Science.gov

Sample records for activated mtor signaling

  1. Periostin Responds to Mechanical Stress and Tension by Activating the MTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K.; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Volk, Sarah L.; Murai, Marcelo J.; Rios, Hector F.; Squarize, Cristiane H.; Castilho, Rogerio M.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge about Periostin biology has expanded from its recognized functions in embryogenesis and bone metabolism to its roles in tissue repair and remodeling and its clinical implications in cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that Periostin plays a critical role in the mechanism of wound healing; however, the paracrine effect of Periostin in epithelial cell biology is still poorly understood. We found that epithelial cells are capable of producing endogenous Periostin that, unlike mesenchymal cell, cannot be secreted. Epithelial cells responded to Periostin paracrine stimuli by enhancing cellular migration and proliferation and by activating the mTOR signaling pathway. Interestingly, biomechanical stimulation of epithelial cells, which simulates tension forces that occur during initial steps of tissue healing, induced Periostin production and mTOR activation. The molecular association of Periostin and mTOR signaling was further dissected by administering rapamycin, a selective pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR, and by disruption of Raptor and Rictor scaffold proteins implicated in the regulation of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complex assembly. Both strategies resulted in ablation of Periostin-induced mitogenic and migratory activity. These results indicate that Periostin-induced epithelial migration and proliferation requires mTOR signaling. Collectively, our findings identify Periostin as a mechanical stress responsive molecule that is primarily secreted by fibroblasts during wound healing and expressed endogenously in epithelial cells resulting in the control of cellular physiology through a mechanism mediated by the mTOR signaling cascade. PMID:24349533

  2. Mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism: implications for a direct activation of mTOR by phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    You, Jae Sung; Frey, John W; Hornberger, Troy A

    2012-01-01

    Signaling by mTOR is a well-recognized component of the pathway through which mechanical signals regulate protein synthesis and muscle mass. However, the mechanisms involved in the mechanical regulation of mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that a mechanically-induced increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) may be involved. There is also evidence which suggests that mechanical stimuli, and PA, utilize ERK to induce mTOR signaling. Hence, we reasoned that a mechanically-induced increase in PA might promote mTOR signaling via an ERK-dependent mechanism. To test this, we subjected mouse skeletal muscles to mechanical stimulation in the presence or absence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor, and then measured several commonly used markers of mTOR signaling. Transgenic mice expressing a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR were also used to confirm the validity of these markers. The results demonstrated that mechanically-induced increases in p70(s6k) T389 and 4E-BP1 S64 phosphorylation, and unexpectedly, a loss in total 4E-BP1, were fully mTOR-dependent signaling events. Furthermore, we determined that mechanical stimulation induced these mTOR-dependent events, and protein synthesis, through an ERK-independent mechanism. Similar to mechanical stimulation, exogenous PA also induced mTOR-dependent signaling via an ERK-independent mechanism. Moreover, PA was able to directly activate mTOR signaling in vitro. Combined, these results demonstrate that mechanical stimulation induces mTOR signaling, and protein synthesis, via an ERK-independent mechanism that potentially involves a direct interaction of PA with mTOR. Furthermore, it appears that a decrease in total 4E-BP1 may be part of the mTOR-dependent mechanism through which mechanical stimuli activate protein synthesis. PMID:23077579

  3. The role of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, T A; Chu, W K; Mak, Y W; Hsiung, J W; Huang, S A; Chien, S

    2006-03-21

    Signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been reported to be necessary for mechanical load-induced growth of skeletal muscle. The mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling are not known, but several studies indicate that a unique [phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)- and nutrient-independent] mechanism is involved. In this study, we have demonstrated that a regulatory pathway for mTOR signaling that involves phospholipase D (PLD) and the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling. First, an elevation in PA concentration was sufficient for the activation of mTOR signaling. Second, the isozymes of PLD (PLD1 and PLD2) are localized to the z-band in skeletal muscle (a critical site of mechanical force transmission). Third, mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle with intermittent passive stretch ex vivo induced PLD activation, PA accumulation, and mTOR signaling. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of PLD blocked the mechanically induced increase in PA and the activation of mTOR signaling. Combined, these results indicate that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through a PLD-dependent increase in PA. Furthermore, we showed that mTOR signaling was partially resistant to rapamycin in muscles subjected to mechanical stimulation. Because rapamycin and PA compete for binding to the FRB domain on mTOR, these results suggest that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling through an enhanced binding of PA to the FRB domain on mTOR. PMID:16537399

  4. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. PMID:25609845

  5. FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Susanne; Penke, Melanie; Gorski, Theresa; Gebhardt, Rolf; Weiss, Thomas S.; Kiess, Wieland; Garten, Antje

    2015-03-06

    Background: Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the key enzyme of the NAD salvage pathway starting from nicotinamide. Cancer cells have an increased demand for NAD due to their high proliferation and DNA repair rate. Consequently, NAMPT is considered as a putative target for anti-cancer therapies. There is evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) become dysregulated during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the effects of NAMPT inhibition by its specific inhibitor FK866 on the viability of hepatocarcinoma cells and analyzed the effects of FK866 on the nutrient sensor AMPK and mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) signaling. Results: FK866 markedly decreased NAMPT activity and NAD content in hepatocarcinoma cells (Huh7 cells, Hep3B cells) and led to delayed ATP reduction which was associated with increased cell death. These effects could be abrogated by administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the enzyme product of NAMPT. Our results demonstrated a dysregulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells compared to non-cancerous hepatocytes with a higher expression of mTOR and a lower AMPKα activation in hepatocarcinoma cells. We found that NAMPT inhibition by FK866 significantly activated AMPKα and inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream targets p70S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in hepatocarcinoma cells. Non-cancerous hepatocytes were less sensitive to FK866 and did not show changes in AMPK/mTOR signaling after FK866 treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings reveal an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. - Highlights: • FK866 increases cell death in p53-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells. • AMPK/mTOR signaling is dysregulated in hepatocarcinoma cells. • FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK

  6. mTOR signaling in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Liu, Pengda; Wei, Wenyi

    2014-01-01

    mTOR (the mechanistic target of rapamycin) is an atypical serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating major cellular functions including growth and proliferation. Deregulations of the mTOR signaling pathway is one of the most commonly observed pathological alterations in human cancers. To this end, oncogenic activation of the mTOR signaling pathway contributes to cancer cell growth, proliferation and survival, highlighting the potential for targeting the oncogenic mTOR pathway members as an effective anti-cancer strategy. In order to do so, a thorough understanding of the physiological roles of key mTOR signaling pathway components and upstream regulators would guide future targeted therapies. Thus, in this review, we summarize available genetic mouse models for mTORC1 and mTORC2 components, as well as characterized mTOR upstream regulators and downstream targets, and assign a potential oncogenic or tumor suppressive role for each evaluated molecule. Together, our work will not only facilitate the current understanding of mTOR biology and possible future research directions, but more importantly, provide a molecular basis for targeted therapies aiming at key oncogenic members along the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:25450580

  7. Notch signals positively regulate activity of the mTOR pathway in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Steven M.; Weng, Andrew P.; Tibshirani, Robert; Aster, Jon C.

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive Notch activation is required for the proliferation of a subgroup of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Downstream pathways that transmit pro-oncogenic signals are not well characterized. To identify these pathways, protein microarrays were used to profile the phosphorylation state of 108 epitopes on 82 distinct signaling proteins in a panel of 13 T-cell leukemia cell lines treated with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to inhibit Notch signals. The microarray screen detected GSI-induced hypophosphorylation of multiple signaling proteins in the mTOR pathway. This effect was rescued by expression of the intracellular domain of Notch and mimicked by dominant negative MAML1, confirming Notch specificity. Withdrawal of Notch signals prevented stimulation of the mTOR pathway by mitogenic factors. These findings collectively suggest that the mTOR pathway is positively regulated by Notch in T-ALL cells. The effect of GSI on the mTOR pathway was independent of changes in phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and Akt activity, but was rescued by expression of c-Myc, a direct transcriptional target of Notch, implicating c-Myc as an intermediary between Notch and mTOR. T-ALL cell growth was suppressed in a highly synergistic manner by simultaneous treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and GSI, which represents a rational drug combination for treating this aggressive human malignancy. PMID:17363738

  8. Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Moretti, Morgana; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Lopes, Mark William; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-06-01

    The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling has been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2nmol/site, i.c.v.). Moreover, the administration of lithium chloride (non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 10mg/kg, p.o.) or AR-A014418 (selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 0.01μg/site, i.c.v.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the immobility time in the TST when compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, increased immunocontents of BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1 were found in the prefrontal cortex of mice just 1h after agmatine administration. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the TST may be dependent on the activation of AMPA and TrkB receptors, PI3K and mTOR signaling as well as inhibition of GSK-3β, and increase in synaptic proteins. The results contribute to elucidate the complex signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant effect of agmatine and reinforce the pivotal role of these molecular targets for antidepressant responses. PMID:27061850

  9. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J.; Aksoylar, H. Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26360589

  10. The mechanical activation of mTOR signaling: an emerging role for late endosome/lysosomal targeting.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Brittany L; Goodman, Craig A; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-02-01

    It is well recognized that mechanical signals play a critical role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass is essential for mobility, disease prevention and quality of life. Furthermore, over the last 15 years it has become established that signaling through a protein kinase called the mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for mechanically-induced changes in protein synthesis and muscle mass, however, the mechanism(s) via which mechanical stimuli regulate mTOR signaling have not been defined. Nonetheless, advancements are being made, and an emerging body of evidence suggests that the late endosome/lysosomal (LEL) system might play a key role in this process. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize this body of evidence. Specifically, we will first explain why the Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are considered to be direct activators of mTOR signaling. We will then describe the process of endocytosis and its involvement in the formation of LEL structures, as well as the evidence which indicates that mTOR and its direct activators (Rheb and PA) are all enriched at the LEL. Finally, we will summarize the evidence that has implicated the LEL in the regulation of mTOR by various growth regulatory inputs such as amino acids, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. PMID:24162376

  11. Negative regulation of mTOR activity by LKB1-AMPK signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-xia; Sun, Lin-lin; Zhang, Xia; Pan, Li; Lian, Lin-juan; Chen, Zhe; Zhong, Dian-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of LKB1 in regulation of mTOR signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: LKB1 protein expression and phosphorylation of AMPK, 4E-BP1 and S6K in the cells were assessed using Western blotting in various NSCLC cell lines (A549, H460, H1792, Calu-1 and H1299). Energy stress was mimicked by treating the cells with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Compound C was used to inhibit AMPK activity. Cell growth was measured using the MTS assay. Results: LKB1 protein was expressed in LKB1 wild-type Calu-1, H1299 and H1792 cells, but it was undetected in LKB1 mutant A549 and H460 cells. Treatment of the LKB1 wild-type cells with 2-DG (5, 10 and 25 mmol/L) augmented the phosphorylation of AMPK in dose- and time-dependent manners. In the LKB1 wild-type cells, 2-DG dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation of two mTOR targets, 4E-BP1 and S6K, whereas the LKB1 mutant A549 and H460 cells were highly resistant to 2-DG-induced inhibition on mTOR activity. In addition, stable knockdown of LKB1 in H1299 cells impaired 2-DG-induced inhibition on mTOR activity. Pretreatment of H1299 and H1792 cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 μmol/L) blocked 2-DG-induced inhibition on mTOR activity. 2-DG inhibited the growth of H1299 cells more effectively than that of H460 cells; stable knockdown of LKB1 in H1299 cells attenuated the growth inhibition caused by 2-DG. Conclusion: In non-small cell lung cancer cells, LKB1/AMPK signaling negatively regulates mTOR activity and contributes to cell growth inhibition in response to energy stress. PMID:23178462

  12. 17β-estradiol activates mTOR in chondrocytes by AKT-dependent and AKT-independent signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yulei; Sun, Haibiao; Sun, Hongyan; Qiu, Xianxing; Xu, Changbo; Shi, Changxiu; Du, Jiahui

    2015-01-01

    To confirm whether 17β-estradiol (E2) activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in chondrocytes and in what way activates mTOR. Human immortalized chondrocytes cell lines TC28a2 and C28/I2 were subjected to incubate with or without E2, LY294002 (the inhibitor of PI3K), rapamycin (the inhibitor of mTOR), or E2 in combination with LY294002 or rapamycin. Thereafter, protein levels of S6K1, p-S6K1, protein kinase B (AKT), and p-AKT were determined by Western blot analysis. Matrix metallopeptidase (MMP) 3 or MMP13 mRNA levels were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed to verify the interaction between ERα and mTOR. Both p-S6K1 and p-AKT protein levels in TC28a2 and C28/I2E2 cells were significantly increased by incubation with E2 (0.5 h and 1 h) (P < 0.05). Rapamycin did not affect the levels of p-AKT, but were significantly reduced by LY294002 or E2 in combination with LY294002. The levels of p-S6K1 were significantly decreased by incubation with LY294002, but the effect could be reversed by E2 in combination with LY294002. Rabbit anti-mTOR antibody was able to immunoprecipitate ERα after incubation with E2. Moreover, E2 inhibited the mRNA levels of MMP3 and MMP13 by mTOR pathway. E2 actives mTOR in chondrocytes through AKT-dependent and independent ways. PMID:26884863

  13. L-Glutamine enhances enterocyte growth via activation of the mTOR signaling pathway independently of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Ouyang, Wanjin; Long, Minhui; Zhao, Di; Ding, Binying; Liu, Yulan; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-01-01

    Neonates (including human infants) require L-glutamine (Gln) for optimal intestinal health. This study tested the hypothesis that Gln enhances enterocyte growth via both mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) were cultured for 3 days in Gln-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 0 or 2 mM Gln. To determine the role of mTOR and AMPK on cell growth, additional experiments were conducted where medium contained 2 mM Gln and 10 nM rapamycin (Rap, an inhibitor of mTOR) or 1 μM compound C (an inhibitor of AMPK). IPEC-1 cell growth increased with increasing concentrations of Gln from 0 to 2 mM. Compared with 0 mM Gln, 2 mM Gln increased (P < 0.05) the amounts of phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase) proteins but did not affect abundances of total or phosphorylated AMPK protein. Gln also increased mRNA levels for Bcl-2, mTOR, p70S6 kinase, 4E-BP1, COX7C, ASCT2, ODC, SGLT-1, CFTR, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, HSP70, and ZO-1. Similarly, cells cultured with Rap and Gln exhibited higher (P < 0.05) abundances of phosphorylated 4E-BP1 and p70S6 kinase proteins than the Rap-only group, whereas abundances of phosphorylated mTOR and 4E-BP1 proteins were increased when AMPK was inhibited by compound C. Conversely, the amount of phosphorylated AMPK increased when mTOR was inhibited by Rap, suggesting a negative cross-talk between mTOR and AMPK. Collectively, these results indicate that Gln stimulates enterocyte growth by activating the mTOR signaling pathway independently of AMPK. PMID:25280462

  14. Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rami; De Larichaudy, Joffrey; Chanon, Stéphanie; Euthine, Vanessa; Durand, Christine; Naro, Fabio; Bertolino, Philippe; Vidal, Hubert; Lefai, Etienne; Némoz, Georges

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNFα-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting. PMID:23915343

  15. Phospholipase D regulates the size of skeletal muscle cells through the activation of mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNFα-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting. PMID:23915343

  16. The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate activates the mTOR signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Mélissa; M Gagné, Laurence; Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Germain, Marie-Anne; Motorina, Alena; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Secco, Blandine; Vincent, Emma E; Tumber, Anthony; Hulea, Laura; Bergeman, Jonathan; Oppermann, Udo; Jones, Russell G; Laplante, Mathieu; Topisirovic, Ivan; Petrecca, Kevin; Huot, Marc-Étienne; Mallette, Frédérick A

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer-associated mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) highlights the prevailing notion that aberrant metabolic function can contribute to carcinogenesis. IDH1/2 normally catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (αKG). In gliomas and acute myeloid leukaemias, IDH1/2 mutations confer gain-of-function leading to production of the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from αKG. Here we show that generation of 2HG by mutated IDH1/2 leads to the activation of mTOR by inhibiting KDM4A, an αKG-dependent enzyme of the Jumonji family of lysine demethylases. Furthermore, KDM4A associates with the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR), a negative regulator of mTORC1/2. Depletion of KDM4A decreases DEPTOR protein stability. Our results provide an additional molecular mechanism for the oncogenic activity of mutant IDH1/2 by revealing an unprecedented link between TCA cycle defects and positive modulation of mTOR function downstream of the canonical PI3K/AKT/TSC1-2 pathway. PMID:27624942

  17. The role of diacylglycerol kinase ζ and phosphatidic acid in the mechanical activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Lincoln, Hannah C; Kim, Chan-Ran; Frey, John W; Goodman, Craig A; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; Hornberger, Troy A

    2014-01-17

    The activation of mTOR signaling is essential for mechanically induced changes in skeletal muscle mass, and previous studies have suggested that mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent increase in the concentration of phosphatidic acid (PA). Consistent with this conclusion, we obtained evidence which further suggests that mechanical stimuli utilize PA as a direct upstream activator of mTOR signaling. Unexpectedly though, we found that the activation of PLD is not necessary for the mechanically induced increases in PA or mTOR signaling. Motivated by this observation, we performed experiments that were aimed at identifying the enzyme(s) that promotes the increase in PA. These experiments revealed that mechanical stimulation increases the concentration of diacylglycerol (DAG) and the activity of DAG kinases (DGKs) in membranous structures. Furthermore, using knock-out mice, we determined that the ζ isoform of DGK (DGKζ) is necessary for the mechanically induced increase in PA. We also determined that DGKζ significantly contributes to the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling, and this is likely driven by an enhanced binding of PA to mTOR. Last, we found that the overexpression of DGKζ is sufficient to induce muscle fiber hypertrophy through an mTOR-dependent mechanism, and this event requires DGKζ kinase activity (i.e. the synthesis of PA). Combined, these results indicate that DGKζ, but not PLD, plays an important role in mechanically induced increases in PA and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, this study suggests that DGKζ could be a fundamental component of the mechanism(s) through which mechanical stimuli regulate skeletal muscle mass. PMID:24302719

  18. Pivotal Role of mTOR Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Newell, Pippa; Peix, Judit; Thung, Swan; Alsinet, Clara; Tovar, Victoria; Roayaie, Sasan; Minguez, Beatriz; Sole, Manel; Battiston, Carlo; van Laarhoven, Stijn; Fiel, Maria I; Di Feo, Analisa; Hoshida, Yujin; Yea, Steven; Toffanin, Sara; Ramos, Alex; Martignetti, John A.; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Waxman, Samuel; Schwartz, Myron; Meyerson, Matthew; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The advent of targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has underscored the importance of pathway characterization to identify novel molecular targets for treatment. Based on its role in cell growth and differentiation, we evaluated mTOR signaling activation in human HCC, as well as the anti-tumoral effect of a dual-level blockade of the mTOR pathway. METHODS The mTOR pathway was assessed using integrated data from mutation analysis (direct sequencing), DNA copy number changes (SNP-array), mRNA levels (qRT-PCR and gene expression microarray), and protein activation (immunostaining) in 351 human samples, including HCC (n=314), and non-tumoral tissue (n=37). Effects of dual blockade of mTOR signaling using a rapamycin analog (everolimus) and an EGFR/VEGFR inhibitor (AEE788) were evaluated in liver cancer cell lines, and in a tumor xenograft model. RESULTS Aberrant mTOR signaling (phosphorylated-RPS6) was present in half of the cases, associated with IGF pathway activation, EGF upregulation, and PTEN dysregulation. PTEN and PI3KCA-B mutations were rare events. Chromosomal gains in RICTOR (25% of patients) and positive pRPS6 staining correlated with recurrence. RICTOR-specific siRNA downregulation reduced tumor cell viability in vitro. Blockage of mTOR signaling with everolimus in vitro and in a xenograft model decelerated tumor growth and increased survival. This effect was enhanced in vivo after EGFR blockade. CONCLUSIONS MTOR signaling has a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCC, with evidence for the role of RICTOR in tumor oncogenesis. MTOR blockade with everolimus is effective in vivo. These findings establish a rationale for targeting mTOR pathway in clinical trials in HCC. PMID:18929564

  19. Activation of placental insulin and mTOR signaling in a mouse model of maternal obesity associated with fetal overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Fetal overgrowth is common in obese women and is associated with perinatal complications and increased risk for the child to develop metabolic syndrome later in life. Placental nutrient transport capacity has been reported to be increased in obese women giving birth to large infants; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well established. Obesity in pregnancy is characterized by elevated maternal serum insulin and leptin, hormones that stimulate placental amino acid transporters in vitro. We hypothesized that maternal obesity activates placental insulin/IGF-I/mTOR and leptin signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of obesity in pregnancy that is associated with fetal overgrowth. C57BL/6J female mice were fed a control (C) or a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) pelleted diet supplemented by ad libitum access to sucrose (20%) solution. Placentas were collected at embryonic day 18.5. Using Western blot analysis, placental mTOR activity was determined along with energy, inflammatory, leptin, and insulin signaling pathways (upstream modulators of mTOR). Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S-235/236), 4E-BP1 (T-37/46), Insulin receptor substrate 1 (Y-608), Akt (T-308), and STAT-3 (Y-705) was increased in obese dams. In contrast, expression of placental caspase-1, IкBα, IL-1β, and phosphorylated-JNK(p46/54-T183/Y185) was unaltered. Fetal amino acid availability is a key determinant of fetal growth. We propose that activation of placental insulin/IGF-I/mTOR and leptin signaling pathways in obese mice stimulates placental amino acid transport and contributes to increased fetal growth. PMID:26491103

  20. SC06, a novel small molecule compound, displays preclinical activity against multiple myeloma by disrupting the mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kunkun; Xu, Xin; Xu, Zhuan; Chen, Guodong; Zeng, Yuanying; Zhang, Zubin; Cao, Biyin; Kong, Yan; Tang, Xiaowen; Mao, Xinliang

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is extensively involved in multiple myeloma (MM) pathophysiology. In the present study, we reported a novel small molecule SC06 that induced MM cell apoptosis and delayed MM xenograft growth in vivo. Oral administration of SC06 to mice bearing human MM xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth at doses that were well tolerated. Mechanistic studies revealed that SC06 selectively inhibited the mTOR signaling pathway but had no effects on other associated kinases, such as AKT, ERK, p38, c-Src and JNK. Further studies showed that SC06-decreased mTOR activation was associated with the downregulation of Raptor, a key component of the mTORC1 complex. SC06 also suppressed the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and P70S6K, two typical substrates in the mTORC1 signaling pathway. Notably, expression of Raptor, phosphorylation of mTOR and phosphorylated 4E-BP1 was also decreased in the tumor tissues from SC06-treated mice, which was consistent with the cellular studies. Therefore, given the potency and low toxicity, SC06 could be developed as a potential anti-MM drug candidate by disrupting the mTOR signaling. PMID:26329846

  1. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  2. The mTOR Signalling Pathway in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pópulo, Helena; Lopes, José Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The conserved serine/threonine kinase mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin), a downstream effector of the PI3K/AKT pathway, forms two distinct multiprotein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 is sensitive to rapamycin, activates S6K1 and 4EBP1, which are involved in mRNA translation. It is activated by diverse stimuli, such as growth factors, nutrients, energy and stress signals, and essential signalling pathways, such as PI3K, MAPK and AMPK, in order to control cell growth, proliferation and survival. mTORC2 is considered resistant to rapamycin and is generally insensitive to nutrients and energy signals. It activates PKC-α and AKT and regulates the actin cytoskeleton. Deregulation of multiple elements of the mTOR pathway (PI3K amplification/mutation, PTEN loss of function, AKT overexpression, and S6K1, 4EBP1 and eIF4E overexpression) has been reported in many types of cancers, particularly in melanoma, where alterations in major components of the mTOR pathway were reported to have significant effects on tumour progression. Therefore, mTOR is an appealing therapeutic target and mTOR inhibitors, including the rapamycin analogues deforolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, are submitted to clinical trials for treating multiple cancers, alone or in combination with inhibitors of other pathways. Importantly, temsirolimus and everolimus were recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, PNET and giant cell astrocytoma. Small molecules that inhibit mTOR kinase activity and dual PI3K-mTOR inhibitors are also being developed. In this review, we aim to survey relevant research, the molecular mechanisms of signalling, including upstream activation and downstream effectors, and the role of mTOR in cancer, mainly in melanoma. PMID:22408430

  3. Common corruption of the mTOR signaling network in human tumors.

    PubMed

    Menon, S; Manning, B D

    2008-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is responsive to numerous extracellular and intracellular cues and, through the formation of two physically and functionally distinct complexes, has a central role in the homeostatic control of cell growth, proliferation and survival. Through the aberrant activation of mTOR signaling, the perception of cellular growth signals becomes disconnected from the processes promoting cell growth, and this underlies the pathophysiology of a number of genetic tumor syndromes and cancers. Here, we review the oncogenes and tumor suppressors comprising the regulatory network upstream of mTOR, highlight the human cancers in which mTOR is activated and discuss how dysregulated mTOR signaling provides tumors a selective growth advantage. In addition, we discuss why activation of mTOR, as a consequence of distinct oncogenic events, results in diverse clinical outcomes, and how the complexity of the mTOR signaling network might dictate therapeutic approaches. PMID:19956179

  4. Common corruption of the mTOR signaling network in human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Suchithra; Manning, Brendan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is responsive to numerous extracellular and intracellular cues and, through the formation of two physically and functionally distinct complexes, plays a central role in the homeostatic control of cell growth, proliferation and survival. Through aberrant activation of mTOR signaling, the perception of cellular growth signals becomes disconnected from the processes promoting cell growth, and this underlies the pathophysiology of a number of genetic tumor syndromes and cancers. Here, we review the oncogenes and tumor suppressors comprising the regulatory network upstream of mTOR, highlight the human cancers in which mTOR is activated, and discuss how dysregulated mTOR signaling gives tumors a selective growth advantage. In addition, we discuss why activation of mTOR, as a consequence of distinct oncogenic events, results in diverse clinical outcomes, and how the complexity of the mTOR signaling network might dictate therapeutic approaches. PMID:19956179

  5. Leucine Metabolism in T Cell Activation: mTOR Signaling and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Ananieva, Elitsa A; Powell, Jonathan D; Hutson, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    In connection with the increasing interest in metabolic regulation of the immune response, this review discusses current advances in understanding the role of leucine and leucine metabolism in T lymphocyte (T cell) activation. T cell activation during the development of an immune response depends on metabolic reprogramming to ensure that sufficient nutrients and energy are taken up by the highly proliferating T cells. Leucine has been described as an important essential amino acid and a nutrient signal that activates complex 1 of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1), which is a critical regulator of T cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. The role of leucine in these processes is further discussed in relation to amino acid transporters, leucine-degrading enzymes, and other metabolites of leucine metabolism. A new model of T cell regulation by leucine is proposed and outlines a chain of events that leads to the activation of mTORC1 in T cells. PMID:27422517

  6. Fbxw7 Limits Myelination by Inhibiting mTOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Christina A.; Ravanelli, Andrew M.; Cooper, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of vertebrate CNS development is the formation of specific amounts of insulating myelin membrane on axons. CNS myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes, glial cells that extend multiple membrane processes to wrap multiple axons. Recent data have shown that signaling mediated by the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase promotes myelination, but factors that regulate mTOR activity for myelination remain poorly defined. Through a forward genetic screen in zebrafish, we discovered that mutation of fbxw7, which encodes the substrate recognition subunit of a SCF ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins for degradation, causes hypermyelination. Among known Fbxw7 targets is mTOR. Here, we provide evidence that mTOR signaling activity is elevated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells of fbxw7 mutant zebrafish larvae. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of mTOR function suppressed the excess myelin gene expression resulting from loss of Fbxw7 function, indicating that mTOR is a functionally relevant target of Fbxw7 in oligodendrocytes. fbxw7 mutant larvae wrapped axons with more myelin membrane than wild-type larvae and oligodendrocyte-specific expression of dominant-negative Fbxw7 produced longer myelin sheaths. Our data indicate that Fbxw7 limits the myelin-promoting activity of mTOR, thereby serving as an important brake on developmental myelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Myelin, a specialized, proteolipid-rich membrane that ensheaths and insulates nerve fibers, facilitates the rapid conduction of electrical impulses over long distances. Abnormalities in myelin formation or maintenance result in intellectual and motor disabilities, raising a need for therapeutic strategies designed to promote myelination. The mTOR kinase is a powerful driver of myelination, but the mechanisms that regulate mTOR function in myelination are not well understood. Our studies reveal that Fbxw7, a subunit of a ubiquitin ligase that targets

  7. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is essential for interleukin-15 signaling during NK cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Antoine; Degouve, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Fenis, Aurore; Rabilloud, Jessica; Mayol, Katia; Tavares, Armelle; Bienvenu, Jacques; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Gilson, Eric; Vivier, Eric; Walzer, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of Natural Killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we report that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is activated and boosts bioenergetic metabolism upon NK cell exposure to high concentrations of IL-15 whereas low doses of IL-15 only triggers the phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5. mTOR stimulates NK cell growth and nutrient uptake and positively feeds back onto the IL-15 receptor. This process is essential to sustain NK cell proliferation during development and acquisition of cytolytic potential upon inflammation or virus infection. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibits NK cell cytotoxicity both in mouse and human, which likely contribute to the immunosuppressant activities of this drug in different clinical settings. PMID:24973821

  8. mTOR Complex Signaling through the SEMA4A–Plexin B2 Axis Is Required for Optimal Activation and Differentiation of CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Nishide, Masayuki; Okuno, Tatsusada; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kang, Sujin; Kimura, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuji; Morimoto, Keiko; Maeda, Yohei; Hosokawa, Takashi; Toyofuku, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Jun; Kamimura, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Murakami, Masaaki; Morii, Eiichi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays crucial roles in activation and differentiation of diverse types of immune cells. Although several lines of evidence have demonstrated the importance of mTOR-mediated signals in CD4+ T cell responses, the involvement of mTOR in CD8+ T cell responses is not fully understood. In this study, we show that a class IV semaphorin, SEMA4A, regulates CD8+ T cell activation and differentiation through activation of mTOR complex (mTORC) 1. SEMA4A−/− CD8+ T cells exhibited impairments in production of IFN-γ and TNF-α and induction of the effector molecules granzyme B, perforin, and FAS-L. Upon infection with OVA-expressing Listeria monocytogenes, pathogen-specific effector CD8+ T cell responses were significantly impaired in SEMA4A−/− mice. Furthermore, SEMA4A−/− CD8+ T cells exhibited reduced mTORC1 activity and elevated mTORC2 activity, suggesting that SEMA4A is required for optimal activation of mTORC1 in CD8+ T cells. IFN-γ production and mTORC1 activity in SEMA4A−/− CD8+ T cells were restored by administration of recombinant Sema4A protein. In addition, we show that plexin B2 is a functional receptor of SEMA4A in CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these results not only demonstrate the role of SEMA4A in CD8+ T cells, but also reveal a novel link between a semaphorin and mTOR signaling. PMID:26116513

  9. mTOR signaling in osteosarcoma: Oncogenesis and therapeutic aspects (Review).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai; Dai, Hai-Bo; Qiu, Zhi-Long

    2016-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that belongs to the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinase family. Oncogenic activation of mTOR signaling significantly contributes to the progression of different types of cancers including osteosarcoma (OS; the most common primary malignant tumor of bone). In the present study, we review the association of the mTOR signaling pathway with OS, and the possible effective treatment strategies by targeting this pathway. In the metastatic behavior of OS, one of the most common actionable aberrations was found in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Upon phosphorylation, activated mTOR contributes to OS cellular transformation and poor cancer prognosis via downstream effectors such as S6K1, 4EBP1 and eIF4E, which are overexpressed in OS. Targeting the mTOR complex is a significant approach in cancer therapeutic research, and of course, rapamycin is the primary inhibitor of mTOR. Various other chemotherapeutic molecules have also shown potential activity against mTOR. As mTOR is a new promising oncological target and blockade of the mTOR pathway with selective inhibitors has significant potential in OS therapeutic research, the development of the optimal dose, regimen and a rationale for the use of mTOR inhibitors in combination with other anticancer agents may provide a successful treatment strategy for OS. PMID:27430283

  10. The mTOR signalling cascade: paving new roads to cure neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Crino, Peter B

    2016-07-01

    Defining the multiple roles of the mechanistic (formerly 'mammalian') target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway in neurological diseases has been an exciting and rapidly evolving story of bench-to-bedside translational research that has spanned gene mutation discovery, functional experimental validation of mutations, pharmacological pathway manipulation, and clinical trials. Alterations in the dual contributions of mTOR - regulation of cell growth and proliferation, as well as autophagy and cell death - have been found in developmental brain malformations, epilepsy, autism and intellectual disability, hypoxic-ischaemic and traumatic brain injuries, brain tumours, and neurodegenerative disorders. mTOR integrates a variety of cues, such as growth factor levels, oxygen levels, and nutrient and energy availability, to regulate protein synthesis and cell growth. In line with the positioning of mTOR as a pivotal cell signalling node, altered mTOR activation has been associated with a group of phenotypically diverse neurological disorders. To understand how altered mTOR signalling leads to such divergent phenotypes, we need insight into the differential effects of enhanced or diminished mTOR activation, the developmental context of these changes, and the cell type affected by altered signalling. A particularly exciting feature of the tale of mTOR discovery is that pharmacological mTOR inhibitors have shown clinical benefits in some neurological disorders, such as tuberous sclerosis complex, and are being considered for clinical trials in epilepsy, autism, dementia, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. PMID:27340022

  11. mTOR Activation by PI3K/Akt and ERK Signaling in Short ELF-EMF Exposed Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Patruno, Antonia; Pesce, Mirko; Grilli, Alfredo; Speranza, Lorenza; Franceschelli, Sara; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Vianale, Giovina; Costantini, Erica; Amerio, Paolo; Muraro, Raffaella; Felaco, Mario; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    Several reports suggest that ELF-EMF exposures interact with biological processes including promotion of cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ELF-EMF controls cell growth are not completely understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on keratinocytes proliferation and molecular mechanisms involved. Effect of ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT) on HaCaT cell cycle and cells growth and viability was monitored by FACS analysis and BrdU assay. Gene expression profile by microarray and qRT-PCR validation was performed in HaCaT cells exposed or not to ELF-EMF. mTOR, Akt and MAPKs expressions were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In HaCaT cells, short ELF-EMF exposure modulates distinct patterns of gene expression involved in cell proliferation and in the cell cycle. mTOR activation resulted the main molecular target of ELF-EMF on HaCaT cells. Our data showed the increase of the canonical pathway of mTOR regulation (PI3K/Akt) and activation of ERK signaling pathways. Our results indicate that ELF-EMF selectively modulated the expression of multiple genes related to pivotal biological processes and functions that play a key role in physio-pathological mechanisms such as wound healing. PMID:26431550

  12. Alternative Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signal Activation in Sorafenib-resistant Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Revealed by Array-based Pathway Profiling*

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Mari; Chen, Wei-Yu; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yuka; Kawasaki, Kumiko; Sakuma, Tomohiro; Ono, Masaya; Chen, Chi-Long; Honda, Kazufumi; Yamada, Tesshi

    2014-01-01

    Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that has been proven effective for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its precise mechanisms of action and resistance have not been well established. We have developed high-density fluorescence reverse-phase protein arrays and used them to determine the status of 180 phosphorylation sites of signaling molecules in the 120 pathways registered in the NCI-Nature curated database in 23 HCC cell lines. Among the 180 signaling nodes, we found that the level of ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylated at serine residue 235/236 (p-RPS6 S235/236) was most significantly correlated with the resistance of HCC cells to sorafenib. The high expression of p-RPS6 S235/236 was confirmed immunohistochemically in biopsy samples obtained from HCC patients who responded poorly to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant HCC cells showed constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, but whole-exon sequencing of kinase genes revealed no evident alteration in the pathway. p-RPS6 S235/236 is a potential biomarker that predicts unresponsiveness of HCC to sorafenib. The use of mTOR inhibitors may be considered for the treatment of such tumors. PMID:24643969

  13. Glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switch and mTOR signaling activation are early-onset features of SBMA muscle modified by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Parodi, Sara; Armirotti, Andrea; Borgia, Doriana; Pellegrini, Matteo; Urciuolo, Anna; Molon, Sibilla; Morbidoni, Valeria; Marabita, Manuela; Romanello, Vanina; Gatto, Pamela; Blaauw, Bert; Bonaldo, Paolo; Sambataro, Fabio; Robins, Diane M; Lieberman, Andrew P; Sorarù, Gianni; Vergani, Lodovica; Sandri, Marco; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). The mechanism by which expansion of polyglutamine in AR causes muscle atrophy is unknown. Here, we investigated pathological pathways underlying muscle atrophy in SBMA knock-in mice and patients. We show that glycolytic muscles were more severely affected than oxidative muscles in SBMA knock-in mice. Muscle atrophy was associated with early-onset, progressive glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switch. Whole genome microarray and untargeted lipidomic analyses revealed enhanced lipid metabolism and impaired glycolysis selectively in muscle. These metabolic changes occurred before denervation and were associated with a concurrent enhancement of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) expression. At later stages of disease, we detected mitochondrial membrane depolarization, enhanced transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression and autophagy, and mTOR-induced protein synthesis. Several of these abnormalities were detected in the muscle of SBMA patients. Feeding knock-in mice a high-fat diet (HFD) restored mTOR activation, decreased the expression of PGC1α, TFEB, and genes involved in oxidative metabolism, reduced mitochondrial abnormalities, ameliorated muscle pathology, and extended survival. These findings show early-onset and intrinsic metabolic alterations in SBMA muscle and link lipid/glucose metabolism to pathogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an HFD regime as a promising approach to support SBMA patients. PMID:26971100

  14. Role of mTOR signaling in intestinal cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, J. Marc; Niu, Xiaomei; Odle, Jack; Graves, Lee M.

    2006-01-01

    An early signaling event activated by amino acids and growth factors in many cell types is the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; FRAP), which is functionally linked to ribosomal protein s6 kinase (p70s6k), a kinase that plays a critical regulatory role in the translation of mRNAs and protein synthesis. We previously showed that intestinal cell migration, the initial event in epithelial restitution, is enhanced by l-arginine (ARG). In this study, we used amino acids as prototypic activators of mTOR and ARG, IGF-1, or serum as recognized stimulators of intestinal cell migration. We found that 1) protein synthesis is required for intestinal cell migration, 2) mTOR/p70s6k pathway inhibitors (rapamycin, wortmannin, and intracellular Ca2+ chelation) inhibit cell migration, 3) ARG activates migration and mTOR/p70s6k (but not ERK-2) in migrating enterocytes, and 4) immunocytochemistry reveals abundant p70s6k staining in cytoplasm, whereas phosphop70s6k is virtually all intranuclear in resting cells but redistributes to the periphery on activation by ARG. We conclude that mTOR/p70s6k signaling is essential to intestinal cell migration, is activated by ARG, involves both nuclear and cytoplasmic events, and may play a role in intestinal repair. PMID:16710051

  15. mTOR drives its own activation via SCFβ-TRCP-dependent degradation of the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Daming; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Tan, Meng-Kwang Marcus; Fukushima, Hidefumi; Locasale, Jason W.; Liu, Pengda; Wan, Lixin; Zhai, Bo; Chin, Y. Rebecca; Shaik, Shavali; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Gygi, Steven P.; Toker, Alex; Cantley, Lewis C.; Asara, John M.; Harper, J. Wade; Wei, Wenyi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The activities of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are negatively regulated by their endogenous inhibitor, DEPTOR. As such, the abundance of DEPTOR is a critical determinant in the activity status of the mTOR network. DEPTOR stability is governed by the 26S-proteasome through a largely unknown mechanism. Here we describe an mTOR-dependent phosphorylation-driven pathway for DEPTOR destruction via SCFβ-TRCP. DEPTOR phosphorylation by mTOR in response to growth signals, and in collaboration with casein kinase I (CKI), generates a phosphodegron that binds β-TRCP. Failure to degrade DEPTOR through either degron mutation or β-TRCP depletion leads to reduced mTOR activity, reduced S6 kinase activity, and activation of autophagy to reduce cell growth. This work expands the current understanding of mTOR regulation by revealing a positive feedback loop involving mTOR and CKI-dependent turnover of its inhibitor, DEPTOR, suggesting that misregulation of the DEPTOR destruction pathway might contribute to aberrant activation of mTOR in disease. PMID:22017875

  16. The role of mTOR signalling in neurogenesis, insights from tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Tee, Andrew R; Sampson, Julian R; Pal, Deb K; Bateman, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the development and function of the nervous system is one of the foremost aims of current biomedical research. The nervous system is generated during a relatively short period of intense neurogenesis that is orchestrated by a number of key molecular signalling pathways. Even subtle defects in the activity of these molecules can have serious repercussions resulting in neurological, neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive problems including epilepsy, intellectual disability and autism. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a monogenic disease characterised by these problems and by the formation of benign tumours in multiple organs, including the brain. TSC is caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene leading to activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway. A desire to understand the neurological manifestations of TSC has stimulated research into the role of the mTOR pathway in neurogenesis. In this review we describe TSC neurobiology and how the use of animal model systems has provided insights into the roles of mTOR signalling in neuronal differentiation and migration. Recent progress in this field has identified novel mTOR pathway components regulating neuronal differentiation. The roles of mTOR signalling and aberrant neurogenesis in epilepsy are also discussed. Continuing efforts to understand mTOR neurobiology will help to identify new therapeutic targets for TSC and other neurological diseases. PMID:26849906

  17. mTOR signaling in autophagy regulation in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Inoki, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Cells possess adaptive biosynthetic systems to maintain cellular energy levels for survival under adverse environmental conditions. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process that breaks down and recycles cytosolic material including macromolecules and organelles through lysosomal degradation. This catabolic process, represented by macroautophagy, is induced by a variety of cellular stresses such as nutrient starvation, which causes a shortage of cellular energy for cells to maintain cellular homeostasis and essential biological activities. In contrast, upon nutrient availability, cells stimulate anabolic processes. The mechanistic/mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is a key player in stimulating cellular anabolism in response to nutrients and growth factors, and plays a crucial role in suppressing autophagy activity. Growing evidence has suggested that autophagy activity is required for the maintenance and physiological functions of renal cells including proximal tubular cells and podocytes. In this section, we will discuss recent progresses in the regulation of autophagy by the mTOR signaling. PMID:24485024

  18. mTOR Signaling from Cellular Senescence to Organismal Aging.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shaohua; Cai, Ying; Wei, Yuehua

    2014-08-01

    The TOR (target of rapamycin) pathway has been convincingly shown to promote aging in various model organisms. In mice, inhibiting mTOR (mammalian TOR) by rapamycin treatment later in life can significantly extend lifespan and mitigate multiple age-related diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cellular senescence is strongly correlated to organismal aging therefore providing an attractive model to examine the mechanisms by which mTOR inhibition contributes to longevity and delaying the onset of related diseases. In this review, we examine the connections between mTOR and cellular senescence and discuss how understanding cellular senescence on the aspect of mTOR signaling may help to fully appreciate its role in the organismal aging. We also highlight the opposing roles of senescence in various human diseases and discuss the caveats in interpreting the emerging experimental data. PMID:25110610

  19. Adapting the Stress Response: Viral Subversion of the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Le Sage, Valerie; Cinti, Alessandro; Amorim, Raquel; Mouland, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of gene expression, translation and various metabolic processes. Multiple extracellular (growth factors) and intracellular (energy status) molecular signals as well as a variety of stressors are integrated into the mTOR pathway. Viral infection is a significant stress that can activate, reduce or even suppress the mTOR signaling pathway. Consequently, viruses have evolved a plethora of different mechanisms to attack and co-opt the mTOR pathway in order to make the host cell a hospitable environment for replication. A more comprehensive knowledge of different viral interactions may provide fruitful targets for new antiviral drugs. PMID:27231932

  20. Adapting the Stress Response: Viral Subversion of the mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Le Sage, Valerie; Cinti, Alessandro; Amorim, Raquel; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of gene expression, translation and various metabolic processes. Multiple extracellular (growth factors) and intracellular (energy status) molecular signals as well as a variety of stressors are integrated into the mTOR pathway. Viral infection is a significant stress that can activate, reduce or even suppress the mTOR signaling pathway. Consequently, viruses have evolved a plethora of different mechanisms to attack and co-opt the mTOR pathway in order to make the host cell a hospitable environment for replication. A more comprehensive knowledge of different viral interactions may provide fruitful targets for new antiviral drugs. PMID:27231932

  1. LAMTOR2 regulates dendritic cell homeostasis through FLT3-dependent mTOR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Julia M.; Sparber, Florian; Tripp, Christoph H.; Herrmann, Caroline; Humenberger, Alexandra; Blitz, Johanna; Romani, Nikolaus; Stoitzner, Patrizia; Huber, Lukas A.

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and its ligand are crucial for dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis by activating downstream effectors including mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. LAMTOR2 is a member of the Ragulator/LAMTOR complex known to regulate mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation on the late endosome as well as endosomal biogenesis. Here we show in mice that conditional ablation of LAMTOR2 in DCs results in a severe disturbance of the DC compartment caused by accumulation of Flt3 on the cell surface. This results in an increased downstream activation of the AKT/mTOR signalling pathway and subsequently to a massive expansion of conventional DCs and plasmacytoid DCs in ageing mice. Finally, we can revert the symptoms in vivo by inhibiting the activation of Flt3 and its downstream target mTOR. PMID:25336251

  2. Cyproheptadine exhibits antitumor activity in urothelial carcinoma cells by targeting GSK3β to suppress mTOR and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Ru-Inn; Feng, Yu-Min; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Wu, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Cheng-Da; Chan, Michael W Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyproheptadine, a serotonin antagonist, has recently been reported to function as a novel therapeutic agent by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling in several human cancers. However, the therapeutic effect of cyproheptadine in urothelial carcinoma (UC) has never been explored. In this study, we determined the effect of cyproheptadine on the growth of five human UC cell lines and an in vivo xenograft model. The results showed that cyproheptadine exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of UC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cyproheptadine also induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, subsequently followed by apoptosis and necrosis. The underlying mechanisms of cell cycle arrest were associated with the reduction of c-Myc, induction of p21 and p27, and the stabilization of Rb expression. In addition, the suppression of the GSK3β/TSC2/mTOR pathway and deregulation of the GSK3β/β-catenin signaling were observed in cyproheptadine-treated UC cells. Furthermore, cyproheptadine-induced apoptosis was associated with ANGPTL4 expression followed by activation of caspase3 and PARP in UC cells. Our experimental results provide evidence that cyproheptadine is a suitable therapeutic agent for the treatment of UC. PMID:26454215

  3. Hypothalamic roles of mTOR complex I: Integration of nutrient and hormone signals to regulate energy homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrient, energy, and hormone signals to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. mTOR activity in the hypothalamus, which is associated with changes in energy status, plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight...

  4. Skeletal myocyte hypertrophy requires mTOR kinase activity and S6K1

    SciTech Connect

    Park, In-Hyun . E-mail: ihpark@uiuc.edu; Erbay, Ebru; Nuzzi, Paul; Chen Jie

    2005-09-10

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cell proliferation and growth, with the ribosomal subunit S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) as one of the key downstream signaling effectors. A critical role of mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle differentiation has been identified recently, and an unusual regulatory mechanism independent of mTOR kinase activity and S6K1 is revealed. An mTOR pathway has also been reported to regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy, but the regulatory mechanism is not completely understood. Here, we report the investigation of mTOR's function in insulin growth factor I (IGF-I)-induced C2C12 myotube hypertrophy. Added at a later stage when rapamycin no longer had any effect on normal myocyte differentiation, rapamycin completely blocked myocyte hypertrophy as measured by myotube diameter. Importantly, a concerted increase of average myonuclei per myotube was observed in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes, which was also inhibited by rapamycin added at a time when it no longer affected normal differentiation. The mTOR protein level, its catalytic activity, its phosphorylation on Ser2448, and the activity of S6K1 were all found increased in IGF-I-stimulated myotubes compared to unstimulated myotubes. Using C2C12 cells stably expressing rapamycin-resistant forms of mTOR and S6K1, we provide genetic evidence for the requirement of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 in the regulation of myotube hypertrophy. Our results suggest distinct mTOR signaling mechanisms in different stages of skeletal muscle development: While mTOR regulates the initial myoblast differentiation in a kinase-independent and S6K1-independent manner, the hypertrophic function of mTOR requires its kinase activity and employs S6K1 as a downstream effector.

  5. mTOR Links Environmental Signals to T Cell Fate Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Nicole M.; Chi, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    T cell fate decisions play an integral role in maintaining the health of organisms under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. The localized microenvironment in which developing and mature T cells reside provides signals that serve essential functions in shaping these fate decisions. These signals are derived from the immune compartment, including antigens, co-stimulation, and cytokines, and other factors, including growth factors and nutrients. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a vital sensor of signals within the immune microenvironment, is a central regulator of T cell biology. In this review, we discuss how various environmental cues tune mTOR activity in T cells, and summarize how mTOR integrates these signals to influence multiple aspects of T cell biology. PMID:25653651

  6. Rapamycin-resistant and torin-sensitive mTOR signaling promotes the survival and proliferation of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seohyun; Sim, Hyunsub; Lee, Keunwook

    2016-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase mTOR is essential for the phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling pathway, and regulates the development and function of immune cells. Aberrant activation of mTOR signaling pathway is associated with many cancers including leukemia. Here, we report the contributions of mTOR signaling to growth of human leukemic cell lines and mouse T-cell acute leukemia (T-ALL) cells. Torin, an ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, was found to have both cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on U-937, THP-1, and RPMI-8226 cells, but not on Jurkat or K-562 cells. All cells were relatively resistant to rapamycin even with suppressed activity of mTOR complex 1. Growth of T-ALL cells induced by Notch1 was profoundly affected by torin partially due to increased expression of Bcl2l11 and Bbc3. Of note, activation of Akt or knockdown of FoxO1 mitigated the effect of mTOR inhibition on T-ALL cells. Our data provide insight on the effect of mTOR inhibitors on the survival and proliferation of leukemic cells, thus further improving our understanding on cell-context-dependent impacts of mTOR signaling. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(1): 63-68] PMID:26497580

  7. The metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR is essential for IL-15 signaling during the development and activation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Marçais, Antoine; Cherfils-Vicini, Julien; Viant, Charlotte; Degouve, Sophie; Viel, Sébastien; Fenis, Aurore; Rabilloud, Jessica; Mayol, Katia; Tavares, Armelle; Bienvenu, Jacques; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Gilson, Eric; Vivier, Eric; Walzer, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) controls both the homeostasis and the peripheral activation of natural killer (NK) cells. The molecular basis for this duality of action remains unknown. Here we found that the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR was activated and boosted bioenergetic metabolism after exposure of NK cells to high concentrations of IL-15, whereas low doses of IL-15 triggered only phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT5. mTOR stimulated the growth and nutrient uptake of NK cells and positively fed back on the receptor for IL-15. This process was essential for sustaining NK cell proliferation during development and the acquisition of cytolytic potential during inflammation or viral infection. The mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin inhibited NK cell cytotoxicity both in mice and humans; this probably contributes to the immunosuppressive activity of this drug in different clinical settings. PMID:24973821

  8. Role for mTOR Signaling and Neuronal Activity in Morphine-Induced Adaptations in Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mazei-Robison, M.S.; Koo, J.W.; Friedman, A.; Lansink, C.S.; Robison, A.J.; Vinish, M.; Krishnan, V.; Kim, S.; Siuta, M.A.; Galli, M. A.; Niswender, K.D.; Appasani, R.; Horvath, M.C.; Neve, R.L.; Worley, P.F.; Snyder, S.H.; Hurd, Y.L.; Cheer, J.F.; Han, M.H.; Russo, S.J.; Nestler, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY While the abuse of opiate drugs continues to rise, the neuroadaptations that occur with long-term drug exposure remain poorly understood. We describe here a series of chronic morphine-induced adaptations in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which are mediated via downregulation of AKT-mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2). Chronic opiates decrease the size of VTA dopamine neurons in rodents, an effect seen in humans as well, and concomitantly increase the excitability of the cells but decrease dopamine output to target regions. Chronic morphine decreases mTORC2 activity, and overexpression of Rictor, a component of mTORC2, prevents morphine-induced changes in cell morphology and activity. Further, local knock-out of Rictor in VTA decreases DA soma size and reduces rewarding responses to morphine, consistent with the hypothesis that these adaptations represent a mechanism of reward tolerance. Together, these findings demonstrate a novel role for AKT-mTORC2 signaling in mediating neuroadaptations to opiate drugs of abuse. PMID:22196333

  9. mTOR and metabolic pathways in T cell quiescence and functional activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Chi, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionally conserved serine and threonine kinase, plays a critical role in the promotion of cell growth and proliferation via integration of cellular and environmental cues. In adaptive immunity, the mTOR pathway orchestrates multiple physiological processes including the development and homeostasis of T cells under steady state, and their subsequent activation and differentiation upon antigen recognition. Associated with such fate decisions is the dynamic reprogramming of T cell metabolic pathways, as naïve, activated and memory cells are defined by distinct bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. Emerging evidence indicates that mTOR signaling intersects with T cell metabolism at two major levels to constitute a critical control mechanism of T cell fate decisions. First, as a central environmental sensor, mTOR links immune signaling and the availability of nutrients, especially amino acids. Second, mTOR activates specific metabolic pathways in T cells such as aerobic glycolysis (also known as the “Warburg effect”) in a process dependent upon the induction of transcription factors MYC and HIF1α. Understanding how mTOR interplays with T cell metabolism to dictate T cell fates and functions will provide fundamental insights into the mechanism of immune responses and the development of novel therapeutics against immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we summarize the current advances on mTOR signaling and T cell metabolism in the control of development, homeostasis, activation and differentiation of T cells. PMID:23375549

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, activates mTOR signal pathways and protein translation in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hyun; Yu, Hyun-Sook; Park, Hong Geun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kim, Yong Sik; Shin, Soon Young; Ahn, Yong Min

    2013-08-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, induces behavioral changes in rats in a putative animal model of mania. The binding of ouabain to Na/K-ATPase affects signaling molecules in vitro, including ERK1/2 and Akt, which promote protein translation. We have also reported that ERK1/2 and Akt in the brain are involved in the ouabain-induced hyperactivity of rats. In this study, rats were given an ICV injection of ouabain, and then their frontal cortices were examined to determine the effects of ouabain on the mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling pathway and protein translation, which are important in modifications of neural circuits and behavior. Rats showed ouabain-induced hyperactivity up to 8h following injection, and increased phosphorylation levels of mTOR, p70S6K, S6, eIF4B, and 4E-BP at 1, 2, 4, and 8h following ouabain injection. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that increased p-S6 immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of neurons by ouabain was evident in the prefrontal, cingulate, and orbital cortex. These findings suggested increased translation initiation in response to ouabain. The rate of protein synthesis was measured as the amount of [(3)H]-leucine incorporation in the cell-free extracts of frontal cortical tissues, and showed a significant increase at 8h after ouabain injection. These results suggest that ICV injection of ouabain induced activation of the protein translation initiation pathway regulated by ERK1/2 and Akt, and prolonged hyperactivity in rats. In conclusion, protein translation pathway could play an important role in ouabain-induced hyperactivity in a rodent model of mania. PMID:23643758

  11. Frontier of Epilepsy Research - mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studies of epilepsy have mainly focused on the membrane proteins that control neuronal excitability. Recently, attention has been shifting to intracellular proteins and their interactions, signaling cascades and feedback regulation as they relate to epilepsy. The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway, especially, has been suggested to play an important role in this regard. These pathways are involved in major physiological processes as well as in numerous pathological conditions. Here, involvement of the mTOR pathway in epilepsy will be reviewed by presenting; an overview of the pathway, a brief description of key signaling molecules, a summary of independent reports and possible implications of abnormalities of those molecules in epilepsy, a discussion of the lack of experimental data, and questions raised for the understanding its epileptogenic mechanism. PMID:21467839

  12. mTOR signaling pathway genes in focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Baulac, S

    2016-01-01

    Focal epilepsies, where seizures initiate in spatially limited networks, are the most frequent epilepsy type, accounting for two-thirds of patients. Focal epilepsies have long been thought to be acquired disorders; several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be (genetically heterogeneous) monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies have demonstrated a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, or synaptic secreted protein genes, later work has revealed a new class of genes encoding components of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway controls a myriad of biological processes among which cell growth and protein synthesis in response to several extracellular and intracellular. Recently, germline mutations have been found in genes encoding the components of the GATOR1 complex (DEPDC5, NPRL2, NPRL3), a repressor of mTORC1. These mutations are increasingly recognized as causing a wide and yet evolving spectrum of focal epilepsy syndromes, with and without cortical structural abnormalities (usually focal cortical dysplasia). Brain somatic mutations in the gene encoding mTOR (MTOR) have recently been linked to focal cortical dysplasia and other associated brain pathologies including hemimegalencephaly. This chapter reviews the genetics and neurobiology of DEPDC5, NPRL2, and NPRL3, and summarizes the clinical and molecular spectrum of GATOR1-related epilepsies. PMID:27323939

  13. [Significance of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activity in human lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Márk, Ágnes

    2014-06-01

    Neoplastic processes, tumor growth, and tumor cell proliferation and survival are often due to the altered activation of different signaling pathways. The increased activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling has been shown to be an important regulator of tumor growth in several solid tumors and in mantle cell lymphomas. The active form of mTOR kinase (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a key signaling molecule, and it exists in two different complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. In the present work, mTOR activity was investigated in different lymphoma types, in parallel with clinical data. We also examined in Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) the role of mTOR activity in survival mechanisms such as antiapoptotic protein expression and alterations in the microenvironment. We determined which lymphoma types display characteristic high mTOR activity in our TMA (tissue microarray) study. We observed that mTOR activity is increased in mitotic lymphoid cells compared to interphasic cells. The number of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and HL cases was extended in a further set of TMA. We observed significantly higher mTOR activity in the non-centrum germinativum derived subtype of DLBCL than in the centrum germinativum derived subtype, which was a prognostic marker; 63% of mTOR active cases showed Rictor overexpression, indicating mTORC2 activity. High mTOR activity was also established in 92% of HL cases, which was linked to mTORC1. This finding was not a prognostic marker, however, it can be useful in targeted therapy. We observed the overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL and NFκB-p50 in the majority of mTOR active HLs. HLs showed high numbers of regulatory T cells in the microenvironment and high expression of galectin-1 in tumor cells and in the extracellular matrix, when compared to reactive lymph nodes. We confirmed that mTOR inhibition had significant antiproliferative and antiapoptotic effects in lymphoma cell lines and in lymphoma xenografts (HL, DLBCL, Burkitt lymphoma

  14. Fluoxetine regulates mTOR signalling in a region-dependent manner in depression-like mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Luo, Liu; Mu, Rong-Hao; Liu, Bin-Bin; Geng, Di; Liu, Qing; Yi, Li-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has an important role in ketamine-induced, rapid antidepressant effects despite the acute administration of fluoxetine not affecting mTOR phosphorylation in the brain. However, the effects of long-term fluoxetine treatment on mTOR modulation have not been assessed to date. In the present study, we examined whether fluoxetine, a type of commonly used antidepressant agent, alters mTOR signaling following chronic administration in different brain regions, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus. We also investigated whether fluoxetine enhanced synaptic protein levels in these regions via the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway and its downstream regulators, p70S6K and 4E-BP-1. The results indicated that chronic fluoxetine treatment attenuated the chronic, unpredictable, mild stress (CUMS)-induced mTOR phosphorylation reduction in the hippocampus and amygdala of mice but not in the frontal cortex or the hypothalamus. Moreover, the CUMS-decreased PSD-95 and synapsin I levels were reversed by fluoxetine, and these effects were blocked by rapamycin only in the hippocampus. In conclusion, our findings suggest that chronic treatment with fluoxetine can induce synaptic protein expression by activating the mTOR signaling pathway in a region-dependent manner and mainly in the hippocampus. PMID:26522512

  15. Activation of mTOR: a culprit of Alzheimer’s disease?

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiyou; Chen, Guanghui; He, Wenbo; Xiao, Ming; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive impairment in clinical presentation, and by β-amyloid (Aβ) production and the hyper-phosphorylation of tau in basic research. More highlights demonstrate that the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enhances Aβ generation and deposition by modulating amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism and upregulating β- and γ-secretases. mTOR, an inhibitor of autophagy, decreases Aβ clearance by scissoring autophagy function. mTOR regulates Aβ generation or Aβ clearance by regulating several key signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3 [GSK-3], AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). The activation of mTOR is also a contributor to aberrant hyperphosphorylated tau. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR, may mitigate cognitive impairment and inhibit the pathologies associated with amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles by promoting autophagy. Furthermore, the upstream and downstream components of mTOR signaling are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Hence, inhibiting the activation of mTOR may be an important therapeutic target for AD. PMID:25914534

  16. Targeted Disruption of miR-17-92 Impairs Mouse Spermatogenesis by Activating mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Raoying; Lin, Xiaolin; Du, Tao; Xu, Kang; Shen, Hongfen; Wei, Fang; Hao, Weichao; Lin, Taoyan; Lin, Xia; Qin, Yujuan; Wang, Huiyan; Chen, Lin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Jie; Rong, Xiaoxiang; Yao, Kaitai; Xiao, Dong; Jia, Junshuang; Sun, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The miR-17-92 cluster and its 6 different mature microRNAs, including miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-20a, miR-19b-1, and miR-92a, play important roles in embryo development, immune system, kidney and heart development, adipose differentiation, aging, and tumorigenicity. Currently, increasing evidence indicates that some members of miR-17-92 cluster may be critical players in spermatogenesis, including miR-17, miR-18a, and miR-20a. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of miR-17-92 in spermatogenesis remain largely unknown. Our results showed that the targeted disruption of miR-17-92 in the testes of adult mice resulted in severe testicular atrophy, empty seminiferous tubules, and depressed sperm production. This phenotype is partly because of the reduced number of spermatogonia and spermatogonial stem cells, and the significantly increased germ cell apoptosis in the testes of miR-17-92-deficient mice. In addition, overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim, Stat3, c-Kit, and Socs3 were also observed in miR-17-92-deficient mouse testes, which might be, at least partially if not all, responsible for the aforementioned phenotypic changes in mutant testes. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-17-92 is essential for normal spermatogenesis in mice. PMID:26886608

  17. Intersection of mTOR and STAT signaling in immunity

    PubMed Central

    Saleiro, Diana; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal regulation of immune networks is essential for generation of effective immune responses, and defects in such networks can lead to immunodeficiency, while uncontrolled responses can result in autoimmune disorders. mTOR and STAT signaling cascades are key regulators of differentiation and function of cells of the immune system. Both pathways act as sensors and transducers of environmental stimuli, and recent evidence has revealed points of crosstalk between these pathways, highlighting synergistic regulation of immune cell differentiation and function. Here we review the current understanding of mTOR and STAT interactions in T cells and innate immune cells, and discuss potential mechanisms underlying these events. We further outline models for the intersection of these pathways in the regulation of immunity, and highlight important areas for future research. PMID:25592035

  18. p53 inhibition provides a pivotal protective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury in vitro via mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomu; Gu, Shixin; Ling, Yan; Shen, Chao; Cao, Xiaoyun; Xie, Rong

    2015-04-24

    Tumor suppressor p53 has recently been reported to have numerous functions independent of tumorigenesis, including neuronal survival during ischemia. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism, cell growth, development, and cell survival. Our recent work has demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of the mTOR pathway. Considering that p53 is also an important regulator of mTOR, to further clarify the role of p53 and the mTOR signaling pathway in neuronal ischemic-reperfusion injury, we used mouse primary mixed cultured neurons with an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model to mimic an ischemic-reperfusion injury in vitro. A lentiviral system was also used to inhibit or overexpress p53 to determine whether p53 alteration affects OGD and reperfusion injury. Our results show that activated p53 was induced and it suppressed mTOR expression in primary mixed cultured neurons after OGD and reperfusion. Inhibiting p53, using either a chemical inhibitor or lentiviral-mediated shRNA, exhibited neuroprotective effects in primary cultured neurons against OGD and reperfusion injury through the upregulation of mTOR activity. Such protective effects could be reversed by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor. Conversely, p53 overexpression tended to exacerbate the detrimental effects of OGD injury by downregulating mTOR activity. These results suggest that p53 inhibition has a pivotal protective effect against an in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury via mTOR signaling and provides a potential and promising therapeutic target for stroke treatment. PMID:25681550

  19. Hypothalamic roles of mTOR complex I: integration of nutrient and hormone signals to regulate energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang; Xu, Yong; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrient, energy, and hormone signals to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. mTOR activity in the hypothalamus, which is associated with changes in energy status, plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. mTOR integrates signals from a variety of "energy balancing" hormones such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, although its action varies in response to these distinct hormonal stimuli as well as across different neuronal populations. In this review, we summarize and highlight recent findings regarding the functional roles of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in the hypothalamus specifically in its regulation of body weight, energy expenditure, and glucose/lipid homeostasis. Understanding the role and underlying mechanisms behind mTOR-related signaling in the brain will undoubtedly pave new avenues for future therapeutics and interventions that can combat obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. PMID:27166282

  20. Chronic leucine supplementation of a low protein diet increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs through mTOR signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leucine acutely stimulates protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. We hypothesized that leucine supplementation of a low protein diet will enhance protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in the neonate for prolonged periods. Fasted 5-d-old pigs (n=6–8...

  1. Erythropoietin mediated bone formation is regulated by mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkoo; Jung, Younghun; Sun, Hongli; Joseph, Jeena; Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Wang, Jingcheng; Krebsbach, Paul H; Taichman, Russell S

    2012-01-01

    The role of erythropoietin (Epo) and Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) signaling pathways for production of red blood cells are well established. However, little is known about Epo/EpoR signaling in non-hematopoietic cells. Recently, we demonstrated that Epo activates JAK/STAT signaling in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), leading to the production of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and bone formation and that Epo also directly activates mesenchymal cells to form osteoblasts in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of mTOR signaling on Epo-mediated osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We found that mTOR inhibition by rapamycin blocks Epo-dependent and -independent osteoblastic phenotypes in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and ST2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, we found that rapamycin inhibits Epo-dependent and -independent osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells and Raw264.7 cells. Finally, we demonstrated that Epo increases NFATc1 expression and decreases cathepsin K expression in an mTOR-independent manner, resulting in an increase of osteoclast numbers and a decrease in resorption activity. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that mTOR signaling plays an important role in Epo-mediated bone homeostasis. PMID:21898543

  2. Modulation of the protein kinase activity of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J C; Lin, T A; McMahon, L P; Choi, K M

    2004-01-01

    mTOR is a founding member of a family of protein kinases having catalytic domains homologous to those in phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase. mTOR participates in the control by insulin of the phosphorylation of lipin, which is required for adipocyte differentiation, and the two translational regulators, p70S6K and PHAS-I. The phosphorylation of mTOR, itself, is stimulated by insulin in Ser2448, a site that is also phosphorylated by protein kinase B (PKB) in vitro and in response to activation of PKB activity in vivo. Ser2448 is located in a short stretch of amino acids not found in the two TOR proteins in yeast. A mutant mTOR lacking this stretch exhibited increased activity, and binding of the antibody, mTAb-1, to this region markedly increased mTOR activity. In contrast, rapamycin-FKBP12 inhibited mTOR activity towards both PHAS-I and p70S6K, although this complex inhibited the phosphorylation of some sites more than that of others. Mutating Ser2035 to Ile in the FKBP12-rapamycin binding domain rendered mTOR resistant to inhibition by rapamycin. Unexpectedly, this mutation markedly decreased the ability of mTOR to phosphorylate certain sites in both PHAS-I and p70S6K. The results support the hypotheses that rapamycin disrupts substrate recognition instead of directly inhibiting phosphotransferase activity and that mTOR activity in cells is controlled by the phosphorylation of an inhibitory regulatory domain containing the mTAb-1 epitope. PMID:14560959

  3. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice

    PubMed Central

    You, Jae-Sung; Anderson, Garrett B.; Dooley, Matthew S.; Hornberger, Troy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass contributes substantially to health and to issues associated with the quality of life. It has been well recognized that skeletal muscle mass is regulated by mechanically induced changes in protein synthesis, and that signaling by mTOR is necessary for an increase in protein synthesis and the hypertrophy that occurs in response to increased mechanical loading. However, the role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during decreased mechanical loading remains largely undefined. In order to define the role of mTOR signaling, we employed a mouse model of hindlimb immobilization along with pharmacological, mechanical and genetic means to modulate mTOR signaling. The results first showed that immobilization induced a decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis and muscle mass. Interestingly, immobilization also induced an increase in mTOR signaling, eIF4F complex formation and cap-dependent translation. Blocking mTOR signaling during immobilization with rapamycin not only impaired the increase in eIF4F complex formation, but also augmented the decreases in global protein synthesis and muscle mass. On the other hand, stimulating immobilized muscles with isometric contractions enhanced mTOR signaling and rescued the immobilization-induced decrease in global protein synthesis through a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism that was independent of ribosome biogenesis. Unexpectedly, the effects of isometric contractions were also independent of eIF4F complex formation. Similar to isometric contractions, overexpression of Rheb in immobilized muscles enhanced mTOR signaling, cap-dependent translation and global protein synthesis, and prevented the reduction in fiber size. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of mTOR signaling is both necessary and sufficient to alleviate the decreases in protein synthesis and muscle mass that occur during immobilization. Furthermore, these results indicate

  4. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice.

    PubMed

    You, Jae-Sung; Anderson, Garrett B; Dooley, Matthew S; Hornberger, Troy A

    2015-09-01

    The maintenance of skeletal muscle mass contributes substantially to health and to issues associated with the quality of life. It has been well recognized that skeletal muscle mass is regulated by mechanically induced changes in protein synthesis, and that signaling by mTOR is necessary for an increase in protein synthesis and the hypertrophy that occurs in response to increased mechanical loading. However, the role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during decreased mechanical loading remains largely undefined. In order to define the role of mTOR signaling, we employed a mouse model of hindlimb immobilization along with pharmacological, mechanical and genetic means to modulate mTOR signaling. The results first showed that immobilization induced a decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis and muscle mass. Interestingly, immobilization also induced an increase in mTOR signaling, eIF4F complex formation and cap-dependent translation. Blocking mTOR signaling during immobilization with rapamycin not only impaired the increase in eIF4F complex formation, but also augmented the decreases in global protein synthesis and muscle mass. On the other hand, stimulating immobilized muscles with isometric contractions enhanced mTOR signaling and rescued the immobilization-induced decrease in global protein synthesis through a rapamycin-sensitive mechanism that was independent of ribosome biogenesis. Unexpectedly, the effects of isometric contractions were also independent of eIF4F complex formation. Similar to isometric contractions, overexpression of Rheb in immobilized muscles enhanced mTOR signaling, cap-dependent translation and global protein synthesis, and prevented the reduction in fiber size. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of mTOR signaling is both necessary and sufficient to alleviate the decreases in protein synthesis and muscle mass that occur during immobilization. Furthermore, these results indicate that the

  5. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is functional in neuroendocrine tumors and signals on mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Guadagno, Elia; Tafuto, Salvatore; del Basso de Caro, Marialaura; Botti, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Luciano; Aria, Massimo; Ramundo, Valeria; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Ieranò, Caterina; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Izzo, Francesco; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Scala, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible crosstalk between C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)/C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) axis with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Methods Sixty-one human NETs were included into the study. CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and mTOR pathway were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The effect of mTOR inhibitor, RAD001, was evaluated on CXCR4 pathway through proliferation and p-Erk and p-AKT induction. Results: CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis and p-mTOR were found to be active and correlated with grading, Ki67 index and tumor stage. mTOR pathway activation significantly correlated with poor prognosis. In human NET cells, CXCL12 induced mTOR signalling while AMD3100 (CXCR4-antagonist) impaired it. The mTOR-antagonist, RAD001, impaired the CXCL12-dependent induction of CXCR4 downstream effectors. Combination of AMD3100 and RAD001 potentiate cell growth inhibition. Conclusions CXCR4/CXCL12/CXCR7 axis is active in NETs and signals on mTOR. CXCR4 might be considered a prognostic factor in NETs. Combined treatment with AMD3100 and RAD001 may provide clinical benefits in NET patients with drug-resistant. PMID:26934559

  6. Oridonin Suppresses Proliferation of Human Ovarian Cancer Cells via Blockage of mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Rong; Chen, Sun-Xiao; Qin, Qin; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Deng, An-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has shown various pharmacological and physiological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of oridonin on human ovarian cancer cell lines has not been determined. In this study, we demonstrated that oridonin inhibited ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we showed oridonin inhibited tumor growth of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) in vivo. We then assessed mechanisms and found that oridonin specifically abrogated the phosphorylation/activation of mTOR signaling. In summary, our results indicate that oridonin is a potential inhibitor of ovarian cancer by blocking the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:26925661

  7. mTor signaling is required for the formation of proliferating Müller glia-derived progenitor cells in the chick retina.

    PubMed

    Zelinka, Christopher P; Volkov, Leo; Goodman, Zachary A; Todd, Levi; Palazzo, Isabella; Bishop, William A; Fischer, Andy J

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the roles of mTor signaling in the formation of Müller glia-derived progenitor cells (MGPCs) in the chick retina. During embryonic development, pS6 (a readout of active mTor signaling) is present in early-stage retinal progenitors, differentiating amacrine and ganglion cells, and late-stage progenitors or maturing Müller glia. By contrast, pS6 is present at low levels in a few scattered cell types in mature, healthy retina. Following retinal damage, in which MGPCs are known to form, mTor signaling is rapidly activated in Müller glia. Inhibition of mTor in damaged retinas prevented the accumulation of pS6 in Müller glia and reduced numbers of proliferating MGPCs. Inhibition of mTor had no effect on MAPK signaling or on upregulation of the stem cell factor Klf4, whereas Pax6 upregulation was significantly reduced. Inhibition of mTor potently blocked the MGPC-promoting effects of Hedgehog, Wnt and glucocorticoid signaling in damaged retinas. In the absence of retinal damage, insulin, IGF1 and FGF2 induced pS6 in Müller glia, and this was blocked by mTor inhibitor. In FGF2-treated retinas, in which MGPCs are known to form, inhibition of mTor blocked the accumulation of pS6, the upregulation of Pax6 and the formation of proliferating MGPCs. We conclude that mTor signaling is required, but not sufficient, to stimulate Müller glia to give rise to proliferating progenitors, and the network of signaling pathways that drive the formation of MGPCs requires activation of mTor. PMID:27068108

  8. Synergistic antitumor activity of vitamin D3 combined with metformin in human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells involves m-TOR related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Shu; Li, Hong-Xia; Li, Chun-Yang; Zhang, Sheng-Yan; Chen, Jia; Wang, Qi-Long; Gao, Jing-Miao; Liang, Jia-Qi; Gao, Ming-Tang; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Metformin is usually used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently, many studies suggest that metformin and vitamin D have broad-spectrum antitumor activities. Our aim in this research was to study the effects of vitamin D3 combined with metformin on the apoptosis induction and its mechanisms in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Cell proliferation was measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The morphology of cell apoptosis was observed after Hoechst 33342 staining. Here we show that vitamin D3 280 μg/ml or vitamin D3 300 μg/ml or vitamin D3 320 μg/ml seperately combined with metformin 15000 μg/ml exhibited synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. The underlying anti-tumor mechanisms may involve m-TOR related pathways, which are related to activating expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and p-AMPK, as well as inhibiting expressions of p-Bcl-2, c-Myc, p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6. PMID:25997252

  9. Regulation of mTOR by mechanically induced signaling events in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Troy Alan; Sukhija, Kunal Balu; Chien, Shu

    2006-07-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass contributes significantly to disease prevention and the quality of life. Although a link between mechanical stimuli and the regulation of muscle mass has been recognized for decades, the mechanisms involved in converting mechanical information into the molecular events that control this process have not been defined. Nevertheless, significant advancements are being made in this field, and it has recently been established that signaling through a rapamycin-sensitive pathway is necessary for mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. Since rapamycin is a highly specific inhibitor of a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), many investigators have concluded that mTOR signaling is necessary for the mechanically induced growth of skeletal muscle. In this review, we have summarized the current knowledge regarding how mechanical stimuli activate mTOR signaling, discussed the newly discovered role of phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid (PA) in this pathway, and considered the potential roles of PLD and PA in the mechanical regulation of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:16855395

  10. mTOR Ser-2481 autophosphorylation monitors mTORC-specific catalytic activity and clarifies rapamycin mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ghada A; Acosta-Jaquez, Hugo A; Dunlop, Elaine A; Ekim, Bilgen; Maj, Nicole E; Tee, Andrew R; Fingar, Diane C

    2010-03-12

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Ser/Thr kinase signals in at least two multiprotein complexes distinguished by their different partners and sensitivities to rapamycin. Acute rapamycin inhibits signaling by mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) but not mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which both promote cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Although mTORC2 regulation remains poorly defined, diverse cellular mitogens activate mTORC1 signaling in a manner that requires sufficient levels of amino acids and cellular energy. Before the identification of distinct mTOR complexes, mTOR was reported to autophosphorylate on Ser-2481 in vivo in a rapamycin- and amino acid-insensitive manner. These results suggested that modulation of mTOR intrinsic catalytic activity does not universally underlie mTOR regulation. Here we re-examine the regulation of mTOR Ser-2481 autophosphorylation (Ser(P)-2481) in vivo by studying mTORC-specific Ser(P)-2481 in mTORC1 and mTORC2, with a primary focus on mTORC1. In contrast to previous work, we find that acute rapamycin and amino acid withdrawal markedly attenuate mTORC1-associated mTOR Ser(P)-2481 in cycling cells. Although insulin stimulates both mTORC1- and mTORC2-associated mTOR Ser(P)-2481 in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner, rapamycin acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated mTOR Ser(P)-2481 in mTORC1 but not mTORC2. By interrogating diverse mTORC1 regulatory input, we find that without exception mTORC1-activating signals promote, whereas mTORC1-inhibitory signals decrease mTORC1-associated mTOR Ser(P)-2481. These data suggest that mTORC1- and likely mTORC2-associated mTOR Ser-2481 autophosphorylation directly monitors intrinsic mTORC-specific catalytic activity and reveal that rapamycin inhibits mTORC1 signaling in vivo by reducing mTORC1 catalytic activity. PMID:20022946

  11. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J C; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. PMID:23000302

  12. Bridges between mitochondrial oxidative stress, ER stress and mTOR signaling in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction, i.e., failure to provide insulin in concentrations sufficient to control blood sugar, is central to the etiology of all types of diabetes. Current evidence implicates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic β cell loss and impaired insulin secretion. Oxidative and ER stress are interconnected so that misfolded proteins induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; likewise, oxidative stress disturbs the ER redox state thereby disrupting correct disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. mTOR signaling regulates many metabolic processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Oxidative stress inhibits mTORC1, which is considered an important suppressor of mitochondrial oxidative stress in β cells, and ultimately, controls cell survival. The interplay between ER stress and mTORC1 is complicated, since the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation can occur upstream or downstream of mTORC1. Persistent activation of mTORC1 initiates protein synthesis and UPR activation, while in the later phase induces ER stress. Chronic activation of ER stress inhibits Akt/mTORC1 pathway, while under particular settings, acute activation of UPR activates Akt-mTOR signaling. Thus, modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress via mTOR signaling may be an approach that will effectively suppress obesity- or glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this review, we focus on the regulations between mTOR signaling and mitochondrial oxidative or ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PMID:27185188

  13. Chronic overload induced hypertrophy is associated with age-related muscle mass loss and diminished mTOR signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in young and aging rats in response to chronic muscle overload. Young (6 mo; n = 16) and older (30 mo; n = 23) male rats (F344xBN) were subjected to 4 weeks of bilateral surgical ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gastr...

  14. Gβγ interacts with mTOR and promotes its activation

    SciTech Connect

    Robles-Molina, Evelyn; Dionisio-Vicuña, Misael; Guzmán-Hernández, María Luisa; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Gβγ interacts with mTOR kinase domain via a mechanism sensitive to chronic treatment with rapamycin. • Gβγ interacts with mTORC1 and mTORC2 which correlates with its ability to promote mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. • Gβγ heterodimers containing different Gβ subunits, except Gβ{sub 4}, interact with mTOR. - Abstract: Diverse G protein-coupled receptors depend on Gβγ heterodimers to promote cell polarization and survival via direct activation of PI3Kγ and potentially other effectors. These events involve full activation of AKT via its phosphorylation at Ser473, suggesting that mTORC2, the kinase that phosphorylates AKT at Ser473, is activated downstream of Gβγ. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that Gβγ directly contributes to mTOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous mTOR interacts with Gβγ. Cell stimulation with serum modulates Gβγ interaction with mTOR. The carboxyl terminal region of mTOR, expressed as a GST-fusion protein, including the serine/threonine kinase domain, binds Gβγ heterodimers containing different Gβ subunits, except Gβ{sub 4}. Both, mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes interact with Gβ{sub 1}γ{sub 2} which promotes phosphorylation of their respective substrates, p70S6K and AKT. In addition, chronic treatment with rapamycin, a condition known to interfere with assembly of mTORC2, reduces the interaction between Gβγ and mTOR and the phosphorylation of AKT; whereas overexpression of Gαi interfered with the effect of Gβγ as promoter of p70S6K and AKT phosphorylation. Altogether, our results suggest that Gβγ positively regulates mTOR signaling via direct interactions and provide further support to emerging strategies based on the therapeutical potential of inhibiting different Gβγ signaling interfaces.

  15. Role of mTOR Downstream Effector Signaling Molecules in Francisella Tularensis Internalization by Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Michael W.; Aultman, James A.; Harber, Gregory; Bhatt, Jay M.; Sztul, Elizabeth; Xu, Qingan; Zhang, Ping; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Katz, Jannet

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an infectious, gram-negative, intracellular microorganism, and the cause of tularemia. Invasion of host cells by intracellular pathogens like Francisella is initiated by their interaction with different host cell membrane receptors and the rapid phosphorylation of different downstream signaling molecules. PI3K and Syk have been shown to be involved in F. tularensis host cell entry, and both of these signaling molecules are associated with the master regulator serine/threonine kinase mTOR; yet the involvement of mTOR in F. tularensis invasion of host cells has not been assessed. Here, we report that infection of macrophages with F. tularensis triggers the phosphorylation of mTOR downstream effector molecules, and that signaling via TLR2 is necessary for these events. Inhibition of mTOR or of PI3K, ERK, or p38, but not Akt signaling, downregulates the levels of phosphorylation of mTOR downstream targets, and significantly reduces the number of F. tularensis cells invading macrophages. Moreover, while phosphorylation of mTOR downstream effectors occurs via the PI3K pathway, it also involves PLCγ1 and Ca2+ signaling. Furthermore, abrogation of PLC or Ca2+ signaling revealed their important role in the ability of F. tularensis to invade host cells. Together, these findings suggest that F. tularensis invasion of primary macrophages utilize a myriad of host signaling pathways to ensure effective cell entry. PMID:24312679

  16. Azithromycin suppresses CD4+ T-cell activation by direct modulation of mTOR activity

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, F.; Haslacher, H.; Poeppl, W.; Hoermann, G.; Kovarik, J. J.; Jutz, S.; Steinberger, P.; Burgmann, H.; Pickl, W. F.; Schmetterer, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced macrolides, such as azithromycin (AZM) or clarithromycin (CLM), are antibiotics with immunomodulatory properties. Here we have sought to evaluate their in vitro influence on the activation of CD4+ T-cells. Isolated CD4+ T-cells were stimulated with agonistic anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of 0.6 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 10 mg/L or 40 mg/L AZM or CLM. Cell proliferation, cytokine level in supernatants and cell viability was assessed. Intracellular signaling pathways were evaluated using reporter cell lines, FACS analysis, immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assays. AZM inhibited cell proliferation rate and cytokine secretion of CD4+ T-cells in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, high concentrations of CLM (40 mg/L) also suppressed these T-cell functions. Analysis of molecular signaling pathways revealed that exposure to AZM reduced the phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream target of mTOR. This effect was also observed at 40 mg/L CLM. In vitro kinase studies using recombinant mTOR showed that AZM inhibited mTOR activity. In contrast to rapamycin, this inhibition was independent of FKBP12. We show for the first time that AZM and to a lesser extent CLM act as immunosuppressive agents on CD4+ T-cells by inhibiting mTOR activity. Our results might have implications for the clinical use of macrolides. PMID:25500904

  17. The role of mTOR signalling in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in a rodent model of resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Riki; Fujita, Satoshi; Hornberger, Troy A; Kitaoka, Yu; Makanae, Yuhei; Nakazato, Koichi; Naokata, Ishii

    2016-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) activates signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and it has been suggested that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR signalling controls RE-induced changes in protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, and the expression of peroxisome proliferator gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α). However, direct evidence to support the aforementioned relationships is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR in the RE-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, PGC-1α expression and hypertrophy. The results indicated that the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR could prevent the induction of ribosome biogenesis by RE, but it only partially inhibited the activation of muscle protein synthesis. Likewise, the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR only partially blocked the hypertrophic effects of chronic RE. Furthermore, both acute and chronic RE promoted an increase in PGC-1α expression and these alterations were not affected by the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR. Combined, the results from this study not only establish that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR plays an important role in the RE-induced activation of protein synthesis and the induction of hypertrophy, but they also demonstrate that additional (rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-independent) mechanisms contribute to these fundamentally important events. PMID:27502839

  18. The role of mTOR signalling in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass in a rodent model of resistance exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Riki; Fujita, Satoshi; Hornberger, Troy A.; Kitaoka, Yu; Makanae, Yuhei; Nakazato, Koichi; Naokata, Ishii

    2016-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) activates signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and it has been suggested that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR signalling controls RE-induced changes in protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, and the expression of peroxisome proliferator gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α). However, direct evidence to support the aforementioned relationships is lacking. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR in the RE-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, PGC-1α expression and hypertrophy. The results indicated that the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR could prevent the induction of ribosome biogenesis by RE, but it only partially inhibited the activation of muscle protein synthesis. Likewise, the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR only partially blocked the hypertrophic effects of chronic RE. Furthermore, both acute and chronic RE promoted an increase in PGC-1α expression and these alterations were not affected by the inhibition of rapamycin-sensitive mTOR. Combined, the results from this study not only establish that rapamycin-sensitive mTOR plays an important role in the RE-induced activation of protein synthesis and the induction of hypertrophy, but they also demonstrate that additional (rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-independent) mechanisms contribute to these fundamentally important events. PMID:27502839

  19. PPARγ deficiency results in severe, accelerated osteoarthritis associated with aberrant mTOR signalling in the articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Vasheghani, Faezeh; Zhang, Yue; Li, Ying-Hua; Blati, Meryem; Fahmi, Hassan; Lussier, Bertrand; Roughley, Peter; Lagares, David; Endisha, Helal; Saffar, Bahareh; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Marshall, Wayne K; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Mahomed, Nizar N; Gandhi, Rajiv; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Kapoor, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a transcription factor, is essential for the normal growth and development of cartilage. In the present study, we created inducible cartilage-specific PPARγ knockout (KO) mice and subjected these mice to the destabilisation of medial meniscus (DMM) model of osteoarthritis (OA) to elucidate the specific in vivo role of PPARγ in OA pathophysiology. We further investigated the downstream PPARγ signalling pathway responsible for maintaining cartilage homeostasis. Methods Inducible cartilage-specific PPARγ KO mice were generated and subjected to DMM model of OA. We also created inducible cartilage-specific PPARγ/mammalian target for rapamycin (mTOR) double KO mice to dissect the PPARγ signalling pathway in OA. Results Compared with control mice, PPARγ KO mice exhibit accelerated OA phenotype with increased cartilage degradation, chondrocyte apoptosis, and the overproduction of OA inflammatory/catabolic factors associated with the increased expression of mTOR and the suppression of key autophagy markers. In vitro rescue experiments using PPARγ expression vector reduced mTOR expression, increased expression of autophagy markers and reduced the expression of OA inflammatory/catabolic factors, thus reversing the phenotype of PPARγ KO mice chondrocytes. To dissect the in vivo role of mTOR pathway in PPARγ signalling, we created and subjected PPARγ-mTOR double KO mice to the OA model to see if the genetic deletion of mTOR in PPARγ KO mice (double KO) can rescue the accelerated OA phenotype observed in PPARγ KO mice. Indeed, PPARγ-mTOR double KO mice exhibit significant protection/reversal from OA phenotype. Significance PPARγ maintains articular cartilage homeostasis, in part, by regulating mTOR pathway. PMID:25573665

  20. ARD1 Stabilization of TSC2 Suppresses Tumorigenesis Through the mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsu-Ping; Lee, Dung-Fang; Chen, Chun-Te; Liu, Mo; Chou, Chao-Kai; Lee, Hong-Jen; Du, Yi; Xie, Xiaoming; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Weiya; Weihua, Zhang; Yang, Jer-Yen; Yen, Chia-Jui; Huang, Tzu-Hsuan; Tan, Minjia; Xing, Gang; Zhao, Yingming; Lin, Chien-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates various cellular functions, including tumorigenesis, and is inhibited by the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1)–TSC2 complex. Here, we demonstrate that arrest-defective protein 1 (ARD1) physically interacts with, acetylates, and stabilizes TSC2, thereby repressing mTOR activity. The inhibition of mTOR by ARD1 inhibits cell proliferation and increases autophagy, thereby inhibiting tumorigenicity. Correlation between ARD1 and TSC2 abundance was apparent in multiple tumor types. Moreover, evaluation of loss of heterozygosity at Xq28 revealed allelic loss in 31% of tested breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples. Together, our findings suggest that ARD1 functions as an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway and that dysregulation of the ARD1-TSC2-mTOR axis may contribute to cancer development. PMID:20145209

  1. The PI 3-kinase and mTOR signaling pathways are important modulators of epithelial tubule formation.

    PubMed

    Walid, Shereaf; Eisen, Randi; Ratcliffe, Don R; Dai, Kezhi; Hussain, M Mahmood; Ojakian, George K

    2008-08-01

    Using MDCK cells as a model system, evidence is presented demonstrating that the signaling pathways mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) play important roles in the regulation of epithelial tubule formation. Incubation of cells with collagen gel overlays induced early (4-8 h) reorganization of cells (epithelial remodeling) into three-dimensional multicellular tubular structures over 24 h. An MDCK cell line stably expressing the PH domain of Akt, a PI 3-kinase downstream effector, coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP-Akt-PH) was used to determine the distribution of phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-P(3) (PIP(3)), a product of PI 3-kinase. GFP-Akt-PH was associated with lateral membranes in control cells. After incubation with collagen gel overlays, GFP-Akt-PH redistributed into the lamellipodia of migrating cells suggesting that PIP(3) plays a role in epithelial remodeling. Using the small molecule inhibitor LY-294002 that inhibits both mTOR and PI 3-kinase, we demonstrated that kinase activity was required for epithelial remodeling, disruption of cell junctions and subsequent modulation of tubule formation. Since the mTOR signaling pathway is downstream of PI 3-kinase, the effects of rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, on tubule formation were assessed. Rapamycin did not affect epithelial remodeling or GFP-Akt-PH redistribution but inhibited elongated tubule formation that occurred later (24 h) in morphogenesis. These results were further supported by using RNA interference to down-regulate mTOR and inhibit tubule formation. Our studies demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates early epithelial remodeling stages while mTOR modulates latter stages of tubule development. PMID:18366086

  2. Oncogenic mTOR signalling recruits myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumour initiation.

    PubMed

    Welte, Thomas; Kim, Ik Sun; Tian, Lin; Gao, Xia; Wang, Hai; Li, June; Holdman, Xue B; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Pond, Adam; Xie, Guorui; Kurley, Sarah; Nguyen, Tuan; Liao, Lan; Dobrolecki, Lacey E; Pang, Lan; Mo, Qianxing; Edwards, Dean P; Huang, Shixia; Xin, Li; Xu, Jianming; Li, Yi; Lewis, Michael T; Wang, Tian; Westbrook, Thomas F; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Xiang H-F

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play critical roles in primary and metastatic cancer progression. MDSC regulation is widely variable even among patients harbouring the same type of malignancy, and the mechanisms governing such heterogeneity are largely unknown. Here, integrating human tumour genomics and syngeneic mammary tumour models, we demonstrate that mTOR signalling in cancer cells dictates a mammary tumour's ability to stimulate MDSC accumulation through regulating G-CSF. Inhibiting this pathway or its activators (for example, FGFR) impairs tumour progression, which is partially rescued by restoring MDSCs or G-CSF. Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) exhibit elevated G-CSF. MDSCs reciprocally increase TIC frequency through activating Notch in tumour cells, forming a feedforward loop. Analyses of primary breast cancers and patient-derived xenografts corroborate these mechanisms in patients. These findings establish a non-canonical oncogenic role of mTOR signalling in recruiting pro-tumorigenic MDSCs and show how defined cancer subsets may evolve to promote and depend on a distinct immune microenvironment. PMID:27183469

  3. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Activity Dependent Phospho-Protein Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Márk, Ágnes; Hajdu, Melinda; Kenessey, István; Sticz, Tamás; Nagy, Eszter; Barna, Gábor; Váradi, Zsófia; Kovács, Gábor; Kopper, László; Csóka, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Modern treatment strategies have improved the prognosis of childhood ALL; however, treatment still fails in 25–30% of patients. Further improvement of treatment may depend on the development of targeted therapies. mTOR kinase, a central mediator of several signaling pathways, has recently attracted remarkable attention as a potential target in pediatric ALL. However, limited data exists about the activity of mTOR. In the present study, the amount of mTOR activity dependent phospho-proteins was characterized by ELISA in human leukemia cell lines and in lymphoblasts from childhood ALL patients (n = 49). Expression was measured before and during chemotherapy and at relapses. Leukemia cell lines exhibited increased mTOR activity, indicated by phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6) and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein (p-4EBP1). Elevated p-4EBP1 protein levels were detected in ALL samples at diagnosis; efficacy of chemotherapy was followed by the decrease of mTOR activity dependent protein phosphorylation. Optical density (OD) for p-4EBP1 (ELISA) was significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis at diagnosis, and in the samples of relapsed patients. Our results suggest that measuring mTOR activity related phospho-proteins such as p-4EBP1 by ELISA may help to identify patients with poor prognosis before treatment, and to detect early relapses. Determining mTOR activity in leukemic cells may also be a useful tool for selecting patients who may benefit from future mTOR inhibitor treatments. PMID:23573198

  4. Chitosan oligosaccharide suppresses tumor progression in a mouse model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer through AMPK activation and suppression of NF-κB and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Mattaveewong, Tharinee; Wongkrasant, Preedajit; Chanchai, Sumalee; Pichyangkura, Rath; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2016-07-10

    Novel, effective and safe agents are needed for the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study investigated the effects of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on CRC progression and their underlying mechanisms and safety profiles in mice. Using a mouse model of colitis-associated CRC, we found that oral administration of COS (500mg/kg/day) resulted in a ∼60% reduction of tumor size and tumor numbers/sectioning. In addition, COS treatment increased AMPK activity, suppressed the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and reduced the expressions of cyclin D1, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, and MMP-9 in the colon tissues of these mice. Importantly, administration of COS (500mg/kg/day; 50 days) had no adverse effects on renal or liver functions. Our results indicate that COS suppressed CRC progression via AMPK activation and the suppression of NF-κB and mTOR signaling. COS may be of potential utility in the chemoprevention of CRC. PMID:27106148

  5. A Small Molecule Screen Exposes mTOR Signaling Pathway Involvement in Radiation-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Lira, Ana; McConnell, Michael J; Norambuena, Andrés; Bloom, George S; Epperly, Michael W; Greenberger, Joel S; Lazo, John S

    2016-05-20

    Individuals are at risk of exposure to acute ionizing radiation (IR) from a nuclear accident or terrorism, but we lack effective therapies to mitigate the lethal IR effects. In the current study, we exploited an optimized, cell-based, high throughput screening assay to interrogate a small molecule library comprising 3437 known pharmacologically active compounds for mitigation against IR-induced apoptosis. Thirty-three library compounds significantly reduced apoptosis when administered 1 h after 4 Gy IR. Two- or three-dimensional computational structural analyses of the compounds indicated only one or two chemical clusters with most of the compounds being unique structures. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor, rapamycin, was the most potent compound, and it mitigated apoptosis by 50% at 200 ± 50 pM. Other mTOR inhibitors, namely everolimus, AZD8055, and torin 1, also suppressed apoptosis, providing additional pharmacological evidence for mTOR pathway involvement in regulating cell death after IR. Everolimus and torin 1 treatment after IR decreased the S phase population and enforced both G1 and G2 phase arrest. This prorogation of cell cycle progression was accompanied by decreased IR-induced DNA damage measured by γH2AX phosphorylation at Ser139. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the respective mTORC1 and mTORC2 subunits, Raptor or Rictor, also mitigated IR-induced apoptosis. Collectively, this study suggests a central role for the mTOR signaling in the cytotoxic response to IR and offers a useful platform to probe for additional agents. PMID:26938669

  6. In search of antiaging modalities: evaluation of mTOR- and ROS/DNA damage-signaling by cytometry.

    PubMed

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H Dorota; Li, Jiangwei; Lee, Yong-Syu; Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

    2014-05-01

    This review presents the evidence in support of the IGF-1/mTOR/S6K1 signaling as the primary factor contributing to aging and cellular senescence. Reviewed are also specific interactions between mTOR/S6K1 and ROS-DNA damage signaling pathways. Outlined are critical sites along these pathways, including autophagy, as targets for potential antiaging (gero-suppressive) and/or chemopreventive agents. Presented are applications of flow- and laser scanning- cytometry utilizing phospho-specific Abs, to monitor activation along these pathways in response to the reported antiaging drugs rapamycin, metformin, berberine, resveratrol, vitamin D3, 2-deoxyglucose, and acetylsalicylic acid. Specifically, effectiveness of these agents to attenuate the level of constitutive mTOR signaling was tested by cytometry and confirmed by Western blotting through measuring phosphorylation of the mTOR-downstream targets including ribosomal protein S6. The ratiometric analysis of phosphorylated to total protein along the mTOR pathway offers a useful parameter reporting the effects of gero-suppressive agents. In parallel, their ability to suppress the level of constitutive DNA damage signaling induced by endogenous ROS was measured. While the primary target of each of these agents may be different the data obtained on several human cancer cell lines, WI-38 fibroblasts and normal lymphocytes suggest common downstream mechanism in which the decline in mTOR/S6K1 signaling and translation rate is coupled with a reduction of oxidative phosphorylation and ROS that leads to decreased oxidative DNA damage. The combined assessment of constitutive γH2AX expression, mitochondrial activity (ROS, ΔΨm), and mTOR signaling provides an adequate gamut of cell responses to test effectiveness of gero-suppressive agents. Described is also an in vitro model of induction of cellular senescence by persistent replication stress, its quantitative analysis by laser scanning cytometry, and application to detect the

  7. C-Reactive Protein Promotes Diabetic Kidney Disease in db/db Mice via the CD32b-Smad3-mTOR signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Ke; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Lyu, Xia-Fei; Liu, Hua-Feng; Lan, Hui Y.

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with progressive diabetic nephropathy in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DN). However, role of CRP in T2DN remains unclear. We report here that CRP is pathogenic in T2DN in db/db mice that express human CRP (CRPtg-db/db). Compared to the littermate db/db mice, CRPtg-db/db developed more severe T2DN, showing higher levels of fasting blood glucose and microalbuminuria and more progressive renal inflammation and fibrosis. Enhanced T2DN in CRPtg-db/db mice were associated with over-activation of CRP-CD32b, NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad3, and mTOR signaling. Further studies in vitro defined that CRP activated Smad3 directly at 15 mins via the CD32b- ERK/p38 MAP kinase crosstalk pathway and indirectly at 24 hours through a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism. Importantly, CRP also activated mTOR signaling at 30 mins via a Smad3-dependent mechanism as Smad3 bound mTOR physically and CRP-induced mTOR signaling was abolished by a neutralizing CD32b antibody and a specific Smad3 inhibitor. Finally, we also found that CRP induced renal fibrosis through a CD32b-Smad3-mTOR pathway because blocking mTOR signaling with rapamycin inhibited CRP-induced CTGF and collagen I expression. Thus, CRP is pathogenic in T2DN. CRP may promote CD32b- NF-κB signaling to mediate renal inflammation; whereas, CRP may enhance renal fibrosis in T2DN via CD32b-Smad3-mTOR signaling. PMID:27221338

  8. C-Reactive Protein Promotes Diabetic Kidney Disease in db/db Mice via the CD32b-Smad3-mTOR signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    You, Yong-Ke; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Chen, Hai-Yong; Lyu, Xia-Fei; Liu, Hua-Feng; Lan, Hui Y

    2016-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with progressive diabetic nephropathy in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DN). However, role of CRP in T2DN remains unclear. We report here that CRP is pathogenic in T2DN in db/db mice that express human CRP (CRPtg-db/db). Compared to the littermate db/db mice, CRPtg-db/db developed more severe T2DN, showing higher levels of fasting blood glucose and microalbuminuria and more progressive renal inflammation and fibrosis. Enhanced T2DN in CRPtg-db/db mice were associated with over-activation of CRP-CD32b, NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad3, and mTOR signaling. Further studies in vitro defined that CRP activated Smad3 directly at 15 mins via the CD32b- ERK/p38 MAP kinase crosstalk pathway and indirectly at 24 hours through a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism. Importantly, CRP also activated mTOR signaling at 30 mins via a Smad3-dependent mechanism as Smad3 bound mTOR physically and CRP-induced mTOR signaling was abolished by a neutralizing CD32b antibody and a specific Smad3 inhibitor. Finally, we also found that CRP induced renal fibrosis through a CD32b-Smad3-mTOR pathway because blocking mTOR signaling with rapamycin inhibited CRP-induced CTGF and collagen I expression. Thus, CRP is pathogenic in T2DN. CRP may promote CD32b- NF-κB signaling to mediate renal inflammation; whereas, CRP may enhance renal fibrosis in T2DN via CD32b-Smad3-mTOR signaling. PMID:27221338

  9. SUBTYPE-SPECIFIC REGENERATION OF RETINAL GANGLION CELLS FOLLOWING AXOTOMY: EFFECTS OF OSTEOPONTIN AND MTOR SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xin; Qiao, Mu; Bei, Fengfeng; Kim, In-Jung; He, Zhigang; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In mammals, few retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive following axotomy and even fewer regenerate axons. This could reflect differential extrinsic influences or the existence of subpopulations that vary in their responses to injury. We tested these alternatives by comparing responses of molecularly distinct subsets of mouse RGCs to axotomy. Survival rates varied dramatically among subtypes, with alpha-RGCs (αRGCs) surviving preferentially. Among survivors, αRGCs accounted for nearly all regeneration following down-regulation of PTEN, which activates the mTOR pathway. αRGCs have uniquely high mTOR signaling levels among RGCs and also selectively express osteopontin (OPN) and receptors for the growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Administration of OPN plus IGF-1 promotes regeneration as effectively as down-regulation of PTEN; however, regeneration is still confined to αRGCs. Our results reveal dramatic subtype-specific differences in the ability of RGCs to survive and regenerate following injury, and they identify promising agents for promoting axonal regeneration. PMID:25754821

  10. Interaction of mTOR and Erk1/2 signaling to regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dai, JinXiang; Bercury, Kathryn K; Macklin, Wendy B

    2014-12-01

    A multitude of factors regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this process, we analyzed the interactions of known signaling pathways involved in these processes. Previous work from our lab and others shows that Akt, mTOR, and Erk 1/2 are major signaling pathways regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vitro and in vivo. However, the relative contribution of the different pathways has been difficult to establish because the impact of inhibiting one pathway in in vitro cell culture models or in vivo may alter signaling through the other pathway. These studies were undertaken to clarify the interactions between these major pathways and understand more specifically the crosstalk between them. Oligodendrocyte differentiation in vitro required Akt, mTOR, and Erk 1/2 signaling, as inhibition of Akt, mTOR, or Erk 1/2 resulted in a significant decrease of myelin basic protein mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, while inhibition of the Erk1/2 pathway had little impact on Akt/mTOR signaling, inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathways significantly increased Erk1/2 signaling, although not enough to overcome the loss of Akt/mTOR signaling in the regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Furthermore, such crosstalk was also noted in an in vivo context, after mTOR inhibition by rapamycin treatment of perinatal pups. GLIA 2014;62:2096-2109. PMID:25060812

  11. TGF-β inhibits the activation and functions of NK cells by repressing the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Viel, Sébastien; Marçais, Antoine; Guimaraes, Fernando Souza-Fonseca; Loftus, Roisin; Rabilloud, Jessica; Grau, Morgan; Degouve, Sophie; Djebali, Sophia; Sanlaville, Amélien; Charrier, Emily; Bienvenu, Jacques; Marie, Julien C; Caux, Christophe; Marvel, Jacqueline; Town, Liam; Huntington, Nicholas D; Bartholin, Laurent; Finlay, David; Smyth, Mark J; Walzer, Thierry

    2016-02-16

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major immunosuppressive cytokine that maintains immune homeostasis and prevents autoimmunity through its antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties in various immune cell types. We provide genetic, pharmacologic, and biochemical evidence that a critical target of TGF-β signaling in mouse and human natural killer (NK) cells is the serine and threonine kinase mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). Treatment of mouse or human NK cells with TGF-β in vitro blocked interleukin-15 (IL-15)-induced activation of mTOR. TGF-β and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin both reduced the metabolic activity and proliferation of NK cells and reduced the abundances of various NK cell receptors and the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. In vivo, constitutive TGF-β signaling or depletion of mTOR arrested NK cell development, whereas deletion of the TGF-β receptor subunit TGF-βRII enhanced mTOR activity and the cytotoxic activity of the NK cells in response to IL-15. Suppression of TGF-β signaling in NK cells did not affect either NK cell development or homeostasis; however, it enhanced the ability of NK cells to limit metastases in two different tumor models in mice. Together, these results suggest that the kinase mTOR is a crucial signaling integrator of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in NK cells. Moreover, we propose that boosting the metabolic activity of antitumor lymphocytes could be an effective strategy to promote immune-mediated tumor suppression. PMID:26884601

  12. Comparative idiosyncrasies in life extension by reduced mTOR signalling and its distinctiveness from dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Garratt, Michael; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Simons, Mirre J P

    2016-08-01

    Reduced mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling extends lifespan in yeast, nematodes, fruit flies and mice, highlighting a physiological pathway that could modulate aging in evolutionarily divergent organisms. This signalling system is also hypothesized to play a central role in lifespan extension via dietary restriction. By collating data from 48 available published studies examining lifespan with reduced mTOR signalling, we show that reduced mTOR signalling provides similar increases in median lifespan across species, with genetic mTOR manipulations consistently providing greater life extension than pharmacological treatment with rapamycin. In contrast to the consistency in changes in median lifespan, however, the demographic causes for life extension are highly species specific. Reduced mTOR signalling extends lifespan in nematodes by strongly reducing the degree to which mortality rates increase with age (aging rate). By contrast, life extension in mice and yeast occurs largely by pushing back the onset of aging, but not altering the shape of the mortality curve once aging starts. Importantly, in mice, the altered pattern of mortality induced by reduced mTOR signalling is different to that induced by dietary restriction, which reduces the rate of aging. Effects of mTOR signalling were also sex dependent, but only within mice, and not within flies, thus again species specific. An alleviation of age-associated mortality is not a shared feature of reduced mTOR signalling across model organisms and does not replicate the established age-related survival benefits of dietary restriction. PMID:27139919

  13. Antiinflammatory Activity of a Novel Folic Acid Targeted Conjugate of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjuan; Parker, Nikki; Kleindl, Paul J; Cross, Vicky A; Wollak, Kristin; Westrick, Elaine; Stinnette, Torian W; Gehrke, Mark A; Wang, Kevin; Santhapuram, Hari Krishna R; You, Fei; Hahn, Spencer J; Vaughn, Jeremy F; Klein, Patrick J; Vlahov, Iontcho R; Low, Philip S; Leamon, Christopher P

    2015-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR)-β has been identified as a promising target for antimacrophage and antiinflammatory therapies. In the present study, we investigated EC0565, a folic acid-derivative of everolimus, as a FR-specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because of its amphiphilic nature, EC0565 was first evaluated for water solubility, critical micelle formation, stability in culture and FR-binding specificity. Using FR-expressing macrophages, the effect of EC0565 on mTOR signaling and cellular proliferation was studied. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioavailability of EC0565 were studied in normal rats. The in vivo activity of EC0565 was assessed in rats with adjuvant arthritis, a "macrophage-rich" model with close resemblance to rheumatoid arthritis. EC0565 forms micellar aggregates in physiological buffers and demonstrates good water solubility as well as strong multivalent FR-binding capacity. EC0565 inhibited mTOR signaling in rat macrophages at nanomolar concentrations and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in serum-starved RAW264.7 cells. Subcutaneously administered EC0565 in rats displayed good bioavailability and a relatively long half-life (~12 h). When given at 250 nmol/kg, EC0565 selectively inhibited proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in thioglycollate-stimulated rat peritoneal cells. With limited dosing regimens, the antiarthritic activity of EC0565 was found superior to that of etanercept, everolimus and a nontargeted everolimus analog. The in vivo activity of EC0565 was also comparable to that of a folate-targeted aminopterin. Folate-targeted mTOR inhibition may be an effective way of suppressing activated macrophages in sites of inflammation, especially in nutrient-deprived conditions, such as in the arthritic joints. Further investigation and improvement upon the physical and biochemical properties of EC0565 are warranted. PMID:26181632

  14. Taurine attenuates methamphetamine-induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC12 cells through mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hu, Zhengtao; Chen, Bo; Bu, Qian; Lu, Wenjie; Deng, Yi; Zhu, Ruiming; Shao, Xue; Hou, Jing; Zhao, Jinxuan; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Baolai; Huang, Yina; Lv, Lei; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2012-11-23

    Methamphetamine (METH), a commonly abused psychostimulant, has been shown to induce neuronal damage by causing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis and autophagy. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is involved in several physiological actions in the brain, including neuroprotection, osmoregulation and neurotransmission. In this study, we investigate the protective effect of taurine against METH-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that taurine significantly increased the cell viability inhibited by METH. LC3-II expression was elevated by METH treatment, whereas such increase was obviously attenuated by taurine. Co-treatment of taurine strongly reversed the decline of antioxidase activities induced by METH. Moreover, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) was significantly inhibited by METH, whereas complementation of taurine markedly increased the expression of p-mTOR in PC12 cells, rather than phosphorylated Erk. Interestingly, taurine-induced decreasing expression of LC3-II was partially blocked by pretreatment of RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor. These results indicated that taurine inhibits METH-induced autophagic process through activating mTOR rather than Erk signaling. Collectively, our study shows that taurine protects METH-induced PC12 cells damage by attenuating ROS production, apoptosis and autophagy, at least in part, via mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:23041169

  15. Differential effects of chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy on mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in adult (Y; 6 mo old; n = 16) and aged (O; 30 mo old; n = 16) male rats (Fischer 344 x Brown Norway) subjected to chronic overload-induced muscle hypertrophy of the plan...

  16. Crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway leading to neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Wen; Xu, Chong; Liu, Lei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2016-01-01

    Rotenone, a neurotoxic pesticide, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons related to Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that rotenone induces neuronal apoptosis partly by triggering hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent suppression of mTOR pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that rotenone elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) level, and activates CaMKII, resulting in inhibition of mTOR signaling and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Chelating [Ca2+]i with BAPTA/AM, preventing extracellular Ca2+ influx using EGTA, inhibiting CaMKII with KN93, or silencing CaMKII significantly attenuated rotenone-induced H2O2 production, mTOR inhibition, and cell death. Interestingly, using TTFA, antimycin A, catalase or Mito-TEMPO, we found that rotenone-induced mitochondrial H2O2 also in turn elevated [Ca2+]i level, thereby stimulating CaMKII, leading to inhibition of mTOR pathway and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Expression of wild type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or silencing 4E-BP1 strengthened the inhibitory effects of catalase, Mito-TEMPO, BAPTA/AM or EGTA on rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, CaMKII phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis. Together, the results indicate that the crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways. Our findings suggest that how to control over-elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and overproduction of mitochondrial H2O2 may be a new approach to deal with the neurotoxicity of rotenone. PMID:26859572

  17. Crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway leading to neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunxiao; Ye, Yangjing; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Hai; Liu, Wen; Xu, Chong; Liu, Lei; Huang, Shile; Chen, Long

    2016-02-16

    Rotenone, a neurotoxic pesticide, induces loss of dopaminergic neurons related to Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that rotenone induces neuronal apoptosis partly by triggering hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent suppression of mTOR pathway. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we show that rotenone elevates intracellular free calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) level, and activates CaMKII, resulting in inhibition of mTOR signaling and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Chelating [Ca2+]i with BAPTA/AM, preventing extracellular Ca2+ influx using EGTA, inhibiting CaMKII with KN93, or silencing CaMKII significantly attenuated rotenone-induced H2O2 production, mTOR inhibition, and cell death. Interestingly, using TTFA, antimycin A, catalase or Mito-TEMPO, we found that rotenone-induced mitochondrial H2O2 also in turn elevated [Ca2+]i level, thereby stimulating CaMKII, leading to inhibition of mTOR pathway and induction of neuronal apoptosis. Expression of wild type mTOR or constitutively active S6K1, or silencing 4E-BP1 strengthened the inhibitory effects of catalase, Mito-TEMPO, BAPTA/AM or EGTA on rotenone-induced [Ca2+]i elevation, CaMKII phosphorylation and neuronal apoptosis. Together, the results indicate that the crosstalk between Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial H2O2 is required for rotenone inhibition of mTOR-mediated S6K1 and 4E-BP1 pathways. Our findings suggest that how to control over-elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and overproduction of mitochondrial H2O2 may be a new approach to deal with the neurotoxicity of rotenone. PMID:26859572

  18. Bee Pollen Improves Muscle Protein and Energy Metabolism in Malnourished Old Rats through Interfering with the Mtor Signaling Pathway and Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Jérôme; Cardinault, Nicolas; Patrac, Véronique; Berry, Alexandre; Giraudet, Christophe; Collin, Marie-Laure; Chanet, Audrey; Tagliaferri, Camille; Denis, Philippe; Pouyet, Corinne; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Although the management of malnutrition is a priority in older people, this population shows a resistance to refeeding. Fresh bee pollen contains nutritional substances of interest for malnourished people. The aim was to evaluate the effect of fresh bee pollen supplementation on refeeding efficiency in old malnourished rats. Male 22-month-old Wistar rats were undernourished by reducing food intake for 12 weeks. The animals were then renourished for three weeks with the same diet supplemented with 0%, 5% or 10% of fresh monofloral bee pollen. Due to changes in both lean mass and fat mass, body weight decreased during malnutrition and increased after refeeding with no between-group differences (p < 0.0001). Rats refed with the fresh bee pollen-enriched diets showed a significant increase in muscle mass compared to restricted rats (p < 0.05). The malnutrition period reduced the muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR/p70S6kinase/4eBP1 activation, and only the 10%-pollen diet was able to restore these parameters. Mitochondrial activity was depressed with food restriction and was only improved by refeeding with the fresh bee pollen-containing diets. In conclusion, refeeding diets that contain fresh monofloral bee pollen improve muscle mass and metabolism in old, undernourished rats. PMID:25470375

  19. Bee pollen improves muscle protein and energy metabolism in malnourished old rats through interfering with the Mtor signaling pathway and mitochondrial activity.

    PubMed

    Salles, Jérôme; Cardinault, Nicolas; Patrac, Véronique; Berry, Alexandre; Giraudet, Christophe; Collin, Marie-Laure; Chanet, Audrey; Tagliaferri, Camille; Denis, Philippe; Pouyet, Corinne; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Although the management of malnutrition is a priority in older people, this population shows a resistance to refeeding. Fresh bee pollen contains nutritional substances of interest for malnourished people. The aim was to evaluate the effect of fresh bee pollen supplementation on refeeding efficiency in old malnourished rats. Male 22-month-old Wistar rats were undernourished by reducing food intake for 12 weeks. The animals were then renourished for three weeks with the same diet supplemented with 0%, 5% or 10% of fresh monofloral bee pollen. Due to changes in both lean mass and fat mass, body weight decreased during malnutrition and increased after refeeding with no between-group differences (p < 0.0001). Rats refed with the fresh bee pollen-enriched diets showed a significant increase in muscle mass compared to restricted rats (p < 0.05). The malnutrition period reduced the muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR/p70S6kinase/4eBP1 activation, and only the 10%-pollen diet was able to restore these parameters. Mitochondrial activity was depressed with food restriction and was only improved by refeeding with the fresh bee pollen-containing diets. In conclusion, refeeding diets that contain fresh monofloral bee pollen improve muscle mass and metabolism in old, undernourished rats. PMID:25470375

  20. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling genes in decapod crustaceans: cloning and tissue expression of mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and p70 S6 kinase in the green crab, Carcinus maenas, and blackback land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis.

    PubMed

    Abuhagr, Ali M; Maclea, Kyle S; Chang, Ernest S; Mykles, Donald L

    2014-02-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls global translation of mRNA into protein by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase (S6K) and eIF4E-binding protein-1. Akt and Rheb, a GTP-binding protein, regulate mTOR protein kinase activity. Molting in crustaceans is regulated by ecdysteroids synthesized by a pair of molting glands, or Y-organs (YOs), located in the cephalothorax. During premolt, the YOs hypertrophy and increase production of ecdysteroids. Rapamycin (1μM) inhibited ecdysteroid secretion in Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis YOs in vitro, indicating that ecdysteroidogenesis requires mTOR-dependent protein synthesis. The effects of molting on the expression of four key mTOR signaling genes (mTOR, Akt, Rheb, and S6K) in the YO was investigated. Partial cDNAs encoding green crab (C. maenas) mTOR (4031bp), Akt (855bp), and S6K (918bp) were obtained from expressed sequence tags. Identity/similarity of the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. maenas cDNAs to human orthologs were 72%/81% for Cm-mTOR, 58%/73% for Cm-Akt, and 77%/88% for Cm-S6K. mTOR, Akt, S6K, and elongation factor 2 (EF2) in C. maenas and blackback land crab (G. lateralis) were expressed in all tissues examined. The two species differed in the effects of molting on gene expression in the YO. In G. lateralis, Gl-mTOR, Gl-Akt, and Gl-EF2 mRNA levels were increased during premolt. By contrast, molting had no effect on the expression of Cm-mTOR, Cm-Akt, Cm-S6K, Cm-Rheb, and Cm-EF2. These data suggest that YO activation during premolt involves up regulation of mTOR signaling genes in G. lateralis, but is not required in C. maenas. PMID:24269559

  1. A liaison between mTOR signaling, ribosome biogenesis and cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Gentilella, Antonio; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    The ability to translate genetic information into functional proteins is considered a landmark in evolution. Ribosomes have evolved to take on this responsibility and, although there are some differences in their molecular make-up, both prokaryotes and eukaryotes share a common structural architecture and similar underlying mechanisms of protein synthesis. Understanding ribosome function and biogenesis has been the focus of extensive research since the early days of their discovery. In the last decade however, new and unexpected roles have emerged that place deregulated ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis at the crossroads of pathological settings, particularly cancer, revealing a set of novel cellular checkpoints. Moreover, it is also becoming evident that mTOR signaling, which regulates an array of anabolic processes, including ribosome biogenesis, is often exploited by cancer cells to sustain proliferation through the upregulation of global protein synthesis. The use of pharmacological agents that interfere with ribosome biogenesis and mTOR signaling has proven to be an effective strategy to control cancer development clinically. Here we discuss the most recent findings concerning the underlying mechanisms by which mTOR signaling controls ribosome production and the potential impact of ribosome bio-genesis in tumor development. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. PMID:25735853

  2. The Mitochondrial Uncoupler DNP Triggers Brain Cell mTOR Signaling Network Reprogramming and CREB Pathway Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R.; Cutler, Roy G.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mTOR and insulin – PI3K – MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and BDNF, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26010875

  3. mTOR Directs Breast Morphogenesis through the PKC-alpha-Rac1 Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Meghan M.; Young, Christian D.; Wang, Shan; Sobolik, Tammy; Sanchez, Violeta M.; Hicks, Donna J.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Akt phosphorylation is a major driver of cell survival, motility, and proliferation in development and disease, causing increased interest in upstream regulators of Akt like mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). We used genetic disruption of Rictor to impair mTORC2 activity in mouse mammary epithelia, which decreased Akt phosphorylation, ductal length, secondary branching, cell motility, and cell survival. These effects were recapitulated with a pharmacological dual inhibitor of mTORC1/mTORC2, but not upon genetic disruption of mTORC1 function via Raptor deletion. Surprisingly, Akt re-activation was not sufficient to rescue cell survival or invasion, and modestly increased branching of mTORC2-impaired mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in culture and in vivo. However, another mTORC2 substrate, protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, fully rescued mTORC2-impaired MEC branching, invasion, and survival, as well as branching morphogenesis in vivo. PKC-alpha-mediated signaling through the small GTPase Rac1 was necessary for mTORC2-dependent mammary epithelial development during puberty, revealing a novel role for Rictor/mTORC2 in MEC survival and motility during branching morphogenesis through a PKC-alpha/Rac1-dependent mechanism. PMID:26132202

  4. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) regulates tubular autophagy and mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy through the mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chunling; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Tan, Christina Y R; Gill, Anthony; Cheng, Delfine; Braet, Filip; Park, Jin-Sung; Sue, Carolyn M; Pollock, Carol A; Chen, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia upregulates thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) expression, which in turn induces ROS production, inflammatory and fibrotic responses in the diabetic kidney. Dysregulation of autophagy contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, the interaction of TXNIP with autophagy/mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy is unknown. In this study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were given TXNIP DNAzyme or scrambled DNAzyme for 12 weeks respectively. Fibrotic markers, mitochondrial function and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) were assessed in kidneys. Tubular autophagy and mitophagy were determined in kidneys from both human and rats with diabetic nephropathy. TXNIP and autophagic signaling molecules were examined. TXNIP DNAzyme dramatically attenuated extracellular matrix deposition in the diabetic kidneys compared to the control DNAzyme. Accumulation of autophagosomes and reduced autophagic clearance were shown in tubular cells of human diabetic compared to non-diabetic kidneys, which was reversed by TXNIP DNAzyme. High glucose induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mtROS production, and inhibited mitophagy in proximal tubular cells, which was reversed by TXNIP siRNA. TXNIP inhibition suppressed diabetes-induced BNIP3 expression and activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Collectively, hyperglycemia-induced TXNIP contributes to the dysregulation of tubular autophagy and mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy through activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27381856

  5. Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) regulates tubular autophagy and mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy through the mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunling; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J.; Tan, Christina Y. R.; Gill, Anthony; Cheng, Delfine; Braet, Filip; Park, Jin-Sung; Sue, Carolyn M.; Pollock, Carol A.; Chen, Xin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia upregulates thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) expression, which in turn induces ROS production, inflammatory and fibrotic responses in the diabetic kidney. Dysregulation of autophagy contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy. However, the interaction of TXNIP with autophagy/mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy is unknown. In this study, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were given TXNIP DNAzyme or scrambled DNAzyme for 12 weeks respectively. Fibrotic markers, mitochondrial function and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) were assessed in kidneys. Tubular autophagy and mitophagy were determined in kidneys from both human and rats with diabetic nephropathy. TXNIP and autophagic signaling molecules were examined. TXNIP DNAzyme dramatically attenuated extracellular matrix deposition in the diabetic kidneys compared to the control DNAzyme. Accumulation of autophagosomes and reduced autophagic clearance were shown in tubular cells of human diabetic compared to non-diabetic kidneys, which was reversed by TXNIP DNAzyme. High glucose induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mtROS production, and inhibited mitophagy in proximal tubular cells, which was reversed by TXNIP siRNA. TXNIP inhibition suppressed diabetes-induced BNIP3 expression and activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Collectively, hyperglycemia-induced TXNIP contributes to the dysregulation of tubular autophagy and mitophagy in diabetic nephropathy through activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27381856

  6. Angiotensin II blockade: how its molecular targets may signal to mitochondria and slow aging. Coincidences with calorie restriction and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    de Cavanagh, Elena M V; Inserra, Felipe; Ferder, León

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), renin angiotensin system blockade (RAS-bl), and rapamycin-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition increase survival and retard aging across species. Previously, we have summarized CR and RAS-bl's converging effects, and the mitochondrial function changes associated with their physiological benefits. mTOR inhibition and enhanced sirtuin and KLOTHO signaling contribute to the benefits of CR in aging. mTORC1/mTORC2 complexes contribute to cell growth and metabolic regulation. Prolonged mTORC1 activation may lead to age-related disease progression; thus, rapamycin-mediated mTOR inhibition and CR may extend lifespan and retard aging through mTORC1 interference. Sirtuins by deacetylating histone and transcription-related proteins modulate signaling and survival pathways and mitochondrial functioning. CR regulates several mammalian sirtuins favoring their role in aging regulation. KLOTHO/fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to control Ca(2+), phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism, and their dysregulation may participate in age-related disease. Here we review how mTOR inhibition extends lifespan, how KLOTHO functions as an aging suppressor, how sirtuins mediate longevity, how vitamin D loss may contribute to age-related disease, and how they relate to mitochondrial function. Also, we discuss how RAS-bl downregulates mTOR and upregulates KLOTHO, sirtuin, and vitamin D receptor expression, suggesting that at least some of RAS-bl benefits in aging are mediated through the modulation of mTOR, KLOTHO, and sirtuin expression and vitamin D signaling, paralleling CR actions in age retardation. Concluding, the available evidence endorses the idea that RAS-bl is among the interventions that may turn out to provide relief to the spreading issue of age-associated chronic disease. PMID:25934099

  7. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases ceramide synthesis by promoting transforming growth factor-β1/Smad signaling in the skin.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takumi; Muramatsu, Aimi; Yoshino, Sawako; Matsui, Sho; Shimura, Mari; Tsujii, Yoshimasa; Iwatsuki, Ken; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    Although mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates a wide variety of biological functions, little information is available on the effect of mTOR on the functions of skin cells. In this study, we investigated effects of mTOR inhibition by rapamycin on ceramide synthesis in the skin of rats and human keratinocytes and its regulatory mechanisms. The phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, which indicates mTOR activation, was induced in the skin of rats fed a high-fat diet, but this abnormality was reversed by supplementation with rapamycin. Ceramide levels and the mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were suppressed in the skin of rats fed high-fat diets, but this abnormality was reversed by supplementation with rapamycin. TGF-β1-induced SPT mRNA expression was blocked by SB525334, an inhibitor of TGF-β1-induced Smad2/3 nuclear localization, in human keratinocytes. Rapamycin-induced SPT mRNA expression was blocked by an anti-TGF-β1 antibody or SB525334 in human keratinocytes. These results show that mTOR inhibition by rapamycin increases ceramide synthesis by promoting TGF-β1/Smad signaling in the skin. PMID:27239444

  8. Rapamycin Reduced Ischemic Brain Damage in Diabetic Animals Is Associated with Suppressions of mTOR and ERK1/2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Xiao; Hei, Changchun; Meli, Yvonne; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Li, P Andy

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to investigate the activation of mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling after cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats and to examine the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin. Ten minutes transient global cerebral ischemia was induced in straptozotocin-induced diabetic hyperglycemic rats and non-diabetic, euglycemic rats. Brain samples were harvested after 16 h of reperfusion. Rapamycin or vehicle was injected 1 month prior to the induction of ischemia. The results showed that diabetes increased ischemic neuronal cell death and associated with elevations of p-P70S6K and Ras/ERK1/2 and suppression of p-AMPKα. Rapamycin ameliorated diabetes-enhanced ischemic brain damage and suppressed phosphorylation of P70S6K and ERK1/2. It is concluded that diabetes activates mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in rats subjected to transient cerebral ischemia and inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin reduces ischemic brain damage and suppresses the mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in diabetic settings. PMID:27489506

  9. Rapamycin Reduced Ischemic Brain Damage in Diabetic Animals Is Associated with Suppressions of mTOR and ERK1/2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Yang, Xiao; Hei, Changchun; Meli, Yvonne; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Li, P. Andy

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study are to investigate the activation of mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling after cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats and to examine the neuroprotective effects of rapamycin. Ten minutes transient global cerebral ischemia was induced in straptozotocin-induced diabetic hyperglycemic rats and non-diabetic, euglycemic rats. Brain samples were harvested after 16 h of reperfusion. Rapamycin or vehicle was injected 1 month prior to the induction of ischemia. The results showed that diabetes increased ischemic neuronal cell death and associated with elevations of p-P70S6K and Ras/ERK1/2 and suppression of p-AMPKα. Rapamycin ameliorated diabetes-enhanced ischemic brain damage and suppressed phosphorylation of P70S6K and ERK1/2. It is concluded that diabetes activates mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in rats subjected to transient cerebral ischemia and inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin reduces ischemic brain damage and suppresses the mTOR and ERK1/2 signaling in diabetic settings. PMID:27489506

  10. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haohan; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Rongping; Li, Liang; Wangding, Mincheng; Wang, Jiwen

    2016-03-01

    As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27007909

  11. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haohan; Li, Xinxin; Liu, Hehe; Sun, Lingli; Zhang, Rongping; Li, Liang; Wangding, Mincheng; Wang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27007909

  12. Repeated stimulation of dopamine D1-like receptor and hyperactivation of mTOR signaling lead to generalized seizures, altered dentate gyrus plasticity, and memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Ceolin, Laura; Paucard, Alexia; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Perroy, Julie; Fagni, Laurent; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-12-01

    The acute activation of the dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R) is involved in a plethora of functions ranging from increased locomotor activity to the facilitation of consolidation, storage, and retrieval of memories. Although much less characterized, epileptiform activities, usually triggered by disruption of the glutamate and GABA balance, have also been reported to involve the dopaminergic transmission. Using a combination of biochemical, immunohistochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches we have investigated the consequences of repeated stimulation of D1R using the selective D1R-like agonist SKF81297. Here, we report that repeated systemic administration of SKF81297 induces kindled seizures in mice. These seizure episodes parallel the hyperactivation of the mTOR signaling in the hippocampus, leading to disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and altered recognition memories. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin delays the development of SKF81297-induced kindled seizures, and rescues LTP in the DG and object recognition. Our results show that repeated stimulation of D1R is sufficient to induce generalized seizures leading to the overactivation of mTOR signaling, disrupted hippocampal plasticity, and impaired long-term recognition memories. This work highlights the interest of mTOR inhibitors as therapeutic strategies to reverse plasticity and cognitive deficits. PMID:25044816

  13. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  14. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  15. Deregulation of mTOR signaling is involved in thymic lymphoma development in Atm-/- mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Xianghong; Shen, Jianjun; Wong, Paul K.Y.; Yan, Mingshan

    2009-06-05

    Abnormal thymocyte development with thymic lymphomagenesis inevitably occurs in Atm-/- mice, indicating that ATM plays a pivotal role in regulating postnatal thymocyte development and preventing thymic lymphomagenesis. The mechanism for ATM controls these processes is unclear. We have shown previously that c-Myc, an oncoprotein regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is overexpressed in Atm-/- thymocytes. Here, we show that inhibition of mTOR signaling with its specific inhibitor, rapamycin, suppresses normal thymocyte DNA synthesis by downregulating 4EBP1, but not S6K, and that 4EBP1 phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression are coordinately increased in Atm-/- thymocytes. Administration of rapamycin to Atm-/- mice attenuates elevated phospho-4EBP1, c-Myc and cyclin D1 in their thymocytes, and delays thymic lymphoma development. These results indicate that mTOR downstream effector 4EBP1 is essential for normal thymocyte proliferation, but deregulation of 4EBP1 in Atm deficiency is a major factor driving thymic lymphomagenesis in the animals.

  16. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Volta, Viviana; Cho, Chi Hin; Wu, Ya Chun; Li, Hai Tao; Yu, Le; Li, Zhi Jie; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2009-09-04

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85 S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of {sup 35}S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.

  17. Inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder cancer cells via modulation of mTOR signalling.

    PubMed

    Iskender, Banu; Izgi, Kenan; Hizar, Esra; Jauch, Johann; Arslanhan, Aslihan; Yuksek, Esra Hilal; Canatan, Halit

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that signalling cross-talk plays a significant role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. However, the complex network regulating the EMT in different cancer types has not been fully described yet which affects the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated the signalling pathways involved in EMT of bladder cancer cells and demonstrated the effects of two novel agents in the regulation of EMT. Myrtucommulone-A (MC-A) and thymoquinone (TQ) have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. However, their targets in the regulation of cancer cell behavior are not well defined. Here, we defined the effects of two putative anti-cancer agents on bladder cancer cell migration and their possible intracellular targets in the regulation of EMT. Our results suggest that MC-A or TQ treatment affected N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and β-catenin expressions and effectively attenuated mTOR activity. The downstream components in mTOR signalling were also affected. MC-A treatment resulted in the concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Src activity. On the other hand, TQ treatment increased Src activity while exerting no effect on ERK 1/2 or p38 MAPK activity. Given the stronger inhibition of EMT-related markers in MC-A-treated samples, we concluded that this effect might be due to collective inhibition of multiple signalling pathways which result in a decrease in their cross-talk in bladder cancer cells. Overall, the data in this study proposes novel action mechanisms for MC-A or TQ in bladder cancer cells and highlights the potential use of these active compounds in the regulation of EMT. PMID:26718217

  18. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia; Wienecke, Jacob; Klein, Anders B

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial effect of exercise on hippocampal plasticity is possibly mediated by increased angiogenesis and neurogenesis. In angiogenesis, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (HIF1α) are important factors, while the induction of neurogenesis requires signaling through the VEGF receptor, Flk-1 (VEGFR-2). VEGF expression is believed to be regulated by two distinct mTOR (mammalian target of Rapamycin)-containing multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. This study was initiated to investigate the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1α, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks. Rats were euthanized either immediately (0 h) or 24 h after last exercise session. Here, we show that exercise affected mRNA levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, and the coreceptor neuropilin 2 (NRP2) when the rats were euthanized immediately, whereas at 24 h only the expression of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:23536493

  19. mTOR Signaling Regulates Nucleolar Targeting of the SUMO-Specific Isopeptidase SENP3

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Nithya; Nayak, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is a multistep cellular pathway that involves more than 200 regulatory components to ultimately generate translation-competent 80S ribosomes. The initial steps of this process, particularly rRNA processing, take place in the nucleolus, while later stages occur in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. One critical factor of 28S rRNA maturation is the SUMO-isopeptidase SENP3. SENP3 tightly interacts with the nucleolar scaffold protein NPM1 and is associated with nucleolar 60S preribosomes. A central question is how changes in energy supply feed into the regulation of ribosome maturation. Here, we show that the nutrient-sensing mTOR kinase pathway controls the nucleolar targeting of SENP3 by regulating its interaction with NPM1. We define an N-terminal domain in SENP3 as the critical NPM1 binding region and provide evidence that mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues within this region fosters the interaction of SENP3 with NPM1. The inhibition of mTOR triggers the nucleolar release of SENP3, thereby likely compromising its activity in rRNA processing. Since mTOR activity is tightly coupled to nutrient availability, we propose that this pathway contributes to the adaptation of ribosome maturation in response to the cellular energy status. PMID:25288641

  20. Akt-dependent and independent mechanisms of mTOR regulation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Memmott, Regan M.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2009-01-01

    The protein kinase mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) is a critical regulator of cellular metabolism, growth, and proliferation. These processes contribute to tumor formation, and many cancers are characterized by aberrant activation of mTOR. Although activating mutations in mTOR itself have not been identified, deregulation of upstream components that regulate mTOR are prevalent in cancer. The prototypic mechanism of mTOR regulation in cells is through activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, but mTOR receives input from multiple signaling pathways. This review will discuss Akt-dependent and independent mechanisms of mTOR regulation in response to mitogenic signals, as well as its regulation in response to energy and nutrient-sensing pathways. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that tumors bearing genetic alterations that activate mTOR are sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition of mTOR. Elucidation of novel pathways that regulate mTOR may help identify predictive factors for sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors and could provide new therapeutic targets for inhibiting the mTOR pathway in cancer. This review will also highlight pharmacologic approaches that inhibit mTOR via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important inhibitor of the mTOR pathway and an emerging target in cancer. PMID:19166931

  1. Probucol inhibits neural cell apoptosis via inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zipeng; Chen, Shurui; Zhao, Haosen; Wang, Chen; Gao, Kai; Guo, Yue; Shen, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yansong; Wang, Hongyu; Mei, Xifan

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy plays an essential role in neurodevelopment, axonal guidance, neuropathic pain remission, and neuronal survival. Inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway can induce the occurrence of autophagy. In this study, we initially detected the effect of probucol on autophagy after spinal cord injury (SCI) by intraperitoneally injecting spinal cord-injured rats with probucol for 7days. The levels of Beclin1 and LC3B were evidently enhanced at 7days post-operation. However, the increase in the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein and the decrease in ribosomal protein S6 kinase p70 subtype (p70S6K) phosphorylation level simultaneously occurred after SCI. Moreover, the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and Bax were significantly reduced. Immunofluorescence results indicated that the expression of Caspase-3 protein was evidently decreased and that of Beclin-1 protein was increased by probucol. Nissl staining and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores showed that the quantity and function of motor neurons were visibly preserved by probucol after SCI. This study showed that probucol inhibited the mTOR signaling pathway to induce autophagy, reduce neural cell apoptosis and promote recovery of neurological function after SCI. PMID:27223630

  2. Novel mTOR inhibitory activity of ciclopirox enhances parthenolide antileukemia activity

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Siddhartha; Hassane, Duane C.; Corbett, Cheryl; Becker, Michael W.; Jordan, Craig T.; Guzman, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    Ciclopirox, an antifungal agent commonly used for the dermatologic treatment of mycoses, has been shown recently to have antitumor properties. Although the exact mechanism of ciclopirox is unclear, its antitumor activity has been attributed to iron chelation and inhibition of the translation initiation factor eIF5A. In this study, we identify a novel function of ciclopirox in the inhibition of mTOR. As with other mTOR inhibitors, we show that ciclopirox significantly enhances the ability of the established preclinical antileukemia compound, parthenolide, to target acute myeloid leukemia. The combination of parthenolide and ciclopirox demonstrates greater toxicity against acute myeloid leukemia than treatment with either compound alone. We also demonstrate that the ability of ciclopirox to inhibit mTOR is specific to ciclopirox because neither iron chelators nor other eIF5A inhibitors affect mTOR activity, even at high doses. We have thus identified a novel function of ciclopirox that might be important for its antileukemic activity. PMID:23660068

  3. Talks about TORCs: recent advancesin target of rapamycin signalling. On mTOR nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michael N

    2013-08-01

    In the present article, I discuss recent developments in the naming of the TOR (target of rapamycin) protein. In particular, I address the issue of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) versus the newer mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR). mTOR is the name given by the TOR community almost two decades ago and widely used ever since. MTOR is a name recently imposed on the TOR community by database curators and used mainly by newcomers. I argue that MTOR is causing needless confusion in the field, and conclude that one should use the name mTOR. PMID:23863150

  4. Anti-Breast Cancer Potential of Quercetin via the Akt/AMPK/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rivera Rivera, Amilcar; Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Gerena, Yamil; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2016-01-01

    The Akt/adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling nexus for regulating cellular metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell growth. Thus, dysregulation of this pathway contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2diabetes, and cancer. We previously reported that a combination of grape polyphenols (resveratrol, quercetin and catechin: RQC), at equimolar concentrations, reduces breast cancer (BC) growth and metastasis in nude mice, and inhibits Akt and mTOR activities and activates AMPK, an endogenous inhibitor of mTOR, in metastatic BC cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the contribution of individual polyphenols to the effect of combined RQC on mTOR signaling. Metastatic BC cells were treated with RQC individually or in combination, at various concentrations, and the activities (phosphorylation) of AMPK, Akt, and the mTOR downstream effectors, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and 4E binding protein (4EBP1), were determined by Western blot. Results show that quercetin was the most effective compound for Akt/mTOR inhibition. Treatment with quercetin at 15μM had a similar effect as the RQC combination in the inhibition of BC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. However, cell cycle analysis showed that the RQC treatment arrested BC cells in the G1 phase, while quercetin arrested the cell cycle in G2/M. In vivo experiments, using SCID mice with implanted tumors from metastatic BC cells, demonstrated that administration of quercetin at 15mg/kg body weight resulted in a ~70% reduction in tumor growth. In conclusion, quercetin appears to be a viable grape polyphenol for future development as an anti BC therapeutic. PMID:27285995

  5. Anti-Breast Cancer Potential of Quercetin via the Akt/AMPK/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling Cascade.

    PubMed

    Rivera Rivera, Amilcar; Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Gerena, Yamil; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2016-01-01

    The Akt/adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling nexus for regulating cellular metabolism, energy homeostasis, and cell growth. Thus, dysregulation of this pathway contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2diabetes, and cancer. We previously reported that a combination of grape polyphenols (resveratrol, quercetin and catechin: RQC), at equimolar concentrations, reduces breast cancer (BC) growth and metastasis in nude mice, and inhibits Akt and mTOR activities and activates AMPK, an endogenous inhibitor of mTOR, in metastatic BC cells. The objective of the present study was to determine the contribution of individual polyphenols to the effect of combined RQC on mTOR signaling. Metastatic BC cells were treated with RQC individually or in combination, at various concentrations, and the activities (phosphorylation) of AMPK, Akt, and the mTOR downstream effectors, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) and 4E binding protein (4EBP1), were determined by Western blot. Results show that quercetin was the most effective compound for Akt/mTOR inhibition. Treatment with quercetin at 15μM had a similar effect as the RQC combination in the inhibition of BC cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. However, cell cycle analysis showed that the RQC treatment arrested BC cells in the G1 phase, while quercetin arrested the cell cycle in G2/M. In vivo experiments, using SCID mice with implanted tumors from metastatic BC cells, demonstrated that administration of quercetin at 15mg/kg body weight resulted in a ~70% reduction in tumor growth. In conclusion, quercetin appears to be a viable grape polyphenol for future development as an anti BC therapeutic. PMID:27285995

  6. Age related increase in mTOR activity contributes to the pathological changes in ovarian surface epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Preety; Nagendra, Prathima B.; Nielsen, Sarah; Sahoo, Subhransu S.; Bielanowicz, Amanda; Lombard, Janine M.; Wilkinson, Erby J.; Miller, Richard A.; Tanwar, Pradeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease of older women. However, the molecular mechanisms of ovarian aging and their contribution to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer are currently unclear. mTOR signalling is a major regulator of aging as suppression of this pathway extends lifespan in model organisms. Overactive mTOR signalling is present in up to 80% of ovarian cancer samples and is associated with poor prognosis. This study examined the role of mTOR signalling in age-associated changes in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Histological examination of ovaries from both aged mice and women revealed OSE cell hyperplasia, papillary growth and inclusion cysts. These pathological lesions expressed bonafide markers of ovarian cancer precursor lesions, Pax8 and Stathmin 1, and were presented with elevated mTOR signalling. To understand whether overactive mTOR signalling is responsible for the development of these pathological changes, we analysed ovaries of the Pten trangenic mice and found significant reduction in OSE lesions compared to controls. Furthermore, pharmacological suppression of mTOR signalling significantly decreased OSE hyperplasia in aged mice. Treatment with mTOR inhibitors reduced human ovarian cancer cell viability, proliferation and colony forming ability. Collectively, we have established the role of mTOR signalling in age-related OSE pathologies and initiation of ovarian cancer. PMID:27036037

  7. Aspirin inhibits cell viability and mTOR downstream signaling in gastroenteropancreatic and bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Spampatti, Matilde; Vlotides, George; Spöttl, Gerald; Maurer, Julian; Göke, Burkhard; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of aspirin on neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cell growth and signaling in vitro. METHODS: Human pancreatic BON1, bronchopulmonary NCI-H727 and midgut GOT1 neuroendocrine tumor cells were treated with different concentrations of aspirin (from 0.001 to 5 mmol/L), and the resulting effects on metabolic activity/cell proliferation were measured using cell proliferation assays and SYBR-DNA-labeling after 72, 144 and 216 h of incubation. The effects of aspirin on the expression and phosphorylation of several critical proteins that are involved in the most common intracellular growth factor signaling pathways (especially Akt protein kinase B) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined by Western blot analyses. Propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry were used to evaluate changes in cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using a 2-tailed Student’s t-test to evaluate the proliferation assays and cell cycle analyses. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD of 3 or 4 independently performed experiments. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Treatment with aspirin suppressed the viability/proliferation of BON1, NCI-H727 and GOT1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Significant effects were observed at starting doses of 0.5-1 mmol/L and peaked at 5 mmol/L. For instance, after treatment with 1 mmol/L aspirin for 144 h, the viability of pancreatic BON1 cells decreased to 66% ± 13% (P < 0.05), the viability of bronchopulmonary NCI-H727 cells decreased to 53% ± 8% (P < 0.01) and the viability of midgut GOT1 cells decreased to 89% ± 6% (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with a decreased entry into the S phase, the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and reduced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D3. Aspirin suppressed mTOR downstream signaling, evidenced by the reduced phosphorylation of the mTOR substrates 4E binding protein 1

  8. Evodiamine inhibits insulin-stimulated mTOR-S6K activation and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes and improves glucose tolerance in obese/diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes. PMID:24391749

  9. New strategy for in vitro activation of primordial follicles with mTOR and PI3K stimulators

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinhui; Su, Yiping; He, Yuanlin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wenwen; Zhang, Huilin; Hou, Zheng; Liu, Jiayin; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    It had been known for decades that primordial follicles in mammalian ovaries are assembled with definite numbers and represent the ovarian reserve throughout the reproductive life. Intra-oocyte PI3K/mTOR pathways have been indicated to play a central role on the activation of primordial follicles. Genetic modified mouse models with chronic activation of PI3K/mTOR signals in primordial oocytes showed premature activation of all primordial follicles and eventually their exhaustion. On the other hand, this may suggest that, unlike chronic activation of PI3K/mTOR, its acute activation in infertility would activate primordial follicles, permitting fertility during the treatment. Previously, PI3K stimulators were reported as a temporary measure to accelerate primordial follicle activation and follicular development in both mouse and human, and were applied in the treatment of infertility in premature ovarian failure (POF) patients. To address whether mTOR stimulators could play similar role in the process, we transiently treated neonatal and aged mouse ovaries with mTOR stimulators-phosphatidic acid (PA) and propranolol. Our results demonstrated the stimulators increased activation of primordial follicles and the production of progeny. Human ovarian cortex cubes were also treated with mTOR or/and PI3K stimulators in vitro. When they were used separately, both of them showed similar promotive effects on primordial follicles. Surprisingly, after joint-treatment with the 2 kinds of stimulators together, synergistic effects on follicular development were observed. Based on increased efficiency of follicular activation in humans, here we propose in vitro transient treatment with mTOR and PI3K stimulators as an optimized protocol for the application in different clinical conditions with limited follicle reserve. PMID:25590233

  10. Effects of chronic overload on muscle hypertrophy and mTOR signaling in adult and aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of 28 days of overload on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in young adult (Y; 6 mo old) and aged (O; 30 mo old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats subjected to bilateral synergist ablation (SA) of two-thirds of the gas...

  11. Synergistic roles of p53 and HIF1α in human renal cell carcinoma-cell apoptosis responding to the inhibition of mTOR and MDM2 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing-jun; Shen, Hong-liang; Lin, Jun; Xu, Xiu-hong; Ji, Zheng-guo; Han, Xiao; Shang, Dong-hao; Yang, Pei-qian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction mTOR and MDM2 signaling pathways are frequently deregulated in cancer development, and inhibition of mTOR or MDM2 independently enhances carcinoma-cell apoptosis. However, responses to mTOR and MDM2 antagonists in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain unknown. Materials and methods A498 cells treated with MDM2 antagonist MI-319 and/or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin were employed in the present study. Cell apoptosis and Western blot analysis were performed. Results and conclusion We found that the MDM2 inhibitor MI-319 induced RCC cell apoptosis mainly dependent on p53 overexpression, while the mTOR antagonist rapamycin promoted RCC cell apoptosis primarily through upregulation of HIF1α expression. Importantly, strong synergistic effects of MI-319 and rapamycin combinations at relatively low concentrations on RCC cell apoptosis were observed. Depletion of p53 or HIF1α impaired both antagonist-elicited apoptoses to differential extents, corresponding to their expression changes responding to chemical treatments, and double knockdown of p53 and HIF1α remarkably hindered MI-319- or rapamycin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that both p53 and HIF1α are involved in MDM2 or mTOR antagonist-induced apoptosis. Collectively, we propose that concurrent activation of p53 and HIF1α may effectively result in cancer-cell apoptosis, and that combined MDM2 antagonists and mTOR inhibitors may be useful in RCC therapy. PMID:26937175

  12. A Recollection of mTOR Signaling in Learning and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Tyson E.; McCamphill, Patrick K.; Sossin, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamcyin (mTOR) is a central player in cell growth throughout the organism. However, mTOR takes on an additional, more specialized role in the developed neuron, where it regulates the protein synthesis-dependent, plastic changes underlying learning and memory. mTOR is sequestered in two multiprotein complexes (mTORC1 and…

  13. Selective regulation of YB-1 mRNA translation by the mTOR signaling pathway is not mediated by 4E-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Lyabin, D. N.; Ovchinnikov, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a key regulator of gene expression at the level of both translation and transcription. The mode of its action on cellular events depends on its subcellular distribution and the amount in the cell. So far, the regulatory mechanisms of YB-1 synthesis have not been adequately studied. Our previous finding was that selective inhibition of YB-1 mRNA translation was caused by suppression of activity of the mTOR signaling pathway. It was suggested that this event may be mediated by phosphorylation of the 4E-binding protein (4E-BP). Here, we report that 4E-BP alone can only slightly inhibit YB-1 synthesis both in the cell and in vitro, although it essentially decreases binding of the 4F-group translation initiation factors to mRNA. With inhibited mTOR kinase, the level of mRNA binding to the eIF4F-group factors was decreased, while that to 4E-BP1 was increased, as was observed for both mTOR kinase-sensitive mRNAs and those showing low sensitivity. This suggests that selective inhibition of translation of YB-1 mRNA, and probably some other mRNAs as well, by mTOR kinase inhibitors is not mediated by the action of the 4E-binding protein upon functions of the 4F-group translation initiation factors. PMID:26931209

  14. A combination of eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and proanthocyanidins has a strong effect on mTOR signaling in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Leonarda; Piazzi, Giulia; Pacilli, Annalisa; Prossomariti, Anna; Fazio, Chiara; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Bianchi, Francesca; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The development of novel anti-CRC agents able to overcome drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity is of pivotal importance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in CRC, regulating protein translation and controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and survival. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a combination of three natural compounds, eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and proanthocyanidins (grape seed [GS] extract) at low cytotoxic concentrations on CRC cells and test their activity on mTOR and translational regulation. The CRC cell lines HCT116 and SW480 were treated for 24h with combinations of EPA-FFA (0-150 µM), EGCG (0-175 µM) and GS extract (0-15 µM) to evaluate the effect on cell viability. The low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA 150 µM, EGCG 175 µM and GS extract 15 µM completely inhibited the mTOR signaling in HCT116 and SW480 cells, reaching an effect stronger than or comparable to that of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in HCT116 or SW480 cells, respectively. Moreover, the treatment led to changes of protein translation of ribosomal proteins, c-Myc and cyclin D1. In addition, we found a reduction of clonal capability in both cell lines, with block of cell cycle in G0G1 and induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest that the low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA, EGCG and GS extract, tested for the first time here, inhibits mTOR signaling and thus could be considered for CRC treatment. PMID:25123131

  15. Inhibition of mTOR signaling protects photoreceptor cells against serum deprivation by reducing oxidative stress and inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest

    PubMed Central

    FAN, BIN; LI, FU-QAING; SONG, JING-YAO; CHEN, XU; LI, GUANG-YU

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a crucial cellular signaling hub, which integrates internal and external cues to modulate the cell cycle, protein synthesis and metabolism. The present study hypothesized that inhibiting mTOR signaling may induce cells to enter lower and more stable bioenergetic states, in which neurons have greater resistance to various insults. Neurotrophin withdrawal from photoreceptor cells (661W cells) was mimicked using serum deprivation, and the neuroprotective mechanisms were studied following suppression of the mTOR pathway. Treatment with an mTOR specific inhibitor, rapamycin, reduced intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, suppressed oxidative stress, and attenuated mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, inhibiting mTOR signaling induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest, thus providing an opportunity to repair damaged DNA and block the cell death cascade. These results suggested that inhibition of mTOR had a neuroprotective effect on serum-deprived 661W cells. In conclusion, the mTOR pathway is a critical molecular signal for cell cycle regulation and energy metabolism, and inhibiting the mTOR pathway may attenuate neurotrophin withdrawal-induced damage. These observations may provide evidence for the treatment of retinal degenerative disease, since inducing neurons into a lower and more stable bioenergetic state by blocking mTOR signaling may slow the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27035647

  16. Leucine minimizes denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of rats through akt/mtor signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carolina B.; Christofoletti, Daiane C.; Pezolato, Vitor A.; de Cássia Marqueti Durigan, Rita; Prestes, Jonato; Tibana, Ramires A.; Pereira, Elaine C. L.; de Sousa Neto, Ivo V.; Durigan, João L. Q.; da Silva, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of leucine treatment (0.30 mM) on muscle weight and signaling of myoproteins related to synthesis and degradation pathways of soleus muscle following seven days of complete sciatic nerve lesion. Wistar rats (n = 24) of 3–4 months of age (192 ± 23 g) were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four experimental groups (n = 6/group): control, treated with leucine (L), denervated (D) and denervated treated with leucine (DL). Dependent measures were proteins levels of AKT, AMPK, mTOR, and ACC performed by Western blot. Leucine induced a reduction in the phosphorylation of AMPK (p < 0.05) by 16% in the L and by 68% in the DL groups as compared with control group. Denervation increased AMPK by 24% in the D group as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). AKT was also modulated by denervation and leucine treatment, highlighted by the elevation of AKT phosphorylation in the D (65%), L (98%) and DL (146%) groups as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). AKT phosphorylation was 49% higher in the D group as compared with the DL group. Furthermore, denervation decreased mTOR phosphorylation by 29% in the D group as compared with the control group. However, leucine treatment induced an increase of 49% in the phosphorylation of mTOR in the L group as compared with the control group, and an increase of 154% in the DL as compared with the D group (p < 0.05). ACC phosphorylation was 20% greater in the D group than the control group. Furthermore, ACC in the soleus was 22% lower in the in the L group and 50% lower in the DL group than the respective control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, leucine treatment minimized the deleterious effects of denervation on rat soleus muscle by increasing anabolic (AKT and mTOR) and decreasing catabolic (AMPK) pathways. These results may be interesting for muscle recovery following acute denervation, which may contribute to musculoskeletal rehabilitation after denervation

  17. Cardamonin Inhibits Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Cells by Decreasing mTOR Activity

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Pei-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Shi, Dao-Hua; Liu, Ying; Chen, Yao-Yao; Deng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the motility and invasion of cancer cells. Cardamonin is a chalcone that exhibits anti-tumor activity. The previous study had proved that the anti-tumor effect of cardamonin was associated with mTOR inhibition. In the present study, the anti-metastatic effect of cardamonin and its underlying molecule mechanisms were investigated on the highly metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. The proliferation, invasion and migration of LLC cells were measured by MTT, transwell and wound healing assays, respectively. The expression and activation of mTOR- and adhesion-related proteins were assessed by Western blotting. The in vivo effect of cardamonin on the metastasis of the LLC cells was investigated by a mouse model. Treated with cardamonin, the proliferation, invasion and migration of LLC cells were significantly inhibited. The expression of Snail was decreased by cardamonin, while that of E-cadherin was increased. In addition, cardamonin inhibited the activation of mTOR and its downstream target ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Furthermore, the tumor growth and its lung metastasis were inhibited by cardamonin in C57BL/6 mice. It indicated that cardamonin inhibited the invasion and metastasis of LLC cells through inhibiting mTOR. The metastasis inhibitory effect of cardamonin was correlated with down-regulation of Snail and up-regulation of E-cadherin. PMID:25996501

  18. The relationship between mTOR signalling pathway and recombinant antibody productivity in CHO cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High recombinant protein productivity in mammalian cell lines is often associated with phenotypic changes in protein content, energy metabolism, and cell growth, but the key determinants that regulate productivity are still not clearly understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway has emerged as a central regulator for many cellular processes including cell growth, apoptosis, metabolism, and protein synthesis. This role of this pathway changes in response to diverse environmental cues and allows the upstream proteins that respond directly to extracellular signals (such as nutrient availability, energy status, and physical stresses) to communicate with downstream effectors which, in turn, regulate various essential cellular processes. Results In this study, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis using a pathway-focused polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array to compare the expression of 84 target genes related to the mTOR signalling in two recombinant CHO cell lines with a 17.4-fold difference in specific monoclonal antibody productivity (q p ). Eight differentially expressed genes that exhibited more than a 1.5-fold change were identified. Pik3cd (encoding the Class 1A catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K]) was the most differentially expressed gene having a 71.3-fold higher level of expression in the high producer cell line than in the low producer. The difference in the gene’s transcription levels was confirmed at the protein level by examining expression of p110δ. Conclusion Expression of p110δ correlated with specific productivity (q p ) across six different CHO cell lines, with a range of expression levels from 3 to 51 pg/cell/day, suggesting that p110δ may be a key factor in regulating productivity in recombinant cell lines. PMID:24533650

  19. CDK1 substitutes for mTOR kinase to activate mitotic cap-dependent protein translation

    PubMed Central

    Shuda, Masahiro; Velásquez, Celestino; Cheng, Erdong; Cordek, Daniel G.; Kwun, Hyun Jin; Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitosis is commonly thought to be associated with reduced cap-dependent protein translation. Here we show an alternative control mechanism for maintaining cap-dependent translation during mitosis revealed by a viral oncoprotein, Merkel cell polyomavirus small T (MCV sT). We find MCV sT to be a promiscuous E3 ligase inhibitor targeting the anaphase-promoting complex, which increases cell mitogenesis. MCV sT binds through its Large T stabilization domain region to cell division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) and, possibly, cdc20 homolog 1 (Cdh1) E3 ligase adapters. This activates cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 (CDK1/CYCB1) to directly hyperphosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein (4E-BP1) at authentic sites, generating a mitosis-specific, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-resistant δ phospho-isoform not present in G1-arrested cells. Recombinant 4E-BP1 inhibits capped mRNA reticulocyte translation, which is partially reversed by CDK1/CYCB1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. eIF4G binding to the eIF4E–m7GTP cap complex is resistant to mTOR inhibition during mitosis but sensitive during interphase. Flow cytometry, with and without sT, reveals an orthogonal pH3S10+ mitotic cell population having higher inactive p4E-BP1T37/T46+ saturation levels than pH3S10– interphase cells. Using a Click-iT flow cytometric assay to directly measure mitotic protein synthesis, we find that most new protein synthesis during mitosis is cap-dependent, a result confirmed using the eIF4E/4G inhibitor drug 4E1RCat. For most cell lines tested, cap-dependent translation levels were generally similar between mitotic and interphase cells, and the majority of new mitotic protein synthesis was cap-dependent. These findings suggest that mitotic cap-dependent translation is generally sustained during mitosis by CDK1 phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 even under conditions of reduced mTOR signaling. PMID:25883264

  20. Development of a model describing regulation of casein synthesis by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in response to insulin, amino acids, and acetate.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Arriola Apelo, S I; Appuhamy, J A D R N; Hanigan, M D

    2016-08-01

    To improve dietary protein use efficiency in lactating cows, mammary protein synthesis responses to AA, energy substrates, and hormones must be better understood. These entities exert their effects through stimulation of mRNA translation via control of initiation and elongation rates at the cellular level. A central protein kinase of this phenomenon is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which transfers the nutritional and hormonal stimuli onto a series of proteins downstream through a cascade of phosphorylation reactions that ultimately affect protein synthesis. The objective of this work was to further develop an existing mechanistic model of mTOR phosphorylation responses to insulin and total essential AA to include the effects of specific essential AA and acetate mediated by signaling proteins including protein kinase B (Akt), adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mTOR and to add a representation of milk protein synthesis. Data from 6 experiments in MAC-T cells and mammary tissue slices previously conducted in our laboratory were assembled and used to parameterize the dynamic system of differential equations representing Akt, AMPK, and mTOR in their phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states and the resulting regulation of milk protein synthesis. The model predicted phosphorylated Akt, mTOR, AMPK, and casein synthesis rates with root mean square prediction errors of 16.8, 28.4, 33.0, and 54.9%, respectively. All other dependent variables were free of mean and slope bias, indicating an adequate representation of the data. Whereas mTOR was not very sensitive to changes in insulin or acetate levels, it was highly sensitive to leucine and isoleucine, and this signal appeared to be effectively transduced to casein synthesis. Although prior work had observed a relationship with additional essential AA, and data supporting those conclusions were present in the data set, we were unable to derive significant relationships with any essential

  1. Amino acid-dependent NPRL2 interaction with Raptor determines mTOR Complex 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sang Su; Kang, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Seyun; Lee, Seoeun; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Jin Woo; Byun, Boohyeong; Meadows, Gary G; Joe, Cheol O

    2016-02-01

    We assign a new function to a tumor suppressor NPRL2 that activates the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity. The positive regulation of mTORC1 activity by NPRL2 is mediated through NPRL2 interaction with Raptor. While NPRL2 interacts with Rag GTPases, RagD in particular, to interfere with mTORC1 activity in amino acid scarcity, NPRL2 interacts with Raptor in amino acid sufficiency to activate mTORC1. A reciprocal relationship exists between NPRL2 binding to Rag GTPases and Raptor. NPRL2 majorly locates in the lysosomal membranes and has a higher binding affinity to the dominant negative mutant heterodimer of RagA(GDP)/RagD(GTP) that inactivates mTORC1. However, the binding affinity of NPRL2 with Raptor is much less pronounced in cells expressing the dominant negative mutant heterodimer of RagA(GDP)/RagD(GTP) than in cells expressing the dominant positive mutant heterodimer, RagA(GTP)/RagD(GDP). The positive effect of NPRL2 on TORC1 pathway was also evidenced in Drosophila animal model. Here, we propose a 'seesaw' model in which the interactive behavior of NPRL2 with Raptor determines mTORC1 activation by amino acid signaling in animal cells. PMID:26582740

  2. Leucine and histidine independently regulate milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells via mTOR signaling pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-na; Hu, Han; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jia-qi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of leucine (Leu) and histidine (His) on the expression of both the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway-related proteins and caseins in immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cells (CMEC-H), using a single supplement through Western blotting. The Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS) was set as the control group and other treatment groups, based on the EBSS, were added with different concentrations of Leu or His, respectively. The results showed that, compared with the control group, the expression of caseins and the phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2481), Raptor (Ser792), eIF4E (Ser209), and eEF2 (Thr56) increased with the Leu concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 10.80 mmol/L (P<0.01). The P-4EBP1 (Thr37) at 10.80 mmol/L Leu, and P-RPS6 (Ser235/236) at 5.40 to 10.80 mmol/L Leu all decreased. Similarly, the His supplementation from 0.15 to 9.60 mmol/L increased the expression of αs2-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, P-mTOR (Ser2481), P-Raptor (Ser792), P-S6K1 (Thr389), P-4EBP1 (Thr37), P-eIF4E (Ser209), and P-eEF2 (Thr56) (P<0.01) in CMEC-H, whereas the αs1-casein expression was only reduced at 9.60 mmol/L His, G protein β subunit-like protein (GβL) at 0.15 and 9.60 mmol/L His, and P-RPS6 at 4.80 to 9.60 mmol/L His. Our linear regression model assay suggested that the αs1-casein expression was positively correlated with P-mTOR (P<0.01), P-S6K1 (P<0.01), and P-eEF2 (P<0.01) for the addition of Leu, while the expressions of β-casein (P<0.01) and κ-casein (P<0.01) were positively correlated with P-eEF2 for the addition of His. In conclusion, the milk protein synthesis was up-regulated through activation of the mTOR pathway with the addition of Leu and His in CMEC-H. PMID:26055918

  3. SIRT1 controls liver regeneration by regulating BA metabolism through FXR and mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Juan L.; Barbier-Torres, Lucía; Fernández-Álvarez, Sara; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Monte, María J.; Halilbasic, Emina; Herranz, Daniel; Álvarez, Luis; Aspichueta, Patricia; Marín, Jose J. G.; Trauner, Michael; Mato, Jose M.; Serrano, Manuel; Beraza, Naiara; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz

    2014-01-01

    Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) regulates central metabolic functions such as lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis and bile acid (BA) homeostasis through deacetylation. Here, we describe that SIRT1 tightly controls the regenerative response of the liver. We performed partial hepatectomy (PH) to transgenic mice that overexpress SIRT1 (SIRT). SIRT mice showed increased mortality, impaired hepatocyte proliferation, BA accumulation and profuse liver injury after surgery. The damaging phenotype in SIRT mice correlated with impaired FXR activity due to persistent deacetylation and lower protein expression that led to decreased FXR-target gene expression; SHP, BSEP and increased Cyp7A1. Next, we convincingly show that 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) attenuates SIRT protein expression, increases the acetylation of FXR and neighboring histones, restores trimethylation of H3K4 and H3K9 and increases miR34a expression, thus re-establishing BA homeostasis. Consequently, NorUDCA restored liver regeneration in SIRT mice, which showed increased survival and hepatocyte proliferation. Furthermore, a Leucine-enriched diet restored mTOR activation, acetylation of FXR and histones, leading to an overall lower BA production through SHP-inhibition of Cyp7A1 and higher transport (BSEP) and detoxification (Sult2a1) leading to an improved liver regeneration. Finally, we found that human HCC samples have increased presence of SIRT1, which correlated with absence of FXR suggesting its oncogenic potential. Conclusions Overall, we define SIRT1 as a key regulator of the regenerative response in the liver through post-transcriptional modifications that regulate the activity of FXR, histones and mTOR. Moreover, our data suggest that SIRT1 contributes to liver tumorigenesis through dysregulation of BA homeostasis by persistent FXR deacetylation. PMID:24338587

  4. Regulation of mTOR Signaling by Semaphorin 3F-Neuropilin 2 Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Hironao; Bruneau, Sarah; Kochupurakkal, Nora; Coma, Silvia; Briscoe, David M.; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) provides neuronal guidance cues via its ability to bind neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and Plexin A family molecules. Recent studies indicate that SEMA3F has biological effects in other cell types, however its mechanism(s) of function is poorly understood. Here, we analyze SEMA3F-NRP2 signaling responses in human endothelial, T cell and tumor cells using phosphokinase arrays, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses. Consistently, SEMA3F inhibits PI-3K and Akt activity, and responses are associated with the disruption of mTOR/rictor assembly and mTOR-dependent activation of the RhoA GTPase. We also find that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as mTOR-inducible cellular activation responses and cytoskeleton stability are inhibited by SEMA3F-NRP2 interactions in vitro. In vivo, local and systemic overproduction of SEMA3F reduces tumor growth in NRP2-expressing xenografts. Taken together, SEMA3F regulates mTOR signaling in diverse human cell types, suggesting that it has broad therapeutic implications. PMID:26156437

  5. Regulation of mTOR Signaling by Semaphorin 3F-Neuropilin 2 Interactions In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hironao; Bruneau, Sarah; Kochupurakkal, Nora; Coma, Silvia; Briscoe, David M; Klagsbrun, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) provides neuronal guidance cues via its ability to bind neuropilin 2 (NRP2) and Plexin A family molecules. Recent studies indicate that SEMA3F has biological effects in other cell types, however its mechanism(s) of function is poorly understood. Here, we analyze SEMA3F-NRP2 signaling responses in human endothelial, T cell and tumor cells using phosphokinase arrays, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses. Consistently, SEMA3F inhibits PI-3K and Akt activity, and responses are associated with the disruption of mTOR/rictor assembly and mTOR-dependent activation of the RhoA GTPase. We also find that the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as mTOR-inducible cellular activation responses and cytoskeleton stability are inhibited by SEMA3F-NRP2 interactions in vitro. In vivo, local and systemic overproduction of SEMA3F reduces tumor growth in NRP2-expressing xenografts. Taken together, SEMA3F regulates mTOR signaling in diverse human cell types, suggesting that it has broad therapeutic implications. PMID:26156437

  6. Novel roles of Akt and mTOR in suppressing TGF-β/ALK5-mediated Smad3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung; Wang, Hui; Krebs, Tracy L; Danielpour, David

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by blocking activation of Smad3 (S3), via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent pathway. Here we provide the first report that the kinase activity of Akt is necessary for its ability to suppress many TGF-β responses, including S3 activation and induction of apoptosis. Wild-type and myristoylated Akts (AktWT and AktMyr) suppress TGF-β-induced phospho-activation of S3 but not Smad2 (S2), whereas kinase-dead Akt1 (Akt1K179M) or dominant-negative PI3K enhances TGF-β-induced phospho-activation of both S2 and S3. Using siRNA, rapamycin (Rap), and adenoviral expression for FKBP12-resistant and constitutively active TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5), we demonstrate that mammalian target of Rap (mTOR) mediates Akt1 suppression of phospho-activation of S3. These and further data on Akt1-S3 binding do not support a recently proposed model that Akt blocks S3 activation through physical interaction and sequestration of S3 from TGF-β receptors. We propose a novel model whereby Akt suppresses activation of S3 in an Akt kinase-dependent manner through mTOR, a likely route for loss of tumor suppression by TGF-β in cancers. PMID:16362038

  7. Mio depletion links mTOR regulation to Aurora A and Plk1 activation at mitotic centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Porter, Michael; Jeyaprakash, A. Arockia

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrient supply is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we report that Mio, a highly conserved member of the SEACAT/GATOR2 complex necessary for the activation of mTORC1 kinase, plays a critical role in mitotic spindle formation and subsequent chromosome segregation by regulating the proper concentration of active key mitotic kinases Plk1 and Aurora A at centrosomes and spindle poles. Mio-depleted cells showed reduced activation of Plk1 and Aurora A kinase at spindle poles and an impaired localization of MCAK and HURP, two key regulators of mitotic spindle formation and known substrates of Aurora A kinase, resulting in spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Our results indicate that a major function of Mio in mitosis is to regulate the activation/deactivation of Plk1 and Aurora A, possibly by linking them to mTOR signaling in a pathway to promote faithful mitotic progression. PMID:26124292

  8. Mio depletion links mTOR regulation to Aurora A and Plk1 activation at mitotic centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Platani, Melpomeni; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Porter, Michael; Jeyaprakash, A Arockia; Earnshaw, William C

    2015-07-01

    Coordination of cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrient supply is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. In this study, we report that Mio, a highly conserved member of the SEACAT/GATOR2 complex necessary for the activation of mTORC1 kinase, plays a critical role in mitotic spindle formation and subsequent chromosome segregation by regulating the proper concentration of active key mitotic kinases Plk1 and Aurora A at centrosomes and spindle poles. Mio-depleted cells showed reduced activation of Plk1 and Aurora A kinase at spindle poles and an impaired localization of MCAK and HURP, two key regulators of mitotic spindle formation and known substrates of Aurora A kinase, resulting in spindle assembly and cytokinesis defects. Our results indicate that a major function of Mio in mitosis is to regulate the activation/deactivation of Plk1 and Aurora A, possibly by linking them to mTOR signaling in a pathway to promote faithful mitotic progression. PMID:26124292

  9. Effect of eccentric exercise velocity on akt/mtor/p70(s6k) signaling in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowistch, Carlos; Barroso, Renato; Batista, Mauro A B; Souza, Eduardo O; Aoki, Marcelo S; Siqueira-Filho, Mario A; Zanuto, Ricardo; Carvalho, Carla R O; Neves, Manoel; Mello, Marco T; Tricoli, Valmor

    2011-04-01

    It has been suggested that muscle tension plays a major role in the activation of intracellular pathways for skeletal muscle hypertrophy via an increase in mechano growth factor (MGF) and other downstream targets. Eccentric exercise (EE) imposes a greater amount of tension on the active muscle. In particular, high-speed EE seems to exert an additional effect on muscle tension and, thus, on muscle hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of EE velocity on hypertrophy signaling. This study investigated the effect of acute EE-velocity manipulation on the Akt/mTORCI/p70(S6K) hypertrophy pathway. Twenty subjects were assigned to either a slow (20°·s(-1); ES) or fast EE (210°·s(-1); EF) group. Biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis at baseline (B), immediately after (T1), and 2 h after (T2) the completion of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of eccentric knee extensions. Akt, mTOR, and p70(S6K) total protein were similar between groups, and did not change postintervention. Further, Akt and p70(S6K) protein phosphorylation were higher at T2 than at B for ES and EF. MGF messenger RNA was similar between groups, and only significantly higher at T2 than at B in ES. The acute manipulation of EE velocity does not seem to differently influence intracellular hypertrophy signaling through the Akt/mTORCI/p70S6K pathway. PMID:21609291

  10. The order of concurrent endurance and resistance exercise modifies mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Riki; Sato, Koji; Matsutani, Kenji; Nakazato, Koichi; Fujita, Satoshi

    2014-05-15

    Concurrent training, a combination of endurance (EE) and resistance exercise (RE) performed in succession, may compromise the muscle hypertrophic adaptations induced by RE alone. However, little is known about the molecular signaling interactions underlying the changes in skeletal muscle adaptation during concurrent training. Here, we used an animal model to investigate whether EE before or after RE affects the molecular signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis, specifically the interaction between RE-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and EE-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: an EE group (treadmill, 25 m/min, 60 min), an RE group (maximum isometric contraction via percutaneous electrical stimulation for 3 × 10 s, 5 sets), an EE before RE group, an EE after RE group, and a nonexercise control group. Phosphorylation of p70S6K, a marker of mTORC1 activity, was significantly increased 3 h after RE in both the EE before RE and EE after RE groups, but the increase was smaller in latter. Furthermore, protein synthesis was greatly increased 6 h after RE in the EE before RE group. Increases in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Raptor were observed only in the EE after RE group. Akt and mTOR phosphorylation were increased in both groups, with no between-group differences. Our results suggest that the last bout of exercise dictates the molecular responses and that mTORC1 signaling induced by any prior bout of RE may be downregulated by a subsequent bout of EE. PMID:24691029

  11. Differentiated mTOR but not AMPK signaling after strength vs endurance exercise in training-accustomed individuals.

    PubMed

    Vissing, K; McGee, S L; Farup, J; Kjølhede, T; Vendelbo, M H; Jessen, N

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adenosine mono phosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) vs Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin C1 (mTORC1) protein signaling mechanisms on converting differentiated exercise into training specific adaptations is not well-established. To investigate this, human subjects were divided into endurance, strength, and non-exercise control groups. Data were obtained before and during post-exercise recovery from single-bout exercise, conducted with an exercise mode to which the exercise subjects were accustomed through 10 weeks of prior training. Blood and muscle samples were analyzed for plasma substrates and hormones and for muscle markers of AMPK and Akt-mTORC1 protein signaling. Increases in plasma glucose, insulin, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and in phosphorylated muscle phospho-Akt substrate (PAS) of 160 kDa, mTOR, 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and glycogen synthase kinase 3a were observed after strength exercise. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK, histone deacetylase5 (HDAC5), cAMP response element-binding protein, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was observed after endurance exercise, but not differently from after strength exercise. No changes in protein phosphorylation were observed in non-exercise controls. Endurance training produced an increase in maximal oxygen uptake and a decrease in submaximal exercise heart rate, while strength training produced increases in muscle cross-sectional area and strength. No changes in basal levels of signaling proteins were observed in response to training. The results support that in training-accustomed individuals, mTORC1 signaling is preferentially activated after hypertrophy-inducing exercise, while AMPK signaling is less specific for differentiated exercise. PMID:23802289

  12. A novel AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, inhibits phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activates phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1 dependent on the liver cancer cell type

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YUNCHENG; ZHENG, YUANWEN; FAHEEM, ALI; SUN, TIANTONG; LI, CHUNYOU; LI, ZHE; ZHAO, DIANTANG; WU, CHAO; LIU, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway dysregulation, AKT is typically accepted as a promising anticancer therapeutic target. mTOR, in particular, represents a suitable therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma, whilst suppressor with morphogenetic effect on genitalia family member-1 (SMG-1) is believed to serve a potential tumor suppressor role in human cancer. Despite SMG-1 and mTOR belonging to the same PI3K-related kinase family, the interactions between them are not yet fully understood. In the present study, a novel pyrrolopyrimidine-derived compound, AZD5363, was observed to suppress proliferation in liver cancer Hep-G2 and Huh-7 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of downstream molecules in the AKT signal pathway, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AZD5363 activated the phosphorylation of mTOR, dependent on the liver cancer cell type, as it may have differing effects in various liver cancer cell lines. Additionally, AZD5363 also activated SMG-1 within the same liver cancer cells types, which subsequently activated the phosphorylation of mTOR. In conclusion, the present study indicates that AZD5363 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT downstream molecules, and activated phosphorylation of mTOR and SMG-1, dependent on the liver cancer type. PMID:26998062

  13. Prevention of tumor growth driven by PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes by targeting mTOR signaling with metformin in oral squamous carcinomas expressing OCT3

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Dmitri; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Martin, Daniel; Schneider, Abraham; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gangane, Nitin; Carey, Thomas E.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Komarck, Christine M.; Walline, Heather M.; William, William N.; Seethala, Raja R.; Ferris, Robert; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) exhibit a persistent activation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway. We have recently shown that metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug that is also used to treat lipodystrophy in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, diminishes mTOR activity and prevents the progression of chemically-induced experimental HNSCC premalignant lesions. Here, we explored the preclinical activity of metformin in HNSCCs harboring PIK3CA mutations and HPV oncogenes, both representing frequent HNSCC alterations, aimed at developing effective targeted preventive strategies. The biochemical and biological effects of metformin were evaluated in representative HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA or HPV oncogenes (HPV+). The oral delivery of metformin was optimized to achieve clinical relevant blood levels. Molecular determinants of metformin sensitivity were also investigated, and their expression levels examined in a large collection of HNSCC cases. We found that metformin inhibits mTOR signaling and tumor growth in HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes, and that these activities require the expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3/SLC22A3), a metformin uptake transporter. Co-expression of OCT3 and the mTOR pathway activation marker pS6 were observed in most HNSCC cases, including those arising in HIV+ patients. Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is a widespread event in HNSCC, including HPV− and HPV+ lesions arising in HIV+ patients, all of which co-express OCT3. These observations may provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of metformin to halt HNSCC development from precancerous lesions, including in HIV+ individuals at risk of developing HPV-associated cancers. PMID:25681087

  14. Prevention of tumor growth driven by PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes by targeting mTOR signaling with metformin in oral squamous carcinomas expressing OCT3.

    PubMed

    Madera, Dmitri; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Martin, Daniel; Schneider, Abraham; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gangane, Nitin; Carey, Thomas E; McHugh, Jonathan B; Komarck, Christine M; Walline, Heather M; William, William N; Seethala, Raja R; Ferris, Robert L; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2015-03-01

    Most squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) exhibit a persistent activation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway. We have recently shown that metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug that is also used to treat lipodystrophy in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) individuals, diminishes mTOR activity and prevents the progression of chemically induced experimental HNSCC premalignant lesions. Here, we explored the preclinical activity of metformin in HNSCCs harboring PIK3CA mutations and HPV oncogenes, both representing frequent HNSCC alterations, aimed at developing effective targeted preventive strategies. The biochemical and biologic effects of metformin were evaluated in representative HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA or HPV oncogenes (HPV(+)). The oral delivery of metformin was optimized to achieve clinical relevant blood levels. Molecular determinants of metformin sensitivity were also investigated, and their expression levels were examined in a large collection of HNSCC cases. We found that metformin inhibits mTOR signaling and tumor growth in HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes, and that these activities require the expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3/SLC22A3), a metformin uptake transporter. Coexpression of OCT3 and the mTOR pathway activation marker pS6 were observed in most HNSCC cases, including those arising in HIV(+) patients. Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is a widespread event in HNSCC, including HPV(-) and HPV(+) lesions arising in HIV(+) patients, all of which coexpress OCT3. These observations may provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of metformin to halt HNSCC development from precancerous lesions, including in HIV(+) individuals at risk of developing HPV(-) associated cancers. PMID:25681087

  15. The mitochondrial uncoupler DNP triggers brain cell mTOR signaling network reprogramming and CREB pathway up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R; Cutler, Roy G; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin--PI3K - MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal, and synaptic plasticity. Physiological bioenergetic challenges such as exercise and fasting can enhance neuroplasticity and protect neurons against injury and neurodegeneration. Here, we show that the mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) elicits adaptive signaling responses in the

  16. Attenuated mTOR signaling and enhanced autophagy in adipocytes from obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ost, Anita; Svensson, Kristoffer; Ruishalme, Iida; Brännmark, Cecilia; Franck, Niclas; Krook, Hans; Sandström, Per; Kjolhede, Preben; Strålfors, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is strongly linked to obesity and an adipose tissue unresponsive to insulin. The insulin resistance is due to defective insulin signaling, but details remain largely unknown. We examined insulin signaling in adipocytes from T2D patients, and contrary to findings in animal studies, we observed attenuation of insulin activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). As a consequence, mTORC1 downstream effects were also affected in T2D: feedback signaling by insulin to signal-mediator insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) was attenuated, mitochondria were impaired and autophagy was strongly upregulated. There was concomitant autophagic destruction of mitochondria and lipofuscin particles, and a dependence on autophagy for ATP production. Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction attenuated insulin activation of mTORC1, enhanced autophagy and attenuated feedback to IRS1. The overactive autophagy was associated with large numbers of cytosolic lipid droplets, a subset with colocalization of perlipin and the autophagy protein LC3/atg8, which can contribute to excessive fatty acid release. Patients with diagnoses of T2D and overweight were consecutively recruited from elective surgery, whereas controls did not have T2D. Results were validated in a cohort of patients without diabetes who exhibited a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Because mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, endoplasmic-reticulum stress and hypoxia all inactivate mTORC1, our results may suggest a unifying mechanism for the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in T2D, although the underlying causes might differ. PMID:20386866

  17. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is associated with mTOR regulation in hepatocytes of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagland, Hanne R.; Nilsson, Linn I.H.; Burri, Lena; Nikolaisen, Julie; Berge, Rolf K.; Tronstad, Karl J.

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated mechanisms of mitochondrial regulation in rat hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) was employed to activate mitochondrial oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was confirmed that PPAR target genes were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism involved activation mTOR. -- Abstract: The hypolipidemic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators has been explained by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, as observed in livers of rats treated with the pan-PPAR activator tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). PPAR-activation does, however, not fully explain the metabolic adaptations observed in hepatocytes after treatment with TTA. We therefore characterized the mitochondrial effects, and linked this to signalling by the metabolic sensor, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In hepatocytes isolated from TTA-treated rats, the changes in cellular content and morphology were consistent with hypertrophy. This was associated with induction of multiple mitochondrial biomarkers, including mitochondrial DNA, citrate synthase and mRNAs of mitochondrial proteins. Transcription analysis further confirmed activation of PPAR{alpha}-associated genes, in addition to genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Analysis of mitochondrial respiration revealed that the capacity of both electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation were increased. These effects coincided with activation of the stress related factor, ERK1/2, and mTOR. The protein level and phosphorylation of the downstream mTOR actors eIF4G and 4E-BP1 were induced. In summary, TTA increases mitochondrial respiration by inducing hypertrophy and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat hepatocytes, via adaptive regulation of PPARs as well as mTOR.

  18. Hyperactive ERK and persistent mTOR signaling characterize vemurafenib resistance in papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, Elyse K.; Tuli, Neha Y.; Bednarczyk, Robert B.; Suriano, Robert; Geliebter, Jan; Moscatello, Augustine L.; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies evaluating targeted BRAFV600E inhibitors in advanced thyroid cancer patients are currently underway. Vemurafenib (BRAFV600E inhibitor) monotherapy has shown promising results thus far, although development of resistance is a clinical challenge. The objective of this study was to characterize development of resistance to BRAFV600E inhibition and to identify targets for effective combination therapy. We created a line of BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells resistant to vemurafenib by treating with increasing concentrations of the drug. The resistant BCPAP line was characterized and compared to its sensitive counterpart with respect to signaling molecules thought to be directly related to resistance. Expression and phosphorylation of several critical proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and dimerization was evaluated by immunoprecipitation. Resistance to vemurafenib in BCPAP appeared to be mediated by constitutive overexpression of phospho-ERK and by resistance to inhibition of both phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6 ribosomal protein after vemurafenib treatment. Expression of potential alternative signaling molecule, CRAF, was not increased in the resistant line, although formation of CRAF dimers appeared increased. Expression of membrane receptors HER2 and HER3 was greatly amplified in the resistant cancer cells. Papillary thyroid cancer cells were capable of overcoming targeted BRAFV600E inhibition by rewiring of cell signal pathways in response to prolonged vemurafenib therapy. Our study suggests that in vitro culture of cancer cells may be useful in assessing molecular resistance pathways. Potential therapies in advanced thyroid cancer patients may combine vemurafenib with inhibitors of CRAF, HER2/HER3, ERK, and/or mTOR to delay or abort development of resistance. PMID:26735176

  19. Metabolic Symbiosis Enables Adaptive Resistance to Anti-angiogenic Therapy that Is Dependent on mTOR Signaling.

    PubMed

    Allen, Elizabeth; Miéville, Pascal; Warren, Carmen M; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Li, Leanne; Peng, Mei-Wen; Hanahan, Douglas

    2016-05-10

    Therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis with VEGF inhibitors results in demonstrable, but transitory efficacy in certain human tumors and mouse models of cancer, limited by unconventional forms of adaptive/evasive resistance. In one such mouse model, potent angiogenesis inhibitors elicit compartmental reorganization of cancer cells around remaining blood vessels. The glucose and lactate transporters GLUT1 and MCT4 are induced in distal hypoxic cells in a HIF1α-dependent fashion, indicative of glycolysis. Tumor cells proximal to blood vessels instead express the lactate transporter MCT1, and p-S6, the latter reflecting mTOR signaling. Normoxic cancer cells import and metabolize lactate, resulting in upregulation of mTOR signaling via glutamine metabolism enhanced by lactate catabolism. Thus, metabolic symbiosis is established in the face of angiogenesis inhibition, whereby hypoxic cancer cells import glucose and export lactate, while normoxic cells import and catabolize lactate. mTOR signaling inhibition disrupts this metabolic symbiosis, associated with upregulation of the glucose transporter GLUT2. PMID:27134166

  20. Modulation of mTOR Signalling Triggers the Formation of Stem Cell-like Memory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Godehard; Jandus, Camilla; Zhang, Lianjun; Grandclément, Camille; Lopez-Mejia, Isabel C; Soneson, Charlotte; Delorenzi, Mauro; Fajas, Lluis; Held, Werner; Dormond, Olivier; Romero, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Robust, long-lasting immune responses are elicited by memory T cells that possess properties of stem cells, enabling them to persist long-term and to permanently replenish the effector pools. Thus, stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells are of key therapeutic value and efforts are underway to characterize TSCM cells and to identify means for their targeted induction. Here, we show that inhibition of mechanistic/mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) by rapamycin or the Wnt-β-catenin signalling activator TWS119 in activated human naive T cells leads to the induction of TSCM cells. We show that these compounds switch T cell metabolism to fatty acid oxidation as favoured metabolic programme for TSCM cell generation. Of note, pharmacologically induced TSCM cells possess superior functional features as a long-term repopulation capacity after adoptive transfer. Furthermore, we provide insights into the transcriptome of TSCM cells. Our data identify a mechanism of pharmacological mTORC1 inhibitors, allowing us to confer stemness to human naive T cells which may be significantly relevant for the design of innovative T cell-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26981571

  1. ARG2 impairs endothelial autophagy through regulation of MTOR and PRKAA/AMPK signaling in advanced atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuyan; Yepuri, Gautham; Forbiteh, Michael; Yu, Yi; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Yang, Zhihong; Ming, Xiu-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Impaired autophagy function and enhanced ARG2 (arginase 2)-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) crosstalk are implicated in vascular aging and atherosclerosis. We are interested in the role of ARG2 and the potential underlying mechanism(s) in modulation of endothelial autophagy. Using human nonsenescent “young” and replicative senescent endothelial cells as well as Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoe−/−Arg2+/+) and Arg2-deficient apoe−/− (apoe−/−arg2−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 wk as the atherosclerotic animal model, we show here that overexpression of ARG2 in the young cells suppresses endothelial autophagy with concomitant enhanced expression of RICTOR, the essential component of the MTORC2 complex, leading to activation of the AKT-MTORC1-RPS6KB1/S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1) cascade and inhibition of PRKAA/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, α catalytic subunit). Expression of an inactive ARG2 mutant (H160F) had the same effect. Moreover, silencing RPS6KB1 or expression of a constitutively active PRKAA prevented autophagy suppression by ARG2 or H160F. In senescent cells, enhanced ARG2-RICTOR-AKT-MTORC1-RPS6KB1 and decreased PRKAA signaling and autophagy were observed, which was reversed by silencing ARG2 but not by arginase inhibitors. In line with the above observations, genetic ablation of Arg2 in apoe−/− mice reduced RPS6KB1, enhanced PRKAA signaling and endothelial autophagy in aortas, which was associated with reduced atherosclerosis lesion formation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ARG2 impairs endothelial autophagy independently of the L-arginine ureahydrolase activity through activation of RPS6KB1 and inhibition of PRKAA, which is implicated in atherogenesis. PMID:25484082

  2. Adaptation to chronic mTOR inhibition in cancer and in aging.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Rebecca; Balmanno, Kathryn; Cope, Claire L; Cook, Simon J

    2013-08-01

    The mTOR [mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin] protein kinase co-ordinates catabolic and anabolic processes in response to growth factors and nutrients and is a validated anticancer drug target. Rapamycin and related allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) have had some success in specific tumour types, but have not exhibited broad anticancer activity, prompting the development of new ATP-competitive mTOR kinase inhibitors that inhibit both mTORC1 and mTORC2. In common with other targeted kinase inhibitors, tumours are likely to adapt and acquire resistance to mTOR inhibitors. In the present article, we review studies that describe how tumour cells adapt to become resistant to mTOR inhibitors. mTOR is a central signalling hub which responds to an array of signalling inputs and activates a range of downstream effector pathways. Understanding how this signalling network is remodelled and which pathways are invoked to sustain survival and proliferation in the presence of mTOR inhibitors can provide new insights into the importance of the various mTOR effector pathways and may suggest targets for intervention to combine with mTOR inhibitors. Finally, since chronic mTOR inhibition by rapamycin can increase lifespan and healthspan in nematodes, fruitflies and mice, we contrast these studies with tumour cell responses to mTOR inhibition. PMID:23863163

  3. PAK2 is an effector of TSC1/2 signaling independent of mTOR and a potential therapeutic target for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria M.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Queiroz, Karla C.S.; Scholma, Jetse; Goorden, Susan; Anink, Jasper; Arnold Spek, C.; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Bruno, Marco J.; Nellist, Mark; Elgersma, Ype; Aronica, Eleonora; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 and is characterized by uncontrolled mTORC1 activation. Drugs that reduce mTOR activity are only partially successful in the treatment of TSC, suggesting that mTOR-independent pathways play a role in disease development. Here, kinome profiles of wild-type and Tsc2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were generated, revealing a prominent role for PAK2 in signal transduction downstream of TSC1/2. Further investigation showed that the effect of the TSC1/2 complex on PAK2 is mediated through RHEB, but is independent of mTOR and p21RAC. We also demonstrated that PAK2 over-activation is likely responsible for the migratory and cell cycle abnormalities observed in Tsc2−/− MEFs. Finally, we detected high levels of PAK2 activation in giant cells in the brains of TSC patients. These results show that PAK2 is a direct effector of TSC1-TSC2-RHEB signaling and a new target for rational drug therapy in TSC. PMID:26412398

  4. WISP3 (CCN6) Regulates Milk Protein Synthesis and Cell Growth Through mTOR Signaling in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Yu; Yu, Zhiqiang; Hu, Lijun; Liu, Chaonan; Gao, Xueli; Zheng, Shimin

    2015-08-01

    The mTOR/S6K1 signaling pathway is the primary regulator of milk protein synthesis. While mTOR is known to be regulated at the translational level by amino acids, the mechanism by which mTOR accepts the amino acid signal is not yet clear. In this study, we describe the discovery of WISP3 as a potentially novel signaling factor that connects mTOR and amino acids. Treatment of dairy cow mammary epithelial cells with amino acids (lysine or methionine) increased both cell growth and the expression of β-casein (CSN2), WISP3, mTOR, and phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR). Notably, overexpressing WISP3 in these cells also increased both cell growth and the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR and decreased the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), while repressing WISP3 had the opposite effect. The increase of the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR mediated by amino acid could be inhibited by repressing WISP3. The increase of the expression of CSN2, mTOR, and p-mTOR mediated by WISP3 overexpression could be inhibited by overexpressing GSK3β, and vice versa. Taken together, these results reveal that through its amino acid-mediated regulation of the mTOR pathway, WISP3 is an important regulatory factor involved in the amino acid-mediated regulation of milk protein synthesis and cell growth. PMID:26061139

  5. Regulation of mTOR activity in Snell dwarf and GH receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Graham; Berryman, Darlene E; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Li, Xinna; Miller, Richard A; Garcia, Gonzalo G

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in lifespan control in invertebrates, calorie-restricted rodents, and extension of mouse lifespan by rapamycin have prompted speculation that diminished mTOR function may contribute to mammalian longevity in several settings. We show here that mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) activity is indeed lower in liver, muscle, heart, and kidney tissue of Snell dwarf and global GH receptor (GHR) gene-disrupted mice (GHR-/-), consistent with previous studies. Surprisingly, activity of mTORC2 is higher in fasted Snell and GHR-/- than in littermate controls in all 4 tissues tested. Resupply of food enhanced mTORC1 activity in both controls and long-lived mutant mice but diminished mTORC2 activity only in the long-lived mice. Mice in which GHR has been disrupted only in the liver do not show extended lifespan and also fail to show the decline in mTORC1 and increase in mTORC2 seen in mice with global loss of GHR. The data suggest that the antiaging effects in the Snell dwarf and GHR-/- mice are accompanied by both a decline in mTORC1 in multiple organs and an increase in fasting levels of mTORC2. Neither the lifespan nor mTOR effects appear to be mediated by direct GH effects on liver or by the decline in plasma IGF-I, a shared trait in both global and liver-specific GHR-/- mice. Our data suggest that a more complex pattern of hormonal effects and intertissue interactions may be responsible for regulating both lifespan and mTORC2 function in these mouse models of delayed aging. PMID:25456069

  6. Immune responses of macrophages and dendritic cells regulated by mTOR signalling.

    PubMed

    Katholnig, Karl; Linke, Monika; Pham, Ha; Hengstschläger, Markus; Weichhart, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    The innate myeloid immune system is a complex network of cells that protect against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumour cells, but it is also implicated in homoeostatic mechanisms such as tissue remodelling and wound healing. Myeloid phagocytes such as monocytes, macrophages or dendritic cells are at the basis of controlling these immune responses in all tissues of the body. In the present review, we summarize recent studies demonstrating that mTOR [mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin] regulates innate immune reactions in macrophages and dendritic cells. The mTOR pathway serves as a decision maker to control the cellular response to pathogens and tumours by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, chemokines or interferons. In addition to various in vivo mouse models, kidney transplant patients under mTOR inhibitor therapy allowed the elucidation of important innate immune functions regulated by mTOR in humans. The role of the mTOR pathway in macrophages and dendritic cells enhances our understanding of the immune system and suggests new therapeutic avenues for the regulation of pro- versus anti-inflammatory mediators with potential relevance to cancer therapy, the design of novel adjuvants and the control of distinct infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23863158

  7. Inhibitory Effect of mTOR Activator MHY1485 on Autophagy: Suppression of Lysosomal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yeon Ja; Park, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Young; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Dae Hyun; Ha, Young Mi; Kim, Ji Min; Song, Yu Min; Heo, Hyoung-Sam; Yu, Byung Pal; Chun, Pusoon; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Chung, Hae Young

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a major degradative process responsible for the disposal of cytoplasmic proteins and dysfunctional organelles via the lysosomal pathway. During the autophagic process, cells form double-membraned vesicles called autophagosomes that sequester disposable materials in the cytoplasm and finally fuse with lysosomes. In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of autophagy by a synthesized compound, MHY1485, in a culture system by using Ac2F rat hepatocytes. Autophagic flux was measured to evaluate the autophagic activity. Autophagosomes were visualized in Ac2F cells transfected with AdGFP-LC3 by live-cell confocal microscopy. In addition, activity of mTOR, a major regulatory protein of autophagy, was assessed by western blot and docking simulation using AutoDock 4.2. In the result, treatment with MHY1485 suppressed the basal autophagic flux, and this inhibitory effect was clearly confirmed in cells under starvation, a strong physiological inducer of autophagy. The levels of p62 and beclin-1 did not show significant change after treatment with MHY1485. Decreased co-localization of autophagosomes and lysosomes in confocal microscopic images revealed the inhibitory effect of MHY1485 on lysosomal fusion during starvation-induced autophagy. These effects of MHY1485 led to the accumulation of LC3II and enlargement of the autophagosomes in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Furthermore, MHY1485 induced mTOR activation and correspondingly showed a higher docking score than PP242, a well-known ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, in docking simulation. In conclusion, MHY1485 has an inhibitory effect on the autophagic process by inhibition of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes leading to the accumulation of LC3II protein and enlarged autophagosomes. MHY1485 also induces mTOR activity, providing a possibility for another regulatory mechanism of autophagy by the MHY compound. The significance of this study is the finding of a novel inhibitor of autophagy

  8. Degradation of Tiam1 by Casein Kinase 1 and the SCFβTrCP Ubiquitin Ligase Controls the Duration of mTOR-S6K Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Magliozzi, Roberto; Kim, Jihoon; Low, Teck Yew; Heck, Albert J. R.; Guardavaccaro, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Tiam1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that specifically controls the activity of the small GTPase Rac, a key regulator of cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Here, we report that in response to mitogens, Tiam1 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system via the SCFβTrCP ubiquitin ligase. Mitogenic stimulation triggers the binding of Tiam1 to the F-box protein βTrCP via its degron sequence and subsequent Tiam1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The proteolysis of Tiam1 is prevented by βTrCP silencing, inhibition of CK1 and MEK, or mutation of the Tiam1 degron site. Expression of a stable Tiam1 mutant that is unable to interact with βTrCP results in sustained activation of the mTOR/S6K signaling and increased apoptotic cell death. We propose that the SCFβTrCP-mediated degradation of Tiam1 controls the duration of the mTOR-S6K signaling pathway in response to mitogenic stimuli. PMID:25124033

  9. mTOR signalling in the nucleus accumbens shell is critical for augmented effect of TFF3 on behavioural response to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yi-Xiao; Han, Hua; Shao, Juan; Gao, Yuan; Yin, Xi; Zhu, Wei-Li; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides play important roles in modulating the rewarding value of abused drugs. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently reported to modulate withdrawal syndrome of morphine, but the effects of TFF3 on the cocaine-induced behavioral changes are still elusive. In the present study, cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP) rat paradigms were provided to investigate the role of TFF3 in the reward response to cocaine. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used to analyse the dopamine concentration. The results showed that systemic TFF3 administration (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) significantly augmented cocaine- induced hyperlocomotion and CPP formation, without any effects on locomotor activity and aversive or rewarding effects per se. TFF3 significantly augmented the increment of the dopamine concentration in the NAc and the activity of the mTOR signalling pathway induced by acute cocaine exposure (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the NAc shell, but not the core. The Intra-NAc shell infusion of rapamycin blocked TFF3-induced hyperactivity in cocaine-treatment rats. These findings indicated that TFF3 could potentiate behavioural response to cocaine, which may be associated with regulating dopamine concentration. Furthermore, the findings indicated that mTOR signalling pathway in the NAc shell is important for TFF3-induced enhancement on the cocaine-induced behavioral changes. PMID:27282818

  10. mTOR signalling in the nucleus accumbens shell is critical for augmented effect of TFF3 on behavioural response to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi-Xiao; Han, Hua; Shao, Juan; Gao, Yuan; Yin, Xi; Zhu, Wei-Li; Han, Ying; Shi, Hai-Shui

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptides play important roles in modulating the rewarding value of abused drugs. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently reported to modulate withdrawal syndrome of morphine, but the effects of TFF3 on the cocaine-induced behavioral changes are still elusive. In the present study, cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and conditioned place preference (CPP) rat paradigms were provided to investigate the role of TFF3 in the reward response to cocaine. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used to analyse the dopamine concentration. The results showed that systemic TFF3 administration (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) significantly augmented cocaine- induced hyperlocomotion and CPP formation, without any effects on locomotor activity and aversive or rewarding effects per se. TFF3 significantly augmented the increment of the dopamine concentration in the NAc and the activity of the mTOR signalling pathway induced by acute cocaine exposure (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the NAc shell, but not the core. The Intra-NAc shell infusion of rapamycin blocked TFF3-induced hyperactivity in cocaine-treatment rats. These findings indicated that TFF3 could potentiate behavioural response to cocaine, which may be associated with regulating dopamine concentration. Furthermore, the findings indicated that mTOR signalling pathway in the NAc shell is important for TFF3-induced enhancement on the cocaine-induced behavioral changes. PMID:27282818

  11. mTOR inhibition activates overall protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system as well as by autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinghui; Zhai, Bo; Gygi, Steven P.; Goldberg, Alfred Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Growth factors and nutrients enhance protein synthesis and suppress overall protein degradation by activating the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Conversely, nutrient or serum deprivation inhibits mTOR and stimulates protein breakdown by inducing autophagy, which provides the starved cells with amino acids for protein synthesis and energy production. However, it is unclear whether proteolysis by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), which catalyzes most protein degradation in mammalian cells, also increases when mTOR activity decreases. Here we show that inhibiting mTOR with rapamycin or Torin1 rapidly increases the degradation of long-lived cell proteins, but not short-lived ones, by stimulating proteolysis by proteasomes, in addition to autophagy. This enhanced proteasomal degradation required protein ubiquitination, and within 30 min after mTOR inhibition, the cellular content of K48-linked ubiquitinated proteins increased without any change in proteasome content or activity. This rapid increase in UPS-mediated proteolysis continued for many hours and resulted primarily from inhibition of mTORC1 (not mTORC2), but did not require new protein synthesis or key mTOR targets: S6Ks, 4E-BPs, or Ulks. These findings do not support the recent report that mTORC1 inhibition reduces proteolysis by suppressing proteasome expression [Zhang Y, et al. (2014) Nature 513(7518):440–443]. Several growth-related proteins were identified that were ubiquitinated and degraded more rapidly after mTOR inhibition, including HMG-CoA synthase, whose enhanced degradation probably limits cholesterol biosynthesis upon insulin deficiency. Thus, mTOR inhibition coordinately activates the UPS and autophagy, which provide essential amino acids and, together with the enhanced ubiquitination of anabolic proteins, help slow growth. PMID:26669439

  12. Timosaponin B-II ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via TXNIP, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways in alloxan-induced mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Liang; Guo, Chang-Run; Cui, Ling-Ling; Ruan, Shi-Xia; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Ji, De; Yang, Zhong-Lin; Li, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background Many synthesized drugs with clinical severe side effects have been used for diabetic nephropathy (DN) treatment. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to identify natural and safe agents to remedy DN. Timosaponin B-II (TB-II), a major steroidal saponin constituent in Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, exhibits various activities, including anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic functions. However, the anti-DN effects and potential mechanism(s) of TB-II have not been previously reported. Purpose To investigate the effect of TB-II on DN in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Methods TB-II was isolated and purified from A. asphodeloides Bunge using macroporous adsorption resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The effect of TB-II on DN was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice using an assay kit and immunohistochemical determination in vivo. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways was also measured using Western blot analysis. Results TB-II significantly decreased the blood glucose levels and ameliorated renal histopathological injury in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, TB-II remarkably decreased the levels of renal function biochemical factors, such as kidney index, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urinary uric acid, urine creatinine, and urine protein, and it reduced lipid metabolism levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides and the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in alloxan-induced mice. Furthermore, TB-II inhibited the expression of mTOR, TXNIP, and NF-κB. Conclusion The results revealed that TB-II plays an important role in DN via TXNIP, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, TB-II exhibited a prominently ameliorative effect on alloxan-induced DN. PMID:26664046

  13. IDO inhibits a tryptophan sufficiency signal that stimulates mTOR: A novel IDO effector pathway targeted by D-1-methyl-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Metz, Richard; Rust, Sonja; Duhadaway, James B; Mautino, Mario R; Munn, David H; Vahanian, Nicholas N; Link, Charles J; Prendergast, George C

    2012-12-01

    Tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) alters inflammation and favors T-cell tolerance in cancer, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The integrated stress response kinase GCN2, a sensor of uncharged tRNA that is activated by amino acid deprivation, is recognized as an important effector of the IDO pathway. However, in a mouse model of inflammatory carcinogenesis, ablation of Gcn2 did not promote resistance against tumor development like the absence of IDO does, implying the existence of additional cancer-relevant pathways that operate downstream of IDO. Addressing this gap in knowledge, we report that the IDO-mediated catabolism of tryptophan also inhibits the immunoregulatory kinases mTOR and PKC-Θ, along with the induction of autophagy. These effects were relieved specifically by tryptophan but also by the experimental agent 1-methyl-D-tryptophan (D-1MT, also known as NLG8189), the latter of which reversed the inhibitory signals generated by IDO with higher potency. Taken together, our results implicate mTOR and PKC-Θ in IDO-mediated immunosuppressive signaling, and they provide timely insights into the unique mechanism of action of D-1MT as compared with traditional biochemical inhibitors of IDO. These findings are important translationally, because they suggest broader clinical uses for D-1MT against cancers that overexpress any tryptophan catabolic enzyme (IDO, IDO2 or TDO). Moreover, they define mTOR and PKC-Θ as candidate pharmacodynamic markers for D-1MT responses in patients recruited to ongoing phase IB/II cancer trials, addressing a current clinical need. PMID:23264892

  14. Activation of mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2016-03-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival. These effects are cell-type-specific, and are elicited in response to stimulation by growth factors, hormones and cytokines, as well as to internal and external metabolic cues. Rapamycin was initially developed as an inhibitor of T-cell proliferation and allograft rejection in the organ transplant setting. Subsequently, its molecular target (mTOR) was identified as a component of two interacting complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, that regulate T-cell lineage specification and macrophage differentiation. mTORC1 drives the proinflammatory expansion of T helper (TH) type 1, TH17, and CD4(-)CD8(-) (double-negative, DN) T cells. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibit the development of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (TREG) cells and, indirectly, mTORC2 favours the expansion of T follicular helper (TFH) cells which, similarly to DN T cells, promote B-cell activation and autoantibody production. In contrast to this proinflammatory effect of mTORC2, mTORC1 favours, to some extent, an anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization that is protective against infections and tissue inflammation. Outside the immune system, mTORC1 controls fibroblast proliferation and chondrocyte survival, with implications for tissue fibrosis and osteoarthritis, respectively. Rapamycin (which primarily inhibits mTORC1), ATP-competitive, dual mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitors and upstream regulators of the mTOR pathway are being developed to treat autoimmune, hyperproliferative and degenerative diseases. In this regard, mTOR blockade promises to increase life expectancy through treatment and prevention of rheumatic diseases. PMID:26698023

  15. mTOR inhibitors counteract tamoxifen-induced activation of breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Ma, Ran; Lövrot, John; Kis, Lorand Levente; Lindh, Claes; Blomquist, Lennart; Fredriksson, Irma; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2015-10-10

    Breast cancer cells with stem cell characteristics (CSC) are a distinct cell population with phenotypic similarities to mammary stem cells. CSCs are important drivers of tumorigenesis and the metastatic process. Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormonal therapy for estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers. In our study, tamoxifen was effective in reducing proliferation of ER + adherent cancer cells, but not their CSC population. We isolated, expanded and incubated CSC from seven breast cancers with or without tamoxifen. By genome-wide transcriptional analysis we identified tamoxifen-induced transcriptional pathways associated with ribosomal biogenesis and mRNA translation, both regulated by the mTOR-pathway. We observed induction of the key mTOR downstream targets S6K1, S6RP and 4E-BP1 in-patient derived CSCs by tamoxifen on protein level. Using the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin, everolimus and PF-04691502 (a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and in combination with tamoxifen, significant reduction in mammosphere formation was observed. Hence, we suggest that the CSC population play a significant role during endocrine resistance through activity of the mTOR pathway. In addition, tamoxifen further stimulates the mTOR-pathway but can be antagonized using mTOR-inhibitors. PMID:26208432

  16. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future. PMID:26648340

  17. Dehydrocostuslactone Suppresses Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo through Inhibition of Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chih-Ya; Tsai, An-Chi; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ling; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine component dehydrocostuslactone (DHC) isolated from Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, has been shown to have anti-cancer activity. Angiogenesis is an essential process in the growth and progression of cancer. In this study, we demonstrated, for the first time, the anti-angiogenic mechanism of action of DHC to be via the induction of cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase due to abrogation of the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/cyclin D1 and mTOR signaling pathway. First, we demonstrated that DHC has an anti-angiogenic effect in the matrigel-plug nude mice model and an inhibitory effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and capillary-like tube formation in vitro. DHC caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was associated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, leading to the suppression of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of cyclin A and cdk2 expression. With respect to the molecular mechanisms underlying the DHC-induced cyclin D1 down-regulation, this study demonstrated that DHC significantly inhibits Akt expression, resulting in the suppression of GSK-3β phosphorylation and mTOR expression. These effects are capable of regulating cyclin D1 degradation, but they were significantly reversed by constitutively active myristoylated (myr)-Akt. Furthermore, the abrogation of tube formation induced by DHC was also reversed by overexpression of Akt. And the co-treatment with LiCl and DHC significantly reversed the growth inhibition induced by DHC. Taken together, our study has identified Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR as important targets of DHC and has thus highlighted its potential application in angiogenesis-related diseases, such as cancer. PMID:22359572

  18. Determination and validation of mTOR kinase-domain 3D structure by homology modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lakhlili, Wiame; Chevé, Gwénaël; Yasri, Abdelaziz; Ibrahimi, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    The AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is considered as one of the commonly activated and deregulated signaling pathways in human cancer. mTOR is associated with other proteins in two molecular complexes: mTOR complex 1/Raptor and the mTOR complex 2/Rictor. Using the crystal structure of the related lipid kinase PI3Kγ, we built a model of the catalytic region of mTOR. The modeling of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the mTOR was performed by homology modeling program SWISS-MODEL. The quality and validation of the obtained model were performed using PROCHECK and PROVE softwares. The overall stereochemical property of the protein was assessed by the Ramachandran plot. The model validation was also done by docking of known inhibitors. In this paper, we describe and validate a 3D model for the mTOR catalytic site. PMID:26257525

  19. The inhibition of MAPK potentiates the anti-angiogenic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Roulin, Didier; Dufour, Marc; Benoit, Michael; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Targeting mTOR in endothelial cell activates MAPK. {yields} Blocking MAPK enhances the anti-angiogenic effects of mTOR inhibitors. {yields} The anti-angiogenic efficacy of ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR is superior to that of rapamycin. -- Abstract: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is part of two functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, plays an important role in vascular endothelial cells. Indeed, the inhibition of mTOR with an allosteric inhibitor such as rapamycin reduces the growth of endothelial cell in vitro and inhibits angiogenesis in vivo. Recent studies have shown that blocking mTOR results in the activation of other prosurvival signals such as Akt or MAPK which counteract the growth inhibitory properties of mTOR inhibitors. However, little is known about the interactions between mTOR and MAPK in endothelial cells and their relevance to angiogenesis. Here we found that blocking mTOR with ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR or with rapamycin induced the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in endothelial cells. Downregulation of mTORC1 but not mTORC2 had similar effects showing that the inhibition of mTORC1 is responsible for the activation of MAPK. Treatment of endothelial cells with mTOR inhibitors in combination with MAPK inhibitors reduced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration and tube formation more significantly than either inhibition alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft model, the anti-angiogenic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors was enhanced by the pharmacological blockade of MAPK. Taken together these results show that blocking mTORC1 in endothelial cells activates MAPK and that a combined inhibition of MAPK and mTOR has additive anti-angiogenic effects. They also provide a rationale to target both mTOR and MAPK simultaneously in anti-angiogenic treatment.

  20. [Update on clinical activity of CCI779 (temsirolimus), mTOR inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Mounier, Nicolas; Vignot, Stéphane; Spano, Jean-Philippe

    2006-11-01

    Temsirolimus (CCI779), an intravenous analog of rapamycin, presents immunosuppressive properties and also antiproliferative activity. Its principal target is the mTOR serine/threonin kinase which controls the initiation of the transcription of many ARNm implicated in carcinogenesis. Breast cancers, glioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma were particularly studied with response rates from 10 to 20 %. In haematology, mantle-cell lymphoma is of particular interest because of constitutional activation of cyclin D1 (response rate of 40 %). As a whole these data define temsirolimus as a promising new drug. Current and further developments are based on its association with chemotherapy in a concomitant or sequential way. PMID:17145584

  1. mTOR pathway in colorectal cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a potential target for drug development, particularly due to the fact that it plays such a crucial role in cancer biology. In addition, next-generation mTOR inhibitors have become available, marking an exciting new phase in mTOR-based therapy. However, the verdict on their therapeutic efectiveness remains unclear. Here we review phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signaling as one of the primary mechanisms for sustaining tumor outgrowth and metastasis, recent advances in the development of mTOR inhibitors, and current studies addressing mTOR activation/inhibition in colorectal cancer (CRC). We will also discuss our recent comparative study of diferent mTOR inhibitors in a population of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs), and current major challenges for achieving individualized drug therapy using kinase inhibitors. PMID:24393708

  2. The ketogenic diet inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Sharon S.; Rensing, Nicholas R.; Thio, Liu Lin; Yamada, Kelvin A.; Wong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summary The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for epilepsy, but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that KD inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway signaling. The expression of pS6 and pAkt, markers of mTOR pathway activation, was reduced in hippocampus and liver of rats fed KD. In the kainate model of epilepsy, KD blocked the hippocampal pS6 elevation that occurs after status epilepticus. As mTOR signaling has been implicated in epileptogenesis, these results suggest that the KD may have anticonvulsant or antiepileptogenic actions via mTOR pathway inhibition. PMID:21371020

  3. Ethanolamine enhances the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells via the mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huansheng; Xiong, Xia; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Ethanolamine (Etn), which is the base constituent of phosphatidylethanolamine, a major phospholipid in animal cell membranes, is required for the proliferation of many types of mammalian epithelial cells. However, it is not clear whether the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells requires Etn. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of Etn on the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. The addition of Etn at 100 or 200 μM was found to enhance the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells. The expression of cell cycle-related proteins CDK4, RB3, cyclin A, and PCNA was also enhanced by Etn. Moreover, the expression or phosphorylation levels of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway protein and the expression of proteins related to mitochondrial function were also affected by Etn in IPEC-1 cells. These results indicate that Etn promotes the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells by exerting effects on mTOR signaling pathway and mitochondrial function. PMID:27083163

  4. mTOR is necessary for proper satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Liang, Xinrong; Shan, Tizhong; Jiang, Qinyang; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Kuang, Shihuan

    2015-07-17

    The serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive deletion of Mtor gene results in embryonic lethality, the function of mTOR in muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and skeletal muscle regeneration remains to be determined. In this study, we established a satellite cell specific Mtor conditional knockout (cKO) mouse model by crossing Pax7{sup CreER} and Mtor{sup flox/flox} mice. Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury was severely compromised in the absence of Mtor, indicated by increased number of necrotic myofibers infiltrated by Evans blue dye, and reduced number and size of regenerated myofibers in the Mtor cKO mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. To dissect the cellular mechanism, we analyzed satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts grown on single myofibers or adhered to culture plates. The Mtor cKO myoblasts exhibited defective proliferation and differentiation kinetics when compared to myoblasts derived from WT littermates. At the mRNA and protein levels, the Mtor cKO myoblasts expressed lower levels of key myogenic determinant genes Pax7, Myf5, Myod, Myog than did the WT myoblasts. These results suggest that mTOR is essential for satellite cell function and skeletal muscle regeneration through controlling the expression of myogenic genes. - Highlights: • Pax7{sup CreER} was used to delete Mtor gene in satellite cells. • Satellite cell specific deletion of Mtor impairs muscle regeneration. • mTOR is necessary for satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. • Deletion of Mtor leads to reduced expression of key myogenic genes.

  5. DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in human liver cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Obara, Akio; Fujita, Yoshihito; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fukushima, Toru; Oguri, Yasuo; Ogura, Masahito; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2015-05-15

    Metformin, one of the most commonly used drugs for patients with type 2 diabetes, recently has received much attention regarding its anti-cancer action. It is thought that the suppression of mTOR signaling is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action. Although liver cancer is one of the most responsive types of cancer for reduction of incidence by metformin, the molecular mechanism of the suppression of mTOR in liver remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation using human liver cancer cells. Metformin suppressed phosphorylation of p70-S6 kinase, and ribosome protein S6, downstream targets of mTOR, and suppressed cell proliferation. We found that DEPTOR, an endogenous substrate of mTOR suppression, is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation in human liver cancer cells. Metformin increases the protein levels of DEPTOR, intensifies binding to mTOR, and exerts a suppressing effect on mTOR signaling. This increasing effect of DEPTOR by metformin is regulated by the proteasome degradation system; the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling and cell proliferation is in a DEPTOR-dependent manner. Furthermore, metformin exerts a suppressing effect on proteasome activity, DEPTOR-related mTOR signaling, and cell proliferation in an AMPK-dependent manner. We conclude that DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action in liver, and could be a novel target for anti-cancer therapy. - Highlights: • We elucidated a novel pathway of metformin's anti-cancer action in HCC cells. • DEPTOR is involved in the suppressing effect of metformin on mTOR signaling. • Metformin increases DEPTOR protein levels via suppression of proteasome activity. • DEPTOR-related mTOR suppression is involved in metformin's anti-cancer action.

  6. mTOR signaling pathway is inhibited downstream of the cyclophilin D-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition in honokiol-triggered regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Xiong, Jieni; Zhu, Saisa; Xu, Dong; Shen, Hong; Deng, Yongchuan

    2016-04-01

    Honokiol (HNK) is a pharmacologically active small molecule that is isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb, houpu. It may induce diversified types of regulated cell death, which are dependent on different cell types and varying concentrations of therapeutic agent. We previously reported that HNK triggers a cyclophilin D (CypD)-mediated regulated necrosis in various cell lines at certain concentrations (two‑fold higher than its half maximal inhibitory concentration). Subsequent study revealed that HNK induced cell death transition from early apoptosis to regulated necrosis in parallel with the increase of HNK dose. In the current study, a lower concentration of HNK (30 µg/ml) than previously reported also induced simplex CypD‑mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)‑associated regulated necrosis in the HEK‑293 human embryonic kidney cell line. HNK, at concentration of 30 µg/ml, induced necrotic cell death in HEK‑293 cells, which was demonstrated by positive staining for propidium iodide. No DNA ladder patterns or apoptotic bodies were detected in cells that underwent this type of necrotic cell death. Caspase‑8 and ‑3 were not activated during the process of HNK‑induced necrosis. In addition, pan‑caspase inhibitor, z‑VAD‑fmk and receptor‑interacting protein 1 inhibitor, necrostatin‑1 did not inhibit HNK‑induced necrosis. However, CypD inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), blocked HNK‑induced necrosis. These findings indicate that 30 µg/ml HNK induced simplex CypD-mediated MPT‑associated regulated necrosis in HEK‑293 cells. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that during HNK-triggered regulated necrosis the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is also inhibited. Pretreatment with CsA, therefore, inhibits HNK‑triggered regulated necrosis and reverses dephosphorylation of Akt, eIF4E‑binding protein 1 and S6 kinase. This indicated that the mTOR signaling pathway is effective

  7. Cyclic mechanical stretch promotes energy metabolism in osteoblast-like cells through an mTOR signaling-associated mechanism

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, ZHAOBIN; JING, DA; ZHANG, XIAODONG; DUAN, YINZHONG; XUE, FENG

    2015-01-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for maintaining function and substance metabolism in osteoblasts. However, the role of cyclic stretch in regulating osteoblastic energy metabolism and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that cyclic stretch (10% elongation at 0.1 Hz) significantly enhanced glucose consumption, lactate levels (determined using a glucose/lactate assay kit), intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (quantified using rLuciferase/Luciferin reagent) and the mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related enzymes [mitochondrial ATP synthase, L-lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and enolase 1; measured by RT-qPCR], and increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p70s6k (measured by western blot analysis) in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of Akt or mTOR with an antagonist (wortmannin or rapamycin) suppressed the stretch-induced increase in glucose consumption, lactate levels, intracellular ATP levels and the expression of mitochondrial ATP synthase and LDHA, indicating the significance of the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k pathway in regulating osteoblastic energy metabolism in response to mechanical stretch. Thus, we concluded that cyclic stretch regulates energy metabolism in MG-63 cells partially through the Akt/mTOR/p70s6k signaling pathway. The present findings provide novel insight into osteoblastic mechanobiology from the perspective of energy metabolism. PMID:26251974

  8. Zinc stimulates glucose consumption by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in L6 myotubes: essential roles of Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β and mTOR-S6K1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuntang; Lu, Huizi; Yang, Huijun; Li, Chunlei; Sang, Qian; Liu, Xinyan; Liu, Yongzhe; Wang, Yongming; Sun, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the insulin-like effects of zinc in normal L6 myotubes as well as its ability to alleviate insulin resistance. Glucose consumption was measured in both normal and insulin-resistant L6 myotubes. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that zinc exhibited insulin-like glucose transporting effects by activating key markers that are involved in the insulin signaling cascade (including Akt, GLUT4 and GSK3β), and downregulating members of the insulin signaling feedback cascade such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1). In normal L6 myotubes, zinc enhanced glucose consumption via a mechanism that might involve the activation of Akt phosphorylation, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation. In contrast, zinc exerted insulin-mimetic effects in insulin-resistant L6 myotubes by upregulating Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 translocation and GSK3β phosphorylation, and downregulating the expression of mTOR and S6K1. In conclusion, zinc might enhance glucose consumption by modulating insulin signaling pathways including Akt-GLUT4, GSK3β, mTOR and S6K1. PMID:27295130

  9. Protein Ingestion Induces Muscle Insulin Resistance Independent of Leucine-Mediated mTOR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I.; Yoshino, Jun; Stromsdorfer, Kelly L.; Klein, Seth J.; Magkos, Faidon; Reeds, Dominic N.; Klein, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, and intravenous amino acid infusion blunts insulin-mediated glucose disposal. We tested the hypothesis that protein ingestion impairs insulin-mediated glucose disposal by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling, which can inhibit AKT. We measured glucose disposal and muscle p-mTORSer2448, p-AKTSer473, and p-AKTThr308 in 22 women during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure with and without concomitant ingestion of whey protein (0.6 g/kg fat-free mass; n = 11) or leucine that matched the amount given with whey protein (n = 11). Both whey protein and leucine ingestion raised plasma leucine concentration by approximately twofold and muscle p-mTORSer2448 by ∼30% above the values observed in the control (no amino acid ingestion) studies; p-AKTSer473 and p-AKTThr308 were not affected by whey protein or leucine ingestion. Whey protein ingestion decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal (median 38.8 [quartiles 30.8, 61.8] vs. 51.9 [41.0, 77.3] µmol glucose/µU insulin · mL−1 · min−1; P < 0.01), whereas ingestion of leucine did not (52.3 [43.3, 65.4] vs. 52.3 [43.9, 73.2]). These results indicate that 1) protein ingestion causes insulin resistance and could be an important regulator of postprandial glucose homeostasis and 2) the insulin-desensitizing effect of protein ingestion is not due to inhibition of AKT by leucine-mediated mTOR signaling. PMID:25475435

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) induces estrogen receptor-positive mammary neoplasia through an inflammatory and metabolic phenotype linked to mTor activation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hongyan; Lu, Jin; Xiao, Junfeng; Upadhyay, Geeta; Umans, Rachel; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Yin, Yuhzi; Fant, Michael E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Glazer, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) regulates a multitude of physiological processes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and proliferation. One or more of these processes are potential risk factors for the ability of PPARδ agonists to promote tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we describe a new transgenic mouse model in which activation of PPARδ in the mammary epithelium by endogenous or synthetic ligands resulted in progressive histopathological changes that culminated in the appearance of estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive and ErbB2-negative infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Multiparous mice presented with mammary carcinomas after a latency of 12 months, and administration of the PPARδ ligand GW501516 reduced tumor latency to five months. Histopathological changes occurred concurrently with an increase in an inflammatory, invasive, metabolic and proliferative gene signature, including expression of the trophoblast gene, Plac1, beginning one week after GW501516 treatment, and remained elevated throughout tumorigenesis. The appearance of malignant changes correlated with a pronounced increase in phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid metabolites, which coincided with activation of Akt and mTor signaling that were attenuated by treatment with the mTor inhibitor everolimus. Our findings are the first to demonstrate a direct role of PPARδ in the pathogenesis of mammary tumorigenesis, and suggest a rationale for therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat this disease. PMID:23811944

  11. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma: a lesion with activated mTOR pathway and constant expression of glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Caporalini, Chiara; Giordano, Flavio; Mussa, Federico; Scagnet, Mirko; Moscardi, Selene; Baroni, Gianna; Genitori, Lorenzo; Taddei, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a rare tumor associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC mainly involves the central nervous system (CNS) where SEGA, subependymal nodules, and cortical tubers may be present. First studies suggested the astrocytic nature of SEGA while successive studies demonstrated the mixed glio-neuronal nature. There are similarities between TSC-associated CNS lesions and type IIb focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). In all these pathologies, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway activation has been demonstrated. Recent data evidenced that balloon cells in FCD IIb express glutamine synthetase (GS). GS is involved in the clearance of glutamate. Cells expressing GS might exert an antiepileptic role. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilaments (NF), and GS expression and the mTOR status (mTOR and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6) in 16 SEGAs and 2 cortical tubers. Our purpose was to emphasize the mixed nature of SEGA and to further investigate the similarities between TSC-related CNS lesions (in particular SEGA) and FCD IIb. We confirm the glio-neuronal nature and the common activation of the mTOR pathway in SEGAs. In addition, we report for the first time that these tumors, analogously to FCD IIb, commonly express GS. Notably, the expression of mTOR, phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6, and GS was restricted to gemistocytic-like GFAP-negative cells. GS expression and mTOR pathway activation were also documented in cortical tubers. Further studies are necessary to understand the significance of GS expression in SEGAs as well as in cortical tubers. PMID:27390104

  12. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  13. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Bernhard F; Gonçalves Silva, Isabel; Prokhorov, Alexandr; Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A; Berger, Steffen M; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V

    2015-10-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  14. A novel curcumin analog binds to and activates TFEB in vitro and in vivo independent of MTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju-Xian; Sun, Yue-Ru; Peluso, Ivana; Zeng, Yu; Yu, Xing; Lu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Ming-Zhong; Liu, Liang-Feng; Huang, Ying-Yu; Chen, Lei-Lei; Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Zhang, Hong-Jie; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Lu, Aiping; Ballabio, Andrea; Medina, Diego L; Guo, Zhihong; Li, Min

    2016-08-01

    Autophagy dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, can ameliorate neurotoxicity and rescue neurodegeneration in animal models. Currently known TFEB activators are mainly inhibitors of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]), which, as a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism, is involved in a wide range of biological functions. Thus, the identification of TFEB modulators acting without inhibiting the MTOR pathway would be preferred and probably less deleterious to cells. In this study, a synthesized curcumin derivative termed C1 is identified as a novel MTOR-independent activator of TFEB. Compound C1 specifically binds to TFEB at the N terminus and promotes TFEB nuclear translocation without inhibiting MTOR activity. By activating TFEB, C1 enhances autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, compound C1 is an orally effective activator of TFEB and is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27172265

  15. mTOR pathway is activated by PKA in adrenocortical cells and participates in vivo to apoptosis resistance in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).

    PubMed

    de Joussineau, Cyrille; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Tissier, Frédérique; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drelon, Coralie; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Tauveron, Igor; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bertherat, Jérôme; Val, Pierre; Martinez, Antoine

    2014-10-15

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A tumor suppressor gene that encodes the regulatory subunit R1α of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In human and mouse adrenocortical cells, these mutations lead to increased PKA activity, which results in increased resistance to apoptosis that contributes to the tumorigenic process. We used in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the possibility of a crosstalk between PKA and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in adrenocortical cells and its possible involvement in apoptosis resistance. Impact of PKA signaling on activation of the mTOR pathway and apoptosis was measured in a mouse model of PPNAD (AdKO mice), in human and mouse adrenocortical cell lines in response to pharmacological inhibitors and in PPNAD tissues by immunohistochemistry. AdKO mice showed increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway activity. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin restored sensitivity of adrenocortical cells to apoptosis in AdKO but not in wild-type mice. In both cell lines and mouse adrenals, rapid phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets including BAD proapoptotic protein was observed in response to PKA activation. Accordingly, BAD hyperphosphorylation, which inhibits its proapoptotic activity, was increased in both AdKO mouse adrenals and human PPNAD tissues. In conclusion, mTORC1 pathway is activated by PKA signaling in human and mouse adrenocortical cells, leading to increased cell survival, which is correlated with BAD hyperphosphorylation. These alterations could be causative of tumor formation. PMID:24865460

  16. Unbiased RNAi screen for hepcidin regulators links hepcidin suppression to proliferative Ras/RAF and nutrient-dependent mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Roche, Franziska; da Silva, Ana Rita; Call, Debora; D'Alessio, Flavia; Ragab, Anan; Lapinski, Philip E; Ummanni, Ramesh; Korf, Ulrike; Oakes, Christopher; Damm, Georg; D'Alessandro, Lorenza A; Klingmüller, Ursula; King, Philip D; Boutros, Michael; Hentze, Matthias W; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2014-03-01

    The hepatic hormone hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Its expression is largely regulated by 2 signaling pathways: the "iron-regulated" bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the inflammatory JAK-STAT pathways. To obtain broader insights into cellular processes that modulate hepcidin transcription and to provide a resource to identify novel genetic modifiers of systemic iron homeostasis, we designed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen that monitors hepcidin promoter activity after the knockdown of 19 599 genes in hepatocarcinoma cells. Interestingly, many of the putative hepcidin activators play roles in signal transduction, inflammation, or transcription, and affect hepcidin transcription through BMP-responsive elements. Furthermore, our work sheds light on new components of the transcriptional machinery that maintain steady-state levels of hepcidin expression and its responses to the BMP- and interleukin-6-triggered signals. Notably, we discover hepcidin suppression mediated via components of Ras/RAF MAPK and mTOR signaling, linking hepcidin transcriptional control to the pathways that respond to mitogen stimulation and nutrient status. Thus using a combination of RNAi screening, reverse phase protein arrays, and small molecules testing, we identify links between the control of systemic iron homeostasis and critical liver processes such as regeneration, response to injury, carcinogenesis, and nutrient metabolism. PMID:24385536

  17. Exercise and dietary change ameliorate high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance via mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ju Yong; Shin, Ki Ok; Woo, Jinhee; Woo, Sang Heon; Jang, Ki Soeng; Lee, Yul Hyo; Kang, Sunghwun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise and dietary change on obesity and insulin resistance and mTOR signaling protein levels in skeletal muscles of obese rats. [Methods] Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into CO (Normal diet) and HF (High Fat diet) groups in order to induce obesity for 15 weeks. The rats were then subdivided into CO, COT (CO + Training), HF, HFT (HF + Training), HFND (Dietary change), and HFNDT (HFND + Training) groups (10 rats / group). The training groups underwent moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 8 weeks, after which soleus muscles were excised and analyzed. Data was statistically analyzed by independent t-test and One-way ANOVA tests with a 0.05 significance level. [Results] Fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and HOMA-IR in the HF group were significantly higher, as compared with other groups (p <.05). Protein levels of insulin receptor subunit-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2, and p-Akt were significantly higher in the HFT, HFND, and HFNDT groups, as compared with HF group. In addition, the protein levels of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 were significantly decreased by exercise and dietary change (p <.05). However, mTORC2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase were significantly increased (p <.05). [Conclusion] In summary, despite the negative impact of continuous high fat intake, regular exercise and dietary change showed a positive effect on insulin resistance and mTOR signaling protein levels. PMID:27508151

  18. Suppression of the invasive potential of Glioblastoma cells by mTOR inhibitors involves modulation of NFκB and PKC-α signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chandrika, Goparaju; Natesh, Kumar; Ranade, Deepak; Chugh, Ashish; Shastry, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumors in adults with survival period <1.5 years of patients. The role of mTOR pathway is documented in invasion and migration, the features associated with aggressive phenotype in human GBM. However, most of the preclinical and clinical studies with mTOR inhibitors are focused on antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in GBM. In this study, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibitors-rapamycin (RAP), temisirolimus (TEM), torin-1 (TOR) and PP242 suppress invasion and migration induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα) and tumor promoter, Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and also reduce the expression of the TNFα and IL1β suggesting their potential to regulate factors in microenvironment that support tumor progression. The mTOR inhibitors significantly decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA, protein and activity that was enhanced by TNFα and PMA. The effect was mediated through reduction of Protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α) activity and downregulation of NFκB. TNFα- induced transcripts of NFκB targets -VEGF, pentraxin-3, cathepsin-B and paxillin, crucial in invasion were restored to basal level by these inhibitors. With limited therapeutic interventions currently available for GBM, our findings are significant and suggest that mTOR inhibitors may be explored as anti-invasive drugs for GBM treatment. PMID:26940200

  19. Suppression of the invasive potential of Glioblastoma cells by mTOR inhibitors involves modulation of NFκB and PKC-α signaling.

    PubMed

    Chandrika, Goparaju; Natesh, Kumar; Ranade, Deepak; Chugh, Ashish; Shastry, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of brain tumors in adults with survival period <1.5 years of patients. The role of mTOR pathway is documented in invasion and migration, the features associated with aggressive phenotype in human GBM. However, most of the preclinical and clinical studies with mTOR inhibitors are focused on antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity in GBM. In this study, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibitors-rapamycin (RAP), temisirolimus (TEM), torin-1 (TOR) and PP242 suppress invasion and migration induced by Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα) and tumor promoter, Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and also reduce the expression of the TNFα and IL1β suggesting their potential to regulate factors in microenvironment that support tumor progression. The mTOR inhibitors significantly decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA, protein and activity that was enhanced by TNFα and PMA. The effect was mediated through reduction of Protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α) activity and downregulation of NFκB. TNFα- induced transcripts of NFκB targets -VEGF, pentraxin-3, cathepsin-B and paxillin, crucial in invasion were restored to basal level by these inhibitors. With limited therapeutic interventions currently available for GBM, our findings are significant and suggest that mTOR inhibitors may be explored as anti-invasive drugs for GBM treatment. PMID:26940200

  20. PRAS40 deregulates apoptosis in Ewing sarcoma family tumors by enhancing the insulin receptor/Akt and mTOR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Dan; Liu, Jinye; Guo, Lianying; Wu, Dawei; Matsumoto, Ken; Huang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    EWS expression in Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) is decreased due to the haploinsufficiency elicited by chromosomal translocation. The abnormal expression levels of EWS and its downstream factors contribute to the manifestation of ESFTs. Previously, we reported that increased Proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40), which is encoded by an EWS mRNA target, promotes the development of ESFTs. However, the mechanism remains elusive. To clarify the role of PRAS40 in ESFTs, we silenced PRAS40 expression in ESFT cells using siRNAs and found increased levels of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Cleaved caspase 3 levels and cytochrome C release were increased simultaneously. Furthermore, with PRAS40 knockdown, the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR downstream factors, i.e., S6K and S6, was attenuated notably. Ectopic expression of PRAS40 increased Akt and S6 phosphorylation. Activation of Akt only partially reversed the apoptosis induced by PRAS40 knockdown, and downregulation of S6 phosphorylation by PRAS40 silencing could not be sufficiently restored via Akt activation. Searching the upstream factors in this pathway, the autophosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) was found to be inhibited significantly by PRAS40 silencing but increased by PRAS40 overexpression. Therefore, PRAS40 may enhance IR phosphorylation to facilitate Akt and mTOR signaling leading to the apoptosis deregulation in ESFTs. Moreover, in vivo results confirmed that PRAS40 deletion suppressed the growth of ESFT xenografts and downregulated IR and S6 phosphorylation. Our findings suggest a novel functioning model for PRAS40, which represents a novel therapeutic target for ESFTs. PMID:27186418

  1. mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yancun; Hua, Hui; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shu; Kong, Qingbin; Shao, Ting; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Qian; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core component of raptor-mTOR (mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) complexes that control diverse cellular processes. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF-IR and InsR themselves. Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF-IR/InsR. Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR. Moreover, mTORC2 promotes ligand-induced activation of IGF-IR/InsR. IGF- and insulin-induced IGF-IR/InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor-null cells. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF-IR/InsR and promoting rapamycin- or ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/InsR. mTOR exhibits tyrosine kinase activity towards the general tyrosine kinase substrate poly(Glu-Tyr) and IGF-IR/InsR. Both recombinant mTOR and immunoprecipitated mTORC2 phosphorylate IGF-IR and InsR on Tyr1131/1136 and Tyr1146/1151, respectively. These effects are independent of the intrinsic kinase activity of IGF-IR/InsR, as determined by assays on kinase-dead IGF-IR/InsR mutants. While both rictor and mTOR immunoprecitates from rictor(+/+) MCF-10A cells exhibit tyrosine kinase activity towards IGF-IR and InsR, mTOR immunoprecipitates from rictor(-/-) MCF-10A cells do not induce IGF-IR and InsR phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutation of residue Tyr1131 in IGF-IR or Tyr1146 in InsR abrogates the activation of IGF-IR/InsR by mTOR. Finally, overexpression of rictor promotes IGF-induced cell proliferation. Our work identifies mTOR as a dual-specificity kinase and clarifies how mTORC2 promotes IGF-IR/InsR activation. PMID:26584640

  2. Denervation atrophy is independent from Akt and mTOR activation and is not rescued by myostatin inhibition.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Elizabeth M; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; Simmers, Jessica L; Mi, Ruifa; Park, Jae-Sung; Ying, Stephanie; Hoke, Ahmet; Lee, Se-Jin; Cohn, Ronald D

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare two acquired muscle atrophies and the use of myostatin inhibition for their treatment. Myostatin naturally inhibits skeletal muscle growth by binding to ActRIIB, a receptor on the cell surface of myofibers. Because blocking myostatin in an adult wild-type mouse induces profound muscle hypertrophy, we applied a soluble ActRIIB receptor to models of disuse (limb immobilization) and denervation (sciatic nerve resection) atrophy. We found that treatment of immobilized mice with ActRIIB prevented the loss of muscle mass observed in placebo-treated mice. Our results suggest that this protection from disuse atrophy is regulated by serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase (SGK) rather than by Akt. Denervation atrophy, however, was not protected by ActRIIB treatment, yet resulted in an upregulation of the pro-growth factors Akt, SGK and components of the mTOR pathway. We then treated the denervated mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and found that, despite a reduction in mTOR activation, there is no alteration of the atrophy phenotype. Additionally, rapamycin prevented the denervation-induced upregulation of the mTORC2 substrates Akt and SGK. Thus, our studies show that denervation atrophy is not only independent from Akt, SGK and mTOR activation but also has a different underlying pathophysiological mechanism than disuse atrophy. PMID:24504412

  3. Seizure-dependent mTOR activation in 5-HT neurons promotes autism-like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, John J.; Yu, Wilson; Yang, Jun; Feng, Haihua; Helm, Meghan; McMahon, Elizabeth; Zhu, Xinjun; Shin, Damian; Huang, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common comorbidities of one another. Despite the prevalent correlation between the two disorders, few studies have been able to elucidate a mechanistic link. We demonstrate that forebrain specific Tsc1 deletion in mice causes epilepsy and autism-like behaviors, concomitant with disruption of 5-HT neurotransmission. We find that epileptiform activity propagates to the raphe nuclei, resulting in seizure-dependent hyperactivation of mTOR in 5-HT neurons. To dissect whether mTOR hyperactivity in 5-HT neurons alone was sufficient to recapitulate an autism-like phenotype we utilized Tsc1flox/flox;Slc6a4-cre mice, in which mTOR is restrictively hyperactivated in 5-HT neurons. Tsc1flox/flox;Slc6a4-cre mice displayed alterations of the 5-HT system and autism-like behaviors, without causing epilepsy. Rapamycin treatment in these mice was sufficient to rescue the phenotype. We conclude that the spread of seizure activity to the brainstem is capable of promoting hyperactivation of mTOR in the raphe nuclei, which in turn promotes autism-like behaviors. Thus our study provides a novel mechanism describing how epilepsy can contribute to the development of autism-like behaviors, suggesting new therapeutic strategies for autism. PMID:25315683

  4. mTOR pathway inhibition as a new therapeutic strategy in epilepsy and epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Citraro, Rita; Leo, Antonio; Constanti, Andrew; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2016-05-01

    Several preclinical and some clinical studies have revealed that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is involved in both genetic and acquired epilepsy syndromes. Excessive activation of mTOR signaling, as a consequence of loss-of-function of genes encoding for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1 and 2, is linked to the development of cortical malformations and epilepsy. This mTOR hyperactivation is associated with different epileptogenic conditions under the term of 'mTORopathies' such as tuberous sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly and ganglioglioma. mTOR overactivation produces brain abnormalities that include dysplastic neurons, abnormal cortical organization and astrogliosis. mTOR inhibitors (e.g. rapamycin) have consistent protective effects in various genetic (e.g. TSC models and WAG/Rij rats) and acquired (e.g. kainate or pilocarpine post-status epilepticus) epilepsy animal models. Furthermore, clinical studies in patients with TSC and cortical dysplasia (CD) have confirmed the effectiveness of mTOR inhibitors also in epileptic patients. Therefore, mTOR is currently a very good candidate as a target for epilepsy and epileptogenesis. This review describes the relevance of the mTOR pathway to epileptogenesis and its potential as a therapeutic target in epilepsy treatment by presenting the most recent findings on mTOR inhibitors. PMID:27049136

  5. Sepsis and mechnaical ventilation restrain translation initiation in skeletal muscle by inducing AMPK-associated TSC[2] restriction of mTOR signaling in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In skeletal muscle, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor of AMP: ATP and modulates translation by repressing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Endotoxin (LPS)-induced sepsis reduces muscle protein synthesis by blunting translation initiation. We hypothe...

  6. AKT Inhibitors Promote Cell Death in Cervical Cancer through Disruption of mTOR Signaling and Glucose Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Rashmi, Ramachandran; DeSelm, Carl; Helms, Cynthia; Bowcock, Anne; Rogers, Buck E.; Rader, Janet; Grigsby, Perry W.; Schwarz, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Background PI3K/AKT pathway alterations are associated with incomplete response to chemoradiation in human cervical cancer. This study was performed to test for mutations in the PI3K pathway and to evaluate the effects of AKT inhibitors on glucose uptake and cell viability. Experimental Design Mutational analysis of DNA from 140 pretreatment tumor biopsies and 8 human cervical cancer cell lines was performed. C33A cells (PIK3CAR88Q and PTENR233*) were treated with increasing concentrations of two allosteric AKT inhibitors (SC-66 and MK-2206) with or without the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Cell viability and activation status of the AKT/mTOR pathway were determined in response to the treatment. Glucose uptake was evaluated by incubation with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Cell migration was assessed by scratch assay. Results Activating PIK3CA (E545K, E542K) and inactivating PTEN (R233*) mutations were identified in human cervical cancer. SC-66 effectively inhibited AKT, mTOR and mTOR substrates in C33A cells. SC-66 inhibited glucose uptake via reduced delivery of Glut1 and Glut4 to the cell membrane. SC-66 (1 µg/ml-56%) and MK-2206 (30 µM-49%) treatment decreased cell viability through a non-apoptotic mechanism. Decreases in cell viability were enhanced when AKT inhibitors were combined with 2-DG. The scratch assay showed a substantial reduction in cell migration upon SC-66 treatment. Conclusions The mutational spectrum of the PI3K/AKT pathway in cervical cancer is complex. AKT inhibitors effectively block mTORC1/2, decrease glucose uptake, glycolysis, and decrease cell viability in vitro. These results suggest that AKT inhibitors may improve response to chemoradiation in cervical cancer. PMID:24705275

  7. Impaired hypothalamic mTOR activation in the adult rat offspring born to mothers fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Pérez García, Georgina; Matos, Rhowena J B; de Sa Braga Oliveira, André; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological and experimental studies have clearly established that maternal malnutrition induces a high risk of developing obesity and related metabolic diseases in the offspring. To determine if altered nutrient sensing might underlie this enhanced disease susceptibility, here we examined the effects of perinatal protein restriction on the activation of the nutrient sensor mTOR in response to acute variations in the nutritional status of the organism. Female Wistar rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 17% protein (control) or 8% protein (PR) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At weaning offspring received standard chow and at 4 months of age the effects of fasting or fasting plus re-feeding on the phosphorylation levels of mTOR and its downstream target S6 ribosomal protein (rpS6) in the hypothalamus were assessed by immuno-fluorescence and western blot. Under ad libitum feeding conditions, PR rats exhibited decreased mTOR and rpS6 phosphorylation in the arcuate (ARC) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamic nuclei. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in these hypothalamic nuclei decreased with fasting in control but not in PR animals. Conversely, PR animals exhibited enhanced number of pmTOR imunostained cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and fasting decreased the activation of mTOR in the PVN of malnourished but not of control rats. These alterations occurred at a developmental stage at which perinatally-undernourished animals do not show yet obesity or glucose intolerance. Collectively, our observations suggest that altered hypothalamic nutrient sensing in response to an inadequate foetal and neonatal energetic environment is one of the basic mechanisms of the developmental programming of metabolic disorders and might play a causing role in the development of the metabolic syndrome induced by malnutrition during early life. PMID:24040371

  8. Novel therapeutic strategy targeting the Hedgehog signalling and mTOR pathways in biliary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, M; Rashid, A; Churi, C; Vauthey, J-N; Chang, P; Li, Y; Hung, M-C; Li, D; Javle, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Activation of the PI3K/mTOR and Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathways occurs frequently in biliary tract cancer (BTC). Crosstalk between these pathways occurs in other gastrointestinal cancers. The respective signalling inhibitors rapamycin and vismodegib may inhibit BTC synergistically and suppress cancer stem cells (CSCs). Methods: Gene expression profiling for p70S6k and Gli1 was performed with BTC cell lines. Tumour and pathway inhibitory effects of rapamycin and vismodegib were investigated in BTC preclinical models and CSCs. Results: Rapamycin and vismodegib synergistically reduced BTC cell viability and proliferation. This drug combination arrested BTC Mz-ChA-1 cells in the G1 phase but had no significant effect on the cell cycle of BTC Sk-ChA-1 cells. Combined treatment inhibited the proliferation of CSCs and ALDH-positive cells. Nanog and Oct-4 expression in CSCs was decreased by the combination treatment. Western blotting results showed the p-p70S6K, p-Gli1, p-mTOR, and p-AKT protein expression were inhibited by the combination treatment in BTC cells. In an Mz-ChA-1 xenograft model, combination treatment resulted in 80% inhibition of tumour growth and prolonged tumour doubling time. In 4 of 10 human BTC specimens, tumour p-p70S6K and Gli1 protein expression levels were decreased with the combination treatment. Conclusions: Targeted inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR and Hhpathways indicates a new avenue for BTC treatment with combination therapy. PMID:25742482

  9. Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in triple negative feline mammary carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in humans is defined by the absence of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 overexpression. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is overexpressed in TNBC and it represents a potential target for the treatment of this aggressive tumour. Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is considered to be a model for hormone-independent human breast cancer. This study investigated mTOR and p-mTOR expression in FMC in relation to triple negative (TN) phenotype. Results The expression of mTOR, p-mTOR, ERα, PR and HER2 was evaluated in 58 FMCs by immunohistochemistry and in six FMC cell lines by Western blot analysis. 53.5% of FMC analyzed were ER, PR, HER2 negative (TN-FMC) while 56.9% and 55.2% of cases expressed mTOR and p-mTOR respectively. In this study we found that m-TOR and p-mTOR were more frequently detected in TN-FMC and in HER2 negative samples. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrate that there is also a FMC subset defined as TN FMC, which is characterised by a statistically significant association with m-TOR and p-mTOR expression as demonstrated in human breast cancer. PMID:23587222

  10. The mTOR pathway in obesity driven gastrointestinal cancers: Potential targets and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Malley, Cian O.; Pidgeon, Graham P.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial point of convergence between growth factor signalling, metabolism, nutrient status and cellular proliferation. The mTOR pathway is heavily implicated in the progression of many cancers and is emerging as an important driver of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Due to its central role in adapting metabolism to environmental conditions, mTOR signalling is also believed to be critical in the development of obesity. Recent research has delineated that excessive nutrient intake can promote signalling through the mTOR pathway and possibly evoke changes to cellular metabolism that could accelerate obesity related cancers. Acting through its two effector complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR dictates the transcription of genes important in glycolysis, lipogenesis, protein translation and synthesis and has recently been defined as a central mediator of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Activation of the mTOR pathway is involved in both the pathogenesis of GI malignancies and development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The use of mTOR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic option in many GI malignancies, with greatest clinical efficacy seen in combination regimens. Recent research has also provided insight into crosstalk between mTOR and other pathways which could potentially expand the list of therapeutic targets in the mTOR pathway. Here we review the available strategies for targeting the mTOR pathway in GI cancers. We discuss current clinical trials of both established and novel mTOR inhibitors, with particular focus on combinations of these drugs with conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies. PMID:27051587

  11. The mTOR pathway in obesity driven gastrointestinal cancers: Potential targets and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Malley, Cian O; Pidgeon, Graham P

    2016-06-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial point of convergence between growth factor signalling, metabolism, nutrient status and cellular proliferation. The mTOR pathway is heavily implicated in the progression of many cancers and is emerging as an important driver of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. Due to its central role in adapting metabolism to environmental conditions, mTOR signalling is also believed to be critical in the development of obesity. Recent research has delineated that excessive nutrient intake can promote signalling through the mTOR pathway and possibly evoke changes to cellular metabolism that could accelerate obesity related cancers. Acting through its two effector complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, mTOR dictates the transcription of genes important in glycolysis, lipogenesis, protein translation and synthesis and has recently been defined as a central mediator of the Warburg effect in cancer cells. Activation of the mTOR pathway is involved in both the pathogenesis of GI malignancies and development of resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The use of mTOR inhibitors is a promising therapeutic option in many GI malignancies, with greatest clinical efficacy seen in combination regimens. Recent research has also provided insight into crosstalk between mTOR and other pathways which could potentially expand the list of therapeutic targets in the mTOR pathway. Here we review the available strategies for targeting the mTOR pathway in GI cancers. We discuss current clinical trials of both established and novel mTOR inhibitors, with particular focus on combinations of these drugs with conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies. PMID:27051587

  12. How to explain exercise-induced phenotype from molecular data: rethink and reconstruction based on AMPK and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhengtang; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Ding, Shuzhe

    2013-01-01

    During endurance and resistance exercise training, AMPK and mTOR signaling were known as selective pathways implicating the differentiation of exercise-induced phenotype in skeletal muscle. Among the previous studies, however, the differences in exercise protocol, the individuality and the genetic heterogeneity within species make it difficult to reach a consistent conclusion in the roles of AMPK and mTOR signaling. In this review, we aim not to reanalyze the previous articles and present the research progress of AMPK and mTOR signaling in exercise, but to propose an abstract general hypothesis for exercise-induced phenotype. Generally, exercise- induced skeletal muscle phenotype is independent of one and a few genes, proteins and signaling pathways. Convergent adaptation will better summarize the specificity of skeletal muscle phenotype in response to a single mode of exercise. Backward adaptation will open a new concept to illustrate the process of exercise-induced adaptation, such as mitochondrial quality control and muscle mass homeostasis. PMID:24404437

  13. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P < 0.001), whereas insulin, isoleucine and valine were lower in RL and R compared to CON (P < 0.001). Compared to RL and R, the CON diet increased (P < 0.01) body weight, protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. PMID:26334346

  14. Insulin and mTOR Pathway Regulate HDAC3-Mediated Deacetylation and Activation of PGK1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Bowen; Zhang, Tengfei; Liu, Lixia; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yiping; Chen, Xiufei; Lin, Huaipeng; Zhou, Lisha; Xia, Yukun; Chen, Leilei; Yang, Chen; Xiong, Yue; Ye, Dan; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphoryl group from 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate (1, 3-BPG) to ADP, producing 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG) and ATP. PGK1 plays a key role in coordinating glycolytic energy production with one-carbon metabolism, serine biosynthesis, and cellular redox regulation. Here, we report that PGK1 is acetylated at lysine 220 (K220), which inhibits PGK1 activity by disrupting the binding with its substrate, ADP. We have identified KAT9 and HDAC3 as the potential acetyltransferase and deacetylase, respectively, for PGK1. Insulin promotes K220 deacetylation to stimulate PGK1 activity. We show that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway regulates HDAC3 S424 phosphorylation, which promotes HDAC3-PGK1 interaction and PGK1 K220 deacetylation. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism for the insulin and mTOR pathway in regulation of glycolytic ATP production and cellular redox potential via HDAC3-mediated PGK1 deacetylation. PMID:26356530

  15. mTOR: taking cues from the immune microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Delgoffe, Greg M; Powell, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate outcome of T cell receptor recognition is determined by the context in which the antigen is encountered. In this fashion both antigen-presenting cells and T cells must integrate multiple environmental cues in the form of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokines and accessory molecule signals. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in integrating environmental signals critical to regulating metabolism and cell survival. In this paper we review the data demonstrating that mTOR integrates signals from the immune microenvironment and therefore facilitates the generation of the adaptive immune response. Specifically, we review the role of mTOR in promoting dendritic cell activation and maturation, in regulating full T cell activation versus anergy, and influencing the induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:19604300

  16. mTOR inhibitors in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jianling; Wang, Xuemin; Proud, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, plays key roles in cell growth and proliferation, acting at the catalytic subunit of two protein kinase complexes: mTOR complexes 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2). mTORC1 signaling is switched on by several oncogenic signaling pathways and is accordingly hyperactive in the majority of cancers. Inhibiting mTORC1 signaling has therefore attracted great attention as an anti-cancer therapy. However, progress in using inhibitors of mTOR signaling as therapeutic agents in oncology has been limited by a number of factors, including the fact that the classic mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, inhibits only some of the effects of mTOR; the existence of several feedback loops; and the crucial importance of mTOR in normal physiology.

  17. Involvement of mTOR and Regulation by AMPK in Early Iodine Deficiency-Induced Thyroid Microvascular Activation.

    PubMed

    Craps, J; Joris, V; De Jongh, B; Sonveaux, P; Horman, S; Lengelé, B; Bertrand, L; Many, M-C; Colin, I M; Gérard, A-C

    2016-06-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) induces TSH-independent microvascular activation in the thyroid via the reactive oxygen species/nitric oxide-hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. We hypothesized the additional involvement of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a positive regulator of this pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a negative feedback regulator to explain the transient nature of ID-induced microvascular changes under nonmalignant conditions. mTOR and AMPK involvement was investigated using an in vitro model (human thyrocytes in primary cultures) and 2 murine models of goitrogenesis (normal NMRI and RET-PTC mice [a papillary thyroid cancer model]). In NMRI mice, ID had no effect on the phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR. However, rapamycin inhibited ID-induced thyroid blood flow and VEGF protein expression. In the RET-PTC model, ID strongly increased the phosphorylation of p70S6K, whereas rapamycin completely inhibited the ID-induced increase in p70S6K phosphorylation, thyroid blood flow, and VEGF-A expression. In vitro, although ID increased p70S6K phosphorylation, the ID-stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor/VEGF pathway was inhibited by rapamycin. Activation of AMPK by metformin inhibited ID effects both in vivo and in vitro. In AMPK-α1 knockout mice, the ID-induced increase in thyroid blood flow and VEGF-A protein expression persisted throughout the treatment, whereas both parameters returned to control values in wild-type mice after 4 days of ID. In conclusion, mTOR is required for early ID-induced thyroid microvascular activation. AMPK negatively regulates this pathway, which may account for the transient nature of ID-induced TSH-independent vascular effects under benign conditions. PMID:27035650

  18. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylani, Samer Z.; Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Kopelovich, Levy; Pressey, Joseph G.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-06-14

    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissue sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis

  19. MARCH2 regulates autophagy by promoting CFTR ubiquitination and degradation and PIK3CA-AKT-MTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Qu, Liujing; Li, Ge; Hongdu, Beiqi; Xu, Chentong; Lin, Xin; Lou, Yaxin; He, Qihua; Ma, Dalong; Chen, Yingyu

    2016-09-01

    MARCH2 (membrane-associated RING-CH protein 2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is mainly associated with the vesicle trafficking. In the present study, for the first time, we demonstrated that MARCH2 negatively regulates autophagy. Our data indicated that overexpression of MARCH2 impaired autophagy, as evidenced by attenuated levels of LC3B-II and impaired degradation of endogenous and exogenous autophagic substrates. By contrast, loss of MARCH2 expression had the opposite effects. In vivo experiments demonstrate that MARCH2 knockout mediated autophagy results in an inhibition of tumorigenicity. Further investigation revealed that the induction of autophagy by MARCH2 deficiency was mediated through the PIK3CA-AKT-MTOR signaling pathway. Additionally, we found that MARCH2 interacts with CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of CFTR, and inhibits CFTR-mediated autophagy in tumor cells. The functional PDZ domain of MARCH2 is required for the association with CFTR. Thus, our study identified a novel negative regulator of autophagy and suggested that the physical and functional connection between the MARCH2 and CFTR in different conditions will be elucidated in the further experiments. PMID:27308891

  20. Alcohol intoxication following muscle contraction in mice decreases muscle protein synthesis but not mTOR signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol [ethanol (EtOH)] intoxication antagonizes stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signaling. However, whether the anabolic response can be reversed when alcohol is consumed after the stimulus is unknown. Methods A single bout of electrically stimulated muscle contractions (10 sets of 6 contractions) were induced in fasted male C57BL/6 mice 2 h prior to alcohol intoxication. EtOH was injected IP (3g/kg) and the gastrocnemius/plantaris muscle complex was collected 2 h later from the stimulated and contralateral unstimulated control leg. Results Muscle contraction increased protein synthesis 28% in control mice while EtOH abolished this stimulation-induced increase. Further, EtOH suppressed the rate of synthesis ~75% compared to control muscle irrespective of stimulation. This decrease was associated with impaired protein elongation as EtOH increased the phosphorylation of eEF2 Thr56. In contrast, stimulation-induced increases in mTORC1 (S6K1 Thr421/Ser424, S6K1 Thr389, rpS6 Ser240/244, 4E-BP1 Thr37/46) and MAPK (JNK Thr183/Tyr185, p38 Thr180/Tyr182, and rpS6S235/236) signaling were not reversed by acute EtOH. Conclusion These data suggest that EtOH-induced decreases in protein synthesis in fasted mice may be independent of mTORC1 and MAPK signaling following muscle contraction and instead due to the antagonistic actions of EtOH on mRNA translation elongation. Therefore, EtOH suppresses the contraction-induced increase in protein synthesis and over time has the potential to prevent skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by repeated muscle contraction. PMID:25623400

  1. Microarray and Proteomic Analyses of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with a Highlight on the mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Čokić, Vladan P.; Mossuz, Pascal; Han, Jing; Socoro, Nuria; Beleslin-Čokić, Bojana B.; Mitrović, Olivera; Subotički, Tijana; Diklić, Miloš; Leković, Danijela; Gotić, Mirjana; Puri, Raj K.; Noguchi, Constance Tom; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The gene and protein expression profiles in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may reveal gene and protein markers of a potential clinical relevance in diagnosis, treatment and prediction of response to therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis of 25,100 unique genes, we studied the gene expression profile of CD34+ cells and granulocytes obtained from peripheral blood of subjects with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The microarray analyses of the CD34+ cells and granulocytes were performed from 20 de novo MPN subjects: JAK2 positive ET, PV, PMF subjects, and JAK2 negative ET/PMF subjects. The granulocytes for proteomic studies were pooled in 4 groups: PV with JAK2 mutant allele burden above 80%, ET with JAK2 mutation, PMF with JAK2 mutation and ET/PMF with no JAK2 mutation. The number of differentially regulated genes was about two fold larger in CD34+ cells compared to granulocytes. Thirty-six genes (including RUNX1, TNFRSF19) were persistently highly expressed, while 42 genes (including FOXD4, PDE4A) were underexpressed both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Using proteomic studies, significant up-regulation was observed for MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling regulators that control myeloid cell apoptosis and proliferation: RAC2, MNDA, S100A8/9, CORO1A, and GNAI2. When the status of the mTOR signaling pathway related genes was analyzed, PI3K/AKT regulators were preferentially up-regulated in CD34+ cells of MPNs, with down-regulated major components of the protein complex EIF4F. Molecular profiling of CD34+ cells and granulocytes of MPN determined gene expression patterns beyond their recognized function in disease pathogenesis that included dominant up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling. PMID:26275051

  2. MUC16-mediated activation of mTOR and c-MYC reprograms pancreatic cancer metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Surendra K.; Gunda, Venugopal; Abrego, Jaime; Haridas, Dhanya; Mishra, Anusha; Souchek, Joshua; Chaika, Nina V.; Yu, Fang; Sasson, Aaron R.; Lazenby, Audrey J.; Batra, Surinder K.; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2015-01-01

    MUC16, a transmembrane mucin, facilitates pancreatic adenocarcinoma progression and metastasis. In the current studies, we observed that MUC16 knockdown pancreatic cancer cells exhibit reduced glucose uptake and lactate secretion along with reduced migration and invasion potential, which can be restored by supplementing the culture media with lactate, an end product of aerobic glycolysis. MUC16 knockdown leads to inhibition of mTOR activity and reduced expression of its downstream target c-MYC, a key player in cellular growth, proliferation and metabolism. Ectopic expression of c-MYC in MUC16 knockdown pancreatic cancer cells restores the altered cellular physiology. Our LC-MS/MS based metabolomics studies indicate global metabolic alterations in MUC16 knockdown pancreatic cancer cells, as compared to the controls. Specifically, glycolytic and nucleotide metabolite pools were significantly decreased. We observed similar metabolic alterations that correlated with MUC16 expression in primary tumor tissue specimens from human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cancer patients. Overall, our results demonstrate that MUC16 plays an important role in metabolic reprogramming of pancreatic cancer cells by increasing glycolysis and enhancing motility and invasiveness. PMID:26046375

  3. A treadmill exercise reactivates the signaling of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) in the skeletal muscles of starved mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dong-Mei; Bian, Zehua; Furuya, Norihiko; Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro; Takeda-Ezaki, Mitsue; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Hiraoka, Yuka; Mineki, Reiko; Taka, Hikari; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Komatsu, Masaaki; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Ezaki, Junji

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that a starvation-induced decrease in insulin/IGF-I and serum amino acids effectively suppresses the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) signaling to induce autophagy, which is a major degradative cellular pathway in skeletal muscles. In this study, we investigated the systematic effects of exercise on the mTor signaling of skeletal muscles. Wild type C57BL/6J mice were starved for 24h under synchronous autophagy induction conditions. Under these conditions, endogenous LC3-II increased, while both S6-kinse and S6 ribosomal protein were dephosphorylated in the skeletal muscles, which indicated mTor inactivation. Using GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, it was also confirmed that fluorescent GFP-LC3 dots in the skeletal muscles increased, including soleus, plantaris, and gastrocnemius, which clearly showed autophagosomal induction. These starved mice were then subjected to a single bout of running on a treadmill (12m/min, 2h, with a lean of 10 degrees). Surprisingly, biochemical analyses revealed that the exercise elicited a decrease in the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio as well as an inversion from the dephosphorylated state to the rephosphorylated state of S6-kinase and ribosomal S6 in these skeletal muscles. Consistently, the GFP-LC3 dots of the skeletal muscles were diminished immediately after the exercise. These results indicated that exercise suppressed starvation-induced autophagy through a reactivation of mTor signaling in the skeletal muscles of these starved mice. PMID:25485704

  4. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  5. Novel nervous and multi-system regenerative therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus with mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the globe, diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in incidence with limited therapies presently available to prevent or resolve the significant complications of this disorder. DM impacts multiple organs and affects all components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that can range from dementia to diabetic neuropathy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising agent for the development of novel regenerative strategies for the treatment of DM. mTOR and its related signaling pathways impact multiple metabolic parameters that include cellular metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, pancreatic β-cell function, and programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR is central element for the protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and is a critical component for a number of signaling pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), and growth factors. As a result, mTOR represents an exciting target to offer new clinical avenues for the treatment of DM and the complications of this disease. Future studies directed to elucidate the delicate balance mTOR holds over cellular metabolism and the impact of its broad signaling pathways should foster the translation of these targets into effective clinical regimens for DM. PMID:27127460

  6. Novel nervous and multi-system regenerative therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus with mTOR.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Throughout the globe, diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing in incidence with limited therapies presently available to prevent or resolve the significant complications of this disorder. DM impacts multiple organs and affects all components of the central and peripheral nervous systems that can range from dementia to diabetic neuropathy. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising agent for the development of novel regenerative strategies for the treatment of DM. mTOR and its related signaling pathways impact multiple metabolic parameters that include cellular metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance, insulin secretion, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, pancreatic β-cell function, and programmed cell death with apoptosis and autophagy. mTOR is central element for the protein complexes mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) and is a critical component for a number of signaling pathways that involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), protein kinase B (Akt), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1), Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1 (WISP1), and growth factors. As a result, mTOR represents an exciting target to offer new clinical avenues for the treatment of DM and the complications of this disease. Future studies directed to elucidate the delicate balance mTOR holds over cellular metabolism and the impact of its broad signaling pathways should foster the translation of these targets into effective clinical regimens for DM. PMID:27127460

  7. mTOR, linking metabolism and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaojin; Ye, Lilin; Araki, Koichi; Ahmed, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in cell growth and metabolism by sensing different environmental cues. There is a growing appreciation of mTOR in immunology for its role in integrating diverse signals from the immune microenvironment and coordinating the functions of immune cells and their metabolism. In CD8 T cells, mTOR has shown to influence cellular commitment to effector versus memory programming; in CD4 T cells, mTOR integrates environmental cues that instruct effector cell differentiation. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent advances in the field, with a focus on the mechanisms through which mTOR regulates cellular and humoral immunity. Further understanding will enable the manipulation of mTOR signaling to direct the biological functions of immune cells, which holds great potential for improving immune therapies and vaccination against infections and cancer. PMID:23352227

  8. DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) mediates methamphetamine-induced autophagy and apoptosis through mTOR signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Bin; Chen, Ling; Cai, Dunpeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Chuanxiang; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2016-03-15

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an amphetamine-like psychostimulant that is commonly abused. Previous studies have shown that METH can induce damages to the nervous system and recent studies suggest that METH can also cause adverse and potentially lethal effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, we demonstrated that DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) regulates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of DDIT4 in METH-induced cardiotoxicity remains unknown. We hypothesized that DDIT4 may mediate METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis, we examined DDIT4 protein expression in cardiomyocytes and in heart tissues of rats exposed to METH with Western blotting. We also determined the effects on METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis after silencing DDIT4 expression with synthetic siRNA with or without pretreatment of a mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in cardiomyocytes using Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy and TUNEL staining. Our results showed that METH exposure increased DDIT4 expression and decreased phosphorylation of mTOR that was accompanied with increased autophagy and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. These effects were normalized after silencing DDIT4. On the other hand, rapamycin promoted METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in DDIT4 knockdown cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DDIT4 mediates METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis through mTOR signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26825372

  9. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients. PMID:26367276

  10. Intrinsic MyD88-Akt1-mTOR Signaling Coordinates Disparate Tc17 and Tc1 Responses during Vaccine Immunity against Fungal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Som Gowda; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Galles, Kevin; Wüthrich, Marcel; Suresh, M; Klein, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections have skyrocketed in immune-compromised patients lacking CD4+ T cells, underscoring the need for vaccine prevention. An understanding of the elements that promote vaccine immunity in this setting is essential. We previously demonstrated that vaccine-induced IL-17A+ CD8+ T cells (Tc17) are required for resistance against lethal fungal pneumonia in CD4+ T cell-deficient hosts, whereas the individual type I cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and GM-CSF, are dispensable. Here, we report that T cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals are crucial for these Tc17 cell responses and vaccine immunity against lethal fungal pneumonia in mice. In contrast, IFN-γ+ CD8+ cell (Tc1) responses are largely normal in the absence of intrinsic MyD88 signaling in CD8+ T cells. The poor accumulation of MyD88-deficient Tc17 cells was not linked to an early onset of contraction, nor to accelerated cell death or diminished expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL. Instead, intrinsic MyD88 was required to sustain the proliferation of Tc17 cells through the activation of mTOR via Akt1. Moreover, intrinsic IL-1R and TLR2, but not IL-18R, were required for MyD88 dependent Tc17 responses. Our data identify unappreciated targets for augmenting adaptive immunity against fungi. Our findings have implications for designing fungal vaccines and immune-based therapies in immune-compromised patients. PMID:26367276

  11. Genetic and pharmacologic evidence that mTOR targeting outweighs mTORC1 inhibition as an antimyeloma strategy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Ocio, Enrique M; Paiva, Bruno; Mortensen, Deborah S; Lopez-Girona, Antonia; Chopra, Rajesh; Miguel, Jesús San; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2014-02-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and cell survival, and plays those roles by forming two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Deregulation of the mTOR pathway has been found in different cancers, including multiple myeloma. Agents acting on mTORC1, such as rapamycin and derivatives, are being explored as antitumoral strategies. However, whether targeting mTOR would be a more effective antimyeloma strategy than exclusively acting on the mTORC1 branch remains to be established. In this report, we explored the activation status of mTOR routes in malignant plasma cells, and analyzed the contribution of mTOR and its two signaling branches to the proliferation of myeloma cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated deregulation of mTOR pathway-related genes in myeloma plasma cells from patients. Activation of the mTOR pathway in myelomatous plasma cells was corroborated by flow cytometric analyses. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments indicated that mTORC1 predominated over mTORC2 in the control of myeloma cell proliferation. However, mTOR knockdown had a superior antiproliferative effect than acting only on mTORC1 or mTORC2. Pharmacologic studies corroborated that the neutralization of mTOR has a stronger antimyeloma effect than the individual inhibition of mTORC1 or mTORC2. Together, our data support the clinical development of agents that widely target mTOR, instead of agents, such as rapamycin or its derivatives, that solely act on mTORC1. PMID:24431075

  12. MEK Inhibition Sensitizes Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) Cells to Dexamethasone through Modulation of mTOR Activity and Stimulation of Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Polak, Anna; Kiliszek, Przemysław; Sewastianik, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Maciej; Jabłońska, Ewa; Białopiotrowicz, Emilia; Górniak, Patryk; Markowicz, Sergiusz; Nowak, Eliza; Grygorowicz, Monika A; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Nowis, Dominika; Gołąb, Jakub; Giebel, Sebastian; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Juszczyński, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to glucocorticosteroids (GCs) is a major adverse prognostic factor in B-ALL, but the molecular mechanisms leading to GC resistance are not completely understood. Herein, we sought to elucidate the molecular background of GC resistance in B-ALL and characterize the therapeutic potential of targeted intervention in these mechanisms. Using exploratory bioinformatic approaches, we found that resistant cells exhibited significantly higher expression of MEK/ERK (MAPK) pathway components. We found that GC-resistant ALL cell lines had markedly higher baseline activity of MEK and small-molecule MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib increased GCs-induced cell death. MEK inhibitor similarly increased in vitro dexamethasone activity in primary ALL blasts from 19 of 22 tested patients. To further confirm these observations, we overexpressed a constitutively active MEK mutant in GC-sensitive cells and found that forced MEK activity induced resistance to dexamethasone. Since recent studies highlight the role GC-induced autophagy upstream of apoptotic cell death, we assessed LC3 processing, MDC staining and GFP-LC3 relocalization in cells incubated with either DEX, SEL or combination of drugs. Unlike either drug alone, only their combination markedly increased these markers of autophagy. These changes were associated with decreased mTOR activity and blocked 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. In cells with silenced beclin-1 (BCN1), required for autophagosome formation, the synergy of DEX and SEL was markedly reduced. Taken together, we show that MEK inhibitor selumetinib enhances dexamethasone toxicity in GC-resistant B-ALL cells. The underlying mechanism of this interaction involves inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway and modulation of autophagy markers, likely reflecting induction of this process and required for cell death. Thus, our data demonstrate that modulation of MEK/ERK pathway is an attractive therapeutic strategy overcoming GC resistance in B-ALL patients. PMID:27196001

  13. MEK Inhibition Sensitizes Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL) Cells to Dexamethasone through Modulation of mTOR Activity and Stimulation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Anna; Kiliszek, Przemysław; Sewastianik, Tomasz; Szydłowski, Maciej; Jabłońska, Ewa; Białopiotrowicz, Emilia; Górniak, Patryk; Markowicz, Sergiusz; Nowak, Eliza; Grygorowicz, Monika A.; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Nowis, Dominika; Gołąb, Jakub; Giebel, Sebastian; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Juszczyński, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to glucocorticosteroids (GCs) is a major adverse prognostic factor in B-ALL, but the molecular mechanisms leading to GC resistance are not completely understood. Herein, we sought to elucidate the molecular background of GC resistance in B-ALL and characterize the therapeutic potential of targeted intervention in these mechanisms. Using exploratory bioinformatic approaches, we found that resistant cells exhibited significantly higher expression of MEK/ERK (MAPK) pathway components. We found that GC-resistant ALL cell lines had markedly higher baseline activity of MEK and small-molecule MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib increased GCs-induced cell death. MEK inhibitor similarly increased in vitro dexamethasone activity in primary ALL blasts from 19 of 22 tested patients. To further confirm these observations, we overexpressed a constitutively active MEK mutant in GC-sensitive cells and found that forced MEK activity induced resistance to dexamethasone. Since recent studies highlight the role GC-induced autophagy upstream of apoptotic cell death, we assessed LC3 processing, MDC staining and GFP-LC3 relocalization in cells incubated with either DEX, SEL or combination of drugs. Unlike either drug alone, only their combination markedly increased these markers of autophagy. These changes were associated with decreased mTOR activity and blocked 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. In cells with silenced beclin-1 (BCN1), required for autophagosome formation, the synergy of DEX and SEL was markedly reduced. Taken together, we show that MEK inhibitor selumetinib enhances dexamethasone toxicity in GC-resistant B-ALL cells. The underlying mechanism of this interaction involves inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway and modulation of autophagy markers, likely reflecting induction of this process and required for cell death. Thus, our data demonstrate that modulation of MEK/ERK pathway is an attractive therapeutic strategy overcoming GC resistance in B-ALL patients. PMID:27196001

  14. The human ΔNp53 isoform triggers metabolic and gene expression changes that activate mTOR and alter mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Karoly, Edward D; Taatjes, Dylan J

    2013-10-01

    A naturally occurring p53 isoform that lacks 39 residues at the N-terminus (denoted ΔNp53), when expressed with wild-type p53 (WTp53), forms mixed ΔNp53:WTp53 tetramers and causes accelerated aging in mice. Cellular alterations specific to ΔNp53:WTp53 have been difficult to assess because ΔNp53 and WTp53 coexpression results in tetramer heterogeneity, including formation of contaminating WTp53 tetramers. Based on the p53 tetramer structure, we expressed ΔNp53 and WTp53 as a single transcript that maintained tetramer architecture, ensuring a 2:2 ΔNp53:WTp53 stoichiometry. As expected, ΔNp53:WTp53 tetramers were stable and transcriptionally active in vitro and in cells, largely mimicking the function of WTp53 tetramers. Microarray analyses, however, revealed about 80 genes whose expression was altered twofold or more in ΔNp53:WTp53 cells. Moreover, global metabolomic profiling quantitated hundreds of biochemicals across different experiments (WTp53, ΔNp53:WTp53, plus controls). When evaluated collectively, these data suggested altered mTOR signaling and mitochondrial function-each canonical regulators of longevity-in cells expressing ΔNp53:WTp53 vs. WTp53. Increased levels of free amino acids, increased expression of IRS-1, and decreased expression of INPP5D/SHIP-1 suggested activated mTOR signaling in ΔNp53:WTp53 cells; this was confirmed upon comparative analyses of several mTOR pathway intermediates. We also observed changes in mitochondrial function in ΔNp53:WTp53 cells, which correlated with increased MARS2 expression and increased levels of carnitine, acetyl CoA, ATP, and Krebs cycle intermediates. Finally, increased levels of succinate and 2-hydroxyglutarate indicate potential epigenetic means to propagate ΔNp53:WTp53-induced gene expression changes to cell progeny. This may be especially important for aging, as biological effects manifest over time. PMID:23734707

  15. The Translation Regulatory Subunit eIF3f Controls the Kinase-Dependent mTOR Signaling Required for Muscle Differentiation and Hypertrophy in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Csibi, Alfredo; Cornille, Karen; Leibovitch, Marie-Pierre; Poupon, Anne; Tintignac, Lionel A.; Sanchez, Anthony M. J.; Leibovitch, Serge A.

    2010-01-01

    The mTORC1 pathway is required for both the terminal muscle differentiation and hypertrophy by controlling the mammalian translational machinery via phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1. mTOR and S6K1 are connected by interacting with the eIF3 initiation complex. The regulatory subunit eIF3f plays a major role in muscle hypertrophy and is a key target that accounts for MAFbx function during atrophy. Here we present evidence that in MAFbx-induced atrophy the degradation of eIF3f suppresses S6K1 activation by mTOR, whereas an eIF3f mutant insensitive to MAFbx polyubiquitination maintained persistent phosphorylation of S6K1 and rpS6. During terminal muscle differentiation a conserved TOS motif in eIF3f connects mTOR/raptor complex, which phosphorylates S6K1 and regulates downstream effectors of mTOR and Cap-dependent translation initiation. Thus eIF3f plays a major role for proper activity of mTORC1 to regulate skeletal muscle size. PMID:20126553

  16. mTOR, metabolism, and the regulation of T-cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Waickman, Adam T; Powell, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Upon antigen recognition, naive T cells undergo rapid expansion and activation. The energy requirements for this expansion are formidable, and T-cell activation is accompanied by dramatic changes in cellular metabolism. Furthermore, the outcome of antigen engagement is guided by multiple cues derived from the immune microenvironment. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is emerging as a central integrator of these signals playing a critical role in driving T-cell differentiation and function. Indeed, multiple metabolic programs are controlled by mTOR signaling. In this review, we discuss the role of mTOR in regulating metabolism and how these pathways intersect with the ability of mTOR to integrate cues that guide the outcome of T-cell receptor engagement. PMID:22889214

  17. Inhibition of mTOR by apigenin in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes: A new implication of skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Bryan B; Wang, Pu; Ye, Boping; Pelling, Jill C; Volpert, Olga V; Tong, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the major environmental risk factor for developing skin cancer, the most common cancer worldwide, which is characterized by aberrant activation of Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). Importantly, the link between UV irradiation and mTOR signaling has not been fully established. Apigenin is a naturally occurring flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit UV-induced skin cancer. Previously, we have demonstrated that apigenin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which leads to suppression of basal mTOR activity in cultured keratinocytes. Here, we demonstrated that apigenin inhibited UVB-induced mTOR activation, cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in mouse skin and in mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Interestingly, UVB induced mTOR signaling via PI3K/Akt pathway, however, the inhibition of UVB-induced mTOR signaling by apigenin was not Akt-dependent. Instead, it was driven by AMPK activation. In addition, mTOR inhibition by apigenin in keratinocytes enhanced autophagy, which was responsible, at least in part, for the decreased proliferation in keratinocytes. In contrast, apigenin did not alter UVB-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate the important role of mTOR inhibition in UVB protection by apigenin, and provide a new target and strategy for better prevention of UV-induced skin cancer. PMID:26876613

  18. Nuclear reprogramming of luminal-like breast cancer cells generates Sox2-overexpressing cancer stem-like cellular states harboring transcriptional activation of the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lupu, Ruth; Alarcón, Tomás; Vellon, Luciano; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; Leis, Olatz; Martín, Ángel G; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Menendez, Javier A

    2013-09-15

    Energy metabolism plasticity enables stemness programs during the reprogramming of somatic cells to an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) state. This relationship may introduce a new era in the understanding of Warburg's theory on the metabolic origin of cancer at the level of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here, we used Yamanaka's stem cell technology in an attempt to create stable CSC research lines in which to dissect the transcriptional control of mTOR--the master switch of cellular catabolism and anabolism--in CSC-like states. The rare colonies with iPSC-like morphology, obtained following the viral transduction of the Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc (OSKM) stemness factors into MCF-7 luminal-like breast cancer cells (MCF-7/Rep), demonstrated an intermediate state between cancer cells and bona fide iPSCs. MCF-7/Rep cells notably overexpressed SOX2 and stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-4 proteins; however, other stemness-related markers (OCT4, NANOG, SSEA-1, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81) were found at low to moderate levels. The transcriptional analyses of OSKM factors confirmed the strong but unique reactivation of the endogenous Sox2 stemness gene accompanied by the silencing of the exogenous Sox2 transgene in MCF-7/Rep cells. Some but not all MCF-7/Rep cells acquired strong alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with MCF-7 parental cells. SOX2-overexpressing MCF-7/Rep cells contained drastically higher percentages of CD44(+) and ALDEFLUOR-stained ALDH(bright) cells than MCF-7 parental cells. The overlap between differentially expressed mTOR signaling-related genes in 3 different SOX2-overexpressing CSC-like cell lines revealed a notable downregulation of 3 genes, PRKAA1 (which codes for the catalytic α 1 subunit of AMPK), DDIT4/REDD1 (a stress response gene that operates as a negative regulator of mTOR), and DEPTOR (a naturally occurring endogenous inhibitor of mTOR activity). The insulin-receptor gene (INSR) was differentially upregulated in MCF-7/Rep cells

  19. CC-223, a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of mTOR Kinase: In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Fultz, Kimberly E; Xu, Shuichan; Xu, Weiming; Packard, Garrick; Khambatta, Godrej; Gamez, James C; Leisten, Jim; Zhao, Jingjing; Apuy, Julius; Ghoreishi, Kamran; Hickman, Matt; Narla, Rama Krishna; Bissonette, Rene; Richardson, Samantha; Peng, Sophie X; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie; Tran, Tam; Shi, Tao; Yang, Wen Qing; Tong, Zeen; Cathers, Brian E; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Canan, Stacie S; Worland, Peter; Sankar, Sabita; Raymon, Heather K

    2015-06-01

    mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) are critical mediators of the PI3K-AKT pathway, which is frequently mutated in many cancers, leading to hyperactivation of mTOR signaling. Although rapamycin analogues, allosteric inhibitors that target only the mTORC1 complex, have shown some clinical activity, it is hypothesized that mTOR kinase inhibitors, blocking both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling, will have expanded therapeutic potential. Here, we describe the preclinical characterization of CC-223. CC-223 is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of mTOR kinase, demonstrating inhibition of mTORC1 (pS6RP and p4EBP1) and mTORC2 [pAKT(S473)] in cellular systems. Growth inhibitory activity was demonstrated in hematologic and solid tumor cell lines. mTOR kinase inhibition in cells, by CC-223, resulted in more complete inhibition of the mTOR pathway biomarkers and improved antiproliferative activity as compared with rapamycin. Growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis was demonstrated in a panel of hematologic cancer cell lines. Correlative analysis revealed that IRF4 expression level associates with resistance, whereas mTOR pathway activation seems to associate with sensitivity. Treatment with CC-223 afforded in vivo tumor biomarker inhibition in tumor-bearing mice, after a single oral dose. CC-223 exhibited dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in multiple solid tumor xenografts. Significant inhibition of mTOR pathway markers pS6RP and pAKT in CC-223-treated tumors suggests that the observed antitumor activity of CC-223 was mediated through inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2. CC-223 is currently in phase I clinical trials. PMID:25855786

  20. Exercise improves skeletal muscle insulin resistance without reduced basal mTOR/S6K1 signaling in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bagen; Xu, Yong

    2011-11-01

    Exercise improves high-fat diet (HFD)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance, but the mechanism is unresolved. This study aims to explore whether the improvement in response to exercise is associated with mTOR/S6K1 signaling and whether the signaling changes are muscle-specific. Male SD rats (150-180 g) were used for this study. After the experimental period, 6 weeks of exercise improved HFD-impaired intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Furthermore, 6 weeks of the HFD resulted in a reduced type I fiber ratio of SOL, an increased type I ratio of EDL, and a reduced fiber size of EDL, whereas exercise increased type I fiber ratio of SOL as well as type I fiber cross-sectional areas of EDL. However, the HFD had a main effect on basal cytosolic phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr(389) content in SOL, which was also influenced by a significant interaction between the diet and exercise in EDL. Exercise had no direct effect on the basal phosphorylation of Akt on Ser(473), mTOR on Ser(2448), S6K1 on Thr(389) content in SOL. On the contrary, exercise prevented HFD-induced decrease in basal phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr(389) content in EDL. These results indicate that 6 weeks of HFD and exercise lead to alterations in fiber type shift, fiber size, and basal phosphorylation of S6K1 on Thr(389) content in a muscle-specific pattern. Exercise prevents HFD-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which is not associated with a reduced basal phosphorylation of mTOR/S6K1 alteration in the muscles. PMID:21404070

  1. Reversal of the glycolytic phenotype of primary effusion lymphoma cells by combined targeting of cellular metabolism and PI3K/Akt/ mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bertacchini, Jessika; Frasson, Chiara; Bosco, Raffaella; Accordi, Benedetta; Basso, Giuseppe; Bonora, Massimo; Calabrò, Maria Luisa; Mattiolo, Adriana; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Baracca, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Riva, Giovanni; Rampazzo, Enrico; Petrizza, Luca; Prodi, Luca; Milani, Daniela; Luppi, Mario; Potenza, Leonardo; De Pol, Anto; Cocco, Lucio; Capitani, Silvano; Marmiroli, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    PEL is a B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, occurring predominantly as a lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, characterized by aggressive clinical course, with no standard therapy. Based on previous reports that PEL cells display a Warburg phenotype, we hypothesized that the highly hypoxic environment in which they grow in vivo makes them more reliant on glycolysis, and more vulnerable to drugs targeting this pathway. We established here that indeed PEL cells in hypoxia are more sensitive to glycolysis inhibition. Furthermore, since PI3K/Akt/mTOR has been proposed as a drug target in PEL, we ascertained that pathway-specific inhibitors, namely the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor, PF-04691502, and the Akt inhibitor, Akti 1/2, display improved cytotoxicity to PEL cells in hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, we found that these drugs reduce lactate production/extracellular acidification rate, and, in combination with the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), they shift PEL cells metabolism from aerobic glycolysis towards oxidative respiration. Moreover, the associations possess strong synergistic cytotoxicity towards PEL cells, and thus may reduce adverse reaction in vivo, while displaying very low toxicity to normal lymphocytes. Finally, we showed that the association of 2-DG and PF-04691502 maintains its cytotoxic and proapoptotic effect also in PEL cells co-cultured with human primary mesothelial cells, a condition known to mimic the in vivo environment and to exert a protective and pro-survival action. All together, these results provide a compelling rationale for the clinical development of new therapies for the treatment of PEL, based on combined targeting of glycolytic metabolism and constitutively activated signaling pathways. PMID:26575168

  2. Activation of mTOR coincides with autophagy during ligation-induced atrophy in the rat submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Silver, N; Proctor, G B; Arno, M; Carpenter, G H

    2010-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a common consequence of pathology, including Sjögren's syndrome, irradiation therapy and obstructive sialadenitis. During severe atrophy of the rat submandibular gland caused by excretory duct ligation, the majority of acinar cells disappear through apoptosis, whereas ductal cells proliferate and dedifferentiate; yet, the gland can survive in the atrophic state almost indefinitely, with an ability to fully recover if deligated. The control mechanisms governing these observations are not well understood. We report that ∼10% of acinar cells survive in ligation-induced atrophy. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of ligated glands indicated sustained transcription of acinar cell-specific genes, whereas ductal-specific genes were reduced to background levels. After 3 days of ligation, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and autophagy occurred as shown by phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and expression of autophagy-related proteins. These results suggest that activation of mTOR and the autophagosomal pathway are important mechanisms that may help to preserve acinar cells during atrophy of salivary glands after injury. PMID:20890458

  3. Leptin and mTOR: partners in metabolism and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Bozza, Patricia T

    2008-06-15

    Leptin is both a hormone/cytokine that plays a major role in the regulation of feeding and energy expenditure. Beyond its central role in the hypothalamus, leptin modulates peripheral tissues' responses to growth and storage based on nutrient availability, and it regulates the innate and adaptive immune responses. mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin) is a core component of intracellular signaling for cellular growth, mRNA translation, and metabolism. Here, we review recent findings on the cross talk between mTOR and leptin signaling. Important roles for mTOR on leptin signaling have been established both in hypothalamic centers to control food intake and in peripheral cells to regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation. Leptin directly activates resident macrophages to form ADRP-enriched lipid droplets and enhances eicosanoid production via a mechanism that is dependent on activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Leptin-induced mTOR activation may have implications for obesity-related pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. PMID:18583936

  4. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 increases intestinal goblet cell differentiation through an mTOR/Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuning; Wang, Qingding; Weiss, Heidi L.; Evers, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we have shown that the nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is involved in the regulation of intestinal enterocyte differentiation. Here we show that treatment with sodium chloride (NaCl), which activates NFAT5 signaling, increased mTORC1 repressor regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) protein expression and inhibited mTOR signaling; these alterations were attenuated by knockdown of NFAT5. Knockdown of NFAT5 activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and significantly inhibited REDD1 mRNA expression and protein expression. Consistently, overexpression of NFAT5 increased REDD1 expression. In addition, knockdown of REDD1 activated mTOR and Notch signaling, whereas treatment with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin repressed Notch signaling and increased the expression of the goblet cell differentiation marker mucin 2 (MUC2). Moreover, knockdown of NFAT5 activated Notch signaling and decreased MUC2 expression, while overexpression of NFAT5 inhibited Notch signaling and increased MUC2 expression. Our results demonstrate a role for NFAT5 in the regulation of mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Importantly, these data suggest that NFAT5 participates in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis via the suppression of mTORC1/Notch signaling pathway. PMID:25057011

  5. mTOR mediates human trophoblast invasion through regulation of matrix-remodeling enzymes and is associated with serine phosphorylation of STAT3

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Susann; Renaud, Stephen J.; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Graham, Charles H.; Markert, Udo R.

    2009-06-10

    The intracellular signaling molecule mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is essential for cell growth and proliferation. It is involved in mouse embryogenesis, murine trophoblast outgrowth and linked to tumor cell invasiveness. In order to assess the role of mTOR in human trophoblast invasion we analyzed the in vitro invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo immortalized first-trimester trophoblast cells in conjunction with enzyme secretion upon mTOR inhibition and knockdown of mTOR protein expression. Additionally, we also tested the capability of mTOR to trigger signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 by its phosphorylation status. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR kinase activity as demonstrated with a lower phosphorylation level of the mTOR substrate p70 S6 kinase (S6K). With the use of rapamycin and siRNA-mediated mTOR knockdown we could show that cell proliferation, invasion and secretion of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9, urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) and its major physiological uPA inhibitor (PAI)-1 were inhibited. While tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 was unaffected by mTOR inhibition and knockdown, serine phosphorylation was diminished. We conclude that mTOR signaling is one major mechanism in a tightly regulated network of intracellular signal pathways including the JAK/STAT system to regulate invasion in human trophoblast cells by secretion of enzymes that remodel the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) such as MMP-2, -9, uPA and PAI-1. Dysregulation of mTOR may contribute to pregnancy-related pathologies caused through impaired trophoblast invasion.

  6. mTOR regulates tau phosphorylation and degradation: implications for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Caccamo, Antonella; Magrì, Andrea; Medina, David X; Wisely, Elena V; López-Aranda, Manuel F; Silva, Alcino J; Oddo, Salvatore

    2013-06-01

    Accumulation of tau is a critical event in several neurodegenerative disorders, collectively known as tauopathies, which include Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Pathological tau is hyperphosphorylated and aggregates to form neurofibrillary tangles. The molecular mechanisms leading to tau accumulation remain unclear and more needs to be done to elucidate them. Age is a major risk factor for all tauopathies, suggesting that molecular changes contributing to the aging process may facilitate tau accumulation and represent common mechanisms across different tauopathies. Here, we use multiple animal models and complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches to show that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates tau phosphorylation and degradation. Specifically, we show that genetically increasing mTOR activity elevates endogenous mouse tau levels and phosphorylation. Complementary to it, we further demonstrate that pharmacologically reducing mTOR signaling with rapamycin ameliorates tau pathology and the associated behavioral deficits in a mouse model overexpressing mutant human tau. Mechanistically, we provide compelling evidence that the association between mTOR and tau is linked to GSK3β and autophagy function. In summary, we show that increasing mTOR signaling facilitates tau pathology, while reducing mTOR signaling ameliorates tau pathology. Given the overwhelming evidence that reducing mTOR signaling increases lifespan and healthspan, the data presented here have profound clinical implications for aging and tauopathies and provide the molecular basis for how aging may contribute to tau pathology. Additionally, these results provide preclinical data indicating that reducing mTOR signaling may be a valid therapeutic approach for tauopathies. PMID:23425014

  7. PGF2α-associated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is ROS dependent and involves the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Uddemarri, S.; Desai, D. H.; Morrison, R.G.; Harris, R.; Wright, G.L.; Blough, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy by largely unknown mechanism(s). To investigate the signaling events governing PGF2α –induced VSMC hypertrophy we examined the ability of the PGF2α analog, fluprostenol to elicit phosphorylation of Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in growth arrested A7r5 VSMC. Fluprostenol-induced hypertrophy was associated with increased ROS, mTOR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, along with Akt, mTOR, GSK-3β, PTEN and ERK1/2 but not JNK phosphorylation. Whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by LY294002 blocked fluprostenol-induced changes in total protein content, pretreatment with rapamycin or with the ERK1/2-MAPK inhibitor UO126 did not. Taken together, these findings suggest that fluprostenol-induced changes in A7R5 hypertrophy involve mTOR translocation and occur through PI3K-dependent mechanisms. PMID:18160324

  8. Molecular mechanisms of mTOR regulation by stress

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Alexander Martin; Prentzell, Mirja Tamara; van Eunen, Karen; Bakker, Barbara Marleen; Grellscheid, Sushma Nagaraja; Thedieck, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are prime examples of cell growth in unfavorable environments that elicit cellular stress. The high metabolic demand and insufficient vascularization of tumors cause a deficiency of oxygen and nutrients. Oncogenic mutations map to signaling events via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), metabolic pathways, and mitochondrial function. These alterations have been linked with cellular stresses, in particular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, and oxidative stress. Yet tumors survive these challenges and acquire highly energy-demanding traits, such as overgrowth and invasiveness. In this review we focus on stresses that occur in cancer cells and discuss them in the context of mTOR signaling. Of note, many tumor traits require mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, but mTORC1 hyperactivation eventually sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Thus, mTORC1 activity needs to be balanced in cancer cells. We provide an overview of the mechanisms contributing to mTOR regulation by stress and suggest a model wherein stress granules function as guardians of mTORC1 signaling, allowing cancer cells to escape stress-induced cell death. PMID:27308421

  9. Activation of the mTOR pathway by the amino acid (L)-leucine in the 5q- syndrome and other ribosomopathies.

    PubMed

    Boultwood, Jacqueline; Yip, Bon Ham; Vuppusetty, Chaitanya; Pellagatti, Andrea; Wainscoat, James S

    2013-01-01

    Patients with the 5q- syndrome and Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) suffer from a severe macrocytic anemia. The 5q- syndrome and DBA are disorders of aberrant ribosome biogenesis (ribosomopathies) and haploinsufficiency of the ribosomal protein genes RPS14 and RPS19, respectively, underlies the anemia found in these disorders. Erythroblasts obtained from patients with the 5q- syndrome and DBA show impaired mRNA translation and this defect in translation may represent a potential therapeutic target in these ribosomopathies. There are some indications that the amino acid l-leucine, a translation enhancer, may have some efficacy in this group of disorders. Recent studies have shown that l-leucine treatment of zebrafish and murine models of the 5q- syndrome and DBA results in a marked improvement in the anemia. l-leucine treatment of RPS14-deficient and RPS19-deficient erythroblasts and erythroblasts from patients with the 5q- syndrome has been shown to result in an increase in cell proliferation, erythroid differentiation and mRNA translation in culture. l-leucine has been shown to improve hemoglobin levels and transfusion independence in a patient with DBA. l-leucine activates the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway that controls cell growth and mRNA translation. There is evidence to suggest that the promotion of translation via the mTOR pathway by l-leucine is the mechanism that underlies the enhanced erythroid progenitor cell growth and differentiation observed in animal and cellular models of the 5q- syndrome and DBA treated with this amino acid. These data support the rationale for clinical trials of l-leucine as a therapeutic agent for the 5q- syndrome and DBA. PMID:23031788

  10. Pushing the envelope in the mTOR pathway. The second generation of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Eduardo; Perez-Garcia, Jose; Tabernero, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The phosphatydilinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been a major focus of attention for cancer researchers in the past decade. A preliminary and not complete understanding of the molecular biology of this complex network has not only importantly conditioned the development of the first generation of mTOR inhibitors, but also the biomarker studies designed to identify the best responders to these agents. Most recently, research in this pathway has focused in the fact of the dual nature of mTOR that is integrated by the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and complex 2 (mTORC2). These two complexes are formed and regulated by different proteins, and also driven by multiple different compensatory feedback loops. This deeper understanding has allowed the development of a promising second generation of inhibitors which are able to block simultaneously both complexes due to their catalytic activity over mTOR. Moreover, some of them also exert an inhibitory effect over PI3K that is a key player in the feedback loops. This article reviews the newest insights in the signaling of the mTOR pathway and then focuses in the development of the new wave of mTOR inhibitors. PMID:21216931

  11. Inhibition of mTOR promotes hyperthermia sensitivity in SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QING-LIANG; LIU, BO; LI, XIAO-JIE; HU, KUN-PENG; ZHAO, KUN; YE, XIAO-MING

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical mediator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mTOR signaling pathway, and mTOR activity is induced following heat shock. Thermotherapy is used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of mTOR in modulating thermosensitivity in HCC has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the antisense plasmid pEGFP-C1-mTOR was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells, and the expression levels of mTOR were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The thermal responses of the transfected cells were also examined. The results revealed that SMMC-7721 cells were sensitive to heat treatment, and cell viability was significantly inhibited following hyperthermia treatment (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR decreased post-transfection. Cell proliferation, colony-forming ability and motility were all significantly decreased following hyperthermia treatment in the transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that apoptosis was significantly increased following treatment (P<0.01). The number of cells in S phase was increased, and the cell cycle was arrested in S phase. In conclusion, inhibition of mTOR increased the thermosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells by increasing cellular apoptosis and inducing S phase arrest. PMID:26998020

  12. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 4 signal inhibition reduces preterm neonatal hemorrhagic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Klebe, Damon; McBride, Devin W; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William B.; Flores, Jerry J.; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study examines the role of thrombin’s protease-activated receptors (PAR)-1,-4 in mediating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). Methods GMH was induced by intraparenchymal infusion of bacterial collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence of P7 rat pups. Animals were treated with either PAR-1, -4, COX-2, or mTOR inhibitors by 1 hour, and up to five days. Results We found increased thrombin activity 6–24 hrs after GMH, and PAR-1, -4, inhibition normalized COX-2 and mTOR by 72 hrs. Early treatment with NS398 or rapamycin substantially improved long-term outcomes in juvenile animals. Conclusions Suppressing early PAR signal transduction, and postnatal NS398 or rapamycin treatment, may help reduce GMH severity in susceptible preterm infants. PMID:25931468

  13. Hyperactive mTOR pathway promotes lymphoproliferation and abnormal differentiation in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Völkl, Simon; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Allgäuer, Andrea; Schreiner, Elisabeth; Lorenz, Myriam Ricarda; Rohr, Jan; Klemann, Christian; Fuchs, Ilka; Schuster, Volker; von Bueren, André O; Naumann-Bartsch, Nora; Gambineri, Eleonora; Siepermann, Kathrin; Kobbe, Robin; Nathrath, Michaela; Arkwright, Peter D; Miano, Maurizio; Stachel, Klaus-Daniel; Metzler, Markus; Schwarz, Klaus; Kremer, Anita N; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-07-14

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human disorder characterized by defective Fas signaling, resulting in chronic benign lymphoproliferation and accumulation of TCRαβ(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative T (DNT) cells. Although their phenotype resembles that of terminally differentiated or exhausted T cells, lack of KLRG1, high eomesodermin, and marginal T-bet expression point instead to a long-lived memory state with potent proliferative capacity. Here we show that despite their terminally differentiated phenotype, human ALPS DNT cells exhibit substantial mitotic activity in vivo. Notably, hyperproliferation of ALPS DNT cells is associated with increased basal and activation-induced phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinases Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated survival and proliferation of ALPS DNT cells, but not of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in vitro. In vivo, mTOR inhibition reduced proliferation and abnormal differentiation by DNT cells. Importantly, increased mitotic activity and hyperactive mTOR signaling was also observed in recently defined CD4(+) or CD8(+) precursor DNT cells, and mTOR inhibition specifically reduced these cells in vivo, indicating abnormal programming of Fas-deficient T cells before the DNT stage. Thus, our results identify the mTOR pathway as a major regulator of lymphoproliferation and aberrant differentiation in ALPS. PMID:27099149

  14. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  15. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8-10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6-8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  16. Hyperactive mTOR signals in the proopiomelanocortin-expressing hippocampal neurons cause age-dependent epilepsy and premature death in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Yuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Shimmura, Mitsunori; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Nishio, Miki; Akamine, Satoshi; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Akira; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). Recent studies utilizing massive sequencing data identified subsets of genes that are associated with epilepsy and FCD. AKT and mTOR-related signals have been recently implicated in the pathogenic processes of epilepsy and FCD. To clarify the functional roles of the AKT-mTOR pathway in the hippocampal neurons, we generated conditional knockout mice harboring the deletion of Pten (Pten-cKO) in Proopiomelanocortin-expressing neurons. The Pten-cKO mice developed normally until 8 weeks of age, then presented generalized seizures at 8–10 weeks of age. Video-monitored electroencephalograms detected paroxysmal discharges emerging from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. These mice showed progressive hypertrophy of the dentate gyrus (DG) with increased expressions of excitatory synaptic markers (Psd95, Shank3 and Homer). In contrast, the expression of inhibitory neurons (Gad67) was decreased at 6–8 weeks of age. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the abnormal sprouting of mossy fibers in the DG of the Pten-cKO mice prior to the onset of seizures. The treatment of these mice with an mTOR inhibitor rapamycin successfully prevented the development of seizures and reversed these molecular phenotypes. These data indicate that the mTOR pathway regulates hippocampal excitability in the postnatal brain. PMID:26961412

  17. Signaling through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Axis Is Responsible for Aerobic Glycolysis mediated by Glucose Transporter in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Makinoshima, Hideki; Takita, Masahiro; Saruwatari, Koichi; Umemura, Shigeki; Obata, Yuuki; Ishii, Genichiro; Matsumoto, Shingo; Sugiyama, Eri; Ochiai, Atsushi; Abe, Ryo; Goto, Koichi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tsuchihara, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in regulating global metabolic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and pyrimidine biosynthesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which EGFR signaling regulates cancer cell metabolism is still unclear. To elucidate how EGFR signaling is linked to metabolic activity, we investigated the involvement of the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways on metabolic alteration in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell lines with activating EGFR mutations. Although MEK inhibition did not alter lactate production and the extracellular acidification rate, PI3K/mTOR inhibitors significantly suppressed glycolysis in EGFR-mutant LAD cells. Moreover, a comprehensive metabolomics analysis revealed that the levels of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate as early metabolites in glycolysis and PPP were decreased after inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, suggesting a link between PI3K signaling and the proper function of glucose transporters or hexokinases in glycolysis. Indeed, PI3K/mTOR inhibition effectively suppressed membrane localization of facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which, instead, accumulated in the cytoplasm. Finally, aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation were down-regulated when GLUT1 gene expression was suppressed by RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling is indispensable for the regulation of aerobic glycolysis in EGFR-mutated LAD cells. PMID:26023239

  18. Sestrin2 integrates Akt and mTOR signaling to protect cells against energetic stress-induced death.

    PubMed

    Ben-Sahra, I; Dirat, B; Laurent, K; Puissant, A; Auberger, P; Budanov, A; Tanti, J-F; Bost, F

    2013-04-01

    The phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway has a central role in cancer cell metabolism and proliferation. More importantly, it is one of the cardinal pro-survival pathways mediating resistance to apoptosis. The role of Akt in response to an energetic stress is presently unclear. Here, we show that Sestrin2 (Sesn2), also known as Hi95, a p53 target gene that protects cells against oxidative and genotoxic stresses, participates in the protective role of Akt in response to an energetic stress induced by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Sesn2 is upregulated in response to an energetic stress such as 2-DG and metformin, and mediates the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the major cellular regulator of energy metabolism. The increase of Sesn2 is independent of p53 but requires the anti-apoptotic pathway, PI3K/Akt. Inhibition of Akt, as well as loss of Sesn2, sensitizes cells to 2-DG-induced apoptosis. In addition, the rescue of Sesn2 partially reverses the pro-apoptotic effects of 2-DG. In conclusion, we identify Sesn2 as a new energetic stress sensor, which appears to be protective against energetic stress-induced apoptosis that integrates the pro-survival function of Akt and the negative regulation of mTOR. PMID:23238567

  19. Targeting mTOR in RET mutant medullary and differentiated thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gild, Matti L; Landa, Iñigo; Ryder, Mabel; Ghossein, Ronald A; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Fagin, James A

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by a gene that is frequently mutated in medullary thyroid cancer, have emerged as promising novel therapies for the disease. Rapalogs and other mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are effective agents in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, which share lineage properties with medullary thyroid carcinomas. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of mTOR activity to RET-induced signaling and cell growth and to establish whether growth suppression is enhanced by co-targeting RET and mTOR kinase activities. Treatment of the RET mutant cell lines TT, TPC-1, and MZ-CRC-1 with AST487, a RET kinase inhibitor, suppressed growth and showed profound and sustained inhibition of mTOR signaling, which was recapitulated by siRNA-mediated RET knockdown. Inhibition of mTOR with INK128, a dual mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase inhibitor, also resulted in marked growth suppression to levels similar to those seen with RET blockade. Moreover, combined treatment with AST487 and INK128 at low concentrations suppressed growth and induced apoptosis. These data establish mTOR as a key mediator of RET-mediated cell growth in thyroid cancer cells and provide a rationale for combinatorial treatments in thyroid cancers with oncogenic RET mutations. PMID:23828865

  20. NT-3 promotes proprioceptive axon regeneration when combined with activation of the mTor intrinsic growth pathway but not with reduction of myelin extrinsic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingpeng; Kelamangalath, Lakshmi; Kim, Hyukmin; Han, Seung Baek; Tang, Xiaoqing; Zhai, Jinbin; Hong, Jee W; Lin, Shen; Son, Young-Jin; Smith, George M

    2016-09-01

    Although previous studies have identified several strategies to stimulate regeneration of CNS axons, extensive regeneration and functional recovery have remained a major challenge, particularly for large diameter myelinated axons. Within the CNS, myelin is thought to inhibit axon regeneration, while modulating activity of the mTOR pathway promotes regeneration of injured axons. In this study, we examined NT-3 mediated regeneration of sensory axons through the dorsal root entry zone in a triple knockout of myelin inhibitory proteins or after activation of mTOR using a constitutively active (ca) Rheb in DRG neurons to determine the influence of environmental inhibitory or activation of intrinsic growth pathways could enhance NT-3-mediate regeneration. Loss of myelin inhibitory proteins showed modest enhancement of sensory axon regeneration. In mTOR studies, we found a dramatic age related decrease in the mTOR activation as determined by phosphorylation of the downstream marker S6 ribosomal subunit. Expression of caRheb within adult DRG neurons in vitro increased S6 phosphorylation and doubled the overall length of neurite outgrowth, which was reversed in the presence of rapamycin. In adult female rats, combined expression of caRheb in DRG neurons and NT-3 within the spinal cord increased regeneration of sensory axons almost 3 fold when compared to NT-3 alone. Proprioceptive assessment using a grid runway indicates functionally significant regeneration of large-diameter myelinated sensory afferents. Our results indicate that caRheb-induced increase in mTOR activation enhances neurotrophin-3 induced regeneration of large-diameter myelinated axons. PMID:27264357

  1. Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Prevents Progression of Pancreatic Cancer by Targeting in Part Cancer Stem Cells and mTOR Signaling12

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Ritchie, Rebekah L; Marya, Anuj; Lightfoot, Stan; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is associated positively with increased risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and recent meta-analysis studies showed that metformin, reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC). We tested the effects of metformin on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and their progression to PDAC in p48Cre/+.LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice. Mice fed control diet showed 80% and 62% incidence of PDAC in males and females, respectively. Male mice showed 20% and 26%, and female mice showed 7% and 0% PDAC incidence with 1000- and 2000-ppm metformin treatments, respectively. Both doses of metformin decreased pancreatic tumor weights by 34% to 49% (P < 0.03–0.001). The drug treatment caused suppression of PanIN 3 (carcinoma in situ) lesions by 28% to 39% (P < .002) and significant inhibition of carcinoma spread in the pancreas. The pancreatic tissue and/or serum of mice fed metformin showed a significant inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pErk), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with an increase in phosphorylated 5′ adenosine monophosphate kinase (pAMPK), tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1, TSC2), C-protein and an autophagy related protein 2 (ATG2). The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers were significantly decreased (P < 0.04–0.0002) in the pancreatic tissue. These results suggest that biologic effects of metformin are mediated through decreased CSC markers cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44 and CD133), aldehyde dehydrogenase isoform 1 (ALDH1), and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) and modulation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Our preclinical data indicate that metformin has significant potential for use in clinical trials for PC chemoprevention. PMID:24466367

  2. Restriction on an Energy-Dense Diet Improves Markers of Metabolic Health and Cellular Aging in Mice Through Decreasing Hepatic mTOR Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum–fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5′-adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation. PMID:25405871

  3. Estradiol-Mediated Spine Changes in the Dorsal Hippocampus and Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Ovariectomized Female Mice Depend on ERK and mTOR Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Luine, Victoria; Frankfurt, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spine plasticity underlies the formation and maintenance of memories. Both natural fluctuations and systemic administration of 17β-estradiol (E2) alter spine density in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of rodents. DH E2 infusion enhances hippocampal-dependent memory by rapidly activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent signaling of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key protein synthesis pathway involved in spine remodeling. Here, we investigated whether infusion of E2 directly into the DH drives spine changes in the DH and other brain regions, and identified cell-signaling pathways that mediate these effects. E2 significantly increased basal and apical spine density on CA1 pyramidal neurons 30 min and 2 h after infusion. DH E2 infusion also significantly increased basal spine density on pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) 2 h later, suggesting that E2-mediated activity in the DH drives mPFC spinogenesis. The increase in CA1 and mPFC spine density observed 2 h after intracerebroventricular infusion of E2 was blocked by DH infusion of an ERK or mTOR inhibitor. DH E2 infusion did not affect spine density in the dentate gyrus or ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting specific effects of E2 on the DH and mPFC. Collectively, these data demonstrate that DH E2 treatment elicits ERK- and mTOR-dependent spinogenesis on CA1 and mPFC pyramidal neurons, effects that may support the memory-enhancing effects of E2. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although systemically injected 17β-estradiol (E2) increases CA1 dendritic spine density, the molecular mechanisms regulating E2-induced spinogenesis in vivo are largely unknown. We found that E2 infused directly into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) increased CA1 spine density 30 min and 2 h later. Surprisingly, DH E2 infusion also increased spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), suggesting that estrogenic regulation of the DH influences mPFC spinogenesis. Moreover, inhibition of

  4. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and ubiquitin proteasome-related gene expression in skeletal muscle of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Giallongo, F; Hristov, A N; Werner, J; Lang, C H; Parys, C; Saremi, B; Sauerwein, H

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of protein synthesis, whereas the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is regarded as the main proteolytic pathway in skeletal muscle. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected (RP) Met and His supplementation of a metabolizable protein (MP)-deficient diet on the abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the UPS in skeletal muscle of dairy cows. Sixty Holstein cows were blocked based on days in milk and milk yield and were randomly assigned within block to 1 of 5 diets in a 10-wk experiment (including the first 2 wk as covariate period) as follows: (1) MP-adequate diet (AMP; 107% of MP requirements, based on the National Research Council requirements); (2) MP-deficient diet (DMP; 95% of MP requirements); (3) DMP supplemented with slow-release urea (DMPU); (4) DMPU supplemented with RPMet (DMPUM); and (5) DMPUM supplemented with RPHis (DMPUMH). Muscle biopsies were collected from longissimus dorsi during the last week of the experiment. The mRNA abundance of key mTOR signaling genes was not affected by the treatments. The phosphorylated (P)-mTOR protein was or tended to be greater for DMP compared with DMPU and AMP, respectively. The P-mTOR protein in DMPUMH was decreased when compared against DMPUM. The P-ribosomal protein S6 tended to be increased by DMPUM compared with DMPU. The abundance of total-S6 was or tended to be greater for DMP compared with AMP and DMPU, respectively. The mRNA abundance of ubiquitin activating and conjugating enzymes was not affected by the treatments, whereas that of muscle ring-finger protein 1 (MuRF-1) was greater in DMP than DMPU. The increased abundance of mTOR-associated signaling proteins and MuRF-1 mRNA abundance indicates a higher rate of protein turnover in muscle of DMP-fed cows. The reduced abundance of P-mTOR by supplementation of RPHis may suggest that His is likely partitioned to the

  5. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 upregulation by O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 protects against hypoxia-induced mouse embryonic stem cell apoptosis via mTOR activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, H J; Ryu, J M; Jung, Y H; Lee, K H; Kim, D I; Han, H J

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen signaling is critical for stem cell regulation, and oxidative stress-induced stem cell apoptosis decreases the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Hypoxia activates O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of stem cells, which contributes to regulation of cellular metabolism, as well as cell fate. Our study investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation via glucosamine in the protection of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Hypoxia increased mESCs apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, hypoxia also slightly increased the O-GlcNAc level. Glucosamine treatment further enhanced the O-GlcNAc level and prevented hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis, which was suppressed by O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors. In addition, hypoxia regulated several lipid metabolic enzymes, whereas glucosamine increased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), a lipid metabolic enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, glucosamine-increased O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1, which subsequently leads to Sp1 nuclear translocation and GPAT1 expression. Silencing of GPAT1 by gpat1 siRNA transfection reduced glucosamine-mediated anti-apoptosis in mESCs and reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Indeed, LPA prevented mESCs from undergoing hypoxia-induced apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its substrates (S6K1 and 4EBP1). Moreover, mTOR inactivation by rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) increased pro-apoptotic proteins expressions and mESC apoptosis. Furthermore, transplantation of non-targeting siRNA and glucosamine-treated mESCs increased cell survival and inhibited flap necrosis in mouse skin flap model. Conversely, silencing of GPAT1 expression reversed those glucosamine effects. In conclusion, enhancing O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 by glucosamine stimulates GPAT1 expression, which leads to inhibition of hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis via mTOR activation. PMID:27010859

  6. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 upregulation by O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 protects against hypoxia-induced mouse embryonic stem cell apoptosis via mTOR activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H J; Ryu, J M; Jung, Y H; Lee, K H; Kim, D I; Han, H J

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen signaling is critical for stem cell regulation, and oxidative stress-induced stem cell apoptosis decreases the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Hypoxia activates O-linked β-N-acetyl glucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of stem cells, which contributes to regulation of cellular metabolism, as well as cell fate. Our study investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation via glucosamine in the protection of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Hypoxia increased mESCs apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, hypoxia also slightly increased the O-GlcNAc level. Glucosamine treatment further enhanced the O-GlcNAc level and prevented hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis, which was suppressed by O-GlcNAc transferase inhibitors. In addition, hypoxia regulated several lipid metabolic enzymes, whereas glucosamine increased expression of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 (GPAT1), a lipid metabolic enzyme producing lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, glucosamine-increased O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1, which subsequently leads to Sp1 nuclear translocation and GPAT1 expression. Silencing of GPAT1 by gpat1 siRNA transfection reduced glucosamine-mediated anti-apoptosis in mESCs and reduced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation. Indeed, LPA prevented mESCs from undergoing hypoxia-induced apoptosis and increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its substrates (S6K1 and 4EBP1). Moreover, mTOR inactivation by rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) increased pro-apoptotic proteins expressions and mESC apoptosis. Furthermore, transplantation of non-targeting siRNA and glucosamine-treated mESCs increased cell survival and inhibited flap necrosis in mouse skin flap model. Conversely, silencing of GPAT1 expression reversed those glucosamine effects. In conclusion, enhancing O-GlcNAcylation of Sp1 by glucosamine stimulates GPAT1 expression, which leads to inhibition of hypoxia-induced mESC apoptosis via mTOR activation. PMID:27010859

  7. Oxidant Stress and Signal Transduction in the Nervous System with the PI 3-K, Akt, and mTOR Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Wang, Shaohui; Shang, Yan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress impacts multiple systems of the body and can lead to some of the most devastating consequences in the nervous system especially during aging. Both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cerebral ischemia, trauma, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and tuberous sclerosis through programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and autophagy can be the result of oxidant stress. Novel therapeutic avenues that focus upon the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K), Akt (protein kinase B), and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cascade and related pathways offer exciting prospects to address the onset and potential reversal of neurodegenerative disorders. Effective clinical translation of these pathways into robust therapeutic strategies requires intimate knowledge of the complexity of these pathways and the ability of this cascade to influence biological outcome that can vary among disorders of the nervous system. PMID:23203037

  8. BIM and mTOR expression levels predict outcome to erlotinib in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karachaliou, Niki; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Teixidó, Cristina; Pilotto, Sara; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Codony-Servat, Carles; Giménez-Capitán, Ana; Molina-Vila, Miguel Angel; Bertrán-Alamillo, Jordi; Gervais, Radj; Massuti, Bartomeu; Morán, Teresa; Majem, Margarita; Felip, Enriqueta; Carcereny, Enric; García-Campelo, Rosario; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Verlicchi, Alberto; Crisetti, Elisabetta; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Luis Ramírez, José; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Felipe Cardona, Andrés; de Marinis, Filippo; López-Vivanco, Guillermo; Miguel Sánchez, José; Vergnenegre, Alain; Sánchez Hernández, José Javier; Sperduti, Isabella; Bria, Emilio; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    BIM is a proapoptotic protein that initiates apoptosis triggered by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). mTOR negatively regulates apoptosis and may influence response to EGFR TKI. We examined mRNA expression of BIM and MTOR in 57 patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC from the EURTAC trial. Risk of mortality and disease progression was lower in patients with high BIM compared with low/intermediate BIM mRNA levels. Analysis of MTOR further divided patients with high BIM expression into two groups, with those having both high BIM and MTOR experiencing shorter overall and progression-free survival to erlotinib. Validation of our results was performed in an independent cohort of 19 patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with EGFR TKIs. In EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines with high BIM expression, concomitant high mTOR expression increased IC50 of gefitinib for cell proliferation. We next sought to analyse the signalling pattern in cell lines with strong activation of mTOR and its substrate P-S6. We showed that mTOR and phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D) strongly correlate in resistant EGFR-mutant cancer cell lines. These data suggest that the combination of EGFR TKI with mTOR or PDE4 inhibitors could be adequate therapy for EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with high pretreatment levels of BIM and mTOR. PMID:26639561

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and has a protective effect in a rat model of status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    San, Yong-Zhi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Shi, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Lan

    2015-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) has a protective role in several neurological diseases. The present study investigated the effect of the PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone, on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in a rat model of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced status epilepticus (SE). The investigation proceeded in two stages. First, the course of activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in PTZ-induced SE was examined to determine the time-point of peak activity, as reflected by phopshorylated (p)-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios. Subsequently, pioglitazone was administrated intragastrically to investigate its effect on the mTOR signaling pathway, through western blot and immunochemical analyses. The levels of the interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA, and neuronal loss was observed via Nissl staining. In the first stage of experimentation, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated, and the p-mTOR/mTOR and p-S6/S6 ratios peaked on the third day. Compared with the vehicle treated-SE group, pretreatment with pioglitazone was associated with the loss of fewer neurons, lower levels of IL-1β and IL-6, and inhibition of the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. Therefore, the mTOR signaling pathway was activated in the PTZ-induced SE rat model, and the PPAR-γ agonist, pioglitazone, had a neuroprotective effect, by inhibiting activation of the mTOR pathway and preventing the increase in the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. PMID:25891824

  10. Combination treatment with hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) and mTOR inhibitors results in enhanced antitumor efficacy in preclinical renal cell carcinoma models

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jessica D; Ahluwalia, Dharmendra; Liu, Qian; Li, Wenwu; Wang, Yan; Meng, Fanying; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Matteucci, Mark D; Hart, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Tumors often consist of hypoxic regions which are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Evofosfamide (also known as TH-302), a 2-nitroimidazole triggered hypoxia-activated prodrug, preferentially releases the DNA cross-linker bromo-isophosphoramide mustard in hypoxic cells. The intracellular kinase mTOR plays a key role in multiple pathways which are important in cancer progression. Here we investigated the enhanced efficacy profile and possible mechanisms of evofosfamide in combination with mTOR inhibitor (mTORi) everolimus or temsirolimus in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) xenograft models. The antitumor activities of the mTORi everolimus or temsirolimus alone, evofosfamide alone, or the combination were investigated in the 786-O and Caki-1 RCC cells in vitro and in vivo xenograft models. Two schedules were tested in which evofosfamide was started on the same day as the mTORi or 1 week after. Combination mechanisms were investigated by measuring a panel of pharmacodynamic biomarkers by immunohistochemistry. Antitumor efficacy in both RCC xenograft models was enhanced by the combination of evofosfamide and mTORi. Evofosfamide reduced the increased hypoxia induced by mTORi. Combination treatment induced increased DNA damage, decreased cell proliferation, and decreased survivin. Addition of mTORi did not change evofosfamide-mediated cytotoxicity in 786-O or Caki-1 cells in vitro which might suggest cell non-autonomous effects, specifically increased tumor hypoxia, are important for the in vivo combination activity. Taken together, evofosfamide potentiates the antitumor efficacy of mTOR inhibitors and inhibits the increased tumor hypoxia caused by mTOR inhibition. These studies provide a translational rationale for combining evofosfamide with mTOR inhibitors in clinical studies. PMID:26328245

  11. 14-3-3γ Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses and Lactation in Dairy Cow Mammary Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs and Up-Regulating mTOR Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Lin, Ye; Liu, Lili; Bian, Yanjie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    As a protective factor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury, 14-3-3γ has been the subject of recent research. Nevertheless, whether 14-3-3γ can regulate lactation in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) induced by LPS remains unknown. Here, the anti-inflammatory effect and lactation regulating ability of 14-3-3γ in LPS-induced DCMECs are investigated for the first time, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their effects are explored. The results of qRT-PCR showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis revealed that 14-3-3γ overexpression also suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 in cell culture supernatants. Meanwhile, CASY-TT Analyser System showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression clearly increased the viability and proliferation of cells. The results of kit methods and western blot analysis showed that 14-3-3γ overexpression promoted the secretion of triglycerides and lactose and the synthesis of β-casein. Furthermore, the expression of genes relevant to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and lactation-associated proteins were assessed by western blot, and the results suggested that 14-3-3γ overexpression inactivated the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways by down-regulating extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) phosphorylation levels, as well as by inhibiting NF-κB translocation. Meanwhile, 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the expression levels of β-casein, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), serine/threonine protein kinase Akt 1 (AKT1), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR

  12. CGP57380 enhances efficacy of RAD001 in non-small cell lung cancer through abrogating mTOR inhibition-induced phosphorylation of eIF4E and activating mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qiuyuan; Wang, Weiyuan; Luo, Jiadi; Chu, Shuzhou; Chen, Lingjiao; Xu, Lina; Zang, Hongjing; Alnemah, Mohannad Ma; Ma, Jian; Fan, Songqing

    2016-05-10

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potentially important therapeutic target in a broad range of cancer types. mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin and its analogs (rapalogs) have been proven effective as anticancer agents in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), whereas they strongly enhance phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and activation of Akt, which cause resistance to mTOR-targeted therapy after an initial response. Rapamycin induces eIF4E phosphorylation by activating MAPK-interacting kinases (Mnks), and therefore targeting Mnk/eIF4E pathway represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NSCLC. Here, our results showed that over-expression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E was significantly associated with poor overall survival of NSCLC patients and high expression of p-Mnk1 might act as an independent prognostic biomarker for these patients. Meanwhile, inhibiting Mnk1 expression by Mnk inhibitor (CGP57380) could abrogate rapalogs (RAD001)-induced eIF4E phosphorylation and Akt activation. Furthermore, combination of CGP57380 and RAD001 could induce NSCLC cells apoptosis via activating intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and exert synergistic antitumor efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, combination of targeting both mTOR and Mnk/eIF4E signaling pathways to enhance effectiveness of mTOR-targeted cancer therapy might be significant innovation for the personalized treatment of NSCLC. PMID:27050281

  13. Cigarette smoke components induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 in aortic endothelial cells through inhibition of mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Vincent; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2011-10-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for heart disease, but the molecular effects of cigarette smoke on vascular cells are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), a collagenase expressed in atherosclerosis and aneurysms but not in the normal vessel wall, is induced in the aortic endothelium of rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke. In vitro cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and one of its components, acrolein, inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6K pathway in human endothelial cells, and chemical inhibition of this pathway by rapamycin resulted in elevated MMP-1. Moreover, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3 (TIMP-3), a major regulator of angiogenesis, is significantly downregulated in aortic endothelial cells treated with CSE, acrolein, or rapamycin. These data indicate that inhibition of mTOR by cigarette smoke components is a key event in the modulation of endothelial MMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression. Our study suggests that circulating smoke components, including acrolein, contribute to vascular diseases through enhanced MMP-1 and decreased TIMP-3 secretion in the endothelium, potentially leading to impaired angiogenesis, matrix disruption, and vessel injury. PMID:21742783

  14. Stimulation of the intestinal phosphate transporter SLC34A2 by the protein kinase mTOR.

    PubMed

    Shojaiefard, Manzar; Lang, Florian

    2006-07-14

    Adequate phosphate homeostasis is of critical importance for a wide variety of functions including bone mineralization and energy metabolism. Phosphate balance is a function of intestinal absorption and renal elimination, which are both under tight hormonal control. Intestinal phosphate absorption is accomplished by the Na(+), phosphate cotransporter NaPi IIb (SLC34A2). Signaling mechanisms mediating hormonal regulation of SLC34A2 are incompletely understood. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase regulating a variety of nutrient transporters. The present experiments explored whether mTOR regulates the activity of SLC34A2. In Xenopus oocytes expressing SLC34A2 but not in water injected oocytes phosphate (1 mM) induced a current (Ip) which was significantly enhanced by coexpression of mTOR. Preincubation of the oocytes for 24 h with rapamycin (50 nM) did not significantly affect Ip in the absence of mTOR but virtually abolished the increase of Ip following coexpression of mTOR. The wild type serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1 and the constitutively active (S422D)SGK1 similarly stimulated Ip, an effect again reversed by rapamycin. Coexpression of the inactive mutant of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase (K119N)SGK1 significantly decreased Ip and abrogated the stimulating effect of mTOR on Ip. In conclusion, mTOR and SGK1 cooperate in the stimulation of the intestinal phosphate transporter SLC34A2. PMID:16730658

  15. Kinome RNAi Screens Reveal Synergistic Targeting of MTOR and FGFR1 Pathways for Treatment of Lung Cancer and HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Katherine R; Hinz, Trista K; Kleczko, Emily K; Marek, Lindsay A; Kwak, Jeff; Harp, Taylor; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Heasley, Lynn E

    2015-10-15

    The FGFR1 is a therapeutic target under investigation in multiple solid tumors and clinical trials of selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are underway. Treatment with a single TKI represents a logical step toward personalized cancer therapy, but intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms limit their long-term benefit. In this study, we deployed RNAi-based functional genomic screens to identify protein kinases controlling the intrinsic sensitivity of FGFR1-dependent lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) cells to ponatinib, a multikinase FGFR-active inhibitor. We identified and validated a synthetic lethal interaction between MTOR and ponatinib in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. In addition, treatment with MTOR-targeting shRNAs and pharmacologic inhibitors revealed that MTOR is an essential protein kinase in other FGFR1-expressing cancer cells. The combination of FGFR inhibitors and MTOR or AKT inhibitors resulted in synergistic growth suppression in vitro. Notably, tumor xenografts generated from FGFR1-dependent lung cancer cells exhibited only modest sensitivity to monotherapy with the FGFR-specific TKI, AZD4547, but when combined with the MTOR inhibitor, AZD2014, significantly attenuated tumor growth and prolonged survival. Our findings support the existence of a signaling network wherein FGFR1-driven ERK and activated MTOR/AKT represent distinct arms required to induce full transformation. Furthermore, they suggest that clinical efficacy of treatments for FGFR1-driven lung cancers and HNSCC may be achieved by combining MTOR inhibitors and FGFR-specific TKIs. PMID:26359452

  16. mTOR controls lysosome tubulation and antigen presentation in macrophages and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Saric, Amra; Hipolito, Victoria E. B.; Kay, Jason G.; Canton, Johnathan; Antonescu, Costin N.; Botelho, Roberto J.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) convert their lysosomes from small, punctate organelles into a network of tubules. Tubular lysosomes have been implicated in phagosome maturation, retention of fluid phase, and antigen presentation. There is a growing appreciation that lysosomes act as sensors of stress and the metabolic state of the cell through the kinase mTOR. Here we show that LPS stimulates mTOR and that mTOR is required for LPS-induced lysosome tubulation and secretion of major histocompatibility complex II in macrophages and dendritic cells. Specifically, we show that the canonical phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt–mTOR signaling pathway regulates LPS-induced lysosome tubulation independently of IRAK1/4 and TBK. Of note, we find that LPS treatment augmented the levels of membrane-associated Arl8b, a lysosomal GTPase required for tubulation that promotes kinesin-dependent lysosome movement to the cell periphery, in an mTOR-dependent manner. This suggests that mTOR may interface with the Arl8b-kinesin machinery. To further support this notion, we show that mTOR antagonists can block outward movement of lysosomes in cells treated with acetate but have no effect in retrograde movement upon acetate removal. Overall our work provides tantalizing evidence that mTOR plays a role in controlling lysosome morphology and trafficking by modulating microtubule-based motor activity in leukocytes. PMID:26582390

  17. mTOR controls lysosome tubulation and antigen presentation in macrophages and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Saric, Amra; Hipolito, Victoria E B; Kay, Jason G; Canton, Johnathan; Antonescu, Costin N; Botelho, Roberto J

    2016-01-15

    Macrophages and dendritic cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) convert their lysosomes from small, punctate organelles into a network of tubules. Tubular lysosomes have been implicated in phagosome maturation, retention of fluid phase, and antigen presentation. There is a growing appreciation that lysosomes act as sensors of stress and the metabolic state of the cell through the kinase mTOR. Here we show that LPS stimulates mTOR and that mTOR is required for LPS-induced lysosome tubulation and secretion of major histocompatibility complex II in macrophages and dendritic cells. Specifically, we show that the canonical phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway regulates LPS-induced lysosome tubulation independently of IRAK1/4 and TBK. Of note, we find that LPS treatment augmented the levels of membrane-associated Arl8b, a lysosomal GTPase required for tubulation that promotes kinesin-dependent lysosome movement to the cell periphery, in an mTOR-dependent manner. This suggests that mTOR may interface with the Arl8b-kinesin machinery. To further support this notion, we show that mTOR antagonists can block outward movement of lysosomes in cells treated with acetate but have no effect in retrograde movement upon acetate removal. Overall our work provides tantalizing evidence that mTOR plays a role in controlling lysosome morphology and trafficking by modulating microtubule-based motor activity in leukocytes. PMID:26582390

  18. mTOR inhibition decreases SOX2-SOX9 mediated glioma stem cell activity and temozolomide resistance

    PubMed Central

    Garros-Regulez, Laura; Aldaz, Paula; Arrizabalaga, Olatz; Moncho-Amor, Veronica; Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Manterola, Lorea; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Barrena, Cristina; Villanua, Jorge; Ruiz, Irune; Pollard, Steven; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Sampron, Nicolas; Garcia, Idoia; Matheu, Ander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: SOX2 and SOX9 are commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma, and regulate the activity of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Their specific and overlapping roles in GSCs and glioma treatment remain unclear. Methods: SOX2 and SOX9 levels were examined in human biopsies. Gain and loss of function determined the impact of altering SOX2 and SOX9 on cell proliferation, senescence, stem cell activity, tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. Results: SOX2 and SOX9 expression correlates positively in glioma cells and glioblastoma biopsies. High levels of SOX2 bypass cellular senescence and promote resistance to temozolomide. Mechanistic investigations revealed that SOX2 acts upstream of SOX9. mTOR genetic and pharmacologic (rapamycin) inhibition decreased SOX2 and SOX9 expression, and reversed chemoresistance. Conclusions: Our findings reveal SOX2-SOX9 as an oncogenic axis that regulates stem cell properties and chemoresistance. We identify that rapamycin abrogate SOX protein expression and provide evidence that a combination of rapamycin and temozolomide inhibits tumor growth in cells with high SOX2/SOX9. PMID:26878385

  19. The CDK4/6 inhibitor LY2835219 has potent activity in combination with mTOR inhibitor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jiae; Bae, Yeon-Hee; Sun, Jong-Mu; Lee, Se-hoon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Keunchil; Ahn, Myung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Deletion of CDKN2A (p16) or amplification of CCND1 (cyclin D1) occurs commonly in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and induces sustained cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 activation. Here, we report the antiproliferative activity of LY2835219, a selective CDK4/6 inhibitor through inhibition of CDK4/6-dependent Ser780 phosphorylation in retinoblastoma (RB) and induction of cell cycle arrest in HNSCC cells. In addition, we demonstrated the antitumor effects of HNSCC xenografts to LY2835219 in vivo. Given the limited effect in HNSCC as a single-agent treatment with LY2835219, a combinational strategy is required to enhance antitumor activity. At the molecular level, we found that LY2835219 inhibited activation of AKT and ERK, but not mTOR. The combination of LY2835219 with mTOR inhibitor was found to be more effective than either drug alone in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest that a combinational treatment with LY2835219 and mTOR inhibitor is a promising therapeutic approach for HNSCC. PMID:26909611

  20. Overcoming mTOR resistance mutations with a new-generation mTOR inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Rodrik-Outmezguine, Vanessa S; Okaniwa, Masanori; Yao, Zhan; Novotny, Chris J; McWhirter, Claire; Banaji, Arpitha; Won, Helen; Wong, Wai; Berger, Mike; de Stanchina, Elisa; Barratt, Derek G; Cosulich, Sabina; Klinowska, Teresa; Rosen, Neal; Shokat, Kevan M

    2016-06-01

    Precision medicines exert selective pressure on tumour cells that leads to the preferential growth of resistant subpopulations, necessitating the development of next-generation therapies to treat the evolving cancer. The PIK3CA-AKT-mTOR pathway is one of the most commonly activated pathways in human cancers, which has led to the development of small-molecule inhibitors that target various nodes in the pathway. Among these agents, first-generation mTOR inhibitors (rapalogs) have caused responses in 'N-of-1' cases, and second-generation mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKi) are currently in clinical trials. Here we sought to delineate the likely resistance mechanisms to existing mTOR inhibitors in human cell lines, as a guide for next-generation therapies. The mechanism of resistance to the TORKi was unusual in that intrinsic kinase activity of mTOR was increased, rather than a direct active-site mutation interfering with drug binding. Indeed, identical drug-resistant mutations have been also identified in drug-naive patients, suggesting that tumours with activating MTOR mutations will be intrinsically resistant to second-generation mTOR inhibitors. We report the development of a new class of mTOR inhibitors that overcomes resistance to existing first- and second-generation inhibitors. The third-generation mTOR inhibitor exploits the unique juxtaposition of two drug-binding pockets to create a bivalent interaction that allows inhibition of these resistant mutants. PMID:27279227

  1. Differential regulation of mTOR signaling determines sensitivity to AKT inhibition in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ezell, Scott A; Wang, Suping; Bihani, Teeru; Lai, Zhongwu; Grosskurth, Shaun E; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Davies, Barry R; Huszar, Dennis; Byth, Kate F

    2016-02-23

    Agents that target components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are under investigation for the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Given the highly heterogeneous nature of DLBCL, it is not clear whether all subtypes of DLBCL will be susceptible to PI3K pathway inhibition, or which kinase within this pathway is the most favorable target. Pharmacological profiling of a panel of DLBCL cell lines revealed a subset of DLBCL that was resistant to AKT inhibition. Strikingly, sensitivity to AKT inhibitors correlated with the ability of these inhibitors to block phosphorylation of S6K1 and ribosomal protein S6. Cell lines resistant to AKT inhibition activated S6K1 independent of AKT either through upregulation of PIM2 or through activation by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling components. Finally, combined inhibition of AKT and BTK, PIM2, or S6K1 proved to be an effective strategy to overcome resistance to AKT inhibition in DLBCL. PMID:26824321

  2. Differential regulation of mTOR signaling determines sensitivity to AKT inhibition in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ezell, Scott A.; Wang, Suping; Bihani, Teeru; Lai, Zhongwu; Grosskurth, Shaun E.; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Davies, Barry R.; Huszar, Dennis; Byth, Kate F.

    2016-01-01

    Agents that target components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway are under investigation for the treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Given the highly heterogeneous nature of DLBCL, it is not clear whether all subtypes of DLBCL will be susceptible to PI3K pathway inhibition, or which kinase within this pathway is the most favorable target. Pharmacological profiling of a panel of DLBCL cell lines revealed a subset of DLBCL that was resistant to AKT inhibition. Strikingly, sensitivity to AKT inhibitors correlated with the ability of these inhibitors to block phosphorylation of S6K1 and ribosomal protein S6. Cell lines resistant to AKT inhibition activated S6K1 independent of AKT either through upregulation of PIM2 or through activation by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling components. Finally, combined inhibition of AKT and BTK, PIM2, or S6K1 proved to be an effective strategy to overcome resistance to AKT inhibition in DLBCL. PMID:26824321

  3. Microfilariae of Brugia malayi Inhibit the mTOR Pathway and Induce Autophagy in Human Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Prakash Babu; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Meng, Zhaojing; Cotton, Rachel N; Elliott, Kathleen R; Ganesan, Sundar; McDonald-Fleming, Renee; Veenstra, Timothy D; Nutman, Thomas B; Tolouei Semnani, Roshanak

    2016-09-01

    Immune modulation is a hallmark of patent filarial infection, including suppression of antigen-presenting cell function and downmodulation of filarial antigen-specific T cell responses. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been implicated in immune regulation, not only by suppressing T cell responses but also by regulating autophagy (through mTOR sensing amino acid availability). Global proteomic analysis (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) of microfilaria (mf)-exposed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) indicated that multiple components of the mTOR signaling pathway, including mTOR, eIF4A, and eIF4E, are downregulated by mf, suggesting that mf target this pathway for immune modulation in DC. Utilizing Western blot analysis, we demonstrate that similar to rapamycin (a known mTOR inhibitor), mf downregulate the phosphorylation of mTOR and its regulatory proteins, p70S6K1 and 4E-BP1, a process essential for DC protein synthesis. As active mTOR signaling regulates autophagy, we examined whether mf exposure alters autophagy-associated processes. mf-induced autophagy was reflected in marked upregulation of phosphorylated Beclin 1, known to play an important role in both autophagosome formation and autolysosome fusion, in induction of LC3II, a marker of autophagosome formation, and in induced degradation of p62, a ubiquitin-binding protein that aggregates protein in autophagosomes and is degraded upon autophagy that was reduced significantly by mf exposure and by rapamycin. Together, these results suggest that Brugia malayi mf employ mechanisms of metabolic modulation in DC to influence the regulation of the host immune response by downregulating mTOR signaling, resulting in increased autophagy. Whether this is a result of the parasite-secreted rapamycin homolog is currently under study. PMID:27297394

  4. Leptin activation of mTOR pathway in intestinal epithelial cell triggers lipid droplet formation, cytokine production and increased cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Fazolini, Narayana P B; Cruz, André L S; Werneck, Miriam B F; Viola, João P B; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M; Bozza, Patrícia T

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that obesity and enhanced inflammatory reactions are predisposing conditions for developing colon cancer. Obesity is associated with high levels of circulating leptin. Leptin is an adipocytokine that is secreted by adipose tissue and modulates immune response and inflammation. Lipid droplets (LD) are organelles involved in lipid metabolism and production of inflammatory mediators, and increased numbers of LD were observed in human colon cancer. Leptin induces the formation of LD in macrophages in a PI3K/mTOR pathway-dependent manner. Moreover, the mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in cellular growth and is frequently altered in tumors. We therefore investigated the role of leptin in the modulation of mTOR pathway and regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory phenotype in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6 cells). We show that leptin promotes a dose- and time-dependent enhancement of LD formation. The biogenesis of LD was accompanied by enhanced CXCL1/CINC-1, CCL2/MCP-1 and TGF-β production and increased COX-2 expression in these cells. We demonstrated that leptin-induced increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and AKT and a dose and time-dependent mTORC activation with enhanced phosphorilation of the downstream protein P70S6K protein. Pre-treatment with rapamycin significantly inhibited leptin effects in LD formation, COX-2 and TGF-β production in IEC-6 cells. Moreover, leptin was able to stimulate the proliferation of epithelial cells on a mTOR-dependent manner. We conclude that leptin regulates lipid metabolism, cytokine production and proliferation of intestinal cells through a mechanism largely dependent on activation of the mTOR pathway, thus suggesting that leptin-induced mTOR activation may contribute to the obesity-related enhanced susceptibility to colon carcinoma. PMID:26017929

  5. KDR Amplification Is Associated with VEGF-Induced Activation of the mTOR and Invasion Pathways but does not Predict Clinical Benefit to the VEGFR TKI Vandetanib

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Monique B.; Giri, Uma; Gudikote, Jayanthi; Tang, Ximing; Lu, Wei; Tran, Hai; Fan, Youhong; Koo, Andrew; Diao, Lixia; Tong, Pan; Wang, Jing; Herbst, Roy; Johnson, Bruce E.; Ryan, Andy; Webster, Alan; Rowe, Philip; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Heymach, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose VEGF pathway inhibitors have been investigated as therapeutic agents in the treatment of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) because of its central role in angiogenesis. These agents have improved survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, but the effects have been modest. Although VEGFR2/KDR is typically localized to the vasculature, amplification of KDR has reported to occur in 9% to 30% of the DNA from different lung cancers. We investigated the signaling pathways activated downstream of KDR and whether KDR amplification is associated with benefit in patients with NSCLC treated with the VEGFR inhibitor vandetanib. Methods NSCLC cell lines with or without KDR amplification were studied for the effects of VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) on cell viability and migration. Archival tumor samples collected from patients with platinum-refractory NSCLC in the phase III ZODIAC study of vandetanib plus docetaxel or placebo plus docetaxel (N = 294) were screened for KDR amplification by FISH. Results KDR amplification was associated with VEGF-induced activation of mTOR, p38, and invasiveness in NSCLC cell lines. However, VEGFR TKIs did not inhibit proliferation of NSCLC cell lines with KDR amplification. VEGFR inhibition decreased cell motility as well as expression of HIF1α in KDR-amplified NSCLC cells. In the ZODIAC study, KDR amplification was observed in 15% of patients and was not associated with improved progression-free survival, overall survival, or objective response rate for the vandetanib arm. Conclusions Preclinical studies suggest KDR activates invasion but not survival pathways in KDR-amplified NSCLC models. Patients with NSCLC whose tumor had KDR amplification were not associated with clinical benefit for vandetanib in combination with docetaxel. PMID:26578684

  6. Resveratrol activates autophagic cell death in prostate cancer cells via downregulation of STIM1 and the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Sun, Yuyang; Sukumaran, Pramod; Singh, Brij B

    2016-05-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been suggested to induce cell cycle arrest and activate apoptosis-mediated cell death in several cancer cells, including prostate cancer. However, several molecular mechanisms have been proposed on its chemopreventive action, the precise mechanisms by which RSV exerts its anti-proliferative effect in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells remain questionable. In the present study, we show that RSV activates autophagic cell death in PC3 and DU145 cells, which was dependent on stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) expression. RSV treatment decreases STIM1 expression in a time-dependent manner and attenuates STIM1 association with TRPC1 and Orai1. Furthermore, RSV treatment also decreases ER calcium storage and store operated calcium entry (SOCE), which induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, thereby, activating AMPK and inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway. Similarly, inhibition of SOCE by SKF-96365 decreases the survival and proliferation of PC3 and DU145 cells and inhibits AKT/mTOR pathway and induces autophagic cell death. Importantly, SOCE inhibition and subsequent autophagic cell death caused by RSV was reversed by STIM1 overexpression. STIM1 overexpression restored SOCE, prevents the loss of mTOR phosphorylation and decreased the expression of CHOP and LC3A in PC3 cells. Taken together, for the first time, our results revealed that RSV induces autophagy-mediated cell death in PC3 and DU145 cells through regulation of SOCE mechanisms, including downregulating STIM1 expression and trigger ER stress by depleting ER calcium pool. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Carcinogenesis, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25917875

  7. Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Park, Seong-Won; Goo, Tae-Won; Seo, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma) has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL) inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE) suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress. PMID:26901224

  8. Allomyrina Dichotoma Larvae Regulate Food Intake and Body Weight in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Through mTOR and Mapk Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Yun, Eun-Young; Park, Seong-Won; Goo, Tae-Won; Seo, Minchul

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the Korean horn beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma) has anti-hepatofibrotic, anti-neoplastic, and antibiotic effects and is recognized as a traditional medicine. In our previous works, Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL) inhibited differentiation of adipocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the anorexigenic and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-reducing effects of ADL in obesity has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anorexigenic and ER stress-reducing effects of ADL in the hypothalamus of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ethanol extract of ADL (ADE) suggested that an antagonizing effect on ghrelin-induced feeding behavior through the mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. Especially, ADE resulted in strong reduction of ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. These findings strongly suggest that ADE and its constituent bioactive compounds are available and valuable to use for treatment of various diseases driven by prolonged ER stress. PMID:26901224

  9. Insights into significance of combined inhibition of MEK and m-TOR signalling output in KRAS mutant non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Broutin, Sophie; Stewart, Adam; Thavasu, Parames; Paci, Angelo; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Banerji, Udai

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to understand the dependence of MEK and m-TOR inhibition in EGFRWT/ALKnon-rearranged NSCLC cell lines. Methods: In a panel of KRASM and KRASWT NSCLC cell lines, we determined growth inhibition (GI) following maximal reduction in p-ERK and p-S6RP caused by trametinib (MEK inhibitor) and AZD2014 (m-TOR inhibitor), respectively. Results: GI caused by maximal m-TOR inhibition was significantly greater than GI caused by maximal MEK inhibition in the cell line panel (52% vs 18%, P<10−4). There was no significant difference in GI caused by maximal m-TOR compared with maximal m-TOR+MEK inhibition. However, GI caused by the combination was significantly greater in the KRASM cell lines (79% vs 61%, P=0.017). Conclusions: m-TOR inhibition was more critical to GI than MEK inhibition in EGFRWT/ALKnon-rearranged NSCLC cells. The combination of MEK and m-TOR inhibition was most effective in KRASM cells. PMID:27441499

  10. Ciclopirox olamine inhibits mTORC1 signaling by activation of AMPK.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyu; Shang, Chaowei; Wang, Min; Shen, Tao; Kong, Lingmei; Yu, Chunlei; Ye, Zhennan; Luo, Yan; Liu, Lei; Li, Yan; Huang, Shile

    2016-09-15

    Ciclopirox olamine (CPX), an off-patent antifungal agent, has recently been identified as a potential anticancer agent. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central controller of cell growth, proliferation and survival. Little is known about whether and how CPX executes its anticancer action by inhibiting mTOR. Here we show that CPX inhibited the phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), two downstream effector molecules of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), in a spectrum of human tumor cells, indicating that CPX inhibits mTORC1 signaling. Using rhabdomyosarcoma cells as an experimental model, we found that expression of constitutively active mTOR (E2419K) conferred resistance to CPX inhibition of cell proliferation, suggesting that CPX inhibition of mTORC1 contributed to its anticancer effect. In line with this, treatment with CPX inhibited tumor growth and concurrently suppressed mTORC1 signaling in RD xenografts. Mechanistically, CPX inhibition of mTORC1 was neither via inhibition of IGF-I receptor or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), nor by activation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Instead, CPX inhibition of mTORC1 was attributed to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-tuberous sclerosis complexes (TSC)/raptor pathways. This is supported by the findings that CPX activated AMPK; inhibition of AMPK with Compound C or ectopic expression of dominant negative AMPKα partially prevented CPX from inhibiting mTORC1; silencing TSC2 attenuated CPX inhibition of mTORC1; and CPX also increased AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of raptor (S792). Therefore, the results indicate that CPX exerts the anticancer effect by activating AMPK, resulting in inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. PMID:27396756

  11. mTOR inhibition as an adjuvant therapy in a metastatic model of HPV+ HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Coppock, Joseph D; Vermeer, Paola D; Vermeer, Daniel W; Lee, Kimberly M; Miskimins, W Keith; Spanos, William C; Lee, John H

    2016-04-26

    Effective treatments for recurrent/metastatic human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) are limited. To aid treatment development, we characterized a novel murine model of recurrent/metastatic HPV+ HNSCC. Further analysis of the parental tumor cell line and its four recurrent/metastatic derivatives led to preclinical testing of an effective treatment option for this otherwise fatal disease. Reverse phase protein arrays identified key signaling cascades in the parental and recurrent/metastatic cell lines. While protein expression profiles differed among the recurrent/metastatic cell lines, activated proteins associated with the mTOR signaling cascade were a commonality. Based on these data, mTOR inhibition was evaluated as an adjuvant treatment for recurrent/metastatic disease. mTOR activity and treatment response were assessed in vitro by western blot, Seahorse, proliferation, clonogenic, and migration assays. Standard-of-care cisplatin/radiation therapy (CRT) versus CRT/rapamycin were compared in vivo. Low-dose rapamycin inhibited mTOR signaling, decreasing proliferation (43%) and migration (62%) while it enhanced CRT-induced cytotoxicity (3.3 fold) in clonogenic assays. Furthermore, rapamycin re-sensitized CRT-resistant, metastatic tumors to treatment in vivo, improving long-term cures (0-30% improved to 78-100%, depending on the recurrent/metastatic cell line) and limiting lymph node metastasis (32%) and lung metastatic burden (30 fold). Studies using immune compromised mice suggested rapamycin's effect on metastasis is independent of the adaptive immune response. These data suggest a role of mTOR activation in HPV+ HNSCC recurrent/metastatic disease and that adjuvant mTOR inhibition may enhance treatment of resistant, metastatic cell populations at the primary site and limit distant metastasis. PMID:27015118

  12. Involvement of mTOR in Type 2 CRF Receptor Inhibition of Insulin Signaling in Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hongxia; Li, Haochen; Grande, Rebecca; Lira, Vitor; Yan, Zhen; Harris, Thurl E; Li, Chien

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR2) is expressed in skeletal muscle and stimulation of the receptor has been shown to inhibit the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in muscle cells. Currently, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this process. In this study, we first showed that both in vivo and in vitro CRFR2 expression in muscle was closely correlated with insulin sensitivity, with elevated receptor levels observed in insulin resistant muscle cells. Stimulation of CRFR2 by urocortin 2 (Ucn 2), a CRFR2-selective ligand, in C2C12 myotubes greatly attenuated insulin-induced glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling required cAMP production and is involved the mammalian target of rapamycine pathway, as rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 stimulation on insulin-induced glucose uptake. Moreover, stimulation of CRFR2 failed to inhibit glucose uptake in muscle cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor, which, similar to insulin, signals through Akt-mediated pathway but is independently of insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins to promote glucose uptake. This result argues that CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin's action likely at the levels of IRS. Consistent with this notion, Ucn 2 reduced insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and treatment with rapamycin reversed the inhibitory effect of Ucn 2 on IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CRFR2 signaling on insulin action is mediated by cAMP in a mammalian target of rapamycine-dependent manner, and IRS-1 is a key nodal point where CRFR2 signaling modulates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle cells. PMID:25875045

  13. Characterization of Torin2, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR, ATM and ATR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Xu, Chunxiao; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Xin; Hur, Wooyoung; Liu, Yan; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas P.; Wang, Jinhua; Westover, Kenneth D.; Gao, Peng; Ercan, Dalia; Niepel, Mario; Thoreen, Carson C.; Kang, Seong A.; Patricelli, Matthew P.; Wang, Yuchuan; Tupper, Tanya; Altabef, Abigail; Kawamura, Hidemasa; Held, Kathryn D.; Chou, Danny M.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Janne, Pasi A.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Sabatini, David M.; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a central regulator of cell growth, survival and autophagy. Deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway occurs commonly in cancer and numerous inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding site of these kinases are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Here we report the characterization of Torin2, a second generation ATP-competitive inhibitor that is potent and selective for mTOR with a superior pharmacokinetic profile to previous inhibitors. Torin2 inhibited mTORC1-dependent T389 phosphorylation on S6K (RPS6KB1) with an EC50 of 250 pM with approximately 800-fold selectivity for cellular mTOR versus PI3K. Torin2 also exhibited potent biochemical and cellular activity against PIKK family kinases including ATM (EC50 28 nM), ATR (EC50 35 nM) and DNA-PK (EC50 118 nM) (PRKDC), the inhibition of which sensitized cells to Irradiation. Similar to the earlier generation compound Torin1 and in contrast to other reported mTOR inhibitors, Torin2 inhibited mTOR kinase and mTORC1 signaling activities in a sustained manner suggestive of a slow dissociation from the kinase. Cancer cell treatment with Torin2 for 24 hours resulted in a prolonged block in negative feedback and consequent T308 phosphorylation on Akt. These effects were associated with strong growth inhibition in vitro. Single agent treatment with Torin2 in vivo did not yield significant efficacy against KRAS-driven lung tumors, but the combination of Torin2 with MEK inhibitor AZD6244 yielded a significant growth inhibition. Taken together, our findings establish Torin2 as a strong candidate for clinical evaluation in a broad number of oncological settings where mTOR signaling has a pathogenic role. PMID:23436801

  14. mTOR, translational control and human disease.

    PubMed

    Tee, Andrew R; Blenis, John

    2005-02-01

    Many human diseases occur when the precise regulation of cell growth (cell mass/size) and proliferation (rates of cell division) is compromised. This review highlights those human disorders that occur as a result of inappropriate cellular signal transduction through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major pathway that coordinates proper cell growth and proliferation by regulating ribosomal biogenesis and protein translation. Recent studies reveal that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-1/2, PTEN, and LKB1 tumor suppressor proteins tightly control mTOR. Loss of these tumor suppressors leads to an array of hamartoma syndromes as a result of heightened mTOR signaling. Since mTOR plays a pivotal role in maintaining proper cell size and growth, dysregulation of mTOR signaling results in these benign tumor syndromes and an array of other human disorders. PMID:15659337

  15. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity.

    PubMed

    Valvezan, Alexander J; Zhang, Fang; Diehl, J Alan; Klein, Peter S

    2012-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is essential for many signaling pathways and cellular processes. As Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) functions in many of the same processes, we investigated a role for APC in the regulation of GSK-3-dependent signaling. We find that APC directly enhances GSK-3 activity. Furthermore, knockdown of APC mimics inhibition of GSK-3 by reducing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and by activating mTOR, revealing novel roles for APC in the regulation of these enzymes. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3 through an unknown mechanism, and this results in both stabilization of β-catenin and activation of mTOR. We therefore hypothesized that Wnts may regulate GSK-3 by disrupting the interaction between APC and the Axin-GSK-3 complex. We find that Wnts rapidly induce APC dissociation from Axin, correlating with β-catenin stabilization. Furthermore, Axin interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 causes APC dissociation from Axin. We propose that APC regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing GSK-3 activity, and that Wnts induce APC dissociation from Axin to reduce GSK-3 activity and activate downstream signaling. APC regulation of GSK-3 also provides a novel mechanism for Wnt regulation of multiple downstream effectors, including β-catenin and mTOR. PMID:22184111

  16. mTOR signaling response to resistance exercise is altered by chronic resistance training and detraining in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Riki; Kobayashi, Koji; Tsutaki, Arata; Lee, Kihyuk; Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-04-01

    Resistance training-induced muscle anabolism and subsequent hypertrophy occur most rapidly during the early phase of training and become progressively slower over time. Currently, little is known about the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying changes in the sensitivity of muscles to training stimuli. We investigated the changes in the exercise-induced phosphorylation of hypertrophic signaling proteins during chronic resistance training and subsequent detraining. Male rats were divided into four groups: 1 bout (1B), 12 bouts (12B), 18 bouts (18B), and detraining (DT). In the DT group, rats were subjected to 12 exercise sessions, detrained for 12 days, and then were subjected to 1 exercise session before being killed. Isometric training consisted of maximum isometric contraction, which was produced by percutaneous electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius muscle every other day. Muscles were removed 24 h after the final exercise session. Levels of total and phosphorylated p70S6K, 4E-BP1, rpS6, and p90RSK levels were measured, and phosphorylation of p70S6K, rpS6, and p90RSK was elevated in the 1B group compared with control muscle (CON) after acute resistance exercise, whereas repeated bouts of exercise suppressed those phosphorylation in both 12B and 18B groups. Interestingly, these phosphorylation levels were restored after 12 days of detraining in the DT group. On the contrary, phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was not altered with chronic training and detraining, indicating that, with chronic resistance training, anabolic signaling becomes less sensitive to resistance exercise stimuli but is restored after a short detraining period. PMID:23372143

  17. GSK621 Targets Glioma Cells via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Pan, Yi-Xin; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang; Pan, Si-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the anti-glioma cell activity by a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator GSK621. We showed that GSK621 was cytotoxic to human glioma cells (U87MG and U251MG lines), possibly via provoking caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Its cytotoxicity was alleviated by caspase inhibitors. GSK621 activated AMPK to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and downregulate Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in glioma cells. AMPK inhibition, through shRNA knockdown of AMPKα or introduction of a dominant negative (T172A) AMPKα, almost reversed GSK621-induced AMPK activation, mTOR inhibition and Tspan8 degradation. Consequently, GSK621’s cytotoxicity in glioma cells was also significantly attenuated by AMPKα knockdown or mutation. Further studies showed that GSK621, at a relatively low concentration, significantly potentiated temozolomide (TMZ)’s sensitivity and lethality against glioma cells. We summarized that GSK621 inhibits human glioma cells possibly via activating AMPK signaling. This novel AMPK activator could be a novel and promising anti-glioma cell agent. PMID:27532105

  18. Activation of Autophagic Flux against Xenoestrogen Bisphenol-A-induced Hippocampal Neurodegeneration via AMP kinase (AMPK)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Swati; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Seth, Brashket; Yadav, Anuradha; Singh, Anshuman; Mudawal, Anubha; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Gupta, Shailendra Kumar; Choubey, Vinay; Tripathi, Anurag; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Ratan Singh; Shukla, Shubha; Parmar, Devendra; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The human health hazards related to persisting use of bisphenol-A (BPA) are well documented. BPA-induced neurotoxicity occurs with the generation of oxidative stress, neurodegeneration, and cognitive dysfunctions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of the effects of BPA on autophagy and association with oxidative stress and apoptosis are still elusive. We observed that BPA exposure during the early postnatal period enhanced the expression and the levels of autophagy genes/proteins. BPA treatment in the presence of bafilomycin A1 increased the levels of LC3-II and SQSTM1 and also potentiated GFP-LC3 puncta index in GFP-LC3-transfected hippocampal neural stem cell-derived neurons. BPA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis were mitigated by a pharmacological activator of autophagy (rapamycin). Pharmacological (wortmannin and bafilomycin A1) and genetic (beclin siRNA) inhibition of autophagy aggravated BPA neurotoxicity. Activation of autophagy against BPA resulted in intracellular energy sensor AMP kinase (AMPK) activation, increased phosphorylation of raptor and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and decreased phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser-757), and silencing of AMPK exacerbated BPA neurotoxicity. Conversely, BPA exposure down-regulated the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by phosphorylation of raptor as a transient cell's compensatory mechanism to preserve cellular energy pool. Moreover, silencing of mTOR enhanced autophagy, which further alleviated BPA-induced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. BPA-mediated neurotoxicity also resulted in mitochondrial loss, bioenergetic deficits, and increased PARKIN mitochondrial translocation, suggesting enhanced mitophagy. These results suggest implication of autophagy against BPA-mediated neurodegeneration through involvement of AMPK and mTOR pathways. Hence, autophagy, which arbitrates cell survival and demise during stress conditions, requires further assessment to be

  19. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  20. The role of amino acid-induced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1(mTORC1) signaling in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Choi, Cheol Soo

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, energy, and growth factors. Recent findings have placed the lysosome at the core of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulation by amino acids. Two parallel pathways, Rag GTPase-Ragulator and Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1), regulate mTOR activation on the lysosome. This review describes the recent advances in understanding amino acid-induced mTOR signaling with a particular focus on the role of mTOR in insulin resistance. PMID:27534530

  1. Cutting through the Complexities of mTOR for the Treatment of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    On a global basis, at least 15 million individuals suffer some form of a stroke every year. Of these individuals, approximately 800,000 of these cerebrovascular events occur in the United States (US) alone. The incidence of stroke in the US has declined from the third leading cause of death to the fourth, a result that can be attributed to multiple factors that include improved vascular disease management, reduced tobacco use, and more rapid time to treatment in patients that are clinically appropriate to receive recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. However, treatment strategies for the majority of stroke patients are extremely limited and represent a critical void for care. A number of new therapeutic considerations for stroke are under consideration, but it is the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that is receiving intense focus as a potential new target for cerebrovascular disease. As part of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and protein kinase B (Akt) cascade, mTOR is an essential component of mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR Complex 2 (mTORC2) to govern cell death involving apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis, cellular metabolism, and gene transcription. Vital for the consideration of new therapeutic strategies for stroke is the ability to understand how the intricate and complex pathways of mTOR signaling sometimes lead to disparate clinical outcomes. PMID:24712647

  2. Temporal mTOR inhibition protects Fbxw7-deficient mice from radiation-induced tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yueyong; Huang, Yurong; Wang, Zeran; Huang, Yong; Li, Xiaohua; Louie, Alexander; Wei, Guangwei; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2013-01-01

    FBXW7 acts as a tumor suppressor in numerous types of human cancers through ubiquitination of different oncoproteins including mTOR. However, how the mutation/loss of Fbxw7 results in tumor development remains largely unknown. Here we report that downregulation of mTOR by radiation is Fbxw7-dependent, and short-term mTOR inhibition by rapamycin after exposure to radiation significantly postpones tumor development in Fbxw7/p53 double heterozygous (Fbxw7+/−p53+/−) mice but not in p53 single heterozygous (p53+/−) mice. Tumor latency of rapamycin treated Fbxw7+/−p53+/− mice is remarkably similar to those of p53+/− mice while placebo treated Fbxw7+/−p53+/− mice develop tumor significantly earlier than placebo treated p53+/− mice. Furthermore, we surprisingly find that, although temporal treatment of rapamycin is given at a young age, the inhibition of mTOR activity sustainably remains in tumors. These results indicate that inhibition of mTOR signaling pathway suppresses the contribution of Fbxw7 loss toward tumor development. PMID:23454868

  3. Distinct amino acid-sensing mTOR pathways regulate skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Chen, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to amino acid availability controls many cellular and developmental processes. mTOR is a master regulator of myogenic differentiation, but the pathways mediating amino acid signals in this process are not known. Here we examine the Rag GTPases and the class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, two mediators of amino acid signals upstream of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in cell growth regulation, for their potential involvement in myogenesis. We find that, although both Rag and Vps34 mediate amino acid activation of mTORC1 in C2C12 myoblasts, they have opposing functions in myogenic differentiation. Knockdown of RagA/B enhances, whereas overexpression of active RagB/C mutants impairs, differentiation, and this inhibitory function of Rag is mediated by mTORC1 suppression of the IRS1-PI3K-Akt pathway. On the other hand, Vps34 is required for myogenic differentiation. Amino acids activate a Vps34-phospholipase D1 (PLD1) pathway that controls the production of insulin-like growth factor II, an autocrine inducer of differentiation, through the Igf2 muscle enhancer. The product of PLD, phosphatidic acid, activates the enhancer in a rapamycin-sensitive but mTOR kinase-independent manner. Our results uncover amino acid-sensing mechanisms controlling the homeostasis of myogenesis and underline the versatility and context dependence of mTOR signaling. PMID:24068326

  4. Targeting mTOR signaling pathways and related negative feedback loops for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Benedito A; Kaplan, Jason B; Altman, Jessica K; Giles, Francis J; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating understanding of the complex pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to lead to promising therapeutic approaches. Among the key aberrant intracellular signaling pathways involved in AML, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis is of major interest. This axis modulates a wide array of critical cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Pharmacologic inhibitors of components of this pathway have been developed over the past decade, but none has an established role in the treatment of AML. This review will discuss the preclinical data and clinical results driving ongoing attempts to exploit the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in patients with AML and address issues related to negative feedback loops that account for leukemic cell survival. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is of high interest for the treatment of AML, but combination therapies with other targeted agents may be needed to block negative feedback loops in leukemia cells. PMID:25801978

  5. Targeting mTOR signaling pathways and related negative feedback loops for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Benedito A; Kaplan, Jason B; Altman, Jessica K; Giles, Francis J; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2015-01-01

    An accumulating understanding of the complex pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to lead to promising therapeutic approaches. Among the key aberrant intracellular signaling pathways involved in AML, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis is of major interest. This axis modulates a wide array of critical cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and survival. Pharmacologic inhibitors of components of this pathway have been developed over the past decade, but none has an established role in the treatment of AML. This review will discuss the preclinical data and clinical results driving ongoing attempts to exploit the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in patients with AML and address issues related to negative feedback loops that account for leukemic cell survival. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is of high interest for the treatment of AML, but combination therapies with other targeted agents may be needed to block negative feedback loops in leukemia cells. PMID:25801978

  6. Potentiation of Growth Inhibitory Responses of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus by Dual mTORC1/2 Inhibitors in Cultured Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Euphemia Y.; Askarian-Amiri, Marjan; Finlay, Graeme J.; Rewcastle, Gordon W.; Baguley, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a vital component of signaling pathways involving PI3K/AKT, is an attractive therapeutic target in breast cancer. Everolimus, an allosteric mTOR inhibitor that inhibits the mTOR functional complex mTORC1, is approved for treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Other mTOR inhibitors show interesting differences in target specificities: BEZ235 and GSK2126458 are ATP competitive mTOR inhibitors targeting both PI3K and mTORC1/2; AZD8055, AZD2014 and KU-0063794 are ATP competitive mTOR inhibitors targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2; and GDC-0941 is a pan-PI3K inhibitor. We have addressed the question of whether mTOR inhibitors may be more effective in combination than singly in inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells. We selected a panel of 30 human breast cancer cell lines that included ER and PR positive, HER2 over-expressing, and “triple negative” variants, and determined whether signaling pathway utilization was related to drug-induced inhibition of proliferation. A significant correlation (p = 0.005) was found between everolimus IC50 values and p70S6K phosphorylation, but not with AKT or ERK phosphorylation, consistent with the mTOR pathway being a principal target. We then carried out combination studies with four everolimus resistant triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, and found an unexpectedly high degree of synergy between everolimus and the other inhibitors tested. The level of potentiation of everolimus inhibitory activity (measured by IC50 values) was found to be cell line-specific for all the kinase inhibitors tested. The results suggest that judicious combination of mTOR inhibitors with different modes of action could have beneficial effects in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26148118

  7. mTOR transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulates Npm1 gene expression to contribute to enhanced proliferation in cells with Pten inactivation.

    PubMed

    Boudra, Rafik; Lagrafeuille, Rosyne; Lours-Calet, Corinne; de Joussineau, Cyrille; Loubeau-Legros, Gaëlle; Chaveroux, Cédric; Saru, Jean-Paul; Baron, Silvère; Morel, Laurent; Beaudoin, Claude

    2016-05-18

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays essential roles in the regulation of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis, cell sizing and metabolism in both normal and pathological growing conditions. These functions of mTOR are thought to be largely a consequence of its cytoplasmic activity in regulating translation rate, but accumulating data highlight supplementary role(s) for this serine/threonine kinase within the nucleus. Indeed, the nuclear activities of mTOR are currently associated with the control of protein biosynthetic capacity through its ability to regulate the expression of gene products involved in the control of ribosomal biogenesis and proliferation. Using primary murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs), we observed that cells with overactive mTOR signaling displayed higher abundance for the growth-associated Npm1 protein, in what represents a novel mechanism of Npm1 gene regulation. We show that Npm1 gene expression is dependent on mTOR as demonstrated by treatment of wild-type and Pten inactivated MEFs cultured with rapamycin or by transient transfections of small interfering RNA directed against mTOR. In accordance, the mTOR kinase localizes to the Npm1 promoter gene in vivo and it enhances the activity of a human NPM1-luciferase reporter gene providing an opportunity for direct control. Interestingly, rapamycin did not dislodge mTOR from the Npm1 promoter but rather strongly destabilized the Npm1 transcript by increasing its turnover. Using a prostate-specific Pten-deleted mouse model of cancer, Npm1 mRNA levels were found up-regulated and sensitive to rapamycin. Finally, we also showed that Npm1 is required to promote mTOR-dependent cell proliferation. We therefore proposed a model whereby mTOR is closely involved in the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of Npm1 gene expression with implications in development and diseases including cancer. PMID:27050906

  8. Janus-faced Sestrin2 controls ROS and mTOR signalling through two separate functional domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanseong; An, Sojin; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Teixeira, Filipa; Jin Park, Gyeong; Kim, Cheal; Cho, Chun-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Sig; Jakob, Ursula; Hee Lee, Jun; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators with two seemingly unrelated but physiologically important functions: reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). How Sestrins fulfil this dual role has remained elusive so far. Here we report the crystal structure of human Sestrin2 (hSesn2), and show that hSesn2 is twofold pseudo-symmetric with two globular subdomains, which are structurally similar but functionally distinct from each other. While the N-terminal domain (Sesn-A) reduces alkylhydroperoxide radicals through its helix-turn-helix oxidoreductase motif, the C-terminal domain (Sesn-C) modified this motif to accommodate physical interaction with GATOR2 and subsequent inhibition of mTORC1. These findings clarify the molecular mechanism of how Sestrins can attenuate degenerative processes such as aging and diabetes by acting as a simultaneous inhibitor of ROS accumulation and mTORC1 activation.

  9. Janus-faced Sestrin2 controls ROS and mTOR signalling through two separate functional domains

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hanseong; An, Sojin; Ro, Seung-Hyun; Teixeira, Filipa; Jin Park, Gyeong; Kim, Cheal; Cho, Chun-Seok; Kim, Jeong-Sig; Jakob, Ursula; Hee Lee, Jun; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sestrins are stress-inducible metabolic regulators with two seemingly unrelated but physiologically important functions: reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). How Sestrins fulfil this dual role has remained elusive so far. Here we report the crystal structure of human Sestrin2 (hSesn2), and show that hSesn2 is twofold pseudo-symmetric with two globular subdomains, which are structurally similar but functionally distinct from each other. While the N-terminal domain (Sesn-A) reduces alkylhydroperoxide radicals through its helix–turn–helix oxidoreductase motif, the C-terminal domain (Sesn-C) modified this motif to accommodate physical interaction with GATOR2 and subsequent inhibition of mTORC1. These findings clarify the molecular mechanism of how Sestrins can attenuate degenerative processes such as aging and diabetes by acting as a simultaneous inhibitor of ROS accumulation and mTORC1 activation. PMID:26612684

  10. Syntaxin13 Expression Is Regulated by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Injured Neurons to Promote Axon Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yongcheol; Di Liberto, Valentina; Carlin, Dan; Abe, Namiko; Li, Kathy H.; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guan, Shenheng; Michaelevski, Izhak; Cavalli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Injured peripheral neurons successfully activate intrinsic signaling pathways to enable axon regeneration. We have previously shown that dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway following injury and that this activity enhances their axon growth capacity. mTOR plays a critical role in protein synthesis, but the mTOR-dependent proteins enhancing the regenerative capacity of DRG neurons remain unknown. To identify proteins whose expression is regulated by injury in an mTOR-dependent manner, we analyzed the protein composition of DRGs from mice in which we genetically activated mTOR and from mice with or without a prior nerve injury. Quantitative label-free mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the injury effects were correlated with mTOR activation. We identified a member of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family of proteins, syntaxin13, whose expression was increased by injury in an mTOR-dependent manner. Increased syntaxin13 levels in injured nerves resulted from local protein synthesis and not axonal transport. Finally, knockdown of syntaxin13 in cultured DRG neurons prevented axon growth and regeneration. Together, these data suggest that syntaxin13 translation is regulated by mTOR in injured neurons to promote axon regeneration. PMID:24737317

  11. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  12. Targeting the mTOR Pathway in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dinner, Shira; Platanias, Leonidas C

    2016-08-01

    Optimal function of multiple intracellular signaling pathways is essential for normal regulation of cellular transcription, translation, growth, proliferation, and survival. Dysregulation or aberrant activation of such cascades can lead to inappropriate cell survival and abnormal cell proliferation in leukemia. Successful treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL fusion gene is a prime example of effectively inhibiting intracellular signaling cascades. However, even in these patients resistance can develop via emergence of mutations or feedback activation of other pathways that cause refractory disease. Constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been observed in different types of leukemia, including CML, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Abnormal mTOR activity may contribute to chemotherapy resistance, while it may also be effectively targeted via molecular means and/or development of specific pharmacological inhibitors. This review discusses the role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR dysre-gulation in leukemia and summarizes the emergence of preliminary data for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1745-1752, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018341

  13. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/S6 Kinase 1 Signals Influence T Cell Activation Independently of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Salmond, Robert J.; Brownlie, Rebecca J.; Meyuhas, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Ag-dependent activation of naive T cells induces dramatic changes in cellular metabolism that are essential for cell growth, division, and differentiation. In recent years, the serine/threonine kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has emerged as a key integrator of signaling pathways that regulate these metabolic processes. However, the role of specific downstream effectors of mTOR function in T cells is poorly understood. Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is an essential component of the ribosome and is inducibly phosphorylated following mTOR activation in eukaryotic cells. In the current work, we addressed the role of phosphorylation of rpS6 as an effector of mTOR function in T cell development, growth, proliferation, and differentiation using knockin and TCR transgenic mice. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that rpS6 phosphorylation is not required for any of these processes either in vitro or in vivo. Indeed, rpS6 knockin mice are completely sensitive to the inhibitory effects of rapamycin and an S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)–specific inhibitor on T cell activation and proliferation. These results place the mTOR complex 1-S6K1 axis as a crucial determinant of T cell activation independently of its ability to regulate rpS6 phosphorylation. PMID:26453749

  14. Decreased Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis by mTOR Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vyomesh; Marsh, Christina A.; Dorsam, Robert T.; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Nathan, Cherie Ann; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Weigert, Roberto; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Despite our improved understanding of cancer, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) patients remains relatively unchanged at 50% for the past three decades. HNSCC often metastasize to locoregional lymph nodes, and lymph node involvement represents one of the most important prognostic factors of poor clinical outcome. Among the multiple dysregulated molecular mechanism in HNSCC, emerging basic, preclinical, and clinical findings support the importance of the mTOR signaling route in HNSCC progression. Indeed, we observed here that the activation of mTOR is a widespread event in clinical specimens of HNSCC invading locoregional lymph nodes. We developed an orthotopic model of HNSCC consisting in the implantation of HNSCC cells into the tongues of immunocompromised mice. These orthotopic tumors spontaneously metastasize to the cervical lymph nodes, where the presence of HNSCC cells can be revealed by histological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Both primary and metastatic experimental HNSCC lesions exhibited elevated mTOR activity. The ability to monitor and quantitate lymph node invasion in this model system enabled us to explore whether the blockade of mTOR could impact on HNSCC metastasis. We found that inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin and the rapalog RAD001 diminished lymphangiogenesis in the primary tumors and prevented the dissemination of HNSCC cancer cells to the cervical lymph nodes, thereby prolonging animal survival. These findings may provide a rationale for the future clinical evaluation of mTOR inhibitors, including rapamycin and its analogs, as part of a molecular-targeted metastasis preventive strategy for the treatment of HNSCC patients. PMID:21975930

  15. The HIF-1 transcription complex is essential for translational control of myeloid hematopoietic cell function by maintaining mTOR phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yasinska, Inna M; Gibbs, Bernhard F; Lall, Gurprit S; Sumbayev, Vadim V

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian myeloid cells are crucial effectors of host innate immune defense. Normal and pathological responses of these cells require adaptation to signaling stress through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex. Adapted cells activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), via S2448 phosphorylation, which induces de novo translation of vital signaling proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this signaling dogma remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of HIF-1, by silencing its inducible alpha subunit, significantly decreases mTOR S2448 phosphorylation caused by ligand-dependent activation of human myeloid leukemia cells. This shows that HIF-1 is essential for the activation of mTOR and serves at a crucial juncture of myeloid cell function in both in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:23872956

  16. mTOR is a fine tuning molecule in CDK inhibitors-induced distinct cell death mechanisms via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling axis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Berrak, Ozge; Arisan, Elif Damla; Obakan-Yerlikaya, Pinar; Coker-Gürkan, Ajda; Palavan-Unsal, Narçin

    2016-10-01

    Purvalanol and roscovitine are cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cells. We further hypothesized that co-treatment of CDK inhibitors with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, would be an effective combinatory strategy for the inhibition of prostate cancer regard to androgen receptor (AR) status due to inhibition of proliferative pathway, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and induction of cell death mechanisms. Androgen responsive (AR+), PTEN(-/-) LNCaP and androgen independent (AR-), PTEN(+/-) DU145 prostate cancer cells were exposed to purvalanol (20 µM) and roscovitine (30 µM) with or without rapamycin for 24 h. Cell viability assay, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy was used to define the effect of CDK inhibitors with or without rapamycin on proliferative pathway and cell death mechanisms in LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells. Co-treatment of rapamycin modulated CDK inhibitors-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis that CDK inhibitors were more potent to induce cell death in AR (+) LNCaP cells than AR (-) DU145 cells. CDK inhibitors in the presence or absence of rapamycin induced cell death via modulating upstream PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in LNCaP cells, exclusively only treatment of purvalanol have strong potential to inhibit both upstream and downstream targets of mTOR in LNCaP and DU145 cells. However, co-treatment of rapamycin with CDK inhibitors protects DU145 cells from apoptosis via induction of autophagy mechanism. We confirmed that purvalanol and roscovitine were strong apoptotic and autophagy inducers that based on regulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Co-treatment of rapamycin with purvalanol and roscovitine exerted different effects on cell survival and death mechanisms in LNCaP and DU145 cell due to their AR receptor status. Our studies show that co-treatment of rapamycin with CDK inhibitors inhibit prostate cancer cell viability more effectively than either agent

  17. VEGF signaling, mTOR complexes, and the endoplasmic reticulum: Towards a role of metabolic sensing in the regulation of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Karali, Evdoxia; Bellou, Sofia; Stellas, Dimitris; Klinakis, Apostolos; Murphy, Carol; Fotsis, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activates unfolded protein response sensors in the endoplasmic reticulum through phospholipase C gamma (PLCγ)-mediated crosstalk with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Activation of transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) activate mTORC2, ensuring maximal endothelial cell survival and angiogenic activity through phosphorylation of AKT on Ser473. As mTORC1 is a metabolic sensor, metabolic signals may be integrated with signals from VEGF in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  18. Chronic Repression of mTOR Complex 2 Induces Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi-Ja; Lee, Jina; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Pil Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota play a crucial role in host physiology and metabolism; however, the molecular pathways underlying these changes in diet-induced obesity are unclear. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, we examined whether changes in the regulation of mTOR signaling induced by diet (a high-fat diet [HFD] or normal-chow diet) and/or therapeutics (resveratrol [a specific inhibitor of mTOR complex 1] or rapamycin [an inhibitor of both mTOR complex 1 and 2]) altered the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. Oral administration of resveratrol prevented glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice, whereas rapamycin significantly impaired glucose tolerance and exacerbated intestinal inflammation. The abundance of Lactococcus, Clostridium XI, Oscillibacter, and Hydrogenoanaerobacterium increased under the HFD condition; however, the abundance of these species declined after resveratrol treatment. Conversely, the abundance of unclassified Marinilabiliaceae and Turicibacter decreased in response to a HFD or rapamycin. Taken together, these results demonstrated that changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota induced by changes in mTOR activity correlate with obese and diabetic phenotypes. PMID:27471110

  19. Chronic Repression of mTOR Complex 2 Induces Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Diet-induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mi-Ja; Lee, Jina; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Min-Soo; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Pil Soo; Whon, Tae Woong; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the gut microbiota play a crucial role in host physiology and metabolism; however, the molecular pathways underlying these changes in diet-induced obesity are unclear. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore, we examined whether changes in the regulation of mTOR signaling induced by diet (a high-fat diet [HFD] or normal-chow diet) and/or therapeutics (resveratrol [a specific inhibitor of mTOR complex 1] or rapamycin [an inhibitor of both mTOR complex 1 and 2]) altered the composition of the gut microbiota in mice. Oral administration of resveratrol prevented glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice, whereas rapamycin significantly impaired glucose tolerance and exacerbated intestinal inflammation. The abundance of Lactococcus, Clostridium XI, Oscillibacter, and Hydrogenoanaerobacterium increased under the HFD condition; however, the abundance of these species declined after resveratrol treatment. Conversely, the abundance of unclassified Marinilabiliaceae and Turicibacter decreased in response to a HFD or rapamycin. Taken together, these results demonstrated that changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota induced by changes in mTOR activity correlate with obese and diabetic phenotypes. PMID:27471110

  20. Regulation of mTOR Pathway in Exercise-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Liao, J; Li, Y; Zeng, F; Wu, Y

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the mTOR signaling pathway would respond to long-term different intensity exercises and to observe the impact of exercise upon possible cardiac damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, moderate-intensity exercise group and high-intensity exercise group, and each exercise group had 4 observation time points (1-24 h). Exercise training lasted 8 weeks with a 2-day break for each week. Serum cTnI was measured by ELSIA and myocardium histology was assessed by HE and HBFP. The expressions of Akt, mTOR, p70(S6K) and their phosphorylated forms were determined by western-blot. Both exercises were effective at inducing cardiac hypertrophy, wherein magnitude increased with exercise intensity. The significantly high level of serum cTnI in the high-intensity group was accompanied by obvious myocellular abnormalities and ischemia in the myocardium. Significant activation of Akt, mTOR and p70(S6K) were observed in the moderate exercise group but not in the high-intensity exercise group. Results indicate that long-term high-intensity exercise training would induce cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by damage to the heart, entailing a risk of pathological changes. There might be a pivotal regulatory role of the mTOR signaling pathway on cardiac hypertrophy after long-term moderate exercise, but not after high-intensity exercise. PMID:25607521

  1. mTOR Inhibitors Control the Growth of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer Even after Acquiring Resistance by HGF

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Shinji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sano, Takako; Nakade, Junya; Nanjo, Shigeki; Yamada, Tadaaki; Ebi, Hiromichi; Zhao, Lu; Yasumoto, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Kunio; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Hirohisa; Yano, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, is a critical problem in the treatment of EGFR mutant lung cancer. Several mechanisms, including bypass signaling by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-triggered Met activation, are implicated as mediators of resistance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is a downstream conduit of EGFR and MET signaling, and is thus considered a therapeutically attractive target in the treatment of various types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 2 clinically approved mTOR inhibitors, temsirolimus and everolimus, overcome HGF-dependent resistance to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR mutant lung cancer cells. Both temsirolimus and everolimus inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1, which are downstream targets of the mTOR pathway, and reduced the viability of EGFR mutant lung cancer cells, PC-9, and HCC827, even in the presence of HGF in vitro. In a xenograft model, temsirolimus suppressed the growth of PC-9 cells overexpressing the HGF-gene; this was associated with suppression of the mTOR signaling pathway and tumor angiogenesis. In contrast, erlotinib did not suppress this signaling pathway or tumor growth. Multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor production by tumor cells and suppression of endothelial cell viability, contribute to the anti-angiogenic effect of temsirolimus. These findings indicate that mTOR inhibitors may be useful for controlling HGF-triggered EGFR-TKI resistance in EGFR mutant lung cancer, and they provide the rationale for clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors in patients stratified by EGFR mutation and HGF expression status. PMID:23690929

  2. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activation of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 by the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT/Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway Is Necessary for Induction of Select Protein Markers of Follicular Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hena; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Park, Youngkyu; Ghaey, Shail; Feiger, Zachary J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of AKT in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) differentiation. Our results define a signaling pathway in GCs whereby the inactivating phosphorylation of tuberin downstream of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/AKT activity leads to Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in brain) and subsequent mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation. mTOR then stimulates translation by phosphorylating p70 S6 kinase and, consequently, the 40 S ribosomal protein S6. Activation of this pathway is required for FSH-mediated induction of several follicular differentiation markers, including luteinizing-hormone receptor (LHR), inhibin-α, microtubule-associated protein 2D, and the PKA type IIβ regulatory subunit. FSH also promotes activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). FSH-stimulated HIF-1 activity is inhibited by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, the Rheb inhibitor FTI-277 (farne-syltransferase inhibitor-277), and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Finally, we find that the FSH-mediated up-regulation of reporter activities for LHR, inhibin-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor is dependent upon HIF-1 activity, because a dominant negative form of HIF-1α interferes with the up-regulation of these genes. These results show that FSH enhances HIF-1 activity downstream of the PI 3-kinase/AKT/Rheb/mTOR pathway in GCs and that HIF-1 activity is necessary for FSH to induce multiple follicular differentiation markers. PMID:14982927

  3. Differential requirement of mTOR in post-mitotic tissues and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nardella, Caterina; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Alimonti, Andrea; Hobbs, Robin M.; Clohessy, John G.; Chen, Zhenbang; Egia, Ainara; Fornari, Alessandro; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Loda, Massimo; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Summary The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial effector in a complex signaling network commonly disrupted in cancer. mTOR exerts its multiple functions in the context of two different multiprotein complexes: mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10) can hyperactivate mTOR through AKT and represents one of the most frequent events in human prostate cancer. We show here that conditional inactivation of mTor in the adult mouse prostate is seemingly inconsequential for this post-mitotic tissue. Conversely, inactivation of mTor leads to a marked suppression of Pten-loss-induced tumor initiation and progression in the prostate. This suppression is more pronounced than that elicited by the sole pharmacological abrogation of mTORC1. Acute inactivation of mTor in vitro also highlights the differential requirement of mTor function in proliferating and transformed cells. Collectively, our data constitute a strong rationale for developing specific mTOR kinase inhibitors targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 for the treatment of tumors triggered by PTEN deficiency and aberrant mTOR signaling. PMID:19176516

  4. Regulation of YAP by mTOR and autophagy reveals a therapeutic target of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ning; Zhang, Chi; Dill, Patricia; Panasyuk, Ganna; Pion, Delphine; Koka, Vonda; Gallazzini, Morgan; Olson, Eric N.; Lam, Hilaire; Henske, Elizabeth P.; Dong, Zheng; Apte, Udayan; Pallet, Nicolas; Johnson, Randy L.; Terzi, Fabiola; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Martignoni, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies have shown that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1–TSC2–mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) and the Hippo–Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) pathways are master regulators of organ size, which are often involved in tumorigenesis. The crosstalk between these signal transduction pathways in coordinating environmental cues, such as nutritional status and mechanical constraints, is crucial for tissue growth. Whether and how mTOR regulates YAP remains elusive. Here we describe a novel mouse model of TSC which develops renal mesenchymal lesions recapitulating human perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) from patients with TSC. We identify that YAP is up-regulated by mTOR in mouse and human PEComas. YAP inhibition blunts abnormal proliferation and induces apoptosis of TSC1–TSC2-deficient cells, both in culture and in mosaic Tsc1 mutant mice. We further delineate that YAP accumulation in TSC1/TSC2-deficient cells is due to impaired degradation of the protein by the autophagosome/lysosome system. Thus, the regulation of YAP by mTOR and autophagy is a novel mechanism of growth control, matching YAP activity with nutrient availability under growth-permissive conditions. YAP may serve as a potential therapeutic target for TSC and other diseases with dysregulated mTOR activity. PMID:25288394

  5. Sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide attenuates production of inflammatory mediators by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Da Hee; Lee, Min Sung; Lee, Chung Soo

    2015-09-01

    Microbial product lipopolysaccharide has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases. Parthenolide present in extracts of the herb feverfew has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of parthenolide on the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathway activation-induced productions of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes has not been studied. Using human keratinocytes, we investigated the effect of parthenolide on the inflammatory mediator production in relation to the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated-Akt/mTOR and NF-κB pathways, which regulate the transcription genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Parthenolide, Akt inhibitor, Bay 11-7085, and N-acetylcysteine each attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of IL-1β and PGE2, increase in the levels of cyclooxygenase, formation of reactive oxygen species, increase in the levels of Toll-like receptor-4, and activation of the Akt/mTOR and NF-κB in keratinocytes. The results show that parthenolide appears to attenuate the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in keratinocytes by suppressing the Toll-like receptor-4-mediated activation of the Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB pathways. The activation of signaling transduction pathways appear to be regulated by reactive oxygen species. Parthenolide appears to attenuate the microbial product-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:25971793

  6. Regulation of Immune Responses by mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Pollizzi, Kristen N.; Heikamp, Emily B.; Horton, Maureen R.

    2013-01-01

    mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in integrating environmental cues in the form of growth factors, amino acids, and energy. In the study of the immune system, mTOR is emerging as a critical regulator of immune function because of its role in sensing and integrating cues from the immune microenvironment. With the greater appreciation of cellular metabolism as an important regulator of immune cell function, mTOR is proving to be a vital link between immune function and metabolism. In this review, we discuss the ability of mTOR to direct the adaptive immune response. Specifically, we focus on the role of mTOR in promoting differentiation, activation, and function in T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells. PMID:22136167

  7. cAMP-Induced Histones H3 Dephosphorylation Is Independent of PKA and MAP Kinase Activations and Correlates With mTOR Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Rojas, Juan

    2016-03-01

    cAMP is a second messenger well documented to be involved in the phosphorylation of PKA, MAP kinase, and histone H3 (H3). Early, we reported that cAMP also induced H3 dephosphorylation in a variety of proliferating cell lines. Herein, it is shown that cAMP elicits a biphasic H3 dephosphorylation independent of PKA activation in cycling cells. H89, a potent inhibitor of PKA catalytic sub-unite, could not abolish this effect. Additionally, H89 induces a rapid and biphasic H3 serine 10 dephosphorylation, while a decline in the basal phosphorylation of CREB/ATF-1 is observed. Rp-cAMPS, an analog of cAMP and specific inhibitor of PKA, is unable to suppress cAMP-mediated H3 dephosphorylation, whereas Rp-cAMPS effectively blocks CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation by cAMP and its inducers. Interestingly, cAMP exerts a rapid and profound H3 dephosphorylation at much lower concentration (50-fold lower, 0.125 mM) than the concentration required for maximal CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation (5 mM). Much higher cAMP concentration is required to fully induce CREB/ATF-1 gain in phosphate (5 mM), which correlates with the inhibition of H3 dephosphorylation. Also, the dephosphorylation of H3 does not overlap at onset of MAP kinase phosphorylation pathways, p38 and ERK. Surprisingly, rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), cAMP, and its natural inducer isoproterenol, elicit identical dephosphorylation kinetics on both S6K1 ribosomal kinase (a downstream mTOR target) and H3. Finally, cAMP-induced H3 dephosphorylation is PP1/2-dependent. The results suggest that a pathway, requiring much lower cAMP concentration to that required for CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation, is responsible for histone H3 dephosphorylation and may be linked to mTOR down regulation. PMID:26335579

  8. mTOR plays an important role in cow's milk allergy-associated behavioral and immunological deficits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; van der Horst, Hilma; Reinders, Margot T M; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette E M; Kas, Martien J H; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is multifactorial, with both genetic as well as environmental factors working in concert to develop the autistic phenotype. Immunological disturbances in autistic individuals have been reported and a role for food allergy has been suggested in ASD. Single gene mutations in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway are associated with the development of ASD and enhanced mTOR signaling plays a central role in directing immune responses towards allergy as well. Therefore, the mTOR pathway may be a pivotal link between the immune disturbances and behavioral deficits observed in ASD. In this study it was investigated whether the mTOR pathway plays a role in food allergy-induced behavioral and immunological deficits. Mice were orally sensitized and challenged with whey protein. Meanwhile, cow's milk allergic (CMA) mice received daily treatment of rapamycin. The validity of the CMA model was confirmed by showing increased allergic immune responses. CMA mice showed reduced social interaction and increased repetitive self-grooming behavior. Enhanced mTORC1 activity was found in the brain and ileum of CMA mice. Inhibition of mTORC1 activity by rapamycin improved the behavioral and immunological deficits of CMA mice. This effect was associated with increase of Treg associated transcription factors in the ileum of CMA mice. These findings indicate that mTOR activation may be central to both the intestinal, immunological, and psychiatric ASD-like symptoms seen in CMA mice. It remains to be investigated whether mTOR can be seen as a therapeutic target in cow's milk allergic children suffering from ASD-like symptoms. PMID:26027949

  9. The mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway regulates myocyte enhancer factor-2C phosphorylation levels through integrin-linked kinase in goat skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqing; Ren, Yu; Pan, Wei; Dong, Zhenguo; Cang, Ming; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a key role in muscle development and is involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways. Myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) regulates muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, how the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2 activity remains unclear. We isolated goat skeletal muscle satellite cells (gSSCs) as model cells to explore mTOR signaling pathway regulation of MEF2C. We inhibited mTOR activity in gSSCs with PP242 and found that MEF2C phosphorylation was decreased and that muscle creatine kinase (MCK) expression was suppressed. Subsequently, we detected integrin-linked kinase (ILK) using MEF2C coimmunoprecipitation; ILK and MEF2C were colocalized in the gSSCs. We found that inhibiting mTOR activity increased ILK phosphorylation levels and that inhibiting ILK activity with Cpd 22 and knocking down ILK with small interfering RNA increased MEF2C phosphorylation and MCK expression. In the presence of Cpd 22, mTOR activity inhibition did not affect MEF2C phosphorylation. Moreover, ILK dephosphorylated MEF2C in vitro. These results suggest that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C positively and regulates ILK negatively and that ILK regulates MEF2C negatively. It appears that the mTOR signaling pathway regulates MEF2C through ILK, further regulating the expression of muscle-related genes in gSSCs. PMID:26041412

  10. mTOR Signal Transduction Pathways Contribute to TN-C FNIII A1 Overexpression by Mechanical Stress in Osteosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lianhe; Zhang, Dianzhong; Zhang, Yunfei; Wen, Yanhua; Wang, Yucai

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with a very poor prognosis. Treating osteosarcoma remains a challenge due to its high transitivity. Tenascin-C, with large molecular weight variants including different combinations of its alternative spliced FNIII repeats, is specifically over expressed in tumor tissues. This study examined the expression of Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 in osteosarcoma tissues, and estimated the effect of mechanical stimulation on A1 expression in MG-63 cells. Through immunohistochemical analysis, we found that the A1 protein was expressed at a higher level in osteosarcoma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. By cell migration assay, we observed that there was a significant correlation between A1 expression and MG-63 cell migra-tion. The relation is that Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 can promote MG-63 cell migration. According to our further study into the effect of mechanical stimulation on A1 expression in MG-63 cells, the mRNA and protein levels of A1 were significantly up-regulated under mechanical stress with the mTOR molecule proving indispensable. Meanwhile, 4E-BP1 and S6K1 (downstream molecule of mTOR) are necessary for A1 normal expression in MG-63 cells whether or not mechanical stress has been encountered. We found that Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 is over-expressed in osteosar-coma tissues and can promote MG-63 cell migration. Furthermore, mechanical stress can facilitate MG-63 cell migration though facilitating A1 overexpression with the necessary molecules (mTOR, 4E-BP1 and S6K1). In con-clusion, high expression of A1 may promote the meta-stasis of osteosarcoma by facilitating MG-63 cell migration. Tenascin-C FNIIIA1 could be used as an indicator in metastatic osteosarcoma patients. PMID:24598996

  11. Muscle Wasting in Fasting Requires Activation of NF-κB and Inhibition of AKT/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) by the Protein Acetylase, GCN5.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghoon; Goldberg, Alfred L

    2015-12-18

    NF-κB is best known for its pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions, but in skeletal muscle, NF-κB activation is important for atrophy upon denervation or cancer. Here, we show that also upon fasting, NF-κB becomes activated in muscle and is critical for the subsequent atrophy. Following food deprivation, the expression and acetylation of the p65 of NF-κB on lysine 310 increase markedly in muscles. NF-κB inhibition in mouse muscles by overexpression of the IκBα superrepressor (IκBα-SR) or of p65 mutated at Lys-310 prevented atrophy. Knockdown of GCN5 with shRNA or a dominant-negative GCN5 or overexpression of SIRT1 decreased p65K310 acetylation and muscle wasting upon starvation. In addition to reducing atrogene expression, surprisingly inhibiting NF-κB with IκBα-SR or by GCN5 knockdown in these muscles also enhanced AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) activities, which also contributed to the reduction in atrophy. These new roles of NF-κB and GCN5 in regulating muscle proteolysis and AKT/mTOR signaling suggest novel approaches to combat muscle wasting. PMID:26515065

  12. Rapamycin reverses the senescent phenotype and improves immuno-regulation of mesenchymal stem cells from MRL/lpr mice and systemic lupus erythematosus patients through inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guijian; Meng, Yan; Da, Zhanyun; Guo, Genkai; Xia, Yunfei; Zhu, Xinhang; Shi, Guixiu; Cheng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    We have shown that bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from SLE patients exhibit senescent behavior and are involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapamycin (RAPA) on the senescences and immunoregulatory ability of MSCs of MRL/lpr mice and SLE patients and the underlying mechanisms. Cell morphology, senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, F-actin staining were used to detect the senescence of cells. BM-MSCs and purified CD4+ T cells were co-cultured indirectly. Flow cytometry was used to inspect the proportion of regulatory T (Treg) /T helper type 17 (Th17). We used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to interfere the expression of mTOR, and detect the effects by RT-PCR, WB and immunofluorescence. Finally, 1×106 of SLE BM-MSCs treated with RAPA were transplanted to cure the 8 MRL/lpr mice aged 16 weeks for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that RAPA alleviated the clinical symptoms of lupus nephritis and prolonged survival in MRL/lpr mice. RAPA reversed the senescent phenotype and improved immunoregulation of MSCs from MRL/lpr mice and SLE patients through inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway. Marked therapeutic effects were observed in MRL/lpr mice following transplantation of BM-MSCs from SLE patients pretreated with RAPA. PMID:27048648

  13. The novel combination of dual mTOR inhibitor AZD2014 and pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits growth in acute myeloid leukemia via HSF pathway suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shinichi; Kaur, Surinder; Arslan, Dirim; Ramirez, Santiago; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Platanias, Leonidas; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Kazuno, Saiko; Kojima, Kensuke; Tabe, Yoko; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a critical pathway in the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine kinase signaling takes part in various pathways exerting tumorigenic properties. We hypothesized that the combination of a PIM kinase inhibitor with an mTOR inhibitor might have complementary growth-inhibitory effects against AML. The simultaneous inhibition of the PIM kinase by pan-PIM inhibitor AZD1208 and of mTOR by selective mTORC1/2 dual inhibitor AZD2014 exerted anticancer properties in AML cell lines and in cells derived from primary AML samples with or without supportive stromal cell co-culture, leading to suppressed proliferation and increased apoptosis. The combination of AZD1208 and AZD2014 rapidly activated AMPKα, a negative regulator of translation machinery through mTORC1/2 signaling in AML cells; profoundly inhibited AKT and 4EBP1 activation; and suppressed polysome formation. Inhibition of both mTOR and PIM counteracted induction of heat-shock family proteins, uncovering the master negative regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), the dominant transcription factor controlling cellular stress responses. The novel combination of the dual mTOR inhibitor and pan-PIM inhibitor synergistically inhibited AML growth by effectively reducing protein synthesis through heat shock factor pathway suppression. PMID:26473447

  14. mTOR Inhibitors in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Paolo; Moavero, Romina

    2012-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multiple organ system disorder that is characterized by the development of tumor-like lesions (hamartomas) and neurodevelopmental disorders. Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 tumor suppressor genes occur in the majority of patients with TSC, resulting in hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and subsequent abnormalities in numerous cell processes. As a result, mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus and everolimus have the potential to provide targeted therapy for patients with TSC. Everolimus is the first mTOR inhibitor approved as a treatment option in the USA and in Europe for patients with subependymal giant-cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) associated with TSC. The clinical evidence to date supports the use of mTOR inhibitors in a variety of TSC-associated disease manifestations, including SEGAs, renal angiomyolipoma, skin manifestations, and epilepsy. Furthermore, ongoing clinical trials evaluating mTOR inhibitors in TSC are underway, and the results of these studies are expected to provide further evidence that will firmly establish their role in this setting. This article will discuss the role of the mTOR pathway in TSC and review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of mTOR inhibitors, along with their current place in clinical practice. PMID:23730262

  15. MicroRNA-224 aggrevates tumor growth and progression by targeting mTOR in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Chang-Feng; Ma, Lian-Jun; Ding, Meng; Zhang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests that microRNA plays an essential role in the development and metastasis of many tumors, including gastric cancer. Aberrant miR-224 expression has been indicated in tumor growth, the mechanism of miR-224 promoting the proliferation and metastatic ability for gastric cancer remains unclear. Accumulating evidence reports that mTOR signal pathway plays an important role in the cellular process, such as apoptosis, cell growth and proliferation. The goal of the present study was to identify whether miR-224 could inhibit the growth, migration, invasion, proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer through targeting mTOR expression. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to quantify miR-224 expression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to confirm the activity of mTOR pathway, and immunofluorescence staining assay was conducted to observe apoptosis and cell proliferation ability. Bioinformatics as well as cell luciferase function studies distinguished the direct modulation of miR-224 on the 3'-UTR of the mTOR, which leads to the inactivation of apoptosis signaling and the activation of cell proliferation. In addition, inhibition of miR-224 significantly reduced the expression of mTOR and improved caspase-9/3 expression while decreased cyclin D1/2 levels, attenuating gastric cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, the present study revealed the mechanistic links between miR-224 and mTOR in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer through modulation of caspase-9/3 and cyclin D1/2. In addition, targeting miR-224 could serve as a novel strategy for future gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27315344

  16. Combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR has a synergic effect on angiosarcoma tumorgrafts.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Nicholas J; Boguslawski, Elissa B; Kuk, Cynthia Y; Chambers, Christopher M; Duesbery, Nicholas S

    2015-07-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. Using tumorgraft models, we previously showed that AS is sensitive to small-molecule inhibitors that target mitogen-activated/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK). The objective of this study was to identify drugs that combine with MEK inhibitors to more effectively inhibit AS growth. We examined the in vitro synergy between the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 and inhibitors of eleven common cancer pathways in melanoma cell lines and canine angiosarcoma cell isolates. Combination indices were calculated using the Chou-Talalay method. Optimized combination therapies were evaluated in vivo for toxicity and efficacy using canine angiosarcoma tumorgrafts. Among the drugs we tested, rapamycin stood out because it showed strong synergy with PD0325901 at nanomolar concentrations. We observed that angiosarcomas are insensitive to mTOR inhibition. However, treatment with nanomolar levels of mTOR inhibitor renders these cells as sensitive to MEK inhibition as a melanoma cell line with mutant BRAF. Similar results were observed in B-Raf wild-type melanoma cells as well as in vivo, where treatment of canine AS tumorgrafts with MEK and mTOR inhibitors was more effective than monotherapy. Our data show that a low dose of an mTOR inhibitor can dramatically enhance angiosarcoma and melanoma response to MEK inhibition, potentially widening the field of applications for MEK-targeted therapy. PMID:25955301

  17. Combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR has a synergic effect on angiosarcoma tumorgrafts

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, NICHOLAS J.; BOGUSLAWSKI, ELISSA B.; KUK, CYNTHIA Y.; CHAMBERS, CHRISTOPHER M.; DUESBERY, NICHOLAS S.

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. Using tumorgraft models, we previously showed that AS is sensitive to small-molecule inhibitors that target mitogen-activated/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK). The objective of this study was to identify drugs that combine with MEK inhibitors to more effectively inhibit AS growth. We examined the in vitro synergy between the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 and inhibitors of eleven common cancer pathways in melanoma cell lines and canine angiosarcoma cell isolates. Combination indices were calculated using the Chou-Talalay method. Optimized combination therapies were evaluated in vivo for toxicity and efficacy using canine angiosarcoma tumorgrafts. Among the drugs we tested, rapamycin stood out because it showed strong synergy with PD0325901 at nanomolar concentrations. We observed that angiosarcomas are insensitive to mTOR inhibition. However, treatment with nanomolar levels of mTOR inhibitor renders these cells as sensitive to MEK inhibition as a melanoma cell line with mutant BRAF. Similar results were observed in B-Raf wild-type melanoma cells as well as in vivo, where treatment of canine AS tumorgrafts with MEK and mTOR inhibitors was more effective than monotherapy. Our data show that a low dose of an mTOR inhibitor can dramatically enhance angiosarcoma and melanoma response to MEK inhibition, potentially widening the field of applications for MEK-targeted therapy. PMID:25955301

  18. Flcn-deficient renal cells are tumorigenic and sensitive to mTOR suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Schoen, Susan; Xiao, Guang-Qian; Li, Xueying; Teh, Bin Tean; Wu, Guan; Chen, Jindong

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency of tumor suppressor FLCN leads to the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in human BHD-associated renal cell carcinomas (RCC). We have previously developed a renal distal tubule-collecting duct-Henle's loop-specific Flcn knockout (KO) mouse model (Flcnflox/flox/Ksp-Cre). This mouse model can only survive for three weeks after birth due to the development of polycystic kidney and uremia. Whether these cystic solid hyperplasia changes seen in those KO mice are tumorigenic or malignant is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of Flcn in mouse kidney distal tubule cells could lead to tumorigenic transformation of these cells to develop allograft tumors with an aggressive histologic phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, we showed that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in the growth of these Flcn-deficient allograft and human UOK 257-1 xenograft tumors. We further demonstrated that the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus, suppresses the tumor's growth, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors might be effective in control of FLCN-deficient RCC, especially in BHD renal tumorigenesis. PMID:26418749

  19. mTOR Inhibitors Alone and in Combination with JAK2 Inhibitors Effectively Inhibit Cells of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Serena; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bosi, Alberto; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatment is represented by the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that has been found constitutively activated in MPN cells; proof-of-evidence of efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 has been obtained recently in a Phase I/II trial in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of mTOR inhibitors, used alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors, against MPN cells. Findings Mouse and human JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and primary hematopoietic progenitors from MPN patients were challenged with an allosteric (RAD001) and an ATP-competitive (PP242) mTOR inhibitor and two JAK2 inhibitors (AZD1480 and ruxolitinib). mTOR inhibitors effectively reduced proliferation and colony formation of cell lines through a slowed cell division mediated by changes in cell cycle transition to the S-phase. mTOR inhibitors also impaired the proliferation and prevented colony formation from MPN hematopoietic progenitors at doses significantly lower than healthy controls. JAK2 inhibitors produced similar antiproliferative effects in MPN cell lines and primary cells but were more potent inducers of apoptosis, as also supported by differential effects on cyclinD1, PIM1 and BcLxL expression levels. Co-treatment of mTOR inhibitor with JAK2 inhibitor resulted in synergistic activity against the proliferation of JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and significantly reduced erythropoietin-independent colony growth in patients with polycythemia vera

  20. Major involvement of mTOR in the PPARγ-induced stimulation of adipose tissue lipid uptake and fat accretion[S

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Pierre-Gilles; Festuccia, William T.; Houde, Vanessa P.; St-Pierre, Philippe; Brûlé, Sophie; Turcotte, Véronique; Côté, Marie; Bellmann, Kerstin; Marette, André; Deshaies, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evidence points to a role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway as a regulator of adiposity, yet its involvement as a mediator of the positive actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonism on lipemia, fat accretion, lipid uptake, and its major determinant lipoprotein lipase (LPL) remains to be elucidated. Herein we evaluated the plasma lipid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion rates, and adipose tissue LPL-dependent lipid uptake, LPL expression/activity, and expression profile of other lipid metabolism genes in rats treated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (15 mg/kg/day) in combination or not with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2 mg/kg/day) for 15 days. Rosiglitazone stimulated adipose tissue mTOR complex 1 and AMPK and induced TAG-derived lipid uptake (136%), LPL mRNA/activity (2- to 6-fold), and fat accretion in subcutaneous (but not visceral) white adipose tissue (WAT; 50%) and in brown adipose tissue (BAT; 266%). Chronic mTOR inhibition attenuated the upregulation of lipid uptake, LPL expression/activity, and fat accretion induced by PPARγ activation in both subcutaneous WAT and BAT, which resulted in hyperlipidemia. In contrast, rapamycin did not affect most of the other WAT lipogenic genes upregulated by rosiglitazone. Together these findings demonstrate that mTOR is a major regulator of adipose tissue LPL-mediated lipid uptake and a critical mediator of the hypolipidemic and lipogenic actions of PPARγ activation. PMID:22467681

  1. Inhibition of mTOR pathway restrains astrocyte proliferation, migration and production of inflammatory mediators after oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Liu, Shuang-Feng; Qu, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-01-01

    Glial scar is a major impediment to axonal regeneration in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Overcoming this physical and biochemical barrier might be crucial for axonal regeneration and functional compensation during the progression of CNS disorders. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, involved in process of cell proliferation, migration, autophagy and protein synthesis. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR signaling, can exert neuroprotective effects in several CNS diseases. However, its role in the process of reactive astrogliosis including cell proliferation, migration and cytokine production after cerebral ischemia still remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of mTOR blockade in cultured astrocytes exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), a wildly used cellular ischemia model which mimics ideally cerebral ischemia model in vivo. We found that astrocytes became activated after OGD/R, characterized by change of astrocytic morphology, upregulation of GFAP expression, the increase number of Edu positive cells, and accompanied with phosphorylation of mTOR protein and its substrate S6K1. Rapamycin significantly inhibited mTOR signal pathway, suppressed proliferation of astrocytes via modulation of cell cycle progression. Moreover, rapamycin attenuated astrocytic migration and mitigated production of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and iNOS induced by astrocytes exposed to OGD/R. Taken together, our findings indicated that mTOR blockade by rapamycin attenuates astrocyte migration, proliferation and production of inflammation mediators. We suggest that targeting mTOR pathway in astrocyte activation may represent a potentially new therapeutic strategy against deleterious neurotoxic processes of reactive astrogliosis in CNS disorders such as ischemic stroke. PMID:25770080

  2. Retraction: "Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on January 5, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 5A to be inappropriately manipulated. REFERENCE Wang Z, Li Y, Banerjee S, Kong D, Ahmad A, Nogueira V, Hay N, Sarkar FH. 2010. Down-regulation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, and induces apoptosis via inactivation of Akt, mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. J Cell Biochem 109:726-736; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22451. PMID:27301887

  3. LKB1/KRAS mutant lung cancers constitute a genetic subset of NSCLC with increased sensitivity to MAPK and mTOR signalling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, C L; Choudhury, B; Davies, H; Edkins, S; Greenman, C; Haaften, G van; Mironenko, T; Santarius, T; Stevens, C; Stratton, M R; Futreal, P A

    2009-01-01

    LKB1/STK11 is a multitasking tumour suppressor kinase. Germline inactivating mutations of the gene are responsible for the Peutz-Jeghers hereditary cancer syndrome. It is also somatically inactivated in approximately 30% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we report that LKB1/KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines are sensitive to the MEK inhibitor CI-1040 shown by a dose-dependent reduction in proliferation rate, whereas LKB1 and KRAS mutations alone do not confer similar sensitivity. We show that this subset of NSCLC is also sensitised to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. Importantly, the data suggest that LKB1/KRAS mutant NSCLCs are a genetically and functionally distinct subset and further suggest that this subset of lung cancers might afford an opportunity for exploitation of anti-MAPK/mTOR-targeted therapies. PMID:19165201

  4. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibition ameliorates vascular calcification via Klotho upregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Cai, Yan; Zheng, Ming-Fei; Sun, Wei-Liang; Zhang, Song-Yang; Kong, Wei; Gu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients, but the pathogenesis remains partially unknown and effective therapeutic targets should be urgently explored. Here we pursued the therapeutic role of rapamycin in CRF-related VC. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal was activated in the aortic wall of CRF rats. As expected, oral rapamycin administration significantly reduced VC by inhibiting mTOR in rats with CRF. Further in vitro results showed that activation of mTOR by both pharmacological agent and genetic method promoted, while inhibition of mTOR reduced, inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and chondrogenic/osteogenic gene expression, which were independent of autophagy and apoptosis. Interestingly, the expression of Klotho, an antiaging gene that suppresses VC, was reduced in calcified vasculature, whereas rapamycin reversed membrane and secreted Klotho decline through mTOR inhibition. When mTOR signaling was enhanced by either mTOR overexpression or deletion of tuberous sclerosis 1, Klotho mRNA was further decreased in phosphate-treated VSMCs, suggesting a vital association between mTOR signaling and Klotho expression. More importantly, rapamycin failed to reduce VC in the absence of Klotho by using either siRNA knockdown of Klotho or Klotho knockout mice. Thus, Klotho has a critical role in mediating the observed decrease in calcification by rapamycin in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26061549

  5. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition reduces cerebral vasospasm following a subarachnoid hemorrhage injury in canines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguang; Khatibi, Nikan H; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yan, Junhao; Chen, Chunhua; Hu, Qin; Meng, Haiwei; Han, Hongbin; Liu, Shuwei; Zhou, Changman

    2012-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a vital role in regulating growth, proliferation, survival, and protein synthesis among cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the mTOR pathway following subarachnoid hemorrhage brain injury--specifically investigating its ability to mediate the activation of cerebral vasospasm. Additionally, we investigated whether key signaling pathway molecules such as the mTOR, P70S6K1, and 4E-BP1 play a role in the process. Thirty dogs were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, SAH (subarachnoid hemorrhage), SAH+DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), SAH+Rapamycin and SAH+AZD8055. An established canine double-hemorrhage model of SAH was used by injecting autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna on days 0 and 2. Angiography was performed at days 0 and 7. Clinical behavior, histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot of mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) in the basilar arteries were examined. In the SAH and SAH+DMSO groups, severe angiographic vasospasm was obtained (34.3±19.8%, 38.4±10.3) compared with that in Sham (93.9±5.0%) respectively. mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA increased in the sample of spastic basilar arteries (p<0.05). In the SAH+RAPA and SAH+AZD8055 groups, Rapamycin and AZD8055 attenuated angiographic vasospasm (62.3±15.9% and 65.2±10.3%) while improving appetite and activity scores (p<0.05) on days 5 through 7. Rapamycin and AZD8055 significantly reduced the level and expression of mTOR, P70S6K1, 4E-BP1 and PCNA (p<0.05). In conclusion, our study suggests that the mTOR molecular signaling pathway plays a significant role in cerebral vasospasm following SAH, and that inhibition of the mTOR pathway has the potential to become an attractive strategy to treat vasospasm following SAH. PMID:22177999

  6. Combined MTOR and autophagy inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Reshma; Chang, Yunyoung C; Hu, Janice; Algazy, Kenneth M; Evans, Tracey L; Fecher, Leslie A; Schuchter, Lynn M; Torigian, Drew A; Panosian, Jeffrey T; Troxel, Andrea B; Tan, Kay-See; Heitjan, Daniel F; DeMichele, Angela M; Vaughn, David J; Redlinger, Maryann; Alavi, Abass; Kaiser, Jonathon; Pontiggia, Laura; Davis, Lisa E; O’Dwyer, Peter J; Amaravadi, Ravi K

    2014-01-01

    The combination of temsirolimus (TEM), an MTOR inhibitor, and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an autophagy inhibitor, augments cell death in preclinical models. This phase 1 dose-escalation study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of HCQ in combination with TEM in cancer patients. In the dose escalation portion, 27 patients with advanced solid malignancies were enrolled, followed by a cohort expansion at the top dose level in 12 patients with metastatic melanoma. The combination of HCQ and TEM was well tolerated, and grade 3 or 4 toxicity was limited to anorexia (7%), fatigue (7%), and nausea (7%). An MTD was not reached for HCQ, and the recommended phase II dose was HCQ 600 mg twice daily in combination with TEM 25 mg weekly. Other common grade 1 or 2 toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, nausea, stomatitis, rash, and weight loss. No responses were observed; however, 14/21 (67%) patients in the dose escalation and 14/19 (74%) patients with melanoma achieved stable disease. The median progression-free survival in 13 melanoma patients treated with HCQ 1200mg/d in combination with TEM was 3.5 mo. Novel 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) measurements predicted clinical outcome and provided further evidence that the addition of HCQ to TEM produced metabolic stress on tumors in patients that experienced clinical benefit. Pharmacodynamic evidence of autophagy inhibition was evident in serial PBMC and tumor biopsies only in patients treated with 1200 mg daily HCQ. This study indicates that TEM and HCQ is safe and tolerable, modulates autophagy in patients, and has significant antitumor activity. Further studies combining MTOR and autophagy inhibitors in cancer patients are warranted. PMID:24991838

  7. Suppression of mTOR Signaling Pathways in Skeletal Muscle of Finishing Pigs by Increasing the Ratios of Ether Extract and Neutral Detergent Fiber at the Expense of Starch in Iso-energetic Diets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changning; Li, Yanjiao; Zhang, Bolin; Lin, Meng; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Tianjiao; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-02-24

    Three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were fed to finishing pigs for 28 days to investigate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ubiquitin-proteasome signaling pathways of skeletal muscle by altering compositions of dietary energy sources. Diet A, diet B, and diet C contained 44.1%, 37.6%, and 30.9% starch; 5.9%, 9.5%, and 14.3% ether extract (EE); and 12.6%, 15.4%, and 17.8% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), respectively. An increase of mRNA expression of MuRF1 (1.09 ± 0.10 vs 1.00 ± 0.08) and MAFbx (1.10 ± 0.06 vs 1.00 ± 0.11) and a decrease of concentrations of plasma insulin (8.2 ± 0.8 vs 10.8 ± 1.2) and glucose (5.76 ± 0.12 vs 6.43 ± 0.33) together with mRNA expression of IRS (0.78 ± 0.19 vs 1.01 ± 0.05) and Akt (0.92 ± 0.01 vs 1.00 ± 0.05) were observed in pigs fed diet C compared with diet A. Protein levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR (0.31 ± 0.04 vs 0.48 ± 0.03 and 0.39 ± 0.01 vs 0.56 ± 0.02), 4EBP1 (0.66 ± 0.06 vs 0.90 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.12 vs 0.84 ± 0.09), and S6K1 (0.66 ± 0.01 vs 0.89 ± 0.01 and 0.48 ± 0.03 vs 0.79 ± 0.02) were decreased; however, total and phosphorylated AMPK (0.96 ± 0.06 vs 0.64 ± 0.04 and 0.97 ± 0.09 vs 0.61 ± 0.09) were increased in pigs fed diet C compared with diet A. In conclusion, diet C suppressed the mTOR pathway and accelerated the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in skeletal muscle of finishing pigs. PMID:26878419

  8. mTOR Inhibition: From Aging to Autism and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved protein that regulates growth and proliferation in response to environmental and hormonal cues. Broadly speaking, organisms are constantly faced with the challenge of interpreting their environment and making a decision between “grow or do not grow.” mTOR is a major component of the network that makes this decision at the cellular level and, to some extent, the tissue and organismal level as well. Although overly simplistic, this framework can be useful when considering the myriad functions ascribed to mTOR and the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with genetic or pharmacological modulation of mTOR signaling. In this review, I will consider mTOR function in this context and attempt to summarize and interpret the growing body of literature demonstrating interesting and varied effects of mTOR inhibitors. These include robust effects on a multitude of age-related parameters and pathologies, as well as several other processes not obviously linked to aging or age-related disease. PMID:24379984

  9. Polycystin-1 but not polycystin-2 deficiency causes upregulation of the mTOR pathway and can be synergistically targeted with rapamycin and metformin.

    PubMed

    Mekahli, Djalila; Decuypere, Jean-Paul; Sammels, Eva; Welkenhuyzen, Kirsten; Schoeber, Joost; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Corvelyn, Anniek; Dechênes, Georges; Ong, Albert C M; Wilmer, Martijn J; van den Heuvel, Lambertus; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B; Missiaen, Ludwig; Levtchenko, Elena; De Smedt, Humbert

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 genes, which encode polycystin-1 (TRPP1) and polycystin-2 (TRPP2), respectively. Increased activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been shown in PKD1 mutants but is less documented for PKD2 mutants. Clinical trials using mTOR inhibitors were disappointing, while the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activator, metformin is not yet tested in patients. Here, we studied the mTOR activity and its upstream pathways in several human and mouse renal cell models with either siRNA or stable knockdown and with overexpression of TRPP2. Our data reveal for the first time differences between TRPP1 and TRPP2 deficiency. In contrast to TRPP1 deficiency, TRPP2-deficient cells did neither display excessive activation of the mTOR-kinase complex nor inhibition of AMPK activity, while ERK1/2 and Akt activity were similarly affected among TRPP1- and TRPP2-deficient cells. Furthermore, cell proliferation was more pronounced in TRPP1 than in TRPP2-deficient cells. Interestingly, combining low concentrations of rapamycin and metformin was more effective for inhibiting mTOR complex 1 activity in TRPP1-deficient cells than either drug alone. Our results demonstrate a synergistic effect of a combination of low concentrations of drugs suppressing the increased mTOR activity in TRPP1-deficient cells. This novel insight can be exploited in future clinical trials to optimize the efficiency and avoiding side effects of drugs in the treatment of ADPKD patients with PKD1 mutations. Furthermore, as TRPP2 deficiency by itself did not affect mTOR signaling, this may underlie the differences in phenotype, and genetic testing has to be considered for selecting patients for the ongoing trials. PMID:24193408

  10. Regulation of innate immune cell function by mTOR.

    PubMed

    Weichhart, Thomas; Hengstschläger, Markus; Linke, Monika

    2015-10-01

    The innate immune system is central for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and quickly responds to local or systemic perturbations by pathogenic or sterile insults. This rapid response must be metabolically supported to allow cell migration and proliferation and to enable efficient production of cytokines and lipid mediators. This Review focuses on the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in controlling and shaping the effector responses of innate immune cells. mTOR reconfigures cellular metabolism and regulates translation, cytokine responses, antigen presentation, macrophage polarization and cell migration. The mTOR network emerges as an integrative rheostat that couples cellular activation to the environmental and intracellular nutritional status to dictate and optimize the inflammatory response. A detailed understanding of how mTOR metabolically coordinates effector responses by myeloid cells will provide important insights into immunity in health and disease. PMID:26403194

  11. Tumor Progression Locus 2 (Tpl2) Activates the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway, Inhibits Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) Expression, and Limits Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Immunosuppressive Functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Acuff, Nicole V; Peeks, Angela R; Kirkland, Rebecca; Wyatt, Kara D; Nagy, Tamas; Watford, Wendy T

    2016-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2, also known as Map3k8/Cot) is a potent inflammatory mediator that drives the production of TNFα, IL-1β, and IFNγ. We previously demonstrated that Tpl2 regulates T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and modulates T helper cell differentiation. However, very little is known about how Tpl2 modulates the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are a specialized subset of T cells that express FoxP3 and possess immunosuppressive properties to limit excess inflammation. Because of the documented role of Tpl2 in promoting inflammation, we hypothesized that Tpl2 antagonizes Treg development and immunosuppressive function. Here we demonstrate that Tpl2 constrains the development of inducible Tregs. Tpl2(-/-) naïve CD4(+) T cells preferentially develop into FoxP3(+) inducible Tregs in vitro as well as in vivo in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced systemic tolerance. Treg biasing of Tpl2(-/-) T cells depended on TCR signal strength and corresponded with reduced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Importantly, Tpl2(-/-) Tregs have basally increased expression of FoxP3 and immunosuppressive molecules, IL-10 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). Furthermore, they were more immunosuppressive in vivo in a T cell transfer model of colitis, as evidenced by reduced effector T cell accumulation, systemic production of inflammatory cytokines, and colonic inflammation. These results demonstrate that Tpl2 promotes inflammation in part by constraining FoxP3 expression and Treg immunosuppressive functions. Overall, these findings suggest that Tpl2 inhibition could be used to preferentially drive Treg induction and thereby limit inflammation in a variety of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27261457

  12. Targeting bone metastatic cancer: Role of the mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Bertoldo, Francesco; Silvestris, Franco; Ibrahim, Toni; Cognetti, Francesco; Generali, Daniele; Ripamonti, Carla Ida; Amadori, Dino; Colleoni, Marco Angelo; Conte, Pierfranco; Del Mastro, Lucia; De Placido, Sabino; Ortega, Cinzia; Santini, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    One of the great challenges of cancer medicine is to develop effective treatments for bone metastatic cancer. Most patients with advanced solid tumors will develop bone metastasis and will suffer from skeletal related events associated with this disease. Although some therapies are available to manage symptoms derived from bone metastases, an effective treatment has not been developed yet. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates cell growth and survival. Alterations in mTOR signaling have been associated with pathological malignancies, including bone metastatic cancer. Inhibition of mTOR signaling might therefore be a promising alternative for bone metastatic cancer management. This review summarizes the current knowledge on mTOR pathway signaling in bone tissue and provides an overview on the known effects of mTOR inhibition in bone cancer, both in in vitro and in vivo models. PMID:24508774

  13. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Activation by Resveratrol Modulates Amyloid-β Peptide Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giliberto, Luca; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.; Janle, Elsa M.; Lobo, Jessica; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Aβ levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Aβ metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Aβ accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Aβ levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Aβ. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Aβ levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease. PMID:20080969

  14. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases adipocyte lipolysis and alters lipid droplet-associated proteins: role of mTOR and ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soonkyu; Brown, Jonathan Mark; Sandberg, Maria Boysen; McIntosh, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Lipid droplet-associated proteins play an important role in adipocyte triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Here, we show that trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), but not cis-9,trans-11 CLA, increased lipolysis and altered human adipocyte lipid droplet morphology. Before this change in morphology, there was a rapid trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced increase in the accumulation of perilipin A in the cytosol, followed by the disappearance of perilipin A protein. In contrast, protein levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) were increased in cultures treated with trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Immunostaining revealed that ADRP localized to the surface of small lipid droplets, displacing perilipin. Intriguingly, trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased ADRP protein expression to a much greater extent than ADRP mRNA without affecting stability, suggesting translational control of ADRP. To this end, we found that trans-10,cis-12 CLA increased activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase/S6 ribosomal protein (mTOR/p70S6K/S6) pathway. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the trans-10,cis-12 CLA-mediated reduction of human adipocyte TG content is associated with the differential localization and expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins. This process involves both the translational control of ADRP through the activation of mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling and transcriptional control of perilipin A. PMID:15716587

  15. Role of mTOR Inhibitors in Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    The first compound that inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirolimus (rapamycin) was discovered in the 1970s as a soil bacterium metabolite collected on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Because sirolimus showed antiproliferative activity, researchers investigated its molecular target and identified the TOR1 and TOR2. The mTOR consists of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Rapalogues including sirolimus, everolimus, and temsirolimus exert their effect mainly on mTORC1, whereas their inhibitory effect on mTORC2 is mild. To obtain compounds with more potent antiproliferative effects, ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have been developed and tested in clinical trials as anticancer drugs. Currently, mTOR inhibitors are used as anticancer drugs against several solid tumors, and immunosuppressive agents for transplantation of various organs. This review discusses the role of mTOR inhibitors in renal disease with a particular focus on renal cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and kidney transplantation. PMID:27338360

  16. Role of mTOR Inhibitors in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Moto; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    The first compound that inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirolimus (rapamycin) was discovered in the 1970s as a soil bacterium metabolite collected on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Because sirolimus showed antiproliferative activity, researchers investigated its molecular target and identified the TOR1 and TOR2. The mTOR consists of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Rapalogues including sirolimus, everolimus, and temsirolimus exert their effect mainly on mTORC1, whereas their inhibitory effect on mTORC2 is mild. To obtain compounds with more potent antiproliferative effects, ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have been developed and tested in clinical trials as anticancer drugs. Currently, mTOR inhibitors are used as anticancer drugs against several solid tumors, and immunosuppressive agents for transplantation of various organs. This review discusses the role of mTOR inhibitors in renal disease with a particular focus on renal cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and kidney transplantation. PMID:27338360

  17. Therapeutic potential of targeting mTOR in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (review).

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Camilla; Evangelisti, Cecilia; Chiarini, Francesca; Lonetti, Annalisa; Buontempo, Francesca; Bressanin, Daniela; Cappellini, Alessandra; Orsini, Ester; McCubrey, James A; Martelli, Alberto M

    2014-09-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a heterogeneous neoplastic disorder of immature hematopoietic precursors committed to the T-cell lineage. T-ALL comprises about 15% of pediatric and 25% of adult ALL cases. Even if the prognosis of T-ALL has improved especially in the childhood due to the use of new intensified treatment protocols, the outcome of relapsed patients who are resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs or who relapse is still poor. For this reason, there is a need for novel and less toxic targeted therapies against signaling pathways aberrantly activated in T-ALL, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Small molecules designed to target key components of this signaling axis have proven their efficacy both in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical settings of T-ALL. In particular, different classes of mTOR inhibitors have been disclosed by pharmaceutical companies, and they are currently being tested in clinical trials for treating T-ALL patients. One of the most promising approaches for the treatment of T-ALL seems to be the combination of mTOR inhibitors with traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This could lead to a lower drug dosage that may circumvent the systemic side effects of chemotherapeutics. In this review, we focus on the different classes of mTOR inhibitors that will possibly have an impact on the therapeutic arsenal we have at our disposal against T-ALL. PMID:24968804

  18. The Role of mTOR Inhibitors in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Evidence-based and Expert Opinions.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Paolo; Bjørnvold, Marit; Dill, Patricia E; Ferreira, José Carlos; Feucht, Martha; Hertzberg, Christoph; Jansen, Anna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Macaya, Alfons; Moavero, Romina; Nabbout, Rima; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2016-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder arising from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. The resulting over-activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway leaves patients with TSC susceptible to the growth of non-malignant tumours in multiple organs. Previously, surgery was the main therapeutic option for TSC. However, pharmacological therapy with mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus and sirolimus is now emerging as an alternate approach. Everolimus and sirolimus have already been shown to be effective in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), and everolimus is currently being evaluated in treating TSC-related epilepsy. In November 2013 a group of European experts convened to discuss the current options and practical considerations for treating various manifestations of TSC. This article provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of SEGA, TSC-related epilepsy and renal AML, with a focus on where mTOR inhibitor therapy may be considered alongside other treatment options. Safety considerations regarding mTOR inhibitor therapy are also reviewed. With evidence of beneficial effects in neurological and non-neurological TSC manifestations, mTOR inhibitors may represent a systemic treatment for TSC. PMID:26927950

  19. Hypoxia Increases IGFBP-1 Phosphorylation Mediated by mTOR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Damerill, Ian; Biggar, Kyle K; Abu Shehab, Majida; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2016-02-01

    In fetal growth restriction (FGR), fetal growth is limited by reduced nutrient and oxygen supply. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of fetal growth and IGF binding protein -1(IGFBP-1) is the principal regulator of fetal IGF-I bioavailability. Phosphorylation enhances IGFBP-1's affinity for IGF-I. Hypoxia induces IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation, markedly decreasing IGF-I bioavailability. We recently reported that fetal liver IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation is associated with inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a nonhuman primate model of FGR. Here, we test the hypothesis that IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia is mediated by mTOR inhibition. We inhibited mTOR either by rapamycin or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting raptor (mTOR complex [mTORC]1) and/or rictor (mTORC2) in HepG2 cells cultured under hypoxia (1% O2) or basal (20% O2) conditions. Conversely, we activated mTORC1 or mTORC1+mTORC2 by silencing endogenous mTOR inhibitors (tuberous sclerosis complex 2/DEP-domain-containing and mTOR-interacting protein). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that both hypoxia and inhibition of mTORC1 and/or mTORC2 induced similar degrees of IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at Ser101/119/169 and reduced IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation. Activation of mTORC1+mTORC2 or mTORC1 alone prevented IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia. Multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry showed that rapamycin and/or hypoxia increased phosphorylation also at Ser98 and at a novel site Ser174. In silico structural analysis indicated that Ser174 was in close proximity to the IGF-binding site. Together, we demonstrate that signaling through the mTORC1 or mTORC2 pathway is sufficient to induce IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to hypoxia. This study provides novel understanding of the cellular mechanism that controls fetal IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in hypoxia, and we propose that mTOR inhibition constitutes a mechanistic link

  20. RAD001 (everolimus) attenuates experimental autoimmune neuritis by inhibiting the mTOR pathway, elevating Akt activity and polarizing M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Ranran; Gao, Juan; Zhai, Hui; Xiao, Jinting; Ding, Ya'nan; Hao, Junwei

    2016-06-01

    Guillain-Barre' syndrome (GBS) is an acute, postinfectious, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. As a classical animal model of GBS, experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) has become well-accepted. Additionally, the potent immune modulation exerted by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been used to treat cancers and showed beneficial effects. Here we demonstrate that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) protected rats from the symptoms of EAN, as shown by decreased paralysis, diminished inflammatory cell infiltration, reductions in demyelination of peripheral nerves and improved nerve conduction. Furthermore, RAD001 shifted macrophage polarization toward the protective M2 phenotype and modified the inflammatory milieu by downregulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ and IL-17as well as upregulating the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and TGF-β. Amounts of the mTOR downstream targets p-P70S6K and p-4E-BP1 in sciatic nerves decreased, whereas the level of its upstream protein p-Akt was elevated. This demonstrated that RAD001 inhibited the mTOR pathway and encouraged the expression of p-Akt, which led to M2 macrophage polarization, thus improved the outcome of EAN in rats. Consequently, RAD001 exhibits strong potential as a therapeutic strategy for ameliorating peripheral poly-neuropathy. PMID:27063582

  1. Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (Mtor) Is Essential for Murine Embryonic Heart Development and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Pires, Karla M. P.; Whitehead, Kevin J.; Olsen, Curtis D.; Wayment, Benjamin; Zhang, Yi Cheng; Bugger, Heiko; Ilkun, Olesya; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Thomas, George; Kozma, Sara C.; Abel, E. Dale

    2013-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor) is required for embryonic inner cell mass proliferation during early development. However, Mtor expression levels are very low in the mouse heart during embryogenesis. To determine if Mtor plays a role during mouse cardiac development, cardiomyocyte specific Mtor deletion was achieved using α myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) driven Cre recombinase. Initial mosaic expression of Cre between embryonic day (E) 10.5 and E11.5 eliminated a subset of cardiomyocytes with high Cre activity by apoptosis and reduced overall cardiac proliferative capacity. The remaining cardiomyocytes proliferated and expanded normally. However loss of 50% of cardiomyocytes defined a threshold that impairs the ability of the embryonic heart to sustain the embryo’s circulatory requirements. As a result 92% of embryos with cardiomyocyte Mtor deficiency died by the end of gestation. Thus Mtor is required for survival and proliferation of cardiomyocytes in the developing heart. PMID:23342106

  2. Glucose uptake in brown fat cells is dependent on mTOR complex 2–promoted GLUT1 translocation

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jessica M.; Sato, Masaaki; Dallner, Olof S.; Sandström, Anna L.; Pisani, Didier F.; Chambard, Jean-Claude; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Hutchinson, Dana S.

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is the primary site for thermogenesis and can consume, in addition to free fatty acids, a very high amount of glucose from the blood, which can both acutely and chronically affect glucose homeostasis. Here, we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 has a novel role in β3-adrenoceptor–stimulated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue. We show that β3-adrenoceptors stimulate glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue via a signaling pathway that is comprised of two different parts: one part dependent on cAMP-mediated increases in GLUT1 transcription and de novo synthesis of GLUT1 and another part dependent on mTOR complex 2–stimulated translocation of newly synthesized GLUT1 to the plasma membrane, leading to increased glucose uptake. Both parts are essential for β3-adrenoceptor–stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, the effect of β3-adrenoceptor on mTOR complex 2 is independent of the classical insulin–phosphoinositide 3-kinase–Akt pathway, highlighting a novel mechanism of mTOR complex 2 activation. PMID:25385184

  3. Mechanotransduction and the regulation of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Troy A

    2011-09-01

    Mechanical stimuli play a major role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and the maintenance of muscle mass contributes significantly to disease prevention and issues associated with the quality of life. Although the link between mechanical signals and the regulation of muscle mass has been recognized for decades, the mechanisms involved in converting mechanical information into the molecular events that control this process remain poorly defined. Nevertheless, our knowledge of these mechanisms is advancing and recent studies have revealed that signaling through a protein kinase called the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in this event. In this review we will, (1) discuss the evidence which implicates mTOR in the mechanical regulation of skeletal muscle mass, (2) provide an overview of the mechanisms through which signaling by mTOR can be regulated, and (3) summarize our current knowledge of the potential mechanisms involved in the mechanical activation of mTOR signaling. PMID:21621634

  4. Antifungal drug itraconazole targets VDAC1 to modulate the AMPK/mTOR signaling axis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Head, Sarah A.; Shi, Wei; Zhao, Liang; Gorshkov, Kirill; Pasunooti, Kalyan; Chen, Yue; Deng, Zhiyou; Li, Ruo-jing; Shim, Joong Sup; Tan, Wenzhi; Hartung, Thomas; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Yingming; Colombini, Marco; Liu, Jun O.

    2015-01-01

    Itraconazole, a clinically used antifungal drug, was found to possess potent antiangiogenic and anticancer activity that is unique among the azole antifungals. Previous mechanistic studies have shown that itraconazole inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is known to be a critical regulator of endothelial cell function and angiogenesis. However, the molecular target of itraconazole that mediates this activity has remained unknown. Here we identify the major target of itraconazole in endothelial cells as the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), which regulates mitochondrial metabolism by controlling the passage of ions and small metabolites through the outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC1 knockdown profoundly inhibits mTOR activity and cell proliferation in human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC), uncovering a previously unknown connection between VDAC1 and mTOR. Inhibition of VDAC1 by itraconazole disrupts mitochondrial metabolism, leading to an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an upstream regulator of mTOR. VDAC1-knockout cells are resistant to AMPK activation and mTOR inhibition by itraconazole, demonstrating that VDAC1 is the mediator of this activity. In addition, another known VDAC-targeting compound, erastin, also activates AMPK and inhibits mTOR and proliferation in HUVEC. VDAC1 thus represents a novel upstream regulator of mTOR signaling in endothelial cells and a promising target for the development of angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26655341

  5. Endothelial Cell mTOR Complex-2 Regulates Sprouting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Maikel A.; Carmine-Simmen, Katia; Lewis, John D.; Moore, Ronald B.; Murray, Allan G.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor neovascularization is targeted by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the receptor to prevent tumor growth, but drug resistance to angiogenesis inhibition limits clinical efficacy. Inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3 kinase pathway intermediate, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also inhibits tumor growth and may prevent escape from VEGF receptor inhibitors. mTOR is assembled into two separate multi-molecular complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. The direct effect of mTORC2 inhibition on the endothelium and tumor angiogenesis is poorly defined. We used pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference to determine the function of mTORC2 versus Akt1 and mTORC1 in human endothelial cells (EC). Angiogenic sprouting, EC migration, cytoskeleton re-organization, and signaling events regulating matrix adhesion were studied. Sustained inactivation of mTORC1 activity up-regulated mTORC2-dependent Akt1 activation. In turn, ECs exposed to mTORC1-inhibition were resistant to apoptosis and hyper-responsive to renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-stimulated angiogenesis after relief of the inhibition. Conversely, mTORC1/2 dual inhibition or selective mTORC2 inactivation inhibited angiogenesis in response to RCC cells and VEGF. mTORC2-inactivation decreased EC migration more than Akt1- or mTORC1-inactivation. Mechanistically, mTORC2 inactivation robustly suppressed VEGF-stimulated EC actin polymerization, and inhibited focal adhesion formation and activation of focal adhesion kinase, independent of Akt1. Endothelial mTORC2 regulates angiogenesis, in part by regulation of EC focal adhesion kinase activity, matrix adhesion, and cytoskeletal remodeling, independent of Akt/mTORC1. PMID:26295809

  6. mTOR Co-Targeting in Cetuximab Resistance in Head and Neck Cancers Harboring PIK3CA and RAS Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyong; Martin, Daniel; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Patel, Vyomesh; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Sol Degese, Maria; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cetuximab, a monoclonal blocking antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR, has been approved for the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). However, only few patients display long-term responses, prompting the search for cetuximab resistance mechanisms and new therapeutic options enhancing cetuximab effectiveness. Methods Cetuximab-sensitive HNSCC cells were retro-engineered to express PIK3CA and RAS oncogenes. These cells and HNSCC cells harboring endogenous PIK3CA and RAS oncogenes were xenografted into mice (n = 10 per group) and studied for their biochemical, antitumor, antiangiogenic, and antilymphangiogenic responses to cetuximab and mTOR targeting agents. All P values are two-sided. Results Cetuximab treatment of PIK3CA- and RAS-expressing HNSCC xenografts promoted an initial antitumor response, but all tumors relapsed within few weeks. In these tumors, cetuximab did not decrease the activity of mTOR, a downstream signaling target of EGFR, PIK3CA, and RAS. The combined administration of cetuximab and mTOR inhibitors exerted a remarkably increased antitumor activity, particularly in HNSCC cells that are resistant to cetuximab as a single agent. Indeed, cotargeting mTOR together with cetuximab caused a rapid tumor collapse of both PIK3CA- and RAS-expressing HNSCC xenografts (P < .001), concomitant with reduced proliferation (P < .001) and lymphangiogenesis (P < .001). Conclusion The presence of PIK3CA and RAS mutations and other alterations affecting the mTOR pathway activity in HNSCC could be exploited to predict the potential resistance to cetuximab, and to select the patients that may benefit the most from the concomitant administration of cetuximab and PI3K and/or mTOR inhibitors as a precision molecular therapeutic option for HNSCC patients. PMID:25099740

  7. Targeting mTOR in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Iriana, Sentia; Ahmed, Shahzad; Gong, Jun; Annamalai, Alagappan Anand; Tuli, Richard; Hendifar, Andrew Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Treatment options for advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited; however, new therapies targeting specific tumor-related molecular characteristics may help certain patient cohorts. Emerging preclinical data have shown that inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in specific KRAS-dependent PDAC subtypes leads to inhibition of tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. Early phase II studies of mono-mTOR inhibition have not shown promise. However, studies have shown that combined inhibition of multiple steps along the mTOR signaling pathway may lead to sustained responses by targeting mechanisms of tumor resistance. Coordinated inhibition of mTOR along with specific KRAS-dependent mutations in molecularly defined PDAC subpopulations may offer a viable alternative for treatment in the future. PMID:27200288

  8. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  9. Resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting mTOR through ATP competition.

    PubMed

    Park, Dohyun; Jeong, Heeyoon; Lee, Mi Nam; Koh, Ara; Kwon, Ohman; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Noh, Jungeun; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Park, Hwangseo; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol that has a beneficial effect on health, and resveratrol-induced autophagy has been suggested to be a key process in mediating many beneficial effects of resveratrol, such as reduction of inflammation and induction of cancer cell death. Although various resveratrol targets have been suggested, the molecule that mediates resveratrol-induced autophagy remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting the mTOR-ULK1 pathway. We found that inhibition of mTOR activity and presence of ULK1 are required for autophagy induction by resveratrol. In line with this mTOR dependency, we found that resveratrol suppresses the viability of MCF7 cells but not of SW620 cells, which are mTOR inhibitor sensitive and insensitive cancer cells, respectively. We also found that resveratrol-induced cancer cell suppression occurred ULK1 dependently. For the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mTOR inhibition, we demonstrate that resveratrol directly inhibits mTOR. We found that resveratrol inhibits mTOR by docking onto the ATP-binding pocket of mTOR (i.e., it competes with ATP). We propose mTOR as a novel direct target of resveratrol, and inhibition of mTOR is necessary for autophagy induction. PMID:26902888

  10. Resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting mTOR through ATP competition

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dohyun; Jeong, Heeyoon; Lee, Mi Nam; Koh, Ara; Kwon, Ohman; Yang, Yong Ryoul; Noh, Jungeun; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Park, Hwangseo; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol that has a beneficial effect on health, and resveratrol-induced autophagy has been suggested to be a key process in mediating many beneficial effects of resveratrol, such as reduction of inflammation and induction of cancer cell death. Although various resveratrol targets have been suggested, the molecule that mediates resveratrol-induced autophagy remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that resveratrol induces autophagy by directly inhibiting the mTOR-ULK1 pathway. We found that inhibition of mTOR activity and presence of ULK1 are required for autophagy induction by resveratrol. In line with this mTOR dependency, we found that resveratrol suppresses the viability of MCF7 cells but not of SW620 cells, which are mTOR inhibitor sensitive and insensitive cancer cells, respectively. We also found that resveratrol-induced cancer cell suppression occurred ULK1 dependently. For the mechanism of action of resveratrol on mTOR inhibition, we demonstrate that resveratrol directly inhibits mTOR. We found that resveratrol inhibits mTOR by docking onto the ATP-binding pocket of mTOR (i.e., it competes with ATP). We propose mTOR as a novel direct target of resveratrol, and inhibition of mTOR is necessary for autophagy induction. PMID:26902888

  11. Modulation of the cell growth regulator mTOR by Epstein-Barr virus-encoded LMP2A.

    PubMed

    Moody, Cary A; Scott, Rona S; Amirghahari, Nazanin; Nathan, Cherie-Ann; Young, Lawrence S; Dawson, Chris W; Sixbey, John W

    2005-05-01

    Control of translation initiation is one means by which cells regulate growth and proliferation, with components of the protein-synthesizing machinery having oncogenic potential. Expression of latency protein LMP2A by the human tumor virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt located upstream of an essential mediator of growth signals, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). We show that mTOR is activated by expression of LMP2A in carcinoma cells, leading to wortmannin- and rapamycin-sensitive inhibition of the negative regulator of translation, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and increased c-Myc protein translation. Intervention by this DNA tumor virus in cellular translational controls is likely to be an integral component of EBV tumorigenesis. PMID:15827164

  12. [Regulative mechanisms of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy and interventional effects of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yan-ru; Wan, Yi-gang; Shen, Shan-mei; Mao, Zhi-min; Wu, Wei; Yao, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy is the main pathological characteristic in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (DN), and its regulatory mechanism is closely related to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway activity. mTOR includes mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2(mTORC2), in which, the upstream pathway of mTORC1 is phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase(Akt)/adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase(AMPK), and the representative signaling molecules in the downstream pathway of mTORC1 are 4E-binding proteins(4EBP) and phosphoprotein 70 S6Kinase(p70S6K). Some Chinese herbal extracts could improve cell proliferation via intervening the expressions of the key molecules in the upstream or downstream of PIK/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in vivo. As for glomerular mesangial cells(MC) and podocyte, mTOR plays an important role in regulating glomerular inherent cells, including adjusting cell cycle, energy metabolism and matrix protein synthesis. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR, could suppress glomerular inherent cell hypertrophy, cell proliferation, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening and mesangial matrix deposition in model rats with DN. Some Chinese herbal extracts could alleviate glomerular lesions by intervening mTOR signaling pathway activity in renal tissue of DN animal models or in renal inherent cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26790279

  13. PRL-3 activates mTORC1 in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zu; Al-aidaroos, Abdul Qader Omer; Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhang, Shu Dong; Gupta, Abhishek; Lin, Youbin; Shen, Han-Ming; Zeng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is known to exert its oncogenic functions through activation of PI3K/Akt, which is a key regulator of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but a coherent link between PRL-3 and activation of mTOR has not yet been formally demonstrated. We report a positive correlation between PRL-3 expression and mTOR phospho-activation in clinical tumour samples and mouse models of cancer and demonstrate that PRL-3 increased downstream signalling to the mTOR substrates, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, by increasing PI3K/Akt-mediated activation of Rheb-GTP via TSC2 suppression. We also show that PRL-3 increases mTOR translocation to lysosomes via increased mTOR binding affinity to Rag GTPases in an Akt-independent manner, demonstrating a previously undescribed mechanism of action for PRL-3. PRL-3 also enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion and cellular invasiveness via activation of mTOR, attributes which were sensitive to rapamycin treatment. The downstream effects of PRL-3 were maintained even under conditions of environmental stress, suggesting that PRL-3 provides a strategic survival advantage to tumour cells via its effects on mTOR. PMID:26597054

  14. Signaling during platelet adhesion and activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Delaney, M. Keegan; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Du, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets are activated by adhesion to adhesive proteins like von Willebrand factor and collagen, or by soluble platelet agonists like ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. These adhesive proteins and soluble agonists induce signal transduction via their respective receptors. The various receptor-specific platelet activation signaling pathways converge into common signaling events, which stimulate platelet shape change, granule secretion, and ultimately induce the “inside-out” signaling process leading to activation of the ligand binding function of integrin αIIbβ3. Ligand binding to integrin αIIbβ3 mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers “outside-in” signaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction. It has become increasingly evident that agonist-induced platelet activation signals also crosstalk with integrin “outside-in” signals to regulate platelet responses. Platelet activation involves a series of rapid positive feedback loops that greatly amplify initial activation signals, and enable robust platelet recruitment and thrombus stabilization. Recent studies have provided novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of these processes. PMID:21071698

  15. A Gene Signature-Based Approach Identifies mTOR as a Regulator of p73▿

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbluth, Jennifer M.; Mays, Deborah J.; Pino, Maria F.; Tang, Luo Jia; Pietenpol, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Although genomic technologies have advanced the characterization of gene regulatory networks downstream of transcription factors, the identification of pathways upstream of these transcription factors has been more challenging. In this study we present a gene signature-based approach for connecting signaling pathways to transcription factors, as exemplified by p73. We generated a p73 gene signature by integrating whole-genome chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression profiling. The p73 signature was linked to corresponding signatures produced by drug candidates, using the in silico Connectivity Map resource, to identify drugs that would induce p73 activity. Of the pharmaceutical agents identified, there was enrichment for direct or indirect inhibitors of mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Treatment of both primary cells and cancer cell lines with rapamycin, metformin, and pyrvinium resulted in an increase in p73 levels, as did RNA interference-mediated knockdown of mTOR. Further, a subset of genes associated with insulin response or autophagy exhibited mTOR-mediated, p73-dependent expression. Thus, downstream gene signatures can be used to identify upstream regulators of transcription factor activity, and in doing so, we identified a new link between mTOR, p73, and p73-regulated genes associated with autophagy and metabolic pathways. PMID:18678646

  16. Hypoxia-induced MIR155 is a potent autophagy inducer by targeting multiple players in the MTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Gang; Xie, Weidong; Liu, Zhenyan; Xu, Wei; Lao, Yuanzhi; Huang, Nunu; Cui, Kai; Liao, Meijian; He, Jie; Jiang, Yuyang; Yang, Burton B; Xu, Hongxi; Xu, Naihan; Zhang, Yaou

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia activates autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular catabolic process. Dysfunction in the autophagy pathway has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases, including cancer. Hypoxia induces upregulation of a specific set of microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cell types. Here, we describe hypoxia-induced MIR155 as a potent inducer of autophagy. Enforced expression of MIR155 increases autophagic activity in human nasopharyngeal cancer and cervical cancer cells. Knocking down endogenous MIR155 inhibits hypoxia-induced autophagy. We demonstrated that MIR155 targets multiple players in MTOR signaling, including RHEB, RICTOR, and RPS6KB2. MIR155 suppresses target-gene expression by directly interacting with their 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs), mutations of the binding sites abolish their MIR155 responsiveness. Furthermore, by downregulating MTOR signaling, MIR155 also attenuates cell proliferation and induces G1/S cell cycle arrest. Collectively, these data present a new role for MIR155 as a key regulator of autophagy via dysregulation of MTOR pathway. PMID:24262949

  17. Brain somatic mutations in MTOR leading to focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Seok; Lee, Jeong Ho

    2016-02-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCDII) is a focal malformation of the developing cerebral cortex and the major cause of intractable epilepsy. However, since the molecular genetic etiology of FCD has remained enigmatic, the effective therapeutic target for this condition has remained poorly understood. Our recent study on FCD utilizing various deep sequencing platforms identified somatic mutations in MTOR (existing as low as 1% allelic frequency) only in the affected brain tissues. We observed that these mutations induced hyperactivation of the mTOR kinase. In addition, focal cortical expression of mutant MTOR using in utero electroporation in mice, recapitulated the neuropathological features of FCDII, such as migration defect, cytomegalic neuron and spontaneous seizures. Furthermore, seizures and dysmorphic neurons were rescued by the administration of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. This study provides the first evidence that brain somatic activating mutations in MTOR cause FCD, and suggests the potential drug target for intractable epilepsy in FCD patients. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 71-72]. PMID:26779999

  18. mTOR, cardiomyocytes and inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lifen; Brink, Marijke

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionary conserved kinase that senses the nutrient and energy status of cells, the availability of growth factors, stress stimuli and other cellular and environmental cues. It responds by regulating a range of cellular processes related to metabolism and growth in accordance with the available resources and intracellular needs. mTOR has distinct functions depending on its assembly in the structurally distinct multiprotein complexes mTORC1 or mTORC2. Active mTORC1 enhances processes including glycolysis, protein, lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and it inhibits autophagy. Reported functions for mTORC2 after growth factor stimulation are very diverse, are tissue and cell-type specific, and include insulin-stimulated glucose transport and enhanced glycogen synthesis. In accordance with its cellular functions, mTOR has been demonstrated to regulate cardiac growth in response to pressure overload and is also known to regulate cells of the immune system. The present manuscript presents recently obtained insights into mechanisms whereby mTOR may change anabolic, catabolic and stress response pathways in cardiomocytes and discusses how mTOR may affect inflammatory cells in the heart during hemodynamic stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26775585

  19. S9, a Novel Anticancer Agent, Exerts Its Anti-Proliferative Activity by Interfering with Both PI3K-Akt-mTOR Signaling and Microtubule Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun-hao; Ding, Hua-sheng; Luo, Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Mao-jiang; Zhang, Xiong-wen; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hua-liang; Meng, Ling-hua; Ding, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Background Deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a central role in tumor formation and progression, providing validated targets for cancer therapy. S9, a hybrid of α-methylene-γ-lactone and 2-phenyl indole compound, possessed potent activity against this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Effects of S9 on PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining and in vitro kinas assay. The interactions between tubulin and S9 were investigated by polymerization assay, CD, and SPR assay. The potential binding modes between S9 and PI3K, mTOR or tubulin were analyzed by molecular modeling. Anti-tumor activity of S9 was evaluated in tumor cells and in nude mice bearing human cancer xenografts. S9 abrogated EGF-activated PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling cascade and Akt translocation to cellular membrane in human tumor cells. S9 possessed inhibitory activity against both PI3K and mTOR with little effect on other tested 30 kinases. S9 also completely impeded hyper-phosphorylation of Akt as a feedback of inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. S9 unexpectedly arrested cells in M phase other than G1 phase, which was distinct from compounds targeting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Further study revealed that S9 inhibited tubulin polymerization via binding to colchicine-binding site of tubulin and resulted in microtubule disturbance. Molecular modeling indicated that S9 could potentially bind to the kinase domains of PI3K p110α subunit and mTOR, and shared similar hydrophobic interactions with colchicines in the complex with tubulin. Moreover, S9 induced rapid apoptosis in tumor cell, which might reflect a synergistic cooperation between blockade of both PI3-Akt-mTOR signaling and tubulin cytoskeleton. Finally, S9 displayed potent antiproliferative activity in a panel of tumor cells originated from different tissue types including drug-resistant cells and in nude mice bearing human tumor

  20. mTOR in Brain Physiology and Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bockaert, Joël; Marin, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    TOR (target of rapamycin) and its mammalian ortholog mTOR have been discovered in an effort to understand the mechanisms of action of the immunosuppressant drug rapamycin extracted from a bacterium of the Easter Island (Rapa Nui) soil. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase found in two functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are differentially regulated by a great number of nutrients such as glucose and amino acids, energy (oxygen and ATP/AMP content), growth factors, hormones, and neurotransmitters. mTOR controls many basic cellular functions such as protein synthesis, energy metabolism, cell size, lipid metabolism, autophagy, mitochondria, and lysosome biogenesis. In addition, mTOR-controlled signaling pathways regulate many integrated physiological functions of the nervous system including neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, memory storage, and cognition. Thus it is not surprising that deregulation of mTOR signaling is associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Preclinical and preliminary clinical studies indicate that inhibition of mTORC1 can be beneficial for some pathological conditions such as epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and brain tumors, whereas stimulation of mTORC1 (direct or indirect) can be beneficial for other pathologies such as depression or axonal growth and regeneration. PMID:26269525

  1. Dietary Fructose Activates Insulin Signaling and Inflammation in Adipose Tissue: Modulatory Role of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Pektas, Mehmet Bilgehan; Koca, Halit Bugra; Sadi, Gokhan; Akar, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    The effects of high-fructose diet on adipose tissue insulin signaling and inflammatory process have been poorly documented. In this study, we examined the influences of long-term fructose intake and resveratrol supplementation on the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling and the levels of inflammatory cytokines and sex hormones in the white adipose tissues of male and female rats. Consumption of high-fructose diet for 24 weeks increased the expression of genes involved in insulin signaling including IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, PI3K, eNOS, mTOR, and PPARγ, despite induction of proinflammatory markers, iNOS, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-18, MDA, and ALT, as well as anti-inflammatory factors, IL-10 and Nrf2 in adipose tissues from males and females. Total and free testosterone concentrations of adipose tissues were impaired in males but increased in females, although there were no changes in their blood levels. Resveratrol supplementation markedly restored the levels of MDA, IL6, IL-10, and IL-18, as well as iNOS, Nrf2, and PI3K mRNA, in adipose tissues of both genders. Dietary fructose activates both insulin signaling and inflammatory pathway in the adipose tissues of male and female rats proposing no correlation between the tissue insulin signaling and inflammation. Resveratrol has partly modulatory effects on fructose-induced changes. PMID:27066503

  2. Cadmium induces autophagy through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling in skin epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Young-Ok; Wang Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Cheng Senping; Budhraja, Amit; Ding Songze; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Shi Xianglin

    2011-09-15

    Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal which is environmentally and occupationally relevant. The mechanisms underlying cadmium-induced autophagy are not yet completely understood. The present study shows that cadmium induces autophagy, as demonstrated by the increase of LC3-II formation and the GFP-LC3 puncta cells. The induction of autophagosomes was directly visualized by electron microscopy in cadmium-exposed skin epidermal cells. Blockage of LKB1 or AMPK by siRNA transfection suppressed cadmium-induced autophagy. Cadmium-induced autophagy was inhibited in dominant-negative AMPK-transfected cells, whereas it was accelerated in cells transfected with the constitutively active form of AMPK. mTOR signaling, a negative regulator of autophagy, was downregulated in cadmium-exposed cells. In addition, cadmium generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) at relatively low levels, and caused poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP) activation and ATP depletion. Inhibition of PARP by pharmacological inhibitors or its siRNA transfection suppressed ATP reduction and autophagy in cadmium-exposed cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced autophagy signaling was attenuated by either exogenous addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase, or by overexpression of these enzymes. Consequently, these results suggest that cadmium-mediated ROS generation causes PARP activation and energy depletion, and eventually induces autophagy through the activation of LKB1-AMPK signaling and the down-regulation of mTOR in skin epidermal cells. - Highlights: > Cadmium, a toxic heavy metal, induces autophagic cell death through ROS-dependent activation of the LKB1-AMPK signaling. > Cadmium generates intracellular ROS at low levels and this leads to severe DNA damage and PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, which are the upstream events of LKB1-AMPK-mediated autophagy. > This novel finding may contribute to further understanding of cadmium-mediated diseases.

  3. Differential regulation of protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs after a meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis (PS) increases after a meal in neonates, but the time course of the changes in PS in different tissues after a meal is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the changes in tissue PS, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, and proportion of ribosomal protein (rp) mRNAs...

  4. Cellular and molecular effects of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus.

    PubMed

    Saran, Uttara; Foti, Michelangelo; Dufour, Jean-François

    2015-11-01

    mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) functions as the central regulator for cell proliferation, growth and survival. Up-regulation of proteins regulating mTOR, as well as its downstream targets, has been reported in various cancers. This has promoted the development of anti-cancer therapies targeting mTOR, namely fungal macrolide rapamycin, a naturally occurring mTOR inhibitor, and its analogues (rapalogues). One such rapalogue, everolimus, has been approved in the clinical treatment of renal and breast cancers. Although results have demonstrated that these mTOR inhibitors are effective in attenuating cell growth of cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions, subsequent sporadic response to rapalogues therapy in clinical trials has promoted researchers to look further into the complex understanding of the dynamics of mTOR regulation in the tumour environment. Limitations of these rapalogues include the sensitivity of tumour subsets to mTOR inhibition. Additionally, it is well known that rapamycin and its rapalogues mediate their effects by inhibiting mTORC (mTOR complex) 1, with limited or no effect on mTORC2 activity. The present review summarizes the pre-clinical, clinical and recent discoveries, with emphasis on the cellular and molecular effects of everolimus in cancer therapy. PMID:26330617

  5. Phase I study and preclinical efficacy evaluation of the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Liberal, J; Gil-Martín, M; Sáinz-Jaspeado, M; Gonzalo, N; Rigo, R; Colom, H; Muñoz, C; Tirado, O M; García del Muro, X

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a phase I study in patients with advanced solid tumours to identify the recommended dose, assess pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamic activity and preclinical antitumour efficacy of the combination of sirolimus and gemcitabine. Methods: Nineteen patients were treated with sirolimus 2 or 5 mg daily and gemcitabine 800 or 1000 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8. Dose escalation depended on dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate during the first 3-week period. Paired skin biopsies were evaluated for phosphorylated S6 (pS6) as marker of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibition. Pharmacokinetics and preclinical evaluation of efficacy using two different sarcoma cell lines and leiomyosarcoma xenografts were also conducted. Results: Three DLTs were observed: grade 3 transaminitis, grade 3 thrombocytopenia and grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Common treatment-related adverse events included anaemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and transaminitis. Pharmacodynamic analyses demonstrated mTOR inhibition with sirolimus 5 mg and PK showed no influence of sirolimus concentrations on gemcitabine clearance. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested mTOR pathway hyperactivation by gemcitabine that was reversed by sirolimus. Tumour growth in leiomyosarcoma xenografts was dramatically inhibited by the treatment. Conclusions: Recommended dose was sirolimus 5 mg per 24 h plus gemcitabine 800 mg m−2. Antitumour activity in preclinical sarcoma models and mTOR signalling inhibition were observed. A phase II study is currently ongoing. PMID:25003665

  6. Thyroid hormone-dependent development of early cortical networks: temporal specificity and the contribution of trkB and mTOR pathways.

    PubMed

    Westerholz, Sören; de Lima, Ana D; Voigt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Early in neocortical network development, triiodothyronine (T3) promotes GABAergic neurons' population increase, their somatic growth and the formation of GABAergic synapses. In the presence of T3, GABAergic interneurons form longer axons and conspicuous axonal arborizations, with an increased number of putative synaptic boutons. Here we show that the increased GABAergic axonal growth is positively correlated with the proximity to non-GABAergic neurons (non-GABA). A differential innervation emerges from a T3-dependent decrease of axonal length in fields with low density of neuronal cell bodies, combined with an increased bouton formation in fields with high density of neuronal somata. T3 addition to deprived networks after the first 2 weeks of development did not rescue deficits in the GABAergic synaptic bouton distribution, or in the frequency and duration of spontaneous bursts. During the critical 2-week-period, GABAergic signaling is depolarizing as revealed by calcium imaging experiments. Interestingly, T3 enhanced the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and accelerated the developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABAergic signaling in non-GABA. The T3-related increase of spontaneous network activity was remarkably reduced after blockade of either tropomyosin-receptor kinase B (trkB) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. T3-dependent increase in GABAergic neurons' soma size was mediated mainly by mTOR signaling. Conversely, the T3-dependent selective increase of GABAergic boutons near non-GABAergic cell bodies is mediated by trkB signaling only. Both trkB and mTOR signaling mediate T3-dependent reduction of the GABAergic axon extension. The circuitry context is relevant for the interaction between T3 and trkB signaling, but not for the interactions between T3 and mTOR signaling. PMID:23964198

  7. Thyroid hormone-dependent development of early cortical networks: temporal specificity and the contribution of trkB and mTOR pathways

    PubMed Central

    Westerholz, Sören; de Lima, Ana D.; Voigt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Early in neocortical network development, triiodothyronine (T3) promotes GABAergic neurons' population increase, their somatic growth and the formation of GABAergic synapses. In the presence of T3, GABAergic interneurons form longer axons and conspicuous axonal arborizations, with an increased number of putative synaptic boutons. Here we show that the increased GABAergic axonal growth is positively correlated with the proximity to non-GABAergic neurons (non-GABA). A differential innervation emerges from a T3-dependent decrease of axonal length in fields with low density of neuronal cell bodies, combined with an increased bouton formation in fields with high density of neuronal somata. T3 addition to deprived networks after the first 2 weeks of development did not rescue deficits in the GABAergic synaptic bouton distribution, or in the frequency and duration of spontaneous bursts. During the critical 2-week-period, GABAergic signaling is depolarizing as revealed by calcium imaging experiments. Interestingly, T3 enhanced the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2), and accelerated the developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABAergic signaling in non-GABA. The T3-related increase of spontaneous network activity was remarkably reduced after blockade of either tropomyosin-receptor kinase B (trkB) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. T3-dependent increase in GABAergic neurons' soma size was mediated mainly by mTOR signaling. Conversely, the T3-dependent selective increase of GABAergic boutons near non-GABAergic cell bodies is mediated by trkB signaling only. Both trkB and mTOR signaling mediate T3-dependent reduction of the GABAergic axon extension. The circuitry context is relevant for the interaction between T3 and trkB signaling, but not for the interactions between T3 and mTOR signaling. PMID:23964198

  8. Interleukin-6 influences stress-signalling by reducing the expression of the mTOR-inhibitor REDD1 in a STAT3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Pinno, Jessica; Bongartz, Hannes; Klepsch, Oliver; Wundrack, Nicole; Poli, Valeria; Schaper, Fred; Dittrich, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a strong activator of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR). In contrast, mTOR activity is negatively regulated by Regulated in Development and DNA Damage Responses 1 (REDD1). Expression of REDD1 is induced by cellular stressors such as glucocorticoids and DNA damaging agents. We show that the expression of basal as well as stress-induced REDD1 is reduced by IL-6. The reduction of REDD1 expression by IL-6 is independent of proteasomal or caspase-mediated degradation of REDD1 protein. Instead, induction of REDD1 mRNA is reduced by IL-6. The regulation of REDD1 expression by IL-6 is independent of Phosphatidylinositide-3-Kinase (PI3K) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signalling but depends on the expression and activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3). Furthermore, the reduction of basal REDD1 expression by IL-6 correlates with IL-6-induced activation of mTOR signalling. Inhibition of STAT3 activation blocks IL-6-induced mTOR activation. In summary, we present a novel STAT3-dependent mechanism of both IL-6-induced activation of mTOR and IL-6-dependent reversion of stress-induced inhibition of mTOR activity. PMID:27094713

  9. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) activates the Mtor signaling through a PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GLP-2 is a nutrient-responsive enterotrophic neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract including enhancing mucosal cell survival and proliferation, inducing mucosal blood flow and anabolic metabolism, and suppressing gastric motility and secretion. GLP-2-stimulated muco...

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-2 activates the mTOR signaling through a PI3-kinase-Akt-dependent pathway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is nutrient-responsive neuropeptide that exerts diverse actions in the gastrointestinal tract. We have shown that GLP-2-stimulated mucosal growth occurred in vivo with an increased rate of protein synthesis in the neonatal intestine, which was associated with up-regu...

  12. Dissection and integration of the autophagy signaling network initiated by bluetongue virus infection: crucial candidates ERK1/2, Akt and AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shuang; Xu, Qing-Yuan; Sun, En-Cheng; Zhang, Ji-Kai; Wu, Dong-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a complex double-stranded segmented RNA virus, has been found to initiate cellular autophagy for its own benefit. Here, with a view to understanding the underlying mechanisms, we first systematically dissected the exact signaling network in BTV-induced autophagy. We found that the activity of mTOR, a crucial pivot, was inhibited by BTV1 infection, subsequently leading to downstream p70S6K suppression and autophagy initiation. We then explored the upstream regulators of mTOR and analyzed their activities via a series of assays. We found BTV1-induced autophagy to be independent of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. However, the BTV1-induced inhibition of PI3K/Akt was found to be partially responsible for mTOR inactivation and subsequent autophagy initiation. Furthermore, we found unexpectedly that AMPK seemed to play a more important role in BTV1-induced autophagy. Elevated [Ca2+]cyto-mediated activation of CaMKKβ exactly managed the activation of AMPK, which then positively regulated autophagy through suppressing mTOR. We must emphasize that TSC2 is a fatal mediator between upstream Akt or AMPK and downstream mTOR through its phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggested that the BTV1-induced inhibition of the Akt-TSC2-mTOR pathway and the upregulation of the AMPK-TSC2-mTOR pathway both contributed to autophagy initiation and further favored virus replication. PMID:26976147

  13. PAR-1, -4, and the mTOR Pathway Following Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common cause of neurological complications of prematurity and has lasting implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are involved with upstream signaling pathways following brain hemorrhage in adult models of stroke, of which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potential downstream mediator. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for PAR-1, -4/ mTOR signaling following GMH brain injury. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to GMH through stereotactic infusion of collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Rodents were euthanized at 72 h (short term), or 4 weeks (long term). Short-term mTOR expression was evaluated by Western blot in the context of PAR-1 (SCH-79797) and PAR-4 (P4pal10) inhibition. Pups in the long-term group were administered the selective mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) with neurobehavioral and brain pathological examinations performed at 4 weeks. Pharmacological PAR-1, -4 antagonism normalized the increased mTOR expression following GMH. Early inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin improved long-term outcomes in rats. Mammalian-TOR signaling plays an important role in brain injury following neonatal GMH, possibly involving upstream PAR-1, -4 mechanisms. PMID:26463951

  14. Genetic variation in a metabolic signaling pathway and colon and rectal cancer risk: mTOR, PTEN, STK11, RPKAA1, PRKAG2, TSC1, TSC2, PI3K and Akt1

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Martha L.; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Fitzpatrick, Francis A.; Curtin, Karen; Wolff, Roger K.

    2010-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein kinase 11 (STK11) and phosphatase tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) link insulin sensitivity and metabolic signaling to inflammation and other hormonal factors and colorectal cancer. We evaluate genetic variation in nine genes in a candidate pathway as follows: STK11 (3 tagSNPs), PTEN (9 tagSNPs), FRAP1 (mTOR) (4 tagSNPs), TSC1 (14 tagSNPs), TSC2 (8 tagSNPs), Akt1 (2 tagSNPs), PIK3CA (7 tagSNPs), PRKAA1 (13 tagSNPs) and PRKAG2 (68 tagSNPs) in two population-based case–control studies of colon (n = 1574 cases, 1940 controls) and rectal (n = 91 cases, 999 controls) cancer. FRAP1, PRKAA1, PRKAG2 and TSC2 genes were significantly associated with colon cancer; risk estimates ranged from 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.38] for FRAP1rs1057079 for the AG/GG genotype to 1.51 (95% CI 1.09–2.09) for PRKAG2rs9648723 CC genotype. PIK3CA, PRKAG2, PTEN, STK11 and TSC1 were significantly associated with rectal cancer overall. The strongest association was observed for PIK3CA rs7651265 GG genotype (odds ratio 2.32 95% CI 1.02–5.30). FRAP1 was associated with microsatellite instability (MSI)+ colon tumors; PRKAA1, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)+ and MSI+ colon tumors; PRKAG2 and KRAS2 colon tumors; TSC1 and CIMP+ and MSI+ colon tumors; TSC2 with MSI+ colon tumors; PIK3CA with KRAS2-mutated rectal tumors; PRKAG2 (rs6964824) with KRAS2- and TP53-mutated rectal tumors and with PRKAG2 (rs412396 and rs4725431) with CIMP+ rectal tumors. These data suggest that genetic variation in a predefined candidate pathway for colorectal cancer contributes to both colon and rectal cancer risk. Associations appear to be strongest for CIMP+ and MSI+ tumors. PMID:20622004

  15. A carbazole alkaloid deactivates mTOR through the suppression of rictor and that induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Priyajit; Seal, Soma; Mukherjee, Sandip; Kundu, Rakesh; Bhuyan, Mantu; Barua, Nabin C; Baruah, Pranab K; Babu, Santi Prasad Sinha; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2015-07-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is known to be a difficult cancer to treat because of its poor prognosis, limited option for surgery, and resistance to chemo or radiotherapy. In this study, we have demonstrated that suppression of rictor expression in A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells by mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid, disrupted constitutive activation of mTOR and Akt. Mahanine suppression of rictor gene expression and consequent attenuation of its protein expression affected the inhibition of mTOR (Ser-2481) and Akt (Ser-473) phosphorylation. Since mahanine treatment revealed this new insight of rictor-mTOR relationship, we examined an association between mTOR activation with rictor expression. Interestingly, in rictor knockdown (KD) NSCLC cells, mTOR activation was significantly impaired. Transfection of rictor over-expression vector into the NSCLC cells reversed this situation. In fact, both rictor KD and mahanine treated cells showed considerably depleted phospho-mTOR level. These results indicate that rictor is required to maintain constitutive activation of mTOR in lung cancer cells. When mTOR kinase activity in rictor KD cells was examined with Akt as substrate, a significant reduction of Akt phosphorylation indicated impairment of mTOR kinase potentiality. Disruption of mTOR and Akt activation caused drastic mortality of NSCLC cancer cells through apoptosis. Hence, our study reveals a new dimension in mTOR-rictor relationship, where rictor stands to be a suitable therapeutic target for lung cancer. PMID:25893736

  16. Paired inhibitory and activating receptor signals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L S; Paul, S P; McVicar, D W

    2000-01-01

    The immunological literature has become inundated with reports regarding paired inhibitory receptors. Paired inhibitory receptor systems are highly conserved families that contain receptors involved in either cellular inhibition or activation. In most cases the paired putative biochemical antagonists are co-expressed on a given cell and thought to bind similar, if not identical, ligands making their biological role difficult to understand. Examples of these systems include immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (Killer Ig Receptors, Immunoglobulin-like Transcripts/Leukocyte Ig-like Receptors/Monocyte Macrophage Ig Receptors, and Paired Ig-like Receptors), and type II lectin-like receptor systems (NKG2 and Ly49). General characteristics of these inhibitory receptors include a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The ITIM is phosphorylated upon engagement and recruits protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate cellular substrates that would otherwise mediate activation. In contrast, the activating receptors of these pairs use charged residues within their transmembrane domains to associate with various signal transduction chains including the gamma chain of the receptor for the Fc portion of IgE, DAP12 or DAP10. Once phosphorylated, these chains direct the signal transduction cascade resulting in cellular activation. Here we review the signaling of several paired systems and present the current models for their signal transduction cascades. PMID:11258418

  17. Shared signaling networks active in B cells isolated from genetically distinct mouse models of lupus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianfu; Qin, Xiangmei; Kurepa, Zoran; Kumar, Kirthi Raman; Liu, Kui; Kanta, Hasna; Zhou, Xin J.; Satterthwaite, Anne B.; Davis, Laurie S.; Mohan, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Though B cells play key roles in lupus pathogenesis, the molecular circuitry and its dysregulation in these cells as disease evolves remain poorly understood. To address this, a comprehensive scan of multiple signaling axes using multiplexed Western blotting was undertaken in several different murine lupus strains. PI3K/AKT/mTOR (mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin), MEK1/Erk1/2, p38, NF-κB, multiple Bcl-2 family members, and cell-cycle molecules were observed to be hyperexpressed in lupus B cells in an age-dependent and lupus susceptibility gene–dose–dependent manner. Therapeutic targeting of the AKT/mTOR axis using a rapamycin (sirolimus) derivative ameliorated the serological, cellular, and pathological phenotypes associated with lupus. Surprisingly, the targeting of this axis was associated with the crippling of several other signaling axes. These studies reveal that lupus pathogenesis is contingent upon the activation of an elaborate network of signaling cascades that is shared among genetically distinct mouse models and raise hope that targeting pivotal nodes in these networks may offer therapeutic benefit. PMID:17641780

  18. microRNA-496 - A new, potentially aging-relevant regulator of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Rubie, Claudia; Kölsch, Kathrin; Halajda, Beata; Eichler, Hermann; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Roemer, Klaus; Glanemann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings strongly support a role for small regulatory RNAs in the regulation of human lifespan yet little information exists about the precise underlying mechanisms. Although extensive studies on model organisms have indicated that reduced activity of the nutrient response pathway, for example as a result of dietary restriction, can extend lifespan through the suppression of the protein kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), it still is subject of debate whether this mechanism is operative in humans as well. Here, we present findings indicating that human microRNA (miR)-496 targets 2 sites within the human mTOR 3'UTR. Coexpression of miR-496 with different fusion transcripts, consisting of the luciferase transcript and either wild-type mTOR 3'UTR or mTOR 3'UTR transcript with the miR-496 binding sites singly or combined mutated, confirmed this prediction and revealed cooperativity between the 2 binding sites. miR-496 reduced the mTOR protein level in HeLa-K cells, and the levels of miR-496 and mTOR protein were inversely correlated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC), with old individuals (n = 40) harbouring high levels of miR-496 relative to young individuals (n = 40). Together, these findings point to the possibility that miR-496 is involved in the regulation of human aging through the control of mTOR. PMID:27097372

  19. mTOR remains unchanged in diet-resistant (DR) rats despite impaired LKB1/AMPK cascade in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Liang, Huimin; Tian, Derun; Du, Jianying; Wang, Qiming; Xi, Pengjiao; Wang, Haomin; Li, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) plays an important role in adipogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we explored the functional relationship between LKB1 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating adipogenesis in rats and preadipocytes. We found that LKB1 and the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) cascade are impaired in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and diet-resistant (DR) rats when compared with chow-fed (CF) rats. While DIO activated the mTOR pathway in WAT and led to a more fat mass gain, DR maintained the normal activity of the mTOR pathway and normal weight and percentage of fat mass. We further constructed overexpressed LKB1 (OE) and silenced LKB1 (Si) 3T3-L1 preadipocytes monoclonal cell lines. In the OE cell line, the mTOR pathway was inactivated, and intracellular lipid content was reduced during differentiation. This effect could be reversed by AMPK inhibition. Conversely, in the Si cell line, the mTOR pathway was activated and intracellular lipid content increased. This effect could be reversed by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR. Our results suggest that mTOR mediates the effect of LKB1 on adipogenesis, and normal activity of mTOR in DR rats interferes with the effect of LKB1 in WAT. PMID:27235551

  20. Promoting axon regeneration in the adult CNS by modulation of the melanopsin/GPCR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songshan; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xin; Wang, Xuejie; Liu, Wen; Wang, Yuqi; Jiang, Songshan; Wong, Yung Hou; Zhang, Yifeng; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Cell-type–specific G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates distinct neuronal responses to various stimuli and is essential for axon guidance and targeting during development. However, its function in axonal regeneration in the mature CNS remains elusive. We found that subtypes of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in mice maintained high mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) levels after axotomy and that the light-sensitive GPCR melanopsin mediated this sustained expression. Melanopsin overexpression in the RGCs stimulated axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush by up-regulating mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). The extent of the regeneration was comparable to that observed after phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) knockdown. Both the axon regeneration and mTOR activity that were enhanced by melanopsin required light stimulation and Gq/11 signaling. Specifically, activating Gq in RGCs elevated mTOR activation and promoted axonal regeneration. Melanopsin overexpression in RGCs enhanced the amplitude and duration of their light response, and silencing them with Kir2.1 significantly suppressed the increased mTOR signaling and axon regeneration that were induced by melanopsin. Thus, our results provide a strategy to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury by modulating neuronal activity through GPCR signaling. PMID:26831088

  1. mTOR ensures increased release and reduced uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine under hypoosmotic conditions in mouse fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Jensen, Jane Vendelbo; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that modulates translation in response to growth factors and alterations in nutrient availability following hypoxia and DNA damage. Here we demonstrate that mTOR activity in Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells is transiently increased within minutes following osmotic cell swelling and that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase (PTEN) counteracts the upstream phosphatidylinositol kinase and potentiates mTOR activity. PTEN inhibition concomitantly potentiates swelling-induced taurine release via the volume-sensitive transporter for organic osmolytes and anion channels (VSOAC) and enhances swelling-induced inhibition of taurine uptake via the taurine-specific transporter (TauT). Chronic osmotic stress, i.e., exposure to hypotonic or hypertonic media for 24 h, reduces and increases mTOR activity in ELA cells, respectively. Using rapamycin, we demonstrate that mTOR inhibition is accompanied by reduction in TauT activity and increase in VSOAC activity in cells expressing high (NIH3T3 fibroblasts) or low (ELA) amounts of mTOR protein. The effect of mTOR inhibition on TauT activity reflects reduced TauT mRNA, TauT protein abundance, and an overall reduction in protein synthesis, whereas the effect on VSOAC is mimicked by catalase inhibition and correlates with reduced catalase mRNA abundance. Hence, mTOR activity favors loss of taurine following hypoosmotic cell swelling, i.e., release via VSOAC and uptake via TauT during acute hypotonic exposure is potentiated and reduced, respectively, by phosphorylation involving mTOR and/or the kinases upstream to mTOR. Decrease in TauT activity during chronic hypotonic exposure, on the other hand, involves reduction in expression/activity of TauT and enzymes in antioxidative defense. PMID:24696147

  2. CXCR2 Inhibition in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induces Predominant Differentiation to Mesoderm and Endoderm Through Repression of mTOR, β-Catenin, and hTERT Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kang, Ka-Won; Kim, Jihea; Hong, Soon-Chul; Park, Yong

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of our previous report verifying that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) ligands in human placenta-derived cell conditioned medium (hPCCM) support human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) propagation without exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), this study was designed to identify the effect of CXCR2 manipulation on the fate of hPSCs and the underlying mechanism, which had not been previously determined. We observed that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs induces predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm with concomitant loss of hPSC characteristics and accompanying decreased expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), β-catenin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These phenomena are recapitulated in hPSCs propagated in conventional culture conditions, including bFGF as well as those in hPCCM without exogenous bFGF, suggesting that the action of CXCR2 on hPSCs might not be associated with a bFGF-related mechanism. In addition, the specific CXCR2 ligand growth-related oncogene α (GROα) markedly increased the expression of ectodermal markers in differentiation-committed embryoid bodies derived from hPSCs. This finding suggests that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs prohibits the propagation of hPSCs and leads to predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm owing to the blockage of ectodermal differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that CXCR2 preferentially supports the maintenance of hPSC characteristics as well as facilitates ectodermal differentiation after the commitment to differentiation, and the mechanism might be associated with mTOR, β-catenin, and hTERT activities. PMID:27188501

  3. CXCR2 Inhibition in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induces Predominant Differentiation to Mesoderm and Endoderm Through Repression of mTOR, β-Catenin, and hTERT Activities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kang, Ka-Won; Kim, Jihea; Hong, Soon-Chul; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of our previous report verifying that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) ligands in human placenta-derived cell conditioned medium (hPCCM) support human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) propagation without exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), this study was designed to identify the effect of CXCR2 manipulation on the fate of hPSCs and the underlying mechanism, which had not been previously determined. We observed that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs induces predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm with concomitant loss of hPSC characteristics and accompanying decreased expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), β-catenin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These phenomena are recapitulated in hPSCs propagated in conventional culture conditions, including bFGF as well as those in hPCCM without exogenous bFGF, suggesting that the action of CXCR2 on hPSCs might not be associated with a bFGF-related mechanism. In addition, the specific CXCR2 ligand growth-related oncogene α (GROα) markedly increased the expression of ectodermal markers in differentiation-committed embryoid bodies derived from hPSCs. This finding suggests that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs prohibits the propagation of hPSCs and leads to predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm owing to the blockage of ectodermal differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that CXCR2 preferentially supports the maintenance of hPSC characteristics as well as facilitates ectodermal differentiation after the commitment to differentiation, and the mechanism might be associated with mTOR, β-catenin, and hTERT activities. PMID:27188501

  4. mTOR Inhibitors at a Glance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yin; Jiang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved threonine and serine protein kinase that was identified more than two decades ago as the target of immunosuppressive drug rapamycin. Since then considerable amount of information has been learned about the function of this kinase. It is now well-established that mTOR plays a pivotal role in governing cell growth and proliferation, hence making mTOR a therapeutic target for disease conditions caused by deregulated cell proliferation, such as cancer. In the past decade, numerous mTOR inhibitors have been developed and many are currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment. This commentary is to provide a brief summary of these mTOR inhibitors. PMID:27134695

  5. cAMP-dependent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in thyroid cells. Implication in mitogenesis and activation of CDK4.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Sara; Wang, Lifu; Paternot, Sabine; Coulonval, Katia; Dumont, Jacques E; Harris, Thurl E; Roger, Pierre P

    2010-07-01

    How cAMP-dependent protein kinases [protein kinase A (PKA)] transduce the mitogenic stimulus elicited by TSH in thyroid cells to late activation of cyclin D3-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) remains enigmatic. Here we show in PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells that TSH/cAMP, like insulin, activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-raptor complex (mTORC1) leading to phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1. mTORC1-dependent S6K1 phosphorylation in response to both insulin and cAMP required amino acids, whereas inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3 enhanced insulin but not cAMP effects. Unlike insulin, TSH/cAMP did not activate protein kinase B or induce tuberous sclerosis complex 2 phosphorylation at T1462 and Y1571. However, like insulin, TSH/cAMP produced a stable increase in mTORC1 kinase activity that was associated with augmented 4E-BP1 binding to raptor. This could be caused in part by T246 phosphorylation of PRAS40, which was found as an in vitro substrate of PKA. Both in PC Cl3 cells and primary dog thyrocytes, rapamycin inhibited DNA synthesis and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation induced by TSH and insulin. Although rapamycin reduced cyclin D3 accumulation, the abundance of cyclin D3-CDK4 complexes was not affected. However, rapamycin inhibited the activity of these complexes by decreasing the TSH and insulin-mediated stimulation of activating T172 phosphorylation of CDK4. We propose that mTORC1 activation by TSH, at least in part through PKA-dependent phosphorylation of PRAS40, crucially contributes to mediate cAMP-dependent mitogenesis by regulating CDK4 T172-phosphorylation. PMID:20484410

  6. Leucyl-tRNA synthetase activates Vps34 in amino acid-sensing mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Mee-Sup; Son, Kook; Arauz, Edwin; Han, Jung Min; Kim, Sunghoon; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Amino acid availability activates signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1, mTORC1, a master regulator of cell growth. The class III PI-3-kinase Vps34 mediates amino acid signaling to mTORC1 by regulating lysosomal translocation and activation of the phospholipase PLD1. Here we identify leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LRS) as a leucine sensor for the activation of Vps34-PLD1 upstream of mTORC1. LRS is necessary for amino acid-induced Vps34 activation, cellular PI(3)P level increase, PLD1 activation, and PLD1 lysosomal translocation. Leucine binding but not tRNA charging activity of LRS is required for this regulation. Moreover, LRS physically interacts with Vps34 in amino acid-stimulatable non-autophagic complexes. Finally, purified LRS protein activates Vps34 kinase in vitro in a leucine-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings provide compelling evidence for a direct role of LRS in amino acid activation of Vps34 via a non-canonical mechanism, and fill a gap in the amino acid-sensing mTORC1 signaling network. PMID:27477288

  7. mTOR Regulation of Lymphoid Cells in Immunity to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Rachael; McGargill, Maureen Ann

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to pathogens exists as a fine balance between promoting activation and expansion of effector cells, while simultaneously limiting normal and aberrant responses. These seemingly opposing functions are kept in check by immune regulators. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that senses nutrient availability and, in turn, regulates cell metabolism, growth, and survival accordingly. mTOR plays a pivotal role in facilitating immune defense against invading pathogens by regulating the differentiation, activation, and effector functions of lymphoid cells. Here, we focus on the emerging and sometimes contradictory roles of mTOR in orchestrating lymphoid cell-mediated host immune responses to pathogens. A thorough understanding of how mTOR impacts lymphoid cells in pathogen defense will provide the necessary base for developing therapeutic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:27242787

  8. mTOR Regulation of Lymphoid Cells in Immunity to Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Keating, Rachael; McGargill, Maureen Ann

    2016-01-01

    Immunity to pathogens exists as a fine balance between promoting activation and expansion of effector cells, while simultaneously limiting normal and aberrant responses. These seemingly opposing functions are kept in check by immune regulators. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that senses nutrient availability and, in turn, regulates cell metabolism, growth, and survival accordingly. mTOR plays a pivotal role in facilitating immune defense against invading pathogens by regulating the differentiation, activation, and effector functions of lymphoid cells. Here, we focus on the emerging and sometimes contradictory roles of mTOR in orchestrating lymphoid cell-mediated host immune responses to pathogens. A thorough understanding of how mTOR impacts lymphoid cells in pathogen defense will provide the necessary base for developing therapeutic interventions for infectious diseases. PMID:27242787

  9. Interferon-gamma-induced dephosphorylation of STAT3 and apoptosis are dependent on the mTOR pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Peng . E-mail: fangp@ohsu.edu; Hwa, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Ron G.

    2006-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-{gamma}) exhibits diverse biological activities, including control of cell growth and tumor suppression. Here, we report that the treatment of M12 cells, a human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, with IFN-{gamma}, resulted in marked inhibition of cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These effects were not seen with either IFN-{alpha} or IFN-{beta}. M12 cells, like many other human cancer cells, contain constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). The basal levels of both Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are also markedly elevated in M12 cells. Strikingly, IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis and growth inhibition of M12 cells were associated with persistent suppression of the constitutive tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 (pY-STAT3). The IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3, however, was inhibited when the mTOR pathway was specifically blocked by rapamycin. Inhibition of PI-3K with low-dose LY294002, or MAPK with PD98059 also suppressed the mTOR/p70 S6k pathway, and correlated with the blockage of IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Simultaneously, treatment with LY294002, PD98059, or rapamycin abolished IFN-{gamma}-induced apoptosis in M12 cells. The inhibition of the mTOR pathway, however, did not affect IFN-{gamma}-induced activation of STAT1 pathway, and suppression of STAT1 expression by siRNA had no effect on IFN-{gamma}-induced dephosphorylation of pY-STAT3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that an intact mTOR pathway is critical for IFN-{gamma}-induced suppression of pY-STAT3 and apoptosis. Our study thus provides novel insights into the contributions of signaling pathways other than the classical JAK/STAT1 pathway in the anti-proliferative, proapoptotic actions of IFN-{gamma}.

  10. Cucurbitacin E Induces Autophagy via Downregulating mTORC1 Signaling and Upregulating AMPK Activity.

    PubMed

    Zha, Qing-Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Lin, Qiu-Ru; Xu, Li-Hui; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Pan, Hao; Zhou, Dan; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Liu, Ze-Huan; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins, the natural triterpenoids possessing many biological activities, have been reported to suppress the mTORC1/p70S6K pathway and to induce autophagy. However, the correlation between such activities is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue in human cancer cells in response to cucurbitacin E (CuE) treatment. Our results showed that CuE induced autophagy as evidenced by the formation of LC3-II and colocalization of punctate LC3 with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in HeLa and MCF7 cells. However, CuE induced much lower levels of autophagy in ATG5-knocked down cells and failed to induce autophagy in DU145 cells lacking functional ATG5 expression, suggesting the dependence of CuE-induced autophagy on ATG5. Consistent with autophagy induction, mTORC1 activity (as reflected by p70S6K and ULK1S758 phosphorylation) was inhibited by CuE treatment. The suppression of mTORC1 activity was further confirmed by reduced recruitment of mTOR to the lysosome, which is the activation site of mTORC1. In contrast, CuE rapidly activated AMPK leading to increased phosphorylation of its substrates. AMPK activation contributed to CuE-induced suppression of mTORC1/p70S6K signaling and autophagy induction, since AMPK knockdown diminished these effects. Collectively, our data suggested that CuE induced autophagy in human cancer cells at least partly via downregulation of mTORC1 signaling and upregulation of AMPK activity. PMID:25970614

  11. Cucurbitacin E Induces Autophagy via Downregulating mTORC1 Signaling and Upregulating AMPK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Hui; Zhao, Gao-Xiang; Pan, Hao; Zhou, Dan; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; Liu, Ze-Huan; He, Xian-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins, the natural triterpenoids possessing many biological activities, have been reported to suppress the mTORC1/p70S6K pathway and to induce autophagy. However, the correlation between such activities is largely unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue in human cancer cells in response to cucurbitacin E (CuE) treatment. Our results showed that CuE induced autophagy as evidenced by the formation of LC3-II and colocalization of punctate LC3 with the lysosomal marker LAMP2 in HeLa and MCF7 cells. However, CuE induced much lower levels of autophagy in ATG5-knocked down cells and failed to induce autophagy in DU145 cells lacking functional ATG5 expression, suggesting the dependence of CuE-induced autophagy on ATG5. Consistent with autophagy induction, mTORC1 activity (as reflected by p70S6K and ULK1S758 phosphorylation) was inhibited by CuE treatment. The suppression of mTORC1 activity was further confirmed by reduced recruitment of mTOR to the lysosome, which is the activation site of mTORC1. In contrast, CuE rapidly activated AMPK leading to increased phosphorylation of its substrates. AMPK activation contributed to CuE-induced suppression of mTORC1/p70S6K signaling and autophagy induction, since AMPK knockdown diminished these effects. Collectively, our data suggested that CuE induced autophagy in human cancer cells at least partly via downregulation of mTORC1 signaling and upregulation of AMPK activity. PMID:25970614

  12. REDD2-mediated inhibition of mTOR promotes dendrite retraction induced by axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Morquette, B; Morquette, P; Agostinone, J; Feinstein, E; McKinney, R A; Kolta, A; Di Polo, A

    2015-04-01

    Dendritic defects occur in neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by axonopathy, yet the mechanisms that regulate these pathologic changes are poorly understood. Using Thy1-YFPH mice subjected to optic nerve axotomy, we demonstrate early retraction of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dendrites and selective loss of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, which precede soma loss. Axonal injury triggered rapid upregulation of the stress-induced protein REDD2 (regulated in development and DNA damage response 2), a potent inhibitor of mTOR. Short interfering RNA-mediated REDD2 knockdown restored mTOR activity and rescued dendritic length, area and branch complexity in a rapamycin-dependent manner. Whole-cell recordings demonstrated that REDD2 depletion leading to mTOR activation in RGCs restored their light response properties. Lastly, we show that REDD2-dependent mTOR activity extended RGC survival following axonal damage. These results indicate that injury-induced stress leads to REDD2 upregulation, mTOR inhibition and dendrite pathology causing neuronal dysfunction and subsequent cell death. PMID:25257176

  13. YAP enters the mTOR pathway to promote tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ning; Pende, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) or TSC2 predispose to angiomyolipomas and lymphangioleiomyomatosis in a mTOR-dependent manner. In these mesenchymal lesions, mTOR suppresses macroautophagy-mediated lysosomal degradation of YAP, which is a transcriptional coactivator of Hippo pathway and is required for the tumorigenesis of TSC. Therapeutic applications for TSC and other diseases with dysregulated mTOR activity can be envisaged. PMID:27308518

  14. Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) - Rapamycin and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Lamming, Dudley W.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is an FDA-approved immunosuppressant and anti-cancer agent discovered in the soil of Easter Island in the early 1970s. Rapamycin is a potent and selective inhibitor of the mTOR (mechanistic Target Of Rapamycin) protein kinase, which acts as a central integrator of nutrient signaling pathways. During the last decade, genetic and pharmaceutical inhibition of mTOR pathway signaling has been found to promote longevity in yeast, worms, flies and mice. In this chapter, we will discuss the molecular biology underlying the effects of rapamycin and its physiological effects; evidence for rapamycin as an anti-aging compound; mechanisms by which rapamycin may extend lifespan; and the potential limitations of rapamycin as an anti-aging molecule. Finally, we will discuss possible strategies that may allow us to inhibit mTOR signaling safely while minimizing side effects, and reap the health, social and economic benefits from slowing the aging process. PMID:27048303

  15. Everolimus inhibits anti-HLA I antibody-mediated endothelial cell signaling, migration and proliferation more potently than sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Y-P; Valenzuela, N M; Ziegler, M E; Rozengurt, E; Reed, E F

    2014-04-01

    Antibody (Ab) crosslinking of HLA I molecules on the surface of endothelial cells triggers proliferative and pro-survival intracellular signaling, which is implicated in the process of chronic allograft rejection, also known as transplant vasculopathy (TV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in HLA I Ab-induced signaling cascades. Everolimus provides a tool to establish how the mTOR signal network regulates HLA I-mediated migration, proliferation and survival. We found that everolimus inhibits mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) by disassociating Raptor from mTOR, thereby preventing class I-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, S6RP and 4E-BP1, and resultant class I-stimulated cell migration and proliferation. Furthermore, we found that everolimus inhibits class I-mediated mTORC2 activation (1) by disassociating Rictor and Sin1 from mTOR; (2) by preventing class I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and (3) by preventing class I-mediated ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that everolimus is more effective than sirolimus at antagonizing both mTORC1 and mTORC2, the latter of which is critical in endothelial cell functional changes leading to TV in solid organ transplantation after HLA I crosslinking. Our findings point to a potential therapeutic effect of everolimus in prevention of chronic Ab-mediated rejection. PMID:24580843

  16. Nutrient Sensing via mTOR in T Cells Maintains a Tolerogenic Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Duncan; Waldmann, Herman; Cobbold, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We have proposed that tolerance can be maintained through the induction, by Treg cells, of a tolerogenic microenvironment within tolerated tissues that inhibits effector cell activity but which supports the generation of further Treg cells by “infectious tolerance.” Two important components of this tolerogenic microenvironment depend on metabolism and nutrient sensing. The first is due to the up-regulation of multiple enzymes that consume essential amino acids, which are sensed in naïve T cells primarily via inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which in turn encourages their further differentiation into FOXP3+ Treg cells. The second mechanism is the metabolism of extracellular ATP to adenosine by the ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73. These two enzymes are constitutively co-expressed on Treg cells, but can also be induced on a wide variety of cell types by TGFβ and the adenosine generated can be shown to be a potent inhibitor of T cell proliferation. This review will focus on mechanisms of nutrient sensing in T cells, how these are integrated with TCR and cytokine signals via the mTOR pathway, and what impact this has on intracellular metabolism and subsequently the control of differentiation into different effector or regulatory T cell subsets. PMID:25221554

  17. The integrated role of ACh, ERK and mTOR in the mechanisms of hippocampal inhibitory avoidance memory.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Lana, Daniele; Pepeu, Giancarlo

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the present knowledge on the interplay among the cholinergic system, Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the development of short and long term memories during the acquisition and recall of the step-down inhibitory avoidance in the hippocampus. The step-down inhibitory avoidance is a form of associative learning that is acquired in a relatively simple one-trial test through several sensorial inputs. Inhibitory avoidance depends on the integrated activity of hippocampal CA1 and other brain areas. Recall can be performed at different times after acquisition, thus allowing for the study of both short and long term memory. Among the many neurotransmitter systems involved, the cholinergic neurons that originate in the basal forebrain and project to the hippocampus are of crucial importance in inhibitory avoidance processes. Acetylcholine released from cholinergic fibers during acquisition and/or recall of behavioural tasks activates muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and brings about a long-lasting potentiation of the postsynaptic membrane followed by downstream activation of intracellular pathway (ERK, among others) that create conditions favourable for neuronal plasticity. ERK appears to be salient not only in long term memory, but also in the molecular mechanisms underlying short term memory formation in the hippocampus. Since ERK can function as a biochemical coincidence detector in response to extracellular signals in neurons, the activation of ERK-dependent downstream effectors is determined, in part, by the duration of ERK phosphorylation itself. Long term memories require protein synthesis, that in the synapto-dendritic compartment represents a direct mechanism that can produce rapid changes in protein content in response to synaptic activity. mTOR in the brain regulates protein translation in response to neuronal activity, thereby modulating

  18. Optimization of a Series of Triazole Containing Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Kinase Inhibitors and the Discovery of CC-115.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Deborah S; Perrin-Ninkovic, Sophie M; Shevlin, Graziella; Elsner, Jan; Zhao, Jingjing; Whitefield, Brandon; Tehrani, Lida; Sapienza, John; Riggs, Jennifer R; Parnes, Jason S; Papa, Patrick; Packard, Garrick; Lee, Branden G S; Harris, Roy; Correa, Matthew; Bahmanyar, Sogole; Richardson, Samantha J; Peng, Sophie X; Leisten, Jim; Khambatta, Godrej; Hickman, Matt; Gamez, James C; Bisonette, René R; Apuy, Julius; Cathers, Brian E; Canan, Stacie S; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Raymon, Heather K; Worland, Peter; Narla, Rama Krishna; Fultz, Kimberly E; Sankar, Sabita

    2015-07-23

    We report here the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a novel series of triazole containing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitors. SAR studies examining the potency, selectivity, and PK parameters for a series of triazole containing 4,6- or 1,7-disubstituted-3,4-dihydropyrazino[2,3-b]pyrazine-2(1H)-ones resulted in the identification of triazole containing mTOR kinase inhibitors with improved PK properties. Potent compounds from this series were found to block both mTORC1(pS6) and mTORC2(pAktS473) signaling in PC-3 cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. When assessed in efficacy models, analogs exhibited dose-dependent efficacy in tumor xenograft models. This work resulted in the selection of CC-115 for clinical development. PMID:26102506

  19. Asiatic Acid Protects against Cardiac Hypertrophy through Activating AMPKα Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen-Guo; Dai, Jia; Wei, Wen-Ying; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Si-Chi; Liao, Hai-Han; Yang, Zheng; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Background: AMPactivated protein kinase α (AMPKα) is closely involved in the process of cardiac hypertrophy. Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpene, was found to activate AMPKα in our preliminary experiment. However, its effects on the development of cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. The present study was to determine whether AA could protect against cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Mice subjected to aortic banding were orally given AA (10 or 30mg/kg) for 7 weeks. In the inhibitory experiment, Compound C was intraperitoneally injected for 3 weeks after surgery. Results: Our results showed that AA markedly inhibited hypertrophic responses induced by pressure overload or angiotensin II. AA also suppressed cardiac fibrosis in vivo and accumulation of collagen in vitro. The protective effects of AA were mediated by activation of AMPKα and inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in vivo and in vitro. However, AA lost the protective effects after AMPKα inhibition or gene deficiency. Conclusions: AA protects against cardiac hypertrophy by activating AMPKα, and has the potential to be used for the treatment of heart failure. PMID:27313499

  20. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Krueger, Darcy A

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC. PMID:26289591

  1. Notum deacylates Wnts to suppress signalling activity

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Steve; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Bineva, Ganka; O’Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Signalling by Wnts is finely balanced to ensure normal development and tissue homeostasis while avoiding diseases such as cancer. This is achieved in part by Notum, a highly conserved secreted feedback antagonist. Notum has been thought to act as a phospholipase, shedding glypicans and associated Wnts from the cell surface. However, this view fails to explain specificity since glypicans bind many extracellular ligands. Here we provide genetic evidence in Drosophila that Notum requires glypicans to suppress Wnt signalling, but does not cleave their glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. Structural analyses reveal glycosaminoglycan binding sites on Notum, which likely help Notum colocalise with Wnts. They also identify, at the active site of human and Drosophila Notum, a large hydrophobic pocket that accommodates palmitoleate. Kinetic and mass spectrometric analyses of human proteins show that Notum is a carboxylesterase that removes an essential palmitoleate moiety from Wnts and thus constitutes the first known extracellular protein deacylase. PMID:25731175

  2. Quercetin Inhibits Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis Involving the Suppression of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and β-catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Liu, Xin; Feng, Ye; Gui, Yuan; Yang, Junwei; He, Weichun; Dai, Chunsun

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants and presented in human diet, displays promising potential in preventing kidney fibroblast activation. However, whether quercetin can ameliorate kidney fibrosis in mice with obstructive nephropathy and the underlying mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. In this study, we found that administration of quercetin could largely ameliorate kidney interstitial fibrosis and macrophage accumulation in the kidneys with obstructive nephropathy. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin as well as Smad signaling were activated in the obstructive kidneys, whereas quercetin could markedly reduce their abundance except Smad3 phosphorylation. In cultured NRK-49F cells, quercetin could inhibit α-SMA and fibronectin (FN) expression induced by TGFβ1 treatment. MTORC1, mTORC2, β-catenin and Smad signaling pathways were stimulated by TGFβ1 at a time dependent manner. Similar to those findings in the obstructive kidneys, mTORC1, mTORC2 and β-catenin, but not Smad signaling pathways were remarkably blocked by quercetin treatment. Together, these results suggest that quercetin inhibits fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis involving a combined inhibition of mTOR and β-catenin signaling transduction, which may act as a therapeutic candidate for patients with chronic kidney diseases. PMID:27052477

  3. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Leesa L; Davis, Ashley K; Grogg, Matthew W; Zheng, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays. A total of 10 Gy irradiation was used to injure the intestinal epithelium and induce subsequent crypt regeneration. We report that mTOR supports absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth and goblet cell function while negatively regulating chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cell number. Through additional Rptor, Rictor, and Rptor/Rictor mutant mouse models, we identify mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 as the major IEC regulatory pathway, but mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 also contributes to ileal villus maintenance and goblet cell size. Homeostatic adult small intestinal crypt cell proliferation, survival, and canonical wingless-int (WNT) activity are not mTOR dependent, but Olfm4(+) ISC/progenitor population maintenance and crypt regeneration postinjury require mTOR. Overall, we conclude that mTOR regulates multiple IEC lineages and promotes stem and progenitor cell activity during intestinal epithelium repair postinjury. PMID:26631481

  4. mTOR inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy in the Management of Urologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jorge A.; Danielpour, David

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that regulates protein translation, cell growth and apoptosis. Recently, there has been an enormous increase in our understanding on molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutics of rapamycin in cancer. Alterations in the pathway regulating mTOR occur in many solid malignancies including prostate, bladder and kidney cancer; and in-vitro and in-vivo models of prostate and bladder cancer have established the importance of the mTOR pathway in control of cancer progression and metastasis. Temsirolimus (Torisel™) and everolimus (RAD-001), two ester analogues of rapamycin, as well as rapamycin itself have clear antitumor activity in in-vitro and in-vivo models, and are under clinical trial investigations for prostate and bladder cancer. Phase II and III trials have already established the clinical efficacy of temsirolimus in renal cancer, and current renal trials are evaluating the combined effects of VEGF and mTOR inhibition. Ongoing studies in prostate and bladder cancer will soon define the activity and safety profiles of everolimus and temsirolimus. Recent molecular advances have uncovered a startling complexity in the macromolecular function of mTOR complexes, with the identification of new mTOR partners (raptor, rictor, FKBP38, PRAS40 and mSIN1), putative cancer therapeutic/prognostic targets for future clinical trials. PMID:18566209

  5. Proteomic analysis reveals GIT1 as a novel mTOR complex component critical for mediating astrocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Laura J; Gutmann, David H

    2016-06-15

    As a critical regulator of cell growth, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein operates as part of two molecularly and functionally distinct complexes. Herein, we demonstrate that mTOR complex molecular composition varies in different somatic tissues. In astrocytes and neural stem cells, we identified G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) as a novel mTOR-binding protein, creating a unique mTOR complex lacking Raptor and Rictor. Moreover, GIT1 binding to mTOR is regulated by AKT activation and is essential for mTOR-mediated astrocyte survival. Together, these data reveal that mTOR complex function is partly dictated by its molecuflar composition in different cell types. PMID:27340174

  6. Ser2481-autophosphorylated mTOR colocalizes with chromosomal passenger proteins during mammalian cell cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Sauri-Nadal, Tamara; Menendez, Octavio J; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Menendez, Javier A

    2012-11-15

    Energy- and nutrient-sensing proteins such as AMPK, mTOR and S6K1 are now recognized as novel regulators of mitotic completion in proliferating cells. We investigated the cellular distribution of the Ser2481 autophosphorylation of mTOR, which directly monitors mTORC-specific catalytic activity, during mammalian cell mitosis and cytokinesis. Automated immunofluorescence experiments in human carcinoma cell lines revealed that phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) exhibited profound spatial and temporal dynamics during cell division. Phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) was strikingly enriched in mitotic cells, and in prophase, bright phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) staining could be clearly observed among condensed chromosomes. Phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) then redistributes from diffuse cytosolic staining that partially colocalizes with the mitotic spindle during the early phases of mitosis to the furrow at the onset of cytokinesis. Like the bona fide chromosomal passenger proteins (CPPs) INCENP and Aurora B, phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) displayed noteworthy accumulation in the central spindle midzone and the midbody regions, which persisted during the furrowing process. Accordingly, double-staining experiments confirmed that phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) largely colocalized with CCPs in the midbodies. The CPP-like mitotic localization of phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) was fully prevented by the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole; mitotic traveling of phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) to the midbody during telophase and cytokinesis, where it appears to be integrated into the CPP-driven cytokinetic machinery, may therefore require dynamic microtubules. Although the Ser2448-phosphorylated form of mTOR was also found at high levels during M-phase in human cancer cells, we failed to observe a significant association of phospho-mTOR (Ser2448) with CCP-positive mitotic and cytokinetic structures. Our findings add phospho-mTOR (Ser2481) to the growing list of phospho-active forms of proteins belonging to the AMPK/mTOR/S6K1 signaling axis

  7. Co-targeting of Bcl-2 and mTOR pathway triggers synergistic apoptosis in BH3 mimetics resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Matteo; Mirabilii, Simone; Licchetta, Roberto; Bergamo, Paola; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Zeuner, Ann; Foà, Robin; Milella, Michele; McCubrey, James A.; Martelli, Alberto M.; Tafuri, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Several chemo-resistance mechanisms including the Bcl-2 protein family overexpression and constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling have been documented in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), encouraging targeted approaches to circumvent this clinical problem. Here we analyzed the activity of the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 in ALL, exploring the synergistic effects with the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 on ABT-737 resistant cells. We showed that a low Mcl-1/Bcl-2 plus Bcl-xL protein ratio determined ABT-737 responsiveness. ABT-737 exposure further decreased Mcl-1, inducing apoptosis on sensitive models and primary samples, while not affecting resistant cells. Co-inhibition of Bcl-2 and the mTOR pathway resulted cytotoxic on ABT-737 resistant models, by downregulating mTORC1 activity and Mcl-1 in a proteasome-independent manner. Although Mcl-1 seemed to be critical, ectopic modulation did not correlate with apoptosis changes. Importantly, dual targeting proved effective on ABT-737 resistant samples, showing additive/synergistic effects. Together, our results show the efficacy of BH3 mimetics as single agent in the majority of the ALL samples and demonstrate that resistance to ABT-737 mostly correlated with Mcl-1 overexpression. Co-targeting of the Bcl-2 protein family and mTOR pathway enhanced drug-induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Mcl-1, providing a novel therapeutic approach to overcome BH3 mimetics resistance in ALL. PMID:26392332

  8. mTORC1 signaling activates NRF1 to increase cellular proteasome levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinan; Manning, Brendan D

    2015-01-01

    Defects in the maintenance of protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, has emerged as an underlying feature of a variety of human pathologies, including aging-related diseases. Proteostasis is achieved through the coordinated action of cellular systems overseeing amino acid availability, mRNA translation, protein folding, secretion, and degradation. The regulation of these distinct systems must be integrated at various points to attain a proper balance. In a recent study, we found that the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, well known to enhance the protein synthesis capacity of cells while concordantly inhibiting autophagy, promotes the production of more proteasomes. Activation of mTORC1 genetically, through loss of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) tumor suppressors, or physiologically, through growth factors or feeding, stimulates a transcriptional program involving the sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 1 (NRF1; also known as NFE2L1) transcription factors leading to an increase in cellular proteasome content. As discussed here, our findings suggest that this increase in proteasome levels facilitates both the maintenance of proteostasis and the recovery of amino acids in the face of an increased protein load consequent to mTORC1 activation. We also consider the physiological and pathological implications of this unexpected new downstream branch of mTORC1 signaling. PMID:26017155

  9. Chemical Inhibitors and microRNAs (miRNA) Targeting the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway: Potential for Novel Anticancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    AlQurashi, Naif; Hashimi, Saeed M.; Wei, Ming Q.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of many fundamental features in response to upstream cellular signals, such as growth factors, energy, stress and nutrients, controlling cell growth, proliferation and metabolism through two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Dysregulation of mTOR signalling often occurs in a variety of human malignant diseases making it a crucial and validated target in the treatment of cancer. Tumour cells have shown high susceptibility to mTOR inhibitors. Rapamycin and its derivatives (rapalogs) have been tested in clinical trials in several tumour types and found to be effective as anticancer agents in patients with advanced cancers. To block mTOR function, they form a complex with FKBP12 and then bind the FRB domain of mTOR. Furthermore, a new generation of mTOR inhibitors targeting ATP-binding in the catalytic site of mTOR showed potent and more selective inhibition. More recently, microRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as modulators of biological pathways that are essential in cancer initiation, development and progression. Evidence collected to date shows that miRNAs may function as tumour suppressors or oncogenes in several human neoplasms. The mTOR pathway is a promising target by miRNAs for anticancer therapy. Extensive studies have indicated that regulation of the mTOR pathway by miRNAs plays a major role in cancer progression, indicating a novel way to investigate the tumorigenesis and therapy of cancer. Here, we summarize current findings of the role of mTOR inhibitors and miRNAs in carcinogenesis through targeting mTOR signalling pathways and determine their potential as novel anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:23434669

  10. Systemic and CNS activity of the RET inhibitor vandetanib combined with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in KIF5B-RET re-arranged non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Berry, Jenny; Roxas, Michael; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Subbiah, Ishwaria Mohan; Ali, Siraj M; McMahon, Caitlin; Miller, Vincent; Cascone, Tina; Pai, Shobha; Tang, Zhenya; Heymach, John V

    2015-07-01

    In-frame fusion KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene)-RET transcripts have been characterized in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers and are known oncogenic drivers. The RET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib, suppresses fusion-induced, anchorage-independent growth activity. In vitro studies have shown that vandetanib is a high-affinity substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) but is not transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), limiting its blood-brain barrier penetration. A co-administration strategy to enhance the brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-gp/Abcb1- and Bcrp1/Abcg2-mediated efflux with mTOR inhibitors, specifically everolimus, was shown to increase the blood-brain barrier penetration. We report the first bench-to-bedside evidence that RET inhibitor combined with an mTOR inhibitor is active against brain-metastatic RET-rearranged lung cancer and the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration. A 74-year-old female with progressive adenocarcinoma of the lung (wild-type EGFR and no ALK rearrangement) presented for therapy options. A deletion of 5'RET was revealed by FISH assay, indicating RET-gene rearrangement. Because of progressive disease in the brain, she was enrolled in a clinical trial with vandetanib and everolimus (NCT01582191). Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed fusion of KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene) and RET, in addition to AKT2 gene amplification. After two cycles of therapy a repeat MRI brain showed a decrease in the intracranial disease burden and PET/CT showed systemic response as well. Interestingly, AKT2 amplification seen is a critical component of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, alterations of which has been associated with both de novo and acquired resistance to targeted therapy. The addition of everolimus may have both overcome the AKT2 amplification to produce a response in addition to its direct effects on the RET gene. Our case report forms the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration by

  11. Systemic and CNS activity of the RET inhibitor vandetanib combined with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in KIF5B-RET re-arranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer with brain metastases

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Vivek; Berry, Jenny; Roxas, Michael; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Subbiah, Ish