotype of microglia in vitro more potently than M-CSF. • Transcription factor MafB antagonizes the effect of GM-CSF on microglia in vitro. • MafB deficiency leads to RhoA activation in microglia in response to GM-CSF. • We show for the first time the function of MafB in microglia.

  18. Microglial neurotransmitter receptors trigger superoxide production in microglia; consequences for microglial-neuronal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma L; Mosley, Angelina; Eaton, Simon; Dobson, Lucianne; Heales, Simon J; Pocock, Jennifer M

    2012-04-01

    Microglia express three isoforms of the NADPH oxidase, Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, with the potential to produce superoxide (O(2) ˙(-) ). Microglia also express neurotransmitter receptors, which can modulate microglial responses. In this study, microglial activity of Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4 in primary rat cultured microglia or the rodent BV2 cell line were altered by microglial neurotransmitter receptor modulation. Glutamate, GABA or ATP triggered microglial O(2) ˙(-) production via Nox activation. Nox activation was elicited by agonists of metabotropic mGlu3 receptors and by group III receptors, by GABA(A) but not GABA(B) receptors, and by purinergic P2X(7) or P2Y(2/4) receptors but not P2Y(1) receptors, and inhibited by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists. The neurotransmitters also modulated Nox mRNA expression and NADPH activity. The activation of Nox by BzATP or GABA promoted a neuroprotective phenotype whilst the activation of Nox by glutamate promoted a neurotoxic phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that microglial neurotransmitter receptors can signal via Nox to promote neuroprotection or neurotoxicity. This has implications for the subsequent neurotoxic profile of microglia when neurotransmitter levels may become skewed in neurodegeneration. PMID:22243365

  19. sTREM2 cerebrospinal fluid levels are a potential biomarker for microglia activity in early-stage Alzheimer's disease and associate with neuronal injury markers.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Kleinberger, Gernot; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Brendel, Matthias; Rominger, Axel; Alcolea, Daniel; Fortea, Juan; Lleó, Alberto; Blesa, Rafael; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Antonell, Anna; Rami, Lorena; Molinuevo, José L; Brosseron, Frederic; Traschütz, Andreas; Heneka, Michael T; Struyfs, Hanne; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nellgård, Bengt; Blennow, Kaj; Crispin, Alexander; Ewers, Michael; Haass, Christian

    2016-01-01

    TREM2 is an innate immune receptor expressed on the surface of microglia. Loss-of-function mutations of TREM2 are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). TREM2 is a type-1 protein with an ectodomain that is proteolytically cleaved and released into the extracellular space as a soluble variant (sTREM2), which can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this cross-sectional multicenter study, we investigated whether CSF levels of sTREM2 are changed during the clinical course of AD, and in cognitively normal individuals with suspected non-AD pathology (SNAP). CSF sTREM2 levels were higher in mild cognitive impairment due to AD than in all other AD groups and controls. SNAP individuals also had significantly increased CSF sTREM2 compared to controls. Moreover, increased CSF sTREM2 levels were associated with higher CSF total tau and phospho-tau181P, which are markers of neuronal degeneration and tau pathology. Our data demonstrate that CSF sTREM2 levels are increased in the early symptomatic phase of AD, probably reflecting a corresponding change of the microglia activation status in response to neuronal degeneration. PMID:26941262

  20. MafB antagonizes phenotypic alteration induced by GM-CSF in microglia.

    PubMed

    Koshida, Ryusuke; Oishi, Hisashi; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages which are distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that microglia are a unique myeloid population distinct from peripheral macrophages in terms of origin and gene expression signature. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a pleiotropic cytokine regulating myeloid development, has been shown to stimulate proliferation and alter phenotype of microglia in vitro. However, how its signaling is modulated in microglia is poorly characterized. MafB, a bZip transcriptional factor, is highly expressed in monocyte-macrophage lineage cells including microglia, although its role in microglia is largely unknown. We investigated the crosstalk between GM-CSF signaling and MafB by analyzing primary microglia. We found that Mafb-deficient microglia grew more rapidly than wild-type microglia in response to GM-CSF. Moreover, the expression of genes associated with microglial differentiation was more downregulated in Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF. Notably, such differences between the genotypes were not observed in the presence of M-CSF. In addition, we found that Mafb-deficient microglia cultured with GM-CSF barely extended their membrane protrusions, probably due to abnormal activation of RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling. Altogether, our study reveals that MafB is a negative regulator of GM-CSF signaling in microglia. These findings could provide new insight into the modulation of cytokine signaling by transcription factors in microglia.

  1. Microglia in the TBI brain: The good, the bad, and the dysregulated.

    PubMed

    Loane, David J; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    As the major cellular component of the innate immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) and the first line of defense whenever injury or disease occurs, microglia play a critical role in neuroinflammation following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the injured brain microglia can produce neuroprotective factors, clear cellular debris and orchestrate neurorestorative processes that are beneficial for neurological recovery after TBI. However, microglia can also become dysregulated and can produce high levels of pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic mediators that hinder CNS repair and contribute to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. The dual role of microglial activation in promoting beneficial and detrimental effects on neurons may be accounted for by their polarization state and functional responses after injury. In this review article we discuss emerging research on microglial activation phenotypes in the context of acute brain injury, and the potential role of microglia in phenotype-specific neurorestorative processes such as neurogenesis, angiogenesis, oligodendrogenesis and regeneration. We also describe some of the known molecular mechanisms that regulate phenotype switching, and highlight new therapeutic approaches that alter microglial activation state balance to enhance long-term functional recovery after TBI. An improved understanding of the regulatory mechanisms that control microglial phenotypic shifts may advance our knowledge of post-injury recovery and repair, and provide opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for TBI.

  2. α-Asarone attenuates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation by inhibiting NF kappa B activation and mitigates MPTP-induced behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Koppula, Sushruta; Kumar, Hemant; Park, Ju-Young; Kim, Il-Woung; More, Sandeep V; Kim, In-Su; Han, Sang-Don; Kim, Si-Kwan; Yoon, Sung-Hwa; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2015-10-01

    The selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with microglial activation. Therefore, the importance of early therapeutic intervention to inhibit microglial activation would be an effective strategy to alleviate the progression of PD. α-Asarone, an active compound found in Araceae and Annonaceae plant species has been used to improve various disease conditions including central nervous system disorders. In the present study the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic effects of α-asarone isolated from the rhizome of Acorus gramineus Solander was evaluated on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and neuroprotection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells were used to evaluate in vitro effects. 1-methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD was developed to study the neuroprotective effects of α-asarone in vivo. The results indicated that α-asarone significantly attenuated the LPS-stimulated increase in neuroinflammatory responses and suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production in BV-2 cells. Mechanistic study revealed that α-asarone inhibited the LPS-stimulated activation via regulation of nuclear factor kappa-B by blocking degradation of inhibitor kappa B-alpha signaling in BV-2 microglial cells. In in vivo studies, MPTP intoxication to mice resulted in brain microglial activation and significant behavioral deficits. Prophylactic treatment with α-asarone suppressed microglial activation and attenuated PD-like behavioral impairments as assessed by the Y-maze and pole tests. Taken together, these data demonstrate that α-asarone is a promising neuroprotective agent that should be further evaluated and developed for future prevention and treatment of microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory conditions including PD.

  3. Features of Microglia and Neuroinflammation Relevant to Environmental Exposure and Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Andrew D.; Harry, G. Jean

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese and diesel exhaust

  4. Features of microglia and neuroinflammation relevant to environmental exposure and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Andrew D; Harry, G Jean

    2011-07-01

    Microglia are resident cells of the brain involved in regulatory processes critical for development, maintenance of the neural environment, injury and repair. They belong to the monocytic-macrophage lineage and serve as brain immune cells to orchestrate innate immune responses; however, they are distinct from other tissue macrophages due to their relatively quiescent phenotype and tight regulation by the CNS microenvironment. Microglia actively survey the surrounding parenchyma and respond rapidly to changes such that any disruption to neural architecture or function can contribute to the loss in regulation of the microglia phenotype. In many models of neurodegeneration and neurotoxicity, early events of synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss are accompanied by an inflammatory response including activation of microglia, perivascular monocytes, and recruitment of leukocytes. In culture, microglia have been shown to be capable of releasing several potentially cytotoxic substances, such as reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, arachidonic acid derivatives, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines; however, they also produce various neurotrophic factors and quench damage from free radicals and excitotoxins. As the primary source for pro-inflammatory cytokines, microglia are implicated as pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses. Neuroinflammation should be considered as a balanced network of processes whereby subtle modifications can shift the cells toward disparate outcomes. For any evaluation of neuroinflammation and microglial responses, within the framework of neurotoxicity or degeneration, one key question in determining the consequence of neuroinflammation is whether the response is an initiating event or the consequence of tissue damage. As examples of environmental exposure-related neuroinflammation in the literature, we provide an evaluation of data on manganese and diesel exhaust

  5. [MicroRNAs in microglia polarization and CNS diseases: mechanism and functions].

    PubMed

    Fang, Xue; Tan, Wei-Xing; He, Cheng; Cao, Li

    2015-02-25

    Microglia are resident macrophages of central nervous system (CNS), and thus act as the crucial stuff of immune response and play very important roles in the progress of various CNS diseases. There are two different polarization statuses of activated microglia, M1 and M2 phenotypes. M1 polarized microglia are important for eradicating bacterial and promoting inflammation, whereas M2 cells are characterized by anti-inflammation and tissue remodeling. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that different polarized microglia showed diverse microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles. MiRNAs regulate microglia polarization, and thus affect the progress of CNS diseases. Fully exploring the polarization status of microglia during CNS diseases and the role of miRNAs in microglia polarization will be very helpful for a deep understanding of the roles of microglia in immunopathologic mechanism of different CNS diseases and offer the theoretical foundation of searching more effective therapies for these disorders. PMID:25672624

  6. Microglia activation in multiple sclerosis black holes predicts outcome in progressive patients: an in vivo [(11)C](R)-PK11195-PET pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Paolo; Politis, Marios; Su, Paul; Turkheimer, Federico; Malik, Omar; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Wu, Kit; Reynolds, Richard; Nicholas, Richard; Piccini, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The pathophysiological correlates and the contribution to persisting disability of hypointense T1-weighted MRI lesions, black holes (BH), in multiple sclerosis (MS) are still unclear. In order to study the in vivo functional correlates of this MRI finding, we used 11C-PK11195 PET (PK-PET) to investigate changes in microglial activity. Ten relapsing and 9 progressive MS subjects had a PK-PET scan and a MRI scan alongside a full clinical assessment, including the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) for evaluation of disability. We studied the PK binding potential of the specifically bound radioligand relative to the non-displaceable radioligand in tissue (BPND) in T1 BHs. Out of a total of 1242 BHs identified, 947 were PK enhancing. The PKBPND was correlated with the EDSS (r=0.818; p<0.05) only in the progressive group. In the relapsing patients there was an inverse correlation between PKBPND and BH total lesion volume in whole brain (r=-0.781; p<0.05). When progressive patients were grouped according to the disability outcome at 2years from the PK-PET scan, the total PKBPND in BHs was found to be a significant outcome predictor of disability (p<0.01). Our findings show that relapsing and progressive patients have heterogeneous patterns of PKBPND in T1 BHs and indicate that BHs are not just "holes" representing loss of axons and myelin, but display inflammatory activity in the form of activated microglia. The significant association between PKBPND, neurological impairment and outcome in progressive subjects supports a role for activated microglia in disability progression.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ping; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yanke; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Fali; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaohu; Gao, Bo; Zhen, Xuechu; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Long Tai

    2015-05-01

    Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f.) var. glaucocalyx (Maxim.) Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB), one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases. PMID:26003084

  8. A Chimeric Cfh Transgene Leads to Increased Retinal Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Accumulation of Activated Subretinal Microglia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aredo, Bogale; Li, Tao; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Gou, Darlene; Zhao, Biren; He, Yuguang; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Variants of complement factor H (Cfh) affecting short consensus repeats (SCRs) 6 to 8 increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Our aim was to explore the effect of expressing a Cfh variant on the in vivo susceptibility of the retina and RPE to oxidative stress and inflammation, using chimeric Cfh transgenic mice (chCfhTg). Methods. The chCfhTg and age-matched C57BL/6J (B6) mice were subjected to oxidative stress by either normal aging, or by exposure to a combination of oral hydroquinone (0.8% HQ) and increased light. Eyes were collected for immunohistochemistry of RPE–choroid flat mounts and of retinal sections, ELISA, electron microscopy, and RPE/microglia gene expression analysis. Results. Aging mice to 2 years led to an increased accumulation of basal laminar deposits, subretinal microglia/macrophages (MG/MΦ) staining for CD16 and for malondialdehyde (MDA), and MDA-modified proteins in the retina in chCfhTg compared to B6 mice. The chCfhTg mice maintained on HQ diet and increased light showed greater deposition of basal laminar deposits, more accumulation of fundus spots suggestive of MG/MΦ, and increased deposition of C3d in the sub-RPE space, compared to controls. In addition, chCfhTg mice demonstrated upregulation of NLRP3, IP-10, CD68, and TREM-2 in the RNA isolates from RPE/MG/MΦ. Conclusions. Expression of a Cfh transgene introducing a variant in SCRs 6 to 8 was sufficient to lead to increased retinal/RPE susceptibility to oxidative stress, a proinflammatory MG/MΦ phenotype, and a proinflammatory RPE/MG/MΦ gene expression profile in a transgenic mouse model. Our data suggest that altered interactions of Cfh with MDA-modified proteins may be relevant in explaining the effects of the Cfh variant. PMID:26030099

  9. Pycnogenol Attenuates the Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Expression of Perilipin 2 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Microglia in Part via Inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Dun, Sai-Hong; Gu, Jian-Qiu; Guo, Yang; Ikuyama, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Over activation of microglia results in the production of proinflammatory agents that have been implicated in various brain diseases. Pycnogenol is a patented extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Aiton) with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency. The present study investigated whether pycnogenol may be associated with the production of proinflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 (mouse-derived) microglia. It was found that pycnogenol treatment was dose-dependently associated with significantly less release of nitricoxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, and lower levels of intercellular adhesion molecule1 (ICAM-1) and perilipin 2 (PLIN2). Furthermore, this effect was replicated in primary brain microglia. Levels of inducible NO synthase mRNA and protein were attenuated, whereas there was no change in the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Further evidence indicated that pycnogenol treatment led to the suppression of NF-κB activation through inhibition of p65 translocation into the nucleus and inhibited DNA binding of AP-1, suggesting that these proinflammatory factors are associated with NF-κB and AP-1. We conclude that pycnogenol exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of the NF-κB and AP-1pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic agent in the prevention of diseases caused by over activation of microglia. PMID:26367267

  10. Spatial and cellular characterization of mTORC1 activation after spinal cord injury reveals biphasic increase mainly attributed to microglia/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kjell, Jacob; Codeluppi, Simone; Josephson, Anna; Abrams, Mathew B

    2014-11-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an intracellular kinase complex that regulates energy homeostasis and transcription. Modulation of mTORC1 has proven beneficial in experimental spinal cord injury, making this molecular target a candidate for therapeutic intervention in spinal cord injury. However, both inactivation and activation of mTORC1 have been reported beneficial for recovery. To obtain a more complete picture of mTORC1 activity, we aimed to characterize the spatiotemporal activation pattern of mTORC1 and identify activation in particular cell types after contusion spinal cord injury in rats. To be able to provide a spatial characterization of mTORC1 activation, we monitored activation of downstream target S6. We found robust mTORC1 activation both at the site of injury and in spinal segments rostral and caudal to the injury. There was constitutive mTORC1 activation in neurons that was biphasically reduced caudally after injury. We found biphasic mTORC1 activation in glial cells, primarily activated microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, we found mTORC1 activation in proliferating cells, suggesting this may be a function affected by mTORC1 modulation. Our results reveal potential windows of opportunity for therapeutic interference with mTORC1 signaling and immune cells as targets for inhibition of mTORC1 in spinal cord injury.

  11. The molecular profile of microglia under the influence of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Graeber, Manuel B.

    2012-01-01

    Microglia, which contribute substantially to the tumor mass of glioblastoma, have been shown to play an important role in glioma growth and invasion. While a large number of experimental studies on functional attributes of microglia in glioma provide evidence for their tumor-supporting roles, there also exist hints in support of their anti-tumor properties. Microglial activities during glioma progression seem multifaceted. They have been attributed to the receptors expressed on the microglia surface, to glioma-derived molecules that have an effect on microglia, and to the molecules released by microglia in response to their environment under glioma control, which can have autocrine effects. In this paper, the microglia and glioma literature is reviewed. We provide a synopsis of the molecular profile of microglia under the influence of glioma in order to help establish a rational basis for their potential therapeutic use. The ability of microglia precursors to cross the blood–brain barrier makes them an attractive target for the development of novel cell-based treatments of malignant glioma. PMID:22573310

  12. Microglia development follows a stepwise program to regulate brain homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matcovitch-Natan, Orit; Winter, Deborah R; Giladi, Amir; Vargas Aguilar, Stephanie; Spinrad, Amit; Sarrazin, Sandrine; Ben-Yehuda, Hila; David, Eyal; Zelada González, Fabiola; Perrin, Pierre; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Gury, Meital; Lara-Astaiso, David; Thaiss, Christoph A; Cohen, Merav; Bahar Halpern, Keren; Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Lorenzo-Vivas, Erika; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Elinav, Eran; Sieweke, Michael H; Schwartz, Michal; Amit, Ido

    2016-08-19

    Microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system, play important roles in life-long brain maintenance and in pathology. Despite their importance, their regulatory dynamics during brain development have not been fully elucidated. Using genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling coupled with single-cell transcriptomic analysis throughout development, we found that microglia undergo three temporal stages of development in synchrony with the brain--early, pre-, and adult microglia--which are under distinct regulatory circuits. Knockout of the gene encoding the adult microglia transcription factor MAFB and environmental perturbations, such as those affecting the microbiome or prenatal immune activation, led to disruption of developmental genes and immune response pathways. Together, our work identifies a stepwise microglia developmental program integrating immune response pathways that may be associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27338705

  13. Microglia development follows a stepwise program to regulate brain homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Matcovitch-Natan, Orit; Winter, Deborah R; Giladi, Amir; Vargas Aguilar, Stephanie; Spinrad, Amit; Sarrazin, Sandrine; Ben-Yehuda, Hila; David, Eyal; Zelada González, Fabiola; Perrin, Pierre; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Gury, Meital; Lara-Astaiso, David; Thaiss, Christoph A; Cohen, Merav; Bahar Halpern, Keren; Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Lorenzo-Vivas, Erika; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Elinav, Eran; Sieweke, Michael H; Schwartz, Michal; Amit, Ido

    2016-08-19

    Microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system, play important roles in life-long brain maintenance and in pathology. Despite their importance, their regulatory dynamics during brain development have not been fully elucidated. Using genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling coupled with single-cell transcriptomic analysis throughout development, we found that microglia undergo three temporal stages of development in synchrony with the brain--early, pre-, and adult microglia--which are under distinct regulatory circuits. Knockout of the gene encoding the adult microglia transcription factor MAFB and environmental perturbations, such as those affecting the microbiome or prenatal immune activation, led to disruption of developmental genes and immune response pathways. Together, our work identifies a stepwise microglia developmental program integrating immune response pathways that may be associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. MP Resulting in Autophagic Cell Death of Microglia through Zinc Changes against Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dingding; Wang, Guannan; Han, Donghe; Bi, Jing; Li, Chenyuan; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Kai; Yao, Tianchen; Wan, Zhanghui; Li, Haihong; Mei, Xifan

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT), as a public recognized therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI), is doubted recently, and the exact mechanism of MP on SCI is unclear. This study sought to investigate the exact effect of MP on SCI. We examined the effect of MP in a model of SCI in vivo and an LPS induced model in vitro. We found that administration of MP produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores and motor neurons counts of injured rats. Besides the number of activated microglia was apparently reduced by MP in vivo, and Beclin-1 dependent autophagic cell death of microglia was induced by MP in LPS induced model. At the same time, MP increases cellular zinc concentration and level of ZIP8, and TPEN could revert effect of MP on autophagic cell death of microglia. Finally, we have found that MP could inhibit NF-κβ in LPS induced model. These results show that the MP could result in autophagic cell death of microglia, which mainly depends on increasing cellular labile zinc, and may be associated with inhibition of NF-κβ, and that MP can produce neuroprotective effect in SCI. PMID:27057544

  15. MP Resulting in Autophagic Cell Death of Microglia through Zinc Changes against Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Dingding; Wang, Guannan; Han, Donghe; Bi, Jing; Li, Chenyuan; Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Zhiyuan; Gao, Wei; Gao, Kai; Yao, Tianchen; Wan, Zhanghui; Li, Haihong; Mei, Xifan

    2016-01-01

    Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT), as a public recognized therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI), is doubted recently, and the exact mechanism of MP on SCI is unclear. This study sought to investigate the exact effect of MP on SCI. We examined the effect of MP in a model of SCI in vivo and an LPS induced model in vitro. We found that administration of MP produced an increase in the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores and motor neurons counts of injured rats. Besides the number of activated microglia was apparently reduced by MP in vivo, and Beclin-1 dependent autophagic cell death of microglia was induced by MP in LPS induced model. At the same time, MP increases cellular zinc concentration and level of ZIP8, and TPEN could revert effect of MP on autophagic cell death of microglia. Finally, we have found that MP could inhibit NF-κβ in LPS induced model. These results show that the MP could result in autophagic cell death of microglia, which mainly depends on increasing cellular labile zinc, and may be associated with inhibition of NF-κβ, and that MP can produce neuroprotective effect in SCI. PMID:27057544

  16. Microglia modulate respiratory rhythm generation and autoresuscitation.

    PubMed

    Lorea-Hernández, Jonathan-Julio; Morales, Teresa; Rivera-Angulo, Ana-Julia; Alcantara-Gonzalez, David; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation has been linked to the induction of apneas and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, whereas proinflammatory mediators inhibit breathing when applied peripherally or directly into the CNS. Considering that peripheral inflammation can activate microglia in the CNS and that this cell type can directly release all proinflammatory mediators that modulate breathing, it is likely that microglia can modulate breathing generation. It might do so also in hypoxia, since microglia are sensitive to hypoxia, and peripheral proinflammatory conditions affect gasping generation and autoresuscitation. Here, we tested whether microglial activation or inhibition affected respiratory rhythm generation. By measuring breathing as well as the activity of the respiratory rhythm generator (the preBötzinger complex), we found that several microglial activators or inhibitors, applied intracisternally in vivo or in the recording bath in vitro, affect the generation of the respiratory rhythms both in normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, microglial activation with lipopolysaccharide affected the ability of the animals to autoresuscitate after hypoxic conditions, an effect that is blocked when lipopolysaccharide is co-applied with the microglial inhibitor minocycline. Moreover, we found that the modulation of respiratory rhythm generation induced in vitro by microglial inhibitors was reproduced by microglial depletion. In conclusion, our data show that microglia can modulate respiratory rhythm generation and autoresuscitation.

  17. The Ischemic Environment Drives Microglia and Macrophage Function

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Perego, Carlo; Pischiutta, Francesca; Zanier, Elisa R.; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia

    2015-01-01

    Cells of myeloid origin, such as microglia and macrophages, act at the crossroads of several inflammatory mechanisms during pathophysiology. Besides pro-inflammatory activity (M1 polarization), myeloid cells acquire protective functions (M2) and participate in the neuroprotective innate mechanisms after brain injury. Experimental research is making considerable efforts to understand the rules that regulate the balance between toxic and protective brain innate immunity. Environmental changes affect microglia/macrophage functions. Hypoxia can affect myeloid cell distribution, activity, and phenotype. With their intrinsic differences, microglia and macrophages respond differently to hypoxia, the former depending on ATP to activate and the latter switching to anaerobic metabolism and adapting to hypoxia. Myeloid cell functions include homeostasis control, damage-sensing activity, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis, all distinctive features of these cells. Specific markers and morphologies enable to recognize each functional state. To ensure homeostasis and activate when needed, microglia/macrophage physiology is finely tuned. Microglia are controlled by several neuron-derived components, including contact-dependent inhibitory signals and soluble molecules. Changes in this control can cause chronic activation or priming with specific functional consequences. Strategies, such as stem cell treatment, may enhance microglia protective polarization. This review presents data from the literature that has greatly advanced our understanding of myeloid cell action in brain injury. We discuss the selective responses of microglia and macrophages to hypoxia after stroke and review relevant markers with the aim of defining the different subpopulations of myeloid cells that are recruited to the injured site. We also cover the functional consequences of chronically active microglia and review pivotal works on microglia regulation that offer new therapeutic possibilities for acute brain

  18. Method and apparatus for producing active coke

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E.

    1980-12-30

    At least a portion of coke produced in a hearth-type furnace is fed into an activation reactor, and at least a portion of the waste gas from the hearth-type furnace is fed to the activation reactor to act as a heating gas and/or an activation gas for the coke feed. Hot waste gas from the activation reactor is passed to a waste-heat boiler. Active coke which has at least partially lost its adsorption capacity may be fed into the furnace in mixture with the coal or alone, or it may be fed directly into the activation reactor for re-activation of the coke.

  19. Dysfunction of Glutamate Receptors in Microglia May Cause Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mami

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of glutamate signalling is important in Alzheimer's disease and other pathologies. There has been a focus on changes in neuronal glutamate signalling, but microglia also express glutamate receptors (GluRs), which are known to modulate their responses to neuropathology. Microglia express both metabotropic and ionotropic GluRs. Among ionotropic GluRs, microglial AMPA (α-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate)-type of GluRs (AMPA-Rs) are Ca2+ impermeable due to the expression of subunit GluA2. Upon activation of microglia, expression level of surface GluA2 subunits significantly increase, while expression of GluA1, A3 and A4 subunits on membrane surface significantly decrease. Owing to the GluA2 subunits-dominant composition, AMPA-Rs in activated microglia show little response to Glu. On the other hand, microglia lacking GluA2 show higher Ca(2+)-permeability, consequently inducing a significant increase in the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as TNF-α. It is suggested that membrane translocation of GluA2-containing AMPA-Rs in activated microglia has functional importance. Thus, dysfunction or decreased expression of GluA2 reported in patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may accelerate Glu neurotoxicity via excess release of proinflammatory cytokines from microglia, causing more neuronal death. PMID:26567741

  20. Endocannabinoids drive the acquisition of an alternative phenotype in microglia.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Feliú, A; Carrillo-Salinas, F J; Rueda-Zubiaurre, A; Ortega-Gutiérrez, S; de Sola, R García; Guaza, C

    2015-10-01

    The ability of microglia to acquire diverse states of activation, or phenotypes, reflects different features that are determinant for their contribution to homeostasis in the adult CNS, and their activity in neuroinflammation, repair or immunomodulation. Despite the widely reported immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids in both the peripheral immune system and the CNS, less is known about how the endocannabinoid signaling system (eCBSS) influence the microglial phenotype. The general aim of the present study was to investigate the role of endocannabinoids in microglia polarization by using microglia cell cultures. We show that alternative microglia (M2a) and acquired deactivated microglia (M2c) exhibit changes in the eCB machinery that favor the selective synthesis of 2-AG and AEA, respectively. Once released, these eCBs might be able to act through CB1 and/or CB2 receptors in order to influence the acquisition of an M2 phenotype. We present three lines of evidence that the eCBSS is critical for the acquisition of the M2 phenotype: (i) M2 polarization occurs on exposure to the two main endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA in microglia cultures; (ii) cannabinoid receptor antagonists block M2 polarization; and (iii) M2 polarization is dampened in microglia from CB2 receptor knockout mice. Taken together, these results indicate the interest of eCBSS for the regulation of microglial activation in normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Population-scale three-dimensional reconstruction and quantitative profiling of microglia arbors

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Lu, Yanbin; Mukherjee, Amit; Trett, Kristen; Chong, Peter; Harris, Carolyn; Shain, William; Roysam, Badrinath

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The arbor morphologies of brain microglia are important indicators of cell activation. This article fills the need for accurate, robust, adaptive and scalable methods for reconstructing 3-D microglial arbors and quantitatively mapping microglia activation states over extended brain tissue regions. Results: Thick rat brain sections (100–300 µm) were multiplex immunolabeled for IBA1 and Hoechst, and imaged by step-and-image confocal microscopy with automated 3-D image mosaicing, producing seamless images of extended brain regions (e.g. 5903 × 9874 × 229 voxels). An over-complete dictionary-based model was learned for the image-specific local structure of microglial processes. The microglial arbors were reconstructed seamlessly using an automated and scalable algorithm that exploits microglia-specific constraints. This method detected 80.1 and 92.8% more centered arbor points, and 53.5 and 55.5% fewer spurious points than existing vesselness and LoG-based methods, respectively, and the traces were 13.1 and 15.5% more accurate based on the DIADEM metric. The arbor morphologies were quantified using Scorcioni’s L-measure. Coifman’s harmonic co-clustering revealed four morphologically distinct classes that concord with known microglia activation patterns. This enabled us to map spatial distributions of microglial activation and cell abundances. Availability and implementation: Experimental protocols, sample datasets, scalable open-source multi-threaded software implementation (C++, MATLAB) in the electronic supplement, and website (www.farsight-toolkit.org). http://www.farsight-toolkit.org/wiki/Population-scale_Three-dimensional_Reconstruction_and_Quanti-tative_Profiling_of_Microglia_Arbors Contact: broysam@central.uh.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25701570

  2. A novel in vitro human microglia model: characterization of human monocyte-derived microglia.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Samar; Zamin, Rasheeda Mohd; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Filgueira, Luis

    2012-07-30

    Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They help maintaining physiological homeostasis and contribute significantly to inflammatory responses in the course of infection, injury and degenerative processes. To date, there is no standardized simple model available to investigate the biology of human microglia. The aim of this study was to establish a new human microglia model. For that purpose, human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured in serum free medium in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF, NGF and CCL2 to generate monocyte-derived microglia (M-MG). M-MG were clearly different in morphology, phenotype and function from freshly isolated monocytes, cultured monocytes in the absence of the cytokines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (M-DC) cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. M-MG acquired a ramified morphology with primary and secondary processes. M-MG displayed a comparable phenotype to the human microglia cell line HMC3, expressing very low levels of CD45, CD14 and HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c; and undetectable levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83, and a distinct pattern of chemokine receptors (positive for CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR1, CXCR3, CX3CR1; negative for CCR6 and CCR7). In comparison with M-DC, M-MG displayed lower T-lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, as well as lower phagocytosis activity. The described protocol for the generation of human monocyte-derived microglia is feasible, well standardized and reliable, as it uses well defined culture medium and recombinant cytokines, but no serum or conditioned medium. This protocol will certainly be very helpful for future studies investigating the biology and pathology of human microglia. PMID:22659341

  3. Polyphenols from the stems of Morus alba and their inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Céline; Krisa, Stéphanie; Péchamat, Laurent; Nassra, Merian; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Axel; Badoc, Alain; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2014-09-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders. Microglial cells, the main immune cells of the central nervous system, represent a target of interest to search for naturally occurring anti-inflammatory products. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols obtained from the stems of Morus alba. This edible species, known as white mulberry, is frequently studied because of its traditional use in Asian medicine and its richness in different types of polyphenols, some of which are known to be phytoalexins. One new coumarin glycoside, isoscopoletin 6-(6-O-β-apiofuranosyl-β-glucopyranoside) (1) was mainly isolated by CPC (centrifugal partition chromatography) from this plant, together with seven known polyphenols (2-8). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including extensive 2D NMR studies. The eight isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activities on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 microglial cells. The absence of cell toxicity is checked by a MTT assay.

  4. Regulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in microglia by RANKL.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Eric M; Ricofort, Ryan D; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F; Holliday, L Shannon

    2009-11-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  5. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase in Microglia by RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPase play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B -ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia. PMID:19715671

  6. The leech nervous system: a valuable model to study the microglia involvement in regenerative processes.

    PubMed

    Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Drago, Francesco; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Microglia are intrinsic components of the central nervous system (CNS). During pathologies in mammals, inflammatory processes implicate the resident microglia and the infiltration of blood cells including macrophages. Functions of microglia appear to be complex as they exhibit both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects during neuropathological conditions in vivo and in vitro. The medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis is a well-known model in neurobiology due to its ability to naturally repair its CNS following injury. Considering the low infiltration of blood cells in this process, the leech CNS is studied to specify the activation mechanisms of only resident microglial cells. The microglia recruitment is known to be essential for the usual sprouting of injured axons and does not require any other glial cells. The present review will describe the questions which are addressed to understand the nerve repair. They will discuss the implication of leech factors in the microglial accumulation, the identification of nerve cells producing these molecules, and the study of different microglial subsets. Those questions aim to better understand the mechanisms of microglial cell recruitment and their crosstalk with damaged neurons. The study of this dialog is necessary to elucidate the balance of the inflammation leading to the leech CNS repair. PMID:23878582

  7. Image processing methods to elucidate spatial characteristics of retinal microglia after optic nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yudong; Peng, Bo; Wang, Shuihua; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Yang, Jiquan; So, Kwok-Fai; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the mononuclear phagocytes with various functions in the central nervous system, and the morphologies of microglia imply the different stages and functions. In optical nerve transection model of the retina, the retrograde degeneration of retinal ganglion cells induces microglial activations to a unique morphology termed rod microglia. A few studies described the rod microglia in the cortex and retina; however, the spatial characteristic of rod microglia is not fully understood. In this study, we built a mathematical model to characterize the spatial trait of rod microglia. In addition, we developed a Matlab-based image processing pipeline that consists of log enhancement, image segmentation, mathematical morphology based cell detection, area calculation and angle analysis. This computer program provides researchers a powerful tool to quickly analyze the spatial trait of rod microglia. PMID:26888347

  8. Primary cultures of rat cortical microglia treated with nicotine increases in the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (GLAST) via the activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Morioka, N; Tokuhara, M; Nakamura, Y; Idenoshita, Y; Harano, S; Zhang, F F; Hisaoka-Nakashima, K; Nakata, Y

    2014-01-31

    Although the clearance of glutamate from the synapse under physiological conditions is performed by astrocytic glutamate transporters, their expression might be diminished under pathological conditions. Microglia glutamate transporters, however, might serve as a back-up system when astrocytic glutamate uptake is impaired, and could have a prominent neuroprotective function under pathological conditions. In the current study, the effect of nicotine, well known as a neuroprotective molecule, on the function of glutamate transporters in cultured rat cortical microglia was examined. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and pharmacological approaches demonstrated that, glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), not glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), is the major functional glutamate transporter in cultured cortical microglia. Furthermore, the α7 subunit was demonstrated to be the key subunit comprising nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors in these cells. Treatment of cortical microglia with nicotine led to a significant increase of GLAST mRNA expression and (14)C-glutamate uptake in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which were markedly inhibited by pretreatment with methyllycaconitine, a selective α7 nACh receptor antagonist. The nicotine-induced expression of GLAST mRNA and protein is mediated through an inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) depend intracellular pathway, since pretreatment with either xestospongin C, an IP3 receptor antagonist, or KN-93, a CaMKII inhibitor, blocked GLAST expression. Together, these findings indicate that activation of nACh receptors, specifically those expressing the α7 subunit, on cortical microglia could be a key mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of nACh receptor ligands such as nicotine.

  9. Effects of Microglia on Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kaoru

    2015-08-01

    This review summarizes and organizes the literature concerning the effects of microglia on neurogenesis, particularly focusing on the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, in which the neurogenic potential is progressively restricted during the life of the organism. A comparison of microglial roles in neurogenesis in these two regions indicates that microglia regulate neurogenesis in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Microglia may also sense signals from the surrounding environment and have regulatory effects on neurogenesis. We speculate microglia function as a hub for the information obtained from the inner and outer brain regions for regulating neurogenesis.

  10. scAAV9-VEGF prolongs the survival of transgenic ALS mice by promoting activation of M2 microglia and the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Weisong; Wang, Wan; Di Wen; Liu, Yaling; Liu, Yakun; Li, Zhongyao; Hu, Haojie; Lin, Huiqian; Cui, Can; Li, Dongxiao; Dong, Hui; Li, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease that leads to paralysis and death three to five years after diagnosis in most patients. The disease is incurable, and the mechanism of motoneuron degeneration remains unknown, although research has demonstrated that activated microglia are involved in motor neuron death. Here, we used a simple method to deliver AAV9 virus by direct intrathecal injection and found that scAAV9-VEGF-165 improved the motor performance and prolonged the life span of SOD1-G93A mice. Furthermore, scAAV9-VEGF-165 activated the PI3K/Akt survival pathway and increased the level of Bcl-2, which contributed to the protection of motor neurons. Additionally, scAAV9-VEGF-165 attenuated the expression of classically activated (M1) microglial markers and enhanced the expression of alternatively activated (M2) microglial markers. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that simple, direct intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF-165 may have a curative effect for ALS. PMID:27392886

  11. Pro-inflammatory cytokine regulation of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase 4 signaling in microglia in vitro and following CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Garcia-Castillo, Daniela; Aguirre, Vladimir; Golshani, Roozbeh; Atkins, Coleen M.; Bramlett, Helen M.; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Pearse, Damien D.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP suppresses immune cell activation and inflammation. The positive feedback loop of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation implies that cytokines may not only be regulated by cyclic AMP but conversely regulate cyclic AMP. This study examined the effects of TNF-α and IL-1β on cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) signaling in microglia in vitro and after spinal cord or traumatic brain injury (SCI, TBI). TNF-α or IL-1β stimulation produced a profound reduction (>90%) of cyclic AMP within EOC2 microglia from 30min that then recovered after IL-1β but remained suppressed with TNF-α through 24h. Cyclic AMP was also reduced in TNF-α-stimulated primary microglia, albeit to a lesser extent. Accompanying TNF-α-induced cyclic AMP reductions, but not IL-1β, was increased cyclic AMP-PDE activity. The role of PDE4 activity in cyclic AMP reductions was confirmed by using Rolipram. Examination of pde4 mRNA revealed an immediate, persistent increase in pde4b with TNF-α; IL-1β increased all pde4 mRNAs. Immunoblotting for PDE4 showed that both cytokines increased PDE4A1, but only TNF-α increased PDE4B2. Immunocytochemistry revealed PDE4B nuclear translocation with TNF-α but not IL-1β. Acutely after SCI/TBI, where cyclic AMP levels are reduced, PDE4B was localized to activated OX-42+ microglia; PDE4B was absent in OX-42+ cells in uninjured spinal cord/cortex or inactive microglia. Immunoblotting showed PDE4B2 up-regulation from 24h to 1wk post-SCI, the peak of microglia activation. These studies show that TNF-α and IL-1β differentially affect cyclic AMP-PDE signaling in microglia. Targeting PDE4B2 may be a putative therapeutic direction for reducing microglia activation in CNS injury and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22865690

  12. Microglia participate in neurogenic regulation of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao Z; Li, You; Li, Liang; Shah, Kandarp H; Bernstein, Kenneth E; Lyden, Patrick; Shi, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is associated with neuroinflammation and increased sympathetic tone. Interference with neuroinflammation by an anti-inflammatory reagent or overexpression of interleukin-10 in the brain was found to attenuate hypertension. However, the cellular mechanism of neuroinflammation, as well as its impact on neurogenic regulation of blood pressure, is unclear. Here, we found that hypertension, induced by either angiotensin II or l-N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, is accompanied by microglial activation as manifested by microgliosis and proinflammatory cytokine upregulation. Targeted depletion of microglia significantly attenuated neuroinflammation, glutamate receptor expression in the paraventricular nucleus, plasma vasopressin level, kidney norepinephrine concentration, and blood pressure. Furthermore, when microglia were preactivated and transferred into the brains of normotensive mice, there was a significantly prolonged pressor response to intracerebroventricular injection of angiotensin II, and inactivation of microglia eliminated these effects. These data demonstrate that microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the major cellular factors in mediating neuroinflammation and modulating neuronal excitation, which contributes to the elevated blood pressure.

  13. Reduced Alzheimer's disease pathology by St. John's Wort treatment is independent of hyperforin and facilitated by ABCC1 and microglia activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Krohn, Markus; Schumacher, Toni; Lange, Cathleen; Feistel, Björn; Walbroel, Bernd; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Crockett, Sara; Sharbel, Timothy F; Pahnke, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Soluble β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and small Aβ oligomers represent the most toxic peptide moieties recognized in brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide the first evidence that specific St. John's wort (SJW) extracts both attenuate Aβ-induced histopathology and alleviate memory impairments in APP-transgenic mice. Importantly, these effects are attained independently of hyperforin. Specifically, two extracts characterized by low hyperforin content (i) significantly decrease intracerebral Aβ42 levels, (ii) decrease the number and size of amyloid plaques, (iii) rescue neocortical neurons, (iv) restore cognition to normal levels, and (iv) activate microglia in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal that the reduction of soluble Aβ42 species is the consequence of a highly increased export activity in the bloodbrain barrier ABCC1transporter, which was found to play a fundamental role in Aβ excretion into the bloodstream. These data (i) support the significant beneficial potential of SJW extracts on AD proteopathy, and (ii) demonstrate for the first time that hyperforin concentration does not necessarily correlate with their therapeutic effects. Hence, by activating ABC transporters, specific extracts of SJW may be used to treat AD and other diseases involving peptide accumulation and cognition impairment. We propose that the anti-depressant and anti-dementia effects of these hyperforin-reduced phytoextracts could be combined for treatment of the elderly, with a concomitant reduction in deleterious hyperforin-related side effects.

  14. Antiprion Activity of DB772 and Related Monothiophene- and Furan-Based Analogs in a Persistently Infected Ovine Microglia Culture System.

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Kelcey D; Stanton, James B; Boykin, David W; Stephens, Chad E; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Schneider, David A

    2016-09-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding of the native cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the accumulating, disease-associated isoform (PrP(Sc)). Despite extensive research into the inhibition of prion accumulation, no effective treatment exists. Previously, we demonstrated the inhibitory activity of DB772, a monocationic phenyl-furan-benzimidazole, against PrP(Sc) accumulation in sheep microglial cells. In an effort to determine the effect of structural substitutions on the antiprion activity of DB772, we employed an in vitro strategy to survey a library of structurally related, monothiophene- and furan-based compounds for improved inhibitory activity. Eighty-nine compounds were screened at 1 μM for effects on cell viability and prion accumulation in a persistently infected ovine microglia culture system. Eleven compounds with activity equivalent to or higher than that of DB772 were identified as preliminary hit compounds. For the preliminary hits, cytotoxicities and antiprion activities were compared to calculate the tissue culture selectivity index. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was performed to determine molecular components contributing to antiprion activity. To investigate potential mechanisms of inhibition, effects on PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) were examined. While inhibition of total PrP(C) was not observed, the results suggest that a potential target for inhibition at biologically relevant concentrations is through PrP(C) misfolding to PrP(Sc) Further, SAR analysis suggests that two structural elements were associated with micromolar antiprion activity. Taken together, the described data provide a foundation for deeper investigation into untested DB compounds and in the design of effective therapeutics. PMID:27381401

  15. Antiprion Activity of DB772 and Related Monothiophene- and Furan-Based Analogs in a Persistently Infected Ovine Microglia Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Dinkel, Kelcey D.; Stanton, James B.; Boykin, David W.; Stephens, Chad E.; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A.

    2016-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding of the native cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the accumulating, disease-associated isoform (PrPSc). Despite extensive research into the inhibition of prion accumulation, no effective treatment exists. Previously, we demonstrated the inhibitory activity of DB772, a monocationic phenyl-furan-benzimidazole, against PrPSc accumulation in sheep microglial cells. In an effort to determine the effect of structural substitutions on the antiprion activity of DB772, we employed an in vitro strategy to survey a library of structurally related, monothiophene- and furan-based compounds for improved inhibitory activity. Eighty-nine compounds were screened at 1 μM for effects on cell viability and prion accumulation in a persistently infected ovine microglia culture system. Eleven compounds with activity equivalent to or higher than that of DB772 were identified as preliminary hit compounds. For the preliminary hits, cytotoxicities and antiprion activities were compared to calculate the tissue culture selectivity index. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis was performed to determine molecular components contributing to antiprion activity. To investigate potential mechanisms of inhibition, effects on PrPC and PrPSc were examined. While inhibition of total PrPC was not observed, the results suggest that a potential target for inhibition at biologically relevant concentrations is through PrPC misfolding to PrPSc. Further, SAR analysis suggests that two structural elements were associated with micromolar antiprion activity. Taken together, the described data provide a foundation for deeper investigation into untested DB compounds and in the design of effective therapeutics. PMID:27381401

  16. Acetylsalicylic acid enhances the anti-inflammatory effect of fluoxetine through inhibition of NF-κB, p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Rui, B B; Chen, C; Chen, H; Xu, T J; Xu, W P; Wei, W

    2014-09-01

    The latest advancements in neurobiological research provide increasing evidence that inflammatory and neurodegenerative pathways play an important role in depression. According to the cytokine hypothesis, depression could be due to the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by microglia activation. Thus, using the BV-2 microglial cell line, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether fluoxetine (FLX) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could inhibit this microglia activation and could achieve better results in combination. Our results showed that FLX could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the expression of the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme and the depletion of 5-HT. Moreover, FLX could inhibit phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the combined use with ASA could enhance these effects. Notably, the adjunctive agent ASA could also inhibit phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Taken together, our results suggest that FLX may have some anti-inflammatory effects by modulating microglia activation and that ASA served as an effective adjunctive agent by enhancing these therapeutic effects.

  17. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Oxymatrine Through Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa B and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 Microglia Cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Feng; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Oxymatrine, a potent monosomic alkaloid extracted from Chinese herb Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait.). possesses anti-inflammatory activittyes. This study was designed to investigate the effects of oxymatrine on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. In this paper, BV2 microglia were pretreated with different concentrations of oxymatrine (1, 10 and 20 μg/mL) for 30 min as followed by stimulation with LPS (1 μg/mL) for different times (30 min, 1 h, 3 h, and 6 h). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatant, mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (I-κBα) and phospho- I-κBα and nuclear p65 protein levels, and the phosphorylations of MAPK molecules such as extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were determined. It was shown that oxymatrine inhibited the productions of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, attenuated the mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2, suppressed the phosphorylation of I-κBα in cytosol, decreased the nuclear levels of p65, and also blocked ERK, p38 and JNK pathway in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells in a dose-dependent manner. According to the results; It is suggested that oxymatrine may attenuate inflammatory responses of microglia and could be potentially useful in modulation of inflammatory status in the brain disorders. PMID:24250585

  18. A Death Trap for Microglia.

    PubMed

    Du, Xu-Fei; Du, Jiu-Lin

    2016-07-25

    Microglia, immune cells of the brain, originate from erythromyeloid precursors, far from the central nervous system. Xu et al. (2016) in this issue of Developmental Cell and Casano et al. (2016) recently in Cell Reports show that apoptotic neurons act as bait to "trap" microglia into colonizing the developing brain. PMID:27459061

  19. Phytoestrogens mediated anti-inflammatory effect through suppression of IRF-1 and pSTAT1 expressions in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Jantaratnotai, Nattinee; Utaisincharoen, Pongsak; Sanvarinda, Pimtip; Thampithak, Anusorn; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2013-10-01

    Microglial activation has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and HIV encephalopathy. Phytoestrogens have been shown to be neuroprotective in neurotoxicity models; however, their effect on microglia has not been well established. In the current study, we report that the soy phytoestrogens, genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol, decreased nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rat microglial cell line (HAPI). The levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression were also reduced. Transcription factors known to govern iNOS expression including interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) and phosphorylated STAT1 were down regulated. These observations explain, at least in part, the inhibitory effect of phytoestrogens on NO production. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 mRNA, proinflammatory chemokine and cytokine associated with various neurological disorders, were also reduced following LPS stimulation when HAPI cells were pretreated with phytoestrogens. Hence, genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol could serve as anti-inflammatory agents and may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Microglia contact induces synapse formation in developing somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Akiko; Wake, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Eto, Kei; Shibata, Keisuke; Murakoshi, Hideji; Koizumi, Schuichi; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Nabekura, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system that play important roles in brain pathologies. Microglia also help shape neuronal circuits during development, via phagocytosing weak synapses and regulating neurogenesis. Using in vivo multiphoton imaging of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the developing somatosensory cortex, we demonstrate here that microglial contact with dendrites directly induces filopodia formation. This filopodia formation occurs only around postnatal day 8–10, a period of intense synaptogenesis and when microglia have an activated phenotype. Filopodia formation is preceded by contact-induced Ca2+ transients and actin accumulation. Inhibition of microglia by genetic ablation decreases subsequent spine density, functional excitatory synapses and reduces the relative connectivity from layer 4 neurons. Our data provide the direct demonstration of microglial-induced spine formation and provide further insights into immune system regulation of neuronal circuit development, with potential implications for developmental disorders of immune and brain dysfunction. PMID:27558646

  1. Metal ions potentiate microglia responsiveness to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Rachmawati, Dessy; Peferoen, Laura A N; Vogel, Daphne Y S; Alsalem, Inás W A; Amor, Sandra; Bontkes, Hetty J; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Scheper, Rik J; van Hoogstraten, Ingrid M W

    2016-02-15

    Oral metal exposure has been associated with diverse adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity. We showed previously that dentally applied metals activate dendritic cells (MoDC) via TLR4 (Ni, Co, Pd) and TLR3 (Au). It is still unknown whether the low levels of dental metals reaching the brain can trigger local innate cells or prime them to become more responsive. Here we tested whether dentally applied metals (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Au, Hg) activate primary human microglia in vitro and, as a model, monocytic THP-1-cells, in high non-toxic as well as near-physiological concentrations. In addition the effects of 'near-physiological' metal exposure on endotoxin (LPS) responsiveness of these cells were evaluated. IL-8 and IL-6 production after 24h was used as read out. In high, non-toxic concentrations all transition metals except Cr induced IL-8 and IL-6 production in microglia, with Ni and Co providing the strongest stimulation. When using near-physiological doses (up to 10× the normal plasma concentration), only Zn and Cu induced significant IL-8 production. Of note, the latter metals also markedly potentiated LPS responsiveness of microglia and THP-1 cells. In conclusion, transition metals activate microglia similar to MoDCs. In near-physiological concentrations Zn and Cu are the most effective mediators of innate immune activation. A clear synergism between innate responses to Zn/Cu and LPS was observed, shedding new light on the possible relation between oral metal exposure and neurotoxicity.

  2. Microglia and inflammation: conspiracy, controversy or control?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Adelaide; Miller-Fleming, Leonor; Pais, Teresa F

    2014-10-01

    Microglial cells contribute to normal function of the central nervous system (CNS). Besides playing a role in the innate immunity, they are also involved in neuronal plasticity and homeostasis of the CNS. While microglial cells get activated and undergo phenotypic changes in different disease contexts, they are far from being the "villains" in the CNS. Mounting evidence indicates that microglial dysfunction can exacerbate the pathogenesis of several diseases in the CNS. Several molecular mechanisms tightly regulate the production of inflammatory and toxic factors released by microglia. These mechanisms involve the interaction with other glial cells and neurons and the fine regulation of signaling and transcription activation pathways. The purpose of this review is to discuss microglia activation and to highlight the molecular pathways that can counteract the detrimental role of microglia in several neurologic diseases. Recent work presented in this review support that the understanding of microglial responses can pave the way to design new therapies for inflammatory diseases of the CNS. PMID:25008043

  3. HIV-infected microglia mediate cathepsin B-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zenón, Frances; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel; Adiga, Radhika; Gonzalez, Mariangeline; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Langford, Dianne; Melendez, Loyda M

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release soluble factors that affect the homeostasis in tissue. HIV-1 can prompt metabolic encephalopathy with the addition of neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Recently, we reported that HIV-1 enhances the expression and secretion of bioactive cathepsin B in monocyte-derived macrophages, ultimately contributing to neuronal apoptosis. In this research, we asked if microglia respond to HIV infection similarly by modifying the expression, secretion, and neurotoxic potential of cathepsin B and determined the in vivo relevance of these findings. HIV-1ADA-infected human primary microglia and CHME-5 microglia cell line were assessed for expression and activity of cathepsin B, its inhibitors, cystatins B and C, and the neurotoxicity associated with these changes. Human primary neurons were exposed to supernatants from HIV-infected and uninfected microglia in the presence of cathepsin B inhibitors and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Microglial expression of cathepsin B was validated in brain tissue from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. HIV-infected microglia secreted significantly greater levels of cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C compared to uninfected cells. Increased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to supernatants from HIV-1 infected microglia at day 12 post-infection. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 and cathepsin B antibody prevented neuronal apoptosis. Increased microglia-derived cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C and caspase-3+ neurons were detected in HIVE brains compared to controls. Our results suggest that HIV-1-induced cathepsin B production in microglia contributes to neuronal apoptosis and may be an important factor in neuronal death associated with HIVE.

  4. Time lapse in vivo microscopy reveals distinct dynamics of microglia-tumor environment interactions-a new role for the tumor perivascular space as highway for trafficking microglia.

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Simon Heinrich; Niesner, Raluca; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Radbruch, Helena; Pohlan, Julian; Brandenburg, Susan; Czabanka, Marcus Alexander; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Microglial cells are critical for glioma growth and progression. However, only little is known about intratumoral microglial behavior and the dynamic interaction with the tumor. Currently the scarce understanding of microglial appearance in malignant gliomas merely originates from histological studies and in vitro investigations. In order to understand the pattern of microglia activity, motility and migration we designed an intravital study in an orthotopic murine glioma model using CX3CR1-eGFP(GFP/wt) mice. We analysed the dynamics of intratumoral microglia accumulation and activity, as well as microglia/tumor blood vessel interaction by epi-illumination and 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. We further investigated cellular and tissue function, including the enzyme activity of intratumoral and microglial NADPH oxidase measured by in vivo fluorescence lifetime imaging. We identified three morphological phenotypes of tumor-associated microglia cells with entirely different motility patterns. We found that NADPH oxidase activation is highly divergent in these microglia subtypes leading to different production levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We observed that microglia motility is highest within the perivascular niche, suggesting relevance of microglia/tumor blood vessel interactions. In line, reduction of tumor blood vessels by antivascular therapy confirmed the relevance of the tumor vessel compartment on microglia biology in brain tumors. In summary, we provide new insights into in vivo microglial behavior, regarding both morphology and function, in malignant gliomas. GLIA 2016;64:1210-1226.

  5. Microglia engulf viable newborn cells in the epileptic dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cong; Koyama, Ryuta; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microglia, which are the brain's resident immune cells, engulf dead neural progenitor cells during adult neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG). The number of newborn cells in the SGZ increases significantly after status epilepticus (SE), but whether and how microglia regulate the number of newborn cells after SE remain unclear. Here, we show that microglia rapidly eliminate newborn cells after SE by primary phagocytosis, a process by which viable cells are engulfed, thereby regulating the number of newborn cells that are incorporated into the DG. The number of newborn cells in the DG was increased at 5 days after SE in the adult mouse brain but rapidly decreased to the control levels within a week. During this period, microglia in the DG were highly active and engulfed newborn cells. We found that the majority of engulfed newborn cells were caspase-negative viable cells. Finally, inactivation of microglia with minocycline maintained the increase in the number of newborn cells after SE. Furthermore, minocycline treatment after SE induced the emergence of hilar ectopic granule cells. Thus, our findings suggest that microglia may contribute to homeostasis of the dentate neurogenic niche by eliminating excess newborn cells after SE via primary phagocytosis. GLIA 2016;64:1508-1517.

  6. Effects of Microglia on Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes and organizes the literature concerning the effects of microglia on neurogenesis, particularly focusing on the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, in which the neurogenic potential is progressively restricted during the life of the organism. A comparison of microglial roles in neurogenesis in these two regions indicates that microglia regulate neurogenesis in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Microglia may also sense signals from the surrounding environment and have regulatory effects on neurogenesis. We speculate microglia function as a hub for the information obtained from the inner and outer brain regions for regulating neurogenesis. GLIA 2015;63:1394–1405 PMID:26010551

  7. Oligodendrocyte-microglia cross-talk in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura; Kipp, Markus; van der Valk, Paul; van Noort, Johannes M; Amor, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Communication between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) is exemplified by cross-talk between glia and neurons shown to be essential for maintaining homeostasis. While microglia are actively modulated by neurons in the healthy brain, little is known about the cross-talk between oligodendrocytes and microglia. Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the CNS, are essential for the propagation of action potentials along axons, and additionally serve to support neurons by producing neurotrophic factors. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes are thought to be the victims. Here, we review evidence that oligodendrocytes also have strong immune functions, express a wide variety of innate immune receptors, and produce and respond to chemokines and cytokines that modulate immune responses in the CNS. We also review evidence that during stress events in the brain, oligodendrocytes can trigger a cascade of protective and regenerative responses, in addition to responses that elicit progressive neurodegeneration. Knowledge of the cross-talk between microglia and oligodendrocytes may continue to uncover novel pathways of immune regulation in the brain that could be further exploited to control neuroinflammation and degeneration.

  8. Microglia in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Richard M; El Khoury, Joseph

    2015-09-09

    Microglia, the major myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are implicated in physiologic processes and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders. Since their initial description early in the 20th century, our ability to identify and isolate microglia has significantly improved and new research is providing insight into the functions of these cells in sickness and in health. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of microglia in physiological and pathological processes of the CNS with a focus on multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Because of the prominent roles CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine played in bringing about these advances, we discuss the physiological and pathological roles of microglia as viewed from the CX3CR1-fractalkine perspective, providing a unique viewpoint. Based on the most recent studies of molecular profiling of microglia, we also propose a molecular and functional definition of microglia that incorporates the properties attributed to these cells in recent years.

  9. Histamine H3 receptor in primary mouse microglia inhibits chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Iida, Tomomitsu; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Matsuzawa, Takuro; Naganuma, Fumito; Nakamura, Tadaho; Miura, Yamato; Mohsen, Attayeb S; Harada, Ryuichi; Iwata, Ren; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a physiological amine which initiates a multitude of physiological responses by binding to four known G-protein coupled histamine receptor subtypes as follows: histamine H1 receptor (H1 R), H2 R, H3 R, and H4 R. Brain histamine elicits neuronal excitation and regulates a variety of physiological processes such as learning and memory, sleep-awake cycle and appetite regulation. Microglia, the resident macrophages in the brain, express histamine receptors; however, the effects of histamine on critical microglial functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion have not been examined in primary cells. We demonstrated that mouse primary microglia express H2 R, H3 R, histidine decarboxylase, a histamine synthase, and histamine N-methyltransferase, a histamine metabolizing enzyme. Both forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation and ATP-induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients were reduced by the H3 R agonist imetit but not the H2 R agonist amthamine. H3 R activation on two ubiquitous second messenger signalling pathways suggests that H3 R can regulate various microglial functions. In fact, histamine and imetit dose-dependently inhibited microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, we confirmed that microglia produced histamine in the presence of LPS, suggesting that H3 R activation regulate microglial function by autocrine and/or paracrine signalling. In conclusion, we demonstrate the involvement of histamine in primary microglial functions, providing the novel insight into physiological roles of brain histamine.

  10. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Tang, H-B; Kang, J; Shan, L; Song, H; Zhu, K; Wang, J; Ju, G; Wang, Y-Z

    2015-12-17

    Microglia/macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although extensive studies have been performed on the mechanisms of microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment, how microglia/macrophages are eliminated remains unclear. In the present study, we observed a high-level expression of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key molecule in the execution of necroptosis, in microglia/macrophages after SCI in mice. In vivo PI-labeling and Necrostatin-1 treatment confirmed the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, our electronic microscopic (EM) study revealed that MLKL localized not only at the membrane but also on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), another necrosome component, was also found on the ER of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. And Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress sensor, was up-regulated in MLKL-positive microglia/macrophages after SCI, suggesting a possible link between necroptosis and ER stress. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress induced ER stress and necroptosis in microglia. Inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly blocked the OGD-induced necroptosis of microglia. In the end, our data showed that, GRP78 and phosphorylated MLKL were co-expressed by the microglia/macrophages in the injured human spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggested that microglia/macrophages undergo an ER-stress involved necroptosis after SCI, implying that ER stress and necroptosis could be manipulated for modulating inflammation post-SCI.

  11. Enhanced Migration of Neural Stem Cells by Microglia Grown on a Three-Dimensional Graphene Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ziyun; Song, Qin; Tang, Mingliang; Yang, Lingyan; Cheng, Yilin; Zhang, Min; Xu, Dongsheng; Cheng, Guosheng

    2016-09-28

    One of the key challenges in engineering neural tissues for cell-based therapies is to develop a biocompatible scaffold material to direct neural stem cell (NSC) behaviors. One great advantage for a scaffold would be to induce NSC migration toward pathological sites during regeneration and repair. In particular, the inflammatory responses in the pathological zone, which are mainly mediated by microglia in the central nervous system, affect the repair capacity of NSCs through NSC migration. Recently, graphene was used as a neural interface and scaffold material, but few studies have addressed the relationship between microglia and NSCs in a graphene culture system. In this study, we used a combination of immunofluorescence, Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and scanning electron microscopy to investigate how conditioned medium (CM) produced from microglia grown on two-dimensional graphene (2D-G) films or three-dimensional graphene (3D-G) foams govern NSC migration. The results revealed that the CM produced by microglia grown in 3D-G cultures could promote neurosphere formation, facilitate NSC migration from the neurospheres, and increase single cell polarization by activating the stromal cell-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling pathway and enhancing cell adhesion on the substrate. By contrast, the 2D-G CM failed to achieve these results. Our study suggests the great potential of 3D-G as a neural scaffold for NSC-based therapy in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27589088

  12. Embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells fuse with microglia and mature neurons.

    PubMed

    Cusulin, Carlo; Monni, Emanuela; Ahlenius, Henrik; Wood, James; Brune, Jan Claas; Lindvall, Olle; Kokaia, Zaal

    2012-12-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a novel strategy to restore function in the diseased brain, acting through multiple mechanisms, for example, neuronal replacement, neuroprotection, and modulation of inflammation. Whether transplanted NSCs can operate by fusing with microglial cells or mature neurons is largely unknown. Here, we have studied the interaction of a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem (NS) cell line with rat and mouse microglia and neurons in vitro and in vivo. We show that NS cells spontaneously fuse with cocultured cortical neurons, and that this process requires the presence of microglia. Our in vitro data indicate that the NS cells can first fuse with microglia and then with neurons. The fused NS/microglial cells express markers and retain genetic and functional characteristics of both parental cell types, being able to respond to microglia-specific stimuli (LPS and IL-4/IL-13) and to differentiate to neurons and astrocytes. The NS cells fuse with microglia, at least partly, through interaction between phosphatidylserine exposed on the surface of NS cells and CD36 receptor on microglia. Transplantation of NS cells into rodent cortex results in fusion with mature pyramidal neurons, which often carry two nuclei, a process probably mediated by microglia. The fusogenic role of microglia could be even more important after NSC transplantation into brains affected by neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglia activation. It remains to be elucidated how the occurrence of the fused cells will influence the functional outcome after NSC transplantation in the diseased brain.

  13. Inhibitory effects of Blueberry Extract on the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in LPS-activated BV2 Microglia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained microglial activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been extensively investigated in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and has been postulated to lead to neuronal cell loss in these conditions. Recent studies have shown that anti-inflammatory drugs may suppress microglial ac...

  14. Repurposing psychiatric medicines to target activated microglia in anxious mild cognitive impairment and early Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the pre-motor stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD). A concomitant and possible cause of this anxiety is microglial activation, also considered a key promoter of neurodegeneration in MCI and early PD via inflammatory mechanisms and the generation of degenerative proinflammatory cytokines. Psychiatric disorders, prevalent in AD and PD, are often treated with psychiatric drugs (psychotropics), raising the question of whether psychotropics might therapeutically affect microglial activation, MCI, and PD. The literature of common psychotropics used in treating psychiatric disorders was reviewed for preclinical and clinical findings regarding microglial activation. Findings potentially compatible with reduced microglial activation or reduced microglial inflammogen release were evident for: antipsychotics including neuroleptics (chlorpromazine, thioridazine, loxapine) and atypicals (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone); mood stabilizers (carbamazepine, valproate, lithium); antidepressants including tricyclics (amitriptyline, clomipramine, imipramine, nortriptyline), SSRIs (citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline), venlafaxine, and bupropion; benzodiazepine anxiolytics (clonazepam, diazepam); cognitive enhancers (donepezil, galantamine, memantine); and other drugs (dextromethorphan, quinidine, amantadine). In contrast, pramipexole and methylphenidate might promote microglial activation. The most promising replicated findings of reduced microglial activation are for quetiapine, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, donepezil, and memantine but further study is needed and translation of their microglial effects to human disease still requires investigation. In AD-relevant models, risperidone, valproate, lithium, fluoxetine, bupropion, donepezil, and memantine have therapeutic microglial effects in need of replication. Limited

  15. ME-03BONE MARROW DERIVED MICROGLIA AND THEIR FUNCTION WITHIN TUMOR MICROENVIRONMENT

    PubMed Central

    Burrell, Kelly; Singh, Sanjay; Agnihotri, Sameer; Hill, Richard; Aldape, Kenneth; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that BMDC are recruited to Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), in a highly tumor-growth and region-dependent pattern, demonstrating that the majority of BMDCs differentiate into inflammatory cells, MAC3 + , and CD11b+ IBA1+ microglia-like cells. The majority of microglia seen in GBM microenvironment are derived from the BMDC rather than being resident brain microglia. The role of microglial cells in GBMs remains unknown, with evidence supporting both an anti- and pro- tumorgenic function. In this study we aimed to understand the contribution of microglia to GBM growth and tumor vascularity. Chimeric mice with reconstituted green-fluorescent bone marrow were used to create intracranial GBM xenografts, by implanting red fluorescent glioma stem cells or U87 into the frontal lobe. Using a known inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline, we show that treatment with this agent increased tumor cell growth and invasiveness and reduced animal survival compared to controls. We show that Minocycline decreases activation of microglia, inhibits the phagocytic activity of microglia in GBMs and decreases the perivascular localization of microglia. The mRNA expression profile of microglia isolated from the GBM microenvironment showed, through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), a loss of engulfment and migration of cells and phaocytotic pathways in BM-derived microglia, additionally we see a reorganization of cytoskeletal pathways leading to an increase in the migration and invasiveness of GBM cells following treatment with Minocycline. We also have preliminary data to suggest that this property of Minocycline is dependent on VEGF levels, where in the context of low VEGF Minocycline does not provide a significant anti-angiogenic role. We demonstrate that microglia in GBM microenvironment, are primarily recruited and differentiated from the BM and not resident, and that these cells have an anti-tumorgenic functions, and inhibition of the activated

  16. Postmortem Adult Human Microglia Proliferate in Culture to High Passage and Maintain Their Response to Amyloid-β

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ling; Rezvanian, Aras; Kukreja, Lokesh; Hoveydai, Ramez; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; El Khoury, Joseph; Geula, Changiz

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells of the brain that display a range of functions. Most of our knowledge about microglia biology and function is based on cells from the rodent brain. Species variation in the complexity of the brain and differences in microglia response in the primate when compared with the rodent, require use of adult human microglia in studies of microglia biology. While methods exist for isolation of microglia from postmortem human brains, none allow culturing cells to high passage. Thus cells from the same case could not be used in parallel studies and multiple conditions. Here we report a method, which includes use of growth factors such as granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, for successful culturing of adult human microglia from postmortem human brains up to 28 passages without significant loss of proliferation. Such cultures maintained their phenotype, including uptake of the scavenger receptor ligand acetylated low density lipoprotein and response to the amyloid-β peptide, and were used to extend in vivo studies in the primate brain demonstrating that inhibition of microglia activation protects neurons from amyloid-β toxicity. Significantly, microglia cultured from brains with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease displayed the same characteristics as microglia cultured from normal aged brains. The method described here provides the scientific community with a new and reliable tool for mechanistic studies of human microglia function in health from childhood to old age, and in disease, enhancing the relevance of the findings to the human brain and neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:27567845

  17. Minocycline Transiently Reduces Microglia/Macrophage Activation but Exacerbates Cognitive Deficits Following Repetitive Traumatic Brain Injury in the Neonatal Rat.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Lauren A; Huh, Jimmy W; Raghupathi, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Elevated microglial/macrophage-associated biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid of infant victims of abusive head trauma (AHT) suggest that these cells play a role in the pathophysiology of the injury. In a model of AHT in 11-day-old rats, 3 impacts (24 hours apart) resulted in spatial learning and memory deficits and increased brain microglial/macrophage reactivity, traumatic axonal injury, neuronal degeneration, and cortical and white-matter atrophy. The antibiotic minocycline has been effective in decreasing injury-induced microglial/macrophage activation while simultaneously attenuating cellular and functional deficits in models of neonatal hypoxic ischemia, but the potential for this compound to rescue deficits after impact-based trauma to the immature brain remains unexplored. Acute minocycline administration in this model of AHT decreased microglial/macrophage reactivity in the corpus callosum of brain-injured animals at 3 days postinjury, but this effect was lost by 7 days postinjury. Additionally, minocycline treatment had no effect on traumatic axonal injury, neurodegeneration, tissue atrophy, or spatial learning deficits. Interestingly, minocycline-treated animals demonstrated exacerbated injury-induced spatial memory deficits. These results contrast with previous findings in other models of brain injury and suggest that minocycline is ineffective in reducing microglial/macrophage activation and ameliorating injury-induced deficits following repetitive neonatal traumatic brain injury. PMID:26825312

  18. HIV-infected microglia mediate cathepsin B induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zenón, Frances; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel; Adiga, Radhika; Gonzalez, Mariangeline; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Langford, Dianne; Melendez, Loyda M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release soluble factors that affect the homeostasis in tissue. HIV-1 can prompt metabolic encephalopathy with the addition of neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Recently, we reported that HIV-1 enhances the expression and secretion of bioactive cathepsin B in monocyte-derived macrophages, ultimately contributing to neuronal apoptosis. In this research, we request if microglia respond to HIV infection similarly by modifying the expression, secretion, neurotoxic potential of cathepsin B and the in vivo relevance of these findings. METHODS HIV-ADA infected human primary microglia and CHME-5 were assessed for expression and activity of cathepsin B, its inhibitors, cystatins B and C, and neurotoxicity associated with these changes. Human primary neurons were exposed to supernatants from HIV-infected and uninfected microglia in the presence of cathepsin B inhibitors and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Microglial expression of cathepsin B was validated in brain tissue from HIVE patients. RESULTS HIV-infected microglia secreted significantly greater levels of cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C compared to uninfected cells. Increased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to supernatants from HIV-1 infected microglia at days 12 post-infection. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 and cathepsin B antibody prevented neuronal apoptosis. Increased microglia-derived cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C and caspase-3+ neurons were detected in HIVE brains compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that HIV-1-induced cathepsin B production in microglia contributes to neuronal apoptosis and may be an important factor in neuronal death associated with HIVE. PMID:26092112

  19. Activation of microglial cells triggers a release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) inducing their proliferation in an adenosine A2A receptor-dependent manner: A2A receptor blockade prevents BDNF release and proliferation of microglia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to control microglial responses in neuropathic pain. Since adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) control neuroinflammation, as well as the production and function of BDNF, we tested to see if A2AR controls the microglia-dependent secretion of BDNF and the proliferation of microglial cells, a crucial event in neuroinflammation. Methods Murine N9 microglial cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/mL) in the absence or in the presence of the A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nM), as well as other modulators of A2AR signaling. The BDNF cellular content and secretion were quantified by Western blotting and ELISA, A2AR density was probed by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry and cell proliferation was assessed by BrdU incorporation. Additionally, the A2AR modulation of LPS-driven cell proliferation was also tested in primary cultures of mouse microglia. Results LPS induced time-dependent changes of the intra- and extracellular levels of BDNF and increased microglial proliferation. The maximal LPS-induced BDNF release was time-coincident with an LPS-induced increase of the A2AR density. Notably, removing endogenous extracellular adenosine or blocking A2AR prevented the LPS-mediated increase of both BDNF secretion and proliferation, as well as exogenous BDNF-induced proliferation. Conclusions We conclude that A2AR activation plays a mandatory role controlling the release of BDNF from activated microglia, as well as the autocrine/paracrine proliferative role of BDNF. PMID:23363775

  20. Elimination of microglia improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Munjal M.; Green, Kim N.; Allen, Barrett D.; Najafi, Allison R.; Syage, Amber; Minasyan, Harutyun; Le, Mi T.; Kawashita, Takumi; Giedzinski, Erich; Parihar, Vipan K.; West, Brian L.; Baulch, Janet E.; Limoli, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain cancer elicits progressive and severe cognitive dysfunction that is associated with significant neuropathology. Radiation injury in the CNS has been linked to persistent microglial activation, and we find upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes even 6 weeks after irradiation. We hypothesize that depletion of microglia in the irradiated brain would have a neuroprotective effect. Adult mice received acute head only irradiation (9 Gy) and were administered a dietary inhibitor (PLX5622) of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) to deplete microglia post-irradiation. Cohorts of mice maintained on a normal and PLX5662 diet were analyzed for cognitive changes using a battery of behavioral tasks 4–6 weeks later. PLX5622 treatment caused a rapid and near complete elimination of microglia in the brain within 3 days of treatment. Irradiation of animals given a normal diet caused characteristic behavioral deficits designed to test medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal learning and memory and caused increased microglial activation. Animals receiving the PLX5622 diet exhibited no radiation-induced cognitive deficits, and exhibited near complete loss of IBA-1 and CD68 positive microglia in the mPFC and hippocampus. Our data demonstrate that elimination of microglia through CSF1R inhibition can ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive deficits in mice. PMID:27516055

  1. Elimination of microglia improves cognitive function following cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Munjal M; Green, Kim N; Allen, Barrett D; Najafi, Allison R; Syage, Amber; Minasyan, Harutyun; Le, Mi T; Kawashita, Takumi; Giedzinski, Erich; Parihar, Vipan K; West, Brian L; Baulch, Janet E; Limoli, Charles L

    2016-01-01

    Cranial irradiation for the treatment of brain cancer elicits progressive and severe cognitive dysfunction that is associated with significant neuropathology. Radiation injury in the CNS has been linked to persistent microglial activation, and we find upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes even 6 weeks after irradiation. We hypothesize that depletion of microglia in the irradiated brain would have a neuroprotective effect. Adult mice received acute head only irradiation (9 Gy) and were administered a dietary inhibitor (PLX5622) of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) to deplete microglia post-irradiation. Cohorts of mice maintained on a normal and PLX5662 diet were analyzed for cognitive changes using a battery of behavioral tasks 4-6 weeks later. PLX5622 treatment caused a rapid and near complete elimination of microglia in the brain within 3 days of treatment. Irradiation of animals given a normal diet caused characteristic behavioral deficits designed to test medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal learning and memory and caused increased microglial activation. Animals receiving the PLX5622 diet exhibited no radiation-induced cognitive deficits, and exhibited near complete loss of IBA-1 and CD68 positive microglia in the mPFC and hippocampus. Our data demonstrate that elimination of microglia through CSF1R inhibition can ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive deficits in mice. PMID:27516055

  2. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors mediate efficient gene transduction in cultured neonatal and adult microglia.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Kang, John; Sopher, Bryce; Gillespie, James; Aloi, Macarena S; Odom, Guy L; Hopkins, Stephanie; Case, Amanda; Wang, David B; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S; Garden, Gwenn A

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are a specialized population of myeloid cells that mediate CNS innate immune responses. Efforts to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate microglia behaviors have been hampered by the lack of effective tools for manipulating gene expression. Cultured microglia are refractory to most chemical and electrical transfection methods, yielding little or no gene delivery and causing toxicity and/or inflammatory activation. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAVs) vectors are non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA vectors commonly used to transduce many primary cell types and tissues. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing rAAV serotype 2 (rAAV2) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia. rAAV2 yields high transduction and causes minimal toxicity or inflammatory response in both neonatal and adult microglia. To demonstrate that rAAV transduction can induce functional protein expression, we used rAAV2 expressing Cre recombinase to successfully excise a LoxP-flanked miR155 gene in cultured microglia. We further evaluated rAAV serotypes 5, 6, 8, and 9, and observed that all efficiently transduced cultured microglia to varying degrees of success and caused little or no alteration in inflammatory gene expression. These results provide strong encouragement for the application of rAAV-mediated gene expression in microglia for mechanistic and therapeutic purposes. Neonatal microglia are functionally distinct from adult microglia, although the majority of in vitro studies utilize rodent neonatal microglia cultures because of difficulties of culturing adult cells. In addition, cultured microglia are refractory to most methods for modifying gene expression. Here, we developed a novel protocol for culturing adult microglia and evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of utilizing Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) to modulate gene expression in cultured microglia.

  3. Microglia recapitulate a hematopoietic master regulator network in the aging human frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wehrspaun, Claudia C.; Haerty, Wilfried; Ponting, Chris P.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia form the immune system of the brain. Previous studies in cell cultures and animal models suggest altered activation states and cellular senescence in the aged brain. Instead, we analyzed 3 transcriptome data sets from the postmortem frontal cortex of 381 control individuals to show that microglia gene markers assemble into a transcriptional module in a gene coexpression network. These markers predominantly represented M1 and M1/M2b activation phenotypes. Expression of genes in this module generally declines over the adult life span. This decrease was more pronounced in microglia surface receptors for microglia and/or neuron crosstalk than in markers for activation state phenotypes. In addition to these receptors for exogenous signals, microglia are controlled by brain-expressed regulatory factors. We identified a subnetwork of transcription factors, including RUNX1, IRF8, PU.1, and TAL1, which are master regulators (MRs) for the age-dependent microglia module. The causal contributions of these MRs on the microglia module were verified using publicly available ChIP-Seq data. Interactions of these key MRs were preserved in a protein-protein interaction network. Importantly, these MRs appear to be essential for regulating microglia homeostasis in the adult human frontal cortex in addition to their crucial roles in hematopoiesis and myeloid cell-fate decisions during embryogenesis. PMID:26002684

  4. Microglia recapitulate a hematopoietic master regulator network in the aging human frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wehrspaun, Claudia C; Haerty, Wilfried; Ponting, Chris P

    2015-08-01

    Microglia form the immune system of the brain. Previous studies in cell cultures and animal models suggest altered activation states and cellular senescence in the aged brain. Instead, we analyzed 3 transcriptome data sets from the postmortem frontal cortex of 381 control individuals to show that microglia gene markers assemble into a transcriptional module in a gene coexpression network. These markers predominantly represented M1 and M1/M2b activation phenotypes. Expression of genes in this module generally declines over the adult life span. This decrease was more pronounced in microglia surface receptors for microglia and/or neuron crosstalk than in markers for activation state phenotypes. In addition to these receptors for exogenous signals, microglia are controlled by brain-expressed regulatory factors. We identified a subnetwork of transcription factors, including RUNX1, IRF8, PU.1, and TAL1, which are master regulators (MRs) for the age-dependent microglia module. The causal contributions of these MRs on the microglia module were verified using publicly available ChIP-Seq data. Interactions of these key MRs were preserved in a protein-protein interaction network. Importantly, these MRs appear to be essential for regulating microglia homeostasis in the adult human frontal cortex in addition to their crucial roles in hematopoiesis and myeloid cell-fate decisions during embryogenesis.

  5. Microglia retard dengue virus-induced acute viral encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Chih-Peng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Jhan, Ming-Kai; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice. In microglia-depleted mice, the DENV infection-mediated expression of antiviral cytokines and the infiltration of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was abolished. DENV infection prompted the antigen-presenting cell-like differentiation of microglia, which in turn stimulated CTL proliferation and activation. These results suggest that microglial cells play a key role in facilitating antiviral immune responses against DENV infection and acute viral encephalitis. PMID:27279150

  6. Microglia retard dengue virus-induced acute viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Chih-Peng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Jhan, Ming-Kai; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice. In microglia-depleted mice, the DENV infection-mediated expression of antiviral cytokines and the infiltration of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was abolished. DENV infection prompted the antigen-presenting cell-like differentiation of microglia, which in turn stimulated CTL proliferation and activation. These results suggest that microglial cells play a key role in facilitating antiviral immune responses against DENV infection and acute viral encephalitis. PMID:27279150

  7. The relation between α-synuclein and microglia in Parkinson's disease: Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Guajardo, V; Tentillier, N; Romero-Ramos, M

    2015-08-27

    Recent research suggests a complex role for microglia not only in Parkinson's disease but in other disorders involving alpha-synuclein aggregation, such as multiple system atrophy. In these neurodegenerative processes, the activation of microglia is a common pathological finding, which disturbs the homeostasis of the neuronal environment otherwise maintained, among others, by microglia. The term activation comprises any deviation from what otherwise is considered normal microglia status, including cellular abundance, morphology or protein expression. The microglial response during disease will sustain survival or otherwise promote cell degeneration. The novel concepts of alpha-synuclein being released and uptaken by neighboring cells, and their importance in disease progression, positions microglia as the main cell that can clear and handle alpha-synuclein efficiently. Microglia's behavior will therefore be a determinant on the disease's progression. For this reason we believe that the better understanding of microglia's response to alpha-synuclein pathological accumulation across brain areas and disease stages is essential to develop novel therapeutic tools for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synucleinopathies. In this review we will revise the most recent findings and developments with regard to alpha-synuclein and microglia in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Reactive microglia and macrophage facilitate the formation of Müller glia-derived retinal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andy J; Zelinka, Christopher; Gallina, Donika; Scott, Melissa A; Todd, Levi

    2014-10-01

    In retinas where Müller glia have been stimulated to become progenitor cells, reactive microglia are always present. Thus, we investigated how the activation or ablation of microglia/macrophage influences the formation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) in the retina in vivo. Intraocular injections of the Interleukin-6 (IL6) stimulated the reactivity of microglia/macrophage, whereas other types of retinal glia appear largely unaffected. In acutely damaged retinas where all of the retinal microglia/macrophage were ablated, the formation of proliferating MGPCs was greatly diminished. With the microglia ablated in damaged retinas, levels of Notch and related genes were unchanged or increased, whereas levels of ascl1a, TNFα, IL1β, complement component 3 (C3) and C3a receptor were significantly reduced. In the absence of retinal damage, the combination of insulin and Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) failed to stimulate the formation of MGPCs when the microglia/macrophage were ablated. In addition, intraocular injections of IL6 and FGF2 stimulated the formation of MGPCs in the absence of retinal damage, and this generation of MGPCs was blocked when the microglia/macrophage were absent. We conclude that the activation of microglia and/or infiltrating macrophage contributes to the formation of proliferating MGPCs, and these effects may be mediated by components of the complement system and inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Microglia in Close Vicinity of Glioma Cells: Correlation Between Phenotype and Metabolic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Pierre; Bouchaud, Véronique; Merle, Michel; Diolez, Philippe; Duffy, Laura; Flint, Kristian; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

    2010-01-01

    Microglia are immune cells within the central nervous system. In brain-developing tumors, gliomas are able to silence the defense and immune functions of microglia, a phenomenon which strongly contributes to tumor progression and treatment resistance. Being activated and highly motile, microglia infiltrate tumors and secrete macrophagic chemoattractant factors. Thereafter, the tumor cells shut down their immune properties and stimulate the microglia to release tumor growth-promoting factors. The result of such modulation is that a kind of symbiosis occurs between microglia and tumor cells, in favor of tumor growth. However, little is known about microglial phenotype and metabolic modifications in a tumoral environment. Co-cultures were performed using CHME5 microglia cells grown on collagen beads or on coverslips and placed on monolayer of C6 cells, limiting cell/cell contacts. Phagocytic behavior and expression of macrophagic and cytoskeleton markers were monitored. Respiratory properties and energetic metabolism were also studied with regard to the activated phenotype of microglia. In co-cultures, transitory modifications of microglial morphology and metabolism were observed linked to a concomitant transitory increase of phagocytic properties. Therefore, after 1 h of co-culture, microglia were activated but when longer in contact with tumor cells, phagocytic properties appear silenced. Like the behavior of the phenotype, microglial respiration showed a transitory readjustment although the mitochondria maintained their perinuclear relocation. Nevertheless, the energetic metabolism of the microglia was altered, suggesting a new energetic steady state. The results clearly indicate that like the depressed immune properties, the macrophagic and metabolic status of the microglia is quickly driven by the glioma environment, despite short initial phagocytic activation. Such findings question the possible contribution of diffusible tumor factors to the microglial

  10. Role of microglia in embryonic neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Chih Kong

    2016-01-01

    Microglia begin colonizing the developing brain as early as embryonic day 9, prior to the emergence of neurons and other glia. Their ontogeny is also distinct from other central nervous system cells, as they derive from yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors and not neural progenitors. In this review, we feature these unique characteristics of microglia and assess the spatiotemporal similarities between microglia colonization of the central nervous system and embryonic neurogenesis. We also infer to existing evidence for microglia function from embryonic through to postnatal neurodevelopment to postulate roles for microglia in neurogenesis. PMID:27555616

  11. Role of microglia in embryonic neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chih Kong; Vidyadaran, Sharmili

    2016-09-01

    Microglia begin colonizing the developing brain as early as embryonic day 9, prior to the emergence of neurons and other glia. Their ontogeny is also distinct from other central nervous system cells, as they derive from yolk sac hematopoietic progenitors and not neural progenitors. In this review, we feature these unique characteristics of microglia and assess the spatiotemporal similarities between microglia colonization of the central nervous system and embryonic neurogenesis. We also infer to existing evidence for microglia function from embryonic through to postnatal neurodevelopment to postulate roles for microglia in neurogenesis. PMID:27555616

  12. Contribution of Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation to Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Maria H.; Boia, Raquel; Santos, Paulo F.; Ambrósio, António F.; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A better understanding of the events elicited and mediated by retinal microglia will contribute to the clarification of disease etiology and might open new avenues for potential therapeutic interventions. This review aims at giving an overview of the roles of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in major retinal degenerative diseases like glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25873768

  13. Hypothesis: are neoplastic macrophages/microglia present in glioblastoma multiforme?

    PubMed Central

    Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Akgoc, Zeynep; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2011-01-01

    Most malignant brain tumours contain various numbers of cells with characteristics of activated or dysmorphic macrophages/microglia. These cells are generally considered part of the tumour stroma and are often described as TAM (tumour-associated macrophages). These types of cells are thought to either enhance or inhibit brain tumour progression. Recent evidence indicates that neoplastic cells with macrophage characteristics are found in numerous metastatic cancers of non-CNS (central nervous system) origin. Evidence is presented here suggesting that subpopulations of cells within human gliomas, specifically GBM (glioblastoma multiforme), are neoplastic macrophages/microglia. These cells are thought to arise following mitochondrial damage in fusion hybrids between neoplastic stem cells and macrophages/microglia. PMID:21834792

  14. Microglia toxicity in preterm brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Supramaniam, Veena G.; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident phagocytic cells of the central nervous system. During brain development they are also imperative for apoptosis of excessive neurons, synaptic pruning, phagocytosis of debris and maintaining brain homeostasis. Brain damage results in a fast and dynamic microglia reaction, which can influence the extent and distribution of subsequent neuronal dysfunction. As a consequence, microglia responses can promote tissue protection and repair following brain injury, or become detrimental for the tissue integrity and functionality. In this review, we will describe microglia responses in the human developing brain in association with injury, with particular focus on the preterm infant. We also explore microglia responses and mechanisms of microglia toxicity in animal models of preterm white matter injury and in vitro primary microglia cell culture experiments. PMID:24768662

  15. Astrocyte-microglia cooperation in the expression of a pro-inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Barbierato, Massimo; Facci, Laura; Argentini, Carla; Marinelli, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D; Giusti, Pietro

    2013-08-01

    Glial cells not only serve supportive and nutritive roles for neurons, but also respond to protracted stress and insults by up-regulating inflammatory processes. The complexity of studying glial activation in vivo has led to the widespread adoption of in vitro approaches, for example the use of the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a ligand for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)) as an experimental model of glial activation. Astrocyte cultures frequently contain minor numbers of microglia, which can complicate interpretation of responses. In the present study, enriched (≤5% microglia) astrocytes cultured from neonatal rat cortex and spinal cord were treated with the lysosomotropic agent L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester to eliminate residual microglia, as confirmed by loss of microglia-specific marker genes. L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester treatment led to a loss of LPS responsiveness, in terms of nitric oxide and cytokine gene up-regulation and mediator (pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide) output into the culture medium. Surprisingly, when astrocyte/microglia co-cultures were then reconstituted by adding defined numbers of purified microglia to microglia-depleted astrocytes, the LPS-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene and mediator output far exceeded that observed from cultures containing the same numbers of microglia only. Similar behaviors were found when examining interleukin-1β release caused by activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor. Given that astrocytes greatly outnumber microglia in the central nervous system, these data suggest that a similar interaction between microglia and astrocytes in vivo may be an important element in the evolution of an inflammatory pathology.

  16. Bone marrow-derived cells in the population of spinal microglia after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Tashima, Ryoichi; Mikuriya, Satsuki; Tomiyama, Daisuke; Shiratori-Hayashi, Miho; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kohro, Yuta; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Tsuda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates spinal microglia that are necessary for neuropathic pain. Recent studies using bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice have reported that after PNI, circulating BM-derived cells infiltrate into the spinal cord and differentiate into microglia-like cells. This raises the possibility that the population of spinal microglia after PNI may be heterogeneous. However, the infiltration of BM cells in the spinal cord remains controversial because of experimental adverse effects of strong irradiation used for generating BM chimeric mice. In this study, we evaluated the PNI-induced spinal infiltration of BM-derived cells not only by irradiation-induced myeloablation with various conditioning regimens, but also by parabiosis and mice with genetically labelled microglia, models without irradiation and BM transplantation. Results obtained from these independent approaches provide compelling evidence indicating little contribution of circulating BM-derived cells to the population of spinal microglia after PNI. PMID:27005516

  17. Unique inflammatory RNA profiles of microglia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Christopher A.; Manuelidis, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have shown that myeloid cells in the periphery as well as derivative microglial cells in the brain are infectious. Microglia can show an activated phenotype before prion protein (PrP) pathology is detectable in brain, and isolated infectious microglia contain very little PrP. To find whether a set of inflammatory genes are significantly induced or suppressed with infection, we analyzed RNA from isolated microglia with relevant cDNA arrays, and identified 30 transcripts not previously examined in any transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. This CJD expression profile contrasted with that of uninfected microglia exposed to prototypic inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide and IFN-, as well as PrP amyloid. These findings underscore inflammatory pathways evoked by the infectious agent in brain. Transcript profiles unique for CJD microglia and other myeloid cells provide opportunities for more sensitive preclinical diagnoses of infectious and noninfectious neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Complement and microglia mediate early synapse loss in Alzheimer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soyon; Beja-Glasser, Victoria F; Nfonoyim, Bianca M; Frouin, Arnaud; Li, Shaomin; Ramakrishnan, Saranya; Merry, Katherine M; Shi, Qiaoqiao; Rosenthal, Arnon; Barres, Ben A; Lemere, Cynthia A; Selkoe, Dennis J; Stevens, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Synapse loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with cognitive decline. Involvement of microglia and complement in AD has been attributed to neuroinflammation, prominent late in disease. Here we show in mouse models that complement and microglia mediate synaptic loss early in AD. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade, is increased and associated with synapses before overt plaque deposition. Inhibition of C1q, C3, or the microglial complement receptor CR3 reduces the number of phagocytic microglia, as well as the extent of early synapse loss. C1q is necessary for the toxic effects of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers on synapses and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Finally, microglia in adult brains engulf synaptic material in a CR3-dependent process when exposed to soluble Aβ oligomers. Together, these findings suggest that the complement-dependent pathway and microglia that prune excess synapses in development are inappropriately activated and mediate synapse loss in AD.

  19. Dark microglia: A new phenotype predominantly associated with pathological states.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik P; Lecours, Cynthia; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; El Hajj, Hassan; Milior, Giampaolo; Olmos-Alonso, Adrián; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Luheshi, Giamal; Vallières, Luc; Branchi, Igor; Maggi, Laura; Limatola, Cristina; Butovsky, Oleg; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of microglia. These immune cells were shown to actively remodel neuronal circuits, leading to propose new pathogenic mechanisms. To study microglial implication in the loss of synapses, the best pathological correlate of cognitive decline across chronic stress, aging, and diseases, we recently conducted ultrastructural analyses. Our work uncovered the existence of a new microglial phenotype that is rarely present under steady state conditions, in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus, but becomes abundant during chronic stress, aging, fractalkine signaling deficiency (CX3 CR1 knockout mice), and Alzheimer's disease pathology (APP-PS1 mice). Even though these cells display ultrastructural features of microglia, they are strikingly distinct from the other phenotypes described so far at the ultrastructural level. They exhibit several signs of oxidative stress, including a condensed, electron-dense cytoplasm and nucleoplasm making them as "dark" as mitochondria, accompanied by a pronounced remodeling of their nuclear chromatin. Dark microglia appear to be much more active than the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, while extensively encircling axon terminals and dendritic spines with their highly ramified and thin processes. They stain for the myeloid cell markers IBA1 and GFP (in CX3 CR1-GFP mice), and strongly express CD11b and microglia-specific 4D4 in their processes encircling synaptic elements, and TREM2 when they associate with amyloid plaques. Overall, these findings suggest that dark microglia, a new phenotype that we identified based on their unique properties, could play a significant role in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, especially at synapses. PMID:26847266

  20. Minocycline attenuates Aβ oligomers-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype in primary microglia while enhancing Aβ fibrils phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    El-Shimy, Ismail Amr; Heikal, Ola Ahmed; Hamdi, Nabila

    2015-11-16

    Microglia, the brain innate immune cells, are activated in response to amyloid beta (Aβ) resulting in neuroinflammation in AD brains. Recently, two phenotypes have been described for microglia: the pro-inflammatory classical and the anti-inflammatory alternative. Changes in microglia phenotype that control their phagocytic function are yet to be determined. The highly neurotoxic Aβ oligomers (oAβ) formed at an early disease stage induce pro-inflammatory microglia activation releasing neurotoxic mediators and contributing to neurodegeneration. A novel strategy for AD treatment is to attenuate microglia-induced inflammation while maintaining efficient Aβ clearance. Minocycline effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier and has widely reported neuroprotective effects. Yet, its exact mechanism of neuroprotection and its effects on microglia are still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of minocycline on the phagocytic uptake of fAβ by primary microglia in relation to their activation state in an inflammatory milieu generated by oAβ or LPS. The study shows that minocycline is able to attenuate oAβ-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia by inhibiting their pro-inflammatory phenotype activation. In addition, a significant enhancement of fAβ phagocytosis by minocycline- treated microglia is reported for the first time, providing novel insight into its neuroprotective role in AD.

  1. Benfotiamine attenuates inflammatory response in LPS stimulated BV-2 microglia.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Laketa, Danijela; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Milenkovic, Ivan; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microglial cells are resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), recognized as key elements in the regulation of neural homeostasis and the response to injury and repair. As excessive activation of microglia may lead to neurodegeneration, therapeutic strategies targeting its inhibition were shown to improve treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Benfotiamine is a synthetic vitamin B1 (thiamine) derivate exerting potentially anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the encouraging results regarding benfotiamine potential to alleviate diabetic microangiopathy, neuropathy and other oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglia. We determined that benfotiamine remodels activated microglia to acquire the shape that is characteristic of non-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, benfotiamine significantly decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor alpha α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas it increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in LPS stimulated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, benfotiamine suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and protein kinase B Akt/PKB. Treatment with specific inhibitors revealed that benfotiamine-mediated suppression of NO production was via JNK1/2 and Akt pathway, while the cytokine suppression includes ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt pathways. Finally, the potentially protective effect is mediated by the suppression of translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus. Therefore, benfotiamine may

  2. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.; Lacerda de Menezes, João R.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are involved in synaptic pruning both in development and in the mature CNS. In this study, we investigated whether microglia might further contribute to circuit plasticity by modulating neuronal recruitment from the neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse striatum. We found that microglia residing in the SVZ and adjacent rostral migratory stream (RMS) comprise a morphologically and antigenically distinct phenotype of immune effectors. Whereas exhibiting characteristics of alternatively activated microglia, the SVZ/RMS microglia were clearly distinguished by their low expression of purinoceptors and lack of ATP-elicitable chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of these microglia hampered the survival and migration of newly generated neuroblasts through the RMS to the olfactory bulb. SVZ and RMS microglia thus appear to comprise a functionally distinct class that is selectively adapted to the support and direction of neuronal integration into the olfactory circuitry. Therefore, this unique microglial subpopulation may serve as a novel target with which to modulate cellular addition from endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells of the adult brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages in the CNS, playing key roles as immune mediators. As integral components in the CNS, the microglia stand out for using the same mechanisms, phagocytosis and cytochemokine release, to promote homeostasis, synaptic pruning, and neural circuitry sculpture. Here, we addressed microglial functions in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the major postnatal neurogenic niche. Our results depict microglia as a conspicuous component of SVZ and its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream, a pathway used by neuroblasts during their transit toward olfactory bulb layers. In addition to other unique populations residing in the SVZ niche, microglia display distinct morphofunctional properties that boost neuronal

  3. Microglia in Infectious Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Monica M.; Kielian, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophage population in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma and, as such, are poised to provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Microglia are endowed with a vast repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that include such family members as Toll-like receptors and phagocytic receptors, which collectively function to sense and eliminate microbes invading the CNS parenchyma. In addition, microglial activation elicits a broad range of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are involved in the recruitment and subsequent activation of peripheral immune cells infiltrating the infected CNS. Studies from several laboratories have demonstrated the ability of microglia to sense and respond to a wide variety of pathogens capable of colonizing the CNS including bacterial, viral, and fungal species. This review will highlight the role of microglia in microbial recognition and the resultant antipathogen response that ensues in an attempt to clear these infections. Implications as to whether microglial activation is uniformly beneficial to the CNS or in some circumstances may exacerbate pathology will also be discussed. PMID:19728102

  4. Selective estrogen receptor modulators regulate reactive microglia after penetrating brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, George E.; Santos-Galindo, Maria; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Following brain injury, microglia assume a reactive-like state and secrete pro-inflammatory molecules that can potentiate damage. A therapeutic strategy that may limit microgliosis is of potential interest. In this context, selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as raloxifene and tamoxifen, are known to reduce microglia activation induced by neuroinflammatory stimuli in young animals. In the present study, we have assessed whether raloxifene and tamoxifen are able to affect microglia activation after brain injury in young and aged animals in time points relevant to clinics, which is hours after brain trauma. Volume fraction of MHC-II+ microglia was estimated according to the point-counting method of Weibel within a distance of 350 μm from the lateral border of the wound, and cellular morphology was measured by fractal analysis. Two groups of animals were studied: (1) young rats, ovariectomized at 2 months of age; and (2) aged rats, ovariectomized at 18 months of age. Fifteen days after ovariectomy animals received a stab wound brain injury and the treatment with estrogenic compounds. Our findings indicate that raloxifene and tamoxifen reduced microglia activation in both young and aged animals. Although the volume fraction of reactive microglia was found lower in aged animals, this was accompanied by important changes in cell morphology, where aged microglia assume a bushier and hyperplasic aspect when compared to young microglia. These data suggest that early regulation of microglia activation provides a mechanism by which selective estrogen receptors modulators (SERMs) may exert a neuroprotective effect in the setting of a brain trauma. PMID:24999330

  5. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  6. Mechanism of microglia neuroprotection: Involvement of P2X7, TNFα, and valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Masuch, Annette; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; van Rooijen, Nico; van Calker, Dietrich; Biber, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that ramified microglia are neuroprotective in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). The present study aimed to elucidate the underlying neuron-glia communication mechanism. It is shown here that pretreatment of OHSC with high concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) reduced NMDA-induced neuronal death only in presence of microglia. Specific agonists and antagonists identified the P2X7 receptor as neuroprotective receptor which was confirmed by absence of ATP-dependent neuroprotection in P2X7-deficient OHSC. Microglia replenished chimeric OHSC consisting of wild-type tissue replenished with P2X7-deficient microglia confirmed the involvement of microglial P2X7 receptor in neuroprotection. Stimulation of P2X7 in primary microglia induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) release and blocking TNFα by a neutralizing antibody in OHSC abolished neuroprotection by ATP. OHSC from TNFα-deficient mice show increased exicitoxicity and activation of P2X7 did not rescue neuronal survival in the absence of TNFα. The neuroprotective effect of valproic acid (VPA) was strictly dependent on the presence of microglia and was mediated by upregulation of P2X7 in the cells. The present study demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroprotection depends on ATP-activated purine receptor P2X7 and induction of TNFα release. This neuroprotective pathway was strengthened by VPA elucidating a novel mechanism for the neuroprotective function of VPA.

  7. Thrombin induces neurodegeneration and microglial activation in the cortex in vivo and in vitro: proteolytic and non-proteolytic actions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Yong; Park, Keun Woo; Jin, Byung Kwan

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the role of thrombin and its receptors in neurodegeneration and microglial activation. Immunocytochemical evidence indicated that intracortical injection of thrombin resulted in a significant loss of neurons and the activation of microglia in the rat cortex in vivo. Reverse transcription PCR and double-label immunocytochemistry further demonstrated the early and transient expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic factors as well as their colocalization within activated microglia. The thrombin-induced loss of cortical neurons was partially blocked by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and by NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, indicating that the activation of microglia is involved in the neurotoxicity of thrombin in the cortex in vivo. In addition, thrombin activated cortical microglia in culture, as indicated by the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and produced cell death in microglia-free, neuron-enriched cortical cultures. However, agonist peptides for thrombin receptors, including protease-activated receptor-1 (SFLLRN), -3 (TFRGAP), and -4 (GYPGKF), failed to activate microglia and were not neurotoxic in culture. Intriguingly, morphological and biochemical evidence indicated that thrombin-induced neurotoxicity but not microglial activation was prevented by hirudin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin. Collectively, the present data suggest that a non-proteolytic activity of thrombin activates microglia and that the proteolytic activity mediates its neurotoxicity. PMID:16777064

  8. PDE4B as a microglia target to reduce neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Damien D; Hughes, Zoë A

    2016-10-01

    The importance of microglia in immune homeostasis within the brain is undisputed. Their role in a diversity of neurological and psychiatric diseases as well as CNS injury is the subject of much investigation. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a critical regulator of microglia homeostasis; as the predominant negative modulator of cyclic AMP signaling within microglia, phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) represents a promising target for modulating immune function. PDE4 expression is regulated by inflammation, and in turn, PDE4 inhibition can alter microglia reactivity. As the prototypic PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram, was tested clinically in the 1980s, drug discovery and clinical development of PDE4 inhibitors have been severely hampered by tolerability issues involving nausea and emesis. The two PDE4 inhibitors approved for peripheral inflammatory disorders (roflumilast and apremilast) lack brain penetration and are dose-limited by side effects making them unsuitable for modulating microglial function. Subtype selective inhibitors targeting PDE4B are of high interest given the critical role PDE4B plays in immune function versus the association of PDE4D with nausea and emesis. The challenges and requirements for successful development of a novel brain-penetrant PDE4B inhibitor are discussed in the context of early clinical development strategies. Furthermore, the challenges of monitoring the state of microglia in vivo are highlighted, including a description of the currently available tools and their limitations. Continued drug discovery efforts to identify safe and well-tolerated, brain-penetrant PDE4 inhibitors are a reflection of the confidence in the rationale for modulation of this target to produce meaningful therapeutic benefit in a wide range of neurological conditions and injury. GLIA 2016;64:1698-1709. PMID:27038323

  9. Microglia overexpressing the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor are neuroprotective in a microglial-hippocampal organotypic coculture system.

    PubMed

    Mitrasinovic, Olivera M; Grattan, Alicia; Robinson, Christopher C; Lapustea, Nicolae B; Poon, Clara; Ryan, Heather; Phong, Connie; Murphy, Greer M

    2005-04-27

    Microglia with increased expression of the macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR; c-fms) are found surrounding plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in mouse models for AD and after ischemic or traumatic brain injury. Increased expression of M-CSFR causes microglia to adopt an activated state that results in proliferation, release of cytokines, and enhanced phagocytosis. To determine whether M-CSFR-induced microglial activation affects neuronal survival, we assembled a coculture system consisting of BV-2 microglia transfected to overexpress the M-CSFR and hippocampal organotypic slices treated with NMDA. Twenty-four hours after assembly of the coculture, microglia overexpressing M-CSFR proliferated at a higher rate than nontransfected control cells and exhibited enhanced migration toward NMDA-injured hippocampal cultures. Surprisingly, coculture with c-fms-transfected microglia resulted in a dramatic reduction in NMDA-induced neurotoxicity. Similar results were observed when cocultures were treated with the teratogen cyclophosphamide. Biolistic overexpression of M-CSFR on microglia endogenous to the organotypic culture also rescued neurons from excitotoxicity. Furthermore, c-fms-transfected microglia increased neuronal expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), the M-CSFR, and neurotrophin receptors in the NMDA-treated slices, as determined with laser capture microdissection. In the coculture system, direct contact between the exogenous microglia and the slice was necessary for neuroprotection. Finally, blocking expression of the M-CSF ligand by exogenous c-fms-transfected microglia with a hammerhead ribozyme compromised their neuroprotective properties. These results demonstrate a protective role for microglia overexpressing M-CSFR in our coculture system and suggest under certain circumstances, activated microglia can help rather than harm neurons subjected to excitotoxic and teratogen-induced injury.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of endogenous cannabinoids on ischemic brain injury induced by the excess microglia-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyun; Liu, Yanwu; Ma, Rui; Li, Jun; Su, Binxiao

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids system (ECS) on protecting brain injury caused by ischemia (IMI). Papers reported that microglia-mediated inflammation has become one of the most pivotal mechanisms for IMI. This study was aimed to investigate the potential roles of ECS on neuron protection under microglia-mediated inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines level both in vitro (BV-2 cells) and in vivo (brain tissue from constructed IMI model and brain-isolated microglia) was detected. ECS levels were detected, and its effects on inflammations was also analyzed. Influence of microglia-mediated inflammation on neuron injury was analyzed. Moreover, the effects of ECS on protecting neuron injury were also analyzed. Our results showed that the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNFα and IL-1β were higher while IKBα was lower in IMI model brain tissue, brain-isolated microglia and BV-2 cells compared to the control. Inflammation was activated in microglia, as well as the activation of ECS characterized by the increasing level of AEA and 2-AG. Furthermore, the activated microglia-mediated self-inflammation performed harmful influence on neurons via suppressing cell viability and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, ECS functioned as a protector on neuron injury though promoting cell proliferation and suppressing cell apoptosis which were caused by the activated BV-2 cells (LPS induced for 3 h). Our data suggested that ECS may play certain neuroprotective effects on microglia-mediated inflammations-induced IMI through anti-inflammatory function. PMID:27398146

  11. Human monocytes can produce tissue-type plasminogen activator

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Evidence has previously been presented that monocytes and macrophages produce urokinase-type plasminogen activator. We have shown for the first time that human monocytes, when stimulated appropriately in vitro, can produce tissue type-plasminogen activator (t-PA) of 70 kD. Detection of t-PA mRNA was consistent with the biochemical and immunological characterization of t-PA produced by human monocytes. PMID:2494295

  12. Intravital Imaging of Axonal Interactions with Microglia and Macrophages in a Mouse Dorsal Column Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Teresa A.; Barkauskas, Deborah S.; Myers, Jay T.; Huang, Alex Y.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury causes an inflammatory reaction involving blood-derived macrophages and central nervous system (CNS)-resident microglia. Intra-vital two-photon microscopy enables the study of macrophages and microglia in the spinal cord lesion in the living animal. This can be performed in adult animals with a traumatic injury to the dorsal column. Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. We also describe a injury model that crushes the dorsal column of the spinal cord, thereby producing a simple, easily accessible, rectangular lesion that is easily visualized in an animal through a laminectomy. Furthermore, we will outline procedures to sequentially image the animals at the anatomical site of injury for the study of cellular interactions during the first few days to weeks after injury. PMID:25489963

  13. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Produces Neuron Loss That Can Be Rescued by Modulating Microglial Activation Using a CB2 Receptor Inverse Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Wei; Ren, Huiling; Deng, Yunping; Del Mar, Nobel; Guley, Natalie M.; Moore, Bob M.; Honig, Marcia G.; Reiner, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that mild TBI created by focal left-side cranial blast in mice produces widespread axonal injury, microglial activation, and a variety of functional deficits. We have also shown that these functional deficits are reduced by targeting microglia through their cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors using 2-week daily administration of the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189. CB2 inverse agonists stabilize the G-protein coupled CB2 receptor in an inactive conformation, leading to increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and thus bias activated microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to a pro-healing M2 state. In the present study, we showed that SMM-189 boosts nuclear pCREB levels in microglia in several brain regions by 3 days after TBI, by using pCREB/CD68 double immunofluorescent labeling. Next, to better understand the basis of motor deficits and increased fearfulness after TBI, we used unbiased stereological methods to characterize neuronal loss in cortex, striatum, and basolateral amygdala (BLA) and assessed how neuronal loss was affected by SMM-189 treatment. Our stereological neuron counts revealed a 20% reduction in cortical and 30% reduction in striatal neurons bilaterally at 2–3 months post blast, with SMM-189 yielding about 50% rescue. Loss of BLA neurons was restricted to the blast side, with 33% of Thy1+ fear-suppressing pyramidal neurons and 47% of fear-suppressing parvalbuminergic (PARV) interneurons lost, and Thy1-negative fear-promoting pyramidal neurons not significantly affected. SMM-189 yielded 50–60% rescue of Thy1+ and PARV neuron loss in BLA. Thus, fearfulness after mild TBI may result from the loss of fear-suppressing neuron types in BLA, and SMM-189 may reduce fearfulness by their rescue. Overall, our findings indicate that SMM-189 rescues damaged neurons and thereby alleviates functional deficits resulting from TBI, apparently by selectively modulating microglia

  14. In Situ Dividing and Phagocytosing Retinal Microglia Express Nestin, Vimentin, and NG2 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, Stefanie G.; Schmeer, Christian W.; Friese, Thomas; Witte, Otto W.; Isenmann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Background Following injury, microglia become activated with subsets expressing nestin as well as other neural markers. Moreover, cerebral microglia can give rise to neurons in vitro. In a previous study, we analysed the proliferation potential and nestin re-expression of retinal macroglial cells such as astrocytes and Müller cells after optic nerve (ON) lesion. However, we were unable to identify the majority of proliferative nestin+ cells. Thus, the present study evaluates expression of nestin and other neural markers in quiescent and proliferating microglia in naïve retina and following ON transection in adult rats in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings For analysis of cell proliferation and cells fates, rats received BrdU injections. Microglia in retinal sections or isolated cells were characterized using immunofluorescence labeling with markers for microglia (e.g., Iba1, CD11b), cell proliferation, and neural cells (e.g., nestin, vimentin, NG2, GFAP, Doublecortin etc.). Cellular analyses were performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the naïve adult rat retina, about 60% of resting ramified microglia expressed nestin. After ON transection, numbers of nestin+ microglia peaked to a maximum at 7 days, primarily due to in situ cell proliferation of exclusively nestin+ microglia. After 8 weeks, microglia numbers re-attained control levels, but 20% were still BrdU+ and nestin+, although no further local cell proliferation occurred. In addition, nestin+ microglia co-expressed vimentin and NG2, but not GFAP or neuronal markers. Fourteen days after injury and following retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with Fluorogold (FG), nestin+NG2+ microglia were positive for the dye indicating an active involvement of a proliferating cell population in phagocytosing apoptotic retinal neurons. Conclusions/Significance The current study provides evidence that in adult rat retina, a specific resident population of microglia expresses proteins of

  15. Minocycline blocks lipopolysaccharide induced hyperalgesia by suppression of microglia but not astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S-Y; Patel, D; Dougherty, P M

    2012-09-27

    Systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a robust immune response as well as thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. Spinal and peripheral glial cells have been implicated as important mediators in this hyperalgesia but the specific contributions of microglia versus astrocytes are not entirely clear. To better define these mechanisms, this study examined the febrile response, nociceptive sensitivity, glial cell reactivity and cytokine production in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord in rats following systemic treatment with LPS and the effects of minocycline in countering these responses. Intraperitoneal LPS injection resulted in an increase in core body temperature and produced hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli. Western blot studies revealed increased expression of microgial cell, macrophage and satellite cell markers in DRG and microglial and astrocyte markers in spinal cord following LPS treatment. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that LPS treatment increased cytokine mRNA expression levels in both the DRG and the spinal cord. Minocycline suppressed all LPS-induced behavioral effects but not the febrile response. Moreover, minocycline prevented LPS-induced microglia/macrophage activation and cytokine responses in spinal cord and DRG, but did not affect the activation of astrocytes/satellite cells. These data demonstrate that LPS-induced changes in nociceptive sensitivity are likely mediated by activation of microglial cells and/or macrophages in the spinal cord and DRG.

  16. Do Microglia Default on Network Maintenance in Alzheimer’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Southam, Katherine A.; Vincent, Adele J.; Small, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Although the cause of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown, a number of new findings suggest that the immune system may play a critical role in the early stages of the disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified a wide array of risk-associated genes for AD, many of which are associated with abnormal functioning of immune cells. Microglia are the brain’s immune cells. They play an important role in maintaining the brain’s extracellular environment, including clearance of aggregated proteins such as amyloid-β (Aβ). Recent studies suggest that microglia play a more active role in the brain than initially considered. Specifically, microglia provide trophic support to neurons and also regulate synapses. Microglial regulation of neuronal activity may have important consequences for AD. In this article we review the function of microglia in AD and examine the possible relationship between microglial dysfunction and network abnormalities, which occur very early in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26890782

  17. SnapShot: Microglia in Disease.

    PubMed

    Beggs, Simon; Salter, Michael W

    2016-05-19

    The development and maintenance of the central nervous system is dependent upon regulated, homeostatic actions of microglia, which sculpt and refine neuronal circuitry. By contrast, dysregulation of microglia contributes to the pathology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders; neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease; and schizophrenia and chronic neuropathic pain.

  18. Involvement of microRNA in microglia-mediated immune response.

    PubMed

    Guedes, J; Cardoso, A L C; Pedroso de Lima, M C

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Due to their ability to simultaneously modulate the fate of different genes, these molecules are particularly well suited to act as key regulators during immune cell differentiation and activation, and their dysfunction can contribute to pathological conditions associated with neuroinflammation. Recent studies have addressed the role of miRNAs in the differentiation of progenitor cells into microglia and in the activation process, aiming at clarifying the origin of adult microglia cells and the contribution of the central nervous system (CNS) environment to microglia phenotype, in health and disease. Altered expression of several miRNAs has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and ischemic injury, hence strongly advocating the use of these small molecules as disease markers and new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent advances in the field of miRNA-mediated regulation of microglia development and activation. We discuss the role of specific miRNAs in the maintenance and switching of microglia activation states and illustrate the potential of this class of nucleic acids both as biomarkers of inflammation and new therapeutic tools for the modulation of microglia behavior in the CNS.

  19. USP18 lack in microglia causes destructive interferonopathy of the mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Goldmann, Tobias; Zeller, Nicolas; Raasch, Jenni; Kierdorf, Katrin; Frenzel, Kathrin; Ketscher, Lars; Basters, Anja; Staszewski, Ori; Brendecke, Stefanie M; Spiess, Alena; Tay, Tuan Leng; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Mancini, Grazia MS; Blank, Thomas; Fritz, Günter; Biber, Knut; Lang, Roland; Malo, Danielle; Merkler, Doron; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Knobeloch, Klaus-Peter; Prinz, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that control tissue homeostasis. Microglia dysregulation is thought to be causal for a group of neuropsychiatric, neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases, called “microgliopathies”. However, how the intracellular stimulation machinery in microglia is controlled is poorly understood. Here, we identified the ubiquitin-specific protease (Usp) 18 in white matter microglia that essentially contributes to microglial quiescence. We further found that microglial Usp18 negatively regulates the activation of Stat1 and concomitant induction of interferon-induced genes, thereby terminating IFN signaling. The Usp18-mediated control was independent from its catalytic activity but instead required the interaction with Ifnar2. Additionally, the absence of Ifnar1 restored microglial activation, indicating a tonic IFN signal which needs to be negatively controlled by Usp18 under non-diseased conditions. These results identify Usp18 as a critical negative regulator of microglia activation and demonstrate a protective role of Usp18 for microglia function by regulating the Ifnar pathway. The findings establish Usp18 as a new molecule preventing destructive microgliopathy. PMID:25896511

  20. Phenotype and secretory responses to oxidative stress in microglia.

    PubMed

    Pathipati, Praneeti; Müller, Sebastian; Jiang, Xiangning; Ferriero, Donna

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. Our group has previously shown that following hypoxic-ischemic injury, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels rise significantly particularly in the neonatal brain and are sustained for up to 7 days. This rapidly accumulated H2O2 is detrimental in the iron-rich immature brain as it can lead to the generation of dangerous free radicals that can cause extensive injury. To date, there is limited literature on the effects of increased H2O2 levels on microglial cells, which have been extensively implicated in the ensuing inflammatory injury. Microglial cultures were derived from the P1 mouse brain and exposed to either bolus concentrations of H2O2 (15 or 50 μM) or varying concentrations of continuous exposure for 4, 18 or 24 h. Continuous exposure of microglia to H2O2 was generated using the glucose oxidase-catalase system generating levels of H2O2 <10 μM. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide expression were measured. Conditioned medium was collected and analyzed for secreted cytokine levels. Treated cell extracts were processed for glutathione (oxidized and reduced) content and fixed cells were labeled for M1 and M2a phenotype markers. Overall, it is evident that microglial exposure to continuous H2O2 has pleiotropic and biphasic effects. Continuous exposure to very low levels of H2O2 is more damaging to cell survival than higher bolus doses at 18 h, and can produce considerably high levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by 18 h. Significantly high levels of various chemokines/chemotactic molecules such as G-CSF, MIP-1b and MIP-2 are also produced in response to continuous low-dose H2O2 by 18 h. Interestingly, no prominent cytokine responses were seen with bolus treatment at any of the time points studied. H2O2 exposure promotes an M2a microglial phenotype in the absence of IL-4/IL-13 signaling, suggesting a wound-healing role for microglia and a delayed activation mechanism for H2O2 after such

  1. Impairment of in vivo calcium signaling in amyloid plaque-associated microglia.

    PubMed

    Brawek, Bianca; Schwendele, Bernd; Riester, Karin; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Lerdkrai, Chommanad; Liang, Yajie; Garaschuk, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) both in man and in multiple mouse models, and epidemiological studies link the use of anti-inflammatory drugs with a reduced risk of developing the disease. AD-related neuroinflammation is largely mediated by microglia, the main immune cells of the central nervous system. In vitro, executive functions of microglia are regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) signals, but little is known about microglial Ca(2+) signaling in vivo. Here we analyze in vivo properties of these cells in two mouse models of AD. In both strains plaque-associated microglia had hypertrophic/amoeboid morphology and were strongly positive for markers of activation such as CD11b and CD68. Activated microglia failed to respond reliably to extracellular release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, mimicking tissue damage) and showed an increased incidence of spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) transients. These Ca(2+) transients required activation of ATP receptors and Ca(2+) release from the intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and were not induced by neuronal or astrocytic hyperactivity. Neuronal silencing, however, selectively increased the frequency of Ca(2+) transients in plaque-associated microglia. Thus, our in vivo data reveal substantial dysfunction of plaque-associated microglia and identify a novel Ca(2+) signal possibly triggering a Ca(2+)-dependent release of toxic species in the plaque vicinity.

  2. Role of dietary phenols in mitigating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, Parakalan; Karthikeyan, Aparna; Dheen, S T

    2016-09-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is mediated by sustained activation of microglial cells, the innate immune cells of the CNS. Studies have mainly focused on identifying the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of microglial activation. This is crucial in designing therapeutic strategies for neuropathologies in which prolonged microglial activation is known to exacerbate disease condition. In recent years, increasing evidence show that naturally occurring compounds present in regular diet could function as "nutraceuticals," arresting microglial activation, and thus conferring neuroprotection. This review summarizes our understanding of the role of dietary phenolic nutraceuticals in mitigating microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Studies show that these natural phenols inhibit key signaling pathways in activated microglia such as the NFκB, MAPK and JAK-STAT that trigger microglia-mediated inflammation in various neuropathological conditions such as injury, infection, stroke, autism and neurodegenerative diseases, i.e., Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect exerted by these natural phenols have shown considerable success in improving disease condition in animal models of neuropathologies, and thus seem to be suitable candidates for developing therapeutic strategies. PMID:27465151

  3. The Rag-Ragulator Complex Regulates Lysosome Function and Phagocytic Flux in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kimberle; Sidik, Harwin; Talbot, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the CNS that are essential for phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons and weak synapses during development. We show that RagA and Lamtor4, two components of the Rag-Ragulator complex, are essential regulators of lysosomes in microglia. In zebrafish lacking RagA function, microglia exhibit an expanded lysosomal compartment but are unable to properly digest apoptotic neuronal debris. Previous biochemical studies have placed the Rag-Ragulator complex upstream of mTORC1 activation in response to cellular nutrient availability. Nonetheless, RagA and mTOR mutant zebrafish have distinct phenotypes, indicating that the Rag-Ragulator complex has functions independent of mTOR signaling. Our analysis reveals an essential role of the Rag-Ragulator complex in proper lysosome function and phagocytic flux in microglia. PMID:26774477

  4. Differential roles of astrocyte and microglia in supporting oligodendrocyte development and myelination in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yi; Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Dai, Xuemei; Zheng, Baoying; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Rick C S; Bhatt, Abhay

    2013-09-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) development relies on many extracellular cues, most of which are secreted cytokines from neighboring neural cells. Although it is generally accepted that both astrocytes and microglia are beneficial for OL development, there is a lack of understanding regarding whether astrocytes and microglia play similar or distinct roles. The current study examined the effects of astrocytes and microglia on OL developmental phenotypes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and myelination in vitro. Our data reveal that, although both astrocytes- and microglia-conditioned medium (ACDM and MCDM, respectively) protect OL progenitor cells (OPCs) against growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis, ACDM is significantly more effective than MCDM in supporting long-term OL survival. In contrast, MCDM preferentially promotes OL differentiation and myelination. These differential effects of ACDM and MCDM on OL development are highlighted by distinct pattern of cytokine/growth factors in the conditioned medium, which correlates with differentially activated intracellular signaling pathways in OPCs upon exposure to the conditioned medium.

  5. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event.

  6. Is traumatic axonal injury (AI) associated with an early microglial activation? Application of a double-labeling technique for simultaneous detection of microglia and AI.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Theuerkauf, I; Meissner, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether axonal injury (AI) induces a microglial reaction within 15 days after brain trauma. In 40 selected cases of confirmed AI, the topographical relation of AI and microglial reaction was assessed using an immunohistochemical double-labeling technique for simultaneous demonstration of AI using beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) antibody and of microglia using CD68 antibody. Although traumatic injury was usually followed by a moderate early diffuse rise in the number of CD68-reactive cells in the white matter, increases in macrophages in areas of AI accumulation were only sporadic and did not occur until after 4 days. At survival intervals of 5-15 days a moderate microglial reaction in regions of beta-APP-positive injured axons was detected, at maximum, in half of the case material. During this interval AI-associated satellitosis-like clusters or stars described by other authors after a survival time of more than 7 weeks were an isolated phenomenon. The prolonged microglial reaction as well as the reduction of beta-APP-positive AI during longer survival periods supports the hypothesis that AI is not primarily chemotactically attractive and that the damage to a portion of beta-APPstained axons may be partly reversible. Most cases clearly require a prolonged interval of more than 15 days before initiation of the final scavenger reaction. For forensic purposes the increase in the number of microglial cells within the region of AI accumulation after a survival time of more than 5 days and the multiple and distinct demonstration of star-like microglial reactions within the white matter after survival times exceeding 7 weeks may provide valuable postmortem information on the timing of a traumatic event. PMID:10334486

  7. Small molecule glutaminase inhibitors block glutamate release from stimulated microglia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ajit G; O'Driscoll, Cliona M; Bressler, Joseph; Kaufmann, Walter; Rojas, Camilo J; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Glutaminase plays a critical role in the generation of glutamate, a key excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Excess glutamate release from activated macrophages and microglia correlates with upregulated glutaminase suggesting a pathogenic role for glutaminase. Both glutaminase siRNA and small molecule inhibitors have been shown to decrease excess glutamate and provide neuroprotection in multiple models of disease, including HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis and ischemia. Consequently, inhibition of glutaminase could be of interest for treatment of these diseases. Bis-2-(5-phenylacetimido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), two most commonly used glutaminase inhibitors, are either poorly soluble or non-specific. Recently, several new BPTES analogs with improved physicochemical properties were reported. To evaluate these new inhibitors, we established a cell-based microglial activation assay measuring glutamate release. Microglia-mediated glutamate levels were significantly augmented by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands coincident with increased glutaminase activity. While several potent glutaminase inhibitors abrogated the increase in glutamate, a structurally related analog devoid of glutaminase activity was unable to block the increase. In the absence of glutamine, glutamate levels were significantly attenuated. These data suggest that the in vitro microglia assay may be a useful tool in developing glutaminase inhibitors of therapeutic interest. PMID:24269238

  8. Radixin expression in microglia after cortical stroke lesion.

    PubMed

    Persson, Åsa; Osman, Ahmed; Bolouri, Hayde; Mallard, Carina; Kuhn, H Georg

    2013-05-01

    Stroke induces extensive tissue remodeling, resulting in the activation of several cell types in the brain as well as recruitment of blood-borne leucocytes. Radixin is part of a cytoskeleton linker protein family with the ability to connect transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, promoting cell functions involving a dynamic cytoskeleton such as morphological changes, cell division and migration which are common events of different cell types after stroke. In the healthy adult brain radixin is expressed in Olig2(+) cells throughout the brain and in neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone. In the current study, we detected a 2.5 fold increase in the number of radixin positive cells in the peri-infarct cortex two weeks after the induction of cortical stroke by photothrombosis. Similarly, the number of Olig2(+) cells increased in the peri-infarct area after stroke; however, the number of radixin(+)/Olig2(+) cells was unchanged. Neural progenitor cells maintained radixin expression on their route to the infarct. More surprising however, was the expression of radixin in activated microglia in the peri-infarct cortex. Seventy percent of Iba1(+) cells expressed radixin after stroke, a population which was not present in the control brain. Furthermore, activation of radixin was predominantly detected in the peri-infarct region of oligodendrocyte progenitors and microglia. The specific location of radixin(+) cells in the peri-infarct region and in microglia suggests a role for radixin in microglial activation after stroke.

  9. Spreading depression requires microglia and is decreased by their M2a polarization from environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Kae M; Pusic, Aya D; Kemme, Jordan; Kraig, Richard P

    2014-07-01

    Microglia play an important role in fine-tuning neuronal activity. In part, this involves their production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), which increases neuronal excitability. Excessive synaptic activity is necessary to initiate spreading depression (SD). Increased microglial production of proinflammatory cytokines promotes initiation of SD, which, when recurrent, may play a role in conversion of episodic to high frequency and chronic migraine. Previous work shows that this potentiation of SD occurs through increased microglial production of TNFα and reactive oxygen species, both of which are associated with an M1-skewed microglial population. Hence, we explored the role of microglia and their M1 polarization in SD initiation. Selective ablation of microglia from rat hippocampal slice cultures confirmed that microglia are essential for initiation of SD. Application of minocycline to dampen M1 signaling led to increased SD threshold. In addition, we found that SD threshold was increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment. These rats had increased neocortical levels of interleukin-11 (IL-11), which decreases TNFα signaling and polarized microglia to an M2a-dominant phenotype. M2a microglia reduce proinflammatory signaling and increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and therefore may protect against SD. Nasal administration of IL-11 to mimic effects of environmental enrichment likewise increased M2a polarization and increased SD threshold, an effect also seen in vitro. Similarly, application of conditioned medium from M2a polarized primary microglia to slice cultures also increased SD threshold. Thus, microglia and their polarization state play an essential role in SD initiation, and perhaps by extension migraine with aura and migraine.

  10. Spreading Depression Requires Microglia and is Decreased by their M2a Polarization from Environmental Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Pusic, Kae M.; Pusic, Aya D.; Kemme, Jordan; Kraig, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia play an important role in fine-tuning neuronal activity. In part, this involves their production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which increases neuronal excitability. Excessive synaptic activity is necessary to initiate spreading depression (SD). Increased microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines promotes initiation of SD, which, when recurrent, may play a role in conversion of episodic to high frequency and chronic migraine. Previous work shows that this potentiation of SD occurs through increased microglial production of TNFα and reactive oxygen species, both of which are associated with an M1-skewed microglial population. Hence, we explored the role of microglia and their M1 polarization in SD initiation. Selective ablation of microglia from rat hippocampal slice cultures confirmed that microglia are essential for initiation of SD. Application of minocycline to dampen M1 signaling led to increased SD threshold. In addition, we found that SD threshold was increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment. These rats had increased neocortical levels of interleukin-11 (IL-11), which decreases TNFα signaling and polarized microglia to an M2a-dominant phenotype. M2a microglia reduce pro-inflammatory signaling and increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and therefore may protect against SD. Nasal administration of IL-11 to mimic effects of environmental enrichment likewise increased M2a polarization and increased SD threshold, an effect also seen in vitro. Similarly, application of conditioned medium from M2a polarized primary microglia to slice cultures also increased SD threshold. Thus, microglia and their polarization state play an essential role in SD initiation, and perhaps by extension migraine with aura and migraine. PMID:24723305

  11. Tubulin cofactor B regulates microtubule densities during microglia transition to the reactive states

    SciTech Connect

    Fanarraga, M.L.

    2009-02-01

    Microglia are highly dynamic cells of the CNS that continuously survey the welfare of the neural parenchyma and play key roles modulating neurogenesis and neuronal cell death. In response to injury or pathogen invasion parenchymal microglia transforms into a more active cell that proliferates, migrates and behaves as a macrophage. The acquisition of these extra skills implicates enormous modifications of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons. Here we show that tubulin cofactor B (TBCB), which has been found to contribute to various aspects of microtubule dynamics in vivo, is also implicated in microglial cytoskeletal changes. We find that TBCB is upregulated in post-lesion reactive parenchymal microglia/macrophages, in interferon treated BV-2 microglial cells, and in neonate amoeboid microglia where the microtubule densities are remarkably low. Our data demonstrate that upon TBCB downregulation both, after microglia differentiation to the ramified phenotype in vivo and in vitro, or after TBCB gene silencing, microtubule densities are restored in these cells. Taken together these observations support the view that TBCB functions as a microtubule density regulator in microglia during activation, and provide an insight into the understanding of the complex mechanisms controlling microtubule reorganization during microglial transition between the amoeboid, ramified, and reactive phenotypes.

  12. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer's mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Rafael J; Najafi, Allison R; Rice, Rachel A; Elmore, Monica R P; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2016-04-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology.

  13. The role of microglia in brain maintenance: implications for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derecki, Noël C; Cronk, James C; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    The role of microglia in central nervous system (CNS) pathology has been studied extensively, and more recently, examination of microglia in the healthy brain has yielded important insights into their many functions. It was long assumed that microglia were essentially quiescent cells, unless provoked into activation, which was considered a hallmark of disease. More recently, however, it has become increasingly clear that they are extraordinarily dynamic cells, constantly sampling their environment and adjusting to exquisitely delicate stimuli. Along these lines, our laboratory has identified a new and unexpected role for microglial phagocytosis - or lack thereof - in the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disease caused by mutation of the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein (MECP)2. We have shown that specific expression of wild type Mecp2 in myeloid cells of Mecp2-null mice is sufficient to arrest major symptoms associated with this devastating disease. This beneficial effect, however, is abolished if phagocytic activity of microglia is inhibited. Here, we discuss microglial origins, the role of microglia in brain development and maintenance, and the phenomenon of microglial augmentation by myeloid progenitor cells in the adult brain. Finally, we address in some detail the beneficial roles of microglia as clinical targets in Rett syndrome and other neurological disorders.

  14. Microglia: Architects of the Developing Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Frost, Jeffrey L; Schafer, Dorothy P

    2016-08-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), representing 5-10% of total CNS cells. Recent findings reveal that microglia enter the embryonic brain, take up residence before the differentiation of other CNS cell types, and become critical regulators of CNS development. Here, we discuss exciting new work implicating microglia in a range of developmental processes, including regulation of cell number and spatial patterning of CNS cells, myelination, and formation and refinement of neural circuits. Furthermore, we review studies suggesting that these cellular functions result in the modulation of behavior, which has important implications for a variety of neurological disorders.

  15. Injury-induced neurogenesis: consideration of resident microglia as supportive of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Christopher A; Kraft, Andrew D; Harry, G Jean

    2011-02-01

    The induction of neurogenesis in the adult subgranular zone (SGZ) by injury is often accompanied by changes in the extracellular environment that can have significant impacts on neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We examined the induction of neurogenesis in the SGZ at 72 h following an injection of the hippocampal toxicant, trimethyltin (TMT; 2 mg/kg, ip) inducing apoptosis in dentate granule neurons. BrdU+ incorporation during the active period of neuronal death indicated NPC proliferation and migration of newly generated cells into the granule cell layer (GCL). BrdU+ cells were transiently in contact with process bearing microglia within the inner SGZ layer. Contact with GFAP+ astrocyte processes occurred once cells were within the GCL. A small percentage of the BrdU+ cells within the SGZ region showed immunoreactivity for tumor necrosis factor (TNF) p75 receptor (TNFp75R). In mice deficient for TNFp75R, TMT injection produced an equivalent level of dentate granule cell death however; BrdU+ cells were localized at the SGZ as compared to the presence of cells within the GCL in the WT mice dosed with TMT. These data suggest that cells generated by NPCs in the SGZ induced with a focal lesion to the dentate granule neurons of adolescent mice maintain the capacity to utilize the neuroinflammation and microglia responses within their environment for migration into the GCL.

  16. Identification of genes preferentially expressed by microglia and upregulated during cuprizone-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Andréanne; Tremblay, Pierrot; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Vallières, Luc

    2007-06-01

    Microglia, monocytes, and peripheral macrophages share a common origin and many characteristics, but what distinguishes them from each other at the level of gene expression remains largely unknown. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of freshly purified microglia, monocytes, and spleen macrophages using Affymetrix Mouse Genome arrays to identify genes predominantly expressed by microglia. Among tens of thousands of genes assayed, 127 potential candidates were found, including nine newly discovered genes encoding plasma membrane and extracellular proteins. In the brain, the latter were selectively expressed by microglia, as revealed by in situ hybridization. Three of them were confirmed to be exclusively (MSR2) or predominantly (GPR12, GPR34) expressed in the brain compared to the other tissues examined. Furthermore, all of these genes were upregulated in activated microglia after treatment with the demyelinating toxin cuprizone, suggesting that they play roles in neuroinflammation. In conclusion, this study reports the identification of new selective markers for microglia, which should prove useful not only to identify and isolate these cells, but also to better understand their distinctive properties. PMID:17285589

  17. Functional analysis of retinal microglia and their effects on progenitors.

    PubMed

    Carter, Debra A; Balasubramaniam, Balini; Dick, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    The identification of stem/progenitor cells within the retinal neural environment has opened up the possibility of therapy via cellular replacement and/or reprogramming of resident cell populations. Within the neuro-retinal niche, following injury or in disease states (including inflammation and degeneration), cellular responses affect tissue homeostasis, reduce cell density, disrupt tissue architecture, and produce scar formation. Microglia (resident retinal immune cell tissue macrophage) are key to the maintenance of retinal homeostasis and are implicated in responses that may influence the control and behavior of retinal progenitors. Factors to consider in the generation of a transplantable cell resource with good migratory and integrative capacity include their yield, purity, and functional viability. Utilizing human postmortem retina, we have created a research platform to isolate, culture, and characterize adult retinal microglia as well as analyze their effect on retinal progenitors. Here, we describe techniques using magnetic labeled bead cell separation to isolate pure populations of retinal CD133(+) precursor cells and CD11b(+) microglia from primary adult retinal cell suspensions (RCSs), enabling flow cytometric cell phenotypic and qPCR genotypic analysis, as well as functional analysis by real-time ratiometric calcium imaging.

  18. Minocycline inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of microglia on neural progenitor cells and protected their neuronal differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuqing; Su, Huanxing; Chu, Tak-Ho; Guo, Anchen; Wu, Wutian

    2013-05-10

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation offers great potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI), but their efficiency is limited by poor survival and neuronal differentiation after transplantation. In the injury site, microglia may become activated and participate in the inflammation reaction. In vitro studies indicated that activated microglia might impair NPC survival and neuronal differentiation, but resting microglia did not. This study investigated the potential of minocycline to modify the negative effects of activated microglia on NPCs in vitro. First, the direct effects of minocycline on NPCs were tested. The results showed that at the concentration of 10μg/ml or lower, minocycline did not affect NPC survival and proliferation, but impaired neuronal differentiation. Then microglia were activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or treated with LPS plus minocycline (LPSMC), and the effects of conditioned media on NPC apoptosis and differentiation were studied. The results showed that, compared with LPS treatment group, the microglia conditioned media of LPSMC treatment group resulted in a significantly lower apoptotic rate of NPCs, and increased the neuronal differentiation of NPCs. This suggested that minocycline might inhibit the negative effects of microglia on NPCs, and have the potential to support the survival and neuronal differentiation of transplanted NPCs for SCI.

  19. Differential Transcriptome Networks between IDO1-Knockout and Wild-Type Mice in Brain Microglia and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Nixon, Scott E.; Southey, Bruce R.; Lawson, Marcus A.; McCusker, Robert H.; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia in the brain and macrophages in peripheral organs are cell types responsible for immune response to challenges. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is an immunomodulatory enzyme of the tryptophan pathway that is expressed in the brain. The higher activity of IDO1 in response to immune challenge has been implicated in behavioral disorders. The impact of IDO1 depletion on the microglia transcriptome has not been studied. An investigation of the transcript networks in the brain microglia from IDO1-knockout (IDO1-KO) mice was undertaken, relative to peripheral macrophages and to wild-type (WT) mice under unchallenged conditions. Over 105 transcript isoforms were differentially expressed between WT and IDO1-KO within cell type. Within microglia, Saa3 and Irg1 were over-expressed in IDO1-KO relative to WT. Within macrophages, Csf3 and Sele were over-expressed in IDO1-KO relative to WT. Among the genes differentially expressed between strains, enriched biological processes included ion homeostasis and ensheathment of neurons within microglia, and cytokine and chemokine expression within macrophages. Over 11,110 transcript isoforms were differentially expressed between microglia and macrophages and of these, over 10,800 transcripts overlapped between strains. Enriched biological processes among the genes over- and under-expressed in microglia relative to macrophages included cell adhesion and apoptosis, respectively. Detected only in microglia or macrophages were 421 and 43 transcript isoforms, respectively. Alternative splicing between cell types based on differential transcript isoform abundance was detected in 210 genes including Phf11d, H2afy, and Abr. Across strains, networks depicted a predominance of genes under-expressed in microglia relative to macrophages that may be a precursor for the different response of both cell types to challenges. The detected transcriptome differences enhance the understanding of the role of IDO1 in the microglia transcriptome

  20. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF.

  1. Are microglia minding us? Digging up the unconscious mind-brain relationship from a neuropsychoanalytic approach

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    The unconscious mind-brain relationship remains unresolved. From the perspective of neuroscience, neuronal networks including synapses have been dominantly believed to play crucial roles in human mental activities, while glial contribution to mental activities has long been ignored. Recently, it has been suggested that microglia, glial cells with immunological/inflammatory functions, play important roles in psychiatric disorders. Newly revealed microglial roles, such as constant direct contact with synapses even in the normal brain, have defied the common traditional belief that microglia do not contribute to neuronal networks. Recent human neuroeconomic investigations with healthy volunteers using minocycline, an antibiotic with inhibitory effects on microglial activation, suggest that microglia may unconsciously modulate human social behaviors as “noise.” We herein propose a novel unconscious mind structural system in the brain centering on microglia from a neuropsychoanalytic approach. At least to some extent, microglial activation in the brain may activate unconscious drives as “psychological immune memory/reaction” in the mind, and result in various emotions, traumatic reactions, psychiatric symptoms including suicidal behaviors, and (psychoanalytic) transference during interpersonal relationships. Microglia have the potential to bridge the huge gap between neuroscience, biological psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis as a key player to connect the conscious and the unconscious world. PMID:23443737

  2. Are microglia minding us? Digging up the unconscious mind-brain relationship from a neuropsychoanalytic approach.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takahiro A; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    The unconscious mind-brain relationship remains unresolved. From the perspective of neuroscience, neuronal networks including synapses have been dominantly believed to play crucial roles in human mental activities, while glial contribution to mental activities has long been ignored. Recently, it has been suggested that microglia, glial cells with immunological/inflammatory functions, play important roles in psychiatric disorders. Newly revealed microglial roles, such as constant direct contact with synapses even in the normal brain, have defied the common traditional belief that microglia do not contribute to neuronal networks. Recent human neuroeconomic investigations with healthy volunteers using minocycline, an antibiotic with inhibitory effects on microglial activation, suggest that microglia may unconsciously modulate human social behaviors as "noise." We herein propose a novel unconscious mind structural system in the brain centering on microglia from a neuropsychoanalytic approach. At least to some extent, microglial activation in the brain may activate unconscious drives as "psychological immune memory/reaction" in the mind, and result in various emotions, traumatic reactions, psychiatric symptoms including suicidal behaviors, and (psychoanalytic) transference during interpersonal relationships. Microglia have the potential to bridge the huge gap between neuroscience, biological psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis as a key player to connect the conscious and the unconscious world. PMID:23443737

  3. Isolation and characterization of primary microglia from post-natal murine brain tissues: a comparison of two methods.

    PubMed

    Jose, Shinsmon; Tan, Shi Wei; Tong, Chih Kong; Vidyadaran, Sharmili

    2015-12-01

    Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Apart from playing vital roles as sentinel cells, they are crucial in physiological processes such as synaptic pruning during brain development. CNS disorders require an understanding of the contribution of each cellular compartment to the pathogenesis. Elucidating the role of microglia in disease development and progression in the intricate CNS environment is technically challenging and requires the establishment of reliable, reproducible techniques to isolate and culture microglia. A number of different protocols have been developed for isolation of neonatal microglia and here we compare two widely used methods, namely, mild trypsinization and EasySep® magnetic separation. EasySep® magnetic separation provided higher microglia yield, and flow cytometric evaluation of CD11b and F4/80 markers revealed that EasySep® separation method also produced significantly higher purity compared to mild trypsinization. Microglia isolated using EasySep® separation method were functional, as demonstrated by the generation of nitric oxide, IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, this study has revealed that magnetic separation is superior to mild trypsinization in terms of yield and purity of microglia.

  4. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system.

  5. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system. PMID:26912633

  6. Astrocytes and Microglia-Mediated Immune Response in Maladaptive Plasticity is Differently Modulated by NGF in the Ventral Horn of the Spinal Cord Following Peripheral Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Ciro; Savarese, Leonilde; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Cirillo, Giovanni; Alberghina, Lilia; Papa, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Reactive astrocytes and activated microglia are the key players in several pathophysiologic modifications of the central nervous system. We used the spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve to induce glial maladaptive response in the ventral horn of lumbar spinal cord and examine its role in the remodeling of the tripartite synapse plasticity. Imaging the ventral horn revealed that SNI was associated with both an early microglial and astrocytic activation, assessed, respectively, by analysis of Iba1 and GFAP expression. Microglia, in particular, localized peculiarly surrounding the motor neurons somata. Perineuronal astrocytes, which play a key role in maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal circuitry, underwent a substantial phenotypic change following peripheral axotomy, producing reactive gliosis. The gliosis was associated with the reduction of glial aminoacid transporters (GLT1 and GlyT1) and increase of neuronal glutamate transporter EAAC1. Although the expression of GABAergic neuronal marker GAD65/67 showed no change, glutamate increase, as demonstrated by HPLC analysis, shifted the excitatory/inhibitory balance as showed by the net increase of the glutamate/GABA ratio. Moreover, endogenous NGF levels were altered in SNI animals and not restored by the intrathecal NGF administration. This treatment reverted phenotypic changes associated with reactive astrocytosis, but failed to modify microglia activation. These findings on one hand confirm the correlation between gliopathy and maladaptive plasticity of the spinal synaptic circuitry, on the other hand add new data concerning the complex peculiar behavior of different glial cells in neuronal degenerative processes, defining a special role of microglia in sustaining the inflammatory response.

  7. Homeostasis of Microglia in the Adult Brain: Review of Novel Microglia Depletion Systems.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Ari; Ginhoux, Florent; Greter, Melanie; Bruttger, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Microglia are brain macrophages that emerge from early erythro-myeloid precursors in the embryonic yolk sac and migrate to the brain mesenchyme before the blood brain barrier is formed. They seed the brain, and proliferate until they have formed a grid-like distribution in the central nervous system that is maintained throughout lifespan. The mechanisms through which these embryonic-derived cells contribute to microglia homoeostasis at steady state and upon inflammation are still not entirely clear. Here we review recent studies that provided insight into the contribution of embryonically-derived microglia and of adult 'microglia-like' cells derived from monocytes during inflammation. We examine different microglia depletion models, and discuss the origin of their rapid repopulation after depletion and outline important areas of future research.

  8. Microglia are crucial regulators of neuro-immunity during central nervous system tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Spanos, Jonathan Paul; Hsu, Nai-Jen; Jacobs, Muazzam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is the most devastating manifestation of tuberculosis (TB), with both high mortality and morbidity. Although research has been fueled by the potential therapeutic target microglia offer against neurodegenerative inflammation, their part in TB infection of the CNS has not been fully evaluated nor elucidated. Yet, as both the preferential targets of M. tuberculosis and the immune-effector cells of the CNS, microglia are likely to be key determinants of disease severity and clinical outcomes. Following pathogen recognition, bacilli are internalized and capable of replicating within microglia. Cellular activation ensues, utilizing signaling molecules that may be neurotoxic. Central to initiating, orchestrating and modulating the tuberculous immune response is microglial secretion of cytokines and chemokines. However, the neurological environment is unique in that inflammatory signals, which appear to be damaging in the periphery, could be beneficial by governing neuronal survival, regeneration and differentiation. Furthermore, microglia are important in the recruitment of peripheral immune cells and central to defining the pro-inflammatory milieu of which neurotoxicity may result from many of the participating local or recruited cell types. Microglia are capable of both presenting antigen to infiltrating CD4+ T-lymphocytes and inducing their differentiation—a possible correlate of protection against M. tuberculosis infection. Clarifying the nature of the immune effector molecules secreted by microglia, and the means by which other CNS-specific cell types govern microglial activation or modulate their responses is critical if improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are to be attained. Therefore, this review evaluates the diverse roles microglia play in the neuro-immunity to M. tuberculosis infection of the CNS. PMID:26041993

  9. Defining the Microglia Response during the Time Course of Chronic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vincenti, James E.; Murphy, Lita; Grabert, Kathleen; McColl, Barry W.; Cancellotti, Enrico; Freeman, Tom C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation has been proposed as a major component of neurodegenerative diseases, although the precise role it plays has yet to be defined. We examined the role of key contributors to this inflammatory process, microglia, the major resident immune cell population of the brain, in a prion disease model of chronic neurodegeneration. Initially, we performed an extensive reanalysis of a large study of prion disease, where the transcriptome of mouse brains had been monitored throughout the time course of disease. Our analysis has provided a detailed classification of the disease-associated genes based on cell type of origin and gene function. This revealed that the genes upregulated during disease, regardless of the strain of mouse or prion protein, are expressed predominantly by activated microglia. In order to study the microglia contribution more specifically, we established a mouse model of prion disease in which the 79A murine prion strain was introduced by an intraperitoneal route into BALB/cJFms-EGFP/− mice, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the c-fms operon. Samples were taken at time points during disease progression, and histological analysis of the brain and transcriptional analysis of isolated microglia was carried out. The analysis of isolated microglia revealed a disease-specific, highly proinflammatory signature in addition to an upregulation of genes associated with metabolism and respiratory stress. This study strongly supports the growing recognition of the importance of microglia within the prion disease process and identifies the nature of the response through gene expression analysis of isolated microglia. IMPORTANCE Inflammation has been proposed as a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. We have examined the role of key contributors to this inflammatory process, microglia, the major resident immune cell population of the brain, in a murine prion disease model of chronic neurodegeneration

  10. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    SciTech Connect

    Kakita, Hiroki; Aoyama, Mineyoshi; Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato; Hussein, Mohamed Hamed; Suzuki, Mieko; Kato, Shin; Saitoh, Shinji; Asai, Kiyofumi

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  11. Preparation of Rodent Primary Cultures for Neuron–Glia, Mixed Glia, Enriched Microglia, and Reconstituted Cultures with Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Oyarzabal, Esteban A.; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, neurons, and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) are the major cell types in the central nervous system. In the past decades, primary microglia-enriched cultures have been widely used to study the biological functions of microglia in vitro. In order to study the interactions between microglia and other brain cells, neuron–glia, neuron–microglia, and mixed glia cultures were developed. The aim of this chapter is to provide basic and adaptable protocols for the preparation of these microglia-containing primary cultures from rodent. Meanwhile, we also want to provide a collection of tips from our collective experiences doing primary brain cell cultures. PMID:23813383

  12. Microglia-Induced Maladaptive Plasticity Can Be Modulated by Neuropeptides In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Morara, Stefano; Colangelo, Anna Maria; Provini, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Microglia-induced maladaptive plasticity is being recognized as a major cause of deleterious self-sustaining pathological processes that occur in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. Microglia, the primary homeostatic guardian of the central nervous system, exert critical functions both during development, in neural circuit reshaping, and during adult life, in the brain physiological and pathological surveillance. This delicate critical role can be disrupted by neural, but also peripheral, noxious stimuli that can prime microglia to become overreactive to a second noxious stimulus or worsen underlying pathological processes. Among regulators of microglia, neuropeptides can play a major role. Their receptors are widely expressed in microglial cells and neuropeptide challenge can potently influence microglial activity in vitro. More relevantly, this regulator activity has been assessed also in vivo, in experimental models of brain diseases. Neuropeptide action in the central nervous system has been associated with beneficial effects in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory pathological experimental models. This review describes some of the mechanisms of the microglia maladaptive plasticity in vivo and how neuropeptide activity can represent a useful therapeutical target in a variety of human brain pathologies. PMID:26273481

  13. EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein in Microglia Promotes Inflammation in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    Microglial cells play a key role in neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. Overactivated microglia induce detrimental neurotoxic effects through the excess production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of microglial activation are poorly understood. We focused on prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP), which suppresses macrophage activation. We demonstrated that EPRAP exists in microglia in the brain. Furthermore, EPRAP-deficient mice displayed less microglial accumulation, and intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA in the brains of EPRAP-deficient mice. Consistently, EPRAP-deficient microglia showed a marked decrease in the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced by LPS treatment compared with wild-type controls. In addition, EPRAP deficiency decreased microglial activation and neuronal cell death induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid. EPRAP deficiency impaired the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in microglia. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-which phosphorylates c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-were also decreased in EPRAP-deficient microglia after LPS stimulation. Although EPRAP in macrophages plays a role in the attenuation of inflammation, EPRAP promotes proinflammatory activation of microglia through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-mediated signaling and may be key to the deteriorating neuronal damage brought on by brain inflammation. PMID:27315781

  14. The interplay between cyclic AMP, MAPK, and NF-κB pathways in response to proinflammatory signals in microglia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mousumi; Aguirre, Vladimir; Wai, Khine; Felfly, Hady; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is an important intracellular regulator of microglial cell homeostasis and its negative perturbation through proinflammatory signaling results in microglial cell activation. Though cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, decrease intracellular cyclic AMP, the mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. The current study examined which signaling pathways are responsible for decreasing cyclic AMP in microglia following TNF-α stimulation and sought to identify the role cyclic AMP plays in regulating these pathways. In EOC2 microglia, TNF-α produced a dramatic reduction in cyclic AMP and increased cyclic AMP-dependent PDE activity that could be antagonized by Rolipram, myristoylated-PKI, PD98059, or JSH-23, implicating a role for PDE4, PKA, MEK, and NF-κB in this regulation. Following TNF-α there were significant increases in iNOS and COX-2 immunoreactivity, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and NF-κB-p65, IκB degradation, and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which were reduced in the presence of high levels of cyclic AMP, indicating that reductions in cyclic AMP during cytokine stimulation are important for removing its inhibitory action on NF-κB activation and subsequent proinflammatory gene expression. Further elucidation of the signaling crosstalk involved in decreasing cyclic AMP in response to inflammatory signals may provide novel therapeutic targets for modulating microglial cell activation during neurological injury and disease. PMID:25722974

  15. Histamine regulation of microglia: Gene-environment interaction in the regulation of central nervous system inflammation.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana; Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Abbasi, Eeman; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Pittenger, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Microglia mediate neuroinflammation and regulate brain development and homeostasis. Microglial abnormalities are implicated in a range of neuropsychiatric pathology, including Tourette syndrome (TS) and autism. Histamine (HA) is both a neurotransmitter and an immune modulator. HA deficiency has been implicated as a rare cause of TS and may contribute to other neuropsychiatric conditions. In vitro studies suggest that HA can regulate microglia, but this has never been explored in vivo. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the effects of HA deficiency in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc) knockout mice and of HA receptor stimulation in wild-type animals. We find HA to regulate microglia in vivo, via the H4 receptor. Chronic HA deficiency in Hdc knockout mice reduces ramifications of microglia in the striatum and (at trend level) in the hypothalamus, but not elsewhere in the brain. Depletion of histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus has a similar effect. Microglia expressing IGF-1 are particularly reduced, However, the microglial response to challenge with lipopolysacchariade (LPS) is potentiated in Hdc knockout mice. Genetic abnormalities in histaminergic signaling may produce a vulnerability to inflammatory challenge, setting the state for pathogenically dysregulated neuroimmune responses.

  16. TMEM119 marks a subset of microglia in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Jun-ichi; Kino, Yoshihiro; Asahina, Naohiro; Takitani, Mika; Miyoshi, Junko; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), activated in the brains of various neurological diseases. Microglia are ontogenetically and functionally distinct from monocyte-derived macrophages that infiltrate the CNS under pathological conditions. However, a lack of specific markers that distinguish resident microglia from circulating blood-derived macrophages in human brain tissues hampers accurate evaluation of microglial contributions to the human brain pathology. By comparative analysis of five comprehensive microglial transcriptome datasets, we identified an evolutionarily conserved protein TMEM119 as the most promising candidate for human microglial markers. TMEM119 was expressed on immortalized human microglia, in which the expression levels were not elevated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-13 or TGFβ1. Notably, TMEM119 immunoreactivity was expressed exclusively on a subset of Iba1(+) CD68(+) microglia with ramified and amoeboid morphologies in the brains of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), whereas Iba1(+) CD68(+) infiltrating macrophages do not express TMEM119 in demyelinating lesions of multiple sclerosis and necrotic lesions of cerebral infarction. TMEM119 mRNA levels were elevated in AD brains, although the protein levels were not significantly different between AD and non-AD cases by western blot and morphometric analyses. TMEM119-positive microglia did not consistently express polarized markers for M1 (CD80) or M2 (CD163, CD209) in AD brains. These results suggest that TMEM119 serves as a reliable microglial marker that discriminates resident microglia from blood-derived macrophages in the human brain.

  17. Exploring the role of microglia in mood disorders associated with experimental multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Antonietta; De Vito, Francesca; Fresegna, Diego; Musella, Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Bullitta, Silvia; Mandolesi, Georgia; Centonze, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Microglia is increasingly recognized to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases. In particular, microglia may be the cellular link between inflammation and behavioral alterations: by releasing a number of soluble factors, among which pro-inflammatory cytokines, that can regulate synaptic activity, thereby leading to perturbation of behavior. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young adults, microglia activation and dysfunction may account for mood symptoms, like depression and anxiety, that are often diagnosed in patients even in the absence of motor disability. Behavioral studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of MS, have shown that emotional changes occur early in the disease and in correlation to inflammatory mediator and neurotransmitter level alterations. However, such studies lack a full and comprehensive analysis of the role played by microglia in EAE-behavioral syndrome. We review the experimental studies addressing behavioral symptoms in EAE, and propose the study of neuron-glia interaction as a powerful but still poorly explored tool to investigate the burden of microglia in mood alterations associated to MS. PMID:26161070

  18. Inhibition of JAK2 attenuates the increase in inflammatory markers in microglia from APP/PS1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Raasay S; Minogue, Aedín M; Fitzpatrick, Orla; Lynch, Marina A

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence indicating that macrophages adopt distinct phenotypes when exposed to specific stimuli and, in the past few years, accumulating data suggest that microglia behave somewhat similarly. Therefore, microglia can adopt the so-called M1 or M2 phenotypes in response to interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-4, respectively. Although it has yet to be unequivocally proven in the context of microglia, acutely activated M1 cells are probably protective, although a persistent M1 state is likely to be damaging, whereas M2 cells may be reparative and restorative. In this case, particularly because the current evidence suggests the development of a predominantly M1 state with age and in neurodegenerative diseases, it is important to identify mechanisms by which polarization of microglia can be modulated. The present findings indicate that exposure of cultured microglia to IFNγ increased expressions of the archetypal markers of the M1 phenotype, tumour necrosis factor-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and preexposure of cells to amyloid-β (Aβ) sensitized microglia to subsequent stimulation with IFNγ. Importantly, this synergy was also evident in microglia prepared from the brains of transgenic mice that overexpress amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1, APP/PS1 mice) and are exposed to a combination of increasing concentrations of endogenous Aβ from 4 or 5 months of age and an age-related increase in IFNγ. Significantly, the JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, attenuated the IFNγ-induced changes in cultured microglia and in isolated microglia prepared from APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that targeting JAK2 may be a potential strategy for reducing neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Wu, Pei-Shan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    -neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator expression and production, upregulating HO-1, GCLM and NQO1, blocking NF-κB and modulating JNK signaling pathways. They may offer therapeutic potential for suppressing overactivated microglia and alleviating neurodegeneration. PMID:27618898

  20. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Wu, Pei-Shan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    -neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator expression and production, upregulating HO-1, GCLM and NQO1, blocking NF-κB and modulating JNK signaling pathways. They may offer therapeutic potential for suppressing overactivated microglia and alleviating neurodegeneration. PMID:27618898

  1. Assessing Radium Activity in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    The high volumes and salinity associated with shale gas produced water can make finding suitable storage or disposal options a challenge, especially when deep well brine disposal or recycling for additional well completions is not an option. In such cases, recovery of commodity salts from the high total dissolved solids (TDS) of the brine wastewater may be desirable, yet the elevated concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides such as Ra-226 and Ra-228 in produced waters (sometimes substantially greater than the EPA limit of 5 pCi/L) may concentrate during these steps and limit salt recovery options. Therefore, assessing the potential presence of these Ra radionuclides in produced water from shale gas reservoir properties is desirable. In this study, we seek to link U and Th content within a given shale reservoir to the expected Ra content of produced brine by accounting for secular equilibrium within the rock and subsequent release to Ra to native brines. Produced brine from a series of Antrim shale wells and flowback from a single Utica-Collingwood shale well in Michigan were sampled and analyzed via ICP-MS to measure Ra content. Gamma spectroscopy was used to verify the robustness of this new Ra analytical method. Ra concentrations were observed to be up to an order of magnitude higher in the Antrim flowback water samples compared to those collected from the Utica-Collingwood well. The higher Ra content in Antrim produced brines correlates well with higher U content in the Antrim (19 ppm) relative to the Utica-Collingwood (3.5 ppm). We also observed an increase in Ra activity with increasing TDS in the Antrim samples. This Ra-TDS relationship demonstrates the influence of competing divalent cations in controlling Ra mobility in these clay-rich reservoirs. In addition, we will present a survey of geochemical data from other shale gas plays in the U.S. correlating shale U, Th content with produced brine Ra content. A goal of this study is to develop a

  2. Nutritional and Nanotechnological Modulators of Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Maysinger, Dusica; Zhang, Issan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological, and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota, and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single-cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented. PMID:27471505

  3. Allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhuang; Li, Linlang; Zheng, Long-Tai; Xu, Zhihong; Guo, Lin; Zhen, Xuechu

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that sigma-1 receptor orthodox agonists can inhibit neuroinflammation. SKF83959 (3-methyl-6-chloro-7,8-hydroxy-1-[3-methylphenyl]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine), an atypical dopamine receptor-1 agonist, has been recently identified as a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of SKF83959 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. Our results indicated that SKF83959 significantly suppressed the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species. All of these responses were blocked by selective sigma-1 receptor antagonists (BD1047 or BD1063) and by ketoconazole (an inhibitor of enzyme cytochrome c17 to inhibit the synthesis of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA). Additionally, we found that SKF83959 promoted the binding activity of DHEA with sigma-1 receptors, and enhanced the inhibitory effects of DHEA on LPS-induced microglia activation in a synergic manner. Furthermore, in a microglia-conditioned media system, SKF83959 inhibited the cytotoxicity of conditioned medium generated by LPS-activated microglia toward HT-22 neuroblastoma cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that allosteric modulation of sigma-1 receptors by SKF83959 inhibits microglia-mediated inflammation. SKF83959 is a potent allosteric modulator of sigma-1 receptor. Our results indicated that SKF83959 enhanced the activity of endogenous dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in a synergic manner, and inhibited the activation of BV2 microglia and the expression/release of the pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).

  4. BK channels in microglia are required for morphine-induced hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Saori; Zhang, Jing; Satoh, Yasushi; Meredith, Andrea L.; Nakata, Takahiro; Wu, Zhou; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Although morphine is a gold standard medication, long-term opioid use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Microglia-to-neuron signalling is critically involved in pain hypersensitivity. However, molecules that control microglial cellular state under chronic morphine treatment remain unknown. Here we show that the microglia-specific subtype of Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channel is responsible for generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. We find that, after chronic morphine administration, an increase in arachidonic acid levels through the μ-opioid receptors leads to the sole activation of microglial BK channels in the spinal cord. Silencing BK channel auxiliary β3 subunit significantly attenuates the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and increases neurotransmission after chronic morphine administration. Therefore, microglia-specific BK channels contribute to the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. PMID:27241733

  5. BK channels in microglia are required for morphine-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshinori; Morinaga, Saori; Zhang, Jing; Satoh, Yasushi; Meredith, Andrea L; Nakata, Takahiro; Wu, Zhou; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-31

    Although morphine is a gold standard medication, long-term opioid use is associated with serious side effects, such as morphine-induced hyperalgesia (MIH) and anti-nociceptive tolerance. Microglia-to-neuron signalling is critically involved in pain hypersensitivity. However, molecules that control microglial cellular state under chronic morphine treatment remain unknown. Here we show that the microglia-specific subtype of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel is responsible for generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance. We find that, after chronic morphine administration, an increase in arachidonic acid levels through the μ-opioid receptors leads to the sole activation of microglial BK channels in the spinal cord. Silencing BK channel auxiliary β3 subunit significantly attenuates the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance, and increases neurotransmission after chronic morphine administration. Therefore, microglia-specific BK channels contribute to the generation of MIH and anti-nociceptive tolerance.

  6. Non-Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists, Hinokiresinols Reduce Infiltration of Microglia/Macrophages into Ischemic Brain Lesions in Rat via Modulating 2-Arachidonolyglycerol-Induced Migration and Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M. A.; Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Prather, Paul L.; Kwon, Jin Sun; Gajulapati, Veeraswamy; Choi, Yongseok; Kim, Chunsook; Pahk, Kisoo; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that therapeutic strategies to modulate the post-ischemic inflammatory responses are promising approaches to improve stroke outcome. Although the endocannabinoid system has been emerged as an endogenous therapeutic target to regulate inflammation after stroke insult, the downstream mechanisms and their potentials for therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Here we identified trans- and cis-hinokiresinols as novel non-selective antagonists for two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2. The Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing and Boyden chamber migration assays using primary microglial cultures revealed that both hinokiresinols significantly inhibited an endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. Hinokiresinols modulated 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced mitochondrial bioenergetics in microglia as evidenced by inhibition of ATP turnover and reduction in respiratory capacity, thereby resulting in impaired migration activity. In rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5-h) followed by 24-h reperfusion, post-ischemic treatment with hinokiresinols (2 and 7-h after the onset of ischemia, 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced cerebral infarct and infiltration of ED1-positive microglial/macrophage cells into cerebral ischemic lesions in vivo. Co-administration of exogenous 2-AG (1 mg/kg, i.v., single dose at 2 h after starting MCAO) abolished the protective effect of trans-hinokiresionol. These results suggest that hinokiresinols may serve as stroke treatment by targeting the endocannabinoid system. Alteration of mitochondrial bioenergetics and consequent inhibition of inflammatory cells migration may be a novel mechanism underlying anti-ischemic effects conferred by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26517721

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Bacteriophage Endolysin Produced in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants.

    PubMed

    Kovalskaya, Natalia; Foster-Frey, Juli; Donovan, David M; Bauchan, Gary; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-01-01

    The increasing spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has raised the interest in alternative antimicrobial treatments. In our study, the functionally active gram-negative bacterium bacteriophage CP933 endolysin was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by a combination of transient expression and vacuole targeting strategies, and its antimicrobial activity was investigated. Expression of the cp933 gene in E. coli led to growth inhibition and lysis of the host cells or production of trace amounts of CP933. Cytoplasmic expression of the cp933 gene in plants using Potato virus X-based transient expression vectors (pP2C2S and pGR107) resulted in death of the apical portion of experimental plants. To protect plants against the toxic effects of the CP933 protein, the cp933 coding region was fused at its Nterminus to an N-terminal signal peptide from the potato proteinase inhibitor I to direct CP933 to the delta-type vacuoles. Plants producing the CP933 fusion protein did not exhibit the severe toxic effects seen with the unfused protein and the level of expression was 0.16 mg/g of plant tissue. Antimicrobial assays revealed that, in contrast to gram-negative bacterium E. coli (BL21(DE3)), the gram-positive plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis was more susceptible to the plant-produced CP933, showing 18% growth inhibition. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the combination of transient expression and protein targeting to the delta vacuoles is a promising approach to produce functionally active proteins that exhibit toxicity when expressed in plant cells. PMID:26403819

  8. Microglia: multitasking specialists of the brain.

    PubMed

    Casano, Alessandra Maria; Peri, Francesca

    2015-02-23

    Microglia are macrophages that colonize the brain during development to establish a resident population of professional phagocytes that protect against invading pathogens and contribute to brain development and homeostasis. As such, these cells sit at the interface between immunology and neurobiology. In addition to their key roles in brain physiology, microglia offer a great opportunity to address central questions in biology relating to how migrating cells find their positions in the embryo, adopt a behavior that is appropriate for that position, and interact with their local environment. We aim, in this review, to survey key recent advances in microglial research. PMID:25710533

  9. Microglia/monocytes with NG2 expression have no phagocytic function in the cortex after LPS focal injection into the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lie; Xiang, Ping; Guo, Kun; Wang, Anni; Lu, Jia; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah; Jiang, Hua; He, Bei Ping

    2012-09-01

    While OX42(+) microglia/macrophages have been considered as a scavenger in the brain, NG2(+) cells are generally considered as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or function-unknown glial cells. Recent evidence showed that under some pathological conditions, certain cells have become positive for both anti-NG2 and anti-OX42 antibodies. Our results suggested that some OX42(+) microglia or macrophages were induced to express NG2 proteins 3 and 5 days later after focal injection of lipopolysaccharide into the brain cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats. In consideration of the induction of NG2 expression may associate with gaining or losing functions of microglia/macrophages, we further showed that, while OX42(+) or ED1(+) microglia/macrophages presented active phagocytic function, NG2(+) /OX42(+) cells failed to engulf latex beads. The induced expression of NG2 protein may possibly indicate the functional diversity of activated microglia/macrophages in the brain.

  10. Early life stress perturbs the maturation of microglia in the developing hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Wei, Lan; Hao, Jin; Yu, Xiaoqing; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Kaffman, Arie

    2016-10-01

    Children exposed to abuse or neglect show abnormal hippocampal development and similar findings have been reported in rodent models. Using brief daily separation (BDS), a mouse model of early life stress, we previously showed that exposure to BDS impairs hippocampal function in adulthood and perturbs synaptic maturation, synaptic pruning, axonal growth and myelination in the developing hippocampus. Given that microglia are involved in these developmental processes, we tested whether BDS impairs microglial activity in the hippocampus of 14 (during BDS) and 28-day old mice (one week after BDS). We found that BDS increased the density and altered the morphology of microglia in the hippocampus of 14-day old pups, effects that were no longer present on postnatal day (PND) 28. Despite the normal cell number and morphology seen at PND28, the molecular signature of hippocampal microglia, assessed using the NanoString immune panel, was altered at both ages. We showed that during normal hippocampal development, microglia undergo significant changes between PND14 and PND28, including reduced cell density, decreased ex vivo phagocytic activity, and an increase in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and cell migration. However, microglia harvested from the hippocampus of 28-day old BDS mice showed an increase in phagocytic activity and reduced expression of genes that normally increase across development. Promoter analysis indicated that alteration in the transcriptional activity of PU.1, Creb1, Sp1, and RelA accounted for most of the transcriptional changes seen during normal microglia development and for most of the BDS-induced changes at PND14 and PND28. These findings are the first to demonstrate that early life stress dysregulates microglial function in the developing hippocampus and to identify key transcription factors that are likely to mediate these changes. PMID:27301858

  11. Early life stress perturbs the maturation of microglia in the developing hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Delpech, Jean-Christophe; Wei, Lan; Hao, Jin; Yu, Xiaoqing; Madore, Charlotte; Butovsky, Oleg; Kaffman, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to abuse or neglect show abnormal hippocampal development and similar findings have been reported in rodent models. Using brief daily separation (BDS), a mouse model of early life stress, we previously showed that exposure to BDS impairs hippocampal function in adulthood and perturbs synaptic maturation, synaptic pruning, axonal growth and myelination in the developing hippocampus. Given that microglia are involved in these developmental processes, we tested whether BDS impairs microglial activity in the hippocampus of 14 (during BDS) and 28-day old mice (one week after BDS). We found that BDS increased the density and altered the morphology of microglia in the hippocampus of 14-day old pups, effects that were no longer present on postnatal day (PND) 28. Despite the normal cell number and morphology seen at PND28, the molecular signature of hippocampal microglia, assessed using the NanoString immune panel, was altered at both ages. We showed that during normal hippocampal development, microglia undergo significant changes between PND14 and PND28, including reduced cell density, decreased ex vivo phagocytic activity, and an increase in the expression of genes involved in inflammation and cell migration. However, microglia harvested from the hippocampus of 28-day old BDS mice showed an increase in phagocytic activity and reduced expression of genes that normally increase across development. Promoter analysis indicated that alteration in the transcriptional activity of PU.1, Creb1, Sp1, and RelA accounted for most of the transcriptional changes seen during normal microglia development and for most of the BDS-induced changes at PND14 and PND28. These findings are the first to demonstrate that early life stress dysregulates microglial function in the developing hippocampus and to identify key transcription factors that are likely to mediate these changes. PMID:27301858

  12. Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates amyloid β-induced inflammation and neurotoxicity in EOC 13.31 microglia.

    PubMed

    Cheng-Chung Wei, James; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chien-Ning; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Lin, Chih-Li

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the primary immune cells that contribute to neuroinflammation by releasing various proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxins in the brain. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the key characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, inhibitory reagents that prevent microglial activation may be used as potential therapeutic agents for treating AD. Recently, many studies have been performed to determine the bioactivities of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an efficient antioxidant that prevents neuroinflammation. However, limited information is available on the effects of EGCG on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EGCG on amyloid β (Aβ)-induced microglial activation and neurotoxicity. Our results indicated that EGCG significantly suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in Aβ-stimulated EOC 13.31 microglia. EGCG also restored the levels of intracellular antioxidants nuclear erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), thus inhibiting reactive oxygen species-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation after Aβ treatment. Furthermore, EGCG effectively protected neuro-2a neuronal cells from Aβ-mediated, microglia-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent, Aβ-induced release of TNFα. Taken together, our findings suggested that EGCG suppressed Aβ-induced neuroinflammatory response of microglia and protected against indirect neurotoxicity. These results suggest that EGCG is a possible therapeutic agent for preventing Aβ-induced inflammatory neurodegeneration.

  13. Missing and Possible Link between Neuroendocrine Factors, Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takahiro A.; Hayakawa, Kohei; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine systems have long been suggested to be one of the important factors in neuropsychiatric disorders, while the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. Traditionally, neuropsychiatric disorders have been mainly considered the consequence of abnormal conditions in neural circuitry. Beyond the neuronal doctrine, microglia, one of the glial cells with inflammatory/immunological functions in the central nervous system (CNS), have recently been suggested to play important roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the crosstalk between neuroendocrine factors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and microglia has been unsolved. Therefore, we herein introduce and discuss a missing and possible link between these three factors; especially highlighting the following hormones; (1) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis-related hormones such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoids, (2) sex-related hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and (3) oxytocin. A growing body of evidence has suggested that these hormones have a direct effect on microglia. We hypothesize that hormone-induced microglial activation and the following microglia-derived mediators may lead to maladaptive neuronal networks including synaptic dysfunctions, causing neuropsychiatric disorders. Future investigations to clarify the correlation between neuroendocrine factors and microglia may contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23874274

  14. Complement and microglia mediate early synapse loss in Alzheimer mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Soyon; Beja-Glasser, Victoria F; Nfonoyim, Bianca M; Frouin, Arnaud; Li, Shaomin; Ramakrishnan, Saranya; Merry, Katherine M; Shi, Qiaoqiao; Rosenthal, Arnon; Barres, Ben A; Lemere, Cynthia A; Selkoe, Dennis J; Stevens, Beth

    2016-05-01

    Synapse loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with cognitive decline. Involvement of microglia and complement in AD has been attributed to neuroinflammation, prominent late in disease. Here we show in mouse models that complement and microglia mediate synaptic loss early in AD. C1q, the initiating protein of the classical complement cascade, is increased and associated with synapses before overt plaque deposition. Inhibition of C1q, C3, or the microglial complement receptor CR3 reduces the number of phagocytic microglia, as well as the extent of early synapse loss. C1q is necessary for the toxic effects of soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers on synapses and hippocampal long-term potentiation. Finally, microglia in adult brains engulf synaptic material in a CR3-dependent process when exposed to soluble Aβ oligomers. Together, these findings suggest that the complement-dependent pathway and microglia that prune excess synapses in development are inappropriately activated and mediate synapse loss in AD. PMID:27033548

  15. c-Src deactivation by the polyphenol 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid abrogates reactive oxygen species-mediated glutamate release from microglia and neuronal excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Socodato, Renato; Portugal, Camila C; Canedo, Teresa; Domith, Ivan; Oliveira, Nadia A; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto; Relvas, João B; Cossenza, Marcelo

    2015-02-01

    3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA) is an isomer of chlorogenic acid, which has been shown to regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor production in microglia. Whereas overactivation of microglia is associated with neuronal loss in brain diseases via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutamate excitotoxicity, naïve (nonactivated) microglia are believed to generate little ROS under basal conditions, contributing to the modulation of synaptic activity and nerve tissue repair. However, the signaling pathways controlling basal ROS homeostasis in microglial cells are still poorly understood. Here we used time-lapse microscopy coupled with highly sensitive FRET biosensors (for detecting c-Src activation, ROS generation, and glutamate release) and lentivirus-mediated shRNA delivery to study the pathways involved in antioxidant-regulated ROS generation and how this associates with microglia-induced neuronal cell death. We report that 3-CQA abrogates the acquisition of an amoeboid morphology in microglia triggered by Aβ oligomers or the HIV Tat peptide. Moreover, 3-CQA deactivates c-Src tyrosine kinase and abrogates c-Src activation during proinflammatory microglia stimulation, which shuts off ROS production in these cells. Moreover, forced increment of c-Src catalytic activity by overexpressing an inducible c-Src heteromerization construct in microglia increases ROS production, abrogating the 3-CQA effects. Whereas oxidant (hydrogen peroxide) stimulation dramatically enhances glutamate release from microglia, such release is diminished by the 3-CQA inhibition of c-Src/ROS generation, significantly alleviating cell death in cultures from embryonic neurons. Overall, we provide further mechanistic insight into the modulation of ROS production in cortical microglia, indicating antioxidant-regulated c-Src function as a pathway for controlling microglia-triggered oxidative damage.

  16. S100b counteracts effects of the neurotoxicant trimethyltin on astrocytes and microglia.

    PubMed

    Reali, Camilla; Scintu, Franca; Pillai, Rita; Donato, Rosario; Michetti, Fabrizio; Sogos, Valeria

    2005-09-01

    Central nervous system degenerative diseases are often characterized by an early, strong reaction of astrocytes and microglia. Both these cell types can play a double role, protecting neurons against degeneration through the synthesis and secretion of trophic factors or inducing degeneration through the secretion of toxic molecules. Therefore, we studied the effects of S100B and trimethyltin (TMT) on human astrocytes and microglia with two glial models, primary cultures of human fetal astrocytes and a microglia cell line. After treatment with 10(-5) M TMT, astrocytes showed morphological alterations associated with an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and changes in GFAP filament organization. Administration of S100B before TMT treatment prevented TMT-induced changes in morphology and GFAP expression. A decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was observed in astrocytes treated with TMT, whereas the same treatment induced iNOS expression in microglia. In both cases, S100B prevented TMT-induced changes. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in astrocytes was not modified by TMT treatment, whereas it was increased in microglia cells. S100B pretreatment blocked the TMT-induced increase in TNF-alpha expression in microglia. To trace the mechanisms involved in S100B activity, the effect of BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and of PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK-ERK1/2, were investigated. Results showed that the protective effects of S100B against TMT toxicity in astrocytes depend on NF-kappaB, but not on ERK1/2 activation. These results might help in understanding the role played by glial cells in brain injury after exposure to chemical neurotoxicants and support the view that S100B may protect brain cells in case of injury. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Sublime microglia: expanding roles for the guardians of the CNS.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael W; Beggs, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Recent findings challenge the concept that microglia solely function in disease states in the central nervous system (CNS). Rather than simply reacting to CNS injury, infection, or pathology, emerging lines of evidence indicate that microglia sculpt the structure of the CNS, refine neuronal circuitry and network connectivity, and contribute to plasticity. These physiological functions of microglia in the normal CNS begin during development and persist into maturity. Here, we develop a conceptual framework for functions of microglia beyond neuroinflammation and discuss the rich repertoire of signaling and communication motifs in microglia that are critical both in pathology and for the normal physiology of the CNS.

  18. Non-identical twins - microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages in acute injury and autoimmune inflammation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Steffen; Schwartz, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The brain has been commonly regarded as a "tissue behind walls." Appearance of immune cells in the brain has been taken as a sign of pathology. Moreover, since infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages and activated resident microglia were indistinguishable by conventional means, both populations were considered together as inflammatory cells that should be mitigated. Yet, because the microglia permanently reside in the brain, attributing to them negative properties evoked an ongoing debate; why cells that are supposed to be the brain guardians acquire only destructive potential? Studies over the last two decades in the immune arena in general, and in the context of central nervous system pathology in particular, have resulted in a paradigm shift toward a more balanced appreciation of the contributions of immune cells in the context of brain maintenance and repair, and toward the recognition of distinct roles of resident microglia and infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages. PMID:22566968

  19. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Morgado, Richard E.; Wang, Tai-Sen F.; Vodolaga, B.; Terekhin, V.; Onischenko, L. M.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Samsonov, E. V.; Vorozhtsov, A. S.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.; Perpelkin, E. E.; Glazov, A. A.; Novikov, D. L.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Vostrikov, V.; Mashinin, V. A.; Fedotov, S. N.; Minayev, S. A.

    2010-10-15

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current ({approx}1 mA) and high-quality (emittance {approx}15 {pi}mm mrad; energy spread {approx}0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  20. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Thomas J T; Morgado, Richard E; Wang, Tai-Sen F; Vodolaga, B; Terekhin, V; Onischenko, L M; Vorozhtsov, S B; Samsonov, E V; Vorozhtsov, A S; Alenitsky, Yu G; Perpelkin, E E; Glazov, A A; Novikov, D L; Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V; Vostrikov, V; Mashinin, V A; Fedotov, S N; Minayev, S A

    2010-10-01

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  1. In vivo quantification of microglia dynamics with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in a mouse model of focal laser injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Clemens; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and play a crucial role in maintaining neuronal health and function. Their dynamic behavior, that is, the constant extension and retraction of microglia processes, is thought to be critical for communication between microglia and their cellular neighbors, such as neurons, astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the morphology and dynamics of retinal microglia in vivo under normal conditions and in response to focal laser injury of blood vessel endothelial wall, using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) designed specifically for imaging the retina of live mice. The multichannel confocal imaging system allows retinal microstructure, such as the processes of microglia and retinal vasculature, to be visualized simultaneously. In order to generate focal laser injury, a photocoagulator based on a continuous wave (cw) laser was coupled into the SLO. An acousto-optic modulator chopped pulses from the cw laser. A tip-tilt-scanner was used to direct the laser beam into a blood vessel of interest under SLO image guidance. Mild coagulation was produced using millisecond-long pulses. Microglia react dynamically to focal laser injury of blood vessel endothelial walls. Under normal conditions, microglia somas remain stationary and the processes probe a territory of their immediate environment. In response to local injury, process movement velocity approximately doubles within minutes after injury. Moreover, the previously unpolarized process movement assumes a distinct directionality towards the injury site, indicating signaling between the injured tissue and the microglia. In vivo retinal imaging is a powerful tool for understanding the dynamic behavior of retinal cells.

  2. Dynamics of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute depletion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yao; Echeverry, Stefania; Shi, Xiang Qun; Yang, Mu; Yang, Qiu Zi; Wang, Guan Yun Frances; Chambon, Julien; Wu, Yi Chen; Fu, Kai Yuan; De Koninck, Yves; Zhang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on the function of microglia has been revolutionized in the recent 20 years. However, the process of maintaining microglia homeostasis has not been fully understood. In this study, we dissected the features of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute partial depletion. By injecting intrathecally Mac-1-saporin, a microglia selective immunotoxin, we ablated 50% microglia in the spinal cord of naive mice. Spinal microglia repopulated rapidly and local homeostasis was re-established within 14 days post-depletion. Mac-1-saporin treatment resulted in microglia cell proliferation and circulating monocyte infiltration. The latter is indeed part of an acute, transient inflammatory reaction that follows cell depletion, and was characterized by an increase in the expression of inflammatory molecules and by the breakdown of the blood spinal cord barrier. During this period, microglia formed cell clusters and exhibited a M1-like phenotype. MCP-1/CCR2 signaling was essential in promoting this depletion associated spinal inflammatory reaction. Interestingly, ruling out MCP-1-mediated secondary inflammation, including blocking recruitment of monocyte-derived microglia, did not affect depletion-triggered microglia repopulation. Our results also demonstrated that newly generated microglia kept their responsiveness to peripheral nerve injury and their contribution to injury-associated neuropathic pain was not significantly altered. PMID:26961247

  3. Dynamics of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute depletion

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yao; Echeverry, Stefania; Shi, Xiang Qun; Yang, Mu; Yang, Qiu Zi; Wang, Guan Yun Frances; Chambon, Julien; Wu, Yi Chen; Fu, Kai Yuan; De Koninck, Yves; Zhang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on the function of microglia has been revolutionized in the recent 20 years. However, the process of maintaining microglia homeostasis has not been fully understood. In this study, we dissected the features of spinal microglia repopulation following an acute partial depletion. By injecting intrathecally Mac-1-saporin, a microglia selective immunotoxin, we ablated 50% microglia in the spinal cord of naive mice. Spinal microglia repopulated rapidly and local homeostasis was re-established within 14 days post-depletion. Mac-1-saporin treatment resulted in microglia cell proliferation and circulating monocyte infiltration. The latter is indeed part of an acute, transient inflammatory reaction that follows cell depletion, and was characterized by an increase in the expression of inflammatory molecules and by the breakdown of the blood spinal cord barrier. During this period, microglia formed cell clusters and exhibited a M1-like phenotype. MCP-1/CCR2 signaling was essential in promoting this depletion associated spinal inflammatory reaction. Interestingly, ruling out MCP-1-mediated secondary inflammation, including blocking recruitment of monocyte-derived microglia, did not affect depletion-triggered microglia repopulation. Our results also demonstrated that newly generated microglia kept their responsiveness to peripheral nerve injury and their contribution to injury-associated neuropathic pain was not significantly altered. PMID:26961247

  4. Microglia in the Cerebral Cortex in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Jiang, Sue; Williams, Brian A.; Allman, Elizabeth; Wold, Barbara J.; Allman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    We immunocytochemically identified microglia in fronto-insular (FI) and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically quantified the microglial densities. Densities were determined blind to phenotype using an optical fractionator probe. In FI, individuals with autism had…

  5. Microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages: functionally distinct populations that act in concert in CNS plasticity and repair

    PubMed Central

    London, Anat; Cohen, Merav; Schwartz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Functional macrophage heterogeneity is recognized outside the central nervous system (CNS), where alternatively activated macrophages can perform immune-resolving functions. Such functional heterogeneity was largely ignored in the CNS, with respect to the resident microglia and the myeloid-derived cells recruited from the blood following injury or disease, previously defined as blood-derived microglia; both were indistinguishably perceived detrimental. Our studies have led us to view the myeloid-derived infiltrating cells as functionally distinct from the resident microglia, and accordingly, to name them monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-MΦ). Although microglia perform various maintenance and protective roles, under certain conditions when they can no longer provide protection, mo-MΦ are recruited to the damaged CNS; there, they act not as microglial replacements but rather assistant cells, providing activities that cannot be timely performed by the resident cells. Here, we focus on the functional heterogeneity of microglia/mo-MΦ, emphasizing that, as opposed to the mo-MΦ, microglia often fail to timely acquire the phenotype essential for CNS repair. PMID:23596391

  6. Tables for simplifying calculations of activities produced by thermal neutrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Champion, W.R.

    1954-01-01

    The method of calculation described is useful for the types of work of which examples are given. It is also useful in making rapid comparison of the activities that might be expected from several different elements. For instance, suppose it is desired to know which of the three elements, cobalt, nickel, or vanadium is, under similar conditions, activated to the greatest extent by thermal neutrons. If reference is made to a cross-section table only, the values may be misleading unless properly interpreted by a suitable comparison of half-lives and abundances. In this table all the variables have been combined and the desired information can be obtained directly from the values of A 3??, the activity produced per gram per second of irradiation, under the stated conditions. Hence, it is easily seen that, under similar circumstances of irradiation, vanadium is most easily activated even though the cross section of one of the cobalt isotopes is nearly five times that of vanadium and the cross section of one of the nickel isotopes is three times that of vanadium. ?? 1954 Societa?? Italiana di Fisica.

  7. Functional diversity of microglia – how heterogeneous are they to begin with?

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Microglia serve in the surveillance and maintenance, protection and restoration of the central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. By their parenchymal location they differ from other CNS-associated myeloid cells, and by origin as well as functional characteristics they are also–at least in part–distinct from extraneural tissue macrophages. Nevertheless, microglia themselves may not comprise a uniform cell type. CNS regions vary by cellular and chemical composition, including white matter (myelin) content, blood–brain barrier properties or prevailing neurotransmitters. Such a micromilieu could instruct as well as require local adaptions of microglial features. Yet even cells within circumscribed populations may reveal some specialization by subtypes, regarding house-keeping duties and functional capacities upon challenges. While diversity of reactive phenotypes has been established still little is known as to whether all activated cells would respond with the same program of induced genes and functions or whether responder subsets have individual contributions. Preferential synthesis of a key cytokine could asign a master control to certain cells among a pool of activated microglia. Critical functions could be sequestered to discrete microglial subtypes in order to avoid interference, such as clearance of endogenous material and presentation of antigens. Indeed, several and especially a number of recent studies provide evidence for the constitutive and reactive heterogeneity of microglia by and within CNS regions. While such a principle of “division of labor” would influence the basic notion of “the” microglia, it could come with the practival value of addressing separate microglia types in experimental and therapeutic manipulations. PMID:23717262

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide in the induction of interleukin-1 beta in microglia.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Kenji; Takezawa, Yosuke; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Nakajima, Kazuyuki

    2015-11-01

    In response to in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglia induce the production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) together with nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O2(-)). Here we investigated the role of NO and O2(-) in the signaling mechanism by which IL-1β is induced in microglia. The LPS-inducible IL-1β was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide, but not by pretreatment with the O2(-) scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the close association of NO with IL-1β induction. The pretreatment of microglia with the inducible NO synthase inhibitor 1400W prior to LPS stimulation significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, and the addition of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) into microglia led to the induction of IL-1β. These results suggested that NO induces IL-1β through a specific signaling cascade. LPS-dependent IL-1β induction was significantly suppressed by inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB), indicating that ERK/JNK and NFκB serve in the cascade of IL-1β induction. As expected, ERK/JNK and NFκB were all activated in the SNAP-stimulated microglia. Taken together, these results indicate that NO is an important signaling molecule for the ERK/JNK and NFκB activations, which are requisite to the induction of IL-1β in microglia.

  9. Gene-Expression Profiling Suggests Impaired Signaling via the Interferon Pathway in Cstb-/- Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Körber, Inken; Katayama, Shintaro; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Hakala, Paula; Kere, Juha; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Joensuu, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1, OMIM254800) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by stimulus-sensitive and action-activated myoclonus, tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, and ataxia. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin B (CSTB) underlie EPM1. The deficiency of CSTB in mice (Cstb-/- mice) generates a phenotype resembling the symptoms of EPM1 patients and is accompanied by microglial activation at two weeks of age and an upregulation of immune system-associated genes in the cerebellum at one month of age. To shed light on molecular pathways and processes linked to CSTB deficiency in microglia we characterized the transcriptome of cultured Cstb-/- mouse microglia using microarray hybridization and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The gene expression profiles obtained with these two techniques were in good accordance and not polarized to either pro- or anti-inflammatory status. In Cstb-/- microglia, altogether 184 genes were differentially expressed. Of these, 33 genes were identified by both methods. Several interferon-regulated genes were weaker expressed in Cstb-/- microglia compared to control. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR of the transcripts Irf7 and Stat1. Subsequently, we explored the biological context of CSTB deficiency in microglia more deeply by functional enrichment and canonical pathway analysis. This uncovered a potential role for CSTB in chemotaxis, antigen-presentation, and in immune- and defense response-associated processes by altering JAK-STAT pathway signaling. These data support and expand the previously suggested involvement of inflammatory processes to the disease pathogenesis of EPM1 and connect CSTB deficiency in microglia to altered expression of interferon-regulated genes. PMID:27355630

  10. Inflammatory Regulation of ATP Binding Cassette Efflux Transporter Expression and Function in Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Christopher J.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Richardson, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, including multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) extrude chemicals from the brain. Although ABC transporters are critical for blood-brain barrier integrity, less attention has been placed on the regulation of these proteins in brain parenchymal cells such as microglia. Prior studies demonstrate that inflammation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment alters transporter expression in the livers of mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects of inflammation on the expression and function of transporters in microglia. To test this, the expression and function of ABC efflux transport proteins were quantified in mouse BV-2 microglial cells in response to activation with LPS. Intracellular retention of fluorescent rhodamine 123, Hoechst 33342, and calcein acetoxymethyl ester was increased in LPS-treated microglia, suggesting that the functions of Mdr1, Bcrp, and Mrps were decreased, respectively. LPS reduced Mdr1, Bcrp, and Mrp4 mRNA and protein expression between 40 and 70%. Conversely, LPS increased expression of Mrp1 and Mrp5 mRNA and protein. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed reduced Bcrp and Mrp4 and elevated Mrp1 and Mrp5 protein in activated microglia. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcriptional signaling attenuated down-regulation of Mdr1a mRNA and potentiated up-regulation of Mrp5 mRNA in LPS-treated cells. Together, these data suggest that LPS stimulates microglia and impairs efflux of prototypical ABC transporter substrates by altering mRNA and protein expression, in part through NF-κB signaling. Decreased transporter efflux function in microglia may lead to the retention of toxic chemicals and aberrant cell-cell communication during neuroinflammation. PMID:22942241

  11. [Knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia reduces neuron viability after OGD/R injury].

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Beibei; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Objective To observe the effects of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) knockdown in the microglia on neuron viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Methods Microglia was treated with lentivirus PRDX6-siRNA and Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethgl)-sn-glycerol-2 phosphomethanol (MJ33). Twenty-four hours later, it was co-cultured with primary neuron to establish the microglia-neuron co-culture OGD/R model. According to the different treatment of microglia, the cells were divided into normal group, OGD/R group, negative control-siRNA treated OGD/R group, PRDX6-siRNA treated OGD/R group and PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 treated OGD/R group. Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative PCR were respectively performed to detect PRDX6 protein and mRNA levels after knockdown of PRDX6 in microglia. The iPLA2 activity was measured by ELISA. MTS and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used to measure neuron viability and cell damage. The oxidative stress level of neuron was determined by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content. Results In PRDX6-siRNA group, neuron viability was inhibited and oxidative stress damage was aggravated compared with OGD/R group. In PRDX6-siRNA combined with MJ33 group, cell viability was promoted and oxidative stress damage was alleviated compared with PRDX6-siRNA group. Conclusion PRDX6 in microglia protects neuron against OGD/R-induced injury, and iPLA2 activity has an effect on PRDX6. PMID:27412928

  12. Gene-Expression Profiling Suggests Impaired Signaling via the Interferon Pathway in Cstb-/- Microglia.

    PubMed

    Körber, Inken; Katayama, Shintaro; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Hakala, Paula; Kere, Juha; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Joensuu, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1, OMIM254800) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by stimulus-sensitive and action-activated myoclonus, tonic-clonic epileptic seizures, and ataxia. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin B (CSTB) underlie EPM1. The deficiency of CSTB in mice (Cstb-/- mice) generates a phenotype resembling the symptoms of EPM1 patients and is accompanied by microglial activation at two weeks of age and an upregulation of immune system-associated genes in the cerebellum at one month of age. To shed light on molecular pathways and processes linked to CSTB deficiency in microglia we characterized the transcriptome of cultured Cstb-/- mouse microglia using microarray hybridization and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The gene expression profiles obtained with these two techniques were in good accordance and not polarized to either pro- or anti-inflammatory status. In Cstb-/- microglia, altogether 184 genes were differentially expressed. Of these, 33 genes were identified by both methods. Several interferon-regulated genes were weaker expressed in Cstb-/- microglia compared to control. This was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR of the transcripts Irf7 and Stat1. Subsequently, we explored the biological context of CSTB deficiency in microglia more deeply by functional enrichment and canonical pathway analysis. This uncovered a potential role for CSTB in chemotaxis, antigen-presentation, and in immune- and defense response-associated processes by altering JAK-STAT pathway signaling. These data support and expand the previously suggested involvement of inflammatory processes to the disease pathogenesis of EPM1 and connect CSTB deficiency in microglia to altered expression of interferon-regulated genes. PMID:27355630

  13. Modulation of BV-2 microglia functions by novel quercetin pivaloyl ester.

    PubMed

    Mrvová, Nataša; Škandík, Martin; Kuniaková, Marcela; Račková, Lucia

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammation in brain plays a critical role in major neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, stroke or multiple sclerosis. Microglia, resident macrophages and intristinc components of CNS, appear to be main effectors in this pathological process. Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, was proven to downregulate inflammatory genes in microglia. Synthetically modified quercetin, 3'-O-(3-chloropivaloyl) quercetin (CPQ), is assumed to possess better biological availability and enhanced antioxidant properties. In the present study, antineuroinflammatory capability of the novel compound CPQ was assessed in BV-2 microglial cells. Our data show that treatment with CPQ attenuated the production of the inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in LPS-stimulated microglia somewhat more efficiently than did quercetin (p > 0.05 for CPQ vs. quercetin-treated group). Also, protein level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-activated BV-2 microglia was to some extent more effectively supressed by CPQ than by unmodified flavonoid. In consistence with the extent of their effects on pro-inflammatory markers, CPQ and quercetin showed down-regulation of NFκB activation. This quercetin analogue caused also a decline in BV-2 microglia proliferation with interfering with cell cycle progression (p < 0.001 for CPQ vs. quercetin-treated group). However, CPQ did not remarkably affect cell viability. In addition, CPQ showed a minor better suppression of PMA-induced generation of superoxide than did quercetin. Neither CPQ nor quercetin influenced phagocytosis of BV-2 cells. These results point to the therapeutic potential of 3'-O-(3-chloropivaloyl)quercetin (CPQ) as a novel antiinflammatory drug in neurodegenerative diseases, mediating favourable modulation of pro-inflammatory functions of microglia.

  14. Embryonic Medaka Model of Microglia in the Developing CNS Allowing In Vivo Analysis of Their Spatiotemporal Recruitment in Response to Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takako; Oda, Shoji; Hibi, Yusuke; Satoh, Satomi; Nagata, Kento; Hirakawa, Kei; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sagara, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is pivotal in the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) pathologies; however, exposure to RT in children is associated with a higher risk of secondary CNS tumors. Although recent research interest has focused on the reparative and therapeutic role of microglia, their recruitment following RT has not been elucidated, especially in the developing CNS. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of microglia during tissue repair in the irradiated embryonic medaka brain by whole-mount in situ hybridization using a probe for Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), a marker for activated microglia in teleosts. Three-dimensional imaging of the distribution of ApoE-expressing microglia in the irradiated embryonic brain clearly showed that ApoE-expressing microglia were abundant only in the late phase of phagocytosis during tissue repair induced by irradiation, while few microglia expressed ApoE in the initial phase of phagocytosis. This strongly suggests that ApoE has a significant function in the late phase of phagocytosis by microglia in the medaka brain. In addition, the distribution of microglia in p53-deficient embryos at the late phase of phagocytosis was almost the same as in wild-type embryos, despite the low numbers of irradiation-induced apoptotic neurons, suggesting that constant numbers of activated microglia were recruited at the late phase of phagocytosis irrespective of the extent of neuronal injury. This medaka model of microglia demonstrated specific recruitment after irradiation in the developing CNS and could provide a useful potential therapeutic strategy to counteract the detrimental effects of RT. PMID:26061282

  15. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  16. Activating mutations in CTNNB1 in aldosterone producing adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Åkerström, Tobias; Maharjan, Rajani; Sven Willenberg, Holger; Cupisti, Kenko; Ip, Julian; Moser, Ana; Stålberg, Peter; Robinson, Bruce; Alexander Iwen, K.; Dralle, Henning; Walz, Martin K.; Lehnert, Hendrik; Sidhu, Stan; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension with a prevalence of 5–10% in unreferred hypertensive patients. Aldosterone producing adenomas (APAs) constitute a large proportion of PA cases and represent a surgically correctable form of the disease. The WNT signaling pathway is activated in APAs. In other tumors, a frequent cause of aberrant WNT signaling is mutation in the CTNNB1 gene coding for β-catenin. Our objective was to screen for CTNNB1 mutations in a well-characterized cohort of 198 APAs. Somatic CTNNB1 mutations were detected in 5.1% of the tumors, occurring mutually exclusive from mutations in KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 and CACNA1D. All of the observed mutations altered serine/threonine residues in the GSK3β binding domain in exon 3. The mutations were associated with stabilized β-catenin and increased AXIN2 expression, suggesting activation of WNT signaling. By CYP11B2 mRNA expression, CYP11B2 protein expression, and direct measurement of aldosterone in tumor tissue, we confirmed the ability for aldosterone production. This report provides compelling evidence that aberrant WNT signaling caused by mutations in CTNNB1 occur in APAs. This also suggests that other mechanisms that constitutively activate the WNT pathway may be important in APA formation. PMID:26815163

  17. Active temperature and velocity correlations produced by a swimmer suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Rojas, C.; Soto, R.

    2013-05-01

    The agitation produced in a fluid by a suspension of microswimmers in the low Reynolds number limit is studied. In this limit, swimmers are modeled as force dipoles all with equal strength. The agitation is characterized by the active temperature defined, as in kinetic theory, as the mean square velocity, and by the equal-time spatial correlations. Considering the phase in which the swimmers are homogeneously and isotropically distributed in the fluid, it is shown that the active temperature and velocity correlations depend on a single scalar correlation function of the dipole-dipole correlation function. By making a simple medium-range order model, in which the dipole-dipole correlation function is characterized by a single correlation length k0-1 it is possible to make quantitative predictions. It is found that the active temperature depends on the system size, scaling as L4-d at large correlation lengths L≪k0-1, while in the opposite limit it saturates in three dimensions and diverges logarithmically with the system size in two dimensions. In three dimensions the velocity correlations decay as 1/r for small correlation lengths, while at large correlation lengths the transverse correlation function becomes negative at maximum separation r˜L/2, an effect that disappears as the system increases in size.

  18. IgM-Dependent Phagocytosis in Microglia Is Mediated by Complement Receptor 3, Not Fcα/μ Receptor.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Jonathan R; Quan, Yi; Hanson, Josiah F; Colonna, Lucrezia; Iorga, Michael; Honda, Shin-ichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Elkon, Keith B; Möller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Microglia play an important role in receptor-mediated phagocytosis in the CNS. In brain abscess and other CNS infections, invading bacteria undergo opsonization with Igs or complement. Microglia recognize these opsonized pathogens by Fc or complement receptors triggering phagocytosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fcα/μR, the less-studied receptor for IgM and IgA, in microglial phagocytosis. We showed that primary microglia, as well as N9 microglial cells, express Fcα/μR. We also showed that anti-Staphylococcus aureus IgM markedly increased the rate of microglial S. aureus phagocytosis. To unequivocally test the role of Fcα/μR in IgM-mediated phagocytosis, we performed experiments in microglia from Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, we found that IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was similar in microglia derived from wild-type or Fcα/μR(-/-) mice. We hypothesized that IgM-dependent activation of complement receptors might contribute to the IgM-mediated increase in phagocytosis. To test this, we used immunologic and genetic inactivation of complement receptor 3 components (CD11b and CD18) as well as C3. IgM-, but not IgG-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus was reduced in wild-type microglia and macrophages following preincubation with an anti-CD11b blocking Ab. IgM-dependent phagocytosis of S. aureus was also reduced in microglia derived from CD18(-/-) and C3(-/-) mice. Taken together, our findings implicate complement receptor 3 and C3, but not Fcα/μR, in IgM-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus by microglia.

  19. P2X4R+ microglia drive neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Simon; Trang, Tuan; Salter, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, the most debilitating of all clinical pain syndromes, may be a consequence of trauma, infection or pathology from diseases that affect peripheral nerves. Here we provide a framework for understanding the spinal mechanisms of neuropathic pain as distinct from those of acute pain or inflammatory pain. Recent work suggests that a specific microglia response phenotype characterized by de novo expression of the purinergic receptor P2X4 is critical for the pathogenesis of pain hypersensitivity caused by injury to peripheral nerves. Stimulating P2X4 receptors initiates a core pain signaling pathway mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which produces a disinhibitory increase in intracellular chloride in nociceptive (pain-transmitting) neurons in the spinal dorsal horn. The changes caused by signaling from P2X4R+ microglia to nociceptive transmission neurons may account for the main symptoms of neuropathic pain in humans, and they point to specific interventions to alleviate this debilitating condition. PMID:22837036

  20. Characterization of phenotype markers and neuronotoxic potential of polarised primary microglia in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chhor, Vibol; Le Charpentier, Tifenn; Lebon, Sophie; Oré, Marie-Virgine; Celador, Idoia Lara; Josserand, Julien; Degos, Vincent; Jacotot, Etienne; Hagberg, Henrik; Sävman, Karin; Mallard, Carina; Gressens, Pierre; Fleiss, Bobbi

    2013-01-01

    Microglia mediate multiple facets of neuroinflammation, including cytotoxicity, repair, regeneration, and immunosuppression due to their ability to acquire diverse activation states, or phenotypes. Modulation of microglial phenotype is an appealing neurotherapeutic strategy but a comprehensive study of classical and more novel microglial phenotypic markers in vitro is lacking. The aim of this study was to outline the temporal expression of a battery of phenotype markers from polarised microglia to generate an in vitro tool for screening the immunomodulatory potential of novel compounds. We characterised expression of thirty-one macrophage/microglial phenotype markers in primary microglia over time (4, 12, 36, and 72 h), using RT-qPCR or multiplex protein assay. Firstly, we selected Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the strongest M1–M2 polarising stimuli, from six stimuli tested. At each time point, markers useful to identify that microglia were M1 included iNOS, Cox-2 and IL-6 and a loss of M2a markers. Markers useful for quantifying M2b-immunomodulatory microglia included, increased IL-1RA and SOCS3 and for M2a-repair and regeneration, included increased arginase-1, and a loss of the M1 and M2b markers were discriminatory. Additional markers were regulated at fewer time points, but are still likely important to monitor when assessing the immunomodulatory potential of novel therapies. Further, to facilitate identification of how novel immunomodulatory treatments alter the functional affects of microglia, we characterised how the soluble products from polarised microglia affected the type and rate of neuronal death; M1/2b induced increasing and M2a-induced decreasing neuronal loss. We also assessed any effects of prior activation state, to provide a way to identify how a novel compound may alter phenotype depending on the stage of injury/insult progression. We identified generally that a prior M1/2b reduced the ability of microglia to switch to

  1. MicroRNA-Let-7a regulates the function of microglia in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Song, Juhyun; Oh, Yumi; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-09-01

    Microglia have multiple functions in cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Regulation of microglial function during inflammatory stress is important for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases because microglia secrete various substances that affect neurons and glia. MicroRNA-Let-7a (miR-Let-7a) is a tumor suppressor miRNA that has been reported to target transcripts that encode proteins involved in apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the essential role of miR-Let-7a in inflammatory stress by over-expressing miR-Let-7a to investigate its role in determining the BV2 microglial phenotype, a cell line often used as a model of activated microglia. We found that inflammatory factors and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production levels were altered according to miR-Let-7a expression level as measured by Western blot analysis, reverse transcription PCR, quantitative real time PCR, the measurement of nitrite (indicative of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway), and immunocytochemistry (ICC). Our results suggest that miR-Let-7a is involved in the function of microglia in the setting of inflammatory injury. In response to inflammation, miR-Let-7a participates in the reduction of nitrite production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-6 and is involved in increased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 in microglia. Thus, miRNA-Let-7a could act as a regulator of the function of microglia in inflammation.

  2. Microglia-derived interleukin-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor promote astrocytic differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masaya; Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Matsuda, Satoru; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2007-02-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferate and differentiate depending on their intrinsic properties and local environment. It has been recognized that astrocytes promote neurogenic differentiation of NSPCs, suggesting the importance of cell-cell interactions between glial cells and NSPCs. Recent studies have demonstrated that microglia, one type of glial cells, play an important role in neurogenesis. However, little is known about how activated microglia control the proliferation and differentiation of NSPCs. In this study, we investigated the possibility that microglia-derived soluble factors regulate the behaviour of NSPCs. To this end, NSPCs and microglial cultures were obtained from rat embryonic day 16 subventricular zone (SVZ) and rat postnatal 1 day cortex, respectively, and the conditioned medium from microglia was prepared. Microglial-conditioned medium had no significant effect on the proliferation of NSPCs. In contrast, it increased the percentage of cells positive for a marker of astrocytes, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) during differentiation. The induction of astrocytic differentiation by microglial-conditioned medium was reduced by the inhibition of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Furthermore, microglia-derived interleukin (IL)-6 and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were identified as essential molecules for this astrocytic differentiation using neutralizing antibodies and recombinant cytokines. Our results suggest that microglia as well as astrocytes contribute to the integrity of the local environment of NSPCs, and at least IL-6 and LIF released by activated microglia promote astrocytic differentiation of NSPCs via the activation of the JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways.

  3. Control of tissue growth by locally produced activator: Liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-03-01

    In general, the tissue development is controlled by growth factors and depends on the biomechanics of cells. The corresponding kinetic models are focused primarily on the early stages of the development. The attempts to construct such models for the later stages are still rare. One of the notable examples here is liver regeneration. Referring to this process, the author proposes and analyzes a generic kinetic model describing the regulation of tissue growth by locally produced activator. The model includes activator diffusion and control of the rate of cell proliferation which is described by using the Hill expression. Although this control may be moderately or strongly non-linear, the qualitative changes in the regeneration kinetics are predicted to be modest. For moderately non-linear control, the evolution of the tissue volume to the steady-state value exhibits an initial relatively short linear stage and then becomes slightly slower so that the whole kinetics is close to exponential. For strongly non-linear control, the linear stage dominates and/or the kinetics may exhibit a S-like shape feature which is, however, rather weak. The identification of such qualitative features in experimentally measured kinetics is shown to be difficult, because the error bars in the experiments are typically too large.

  4. ROCK inhibition with fasudil promotes early functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats by enhancing microglia phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pei-cai; Tang, Rong-hua; Wan, Yue; Xie, Min-jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiang; Yu, Zhi-yuan

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that microglia activation plays an important role in spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by trauma. Studies have found that inhibiting the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway can reduce inflammatory cytokine production by microglia. In this study, Western blotting was conducted to detect ROCK2 expression after the SCI; the ROCK Activity Assay kit was used for assay of ROCK pathway activity; microglia morphology was examined using the CD11b antibody; electron microscopy was used to detect microglia phagocytosis; TUNEL was used to detect tissue cell apoptosis; myelin staining was performed using an antibody against myelin basic protein (MBP); behavioral outcomes were evaluated according to the methods of Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB). We observed an increase in ROCK activity and microglial activation after SCI. The microglia became larger and rounder and contained myelin-like substances. Furthermore, treatment with fasudil inhibited neuronal cells apoptosis, alleviated demyelination and the formation of cavities, and improved motor recovery. The experimental evidence reveals that the ROCK inhibitor fasudil can regulate microglial activation, promote cell phagocytosis, and improve the SCI microenvironment to promote SCI repair. Thus, fasudil may be useful for the treatment of SCI. PMID:26838736

  5. ROCK inhibition with fasudil promotes early functional recovery of spinal cord injury in rats by enhancing microglia phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pei-cai; Tang, Rong-hua; Wan, Yue; Xie, Min-jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiang; Yu, Zhi-yuan

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that microglia activation plays an important role in spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by trauma. Studies have found that inhibiting the Rho/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway can reduce inflammatory cytokine production by microglia. In this study, Western blotting was conducted to detect ROCK2 expression after the SCI; the ROCK Activity Assay kit was used for assay of ROCK pathway activity; microglia morphology was examined using the CD11b antibody; electron microscopy was used to detect microglia phagocytosis; TUNEL was used to detect tissue cell apoptosis; myelin staining was performed using an antibody against myelin basic protein (MBP); behavioral outcomes were evaluated according to the methods of Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB). We observed an increase in ROCK activity and microglial activation after SCI. The microglia became larger and rounder and contained myelin-like substances. Furthermore, treatment with fasudil inhibited neuronal cells apoptosis, alleviated demyelination and the formation of cavities, and improved motor recovery. The experimental evidence reveals that the ROCK inhibitor fasudil can regulate microglial activation, promote cell phagocytosis, and improve the SCI microenvironment to promote SCI repair. Thus, fasudil may be useful for the treatment of SCI.

  6. Physiologic Responses Produced by Active and Passive Personal Cooling Vests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Lee, Hank C.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Luna, Bernadette

    2000-01-01

    Personal thermoregulatory systems which provide chest cooling are used in the industrial and aerospace environments to alleviate thermal stress. However, little information is available regarding the physiologic and circulatory changes produced by routine operation of these systems. The objectives of this study were to document and compare the subjects' response to three cooling vests in their recommended configurations. The Life Enhancement Tech (LET) lightweight active cooling vest with cap, the MicroClimate Systems Change of Phase garment (MCS), and the Steele Vest were each used to cool the chest regions of 12 male and 8 female Healthy subjects (21 to 69 yr.) in this study. The subjects, seated in an upright position at normal room temperature (approx. 22 C), were tested for 60 min. with one of the cooling garments. The LET active garment had an initial coolant fluid inlet temperature of 60 F, and was ramped down to 50 F. Oral, right and left ear canal temperatures were logged manually every 5 min. Arm, leg, chest and rectal temperatures; heart rate; and respiration were recorded continuously on a U.F.I., Inc. Biolog ambulatory monitor. For men, all three vests had similar, significant cooling effects. Decreases in the average rectal temperature, oral temperature, and ear canal temperatures were approximately 0.2 C, 0.2 C and 0.1 C, respectively. In contrast to the men, the female subjects wearing the MCS and Steel vests had similar cooling responses in which the core temperature remained elevated and oral and ear canal temperatures did not drop. The LET active garment cooled most of the female subjects in this study; rectal, oral and ear temperature decreased about 0.2 C, 0.3 C and 0.3 C, respectively. These results show that the garment configurations tested do not elicit a similar thermal response in all subjects. A gender difference is evident. The LET active garment configuration was most effective in decreasing temperatures of the female subjects; the MCS

  7. Visualisation of Microglia with the use of Immunohistochemical Double Staining Method for CD-68 and Iba-1 of Cerebral Tissue Samples in Cases of Brain Contusions.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Aleksandar; Belakaposka-Srpanova, Viktorija; Bitoljanu, Natasa; Cakar, Ljupco; Cakar, Zdravko; Rosoklija, Gorazd

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years it has been confirmed that the main component of the immune response in an injury of the nerve cell comes from microglia and macrophages. The main challenge in the field of microglia research is to detect the different stages of cellular activation by visualization of the cell morphology. The existing visualization techniques are based on surface molecules expression in resting and activated microglia cells. For visualization of the microglial cells and their functional state we used double labeling method for cd-68 and iba1 in brain contusions with different survival time. Microglia are stained brown with Iba-1, whereas microglia impregnated with black, grainy color, represents activated microglia stained with CD 68. We had significantly positive results, and we were able to observe changes in the morphology of the microglia that correlated with the survival time. Using double labeling with Iba-1 and cd68 we were able to determine their physiological state based on the morphology and immunoreactivity. PMID:27442380

  8. Microglia and Synapse: Interactions in Health and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Šišková, Zuzana; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2013-01-01

    A series of discoveries spanning for the last few years has challenged our view of microglial function, the main form of immune defense in the brain. The surveillance of neuronal circuits executed by each microglial cell overseeing its territory occurs in the form of regular, dynamic interactions. Microglial contacts with individual neuronal compartments, such as dendritic spines and axonal terminals, ensure that redundant or dysfunctional elements are recognized and eliminated from the brain. Microglia take on a new shape that is large and amoeboid when a threat to brain integrity is detected. In this defensive form, they migrate to the endangered sites, where they help to minimize the extent of the brain insult. However, in neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with misfolding and aggregation of synaptic proteins, these vital defensive functions appear to be compromised. Many microglial functions, such as phagocytosis, might be overwhelmed during exposure to the abnormal levels of misfolded proteins in their proximity. This might prevent them from attending to their normal duties, such as the stripping of degenerating synaptic terminals, before neuronal function is irreparably impaired. In these conditions microglia become chronically activated and appear to take on new, destructive roles by direct or indirect inflammatory attack. PMID:24392228

  9. Retinal microglia: just bystander or target for therapy?

    PubMed

    Karlstetter, Marcus; Scholz, Rebecca; Rutar, Matt; Wong, Wai T; Provis, Jan M; Langmann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Resident microglial cells can be regarded as the immunological watchdogs of the brain and the retina. They are active sensors of their neuronal microenvironment and rapidly respond to various insults with a morphological and functional transformation into reactive phagocytes. There is strong evidence from animal models and in situ analyses of human tissue that microglial reactivity is a common hallmark of various retinal degenerative and inflammatory diseases. These include rare hereditary retinopathies such as retinitis pigmentosa and X-linked juvenile retinoschisis but also comprise more common multifactorial retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and uveitis as well as neurological disorders with ocular manifestation. In this review, we describe how microglial function is kept in balance under normal conditions by cross-talk with other retinal cells and summarize how microglia respond to different forms of retinal injury. In addition, we present the concept that microglia play a key role in local regulation of complement in the retina and specify aspects of microglial aging relevant for chronic inflammatory processes in the retina. We conclude that this resident immune cell of the retina cannot be simply regarded as bystander of disease but may instead be a potential therapeutic target to be modulated in the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases of the retina.

  10. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Jing, Da; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Lin, Tian; Xie, Zhen; Zhu, Yi; Zhao, Haibo; Shi, Xiaodan; Du, Fang; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Infrasound, a kind of common environmental noise and a major contributor of vibroacoustic disease, can induce the central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, no relevant anti-infrasound drugs have been reported yet. Our recent studies have shown that infrasound resulted in excessive microglial activation rapidly and sequential inflammation, revealing a potential role of microglia in infrasound-induced CNS damage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive component in green tea, has the capacity of protecting against various neurodegenerative diseases via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. However, it is still unknown to date whether EGCG acts on infrasound-induced microglial activation and neuronal damage. We showed that, after 1-, 2- or 5-day exposure of rats to 16 Hz, 130 dB infrasound (2 h/day), EGCG significantly inhibited infrasound-induced microglial activation in rat hippocampal region, evidenced by reduced expressions of Iba-1 (a marker for microglia) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α). Moreover, infrasound-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampi was significantly suppressed by EGCG. EGCG also inhibited infrasound-induced activation of primary microglia in vitro and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of microglial culture, which were toxic to cultured neurons. Furthermore, EGCG attenuated infrasound-induced increases in nuclear NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated IκBα, and ameliorated infrasound-induced decrease in IκB in microglia. Therefore, our study provides the first evidence that EGCG acts against infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation through a potential NF-κB pathway-related mechanism, suggesting that EGCG can be used as a promising drug for the treatment of infrasound-induced CNS damage. PMID:24746834

  11. Microglia: unique and common features with other tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Marco; Tay, Tuan Leng; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Microglia are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the brain with dedicated functions in neuronal development, homeostasis and recovery from pathology Despite their unique localization in the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are ontogenetically and functionally related to their peripheral counterparts of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the body, namely tissue macrophages and circulating myeloid cells. Recent developments provided new insights into the myeloid system in the body with microglia emerging as intriguing unique archetypes. Similar to other tissue macrophages, microglia develop early during embryogenesis from immature yolk sac progenitors. But in contrast to most of their tissue relatives microglia persist throughout the entire life of the organism without any significant input from circulating blood cells due to their longevity and their capacity of self-renewal. Notably, microglia share some features with short-lived blood monocytes to limit CNS tissue damage in pathologies, but only bone marrow-derived cells display the ability to become permanently integrated in the parenchyma. This emphasizes the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived microglia-like cells. Further understanding of both fate and function of microglia during CNS pathologies and considering their uniqueness among other tissue macrophages will be pivotal for potential manipulation of immune cell function in the CNS, thereby reducing disease burden. Here, we discuss new aspects of myeloid cell biology in general with special emphasis on the brain-resident macrophages and microglia.

  12. Microglia: unique and common features with other tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Marco; Tay, Tuan Leng; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Microglia are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the brain with dedicated functions in neuronal development, homeostasis and recovery from pathology Despite their unique localization in the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are ontogenetically and functionally related to their peripheral counterparts of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the body, namely tissue macrophages and circulating myeloid cells. Recent developments provided new insights into the myeloid system in the body with microglia emerging as intriguing unique archetypes. Similar to other tissue macrophages, microglia develop early during embryogenesis from immature yolk sac progenitors. But in contrast to most of their tissue relatives microglia persist throughout the entire life of the organism without any significant input from circulating blood cells due to their longevity and their capacity of self-renewal. Notably, microglia share some features with short-lived blood monocytes to limit CNS tissue damage in pathologies, but only bone marrow-derived cells display the ability to become permanently integrated in the parenchyma. This emphasizes the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived microglia-like cells. Further understanding of both fate and function of microglia during CNS pathologies and considering their uniqueness among other tissue macrophages will be pivotal for potential manipulation of immune cell function in the CNS, thereby reducing disease burden. Here, we discuss new aspects of myeloid cell biology in general with special emphasis on the brain-resident macrophages and microglia. PMID:24652058

  13. Enriched environment decreases microglia and brain macrophages inflammatory phenotypes through adiponectin-dependent mechanisms: Relevance to depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Chabry, Joëlle; Nicolas, Sarah; Cazareth, Julie; Murris, Emilie; Guyon, Alice; Glaichenhaus, Nicolas; Heurteaux, Catherine; Petit-Paitel, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Regulation of neuroinflammation by glial cells plays a major role in the pathophysiology of major depression. While astrocyte involvement has been well described, the role of microglia is still elusive. Recently, we have shown that Adiponectin (ApN) plays a crucial role in the anxiolytic/antidepressant neurogenesis-independent effects of enriched environment (EE) in mice; however its mechanisms of action within the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that in a murine model of depression induced by chronic corticosterone administration, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus display increased levels of inflammatory cytokines mRNA, which is reversed by EE housing. By combining flow cytometry, cell sorting and q-PCR, we show that microglia from depressive-like mice adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype characterized by higher expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IκB-α mRNAs. EE housing blocks pro-inflammatory cytokine gene induction and promotes arginase 1 mRNA expression in brain-sorted microglia, indicating that EE favors an anti-inflammatory activation state. We show that microglia and brain-macrophages from corticosterone-treated mice adopt differential expression profiles for CCR2, MHC class II and IL-4recα surface markers depending on whether the mice are kept in standard environment or EE. Interestingly, the effects of EE were abolished when cells are isolated from ApN knock-out mouse brains. When injected intra-cerebroventricularly, ApN, whose level is specifically increased in cerebrospinal fluid of depressive mice raised in EE, rescues microglia phenotype, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by microglia and blocks depressive-like behavior in corticosterone-treated mice. Our data suggest that EE-induced ApN increase within the brain regulates microglia and brain macrophages phenotype and activation state, thus reducing neuroinflammation and depressive-like behaviors in mice.

  14. Differential Relationships of Reactive Astrocytes and Microglia to Fibrillar Amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Muzikansky, Alona; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Growdon, John H.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2013-01-01

    While it is clear that astrocytes and microglia cluster around dense-core amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD), whether they are primarily attracted to amyloid deposits or are just reacting to plaque-associated neuritic damage remains elusive. We postulate that astrocytes and microglia may differentially respond to fibrillar amyloid β (Aβ). Therefore, we quantified the size distribution of dense-core Thioflavin-S (ThioS)-positive plaques in the temporal neocortex of 40 AD patients and the microglial and astrocyte responses in their vicinity (≤50 μm), and performed correlations between both measures. As expected, both astrocytes and microglia were clearly spatially associated with ThioS-positive plaques (p = 0.0001, ≤50 μm vs. >50 μm from their edge), but their relationship to ThioS-positive plaque size differed; larger ThioS-positive plaques were associated with more surrounding activated microglia (p = 0.0026), but this effect was not observed with reactive astrocytes. Microglial response to dense-core plaques appears to be proportional to their size, which we postulate reflects a chemotactic effect of Aβ. By contrast, plaque-associated astrocytic response does not correlate with plaque size and seems to parallel the behavior of plaque-associated neuritic damage. PMID:23656989

  15. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain.

    PubMed

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M; Lamb, Bruce T; Bhaskar, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice. Second, CD45(+) microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1(-/-) mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain.

  16. Reactive microglia drive tau pathology and contribute to the spreading of pathological tau in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Maphis, Nicole; Xu, Guixiang; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga N.; Jiang, Shanya; Cardona, Astrid; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Lamb, Bruce T.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological aggregation of tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and related tauopathies. We have previously shown that the deficiency of the microglial fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) led to the acceleration of tau pathology and memory impairment in an hTau mouse model of tauopathy. Here, we show that microglia drive tau pathology in a cell-autonomous manner. First, tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation occur as early as 2 months of age in hTauCx3cr1−/− mice. Second, CD45+ microglial activation correlates with the spatial memory deficit and spread of tau pathology in the anatomically connected regions of the hippocampus. Third, adoptive transfer of purified microglia derived from hTauCx3cr1−/− mice induces tau hyperphosphorylation within the brains of non-transgenic recipient mice. Finally, inclusion of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Kineret®) in the adoptive transfer inoculum significantly reduces microglia-induced tau pathology. Together, our results suggest that reactive microglia are sufficient to drive tau pathology and correlate with the spread of pathological tau in the brain. PMID:25833819

  17. Microglia and synapse interactions: fine tuning neural circuits and candidate molecules

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Akiko; Wake, Hiroaki; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Nabekura, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Brain function depends critically on the interactions among the underlying components that comprise neural circuits. This includes coordinated activity in pre-synaptic and postsynaptic neuronal elements, but also in the non-neuronal elements such as glial cells. Microglia are glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that have well-known roles in neuronal immune function, responding to infections and brain injury and influencing the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. However, microglia are also surveyors of the healthy brain, continuously extending and retracting their processes and making contacts with pre- and postsynaptic elements of neural circuits, a process that clearly consumes considerable energy. Pruning of synapses during development and in response to injury has also been documented, and we propose that this extensive surveillance of the brain parenchyma in adult healthy brain results in similar “fine-tuning” of neural circuits. A reasonable extension is that a dysfunction of such a homeostatic role of microglia could be a primary cause of neuronal disease. Indeed, neuronal functions including cognition, personality, and information processing are affected by immune status. In this review we focus on the interactions between microglia and synapses, the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate such contacts, and the possible implications these interactions may have in the fine tuning of neural circuits that is so important for physiological brain function. PMID:23720611

  18. Hypothalamic TLR2 triggers sickness behavior via a microglia-neuronal axis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sungho; Kim, Jae Geun; Park, Jeong Woo; Koch, Marco; Horvath, Tamas L.; Lee, Byung Ju

    2016-01-01

    Various pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to sickness behaviors have been proposed. For example, an inflammatory process in the hypothalamus has been implicated, but the signaling modalities that involve inflammatory mechanisms and neuronal circuit functions are ill-defined. Here, we show that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation by intracerebroventricular injection of its ligand, Pam3CSK4, triggered hypothalamic inflammation and activation of arcuate nucleus microglia, resulting in altered input organization and increased activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. These animals developed sickness behavior symptoms, including anorexia, hypoactivity, and hyperthermia. Antagonists of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase pathway and melanocortin receptors 3/4 reversed the anorexia and body weight loss induced by TLR2 activation. These results unmask an important role of TLR2 in the development of sickness behaviors via stimulation of hypothalamic microglia to promote POMC neuronal activation in association with hypothalamic inflammation. PMID:27405276

  19. Microglial tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) triggers neuronal apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flavin, M P; Zhao, G; Ho, L T

    2000-02-15

    Several CNS disorders feature microglial activation. Microglia are known to have both restorative and cytotoxic capabilities. Neuronal apoptosis has been noted after an acute insult such as ischemia. Microglia may participate in this event. We previously showed that conditioned medium (CM) harvested from peritoneal macrophages or from activated microglia triggered apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. We wished to characterize the factor responsible for triggering neuronal death. Quiescent microglia produced CM that did not disrupt hippocampal neurons. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia produced CM which resulted in neuronal death. This effect was blocked by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, by tPA STOP, and by co-incubation with tPA antibody. Recombinant human tPA exaggerated the neurotoxic effects of microglial CM, while tPA alone was toxic only at very high concentrations. This in vitro system, which probably excludes any significant impact of microglial free radicals, suggests that microglial tPA may contribute significantly to hippocampal neuronal death.

  20. Quantitative characterization and analysis of the dynamic NF-κB response in microglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activation of the NF-κB transcription factor and its associated gene expression in microglia is a key component in the response to brain injury. Its activation is dynamic and is part of a network of biochemical species with multiple feedback regulatory mechanisms. Mathematical modeling, which has been instrumental for understanding the NF-κB response in other cell types, offers a valuable tool to investigate the regulation of NF-κB activation in microglia at a systems level. Results We quantify the dynamic response of NF-κB activation and activation of the upstream kinase IKK using ELISA measurements of a microglial cell line following treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. A new mathematical model is developed based on these data sets using a modular procedure that exploits the feedback structure of the network. We show that the new model requires previously unmodeled dynamics involved in the stimulus-induced degradation of the inhibitor IκBα in order to properly describe microglial NF-κB activation in a statistically consistent manner. This suggests a more prominent role for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in regulating the activation of NF-κB to inflammatory stimuli. We also find that the introduction of nonlinearities in the kinetics of IKK activation and inactivation is essential for proper characterization of transient IKK activity and corresponds to known biological mechanisms. Numerical analyses of the model highlight key regulators of the microglial NF-κB response, as well as those governing IKK activation. Results illustrate the dynamic regulatory mechanisms and the robust yet fragile nature of the negative feedback regulated network. Conclusions We have developed a new mathematical model that incorporates previously unmodeled dynamics to characterize the dynamic response of the NF-κB signaling network in microglia. This model is the first of its kind for microglia and provides a tool for the quantitative, systems level

  1. The Critical Role of Proteolytic Relay through Cathepsins B and E in the Phenotypic Change of Microglia/Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Ni, Junjun; Wu, Zhou; Peterts, Christoph; Yamamoto, Kenji; Qing, Hong; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Proteinase cascades are part of the basic machinery of neuronal death pathways. Neuronal cathepsin B (CatB), a typical cysteine lysosomal protease, plays a critical role in neuronal death through lysosomal leakage or excessive autophagy. On the other hand, much attention has been paid to microglial CatB in neuronal death. We herein show the critical role of proteolytic relay through microglial CatB and CatE in the polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype, leading to hypoxia/ischemia (HI)-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in neonatal mice. HI caused extensive brain injury in neonatal wild-type mice, but not in CatB(-/-) mice. Furthermore, HI-induced polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype followed by the neuroprotective phenotype in wild-type mice. On the other hand, microglia/macrophages exhibited only the early and transient polarization in the neuroprotective phenotype in CatB(-/-) mice. CA-074Me, a specific CatB inhibitor, significantly inhibited the neuronal death of primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced by the conditioned medium from cultured microglia polarized in the neurotoxic phenotype. Furthermore, CA-074Me prevented the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cultured microglia by inhibiting autophagic inhibitor of κBα degradation following exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Rather surprisingly, CatE increased the CatB expression after HI by the liberation of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) from microglia through the proteasomal pathway. A significant increase in CatB and CatE levels was found exclusively in microglia/macrophages after HI. Thus, a proteolytic relay through the early CatE/TRAIL-dependent proteosomal and late CatB-dependent autophagic pathways for NF-κB activation may play a critical role in the polarization of microglia/macrophages in the neurotoxic phenotype. Significance statement: Proteinase cascades are part of the basic

  2. Enhanced uptake of multiple sclerosis-derived myelin by THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin phagocytosis. It remains unclear why microglia and macrophages demyelinate axons in MS, but previously found or yet-unknown changes in the myelin of MS patients could contribute to this process. We therefore studied whether myelin from normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS donors is phagocytosed more efficiently than myelin from control donors. Methods Myelin was isolated from 11 MS and 12 control brain donors and labeled with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye pHrodo to quantify uptake in lysosomes. Phagocytosis by differentiated THP-1 macrophages and by primary human microglia was quantified with flow cytometry. Whereas myelin uptake by THP-1 macrophages reached a plateau after approximately 24 hours, uptake by primary human microglia showed an almost linear increase over a 72–hour period. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U test. Results MS-derived myelin was phagocytosed more efficiently by THP-1 macrophages after 6-hour incubation (P = 0.001 for the percentage of myelin-phagocytosing cells and P = 0.0005 for total myelin uptake) and after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0001, respectively), and by microglia after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0106 for total myelin uptake). This enhanced uptake was not due to differences in the oxidation status of the myelin. Interestingly, myelin phagocytosis correlated negatively with the age of myelin donors, whereas the age of microglia donors showed a positive trend with myelin phagocytosis. Conclusions Myelin isolated from normal-appearing white matter of MS donors was phagocytosed more efficiently than was myelin isolated from control brain donors by both THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia. These data indicate that changes in MS myelin might precede phagocyte activation and subsequent demyelination in MS. Identifying these myelin changes responsible for enhancing phagocytic ability

  3. Chitinase producing bacteria with direct algicidal activity on marine diatoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase producing bacteria can involve extensively in nutrient cycling and energy flow in the aquatic environment through degradation and utilization of chitin. It is well known that diatoms cells are encased by box-like frustules composed of chitin. Thus the chitin containing of diatoms shall be a natural target of chitinase producing bacteria, however, the interaction between these two organismic groups has not been studied thus far. Therefore, in this study, the algicidal mechanism of one chitinase producing bacterium (strain LY03) on Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated. The algicidal range and algicidal mode of strain LY03 were first studied, and then bacterial viability, chemotactic ability and direct interaction characteristic between bacteria and diatom were also confirmed. Finally, the characteristic of the intracellular algicidal substance was identified and the algicidal mechanism was determined whereby algicidal bacterial cells showed chemotaxis to algal cells, fastened themselves on algal cells with their flagella, and then produced chitinase to degrade algal cell walls, and eventually caused algal lysis and death. It is the first time to investigate the interaction between chitinase producing bacteria and diatoms, and this novel special interaction mode was confirmed in this study, which will be helpful in protection and utilization of diatoms resources. PMID:26902175

  4. Chitinase producing bacteria with direct algicidal activity on marine diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Huajun; Guan, Chengwei; Chen, Zhangran; Zheng, Wei; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Tianling

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase producing bacteria can involve extensively in nutrient cycling and energy flow in the aquatic environment through degradation and utilization of chitin. It is well known that diatoms cells are encased by box-like frustules composed of chitin. Thus the chitin containing of diatoms shall be a natural target of chitinase producing bacteria, however, the interaction between these two organismic groups has not been studied thus far. Therefore, in this study, the algicidal mechanism of one chitinase producing bacterium (strain LY03) on Thalassiosira pseudonana was investigated. The algicidal range and algicidal mode of strain LY03 were first studied, and then bacterial viability, chemotactic ability and direct interaction characteristic between bacteria and diatom were also confirmed. Finally, the characteristic of the intracellular algicidal substance was identified and the algicidal mechanism was determined whereby algicidal bacterial cells showed chemotaxis to algal cells, fastened themselves on algal cells with their flagella, and then produced chitinase to degrade algal cell walls, and eventually caused algal lysis and death. It is the first time to investigate the interaction between chitinase producing bacteria and diatoms, and this novel special interaction mode was confirmed in this study, which will be helpful in protection and utilization of diatoms resources. PMID:26902175

  5. Increased MCP-1 and Microglia in Various Regions of the Human Alcoholic Brain

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Crews, Fulton T.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines and microglia have been implicated in anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration as well as the regulation of alcohol drinking and other consumatory behaviors, all of which are associated with alcoholism. Studies using animal models of alcoholism suggest that microglia and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to alcoholic pathologies (Crews et al., 2006). In the current study, human postmortem brains from moderate drinking controls and alcoholics obtained from the New South Wales Tissue Resource Center were used to study the cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1,CCL2) and microglia markers in various brain regions. Since MCP-1 is a key proinflammatory cytokine induced by chronic alcohol treatment of mice, and known to regulate drinking behavior in mice, MCP-1 protein levels from human brain homogenate were measured using ELISA, and indicated increased MCP-1 concentration in ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN), hippocampus and amygdala of alcoholic brains as compared with controls. Immunohistochemistry was further performed to visualize human microglia using ionized calcium binding adaptor protein-1 (Iba-1), and Glucose transporter-5 (GluT5). Alcoholics were found to have brain region-specific increases in microglial markers. In cingulate cortex, both Iba-1 and GluT5 were increased in alcoholic brains relative to controls. Alternatively, no detectable change was found in amygdala nuclei. In VTA and midbrain, only GluT5, but not Iba-1 was increased in alcoholic brains. These data suggest that the enhanced expression of MCP-1 and microglia activities in alcoholic brains could contribute to ethanol-induced pathogenesis. PMID:18190912

  6. [Enzyme activity of an actinomycete producer of carotenes and macrotetrolides].

    PubMed

    Nefelova, M V; Sverdlova, A N

    1982-01-01

    The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and dehydrogenases of the tricarboxylic acid cycle was assayed in the mycelium of Streptomyces chrysomallus var. Carotenoides growing under different conditions of the medium. The activity of the enzymes increased when acetic, citric and succinic acids were added at different periods of the growth. Moreover, addition of the acids increased the time of intensive functioning of the dehydrogenases whose activity abruptly decreased after 60 h of the growth under the control conditions.