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Sample records for activated nitric oxide

  1. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  2. Enhanced gastric nitric oxide synthase activity in duodenal ulcer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Eliakim, R; Stalnikowicz, R; Ackerman, Z; Amir, G; Stamler, J S

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide, the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may have a role in tissue injury through its oxidative metabolism. Nitric oxide may have a role in the pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and may be one of the mechanisms responsible for the association between gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and peptic disease. In this study, calcium independent nitric oxide synthase activity was detected in human gastric mucosa suggesting expression of the inducible isoform. In 17 duodenal ulcer patients gastric antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity was found to be two and 1.5-fold respectively higher than its activity in the antrum and fundus of 14 normal subjects (p < 0.05). H pylori was detected in the antrum of 15 of 17 duodenal ulcer patients and only in 7 of 14 of the control subjects. Antral nitric oxide synthase activity in H pylori positive duodenal ulcer patients was twofold higher than in H pylori positive normal subjects (p < 0.05). In duodenal ulcer patients antral and fundic nitric oxide synthase activity resumed normal values after induction of ulcer healing with ranitidine. Eradication of H pylori did not further affect gastric nitric oxide synthase activity. These findings suggest that in duodenal ulcer patients stimulated gastric mucosal nitric oxide synthase activity, though independent of the H pylori state, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:7525417

  3. Light activated nitric oxide releasing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muizzi Casanas, Dayana Andreina

    The ability to control the location and dosage of biologically active molecules inside the human body can be critical to maximizing effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases like angina. The current standard of treatment relies on the metabolism of organonitrate drugs into nitric oxide (NO), which are not specific, and also show problems with densitization with long-term use. There is a need then to create a treatment method that gives targeted release of NO. Metal-nitrosyl (M-NO) complexes can be used for delivery of NO since the release of NO can be controlled with light. However, the NO-releasing drug must be activated with red light to ensure maximum penetration of light through tissue. However, the release of NO from M-NO complexes with red-light activation is a significant challenge since the energy required to break the metal-NO bond is usually larger than the energy provided by red light. The goal of this project was to create red- sensitive, NO-releasing materials based on Ru-salen-nitrosyl compounds. Our approach was to first modify Ru salen complexes to sensitize the photochemistry for release of NO after red light irradiation. Next, we pursued polymerization of the Ru-salen complexes. We report the synthesis and quantitative photochemical characterization of a series of ruthenium salen nitrosyl complexes. These complexes were modified by incorporating electron donating groups in the salen ligand structure at key locations to increase electron density on the Ru. Complexes with either an --OH or --OCH3 substituent showed an improvement in the quantum yield of release of NO upon blue light irradiation compared to the unmodified salen. These --OH and --OCH3 complexes were also sensitized for NO release after red light activation, however the red-sensitive complexes were unstable and showed ligand substitution on the order of minutes. The substituted complexes remained sensitive for NO release, but only after blue light irradiation. The Ru

  4. [Nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Rovira, I

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide was identified as the relaxing factor derived from the endothelium in 1987. Nitric oxide synthesis allows the vascular system to maintain a state of vasodilation, thereby regulating arterial pressure. Nitric oxide is also found in platelets, where it inhibits adhesion and aggregation; in the immune system, where it is responsible for the cytotoxic action of macrophages; and in the nervous system, where it acts as neurotransmitter. A deficit in endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide contributes to such conditions as essential arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and heart disease. An excess of nitrous oxide induced by endotoxins and cytokinins, meanwhile, is believed to be responsible for hypotension in septic shock and for hyperdynamic circulatory state in cirrhosis of the liver. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the rejection of transplanted organs and in cell damage after reperfusion. Inhaled nitrous oxide gas reduces pulmonary hypertension without triggering systemic hypotension in both experimental and clinical conditions. It also produces selective vasodilation when used to ventilate specific pulmonary areas, thereby improving the ventilation/perfusion ratio and, hence, oxygenation. Nitric oxide inhalation is effective in pulmonary hypertension-coincident with chronic obstructive lung disease, in persistent neonatal pulmonary hypertension and in pulmonary hypertension with congenital or acquired heart disease. Likewise, it reduces intrapulmonary shunt in acute respiratory failure and improves gas exchange. Under experimental conditions nitric oxide acts as a bronchodilator, although it seems to be less effective for this purpose in clinical use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Nitric oxide-induced calcium release: activation of type 1 ryanodine receptor by endogenous nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kakizawa, Sho; Yamazawa, Toshiko; Iino, Masamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs), located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) membrane, are required for intracellular Ca2+ release that is involved in a wide range of cellular functions. In addition to Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac cells and voltage-induced Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle cells, we recently identified another mode of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization mediated by RyR, i.e., nitric oxide-induced Ca2+ release (NICR), in cerebellar Purkinje cells. NICR is evoked by neuronal activity, is dependent on S-nitrosylation of type 1 RyR (RyR1) and is involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of cerebellar synapses. In this addendum, we examined whether peroxynitrite, which is produced by the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, may also have an effect on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 and the cerebellar LTP. We found that scavengers of peroxynitrite have no significant effect either on the Ca2+ release via RyR1 or on the cerebellar LTP. We also found that an application of a high concentration of peroxynitrite does not reproduce neuronal activity-dependent Ca2+ release in Purkinje cells. These results support that NICR is induced by endogenous nitric oxide produced by neuronal activity through S-nitrosylation of RyR1.

  6. Human blood platelets lack nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Anke; Gambaryan, Stepan; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reports on expression and functionality of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in human blood platelets and erythrocytes are contradictory. We used a specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect NOS activity in human platelets. The method measures simultaneously [(15)N]nitrite and [(15)N]nitrate formed from oxidized (15)N-labeled nitric oxide ((15)NO) upon its NOS-catalyzed formation from the substrate l-[guanidino-(15)N2]-arginine. Using this GC-MS assay, we did not detect functional NOS in non-stimulated platelets and in intact platelets activated by various agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, thrombin, or von Willebrand factor) or lysed platelets. l-[guanidino-nitro]-Arginine-inhibitable NOS activity was measured after addition of recombinant human endothelial NOS to lysed platelets. Previous and recent studies from our group challenge expression and functionality of NOS in human platelets and erythrocytes.

  7. Nitric oxide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nitric oxide ; CASRN 10102 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  8. Nitric oxide-donor SNAP induces Xenopus eggs activation.

    PubMed

    Jeseta, Michal; Marin, Matthieu; Tichovska, Hana; Melicharova, Petra; Cailliau-Maggio, Katia; Martoriati, Alain; Lescuyer-Rousseau, Arlette; Beaujois, Rémy; Petr, Jaroslav; Sedmikova, Marketa; Bodart, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is identified as a signaling molecule involved in many cellular or physiological functions including meiotic maturation and parthenogenetic activation of mammalian oocytes. We observed that nitric oxide donor SNAP was potent to induce parthenogenetic activation in Xenopus eggs. NO-scavenger CPTIO impaired the effects of SNAP, providing evidence for the effects of the latter to be specific upon NO release. In Xenopus eggs, SNAP treatment induced pigment rearrangement, pronucleus formation and exocytosis of cortical granules. At a biochemical level, SNAP exposure lead to MAPK and Rsk inactivation within 30 minutes whereas MPF remained active, in contrast to calcium ionophore control where MPF activity dropped rapidly. MAPK inactivation could be correlated to pronuclear envelope reformation observed. In SNAP-treated eggs, a strong increase in intracellular calcium level was observed. NO effects were impaired in calcium-free or calcium limited medium, suggesting that that parthenogenetic activation of Xenopus oocytes with a NO donor was mainly calcium-dependent.

  9. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; Matthys, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Other cytokines can modulate the induction of NO biosynthesis in macrophages. NO is a major effector molecule of the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity of rodent macrophages against certain micro-organisms and tumour cells, respectively. The NO synthesizing pathway has been demonstrated in human monocytes and other cells, but its role in host defence seems to be accessory. A delicate functional balance between microbial stimuli, host-derived cytokines and hormones in the microenvironment regulates iNOS expression. This review will focus mainly on the known and proposed mechanisms of the regulation of iNOS induction, and on agents that can modulate NO release once the active enzyme has been expressed in the macrophage. PMID:18475620

  10. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases.

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and nitric oxide function: new light through old windows.

    PubMed

    Bird, Ian M

    2011-09-01

    The principle mechanisms operating at the level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) itself to control its activity are phosphorylation, the auto-regulatory properties of the protein itself, and Ca(2)(+)/calmodulin binding. It is now clear that activation of eNOS is greatest when phosphorylation of certain serine and threonine residues is accompanied by elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+](i). While eNOS also contains an autoinhibitory loop, Rafikov et al. (2011) present the evidence for a newly identified 'flexible arm' that operates in response to redox state. Boeldt et al. (2011) also review the evidence that changes in the nature of endothelial Ca(2)(+) signaling itself in different physiologic states can extend both the amplitude and duration of NO output, and a failure to change these responses in pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia. The change in Ca(2)(+) signaling is mediated through altering capacitative entry mechanisms inherent in the cell, and so many agonist responses using this mechanism are altered. The term 'adaptive cell signaling' is also introduced for the first time to describe this phenomenon. Finally NO is classically regarded as a regulator of vascular function, but NO has other actions. One proposed role is regulation of steroid biosynthesis but the physiologic relevance was unclear. Ducsay & Myers (2011) now present new evidence that NO may provide the adrenal with a mechanism to regulate cortisol output according to exposure to hypoxia. One thing all three of these reviews show is that even after several decades of study into NO biosynthesis and function, there are clearly still many things left to discover.

  12. Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, A; Karunakaran, R Joel

    2006-03-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging components of Phyllanthus emblica. Dried fruit rind of P. emblica was extracted with methanol and then separated into hexane, ethyl acetate, and water fractions. Among these only the ethyl acetate phase showed strong NO scavenging activity in vitro, when compared with water and hexane phases. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and purification using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Five compounds showing strong NO scavenging activity were identified by spectral methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS) and by comparison with literature values to be Gallic acid, Methyl gallate, Corilagin, Furosin, and Geraniin. In addition, HPLC identification and quantification of isolated compounds were also performed. Gallic acid was found to be a major compound in the ethyl acetate extract and Geraniin showed highest NO scavenging activity among the isolated compounds.

  13. NITRIC OXIDE, MITOCHONDRIAL HYPERPOLARIZATION AND T-CELL ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Gyorgy; Koncz, Agnes; Fernandez, David; Perl, Andras

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocyte activation is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production that plays an essential role in multiple T cell functions. NO acts as a messenger, activating soluble guanyl cyclase and participating in the transduction signaling pathways involving cyclic GMP. NO modulates mitochondrial events that are involved in apoptosis and regulates mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial biogenesis in many cell types, including lymphocytes. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP), an early and reversible event during both T lymphocyte activation and apoptosis, is regulated by NO. Here, we discuss recent evidence that NO-induced MHP represents a molecular switch in multiple T cell signaling pathways. Overproduction of NO in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) induces mitochondrial biogenesis and alters Ca2+ signaling. Thus, while NO plays a physiological role in lymphocyte cell signaling, its overproduction may disturb normal T cell function, contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:17462531

  14. Oxalomalate affects the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Irace, Carlo; Esposito, Giuseppe; Maffettone, Carmen; Rossi, Antonietta; Festa, Michela; Iuvone, Teresa; Santamaria, Rita; Sautebin, Lidia; Carnuccio, Rosa; Colonna, Alfredo

    2007-03-13

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an homodimeric enzyme which produces large amounts of nitric oxide (NO) in response to inflammatory stimuli. Several factors affect the synthesis and catalytic activity of iNOS. Particularly, dimerization of NOS monomers is promoted by heme, whereas an intracellular depletion of heme and/or L-arginine considerably decreases NOS resistance to proteolysis. In this study, we found that oxalomalate (OMA, oxalomalic acid, alpha-hydroxy-beta-oxalosuccinic acid), an inhibitor of both aconitase and NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, inhibited nitrite production and iNOS protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774 macrophages, without affecting iNOS mRNA content. Furthermore, injection of OMA precursors to LPS-stimulated rats also decreased nitrite production and iNOS expression in isolated peritoneal macrophages. Interestingly, alpha-ketoglutarate or succinyl-CoA administration reversed OMA effect on NO production, thus correlating NO biosynthesis with the anabolic capacity of Krebs cycle. When protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide in LPS-activated J774 cells treated with OMA, iNOS protein levels, evaluated by Western blot analysis and (35)S-metabolic labelling, were decreased, suggesting that OMA reduces iNOS biosynthesis and induces an increase in the degradation rate of iNOS protein. Moreover, we showed that OMA inhibits the activity of the iNOS from lung of LPS-treated rats by enzymatic assay. Our results, demonstrating that OMA acts regulating synthesis, catalytic activity and degradation of iNOS, suggest that this compound might have a potential role in reducing the NO overproduction occurring in some pathological conditions.

  15. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  16. Nitric oxide released from activated platelets inhibits platelet recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, J E; Loscalzo, J; Barnard, M R; Alpert, C; Keaney, J F; Michelson, A D

    1997-01-01

    Vessel injury and thrombus formation are the cause of most ischemic coronary syndromes and, in this setting, activated platelets stimulate platelet recruitment to the growing thrombus. Recently, a constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been identified in human platelets. To further define the capacity of platelets to produce nitric oxide (NO), as well as to study the role of this NO in platelet recruitment, we adapted a NO-selective microelectrode for use in a standard platelet aggregometer, thereby permitting simultaneous measurement of platelet aggregation and NO production. Treatment of platelets with the NO synthase inhibitor -NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), reduced NO production by 92+/-8% in response to 5 microM ADP compared to control but increased aggregation by only 15+/-2%. In contrast, L-NAME had a more pronounced effect on platelet recruitment as evidenced by a 35+/-5% increase in the extent of aggregation, a 33+/-3% decrease in cyclic GMP content, and a 31+/-5% increase in serotonin release from a second recruitable population of platelets added to stimulated platelets at the peak of NO production. To study platelet recruitment accurately, we developed an assay that monitors two platelet populations simultaneously. Nonbiotinylated platelets were incubated with L-NAME or vehicle and activated with ADP. At peak NO production, biotinylated platelets were added. As measured by three-color flow cytometry, there was a 56+/-11% increase in the number of P selectin- positive platelets in the nonbiotinylated population treated with L-NAME as compared to control. When biotinylated platelets were added to the L-NAME-treated nonbiotinylated population, the number of P selectin positive biotinylated plate-lets increased by 180+/-32% as compared to biotinylated platelets added to the control. In summary, stimulated platelets produce NO that modestly inhibits platelet activation but markedly inhibits additional platelet recruitment. These data suggest

  17. Reductive activation of Cr(Vi) by nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Porter, Ryan; Jáchymová, Marie; Martásek, Pavel; Kalyanaraman, B; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2005-05-01

    Chromium(VI) is a recognized toxicant whose effects have been linked to its reduction to lower oxidation states. Although Cr(VI) is reduced by several systems, it is anticipated that its reduction by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) could have significant effects in endothelial and brain cells that express high constitutive levels of the enzyme. This possibility was examined by electron paramagnetic resonance that showed the formation of a stable Cr(V) species from NOS/Cr(VI). The formation of Cr(V) was calcium/calmodulin-independent indicating that Cr(VI) to Cr(V) reduction occurs at the flavin-containing domain of NOS. Accordingly, Cr(VI) reduction by the reductase domain of NOS and the chimera protein cytochrome-P450-reductase+tail-nNOS also generated Cr(V). Activation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4))-free NOS with calcium/calmodulin diminished Cr(V) steady-state levels while increasing superoxide formation. Since SOD restored Cr(V) to control levels, this result was taken as evidence for a reaction between Cr(V) and superoxide. Supplementation of NOS with BH(4) cofactor not only failed to increase Cr(V) yields but generated superoxide and hydroxyl radical. Since the holoenzyme does not generate superoxide, this reaction indicated that Cr(V) mediates the oxidation of BH(4)-bound to the enzyme. In the presence of L-arginine, however, Cr(VI) neither enhances superoxide release nor inhibits NO formation from fully active NOS. This suggests that L-arginine protects BH(4) from Cr(V)-mediated oxidation. While Cr(V) was inactive toward NO, spin trapping experiments with 5-tert-butoxycarbonyl 5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide and oxygen consumption measurements showed that Cr(V) reacts with superoxide by a one-electron-transfer mechanism to generate oxygen and Cr(IV). Thus, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(V) by NOS occurs in resting and fully active states. It is likely that the reaction between Cr(V) and superoxide influences the cytotoxic mechanisms of Cr(VI) in cells.

  18. Expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase correlate with ethanol-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guang-Jin; Zhou, Xiao-Rong; Gong, Zuo-Jiong; Zhang, Pin; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Zheng, Shi-Hua

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury and their relation with liver damage, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in the liver. METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given fish oil (0.5 mL) along with ethanol or isocaloric dextrose daily via gastrogavage for 4 or 6 wk. Liver injury was assessed using serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and pathological analysis. Liver malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide contents, iNOS and eNOS activity were determined. NF-κB p65,iNOS, eNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression in the liver were detected by immunohistochemistry or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Chronic ethanol gavage for 4 wk caused steatosis, inflammation and necrosis in the liver, and elevated serum ALT activity. Prolonged ethanol administration (6 wk) enhanced the liver damage. These responses were accompanied with increased lipid peroxidation, NO contents, iNOS activity and reduced eNOS activity. NF-κB p65, iNOS and TNF-α protein or mRNA expression were markedly induced after chronic ethanol gavage, whereas eNOS mRNA expression remained unchanged. The enhanced iNOS activity and expression were positively correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB, and TNF-α mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: iNOS expression and activity are induced in the liver after chronic ethanol exposure in rats, which are correlated with the liver damage, especially the necro-inflammation, activation of NF-κB and TNF-α expression. eNOS activity is reduced, but its mRNA expression is not affected. PMID:16688828

  19. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  20. Nitric Oxide Measurement from Purified Enzymes and Estimation of Scavenging Activity by Gas Phase Chemiluminescence Method.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Aprajita; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Mishra, Sonal; Wany, Aakanksha; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2016-01-01

    In plants, nitrate reductase (NR) is a key enzyme that produces nitric oxide (NO) using nitrite as a substrate. Lower plants such as algae are shown to have nitric oxide synthase enzyme and higher plants contain NOS activity but enzyme responsible for NO production in higher plants is subjected to debate. In plant nitric oxide research, it is very important to measure NO very precisely in order to determine its functional role. A significant amount of NO is being scavenged by various cell components. The net NO production depends in production minus scavenging. Here, we describe methods to measure NO from purified NR and inducible nitric oxide synthase from mouse (iNOS), we also describe a method of measure NO scavenging by tobacco cell suspensions and mitochondria from roots.

  1. Nitric oxide signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Allan D

    2005-01-01

    Plants have four nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. NOS1 appears mitochondrial, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) chloroplastic. Distinct peroxisomal and apoplastic NOS enzymes are predicted. Nitrite-dependent NO synthesis is catalyzed by cytoplasmic nitrate reductase or a root plasma membrane enzyme, or occurs nonenzymatically. Nitric oxide undergoes both catalyzed and uncatalyzed oxidation. However, there is no evidence of reaction with superoxide, and S-nitrosylation reactions are unlikely except during hypoxia. The only proven direct targets of NO in plants are metalloenzymes and one metal complex. Nitric oxide inhibits apoplastic catalases/ascorbate peroxidases in some species but may stimulate these enzymes in others. Plants also have the NO response pathway involving cGMP, cADPR, and release of calcium from internal stores. Other known targets include chloroplast and mitochondrial electron transport. Nitric oxide suppresses Fenton chemistry by interacting with ferryl ion, preventing generation of hydroxyl radicals. Functions of NO in plant development, response to biotic and abiotic stressors, iron homeostasis, and regulation of respiration and photosynthesis may all be ascribed to interaction with one of these targets. Nitric oxide function in drought/abscisic acid (ABA)-induction of stomatal closure requires nitrate reductase and NOS1. Nitric oxide synthasel likely functions to produce sufficient NO to inhibit photosynthetic electron transport, allowing nitrite accumulation. Nitric oxide is produced during the hypersensitive response outside cells undergoing programmed cell death immediately prior to loss of plasma membrane integrity. A plasma membrane lipid-derived signal likely activates apoplastic NOS. Nitric oxide diffuses within the apoplast and signals neighboring cells via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent induction of salicylic acid biosynthesis. Response to wounding appears to involve the same NOS and direct targets.

  2. Nitric oxide neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dawson, V L; Dawson, T M

    1996-06-01

    Derangements in glutamate neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including, stroke, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtype of glutamate receptors results in the influx of calcium which binds calmodulin and activates neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), to convent L-arginine to citrulline and nitric oxide (NO). NO has many roles in the central nervous system as a messenger molecule, however, when generated in excess NO can be neurotoxic. Excess NO is in part responsible for glutamate neurotoxicity in primary neuronal cell culture and in animal models of stroke. It is likely that most of the neurotoxic actions of NO are mediated by peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product from NO and superoxide anion. In pathologic conditions, peroxynitrite and oxygen free radicals can be generated in excess of a cell antioxidant capacity resulting in severe damage to cellular constituents including proteins, DNA and lipids. The inherent biochemical and physiological characteristics of the brain, including high lipid concentrations and energy requirements, make it particularly susceptible to free radical and oxidant mediated insult. Increasing evidence indicates that many neurologic disorders may have components of free radical and oxidative stress induced injury.

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in normal newborn rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, Thông; Duong-Quy, Sy; Pham, Hoa; Pansiot, Julien; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Baud, Olivier; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P) 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group) or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group), or in room air (control group). Rat pups were sacrificed at P7 and P14 for evaluation of lung eNOS expression and activity. At P7, eNOS protein expression in total lung lysates, in bronchial and arterial sections, was significantly decreased in the iNO-20 ppm versus control group. At P14, eNOS expression was comparable among all three groups. The amounts of eNOS mRNA significantly differed at P7 between the iNO-20 ppm and control groups. NOS activity decreased in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7 and returned to normal levels at P14. There was an imbalance between superoxide dismutase and NOS activities in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7. Inhalation of NO at 20 ppm early after birth decreases eNOS gene transcription, protein expression and enzyme activity. This decrease might account for the rebound phenomenon observed in patients treated with iNO.

  4. Activation by nitric oxide of an oxidative-stress response that defends Escherichia coli against activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nunoshiba, T; deRojas-Walker, T; Wishnok, J S; Tannenbaum, S R; Demple, B

    1993-11-01

    Nitric oxide is a free radical (NO) formed biologically through the oxidation of L-arginine by nitric oxide synthases. NO is produced transiently in mammalian cells for intercellular signaling and in copious quantities to cause cytostasis and cytotoxicity. In the latter situation, NO is a deliberate cytotoxic product of activated macrophages, along with other reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2-). Escherichia coli has a complex set of responses to H2O2 and O2- that involves approximately 80 inducible proteins; we wondered whether these bacteria might induce analogous defenses against nitric oxide. We show here that a multigene system controlled by the redox-sensitive transcriptional regulator SoxR is activated by NO in vivo. This induction confers bacterial resistance to activated murine macrophages with kinetics that parallel the production of NO by these cells. Elimination of specific SoxR-regulated genes diminishes the resistance of these bacteria to the cytotoxic macrophages. The required functions include manganese-containing superoxide dismutase, endonuclease IV (a DNA-repair enzyme for oxidative damage), and micF, an antisense regulator of the outer membrane porin OmpF. These results demonstrate that SoxR is a sensor for cellular exposure to NO, and that the soxRS response system may contribute to bacterial virulence.

  5. Synthesis, nitric oxide release, and anti-leukemic activity of glutathione-activated nitric oxide prodrugs: Structural analogues of PABA/NO, an anti-cancer lead compound.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Harinath; Wilde, Thomas C; Citro, Michael L; Goodblatt, Michael M; Keefer, Larry K; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2008-03-01

    Diazeniumdiolate anions and their prodrug forms are reliable sources of nitric oxide (NO) that have generated interest as promising therapeutic agents. A number of structural analogues of O(2)-(2,4-dinitro-5-(4-(N-methylamino)benzoyloxy)phenyl) 1-(N,N-dimethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (PABA/NO), an anti-cancer lead compound that is designed to release NO upon activation by glutathione, were prepared. The nitric oxide release patterns of these O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) diazeniumdiolates in the presence of glutathione were tested and it was found that in the absence of competing pathways, these compounds release nearly quantitative amounts of NO. The ability of PABA/NO and its structural analogues to inhibit human leukemia cell proliferation was determined and it was found that compounds releasing elevated amounts of NO displayed superior cytotoxic effects.

  6. Regulation of cytochrome C peroxidase activity by nitric oxide and laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Osipov, A N; Stepanov, G O; Vladimirov, Yu A; Kozlov, A V; Kagan, V E

    2006-10-01

    Apoptosis can be induced by activation of so-called "death receptors" (extrinsic pathway) or multiple apoptotic factors (intrinsic pathway), which leads to release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. This event is considered to be a point of no return in apoptosis. One of the most important events in the development of apoptosis is the enhancement of cytochrome c peroxidase activity upon its interaction with cardiolipin, which modifies the active center of cytochrome c. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of nitric oxide on the cytochrome c peroxidase activity when cytochrome c is bound to cardiolipin or sodium dodecyl sulfate. We have observed that cytochrome c peroxidase activity, distinctly increased due to the presence of anionic lipids, is completely suppressed by nitric oxide. At the same time, nitrosyl complexes of cytochrome c, produced in the interaction with nitric oxide, demonstrated sensitivity to laser irradiation (441 nm) and were photolyzed during irradiation. This decomposition led to partial restoration of cytochrome c peroxidase activity. Finally, we conclude that nitric oxide and laser irradiation may serve as effective instruments for regulating the peroxidase activity of cytochrome c, and, probably, apoptosis.

  7. A Role for Nitric Oxide in Muscle Repair: Nitric Oxide–mediated Activation of Muscle Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Judy E.

    2000-01-01

    Muscle satellite cells are quiescent precursors interposed between myofibers and a sheath of external lamina. Although their activation and recruitment to cycle enable muscle repair and adaptation, the activation signal is not known. Evidence is presented that nitric oxide (NO) mediates satellite cell activation, including morphological hypertrophy and decreased adhesion in the fiber-lamina complex. Activation in vivo occurred within 1 min after injury. Cell isolation and histology showed that pharmacological inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity prevented the immediate injury-induced myogenic cell release and delayed the hypertrophy of satellite cells in that muscle. Transient activation of satellite cells in contralateral muscles 10 min later suggested that a circulating factor may interact with NO-mediated signaling. Interestingly, satellite cell activation in muscles of mdx dystrophic mice and NOS-I knockout mice quantitatively resembled NOS-inhibited release of normal cells, in agreement with reports of displaced and reduced NOS expression in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscle and the complete loss of NOS-I expression in knockout mice. Brief NOS inhibition in normal and mdx mice during injury produced subtle alterations in subsequent repair, including apoptosis in myotube nuclei and myotube formation inside laminar sheaths. Longer NOS inhibition delayed and restricted the extent of repair and resulted in fiber branching. A model proposes the hypothesis that NO release mediates satellite cell activation, possibly via shear-induced rapid increases in NOS activity that produce “NO transients.” PMID:10793157

  8. Nitric oxide synthases activation and inhibition by metallacarborane-cluster-based isoform-specific affectors.

    PubMed

    Kaplánek, Robert; Martásek, Pavel; Grüner, Bohumír; Panda, Satya; Rak, Jakub; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Král, Vladimír; Roman, Linda J

    2012-11-26

    A small library of boron-cluster- and metallacarborane-cluster-based ligands was designed, prepared, and tested for isoform-selective activation or inhibition of the three nitric oxide synthase isoforms. On the basis of the concept of creating a hydrophobic analogue of a natural substrate, a stable and nontoxic basic boron cluster system, previously used for boron neutron capture therapy, was modified by the addition of positively charged moieties to its periphery, providing hydrophobic and nonclassical hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Several of these compounds show efficacy for inhibition of NO synthesis with differential effects on the various nitric oxide synthase isoforms.

  9. Role of calcium signaling in the activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and citric acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Traaseth, Nathaniel; Elfering, Sarah; Solien, Joseph; Haynes, Virginia; Giulivi, Cecilia

    2004-07-23

    An apparent discrepancy arises about the role of calcium on the rates of oxygen consumption by mitochondria: mitochondrial calcium increases the rate of oxygen consumption because of the activation of calcium-activated dehydrogenases, and by activating mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS), decreases the rates of oxygen consumption because nitric oxide is a competitive inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase. To this end, the rates of oxygen consumption and nitric oxide production were followed in isolated rat liver mitochondria in the presence of either L-Arg (to sustain a mtNOS activity) or N(G)-monomethyl-L-Arg (NMMA, a competitive inhibitor of mtNOS) under State 3 conditions. In the presence of NMMA, the rates of State 3 oxygen consumption exhibited a K(0.5) of 0.16 microM intramitochondrial free calcium, agreeing with those required for the activation of the Krebs cycle. By plotting the difference between the rates of oxygen consumption in State 3 with L-Arg and with NMMA at various calcium concentrations, a K(0.5) of 1.2 microM intramitochondrial free calcium was obtained, similar to the K(0.5) (0.9 microM) of the dependence of the rate of nitric oxide production on calcium concentrations. The activation of dehydrogenases, followed by the activation of mtNOS, would lead to the modulation of the Krebs cycle activity by the modulation of nitric oxide on the respiratory rates. This would ensue in changes in the NADH/NAD and ATP/ADP ratios, which would influence the rate of the cycle and the oxygen diffusion.

  10. Treatment of activated carbon to enhance catalytic activity for reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, B.J.; Rhee, H.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Lee, J.K.; Park, D. )

    1994-11-01

    Catalytic activity of activated carbon treated with various techniques was examined in a fixed bed reactor for the reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia at 150 C. Activated carbon derived from coconut shell impregnated with an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate, further treated with sulfuric acid, dried at 120 C, and then heated in an inert gas stream at 400 C, showed the highest catalytic activity within the range of experimental conditions. The enhancement of catalytic activity of modified activated carbon could be attributed to the increase in the amount of oxygen function groups which increased the adsorption site for ammonia. Catalytic activity of activated carbons depended on the surface area and the oxygen content as well.

  11. Increased Salivary Nitric Oxide and G6PD Activity in Refugees with Anxiety and Stress.

    PubMed

    Gammoh, Omar S; Al-Smadi, Ahmed; Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Badr, Mujtaba M; Qinna, Nidal A

    2016-10-01

    Anxiety and stress are related to physiological changes in humans. Accumulating evidence suggests a cross-talk between psychiatric disorders and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to compare oxidative stress and defensive antioxidant biomarkers in a group of refugees with acute anxiety and stress with a group of local Jordanians. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) Arabic version were used to assess anxiety and stress respectively. Salivary nitric oxide concentration, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and total salivary protein were compared. As expected, refugees showed higher anxiety and stress scores compared with Jordanians. Also, we report a significant increase in salivary nitric oxide and G6PD activity in the refugee group while total protein concentration did not vary between the two groups. This is the first study that demonstrates an increase in nitric oxide and G6PD activity in the saliva of refugees, thus highlighting their potential role as possible biomarkers in anxiety and stress disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  13. Nitric oxide generation from heme/copper assembly mediated nitrite reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Hematian, Shabnam; Siegler, Maxime A; Karlin, Kenneth D

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a cellular signaling molecule and vasodilator regulates a range of physiological and pathological processes. Nitrite (NO2 (-)) is recycled in vivo to generate nitric oxide, particularly in physiologic hypoxia and ischemia. The cytochrome c oxidase binuclear heme a 3/CuB active site is one entity known to be responsible for conversion of cellular nitrite to nitric oxide. We recently reported that a partially reduced heme/copper assembly reduces nitrite ion, producing nitric oxide; the heme serves as the reductant and the cupric ion provides a Lewis acid interaction with nitrite, facilitating nitrite (N-O) bond cleavage (Hematian et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134:18912-18915, 2012). To further investigate this nitrite reductase chemistry, copper(II)-nitrito complexes with tridentate and tetradentate ligands were used in this study, where either O,O'-bidentate or O-unidentate modes of nitrite binding to the cupric center are present. To study the role of the reducing ability of the ferrous heme center, two different tetraarylporphyrinate-iron(II) complexes, one with electron-donating para-methoxy peripheral substituents and the other with electron-withdrawing 2,6-difluorophenyl substituents, were used. The results show that differing modes of nitrite coordination to the copper(II) ion lead to differing kinetic behavior. Here, also, the ferrous heme is in all cases the source of the reducing equivalent required to convert nitrite to nitric oxide, but the reduction ability of the heme center does not play a key role in the observed overall reaction rate. On the basis of our observations, reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed in terms of heme/copper heterobinuclear structures.

  14. Differential activation of nitric oxide synthase through muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Leirós, C P; Rosignoli, F; Genaro, A M; Sales, M E; Sterin-Borda, L; Santiago BordaE

    2000-03-15

    Muscarinic receptors play an important role in secretory and vasodilator responses in rat salivary glands. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) appears to be one of the multiple effectors coupled to muscarinic receptors in both submandibular and sublingual glands although some differences have been found depending on the gland studied. First, submandibular glands had a lower basal activity of nitric oxide synthase than sublingual glands and the concentration-response curve for carbachol was bell-shaped in the former but not in sublingual glands. Second, cGMP levels displayed a similar profile to that observed for NOS activity in both glands. Third, protein kinase C also coupled to muscarinic receptor activation in the glands might have a regulatory effect on nitric oxide production since its activity was higher in basal conditions in submandibular than sublingual glands and it also increased in the presence of the agonist at a concentration that inhibited NOS activity in submandibular glands. The effects appear to be partly related to the expression of a minor population of M(1) receptors in submandibular glands absent in sublingual as determined in binding and signaling experiments with the muscarinic receptor antagonist pirenzepine.

  15. Clinical potential of nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, Sheila A

    2005-09-01

    A major problem with using nitrates in the treatment of ischemic heart disease is that tolerance develops to their vasodilatory actions. YC-1 was used as the lead compound to synthesize further nitric oxide-independent soluble guanylate cyclase activators, including BAY-41-2272 and BAY-41-8543. A nitric oxide and heme-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY-58-2667, was subsequently discovered by high-throughput screening. Tolerance to the vasodilatory actions of BAY-41-8543 and BAY-58-2667 does not develop. Results from animal studies have suggested that these compounds may have potential in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, essential and pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, glomerulonephritis and erectile dysfunction.

  16. Hyperhomocysteinaemia in rats is associated with erectile dysfunction by impairing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weijun; Xiong, Lei; Bin Yang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCy) on penile erectile function in a rat model, a methionine-rich diet was used in which erectile function, the reproductive system, and nitric oxide synthase were characterized. The intracavernous pressure, apomorphine experiments, measurement of oxidative stress, hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and measurement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity were utilized. Our results showed that erections in the middle-dose, high-dose, and interference (INF) groups were significantly lower than the control (P < 0.05). INF group, being fed with vitamins B and folic acid, demonstrated markedly improved penile erections compared with the middle-dose group (P < 0.05). HHCy-induced eNOS and phospho-eNOS protein expression was reduced and the antioxidant effect was markedly impaired. The data of the present data provide evidence that HHCy is a vascular risk factor for erectile dysfunction by impairing cavernosa endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. Intake of vitamins B can alleviate this abnormality. PMID:27221552

  17. Featured Article: Differential regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation by protease-activated receptors in adult human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tillery, Lakeisha C; Epperson, Tenille A; Eguchi, Satoru; Motley, Evangeline D

    2016-03-01

    Protease-activated receptors have been shown to regulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase through the phosphorylation of specific sites on the enzyme. It has been established that PAR-2 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Ser-1177 and leads to the production of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide, while PAR-1 activation phosphorylates eNOS-Thr-495 and decreases nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In this study, we hypothesize a differential coupling of protease-activated receptors to the signaling pathways that regulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide production in primary adult human coronary artery endothelial cells. Using Western Blot analysis, we showed that thrombin and the PAR-1 activating peptide, TFLLR, lead to the phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 in human coronary artery endothelial cells, which was blocked by SCH-79797 (SCH), a PAR-1 inhibitor. Using the nitrate/nitrite assay, we also demonstrated that the thrombin- and TFLLR-induced production of nitric oxide was inhibited by SCH and L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor. In addition, we observed that TFLLR, unlike thrombin, significantly phosphorylated eNOS-Thr-495, which may explain the observed delay in nitric oxide production in comparison to that of thrombin. Activation of PAR-2 by SLIGRL, a PAR-2 specific ligand, leads to dual phosphorylation of both catalytic sites but primarily regulated eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation with no change in nitric oxide production in human coronary artery endothelial cells. PAR-3, known as the non-signaling receptor, was activated by TFRGAP, a PAR-3 mimicking peptide, and significantly induced the phosphorylation of eNOS-Thr-495 with minimal phosphorylation of eNOS-Ser-1177 with no change in nitric oxide production. In addition, we confirmed that PAR-mediated eNOS-Ser-1177 phosphorylation was Ca(2+)-dependent using the Ca(2+) chelator, BAPTA, while eNOS-Thr-495 phosphorylation was mediated via Rho kinase using the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632

  18. Nitric oxide mediates local activity-dependent excitatory synapse development.

    PubMed

    Nikonenko, Irina; Nikonenko, Alexander; Mendez, Pablo; Michurina, Tatyana V; Enikolopov, Grigori; Muller, Dominique

    2013-10-29

    Learning related paradigms play an important role in shaping the development and specificity of synaptic networks, notably by regulating mechanisms of spine growth and pruning. The molecular events underlying these synaptic rearrangements remain poorly understood. Here we identify NO signaling as a key mediator of activity-dependent excitatory synapse development. We find that chronic blockade of NO production in vitro and in vivo interferes with the development of hippocampal and cortical excitatory spine synapses. The effect results from a selective loss of activity-mediated spine growth mechanisms and is associated with morphological and functional alterations of remaining synapses. These effects of NO are mediated by a cGMP cascade and can be reproduced or prevented by postsynaptic expression of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phospho-mimetic or phospho-resistant mutants. In vivo analyses show that absence of NO prevents the increase in excitatory synapse density induced by environmental enrichment and interferes with the formation of local clusters of excitatory synapses. We conclude that NO plays an important role in regulating the development of excitatory synapses by promoting local activity-dependent spine-growth mechanisms.

  19. Nitric Oxide (NO) Generation from Heme/Copper Assembly Mediated Nitrite Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hematian, Shabnam; Siegler, Maxime A.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a cellular signaling molecule and vasodilator regulates a range of physiological and pathological processes. Nitrite (NO2−) is recycled in vivo to generate nitric oxide, particularly in physiologic hypoxia and ischemia. The cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) binuclear hemea3/CuB active site is one entity known to be responsible for cellular nitrite conversion to nitric oxide. We recently reported that a partially reduced heme/Cu assembly reduces nitrite ion, producing NO; the heme serves as the reductant and cupric ion provides a Lewis Acid interaction with nitrite, facilitating nitrite (N−O) bond cleavage (Hematian et al., J Am Chem Soc 134:18912–18915, 2012). To further investigate this nitrite reductase (NIR) chemistry, copper(II)-nitrito complexes with tri-and tetra-dentate ligands were used in this study, where either O,O'-bidentate or O-unidentate modes of nitrite binding to the cupric center are present. To study the role of the reducing ability of the ferrous heme center, two different tetraarylporphyrinate-iron(II) complexes, one with electron donating para-methoxy peripheral substituents, (TMPP)FeII, and the other with electron withdrawing 2,6-difluorophenyl substituents, (F8)FeII, were employed. The results show that differing nitrite coordination modes to copper(II) ion leads to varying kinetic behavior. Here, also, the ferrous heme is in all cases the source of the reducing equivalent required to take nitrite to nitric oxide, but the reduction ability of the heme center does not play a key role in the observed overall reaction rate. Based on our observations, reaction mechanisms are proposed and discussed in terms of heme/Cu heterobinuclear structures. PMID:24430198

  20. Nitric oxide enhancement strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Nathan S

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that many diseases are characterized or associated with perturbations in nitric oxide (NO) production/signaling. Therapeutics or strategies designed to restore normal NO homeostasis will likely have broad application and utility. This highly complex and multistep pathway for NO production and subsequent target activation provides many steps in the endogenous pathway that may be useful targets for drug development for cardiovascular disease, antimicrobial, cancer, wound healing, etc. This article will summarize known strategies that are currently available or in development for enhancing NO production or availability in the human body. Each strategy will be discussed including exogenous sources of NO, use of precursors to promote NO production and downstream pathways affected by NO production with advantages and disadvantages highlighted for each. Development of NO-based therapeutics is and will continue to be a major focus of biotech, academia as well as pharmaceutical companies. Application of safe and effective strategies will certainly transform health and disease. PMID:28031863

  1. Role of superoxide anion on basal and stimulated nitric oxide activity in neonatal piglet pulmonary vessels.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Kessels, Carolina G A; Fischer, Marc A J; Bast, Aalt; de Mey, Jo G R; Blanco, Carlos E

    2003-09-01

    The superoxide anion (O2*-) appears to be an important modulator of nitric oxide bioavailability. Enzymatic scavenging of O2*- is carried out by superoxide dismutase (SOD). The present study was designed to characterize the developmental changes on pulmonary vascular reactivity induced by 1) exogenous Cu/Zn SOD, 2) several putative SOD mimetics, and 3) endogenous SOD inhibition. We also analyzed age-related changes on pulmonary SOD activity and vascular O2*- levels. SOD (1-300 U/mL) produced endothelium-dependent relaxation of U46619-contracted intrapulmonary arteries (fourth branch) and veins from 12- to 24-h-old and 2-wk-old piglets. SOD-induced relaxation was greater in pulmonary arteries and was abolished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. SOD induced a greater pulmonary artery relaxation in the 2-wk-old than in the 12- to 24-h-old piglet. SOD (100 U/mL) did not modify acetylcholine-induced relaxation in pulmonary arteries. In contrast, endogenous SOD inhibition by diethyldithiocarbamate (3 mM) impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation in pulmonary arteries from newborn but not from 2-wk-old piglets. Total SOD activity in lung tissue did not change with postnatal age. With the use of dihydroethidium, an oxidant-sensitive fluorescent probe, we did not find significant age- or vessel-related differences in O2*- presence. From the putative SOD mimetics tested, only the metal salts MnCl2 and CuSO4 reproduced the vascular effects of SOD. In summary, SOD produces endothelium-dependent pulmonary vascular relaxation by protecting nitric oxide from destruction by O2*-. This effect was less marked in newborns than in 2-wk-old piglets. In contrast, pulmonary arteries from newborn piglets are more sensitive to the inhibition of endogenous SOD.

  2. Arginase activity in mitochondria - An interfering factor in nitric oxide synthase activity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Miller, R.T.

    2010-04-09

    Previously, in tightly controlled studies, using three independent, yet complementary techniques, we refuted the claim that a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mtNOS) isoform exists within pure, rat liver mitochondria (MT). Of those techniques, the NOS-catalyzed [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-L-citrulline conversion assay (NOS assay) with MT samples indicated a weak, radioactive signal that was NOS-independent . Aliquots of samples from the NOS assays were then extracted with acetone, separated by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and exposed to autoradiography. Results obtained from these samples showed no radioactive band for L-citrulline. However, a fast-migrating, diffuse, radioactive band was observed in the TLC lanes loaded with MT samples. In this manuscript, we identify and confirm that this radioactive signal in MT samples is due to the arginase-catalyzed conversion of [{sup 14}C]-L-arginine to [{sup 14}C]-urea. The current results, in addition to reconfirming the absence of NOS activity in rat liver MT, also show the need to include arginase inhibitors in studies using MT samples in order to avoid confounding results when using NOS activity assays.

  3. Potentiation of osteoclast bone-resorption activity by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, T P; Collin-Osdoby, P; Patel, N; Osdoby, P; Krukowski, M; Misko, T P; Settle, S L; Currie, M G; Nickols, G A

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the effects of modulating nitric oxide (NO) levels on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro and the effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on bone mineral density in vivo. Diaphorase-based histochemical staining for NOS activity of bone sections or highly enriched osteoclast cultures suggested that osteoclasts exhibit substantial NOS activity that may account for basal NO production. Chicken osteoclasts were cultured for 36 hr on bovine bone slices in the presence or absence of the NO-generating agent sodium nitroprusside or the NOS inhibitors N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine. Nitroprusside markedly decreased the number of bone pits and the average pit area in comparison with control cultures. On the other hand, NOS inhibition by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or aminoguanidine dramatically increased the number of bone pits and the average resorption area per pit. In a model of osteoporosis, aminoguanidine potentiated the loss of bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. Aminoguanidine also caused a loss of bone mineral density in the sham-operated rats. Inhibition of NOS activity in vitro and in vivo resulted in an apparent potentiation of osteoclast activity. These findings suggest that endogenous NO production in osteoclast cultures may regulate resorption activity. The modulation of NOS and NO levels by cells within the bone microenvironment may be a sensitive mechanism for local control of osteoclast bone resorption. Images PMID:7513424

  4. Bacterial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Crane, Brian R; Sudhamsu, Jawahar; Patel, Bhumit A

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are multidomain metalloproteins first identified in mammals as being responsible for the synthesis of the wide-spread signaling and protective agent nitric oxide (NO). Over the past 10 years, prokaryotic proteins that are homologous to animal NOSs have been identified and characterized, both in terms of enzymology and biological function. Despite some interesting differences in cofactor utilization and redox partners, the bacterial enzymes are in many ways similar to their mammalian NOS (mNOS) counterparts and, as such, have provided insight into the structural and catalytic properties of the NOS family. In particular, spectroscopic studies of thermostable bacterial NOSs have revealed key oxyheme intermediates involved in the oxidation of substrate L-arginine (Arg) to product NO. The biological functions of some bacterial NOSs have only more recently come to light. These studies disclose new roles for NO in biology, such as taking part in toxin biosynthesis, protection against oxidative stress, and regulation of recovery from radiation damage.

  5. Morphine-induced changes in cerebral and cerebellar nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Leza, J C; Lizasoain, I; San-Martín-Clark, O; Lorenzo, P

    1995-10-04

    The effect of acute and chronic morphine treatment on nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity (determined by the rate of conversion of [14C]arginine into [14C]citrulline) on mouse brain was studied. Acute morphine treatment induced an increased in Ca2+ -dependent NO synthase in cerebellum. This effect was blocked by coadministration with naloxone. Chronic morphine treatment (by s.c. pellet) also produced an increase in cerebellar NO synthase, with a maximum on the second day of implantation. No significant changes were found in frontal cortex and forebrain during acute or chronic morphine treatment. The relationship between opiate effects and the L-arginine: NO pathway is discussed.

  6. Nitric oxide increases susceptibility of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages to spreading Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Caroline; Thomas, Stacey; Filak, Holly; Henson, Peter M.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation activates macrophages to resist intracellular pathogens. Yet, the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes lethal infections in spite of innate immune cell activation. Lm uses direct cell-cell spread to disseminate within its host. Here, we have shown that TLR-activated macrophages killed cell-free Lm but failed to prevent infection by spreading Lm. Instead, TLR signals increased the efficiency of Lm spread from “donor” to “recipient” macrophages. This enhancement required nitric oxide (NO) production by nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2). NO increased Lm escape from secondary vacuoles in recipient cells and delayed maturation of phagosomes containing membrane-like particles that mimic Lm-containing pseudopods. NO also promoted Lm spread during systemic in vivo infection, as inhibition of NOS2 with 1400W reduced spread-dependent Lm burdens in mouse livers. These findings reveal a mechanism by which pathogens capable of cell-cell spread can avoid the consequences of innate immune cell activation by TLR stimuli. PMID:22542147

  7. Nitric Oxide Regulates Neuronal Activity via Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lei Ray; Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons. PMID:24236040

  8. Antileishmanial Activity and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation by RuNO Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Natalia Yoshie; Fortes dos Santos Thomazelli, Ana Paula; Tomiotto-Pellissier, Fernanda; Kian, Danielle; Megumi Yamauchi, Lucy; Gouveia Júnior, Florêncio S.; de França Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga; Cecchini, Rubens; Nazareth Costa, Idessânia; Jerley Nogueira da Silva, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Leishmania are capable of inhibiting effector functions of macrophages. These parasites have developed the adaptive ability to escape host defenses; for example, they inactivate the NF-κB complex and suppress iNOS expression in infected macrophages, which are responsible for the production of the major antileishmanial substance nitric oxide (NO), favoring then its replication and successful infection. Metal complexes with NO have been studied as potential compounds for the treatment of certain tropical diseases, such as ruthenium compounds, known to be exogenous NO donors. In the present work, the compound cis-[Ru(bpy)2SO3(NO)]PF6, or RuNO, showed leishmanicidal activity directly and indirectly on promastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. In addition, treatment with RuNO increased NO production by reversing the depletion of NO caused by Leishmania. We also found increased expression of Akt, iNOS, and NF-κB in infected and treated macrophages. These results demonstrated that RuNO was able to kill the parasite by NO release and modulate the transcriptional capacity of the cell. PMID:27795620

  9. Cytochrome cb-type nitric oxide reductase with cytochrome c oxidase activity from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T; Fukumori, Y

    1996-04-01

    A highly active nitric oxide reductase was purified from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512, formerly named Thiosphaera pantotropha, which was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of nitrate. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 34 and 15 kDa and contained two hemes b and one heme c per molecule. Copper was not found in the enzyme. The spectral properties suggested that one of the two hemes b and heme c were in six-coordinated low-spin states and another heme b was in a five-coordinated high-spin state and reacted with carbon monoxide. The enzyme showed high cytochrome c-nitric oxide oxidoreductase activity and formed nitrous oxide from nitric oxide with the expected stoichiometry when P. denitrificans ATCC 35512 ferrocytochrome c-550 was used as the electron donor. The V max and Km values for nitric oxide were 84 micromol of nitric oxide per min/mg of protein and 0.25 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme showed ferrocytochrome c-550-O2 oxidoreductase activity with a V max of 8.4 micromol of O2 per min/mg of protein and a Km value of 0.9 mM. Both activities were 50% inhibited by about 0.3 mM KCN.

  10. Activation of peroxynitrite by inducible nitric-oxide synthase: a direct source of nitrative stress.

    PubMed

    Maréchal, Amandine; Mattioli, Tony A; Stuehr, Dennis J; Santolini, Jérôme

    2007-05-11

    In mammals, nitric oxide (NO) is an essential biological mediator that is exclusively synthesized by nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs). However, NOSs are also directly or indirectly responsible for the production of peroxynitrite, a well known cytotoxic agent involved in numerous pathophysiological processes. Peroxynitrite reactivity is extremely intricate and highly depends on activators such as hemoproteins. NOSs present, therefore, the unique ability to both produce and activate peroxynitrite, which confers upon them a major role in the control of peroxynitrite bioactivity. We report here the first kinetic analysis of the interaction between peroxynitrite and the oxygenase domain of inducible NOS (iNOSoxy). iNOSoxy binds peroxynitrite and accelerates its decomposition with a second order rate constant of 22 x 10(4) m(-1)s(-1) at pH 7.4. This reaction is pH-dependent and is abolished by the binding of substrate or product. Peroxynitrite activation is correlated with the observation of a new iNOS heme intermediate with specific absorption at 445 nm. iNOSoxy modifies peroxynitrite reactivity and directs it toward one-electron processes such as nitration or one-electron oxidation. Taken together our results suggest that, upon binding to iNOSoxy, peroxynitrite undergoes homolytic cleavage with build-up of an oxo-ferryl intermediate and concomitant release of a NO(2)(.) radical. Successive cycles of peroxynitrite activation were shown to lead to iNOSoxy autocatalytic nitration and inhibition. The balance between peroxynitrite activation and self-inhibition of iNOSoxy may determine the contribution of NOSs to cellular oxidative stress.

  11. Copper enhances EDNO (endothelium-derived nitric oxide) activity by cultured human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Oguri, T; Ueda, D; Tada, M

    1996-06-01

    The effect of copper sulfate (Cu) on viable cell number, endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated. The viable cell number was not affected by the addition of Cu (1.0-500.0 microM). To assess the effect of EDNO by HUVEC, platelet aggregation experiments were performed, using cuvettes lined with HUVEC. Thrombin (0.05 units/ml)-induced platelet aggregation was markedly inhibited in the presence of HUVEC compared with aggregation in the absence of HUVEC. The HUVEC-dependent anti-platelet aggregatory effect was slightly reduced when HUVEC were pretreated with indomethacin (IND; 1.0 micro M), an inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. However, the thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in the presence of HUVEC pretreated with IND was smaller than that in the absence of HUVEC, which is dependent on EDNO. The anti-platelet aggregatory effect of HUVEC pretreated with IND was increased dose-dependently by 48-hour pretreatment of HUVEC with Cu (1.0-100.0 microM). To assess the effect of Cu on NOS, HUVEC were stained with NOS/NADPH diaphorase. However, there were no significant differences in the NOS-positive HUVEC cell count between cells without Cu and those with various concentrations of Cu. These findings suggest that Cu stimulates the activity of EDNO, which action may be dependent on Cu decreasing EDNO-oxidative damage.

  12. Cyclosporin-A inhibits constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity and neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expressions after spinal cord injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Vergara, Paula; Perez-Severiano, Francisca; Segovia, Jose; Guizar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Ibarra, Antonio; Ríos, Camilo

    2005-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). NO is produced by three types of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes: The constitutive Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoforms, and the inducible calcium-independent isoform (iNOS). During the early stages of SCI, nNOS and eNOS produce significant amounts of NO, therefore, the regulation of their activity and expression may participate in the damage after SCI. In the present study, we used Cyclosporin-A (CsA) to further substantiate the role of Ca-dependent NOS in neural responses associated to SCI. Female Wistar rats were subjected to SCI by contusion, and killed 4 h after lesion. Results showed an increase in the activity of constitutive NOS (cNOS) after lesion, inhibited by CsA (2.5 mg/kg i.p.). Western blot assays showed an increased expression of both nNOS and eNOS after trauma, also antagonized by CsA administration.

  13. [Nitric oxide production in plants].

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Urszula

    2007-01-01

    There are still many controversial observations and opinions on the cellular/subcellular localization and sources of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis in plant cells. NO can be produced in plants by non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems depending on plant species, organ or tissue as well as on physiological state of the plant and changing environmental conditions. The best documented reactions in plant that contribute to NO production are NO production from nitrite as a substrate by cytosolic (cNR) and membrane bound (PM-NR) nitrate reductases (NR), and NO production by several arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase-like activities (NOS). The latest papers indicate that mitochondria are an important source of arginine- and nitrite-dependent NO production in plants. There are other potential enzymatic sources of NO in plants including xanthine oxidoreductase, peroxidase, cytochrome P450.

  14. Angiotensin II activates endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase via AT1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Hirata, Y; Emori, T; Imai, T; Marumo, F

    1996-09-01

    To determine whether angiotensin (ANG) II, a vasoconstrictor hormone, activates constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs), we investigated the cellular mechanism by which ANG II induces nitric oxide (NO) formation in cultured bovine ECs. ANG II rapidly (within 1 min) and dose-dependently (10(-9)-10(-6) M) increased nitrate/nitrite (NOx) production. This effect of ANG II was abolished by a NOS inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. An ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist (DuP 753), but not an ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist (PD 123177), dose-dependently inhibited ANG II-induced NOx production. A Ca(2+)-channel blocker (barnidipine) failed to affect ANG II-induced NOx production, whereas an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA) and a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7) abolished NOx production induced by ANG II. A protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (H-7) and down-regulation of endogenous PKC after pretreatment with phorbol ester decreased NOx production stimulated by ANG II. ANG II transiently stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) formation, and increased cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations; these effects were blocked by DuP 753. Our data demonstrate that ANG II stimulates NO release by activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent cNOS via AT1 receptors in bovine ECs.

  15. Effect of cadmium on diaphorase activity and nitric oxide production in barley root tips.

    PubMed

    Valentovicová, Katarína; Halusková, L'ubica; Huttová, Jana; Mistrík, Igor; Tamás, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Cd on NADPH-diaphorase activity and nitric oxide (NO) production was investigated in barley root tips. The Cd-induced increase of NADPH-diaphorase activity occurred at the elongation zone and increased further in the differentiation zone of barley root tips. This activity was associated primarily with the microsomal membrane fraction of crude extract. In situ analysis revealed that the diaphorase activity was localized in the metaxylem and metaphloem elements and to some cells of the pericycle and parenchyma of root tips. Cd-induced NO generation was observed in pericycle, parenchymatic stelar cells and companion cells of protophloem. The results suggest that the Cd-induced generation of NO functions in Cd toxicity through the ectopic and accelerated differentiation of root tips, causing the shortening of the root elongation zone and a subsequent reduction in root growth.

  16. Chitinous materials inhibit nitric oxide production by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hwang, S M; Chen, C Y; Chen, S S; Chen, J C

    2000-04-29

    Chitinous materials have been studied in wound healing and artificial skin substitutes for many years. Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to contribute to cytotoxicity in cell proliferation during inflammation of wound healing. In this study, we examined the effect of chitin and its derivatives on NO production by activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chitin and chitosan showed a significantly inhibitory effect on NO production by the activated macrophages. Hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose also inhibited NO production but with less potency. However, N-acetylchitotetraose, -triose, -biose, and monomer of chitin, N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine had little effect on NO production by the activated cells. These results suggest that the promotive effect of chitinous material on wound healing be related, at least partly, to inhibit NO production by the activated macrophages.

  17. Circadian variation in the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on body temperature, feeding and activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamerman, Peter; Mitchell, Duncan; Laburn, Helen

    2002-02-01

    We have investigated whether there is circadian variation in the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on body temperature, physical activity and feeding. We used nocturnally active Sprague-Dawley rats, housed at approximately 24 degrees C with a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (lights on 07:00 hours) and provided with food and water ad libitum. Nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of the unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME, 100, 50, 25, 10 mg/kg), or the relatively selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (100, 50 mg/kg), during the day ( approximately 09:00 hours) or night ( approximately 21:00 hours). Body temperature and physical activity were measured using radiotelemetry, while food intake was calculated by weighing each animal's food before as well as 12 and 24 h after each injection. We found that daytime injection of L-NAME and aminoguanidine had no effect on daytime body temperature. However, daytime injection of both drugs did decrease nocturnal food intake ( P<0.05) and activity ( P<0.05). When injected at night, L-NAME reduced night-time body temperature ( P<0.01), activity ( P<0.05) and food intake ( P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner, but night-time injection of aminoguanidine inhibited only night-time activity ( P<0.05). The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on body temperature, feeding and activity therefore are primarily a consequence of inhibiting constitutively expressed nitric oxide synthase, and are subject to circadian variation.

  18. Detection of nitric oxide pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.; Weisbach, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Studies of absorption spectra enhancement of certain atomic and molecular species inserter in dye-laser cavities have indicated that nitric oxide can be determined at low concentrations. Absorption coefficient of small amounts of nitric oxide in intra-laser-cavity absorption cell containing helium is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude.

  19. Dobesilate enhances endothelial nitric oxide synthase-activity in macro- and microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Suschek, Christoph; Kolb, Hubert; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Dobesilate is used for normalizing vascular dysfunction in a number of diseases. In search for an effect on endothelial NO production, macrovascular endothelial cells from rat aorta, microvascular endothelial cells from rat exocrine pancreatic tissue, and capillary endothelial cells from rat islets, were cultured in the presence or absence of Mg-Dobesilate. The activity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) in resident cells as well as of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cytokine-activated cells was measured indirectly by recording the citrulline concentrations in culture supernatants.In each of the different endothelial cells Mg-Dobesilate incubation (0.25–1 mM) for 24 h led to a significant and concentration-dependent increase in ecNOS-activities. With cytokine-activated endothelial cell cultures only moderate effects were seen with little or no concentration-dependency. Addition of the NOS-inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine led to a significant suppression of citrulline formation in all cultures as an evidence for the enzyme specificity of these effects.iNOS- and ecNOS-specific reverse transcription and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) with RNA from resident or cytokine-activated endothelial cells gave no evidence for an increase in NOS-specific mRNA after Mg-Dobesilate-treatment. Furthermore, Dobesilate-mediated enhancement of NO synthesis in resting endothelial cells was not due to iNOS induction in these cells, as no iNOS-specific signal was found by RT–PCR. PMID:9421302

  20. Calreticulin Transacetylase mediated activation of human platelet nitric oxide synthase by acetyl group donor compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajit; Sushama, Anupam; Manral, Sushma; Sinha, Rajesh; Joshi, Rini; Singh, Usha; Rohil, Vishwajeet; Prasad, Ashok K; Parmar, Virinder S; Raj, Hanumantharao G

    2012-01-01

    Polyphenols have attracted immense interest because of their diverse biological and pharmacological activities. Surprisingly, not much is documented about the biological activities of acetoxy derivatives of polyphenol called polyphenolic acetates (PA). In our previous reports, we have conclusively established the Calreticulin Transacetylase (CRTAase) catalyzed activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by PA. In the present work, specificity of CRTAase to various classes of PA was characterized in human platelet. The effect of PA, on platelet NOS and intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation were studied in an elaborated manner. Platelet CRTAase exhibited differential specificities to polyphenolic acetates upon incubation with l-arginine leading to activation of NOS. The intraplatelet generation of NO was studied by flowcytometry using DCFH-DA. The differential specificities of CRTAase to PA were found to positively correlate with increased production of NO upon incubation of PRP with PA and l-arginine. Further, the inhibitory effect of l-NAME on PA induced NO formation in platelets substantiated the CRTAase catalyzed activation of NOS. The real-time RT-PCR profile of NOS isoforms confirmed the preponderance of eNOS over iNOS in human platelets on treatment with PA. Western blot analysis also reiterated the differential pattern of acetylation of eNOS by PA. PA were also found effective in increasing the intraplatelet cGMP levels and inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation. It is worth mentioning that the effects of PA were found to be in tune with the specificities of platelet CRTAase to PA as the substrates.

  1. Mechanism of purinergic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleide Gonçalves; Specht, Anke; Wegiel, Barbara; Ferran, Christiane; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Background Decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production are critical contributors to endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications observed in many diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Extracellular nucleotides activate eNOS and increase NO generation, however the mechanism of this observation is not fully clarified. Methods and Results To elucidate the signaling pathway(s) leading to nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) were treated with several nucleotides including, ATP, UTP, and ADP in the presence or absence of selective inhibitors. These experiments identified P2Y1, P2Y2 and possibly P2Y4 as the purinergic receptors involved in eNOS phosphorylation, and demonstrated that this process was adenosine-independent. Nucleotide-induced eNOS phosphorylation and activity were inhibited by BAPTA-AM (an intracellular free calcium chelator), rottlerin (a protein kinase C (PKC) delta inhibitor) and PKC delta siRNA. In contrast, blockade of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) II, CaMK kinase (CaMKK), serine/threonine protein kinase B (Akt), protein kinase A (PKA), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) did not affect nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusions The present study indicates that extracellular nucleotide-mediated eNOS phosphorylation is calcium and PKC delta dependent. This newly identified signaling pathway opens new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of endothelial dysfunction. PMID:19188511

  2. Nitric Oxide Activation by Distal Redox Modulation in Tetranuclear Iron Nitrosyl Complexes

    PubMed Central

    de Ruiter, Graham; Thompson, Niklas B.; Lionetti, Davide; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    A series of tetranuclear iron complexes displaying a site-differentiated metal center were synthesized. Three of the metal centers are coordinated to our previously reported ligand, based on a 1,3,5-triarylbenzene motif with nitrogen and oxygen donors. The fourth (apical) iron center is coordinatively unsaturated and appended to the trinuclear core through three bridging pyrazolates and an interstitial μ4-oxide moiety. Electrochemical studies of complex [LFe3(PhPz)3OFe][OTf]2 revealed three reversible redox events assigned to the FeII4/FeII3FeIII (−1.733 V), FeII3FeIII/FeII2FeIII2 (−0.727 V), and FeII2FeIII2/FeIIFeIII3 (0.018 V) redox-couples. Complexes in all redox states were isolated, and three were characterized structurally by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Combined Mössbauer spectroscopic and crystallographic studies indicate that the change in oxidation state is exclusively localized at the triiron core, without changing the oxidation state of the apical metal center. This phenomenon is assigned to differences in the coordination environment of the two metal sites in the cluster, and provides a strategy for storing electron and hole equivalents without affecting the oxidation state of the coordinatively unsaturated metal. The presence of an additional single ligand-binding site allowed for study of the effect of redox modulation on nitric oxide activation by an FeII metal center. Treatment of the clusters with nitric oxide resulted in binding of NO to the apical iron center generating a {FeNO}7 moiety. As with the NO-free precursors, three reversible redox events are observed electrochemically and are localized at the iron centers distal from the NO ligand. Altering the redox state of the triiron core resulted in significant change in the NO stretching frequency, by as much as 100 cm−1, indicative of NO activation modulated by remote metal centers. The increased activation of NO is attributed to structural changes within the clusters, in

  3. Constitutive nitric oxide synthase activation is a significant route for nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Marcelo G.; Stadler, Krisztian; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Corbett, Jean; Dore, Michael; Petranka, John; Fernandes, Denise C.; Tanaka, Leonardo Y.; Duma, Danielle; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Mason, Ronald P.

    2008-01-01

    The physiological effects of nitroglycerin as a potent vasodilator have long been documented. However, the molecular mechanisms by which nitroglycerin exerts its biological functions are still a matter of intense debate. Enzymatic pathways converting nitroglycerin to vasoactive compounds have been identified, but none of them seems to fully account for the reported clinical observations. Here, we demonstrate that nitroglycerin triggers constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation, which is a major source of NO responsible for low-dose (1–10 nM) nitroglycerin-induced vasorelaxation. Our studies in cell cultures, isolated vessels, and whole animals identified endothelial NOS activation as a fundamental requirement for nitroglycerin action at pharmacologically relevant concentrations in WT animals. PMID:18562300

  4. Estriol-induced fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin by nitric oxide synthesis in platelets.

    PubMed

    Jana, Pradipta; Maiti, Smarajit; Kahn, Nighat N; Sinha, Asru K

    2015-04-01

    Estriol, an oestrogen, at 0.6 nmol/l was reported to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation through nitric oxide synthesis. As nitric oxide has been reported to cause fibrinolysis due to the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, the role of estriol as a fibrinolytic agent was investigated. Also, the mechanism of estriol-induced nitric oxide synthesis in anucleated platelets was investigated. The estriol-induced lysis of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clot was determined by photography of the clot lysis and by the assay of fibrin degradation products in the lysate and was obtained by SDS-PAGE. Nitric oxide was determined by methemoglobin method. The platelet membrane protein was isolated from the platelets by using Triton X-100 (0.05% v/v). The binding of estriol to the protein was determined by Scatchard plot by using an ELISA for estriol. Estriol at 0.6 nmol/l was found to lyse the clotted PRP due to fibrinolysis that produced fibrin degradation products in the lysate. The amino acid analysis of the platelet membrane protein, which resembles with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, was activated nearly 10-fold over the control in the presence of estriol and was identified to be a human serum albumin precursor (Mr. 69 kDa) that binds to estriol with Kd1 of 6.0 × 10 mol/l and 39 ± 2 molecules of estriol bound the NOS molecule. The estriol-induced nitric oxide is capable of inducing fibrinolysis of the clotted PRP. The binding of estriol to platelet membrane NOS activated the enzyme in the absence of DNA in the platelet.

  5. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase expression in activated microglia and peroxynitrite scavenging activity by Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Yoon, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Tae Hee; Jin, Changbae; Kwak, Wie-Jong; Han, Chang-Kyun; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2006-09-01

    Activated microglia by neuronal injury or inflammatory stimulation overproduce nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, resulting in neurodegenerative diseases. The toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO-), the reaction product of NO and superoxide anion further contributes to oxidative neurotoxicity. A butanol fraction obtained from 50% ethanol extracts of Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten (Cactaceae) stem (SK OFB901) and its hydrolysis product (SK OFB901H) inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC50 15.9, 4.2 microg/mL, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at higher than 30 microg/mL as observed by western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. They also inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. Moreover, they showed strong activity of peroxynitrite scavenging in a cell free bioassay system. These results imply that Opuntia ficus indica may have neuroprotective activity through the inhibition of NO production by activated microglial cells and peroxynitrite scavenging activity.

  6. Nitric oxide activation by distal redox modulation in tetranuclear iron nitrosyl complexes.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Graham; Thompson, Niklas B; Lionetti, Davide; Agapie, Theodor

    2015-11-11

    A series of tetranuclear iron complexes displaying a site-differentiated metal center was synthesized. Three of the metal centers are coordinated to our previously reported ligand, based on a 1,3,5-triarylbenzene motif with nitrogen and oxygen donors. The fourth (apical) iron center is coordinatively unsaturated and appended to the trinuclear core through three bridging pyrazolates and an interstitial μ4-oxide moiety. Electrochemical studies of complex [LFe3(PhPz)3OFe][OTf]2 revealed three reversible redox events assigned to the Fe(II)4/Fe(II)3Fe(III) (-1.733 V), Fe(II)3Fe(III)/Fe(II)2Fe(III)2 (-0.727 V), and Fe(II)2Fe(III)2/Fe(II)Fe(III)3 (0.018 V) redox couples. Combined Mössbauer and crystallographic studies indicate that the change in oxidation state is exclusively localized at the triiron core, without changing the oxidation state of the apical metal center. This phenomenon is assigned to differences in the coordination environment of the two metal sites and provides a strategy for storing electron and hole equivalents without affecting the oxidation state of the coordinatively unsaturated metal. The presence of a ligand-binding site allowed the effect of redox modulation on nitric oxide activation by an Fe(II) metal center to be studied. Treatment of the clusters with nitric oxide resulted in binding of NO to the apical iron center, generating a {FeNO}(7) moiety. As with the NO-free precursors, the three reversible redox events are localized at the iron centers distal from the NO ligand. Altering the redox state of the triiron core resulted in significant change in the NO stretching frequency, by as much as 100 cm(-1). The increased activation of NO is attributed to structural changes within the clusters, in particular, those related to the interaction of the metal centers with the interstitial atom. The differences in NO activation were further shown to lead to differential reactivity, with NO disproportionation and N2O formation performed by the more

  7. [The evolutionary role of nitric oxide in circadian activity and defense of the organism from cosmic rays].

    PubMed

    Iamshanov, V A

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic rays are one of the constantly acting factors influencing on genetic apparatus and depending from sun activity, which have the circadian rhythm. The nature creates a number of mechanisms, which defend the organism from cosmic rays and free radicals as consequence. However, the malfunctions of these mechanisms damage the genetic apparatus, accelerate the aging and bring to a number of illnesses. It is supposed that to neutralise the free radicals as cosmic rays consequence the organism uses its own free radicals, which have the physiological functions, for example, the nitric oxide. To limit the nitric oxide production, the mechanism of melatonin formation is used, which has a circadian rhythm.

  8. Nitric oxide production inhibitory activity of flavonoids contained in trunk exudates of Dalbergia sissoo.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Suraj Prakash; Amano, Yuri; Narukawa, Yuji; Takeda, Tadahiro

    2008-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of trunk exudates of Dalbergia sissoo yielded two new open-chain neoflavonoids (1, 2), a new flavonoid (3), a new flavanone (4), and 26 known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses. The ability of the isolated compounds to prevent nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated J774.1 cells was also studied. All of the isolated compounds except 4, formononetin, and zenognosin B exhibited significant activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Compounds 2 and 3 were among the most potent NO production inhibitors, with IC50 values of 3.19 and 6.22 microM, respectively, and compound 1 had an IC50 of 31.6 microM.

  9. Polarized distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase regulates activity in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rumbo, Martin; Courjault-Gautier, Françoise; Sierro, Frédéric; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela

    2005-01-01

    Summary Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) functions as a homodimer. In cell extracts, iNOS molecules partition both in cytosolic and particulate fractions, indicating that iNOS exist as soluble and membrane associated forms. In this study, iNOS features were investigated in human intestinal epithelial cells stimulated with cytokines and in duodenum from mice exposed to flagellin. Our experiments indicate that iNOS is mainly associated to the particulate fraction of cell extracts. Confocal microscopy showed a preferential localization of iNOS at the apical pole of intestinal epithelial cells. In particulate fractions, iNOS dimers were more abundant than in the cytosolic fraction. Similar observations were done in mouse duodenum samples. These results suggest that, in epithelial cells, iNOS activity is regulated by localization-dependent processes. PMID:15654882

  10. Active site cysteine-null glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) rescues nitric oxide-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takeya; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Nakatsuji, Masatoshi; Itakura, Masanori; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Inui, Takashi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2016-02-29

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a homotetrameric enzyme involved in a key step of glycolysis, also has a role in mediating cell death under nitrosative stress. Our previous reports suggest that nitric oxide-induced intramolecular disulfide-bonding GAPDH aggregation, which occurs through oxidation of the active site cysteine (Cys-152), participates in a mechanism to account for nitric oxide-induced death signaling in some neurodegenerative/neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a rescue strategy for nitric oxide-induced cell death accompanied by GAPDH aggregation in a mutant with a substitution of Cys-152 to alanine (C152A-GAPDH). Pre-incubation of purified wild-type GAPDH with C152A-GAPDH under exposure to nitric oxide inhibited wild-type GAPDH aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Several lines of structural analysis revealed that C152A-GAPDH extensively interfered with nitric oxide-induced GAPDH-amyloidogenesis. Overexpression of doxycycline-inducible C152A-GAPDH in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma significantly rescued nitric oxide-induced death, concomitant with the decreased formation of GAPDH aggregates. Further, both co-immunoprecipitation assays and simulation models revealed a heterotetramer composed of one dimer each of wild-type GAPDH and C152A-GAPDH. These results suggest that the C152A-GAPDH mutant acts as a dominant-negative molecule against GAPDH aggregation via the formation of this GAPDH heterotetramer. This study may contribute to a new therapeutic approach utilizing C152A-GAPDH against brain damage in nitrosative stress-related disorders.

  11. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III Overexpression By Gene Therapy Exerts Antitumoral Activity In Mouse Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    González, Raúl; De la Rosa, Ángel J; Romero-Brufau, Santiago; Barrera-Pulido, Lydia; Gallardo-Chamizo, Francisco; Pereira, Sheila; Marín, Luís M; Álamo, José M; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ángeles; Padillo, Francisco J; Muntané, Jordi

    2015-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in cirrhotic liver. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase type III (NOS-3) overexpression induces cell death in hepatoma cells. The study developed gene therapy designed to specifically overexpress NOS-3 in cultured hepatoma cells, and in tumors derived from orthotopically implanted tumor cells in fibrotic livers. Liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 administration in mice. Hepa 1-6 cells were used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The first generation adenovirus was designed to overexpress NOS-3 (or GFP) and luciferase cDNA under the regulation of murine alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) promoters, respectively. Both adenoviruses were administered through the tail vein two weeks after orthotopic tumor cell implantation. AFP-NOS-3/RSV-Luciferase increased oxidative-related DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and caspase-8 activity in cultured Hepa 1-6 cells. The increased expression of CD95/CD95L and caspase-8 activity was abolished by l-NAME or p53 siRNA. The tail vein infusion of AFP-NOS- 3/RSV-Luciferase adenovirus increased cell death markers, and reduced cell proliferation of established tumors in fibrotic livers. The increase of oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by NOS-3 overexpression induced DNA damage, p53, CD95/CD95L expression and cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The effectiveness of the gene therapy has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Jujuboside B Reduces Vascular Tension by Increasing Ca2+ Influx and Activating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yixiu; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jiannan; Bian, Yu; Sheng, Miaomiao; Liu, Bin; Fu, Zidong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside B has been reported to have protective effect on many cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Jujuboside B on vascular tension and endothelial function are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Jujuboside B on reducing vascular tension, protecting endothelial function and the potential mechanisms. The tension of isolated rat thoracic aorta ring was measured by Wire myograph system. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were determined by Griess reagent method and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. The protein levels of eNOS and p-eNOS at Serine-1177 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HAECs was measured by laser confocal imaging microscopy. Results showed that Jujuboside B reduced the tension of rat thoracic aorta rings with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME, KN93, EGTA, SKF96365, iberiotoxin and glibenclamide significantly attenuated Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact tissues. In contrast, indometacin and 4-DAMP had no such effects. Jujuboside B also promoted NO generation and increased eNOS activity, which were attenuated by L-NAME, EGTA and SKF96365. Moreover, Jujuboside B increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration dose-dependently, which was inhibited by EGTA and SKF96365. Besides, Jujuboside B induced a rapid Ca2+ influx instantaneously after depleting intracellular Ca2+ store, which was significantly inhibited by SKF96365. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that Jujuboside B reduced vascular tension endothelium-dependently. The underlying mechanisms involved that Jujuboside B increased extracellular Ca2+ influx through endothelial transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, phosphorylated eNOS and promoted NO generation in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation involved

  13. Jujuboside B Reduces Vascular Tension by Increasing Ca2+ Influx and Activating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixiu; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jiannan; Bian, Yu; Sheng, Miaomiao; Liu, Bin; Fu, Zidong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside B has been reported to have protective effect on many cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Jujuboside B on vascular tension and endothelial function are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Jujuboside B on reducing vascular tension, protecting endothelial function and the potential mechanisms. The tension of isolated rat thoracic aorta ring was measured by Wire myograph system. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were determined by Griess reagent method and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. The protein levels of eNOS and p-eNOS at Serine-1177 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HAECs was measured by laser confocal imaging microscopy. Results showed that Jujuboside B reduced the tension of rat thoracic aorta rings with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME, KN93, EGTA, SKF96365, iberiotoxin and glibenclamide significantly attenuated Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact tissues. In contrast, indometacin and 4-DAMP had no such effects. Jujuboside B also promoted NO generation and increased eNOS activity, which were attenuated by L-NAME, EGTA and SKF96365. Moreover, Jujuboside B increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration dose-dependently, which was inhibited by EGTA and SKF96365. Besides, Jujuboside B induced a rapid Ca2+ influx instantaneously after depleting intracellular Ca2+ store, which was significantly inhibited by SKF96365. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that Jujuboside B reduced vascular tension endothelium-dependently. The underlying mechanisms involved that Jujuboside B increased extracellular Ca2+ influx through endothelial transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, phosphorylated eNOS and promoted NO generation in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation involved

  14. Gomisin J from Schisandra chinensis induces vascular relaxation via activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Young; Choi, Young Whan; Yun, Jung Wook; Bae, Jin Ung; Seo, Kyo Won; Lee, Seung Jin; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Gomisin J (GJ) is a lignan contained in Schisandra chinensis (SC) which is a well-known medicinal herb for improvement of cardiovascular symptoms in Korean. Thus, the present study examined the vascular effects of GJ, and also determined the mechanisms involved. Exposure of rat thoracic aorta to GJ (1-30μg/ml) resulted in a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation, which was more prominent in the endothelium (ED)-intact aorta. ED-dependent relaxation induced by GJ was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. In the intact endothelial cells of rat thoracic aorta, GJ also enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production. In studies using human coronary artery endothelial cells, GJ enhanced phosphorylation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) at Ser(1177) with increased cytosolic translocation of eNOS, and subsequently increased NO production. These effects of GJ were attenuated not only by calcium chelators including EGTA and BAPTA-AM, but also by LY294002, a PI3K/Akt inhibitor, indicating calcium- and PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of eNOS by GJ. Moreover, the levels of intracellular calcium were increased immediately after GJ administration, but Akt phosphorylation was started to increase at 20min of GJ treatment. Based on these results with the facts that ED-dependent relaxation occurred rapidly after GJ treatment, it was suggested that the ED-dependent vasorelaxant effects of GJ were mediated mainly by calcium-dependent activation of eNOS with subsequent production of endothelial NO.

  15. Functional regulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Schmeltzer, Christian; Sousa, Erica; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Rüdiger, Sten; Hamassaki, Dânia Emi; Cerchiaro, Giselle; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    In the nervous system within physiological conditions, nitric oxide (NO) production depends on the activity of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), and particularly on the expression of the neuronal isoform (nNOS). In the sensory systems, the role of NO is poorly understood. In this study, we identified nNOS-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the rat retina, with distinct characteristics such as somata size, immunolabeling level and location. Employing mathematical cluster analysis, we determined that nNOS amacrine cells are formed by two distinct populations. We next investigated the molecular identity of these cells, which did not show colocalization with calbindin (CB), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), parvalbumin (PV) or protein kinase C (PKC), and only partial colocalization with calretinin (CR), revealing the accumulation of nNOS in specific amacrine cell populations. To access the functional, circuitry-related roles of these cells, we performed experiments after adaptation to different ambient light conditions. After 24h of dark-adaptation, we detected a subtle, yet statistically significant decrease in nNOS transcript levels, which returned to steady-state levels after 24h of normal light-dark cycle, revealing that nNOS expression is governed by ambient light conditions. Employing electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we demonstrated that dark-adaptation decreases NO production in the retina. Furthermore, nNOS accumulation changed in the dark-adapted retinas, with a general reduction in the inner plexiform layer. Finally, computational analysis based on clustering techniques revealed that dark-adaptation differently affected both types of nNOS-positive amacrine cells. Taken together, our data disclosed functional regulation of nNOS expression and activity, disclosing new circuitry-related roles of nNOS-positive cells. More importantly, this study indicated unsuspected roles for NO in the sensory systems, particularly related to adaptation to

  16. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Atiye; Sahinarslan, Asife

    2006-12-01

    Endothelium has many important functions including the control of blood-tissue permeability and vascular tonus, regulation of vascular surface properties for homeostasis and inflammation. Nitric oxide is the chief molecule in regulation of endothelial functions. Nitric oxide deficiency, which is also known as endothelial dysfunction, is the first step for the occurrence of many disease states in cardiovascular system including heart failure, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, hyperhomocysteinemia and smoking. This review deals with the importance of nitric oxide for cardiovascular system. It also includes the latest improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Characterization of nitric oxide synthase activity in sheep urinary tract: functional implications.

    PubMed Central

    García-Pascual, A.; Costa, G.; Labadia, A.; Persson, K.; Triguero, D.

    1996-01-01

    1. To define further the role of nitric oxide (NO) in urinary tract function, we have measured the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and its relationship with functional NO-mediated responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the urethra, the detrusor and the ureter from sheep. NOS activity was assayed by the conversion of L-[14C]-arginine to L-[14C]-citrulline. Endogenous production of citrulline was confirmed by thin layer chromatography. 2. NOS enzymatic activity was detected in the cytosolic fraction from tissue homogenates with the following regional distribution (pmol citrulline mg-1 protein min-1): urethra (33 +/- 3.3), detrusor (13.1 +/- 1.1) and ureter (1.5 +/- 0.2). No activity was detected in the particulate fraction of any region. 3. NOS activity was dependent on Ca(2+)-calmodulin and required exogenously added NADPH and tetrahydrobyoptein (BH4) for maximal activity. Exclusion of calmodulin from the incubation mixture did not modify NOS activity, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of the calmodulin antagonist, calmidazolium, suggesting the presence of enough endogenous calmodulin to sustain the observed NOS activity. 4. NOS activity was inhibited to a greater extent by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) and its methyl ester (L-NAME) than by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), while 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) was a weak inhibitor and L-cannavine had no effect. 5. Citrulline formation could be inhibited by superoxide dismutase in an oxyhaemoglobin-sensitive manner, suggesting feedback inhibition of NOS by NO. 6. EFS induced prominent NO-mediated relaxations in the urethra while minor or no responses were observed in the detrusor and the ureter, respectively. Urethral relaxations to EFS were inhibited by NOS inhibitors with the rank order of potency: L-NOARG = L-NAME > 7-NI > L-NMMA. 7. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of NO-synthesizing enzymatic activity in the sheep urinary tract which shows similar

  18. Supplemental nitric oxide augments satellite cell activity on cultured myofibers from aged mice.

    PubMed

    Betters, Jenna L; Lira, Vitor A; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Drenning, Jason A; Criswell, David S

    2008-12-01

    Skeletal muscle regenerative potential is reduced with aging. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of muscle satellite cells would be compromised, and that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation would improve satellite cell activity in old muscle. Single intact myofibers were isolated from the gastrocnemius muscles of young (2 mo), adult (10 mo), and aged (22 mo) mice. Fibers were centrifuged to stimulate satellite cells and incubated with L-arginine (2mM), the NO donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA-NO; 10 microM), or control media for 48 h. The number of activated satellite cells after centrifugation was reduced in aged fibers compared to young and adult. L-arginine or DETA-NO treatment increased satellite cell activation in all age groups. However, an age-dependent deficit in satellite cell activity persisted within treatment groups. In separate fibers, exogenous HGF was equally effective in activating satellite cells across age groups, indicating that events downstream of HGF release are intact in aged muscle. These data suggest that l-arginine bioavailability and NO production limit muscle satellite cell activity in response to a submaximal mechanical stimulus, regardless of age. Further, the decline in satellite cell activity in early senescence can be partially abrogated by exogenous L-arginine or an NO donor.

  19. Inhibitory activity of plant stilbenoids against nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    PubMed

    Nassra, Merian; Krisa, Stéphanie; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Kapche, Gilbert Deccaux; Bisson, Jonathan; André, Caroline; Konsman, Jan-Pieter; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Microglia-driven inflammatory processes are thought to play an important role in ageing and several neurological disorders. Since consumption of a diet rich in polyphenols has been associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we studied the effects of twenty-five stilbenoids isolated from Milicia excelsa, Morus alba, Gnetum africanum, and Vitis vinifera. These compounds were tested at 5 and 10 µM on BV-2 microglial cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Ten stilbenoids reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production at 5 and/or 10 µM. Two tetramers, E-vitisin A and E-vitisin B, were the most effective molecules. Moreover, they attenuated the expression of the inducible NO synthase protein and gene.

  20. Nitric Oxide Synthases and Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Ingrid M.; Sridhar, Arun; Györke, Sandor; Cardounel, Arturo J.; Carnes, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two NOS isoforms (1 and 3) are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of NOS 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for NOS in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of NOS activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed. PMID:22536189

  1. Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Miguel; Lago, Rocío; Lago, Francisca; Reino, Juan Jesús Gomez; Gualillo, Oreste

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with IL-1, on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) type II activity in vitro in human primary chondrocytes, in the mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line, and in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 differentiated chondrocytes. For completeness, we also investigated the signalling pathway of the putative synergism between leptin and IL-1. For this purpose, nitric oxide production was evaluated using the Griess colorimetric reaction in culture medium of cells stimulated over 48 hours with leptin (800 nmol/l) and IL-1 (0.025 ng/ml), alone or combined. Specific pharmacological inhibitors of NOS type II (aminoguanidine [1 mmol/l]), janus kinase (JAK)2 (tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/l] and LY294002 [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/l]), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1 (PD098059 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 μmol/l]) and p38 kinase (SB203580 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 μmol/l]) were added 1 hour before stimulation. Nitric oxide synthase type II mRNA expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes was investigated by real-time PCR and NOS II protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Our results indicate that stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1 results in dose-dependent nitric oxide production. In contrast, leptin alone was unable to induce nitric oxide production or expression of NOS type II mRNA or its protein. However, co-stimulation with leptin and IL-1 resulted in a net increase in nitric oxide concentration over IL-1 challenge that was eliminated by pretreatment with the NOS II specific inhibitor aminoguanidine. Pretreatment with tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip (a SOCS-1 mimetic peptide that inhibits JAK2) blocked nitric oxide production induced by leptin/IL-1. Finally, wortmannin, LY294002, PD098059 and SB203580 significantly decreased nitric oxide production. These findings were confirmed in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 chondrocytes, and

  2. Signalling pathway involved in nitric oxide synthase type II activation in chondrocytes: synergistic effect of leptin with interleukin-1.

    PubMed

    Otero, Miguel; Lago, Rocío; Lago, Francisca; Reino, Juan Jesús Gomez; Gualillo, Oreste

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of leptin, alone or in combination with IL-1, on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) type II activity in vitro in human primary chondrocytes, in the mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line, and in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5 differentiated chondrocytes. For completeness, we also investigated the signalling pathway of the putative synergism between leptin and IL-1. For this purpose, nitric oxide production was evaluated using the Griess colorimetric reaction in culture medium of cells stimulated over 48 hours with leptin (800 nmol/l) and IL-1 (0.025 ng/ml), alone or combined. Specific pharmacological inhibitors of NOS type II (aminoguanidine [1 mmol/l]), janus kinase (JAK)2 (tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K; wortmannin [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/l] and LY294002 [1, 2.5, 5 and 10 micromol/l]), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)1 (PD098059 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 micromol/l]) and p38 kinase (SB203580 [1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 micromol/l]) were added 1 hour before stimulation. Nitric oxide synthase type II mRNA expression in ATDC5 chondrocytes was investigated by real-time PCR and NOS II protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Our results indicate that stimulation of chondrocytes with IL-1 results in dose-dependent nitric oxide production. In contrast, leptin alone was unable to induce nitric oxide production or expression of NOS type II mRNA or its protein. However, co-stimulation with leptin and IL-1 resulted in a net increase in nitric oxide concentration over IL-1 challenge that was eliminated by pretreatment with the NOS II specific inhibitor aminoguanidine. Pretreatment with tyrphostin AG490 and Tkip (a SOCS-1 mimetic peptide that inhibits JAK2) blocked nitric oxide production induced by leptin/IL-1. Finally, wortmannin, LY294002, PD098059 and SB203580 significantly decreased nitric oxide production. These findings were confirmed in mature and hypertrophic ATDC5

  3. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... valve and valve seat that will not deteriorate in contact with nitric oxide. Cylinders or valves may...

  4. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... valve and valve seat that will not deteriorate in contact with nitric oxide. Cylinders or valves may...

  5. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... valve and valve seat that will not deteriorate in contact with nitric oxide. Cylinders or valves may...

  6. 49 CFR 173.337 - Nitric oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nitric oxide. 173.337 Section 173.337... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.337 Nitric oxide. (a) Nitric oxide must be... valve and valve seat that will not deteriorate in contact with nitric oxide. Cylinders or valves may...

  7. Hepatitis B virus X protein regulates hepatic glucose homeostasis via activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Jun; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Park, Do Sim; Han, Ying-Hao; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, Dong-Seok; Song, In-Sung; Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Minhye; Kim, Nam-Soon; Kim, Dae-Ghon; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Sang-Keun; Kim, Yo Na; Kim, Su Sung; Choi, Cheol Soo; Kim, Young-Bum; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-08-26

    Dysregulation of liver functions leads to insulin resistance causing type 2 diabetes mellitus and is often found in chronic liver diseases. However, the mechanisms of hepatic dysfunction leading to hepatic metabolic disorder are still poorly understood in chronic liver diseases. The current work investigated the role of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in regulating glucose metabolism. We studied HBx-overexpressing (HBxTg) mice and HBxTg mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Here we show that gene expressions of the key gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly increased in HepG2 cells expressing HBx (HepG2-HBx) and in non-tumor liver tissues of hepatitis B virus patients with high levels of HBx expression. In the liver of HBxTg mice, the expressions of gluconeogenic genes were also elevated, leading to hyperglycemia by increasing hepatic glucose production. However, this effect was insufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance. Importantly, the actions of HBx on hepatic glucose metabolism are thought to be mediated via iNOS signaling, as evidenced by the fact that deficiency of iNOS restored HBx-induced hyperglycemia by suppressing the gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes. Treatment of HepG2-HBx cells with nitric oxide (NO) caused a significant increase in the expression of gluconeogenic genes, but JNK1 inhibition was completely normalized. Furthermore, hyperactivation of JNK1 in the liver of HBxTg mice was also suppressed in the absence of iNOS, indicating the critical role for JNK in the mutual regulation of HBx- and iNOS-mediated glucose metabolism. These findings establish a novel mechanism of HBx-driven hepatic metabolic disorder that is modulated by iNOS-mediated activation of JNK.

  8. Suppressive activity of macrolide antibiotics on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide stimulation in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Terao, Hajime; Asano, Kazuhito; Kanai, Ken-ichi; Kyo, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, So; Hisamitsu, Tadashi; Suzaki, Harumi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-dose and long-term administration of macrolide antibiotics into patients with chronic airway inflammatory diseases could favorably modify their clinical conditions. However, the therapeutic mode of action of macrolides is not well understood. Free oxygen radicals, including nitric oxide (NO), are well recognized as the important final effector molecules in the development and the maintenance of inflammatory diseases. PURPOSE: The influence of macrolide antibiotics on NO generation was examined in vivo. METHODS: Male ICR mice, 5 weeks of age, were orally administered with either roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin or josamycin once a day for 2-4 weeks. The mice were then injected intraperitoneally with 5.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the plasma NO level was examined 6 h later. RESULTS: Although pre-treatment of mice with macrolide antibiotics for 2 weeks scarcely affected NO generation by LPS injection, the administration of macrolide antibiotics, except for josamycin, for 4 weeks significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO generation. The data in the present study also showed that pre-treatment of mice with macrolide antibiotics for 4 weeks significantly suppresses not only production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but also inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expressions, which are enhanced by LPS injection. CONCLUSION: These results strongly suggest that suppressive activity of macrolide antibiotics on NO generation in response to LPS stimulation in vivo may, in part, account for the clinical efficacy of macrolides on chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:14514469

  9. Depolymerization of macrophage microfilaments prevents induction and inhibits activity of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P D; Araujo, H M; Riveros-Moreno, V; Assreuy, J

    1996-12-01

    We have investigated the relationship between peritoneal murine macrophage cytoskeleton and nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). Activation of the cells with lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma (LI) induced iNOS, detected by nitrite or by labeled L-citrulline production and by a specific antibody against macrophage iNOS. Addition of cytochalasin B (a microfilament-depolymerizing agent) caused a dose-dependent inhibition in NO production by macrophages, whereas colchicine (a microtubule depolymerizing agent) inhibited it only by 20% and not dose-dependently. Addition of cytochalasin B together with LI abolished nitrite and L-citrulline accumulation as well as the amount of iNOS antigen in activated macrophage. Moreover, addition of cytochalasin B 6 or 12 h after stimulus, also decreased the nitrite and L-citrulline production by macrophages although iNOS antigen content by Western blot was the same in the presence or in the absence of cytochalasin B added 12 h after activation. Since cytochalasin B failed to inhibit iNOS activity directly, its inhibitory effects on NO production by macrophages is likely to be indirect, through microfilament network in central regions of cells, but not in filaments seen at pseudopodia or edging processes. Our findings demonstrate that disruption of microfilaments but not of microtubules prevents the iNOS induction process and inhibits its enzymatic activity in activated macrophages.

  10. A novel aphrodisiac compound from an orchid that activates nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Subramoniam, A; Gangaprasad, A; Sureshkumar, P K; Radhika, J; Arun, K B; Arun, B K

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to have roles in several crucial biological functions including vasodilation and penile erection. There are neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases that influence the levels of NO in tissues and blood. NO activates guanylate cyclase and thereby increases the levels of cyclic GMP (cGMP). Viagra (sildenafil), a top selling drug in the world for erectile dysfunction, inhibits phosphodiesterase-5, which hydrolyses cGMP to GMP. Thus, it fosters an NO-mediated increase in the levels of cGMP, which mediates erectile function. Here, we show the aphrodisiac activity of a novel chemical isolate from the flowers of an epiphytic orchid, Vanda tessellata (Roxb.) ex Don, which activates neuronal and endothelial, but not inducible, NO synthases. The aphrodisiac activity is caused by an increase in the level of NO in corpus cavernosum. The drug increases blood levels of NO as early as 30 min after oral administration. The active compound was isolated by column chromatography. Based on the spectral data, the active compound is found to be a new compound, 2,7,7-tri methyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptane. We anticipate that our findings could lead to the development of a commercially viable and valuable drug for erectile dysfunction.

  11. Novel enhancement mechanism of tyrosine hydroxylase enzymatic activity by nitric oxide through S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Sung, Chun Chau; Chung, Kenny K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting step enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. Catecholamines function both as hormone and neurotransmitters in the peripheral and central nervous systems, therefore TH’s expression and enzymatic activity is tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Several post-translational modifications have been shown to regulate TH’s enzymatic activity such as phosphorylation, nitration and S-glutathionylation. While phosphorylation at N-terminal of TH can activate its enzymatic activity, nitration and S-glutathionylation can inactivate TH. In this study, we found that TH can also be S-nitrosylated by nitric oxide (NO). S-nitrosylation is a reversible modification of cysteine (cys) residue in protein and is known to be an emerging signaling mechanism mediated by NO. We found that TH can be S-nitrosylated at cys 279 and TH S-nitrosylation enhances its enzymatic activity both in vitro and in vivo. These results provide a novel mechanism of how NO can modulate TH’s enzymatic activity through S-nitrosylation. PMID:28287127

  12. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO.

  13. Chemiluminescence of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, W. E.; Rusch, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the intensities of the delta and gamma bands of nitric oxide in the nighttime terrestrial thermosphere are presented and used to infer the rate coefficient for the transition from the C 2 Pi to the A 2 Sigma + states. The nightglow spectrum was observed between 1900 and 2300 A at a resolution of 15 A by a rocket-borne scanning 1/4-m spectrometer pointing north at an apogee of 150 km. Progressions of the delta, gamma and epsilon bands are identified on the spectra by the construction of synthetic spectra, and the contributions of resonance fluorescence to the total band intensities are calculated. Finally, the ratio of the sum of the gamma bands for v-prime = 0 to the sum of the delta bands for v-prime = 0 is used to derive a branching ratio of 0.21 + or - 0.04 to the A 2 Sigma + state, which yields a probability for the C-A transition of 5.6 + or - 1.5 x to the 6th/sec.

  14. Discrimination and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activity Correlation of Ajwa Dates from Different Grades and Origin.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Nur Ashikin; Mediani, Ahmed; Maulidiani, M; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Shaari, Khozirah; Lajis, Nordin H

    2016-10-28

    This study was aimed at examining the variations in the metabolite constituents of the different Ajwa grades and farm origins. It is also targeted at establishing the correlations between the metabolite contents and the grades and further to the nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity. Identification of the metabolites was generated using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy metabolomics analyses utilizing multivariate methods. The NO inhibitory activity was determined using a Griess assay. Multivariate data analysis, for both supervised and unsupervised approaches, showed clusters among different grades of Ajwa dates obtained from different farms. The compounds that contribute towards the observed separation between Ajwa samples were suggested to be phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and phenylalanine. Ajwa dates were shown to have different metabolite compositions and exhibited a wide range of NO inhibitory activity. It is also revealed that Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm exhibited more than 90% NO inhibitory activity compared to the other grades and origins. Phenolic compounds were among the compounds that played a role towards the greater capacity of NO inhibitory activity shown by Ajwa Grade 1 from the al-Aliah farm.

  15. Roles of nitric oxide in inducible resistance of Escherichia coli to activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nunoshiba, T; DeRojas-Walker, T; Tannenbaum, S R; Demple, B

    1995-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO.) is produced as a cytotoxic free radical through enzymatic oxidation of L-arginine in activated macrophages. Pure NO. gas was previously found to induce the Escherichia coli soxRS oxidative stress regulon, which is readily monitored by using a soxS'::lac fusion. The soxRS system includes antioxidant defenses, such as a superoxide dismutase and a DNA repair enzyme for oxidative damage, and protects E. coli from the cytotoxicity of NO.-generating macrophages. Previous experiments involved exposing E. coli to a bolus of NO. rather than the steadily generated gas expected of activated macrophages. We show here detectable induction of soxS transcription by NO. delivered at rates as low as 25 microM/h. Maximal induction was observed at 25 microM NO. per h under anaerobic conditions but at 125 microM/h aerobically. After incubation with murine macrophages, soxS expression was induced in the phagocytosed bacteria up to approximately 30-fold after an 8-h exposure. This in vivo induction was almost completely eliminated by the NO. synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. The inhibitor increased the survival of a delta soxRS strain but not that of wild-type E. coli after phagocytosis, which suggests that induction of the soxRS regulon by NO. can counteract most of the cytotoxic effects of NO. production by the macrophages. We show that the soxRS-regulated enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an important element of the defense against macrophages.

  16. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R.; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells. PMID:26977592

  17. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  18. Mechanical perturbations trigger endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Shunmugan; Raj, Rajendran Kadarkarai; Saravanakumar, Venkatesan; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Shathya, Yogarajan; Ali, B. Mohammed Jaffar; Sumantran, Venil; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a vascular signaling molecule, is primarily produced by endothelial NO synthase. Recently, a functional endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was described in red blood cells (RBC). The RBC-eNOS contributes to the intravascular NO pool and regulates physiological functions. However the regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications of RBC-eNOS are unknown. The present study investigated regulation and functions of RBC-eNOS under mechanical stimulation. This study shows that mechanical stimuli perturb RBC membrane, which triggers a signaling cascade to activate the eNOS. Extracellular NO level, estimated by the 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′, 7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate probe, was significantly increased under mechanical stimuli. Immunostaining and western blot studies confirmed that the mechanical stimuli phosphorylate the serine 1177 moiety of RBC-eNOS, and activates the enzyme. The NO produced by activation of RBC-eNOS in vortexed RBCs promoted important endothelial functions such as migration and vascular sprouting. We also show that mechanical perturbation facilitates nitrosylation of RBC proteins via eNOS activation. The results of the study confirm that mechanical perturbations sensitize RBC-eNOS to produce NO, which ultimately defines physiological boundaries of RBC structure and functions. Therefore, we propose that mild physical perturbations before, after, or during storage can improve viability of RBCs in blood banks. PMID:27345770

  19. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in contralateral testis during unilateral testicular torsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, K; Yoshida, K; Naito, K

    2003-01-01

    There are controversies about the injury of the contralateral testis during unilateral testicular torsion (UTT). An autonomic reflex arc between bilateral testes has been proposed. The authors focused on the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the contralateral testis during UTT. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats underwent unilateral torsion (1 h)-detorsion (up to 24 h). NO synthase (NOS) activity was detected as NADPH-diaphorase activity after fixation by paraformaldehyde. N-nitro-L-Arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 20 mg/kg) was injected intravenously to the other group of rats. To evaluate the testicular injury, proteolysis of alpha-fodrin production was detected by Western blotting. Apoptosis of the germ cells was evaluated by TUNEL. Long-term effect on spermatogenesis was evaluated by flow cytometry at 60 days after UTT. Transient activation of NOS was detected following the proteolysis of alpha-fodrin in the contralateral testis. L-NAME inhibited these alterations. NADPH-diaphorase activity and eNOS immunoreactivity were co-localized in the endothelial cells. These reactions were not observed in other organs. There was neither enhanced apoptosis nor deteriorated spermatogenesis in the contralateral testis during and 60 days after UTT. In the contralateral testis, eNOS-derived NO regulates the vasomotor function against unilateral testicular torsion, whereas it acts slightly cytotoxic. These results suggest the possible involvement of a testis-specific neurovasomotor reflex between the bilateral testes.

  20. In vivo control of soluble guanylate cyclase activation by nitric oxide: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, P; George, S C

    2001-01-01

    Free nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), an enzyme, within both pulmonary and vascular smooth muscle. sGC catalyzes the cyclization of guanosine 5'-triphosphate to guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Binding rates of NO to the ferrous heme(s) of sGC have been measured in vitro. However, a missing link in our understanding of the control mechanism of sGC by NO is a comprehensive in vivo kinetic analysis. Available literature data suggests that NO dissociation from the heme center of sGC is accelerated by its interaction with one or more cofactors in vivo. We present a working model for sGC activation and NO consumption in vivo. Our model predicts that NO influences the cGMP formation rate over a concentration range of approximately 5-100 nM (apparent Michaelis constant approximately 23 nM), with Hill coefficients between 1.1 and 1.5. The apparent reaction order for NO consumption by sGC is dependent on NO concentration, and varies between 0 and 1.5. Finally, the activation of sGC (half-life approximately 1-2 s) is much more rapid than deactivation (approximately 50 s). We conclude that control of sGC in vivo is most likely ultra-sensitive, and that activation in vivo occurs at lower NO concentrations than previously reported. PMID:11325714

  1. Active chlorine and nitric oxide formation from chemical rocket plume afterburning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leone, D. M.; Turns, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Chlorine and oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) released into the atmosphere contribute to acid rain (ground level or low-altitude sources) and ozone depletion from the stratosphere (high-altitude sources). Rocket engines have the potential for forming or activating these pollutants in the rocket plume. For instance, H2/O2 rockets can produce thermal NO(x) in their plumes. Emphasis, in the past, has been placed on determining the impact of chlorine release on the stratosphere. To date, very little, if any, information is available to understand what contribution NO(x) emissions from ground-based engine testing and actual rocket launches have on the atmosphere. The goal of this work is to estimate the afterburning emissions from chemical rocket plumes and determine their local stratospheric impact. Our study focuses on the space shuttle rocket motors, which include both the solid rocket boosters (SRB's) and the liquid propellant main engines (SSME's). Rocket plume afterburning is modeled employing a one-dimensional model incorporating two chemical kinetic systems: chemical and thermal equilibria with overlayed nitric oxide chemical kinetics (semi equilibrium) and full finite-rate chemical kinetics. Additionally, the local atmospheric impact immediately following a launch is modeled as the emissions diffuse and chemically react in the stratosphere.

  2. Endogenous nitric oxide accumulation is involved in the antifungal activity of Shikonin against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Zebin; Yan, Yu; Dong, Huaihuai; Zhu, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yuanying; Cao, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the antifungal activity of Shikonin (SK) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and to clarify the underlying mechanism. The results showed that the NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and L-arginine could enhance the antifungal activity of SK, whereas the NO production inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated antifungal action. Using the fluorescent dye 3-amino,4-aminomethyl-2′, 7-difluorescein, diacetate (DAF-FM DA), we found that the accumulation of NO in C. albicans was increased markedly by SK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, the results of real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) demonstrated that the transcription level of YHB1 in C. albicans was greatly increased upon incubation of SK. Consistently, the YHB1-null mutant (yhb1Δ/Δ) exhibited a higher susceptibility to SK than wild-type cells. In addition, although the transcription level of CTA4 in C. albicans was not significantly changed when exposed to SK, the CTA4-null mutant (cta4Δ/Δ) was more susceptible to SK. Collectively, SK is the agent found to execute its antifungal activity directly via endogenous NO accumulation, and NO-mediated damage is related to the suppression of YHB1 and the function of CTA4. PMID:27530748

  3. Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Myojo, Masahiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Fujita, Daishi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Akimoto, Tetsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.

  4. Telmisartan Activates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase via Ser1177 Phosphorylation in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myojo, Masahiro; Nagata, Daisuke; Fujita, Daishi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Takahashi, Masao; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Akimoto, Tetsu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Hirata, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:24827148

  5. Involvement of nitric oxide donor compounds in the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klink, Magdalena; Cedzyński, Maciej; St Swierzko, Anna; Tchórzewski, Henryk; Sulowska, Zofia

    2003-04-01

    The bactericidal activity of human neutrophils against extracellular and facultatively intracellular bacteria was studied in the presence of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a molsidomine metabolite. SNP and molsidomine are drugs commonly used as nitrovasodilators in coronary heart disease. It is demonstrated here that the NO donor compounds themselves did not affect the viability and survival of the bacterial strains tested. Neither SNP nor SIN-1 had any effect on the process of bacteria ingestion. In contrast, NO donors enhanced the ability of neutrophils to kill Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella Anatum. However, strains differed in their susceptibility to SNP- and SIN-1-mediated killing by neutrophils. Removal of the superoxide anion reduced the bactericidal activity of SNP- and SIN-1-treated neutrophils against E. coli and S. Anatum. This suggests that the NO derivatives formed in the reaction of NO generated from donors with the reactive oxygen species released by phagocytosed neutrophils potentiate the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro. The above original observation discussed here suggests clinical significance for the treatment of patients with nitrovasodilators in the course of coronary heart disease therapy.

  6. Nitric oxide-mediated cyclooxygenase activation. A key event in the antiplatelet effects of nitrovasodilators.

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, D; Currie, M G; Mollace, V

    1996-01-01

    We have evaluated the contributions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in the in vivo antiplatelet effects of clinically useful nitrovasodilators. In rats, intravenous infusion of three NO donors, glyceryl trinitrate, sodium nitroprusside, or 3'-morpholinosydnonimine, the stable metabolite of molsidomine, released 6-keto PGF1alpha (the stable metabolite of PGI2) and inhibited ex vivo human platelet aggregation to adenosine diphosphate by at least 80%. In in vitro studies, glyceryl trinitrate, sodium nitroprusside, and 3'-morpholinosydnonimine, at clinically attainable concentrations, increased cyclooxygenase activity in endothelial cells (EC), which resulted in a four- to sixfold release of 6-keto PGF1alpha. Pretreatment of the EC with hemoglobin which binds to and inactivates the biological actions of NO, but not by methylene blue (MelB), attenuated the NO-mediated PGI2 from the EC by at least 70%. Release of 6-keto PGF1alpha by the NO donors increased the ability of these compounds to inhibit thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation by at least 10 times; this potentiation was inhibited by hemoglobin but not by MeB. MeB blocked the direct anti-platelet effect of the NO donors in the absence of EC. In summary, we have demonstrated that NO, directly as well as together with an NO-driven cyclooxygenase activation (and hence PGI2), release contributes to the marked anti-platelet effects observed after the in vivo administration of clinically used nitrovasodilators. PMID:8647949

  7. A new and simple method for delivering clamped nitric oxide concentrations in the physiological range: application to activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled nitric oxide receptors.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charmaine; Wykes, Victoria; Bellamy, Tomas C; Garthwaite, John

    2003-12-01

    The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) could engage multiple pathways to influence cellular function. Unraveling their relative biological importance has been difficult because it has not been possible to administer NO under the steady-state conditions that are normally axiomatic for analyzing ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signal transduction. To address this problem, we devised a chemical method for generating constant NO concentrations, derived from balancing NO release from a NONOate donor with NO consumption by a sink. On theoretical grounds, 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) was selected as the sink. The mixture additionally contained urate to convert an unwanted product of the reaction (NO2) into nitrite ions. The method enabled NO concentrations covering the physiological range (0-100 nM) to be formed within approximately 1 s. Moreover, the concentrations were sufficiently stable over at least several minutes to be useful for biological purposes. When applied to the activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled NO receptors, the method gave an EC50 of 1.7 nM NO for the protein purified from bovine lung, which is lower than estimated previously using a biological NO sink (red blood cells). The corresponding values for the alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 isoforms were 0.9 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. The slopes of the concentration-response curves were more shallow than before (Hill coefficient of 1 rather than 2), questioning the need to consider the binding of more than one NO molecule for receptor activation. The discrepancies are ascribable to limitations of the earlier method. Other biological problems can readily be addressed by adaptations of the new method.

  8. In vitro investigation of the interaction between nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase activity in equine ventral colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    van Hoogmoed, L M; Harmon, F A; Stanley, S; White, J; Snyder, J

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between the presence of nitric oxide and prostaglandin release in the equine ventral colon smooth muscle, since this relationship may accentuate the inflammatory process during intestinal injury. Tissue was collected from the ventral colon, cut into muscle strips oriented along the circular, longitudinal and taenial layers, and mounted in a tissue bath system. Samples of the bath fluid were collected before, following electrical field stimulation (EFS), and following EFS in the presence of L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Muscle strips were also obtained following systemic administration of a cyclo-oxygnease inhibitor and samples were collected using the previously described protocol. Concentrations of prostaglandins were determined in the fluid samples using an ELISA. Electrical field stimulated release of nitric oxide produced a significant increase in prostaglandin production which did not occur in the presence of L-NAME. Systemic administration of flunixin meglumine reduced prostaglandin levels at all sampling periods, although a small increase was present following EFS. The results of this study support the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the release of nitric oxide and the production of prostaglandins in the smooth muscle of the large colon. This association between nitric oxide and prostaglandin may act as an important regulatory mechanism for various physiological mechanisms, such as vascular smooth muscle tone, and may contribute to amplified tissue injury when the induced forms of both enzymes are activated during an inflammatory insult. This suggests that the use and development of COX2 and iNOS inhibitors may help attenuate the inflammatory response following intestinal injury.

  9. Nitric oxide regulation of leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-kinase activity: implication in sorghum responses to salinity.

    PubMed

    Monreal, José A; Arias-Baldrich, Cirenia; Tossi, Vanesa; Feria, Ana B; Rubio-Casal, Alfredo; García-Mata, Carlos; Lamattina, Lorenzo; García-Mauriño, Sofía

    2013-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that mediates many plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, including salt stress. Interestingly, salinity increases NO production selectively in mesophyll cells of sorghum leaves, where photosynthetic C₄ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (C₄ PEPCase) is located. PEPCase is regulated by a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-kinase (PEPCase-k), which levels are greatly enhanced by salinity in sorghum. This work investigated whether NO is involved in this effect. NO donors (SNP, SNAP), the inhibitor of NO synthesis NNA, and the NO scavenger cPTIO were used for long- and short-term treatments. Long-term treatments had multifaceted consequences on both PPCK gene expression and PEPCase-k activity, and they also decreased photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters and plant growth. Nonetheless, it could be observed that SNP increased PEPCase-k activity, resembling salinity effect. Short-term treatments with NO donors, which did not change photosynthetic gas-exchange parameters and PPCK gene expression, increased PEPCase-k activity both in illuminated leaves and in leaves kept at dark. At least in part, these effects were independent on protein synthesis. PEPCase-k activity was not decreased by short-term treatment with cycloheximide in NaCl-treated plants; on the contrary, it was decreased by cPTIO. In summary, NO donors mimicked salt effect on PEPCase-k activity, and scavenging of NO abolished it. Collectively, these results indicate that NO is involved in the complex control of PEPCase-k activity, and it may mediate some of the plant responses to salinity.

  10. The Nitric Oxide Donor Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Reduces Platelet Activation in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Ulrike; Fraccarollo, Daniela; Widder, Julian D.; Micka, Jan; Neuser, Jonas; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelet activation associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired endogenous platelet inhibition is part of the cardiovascular phenotype of congestive heart failure (CHF) and contributes to the increased risk for thromboembolic complications. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) has been shown to release nitric oxide without development of nitrate tolerance. We investigated the effect of chronic PETN treatment on platelet activation and aggregation in an experimental CHF model. Methods and Results Chronic ischemic heart failure was induced in male Wistar rats by coronary artery ligation. Starting 7 days thereafter, rats were randomised to placebo or PETN (80 mg/kg twice daily). After 9 weeks, activation of circulating platelets was determined measuring platelet bound fibrinogen, which requires activated glycoprotein IIb/IIIa on the platelet surface. Binding was quantified by flow-cytometry using a FITC-labelled anti-fibrinogen antibody. Platelet-bound fibrinogen was significantly increased in CHF-Placebo (mean fluorescence intensity: Sham 88±4, CHF-Placebo 104±6, p<0.05) and reduced following treatment with PETN (89±7, p<0.05 vs. CHF-Placebo). Maximal and final ADP-induced aggregation was significantly enhanced in CHF-Placebo vs. Sham-operated animals and normalized / decreased following chronic PETN treatment. Moreover, platelet adhesion was significantly reduced (number of adherent platelets: control: 85.6±5.5, PETN: 40±3.3; p<0.001) and VASP phosphorylation significantly enhanced following in vitro PETN treatment. Conclusion Chronic NO supplementation using PETN reduces platelet activation in CHF rats. Thus, PETN may constitute a useful approach to prevent thromboembolic complications in CHF. PMID:25928879

  11. Receptor-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthesis by arginine in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Mahesh S; Ferguson, T Bruce; Johnson, Fruzsina K; Johnson, Robert A; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Lancaster, Jack R

    2007-06-12

    Arginine contains the guanidinium group and thus has structural similarity to ligands of imidazoline and alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha-2 AR). Therefore, we investigated the possibility that exogenous arginine may act as a ligand for these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and activate intracellular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Idazoxan, a mixed antagonist of imidazoline and alpha-2 adrenoceptors, partly inhibited L-arginine-initiated NO formation as measured by a Griess reaction. Rauwolscine, a highly specific antagonist of alpha-2 AR, at very low concentrations completely inhibited NO formation. Like L-arginine, agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) also activated NO synthesis, however, at much lower concentrations. We found that dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of alpha-2 AR was very potent in activating cellular NO, thus indicating a possible role for alpha-2 AR in L-arginine-mediated NO synthesis. D-arginine also activated NO production and could be inhibited by imidazoline and alpha-2 AR antagonists, thus indicating nonsubstrate actions of arginine. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G proteins, attenuated L-arginine-mediated NO synthesis, thus indicating mediation via G proteins. L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine and phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 inhibited NO formation and thus implicated participation of a second messenger pathway. Finally, in isolated rat gracilis vessels, rauwolscine completely inhibited the L-arginine-initiated vessel relaxation. Taken together, these data provide evidence for binding of arginine to membrane receptor(s), leading to the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) NO production through a second messenger pathway. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of L-arginine in the cardiovascular system and thus provide new potential avenues for therapeutic development.

  12. Passive stretch reduces calpain activity through nitric oxide pathway in unloaded soleus muscles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Li, Quan; Sheng, Juan-Juan; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Unloading in spaceflight or long-term bed rest induces to pronounced atrophy of anti-gravity skeletal muscles. Passive stretch partially resists unloading-induced atrophy of skeletal muscle, but the mechanism remains elusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the hypotheses that stretch tension might increase protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in unloaded skeletal muscle, and then nNOS-derived NO alleviated atrophy of skeletal muscle by inhibiting calpain activity. The tail-suspended rats were used to unload rat hindlimbs for 2 weeks, at the same time, left soleus muscle was stretched by applying a plaster cast to fix the ankle at 35° dorsiflexion. Stretch partially resisted atrophy and inhibited the decreased protein level and activity of nNOS in unloaded soleus muscles. Unloading increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. Stretch reduced frequency of calcium sparks and restored intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration to control levels in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. The increased protein level and activity of calpain as well as the higher degradation of desmin induced by unloading were inhibited by stretch in soleus muscles. In conclusion, these results suggest that stretch can preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channels which prevents the elevated [Ca(2+)]i by means of keeping nNOS activity, and then the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain return to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, stretch can resist in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles.

  13. Receptor-mediated activation of nitric oxide synthesis by arginine in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mahesh S.; Ferguson, T. Bruce; Johnson, Fruzsina K.; Johnson, Robert A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    Arginine contains the guanidinium group and thus has structural similarity to ligands of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors (α-2 AR). Therefore, we investigated the possibility that exogenous arginine may act as a ligand for these receptors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and activate intracellular nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Idazoxan, a mixed antagonist of imidazoline and α-2 adrenoceptors, partly inhibited l-arginine-initiated NO formation as measured by a Griess reaction. Rauwolscine, a highly specific antagonist of α-2 AR, at very low concentrations completely inhibited NO formation. Like l-arginine, agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) also activated NO synthesis, however, at much lower concentrations. We found that dexmedetomidine, a specific agonist of α-2 AR was very potent in activating cellular NO, thus indicating a possible role for α-2 AR in l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis. d-arginine also activated NO production and could be inhibited by imidazoline and α-2 AR antagonists, thus indicating nonsubstrate actions of arginine. Pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G proteins, attenuated l-arginine-mediated NO synthesis, thus indicating mediation via G proteins. l-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine and phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 inhibited NO formation and thus implicated participation of a second messenger pathway. Finally, in isolated rat gracilis vessels, rauwolscine completely inhibited the l-arginine-initiated vessel relaxation. Taken together, these data provide evidence for binding of arginine to membrane receptor(s), leading to the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) NO production through a second messenger pathway. These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanistic explanation for the beneficial effects of l-arginine in the cardiovascular system and thus provide new potential avenues for therapeutic development. PMID:17535904

  14. Calcium-activated potassium channels in cultured human endothelial cells are not directly modulated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Haburcák, M; Wei, L; Viana, F; Prenen, J; Droogmans, G; Nilius, B

    1997-04-01

    Nitric oxide has been proposed to directly activated large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels (BKCa) [Bolotina V.M., Najibi S., Palacino J.J., Pagano P.J., Cohen R.A. Nitric oxide directly activates calcium-dependent potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle. Nature 1994; 368: 850-853]. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosocysteine (SNOC) was used to evaluate a possible direct modulation of BKCa by NO in EAhy926 (EA cells), a cultured human umbilical vein derived endothelial cell line, using the whole-cell, cell-attached and inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique, together with simultaneous amperometric measurement of NO and the concentration of free intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i. BKCa channels with a large conductance of approximately 190 pS, voltage-dependent activation and a reversal potential close to -80 mV have been identified in EA cells. Exposure of EA cells in the experimental chamber to 1 mM SNOC delivered approximately 5 microM NO, as recorded by an amperometric probe in situ. SNOC produced a modest increases in [Ca2+]i that was insufficient to activate BKCa channels. NO alone neither activated BKCa channels directly nor modulated preactivated BKCa channels in EA cells. These results do not support a direct modulatory effect of NO on large conductance BKCa channels in cultured endothelial cells.

  15. Characterization of quinol-dependent nitric oxide reductase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus: enzymatic activity and active site structure.

    PubMed

    Terasaka, Erina; Okada, Norihiro; Sato, Nozomi; Sako, Yoshihiko; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Tosha, Takehiko

    2014-07-01

    Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide to generate nitrous oxide. We recently reported on the crystal structure of a quinol-dependent NOR (qNOR) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus [Y. Matsumoto, T. Tosha, A.V. Pisliakov, T. Hino, H. Sugimoto, S. Nagano, Y. Sugita and Y. Shiro, Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 19 (2012) 238-246], and suggested that a water channel from the cytoplasm, which is not observed in cytochrome c-dependent NOR (cNOR), functions as a pathway transferring catalytic protons. Here, we further investigated the functional and structural properties of qNOR, and compared the findings with those for cNOR. The pH optimum for the enzymatic reaction of qNOR was in the alkaline range, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa cNOR showed a higher activity at an acidic pH. The considerably slower reduction rate, and a correlation of the pH dependence for enzymatic activity and the reduction rate suggest that the reduction process is the rate-determining step for the NO reduction by qNOR, while the reduction rate for cNOR was very fast and therefore is unlikely to be the rate-determining step. A close examination of the heme/non-heme iron binuclear center by resonance Raman spectroscopy indicated that qNOR has a more polar environment at the binuclear center compared with cNOR. It is plausible that a water channel enhances the accessibility of the active site to solvent water, creating a more polar environment in qNOR. This structural feature could control certain properties of the active site, such as redox potential, which could explain the different catalytic properties of the two NORs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference.

  16. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro by nitric oxide derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, K A; Awburn, M M; Cowden, W B; Clark, I A

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro susceptibility of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to killing by nitric oxide and related molecules. A saturated solution of nitric oxide did not inhibit parasite growth, but two oxidation products of nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate ions) were toxic to the parasite in millimolar concentrations. Nitrosothiol derivatives of cysteine and glutathione were found to be about a thousand times more active (50% growth inhibitory concentration, approximately 40 microM) than nitrite. PMID:1879941

  17. Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiratory activity of human articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maneiro, E; Lopez-Armada, M; de Andres, M C; Carames, B; Martin, M; Bonilla, A; del Hoyo, P; Galdo, F; Arenas, J; Blanco, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial activity and its relation with the apoptosis of human articular chondrocytes. Materials and methods: Mitochondrial function was evaluated by analysing respiratory chain enzyme complexes, citrate synthase (CS) activities, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). The activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes (complex I: NADH CoQ1 reductase, complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, complex III: ubiquinol cytochrome c reductase, complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase) and CS were measured in human articular chondrocytes isolated from normal cartilage. The Δψm was measured by 5,5',6,6'-tetracholoro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazole carbocyanide iodide (JC-1) using flow cytometry. Apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of caspases was analysed by ribonuclease protection analysis and the detection of protein synthesis by western blotting. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as an NO compound donor. Results: SNP at concentrations higher than 0.5 mmol/l for 24 hours induced cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis. SNP elicited mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-7 and down regulated bcl-2 synthesis in a dose and time dependent manner. Furthermore, 0.5 mM SNP induced depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane at 5, 12, and 24 hours. Analysis of the MRC showed that at 5 hours, 0.5 mM SNP reduced the activity of complex IV by 33%. The individual inhibition of mitochondrial complex IV with azide modified the Δψm and induced apoptosis. Conclusions: This study suggests that the effect of NO on chondrocyte survival is mediated by its effect on complex IV of the MRC. PMID:15708893

  18. Sciatic nerve transection increases gluthatione antioxidant system activity and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata Padilha; Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Partata, Wania Aparecida

    2009-12-16

    Glutathione (GSH) is a major non-enzymatic antioxidant which is present in all tissues. Its protective actions occur through different pathways such its role as a substrate of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many physiological processes in the central nervous system, including nociception. In spite of much evidence concerning oxidative and nitrosative stress and neuropathic pain, the exact role of these molecules in pain processing is still unknown. Sciatic nerve transection (SNT) was employed to induce neuropathic pain in rats. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, glutathione (GSH) content, GSH/GSSG ratio, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein expression in the lumbosacral spinal cord were determined. All of these analyses were performed in the SNT and sham groups 1, 3, 7 and 15 days after surgery. There was an increase in GPx activity and in GSH content 3 days after surgery in both sham and SNT groups, but the GSH/GSSG ratio increased only in the SNT group in this time point. nNOS expression was upregulated 7 days post SNT. NOx was detected 1 day after surgery in sham and SNT groups, but at 7 and 15 days, the increase occurred only in SNT animals. These results support the role of the gluthatione system in pain physiology and highlight the involvement of NO as an important molecule related to nociception.

  19. Analytical Chemistry of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research, owing primarily to its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. A requirement for understanding its origin, activity, and regulation is the need for accurate and precise measurement techniques. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO’s unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span pM to µM in physiological milieu, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with special focus on the fundamentals behind each technique and approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools or exploited to create novel NO sensors. PMID:20636069

  20. Analytical chemistry of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hetrick, Evan M; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the focus of intense research primarily because of its wide-ranging biological and physiological actions. To understand its origin, activity, and regulation, accurate and precise measurement techniques are needed. Unfortunately, analytical assays for monitoring NO are challenged by NO's unique chemical and physical properties, including its reactivity, rapid diffusion, and short half-life. Moreover, NO concentrations may span the picomolar-to-micromolar range in physiological milieus, requiring techniques with wide dynamic response ranges. Despite such challenges, many analytical techniques have emerged for the detection of NO. Herein, we review the most common spectroscopic and electrochemical methods, with a focus on the underlying mechanism of each technique and on approaches that have been coupled with modern analytical measurement tools to create novel NO sensors.

  1. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.W.; Robinson, H.; Yeung, N.; Gao, Y.-G.; Miner, K. D.; Lei, L.; Lu, Y.

    2010-07-28

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN?-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.

  2. Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductase Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao; K Miner; L Lei; H Robinson; Y Lu

    2011-12-31

    A conserved 2-His-1-Glu metal center, as found in natural nonheme iron-containing enzymes, was engineered into sperm whale myoglobin by replacing Leu29 and Phe43 with Glu and His, respectively (swMb L29E, F43H, H64, called Fe{sub B}Mb(-His)). A high resolution (1.65 {angstrom}) crystal structure of Cu(II)-CN{sup -}-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) was determined, demonstrating that the unique 2-His-1-Glu metal center was successfully created within swMb. The Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) can bind Cu, Fe, or Zn ions, with both Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) and Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) exhibiting nitric oxide reductase (NOR) activities. Cu dependent NOR activity was significantly higher than that of Fe in the same metal binding site. EPR studies showed that the reduction of NO to N{sub 2}O catalyzed by these two enzymes resulted in different intermediates; a five-coordinate heme-NO species was observed for Cu(I)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) due to the cleavage of the proximal heme Fe-His bond, while Fe(II)-Fe{sub B}Mb(-His) remained six-coordinate. Therefore, both the metal ligand, Glu29, and the metal itself, Cu or Fe, play crucial roles in NOR activity. This study presents a novel protein model of NOR and provides insights into a newly discovered member of the NOR family, gNOR.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Sensing Mechanism Is Activated in Entamoeba histolytica upon Treatment with Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Santi-Rocca, Julien; Smith, Sherri; Weber, Christian; Pineda, Erika; Hon, Chung-Chau; Saavedra, Emma; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Rousseau, Sandrine; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Guillén, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Endoplasmic Reticulum stores calcium and is a site of protein synthesis and modification. Changes in ER homeostasis lead to stress responses with an activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The Entamoeba histolytica endomembrane system is simple compared to those of higher eukaryotes, as a canonical ER is not observed. During amoebiasis, an infection of the human intestine and liver by E. histolytica, nitric oxide (NO) triggers an apoptotic-like event preceded by an impairment of energy production and a loss of important parasite pathogenic features. We address the question of how this ancient eukaryote responds to stress induced by immune components (i.e. NO) and whether stress leads to ER changes and subsequently to an UPR. Gene expression analysis suggested that NO triggers stress responses marked by (i) dramatic up-regulation of hsp genes although a bona fide UPR is absent; (ii) induction of DNA repair and redox gene expression and iii) up-regulation of glycolysis-related gene expression. Enzymology approaches demonstrate that NO directly inhibits glycolysis and enhance cysteine synthase activity. Using live imaging and confocal microscopy we found that NO dramatically provokes extensive ER fragmentation. ER fission in E. histolytica appears as a protective response against stress, as it has been recently proposed for neuron self-defense during neurologic disorders. Chronic ER stress is also involved in metabolic diseases including diabetes, where NO production reduces ER calcium levels and activates cell death. Our data highlighted unique cellular responses of interest to understand the mechanisms of parasite death during amoebiasis. PMID:22384074

  4. Nitric oxide activates superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase to repress the cell death induced by wounding.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ching; Jih, Pei-Ju; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Jeng-Shane; Chang, Ling-Lan; Shen, Yu-Hsing; Jeng, Shih-Tong

    2011-10-01

    Wounding caused by rain, wind, and pathogen may lead plants to onset defense response. Previous studies indicated that mechanical wounding stimulates plants to generate nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). In this study, the functions of NO and H(2)O(2) after wounding in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Tainung 57) was further analyzed. Mechanical wounding damaged cells and resulted in necrosis, but the presence of NO donors or NO scavenger might reduce or enhance the cell death caused by wounding, respectively. The amount of H(2)O(2) induced by wounding was also decreased or increased when plants were incubated with NO donors or NO scavenger, individually. These results indicate that NO may regulate H(2)O(2) generation to affect cell death. NO-induced proteins isolated from two-dimensional electrophoresis were identified to be Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs). The activities of CuZnSODs and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) could be enhanced by NO. In addition, the expression of CuZnSOD and APX was induced by wounding via NO, and their expression was further stimulated by NO through the generation of cGMP. The influx of calcium ions and the activity of NADPH oxidase were also involved in the NO signal transduction pathway inducing APX expression. Collectively, the generation of H(2)O(2) in wounded plants might trigger cell death. Meanwhile, the production of NO induced by wounding stimulated signal transducers including cGMP, calcium ions, and H(2)O(2) to activate CuZnSOD and APX, which further decreased H(2)O(2) level and reduced the cell death caused by wounding.

  5. Metformin attenuates ventricular hypertrophy by activating the AMP-activated protein kinase-endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng-Xi; Pan, Si-Nian; Meng, Rong-Sen; Peng, Chao-Quan; Xiong, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Bao-Lin; Chen, Guang-Qin; Yao, Feng-Juan; Chen, Yi-Li; Ma, Yue-Dong; Dong, Yu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    1. Metformin is an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Recent studies suggest that pharmacological activation of AMPK inhibits cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we examined whether long-term treatment with metformin could attenuate ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model. The potential involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the effects of metformin was also investigated. 2. Ventricular hypertrophy was established in rats by transaortic constriction (TAC). Starting 1 week after the TAC procedure, rats were treated with metformin (300 mg/kg per day, p.o.), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg per day, p.o.) or both for 8 weeks prior to the assessment of haemodynamic function and cardiac hypertrophy. 3. Cultured cardiomyocytes were used to examine the effects of metformin on the AMPK-endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway. Cells were exposed to angiotensin (Ang) II (10⁻⁶ mol/L) for 24 h under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of metformin (10⁻³ mol/L), compound C (10⁻⁶ mol/L), L-NAME (10⁻⁶ mol/L) or their combination. The rate of incorporation of [³H]-leucine was determined, western blotting analyses of AMPK-eNOS, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were undertaken and the concentration of NO in culture media was determined. 4. Transaortic constriction resulted in significant haemodynamic dysfunction and ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial fibrosis was also evident. Treatment with metformin improved haemodynamic function and significantly attenuated ventricular hypertrophy. Most of the effects of metformin were abolished by concomitant L-NAME treatment. L-NAME on its own had no effect on haemodynamic function and ventricular hypertrophy in TAC rats. 5. In cardiomyocytes, metformin inhibited AngII-induced protein synthesis, an effect that was suppressed by the AMPK inhibitor compound C or the eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The improvement in cardiac structure and

  6. Experimental colitis is ameliorated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Okon, E; Bursztyn, M

    1995-01-01

    Enhanced nitric oxide (NO) generation by stimulated NO synthase (NOS) activity may, through its oxidative metabolism contribute to tissue injury in experimental colitis. In this study the possible amelioration of experimental colitis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS activity, was evaluated. Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 30 mg trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNB) dissolved in 0.25 ml 50% ethanol or by flushing the colon of capsaicin pretreated rats with 2 ml of 5% acetic acid. In several experiments, L-NAME 0.1 mg/ml was added to the drinking water at the time of colitis induction with TNB or seven days before acetic acid treatment. Rats were killed at various time intervals after induction of colitis. A 10 cm distal colonic segment was isolated, weighed, lesion area measured, and explants organ cultured for 24 hours for determination of NO generation by the Greiss reaction. The rest of the mucosa was scraped for determination of myeloperoxidase and NOS activities and leukotriene generation. In TNB treated rats mean arterial pressure was also determined up to 72 hours after damage induction, with or without cotreatment with nitroprusside. L-NAME significantly decreased the extent of tissue injury in TNB treated rats. Seven days after TNB treatment lesion area was reduced by 55%, colonic weight by 37%, and myeloperoxidase and NOS activity by 59% and 42%, respectively. Acetic acid induced colitis in capsaicin pretreated rats was also significantly decreased by L-NAME. Twenty four hours after acetic acid treatment lesion area was reduced by 61%, colonic weight by 21% and NOS activity by 39%. Mean (SEM) arterial blood pressure in TNB+L-NAME treated rats was 37.6 (8.1) mm Hg higher than in TNB treated rats, an effect that was only partially abolished by nitroprusside. These results show that inhibition of NO synthesis by an L-arginine analogue significantly ameliorates the extent of tissue injury in two

  7. Propofol restores TRPV1 sensitivity via a TRPA1-, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKCε.

    PubMed

    Sinharoy, Pritam; Zhang, Hongyu; Sinha, Sayantani; Prudner, Bethany C; Bratz, Ian N; Damron, Derek S

    2015-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that the intravenous anesthetic, propofol, restores the sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid channel subtype-1 (TRPV1) receptors via a protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε)-dependent and transient receptor potential ankyrin channel subtype-1 (TRPA1)-dependent pathway in sensory neurons. The extent to which the two pathways are directly linked or operating in parallel has not been determined. Using a molecular approach, our objectives of the current study were to confirm that TRPA1 activation directly results in PKCε activation and to elucidate the cellular mechanism by which this occurs. F-11 cells were transfected with complimentary DNA (cDNA) for TRPV1 only or both TRPV1 and TRPA1. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in individual cells via fluorescence microscopy. An immunoblot analysis of the total and phosphorylated forms of PKCε, nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and TRPV1 was also performed. In F-11 cells containing both channels, PKCε inhibition prevented the propofol- and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity to agonist stimulation as well as increased phosphorylation of PKCε and TRPV1. In cells containing TRPV1 only, neither agonist induced PKCε or TRPV1 phosphorylation. Moreover, NOS inhibition blocked propofol-and AITC-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity and PKCε phosphorylation, and PKCε inhibition prevented the nitric oxide donor, SNAP, from restoring TRPV1 sensitivity. Also, propofol-and AITC-induced phosphorylation of nNOS and nitric oxide (NO) production were blocked with the TRPA1-antagonist, HC-030031. These data indicate that the AITC- and propofol-induced restoration of TRPV1 sensitivity is mediated by a TRPA1-dependent, nitric oxide synthase-dependent activation of PKCε.

  8. Nitric Oxide Mediates Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Retinal Bipolar Cell Output via S-Nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Tooker, Ryan E.; Lipin, Mikhail Y.; Leuranguer, Valerie; Rozsa, Eva; Bramley, Jayne R.; Harding, Jacqueline L.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Coding a wide range of light intensities in natural scenes poses a challenge for the retina: adaptation to bright light should not compromise sensitivity to dim light. Here we report a novel form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, specifically, a “weighted potentiation” that selectively increases output of Mb-type bipolar cells in the goldfish retina in response to weak inputs but leaves the input–output ratio for strong stimuli unaffected. In retinal slice preparation, strong depolarization of bipolar terminals significantly lowered the threshold for calcium spike initiation, which originated from a shift in activation of voltage-gated calcium currents (ICa) to more negative potentials. The process depended upon glutamate-evoked retrograde nitric oxide (NO) signaling as it was eliminated by pretreatment with an NO synthase blocker, TRIM. The NO-dependent ICa modulation was cGMP independent but could be blocked by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), indicating that NO acted via an S-nitrosylation mechanism. Importantly, the NO action resulted in a weighted potentiation of Mb output in response to small (≤−30 mV) depolarizations. Coincidentally, light flashes with intensity ≥2.4 × 108 photons/cm2/s lowered the latency of scotopic (≤2.4 × 108 photons/cm2/s) light-evoked calcium spikes in Mb axon terminals in an NEM-sensitive manner, but light responses above cone threshold (≥3.5 × 109 photons/cm2/s) were unaltered. Under bright scotopic/mesopic conditions, this novel form of Mb output potentiation selectively amplifies dim retinal inputs at Mb → ganglion cell synapses. We propose that this process might counteract decreases in retinal sensitivity during light adaptation by preventing the loss of visual information carried by dim scotopic signals. PMID:24305814

  9. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  10. Activation of COX-2/PGE2 Promotes Sapovirus Replication via the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Deok-Song; Seo, Ja-Young; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Kang, Mun-Il; Hosmillo, Myra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to infection and the replicative cycles of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COX/PGE2 pathway regulates sapovirus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, infection with porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 h postinfection (hpi), with only a transient increase in COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi. The treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-1 and COX-2, significantly reduced PGE2 production, as well as PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We observed that pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 dramatically increased NO production, causing a reduction in PSaV replication that could be restored by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase via the inhibitor N-nitro-l-methyl-arginine ester. This study identified a pivotal role for the COX/PGE2 pathway in the regulation of NO production during the sapovirus life cycle, providing new insights into the life cycle of this poorly characterized family of viruses. Our findings also reveal potential new targets for treatment of sapovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Sapoviruses are among the major etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals, but little is known about sapovirus host factor requirements. Here, using only cultivable porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, we demonstrate that PSaV induced the vitalization of the cyclooxygenase (COX) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2

  11. Mangiferin prevents guinea pig tracheal contraction via activation of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Aline B; Coelho, Luciana P; Insuela, Daniella B R; Carvalho, Vinicius F; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Silva, Patricia Mr; Martins, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have described the antispasmodic effect of mangiferin, a natural glucoside xanthone (2-C-β-Dgluco-pyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone) that is present in mango trees and other plants, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the potential contribution of the nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway to the antispasmodic effect of mangiferin on isolated tracheal rings preparations. The functional effect of mangiferin on allergic and non-allergic contraction of guinea pig tracheal rings was assessed in conventional organ baths. Cultured tracheal rings were exposed to mangiferin or vehicle, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3 and cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels were quantified using western blotting and enzyme immunoassays, respectively. Mangiferin (0.1-10 µM) inhibited tracheal contractions induced by distinct stimuli, such as allergen, histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine or carbachol, in a concentration-dependent manner. Mangiferin also caused marked relaxation of tracheal rings that were precontracted by carbachol, suggesting that it has both anti-contraction and relaxant properties that are prevented by removing the epithelium. The effect of mangiferin was inhibited by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 µM), and the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (10 µM), but not the adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 9-(tetrahydro-2-furyl)adenine (SQ22536) (100 µM). The antispasmodic effect of mangiferin was also sensitive to K⁺ channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium (TEA), glibenclamide and apamin. Furthermore, mangiferin inhibited Ca²⁺-induced contractions in K⁺ (60 mM)-depolarised tracheal rings preparations. In addition, mangiferin increased NOS3 protein levels and cGMP intracellular levels in cultured tracheal rings. Finally, mangiferin-induced increase in cGMP levels was abrogated by co-incubation with either ODQ or L

  12. Activation of COX-2/PGE2 Promotes Sapovirus Replication via the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production.

    PubMed

    Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Deok-Song; Seo, Ja-Young; Kim, Ji-Yun; Park, Jun-Gyu; Soliman, Mahmoud; Baek, Yeong-Bin; Cho, Eun-Hyo; Kwon, Joseph; Kwon, Hyung-Jun; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Woo Song; Kang, Mun-Il; Hosmillo, Myra; Goodfellow, Ian; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-02-01

    Enteric caliciviruses in the genera Norovirus and Sapovirus are important pathogens that cause severe acute gastroenteritis in both humans and animals. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) and their final product, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are known to play important roles in the modulation of both the host response to infection and the replicative cycles of several viruses. However, the precise mechanism(s) by which the COX/PGE2 pathway regulates sapovirus replication remains largely unknown. In this study, infection with porcine sapovirus (PSaV) strain Cowden, the only cultivable virus within the genus Sapovirus, markedly increased COX-2 mRNA and protein levels at 24 and 36 h postinfection (hpi), with only a transient increase in COX-1 levels seen at 24 hpi. The treatment of cells with pharmacological inhibitors, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against COX-1 and COX-2, significantly reduced PGE2 production, as well as PSaV replication. Expression of the viral proteins VPg and ProPol was associated with activation of the COX/PGE2 pathway. We observed that pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 dramatically increased NO production, causing a reduction in PSaV replication that could be restored by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase via the inhibitor N-nitro-l-methyl-arginine ester. This study identified a pivotal role for the COX/PGE2 pathway in the regulation of NO production during the sapovirus life cycle, providing new insights into the life cycle of this poorly characterized family of viruses. Our findings also reveal potential new targets for treatment of sapovirus infection.

  13. Nitric oxide-mediated activity in anti-cancer photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Rapozzi, Valentina; Della Pietra, Emilia; Zorzet, Sonia; Zacchigna, Marina; Bonavida, Benjamin; Xodo, Luigi Emilio

    2013-04-01

    Cell recurrence in cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an important issue that is poorly understood. It is becoming clear that nitric oxide (NO) is a modulator of PDT. By acting on the NF-κB/Snail/RKIP survival/anti-apoptotic loop, NO can either stimulate or inhibit apoptosis. We found that pheophorbide a/PDT (Pba/PDT) induces the release of NO in B78-H1 murine amelanotic melanoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Low-dose PDT induces low NO levels by stimulating the anti-apoptotic nature of the above loop, whereas high-dose PDT stimulates high NO levels inhibiting the loop and activating apoptosis. When B78-H1 cells are treated with low-dose Pba/PDT and DETA/NO, an NO-donor, intracellular NO increases and cell growth is inhibited according to scratch-wound and clonogenic assays. Western blot analyses showed that the combined treatment reduces the expression of the anti-apoptotic NF-κB and Snail gene products and increases the expression of the pro-apoptotic RKIP gene product. The combined effect of Pba and DETA/NO was also tested in C57BL/6 mice bearing a syngeneic B78-H1 melanoma. We used pegylated Pba (mPEG-Pba) due to its better pharmacokinetics compared to free Pba. mPEG-Pba (30 mg/Kg) and DETA/NO (0.4 mg/Kg) were i.p. injected either as a single molecule or in combination. After photoactivation at 660 nM (fluence of 193 J/cm(2)), the combined treatment delays tumor growth more efficiently than each individual treatment (p<0.05). Taken together, our results showed that the efficacy of PDT is strengthened when the photosensitizer is used in combination with an NO donor.

  14. Nitric oxide signaling in yeast.

    PubMed

    Astuti, Rika Indri; Nasuno, Ryo; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    As a cellular signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) is widely conserved from microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, to higher eukaryotes including plants and mammals. NO is mainly produced by NO synthase (NOS) or nitrite reductase (NIR) activity. There are several NO detoxification systems, including NO dioxygenase (NOD) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR). NO homeostasis based on the balance between NO synthesis and degradation is important for the regulation of its physiological functions because an excess level of NO causes nitrosative stress due to the high reactivity of NO and NO-derived compounds. In yeast, NO may be involved in stress responses, but NO and its signaling have been poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian NOS orthologs in the genome. Even though the activities of NOS and NIR have been observed in yeast cells, the gene encoding NOS and the NO production mechanism catalyzed by NIR remain unclear. On the other hand, yeast cells employ NOD and GSNOR to maintain an intracellular redox balance following endogenous NO production, exogenous NO treatment, or environmental stresses. This article reviews NO metabolism (synthesis, degradation) and its regulation in yeast. The physiological roles of NO in yeast, including the oxidative stress response, are also discussed here. Such investigations into NO signaling are essential for understanding the NO-dependent genetic and physiological modulations. In addition to being responsible for the pathology and pharmacology of various degenerative diseases, NO signaling may be a potential target for the construction and engineering of industrial yeast strains.

  15. Nitric oxide and virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Akaike, T; Maeda, H

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has complex and diverse functions in physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. The mechanisms of many events induced by NO are now well defined, so that a fundamental understanding of NO biology is almost established. Accumulated evidence suggests that NO and oxygen radicals such as superoxide are key molecules in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. NO biosynthesis, particularly through expression of an inducible NO synthase (iNOS), occurs in a variety of microbial infections. Although antimicrobial activity of NO is appreciated for bacteria and protozoa, NO has opposing effects in virus infections such as influenza virus pneumonia and certain other neurotropic virus infections. iNOS produces an excessive amount of NO for long periods, which allows generation of a highly reactive nitrogen oxide species, peroxynitrite, via a radical coupling reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, peroxynitrite causes oxidative tissue injury through potent oxidation and nitration reactions of various biomolecules. NO also appears to affect a host's immune response, with immunopathological consequences. For example, overproduction of NO in virus infections in mice is reported to suppress type 1 helper T-cell-dependent immune responses, leading to type 2 helper T-cell-biased immunological host responses. Thus, NO may be a host response modulator rather than a simple antiviral agent. The unique biological properties of NO are further illustrated by our recent data suggesting that viral mutation and evolution may be accelerated by NO-induced oxidative stress. Here, we discuss these multiple roles of NO in pathogenesis of virus infections as related to both non-specific inflammatory responses and immunological host reactions modulated by NO during infections in vivo. PMID:11106932

  16. An ethanol extract of Piper betle Linn. mediates its anti-inflammatory activity via down-regulation of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Sudipto; Mula, Soumyaditya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2007-05-01

    The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for the relief of pain; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect have not been elucidated. The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of an ethanolic extract of the leaves of P. betle (100 mg kg(-1); PB) were demonstrated in a complete Freund's adjuvant-induced model of arthritis in rats with dexamethasone (0.1 mg kg(-1)) as the positive control. At non-toxic concentrations of PB (5-25 microg mL(-1)), a dose-dependent decrease in extracellular production of nitric oxide in murine peritoneal macrophages was measured by the Griess assay and corroborated by flow cytometry using the nitric oxide specific probe, 4,5-diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate. This decreased generation of reactive nitrogen species was mediated by PB progressively down-regulating transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages, and concomitantly causing a dose-dependent decrease in the expression of interleukin-12 p40, indicating the ability of PB to down-regulate T-helper 1 pro-inflammatory responses. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthrotic activity of PB is attributable to its ability to down-regulate the generation of reactive nitrogen species, thus meriting further pharmacological investigation.

  17. The role of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase in ultraviolet B light-induced nuclear factor κB activity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lingying; Wu, Shiyong

    2014-09-19

    NF-κB is a transcription factor involved in many signaling pathways that also plays an important role in UV-induced skin tumorigenesis. UV radiation can activate NF-κB, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we provided evidence that the activation of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase plays a role in regulation of IκB reduction and NF-κB activation in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells in early phase (within 6 h) post-UVB. Treating the cells with l-NAME, a selective inhibitor of constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (cNOS), can partially reverse the IκB reduction and inhibit the DNA binding activity as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB after UVB radiation. A luciferase reporter assay indicates that UVB-induced NF-κB activation is totally diminished in cNOS null cells. The cNOS-mediated reduction of IκB is likely due to the imbalance of nitric oxide/peroxynitrite because treating the cells with lower (50 μm), but not higher (100-500 μm), concentration of S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) can reverse the effect of l-NAME in partial restore IκB level post-UVB. Our data also showed that NF-κB activity was required for maintaining a stable IκB kinase α subunit (IKKα) level because treating the cells with NF-κB or cNOS inhibitors could reduce IKKα level upon UVB radiation. In addition, our data demonstrated that although NF-κB protects cells from UVB-induced death, its pro-survival activity was likely neutralized by the pro-death activity of peroxynitrite after UVB radiation.

  18. Influence of Scaffold Size on Bactericidal Activity of Nitric Oxide Releasing Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Alexis W.; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Rao, Kavitha S.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    A reverse microemulsion synthesis was used to prepare amine functionalized silica nanoparticles of three distinct sizes (i.e., 50, 100, and 200 nm) with identical amine concentrations. The resulting hybrid nanoparticles, consisting of N-(6 aminohexyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane, were highly monodisperse in size. N-diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide (NO) donors were subsequently formed on secondary amines while controlling reaction conditions to keep the total amount of nitric oxide (NO) released constant for each particle size. The bactericidal efficacy of the NO releasing nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa increased with decreasing particle size. Additionally, smaller diameter nanoparticles were found to associate with the bacteria at a faster rate and to a greater extent than larger particles. Neither control (non-NO-releasing) nor NO releasing particles exhibited toxicity towards L929 mouse fibroblasts at concentrations above their respective minimum bactericidal concentrations. This study represents the first investigation of the bactericidal efficacy of NO-releasing silica nanoparticles as a function of particle size. PMID:21842899

  19. Effects of constituents from the bark of Magnolia obovata on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Kageura, T; Oda, M; Morikawa, T; Sakamoto, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-06-01

    The methanolic extract from a Japanese herbal medicine, the bark of Magnolia obovata, was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. By bioassay-guided separation, three neolignans (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) and three sesquiterpenes (alpha-eudesmol, beta-eudesmol, gamma-eudesmol) were obtained as active constituents. A trineolignan (magnolianin), a phenylpropanoid glycoside (syringin), lignan glycosides (liriodendrin, (+)-syringaresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and a sesquiterpene (caryophyllene oxide) did not show any activity. On the other hand, sesquiterpene-neolignans (eudesmagnolol, clovanemagnolol, caryolanemagnolol, eudeshonokiol A, eudesobovatol A) showed the strong cytotoxic effects. Active constituents (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) showed weak inhibition for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) enzyme activity, but potent inhibition of iNOS induction and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

  20. Overexpressed neuroglobin raises threshold for nitric oxide-induced impairment of mitochondrial respiratory activities and stress signaling in primary cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shilpee; Zhuo, Ming; Gorgun, Murat; Englander, Ella W.

    2013-01-01

    Surges of nitric oxide compromise mitochondrial respiration primarily by competitive inhibition of oxygen binding to cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and are particularly injurious in neurons, which rely on oxidative phosphorylation for all their energy needs. Here, we show that transgenic overexpression of the neuronal globin protein, neuroglobin, helps diminish protein nitration, preserve mitochondrial function and sustain ATP content of primary cortical neurons challenged by extended nitric oxide exposure. Specifically, in transgenic neurons, elevated neuroglobin curtailed nitric oxide-induced alterations in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, including baseline oxygen consumption, consumption coupled with ATP synthesis, proton leak and spare respiratory capacity. Concomitantly, activation of genes involved in sensing and responding to oxidative/nitrosative stress, including the early-immediate c-Fos gene and the phase II antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1, was diminished in neuroglobin-overexpressing compared to wild-type neurons. Taken together, these differences reflect a lesser insult produced by similar concentrations of nitric oxide in neuroglobin-overexpressing compared to wild-type neurons, suggesting that abundant neuroglobin buffers nitric oxide and raises the threshold of nitric oxide-mediated injury in neurons. PMID:23587847

  1. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase potentiates nitric oxide production in LPS-activated J774 cells

    PubMed Central

    Baydoun, Anwar R; Morgan, David M L

    1998-01-01

    We have examined whether modulation of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway, through inhibition by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) of the rate limiting enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), modulates NO synthesis in J774 macrophages.DFMO potentiated LPS-stimulated nitrite production in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner, increasing nitrite levels by 48±5% at 10 mM. This effect was observed in cells pre-treated with DFMO for 24 h prior to stimulation with LPS. Addition of DFMO 12 h after LPS failed to potentiate LPS-induced nitrite production.Supplementation of the culture medium with horse serum (10%) in place of foetal calf serum (10%) caused no significant change in either LPS-induced nitrite production or in the ability of DFMO (10  mM) to potentiate LPS-induced NO synthesis.Metabolism of L-[3H]arginine to L-[3H]citrulline by partially purified inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was not significantly altered by either DFMO (1–10 mM) or by putrescine (0.001–1 mM), spermidine (0.001–1 mM) or spermine (0.001–1 mM). iNOS activity was also unaffected by 1 mM EGTA but was markedly attenuated (70±0.07%) by L-NMMA (100 μM).Pre-incubation of cells with DFMO (10 mM; 24 h) prior to activation with LPS resulted in enhanced (∼2 fold) iNOS protein expression.These results show that DFMO potentiates LPS-induced nitrite production in the murine macrophage cell line J774. Since the only known mechanism of action of DFMO is inhibition of ODC, and thus polyamine biosynthesis, we conclude that expression of iNOS can be critically regulated by endogenous polyamines. PMID:9884080

  2. Regulation of p53 by activated protein kinase C-delta during nitric oxide-induced dopaminergic cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dong-Chan; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Ha, Hyunjung; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2006-01-27

    Selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is the major cause of Parkinson disease. Current evidence suggests that this cell death could be mediated by nitric oxide by-products such as nitrate and peroxynitrite. Because protein kinase C (PKC)-delta is implicated in apoptosis of various cell types, we studied its roles and activation mechanisms in nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis of SN4741 dopaminergic cells. When cells were treated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, endogenous PKC-delta was nitrated and activated. Immunoprecipitation revealed that p53 co-immunoprecipitated with PKC-delta and was phosphorylated at the 15th serine residue in SNP-treated cells. An in vitro kinase assay revealed that p53 was directly phosphorylated by SNP-activated PKC-delta. The p53 Ser-15 phosphorylation was suppressed in SNP-treated cells when the NO-mediated activation of PKC-delta was inhibited by rottlerin or (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Within 3 h of p53 phosphorylation, its protein levels increased because of decreased ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal proteolysis, whereas the protein levels of MDM2, ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase, were down-regulated in a p53 phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Taken together, these results demonstrate that nitration-mediated activation of PKC-delta induces the phosphorylation of the Ser-15 residue in p53, which increases its protein stability, thereby contributing to the nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis-like cell death pathway. These findings may be expanded to provide new insight into the cellular mechanisms of Parkinson disease.

  3. Role of phosphatase activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase in regulating simvastatin-activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hsin-Han; Liao, Yi-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2015-08-25

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has C-terminal epoxide hydrolase and N-terminal lipid phosphatase activity. Its hydrolase activity is associated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction. However, little is known about the role of sEH phosphatase in regulating eNOS activity. Simvastatin, a clinical lipid-lowering drug, also has a pleiotropic effect on eNOS activation. However, whether sEH phosphatase is involved in simvastatin-activated eNOS activity remains elusive. We investigated the role of sEH phosphatase activity in simvastatin-mediated activation of eNOS in endothelial cells (ECs). Simvastain increased the phosphatase activity of sEH, which was diminished by pharmacological inhibitors of sEH phosphatase. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of sEH phosphatase or overexpressing the inactive phosphatase domain of sEH enhanced simvastatin-induced NO bioavailability, tube formation and phosphorylation of eNOS, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, overexpressing the phosphatase domain of sEH limited the simvastatin-increased NO biosynthesis and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1179. Simvastatin evoked epidermal growth factor receptor-c-Src-increased Tyr phosphorylation of sEH and formation of an sEH-Akt-AMPK-eNOS complex, which was abolished by the c-Src kinase inhibitor PP1 or c-Src dominant-negative mutant K298M. These findings suggest that sEH phosphatase activity negatively regulates simvastatin-activated eNOS by impeding the Akt-AMPK-eNOS signaling cascade.

  4. Role of phosphatase activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase in regulating simvastatin-activated endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hsin-Han; Liao, Yi-Jen; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has C-terminal epoxide hydrolase and N-terminal lipid phosphatase activity. Its hydrolase activity is associated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction. However, little is known about the role of sEH phosphatase in regulating eNOS activity. Simvastatin, a clinical lipid-lowering drug, also has a pleiotropic effect on eNOS activation. However, whether sEH phosphatase is involved in simvastatin-activated eNOS activity remains elusive. We investigated the role of sEH phosphatase activity in simvastatin-mediated activation of eNOS in endothelial cells (ECs). Simvastain increased the phosphatase activity of sEH, which was diminished by pharmacological inhibitors of sEH phosphatase. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of sEH phosphatase or overexpressing the inactive phosphatase domain of sEH enhanced simvastatin-induced NO bioavailability, tube formation and phosphorylation of eNOS, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In contrast, overexpressing the phosphatase domain of sEH limited the simvastatin-increased NO biosynthesis and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1179. Simvastatin evoked epidermal growth factor receptor–c-Src–increased Tyr phosphorylation of sEH and formation of an sEH–Akt–AMPK–eNOS complex, which was abolished by the c-Src kinase inhibitor PP1 or c-Src dominant-negative mutant K298M. These findings suggest that sEH phosphatase activity negatively regulates simvastatin-activated eNOS by impeding the Akt–AMPK–eNOS signaling cascade. PMID:26304753

  5. Identification of Redox Partners and Development of a Novel Chimeric Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase for Structure Activity Analyses*

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Lim, Nathan; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Production of nitric oxide (NO) by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) requires electrons to reduce the heme iron for substrate oxidation. Both FAD and FMN flavin groups mediate the transfer of NADPH derived electrons to NOS. Unlike mammalian NOS that contain both FAD and FMN binding domains within a single polypeptide chain, bacterial NOS is only composed of an oxygenase domain and must rely on separate redox partners for electron transfer and subsequent activity. Here, we report on the native redox partners for Bacillus subtilis NOS (bsNOS) and a novel chimera that promotes bsNOS activity. By identifying and characterizing native redox partners, we were also able to establish a robust enzyme assay for measuring bsNOS activity and inhibition. This assay was used to evaluate a series of established NOS inhibitors. Using the new assay for screening small molecules led to the identification of several potent inhibitors for which bsNOS-inhibitor crystal structures were determined. In addition to characterizing potent bsNOS inhibitors, substrate binding was also analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry giving the first detailed thermodynamic analysis of substrate binding to NOS. PMID:25194416

  6. The Nitric Oxide Reductase Mechanism of a Flavo-Diiron Protein: Identification of Active-Site Intermediates and Products

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The unique active site of flavo-diiron proteins (FDPs) consists of a nonheme diiron-carboxylate site proximal to a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor. FDPs serve as the terminal components for reductive scavenging of dioxygen or nitric oxide to combat oxidative or nitrosative stress in bacteria, archaea, and some protozoan parasites. Nitric oxide is reduced to nitrous oxide by the four-electron reduced (FMNH2–FeIIFeII) active site. In order to clarify the nitric oxide reductase mechanism, we undertook a multispectroscopic presteady-state investigation, including the first Mössbauer spectroscopic characterization of diiron redox intermediates in FDPs. A new transient intermediate was detected and determined to be an antiferromagnetically coupled diferrous-dinitrosyl (S = 0, [{FeNO}7]2) species. This species has an exchange energy, J ≥ 40 cm–1 (JS1 ° S2), which is consistent with a hydroxo or oxo bridge between the two irons. The results show that the nitric oxide reductase reaction proceeds through successive formation of diferrous-mononitrosyl (S = 1/2, FeII{FeNO}7) and the S = 0 diferrous-dinitrosyl species. In the rate-determining process, the diferrous-dinitrosyl converts to diferric (FeIIIFeIII) and by inference N2O. The proximal FMNH2 then rapidly rereduces the diferric site to diferrous (FeIIFeII), which can undergo a second 2NO → N2O turnover. This pathway is consistent with previous results on the same deflavinated and flavinated FDP, which detected N2O as a product (HayashiBiochemistry2010, 49, 704020669924). Our results do not support other proposed mechanisms, which proceed either via “super-reduction” of [{FeNO}7]2 by FMNH2 or through FeII{FeNO}7 directly to a diferric-hyponitrite intermediate. The results indicate that an S = 0 [{FeNO}7}]2 complex is a proximal precursor to N–N bond formation and N–O bond cleavage to give N2O and that this conversion can occur without redox participation of the FMN cofactor. PMID:24828196

  7. Nitric Oxide Production in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Planchet, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    There is now general agreement that nitric oxide (NO) is an important and almost universal signal in plants. Nevertheless, there are still many controversial observations and opinions on the importance and function of NO in plants. Partly, this may be due to the difficulties in detecting and even more in quantifying NO. Here, we summarize major pathways of NO production in plants, and briefly discuss some methodical problems. PMID:19521475

  8. Nitric oxide reburning with methane

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpaty, S.K.; Subramanian, K.

    1996-12-31

    This paper deals with initial findings from the ongoing, three-year DOE program that began on 02/01/1995. The program involves computer simulation studies to aid in planning and conducting a series of experiments that will extend the knowledge of reburning process. The objective of this work is to find nitric oxide reduction effectiveness for various reburning fuels and identify both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction mechanisms characterizing NO reduction.

  9. Nitric oxide signaling pathway activation inhibits the immune escape of pancreatic carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, YEBIN; HU, JUANJUAN; SUN, WEIJIA; DUAN, XIAOHUI; CHEN, XIONG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the nitric oxide signaling pathway on immune escape; thus, a tumorigenesis model was established using nude mice. The mice were inoculated with pancreatic carcinoma cells and divided into two groups, a glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and a placebo group. When tumor volumes reached 150 mm3, the mice in the GTN group were treated with GTN transdermal patches (dose, 7.3 μg/h) while the mice in the placebo group were administered untreated patches. Following treatment, the tumor volume was recorded every 3–4 days and after 28 days, the tumors were analyzed. The results indicated that GTN treatment may reduce the levels of soluble major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related molecules, and natural killer group 2 member D, as well as inhibiting tumor growth. PMID:25364398

  10. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: Essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Nak Doo; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Oh, Seok Jeong; Lee, Moo Yeol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-08-01

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells. Rg3 increased both the phosphorylation and the expression of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner and a maximal effect was found at 10 {mu}g/ml of Rg3. The enzyme activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase were enhanced as were estrogen receptor (ER)- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent reporter gene transcriptions in Rg3-treated endothelial cells. Rg3-induced eNOS phosphorylation required the ER-mediated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Moreover, Rg3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through up-regulation of CaM kinase II and Rg3-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. The present results provide a mechanism for Rg3-stimulated endothelial NO production.

  11. Ginsenoside Rg3 increases nitric oxide production via increases in phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: essential roles of estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Nak Doo; Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Oh, Seok Jeong; Lee, Moo Yeol; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-08-01

    We previously showed that ginsenosides increase nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelium and that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) is the most active one among ginseng saponins. However, the mechanism for Rg3-mediated nitric oxide production is still uncertain. In this study, we determined whether Rg3 affects phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECV 304 human endothelial cells. Rg3 increased both the phosphorylation and the expression of eNOS in a concentration-dependent manner and a maximal effect was found at 10μg/ml of Rg3. The enzyme activities of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase were enhanced as were estrogen receptor (ER)- and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent reporter gene transcriptions in Rg3-treated endothelial cells. Rg3-induced eNOS phosphorylation required the ER-mediated PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Moreover, Rg3 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through up-regulation of CaM kinase II and Rg3-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation was reversed by AMPK inhibition. The present results provide a mechanism for Rg3-stimulated endothelial NO production.

  12. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, G; Morris, S M

    1998-01-01

    Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in animal cells, serving as a precursor for the synthesis not only of proteins but also of nitric oxide, urea, polyamines, proline, glutamate, creatine and agmatine. Of the enzymes that catalyse rate-controlling steps in arginine synthesis and catabolism, argininosuccinate synthase, the two arginase isoenzymes, the three nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes and arginine decarboxylase have been recognized in recent years as key factors in regulating newly identified aspects of arginine metabolism. In particular, changes in the activities of argininosuccinate synthase, the arginases, the inducible isoenzyme of nitric oxide synthase and also cationic amino acid transporters play major roles in determining the metabolic fates of arginine in health and disease, and recent studies have identified complex patterns of interaction among these enzymes. There is growing interest in the potential roles of the arginase isoenzymes as regulators of the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, proline and glutamate. Physiological roles and relationships between the pathways of arginine synthesis and catabolism in vivo are complex and difficult to analyse, owing to compartmentalized expression of various enzymes at both organ (e.g. liver, small intestine and kidney) and subcellular (cytosol and mitochondria) levels, as well as to changes in expression during development and in response to diet, hormones and cytokines. The ongoing development of new cell lines and animal models using cDNA clones and genes for key arginine metabolic enzymes will provide new approaches more clearly elucidating the physiological roles of these enzymes. PMID:9806879

  13. [Retinal ischemia and nitric oxide].

    PubMed

    Neroev, V V; Arkhipova, M M

    2003-01-01

    Retinal ischemia is the main chain in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases of the eye. It was established that nitric oxide (NO) plays the key role in the development of ischemia. Recent understanding of the NO role, as a universal regulator of the cellular and tissue metabolism, is presented. The authors' and published data were used to design a scheme of pathogenesis of retinal ischemia with regard for the NO role. NO can produce both positive and negative effects depending on a stage of the process, NO concentration and on a number of other factors if they are present. Initial stages of hypoxia/ischemia are accompanied by an activation of all forms of NO-synthases (NOS) caused by the influence of biologically active substances (cytokines, prostaglandins, serotonin, bradykinin, glycolisis suboxide products etc.). The activation of inducible NOS, which synthesize a bigger quantity of NO possessing a direct cytotoxic action and contributing to the production of highly toxic radical of peroxinitrit, is in the focus of attention. The damage of cellular structures due to free-radical processes leads to the development of endothelial, macrophage and thrombocyte malfunctions, which manifest itself through a reduced activity of endothelial NOS and through disruption of NO-dependent processes (vasospasm, an increased aggregation of platelets and a reduced fibrinolytic activity). A sharp reduction of NO synthesis substrate (L-arginine) is observed in patients with retinal ischemia. The aggravation of ischemia causes a decrease of NO synthesis due to an exhaustion of L-arginine and its intensified consumption in the course of free-radical processes. The use of NO-inhibitors and of NO-donors at different stages of retinal ischemia prevents the development of neovascularization and proliferation.

  14. Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial activity of human synovial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger implicated in the destruction and inflammation of joint tissues. Cartilage and synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) have high levels of NO. NO is known to modulate various cellular pathways and, thus, inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) of chondrocytes and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in multiple cell types. For these reasons, and because of the importance of the synovial membrane in development of OA pathology, we investigated the effects of NO on survival, mitochondrial function, and activity of fibroblastic human OA synovial cells. Methods Human OA synovia were obtained from eight patients undergoing hip joint replacement. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a NO donor compound and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assays. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by analyzing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) with flow cytometry using the fluorofore DePsipher. ATP levels were measured by luminescence assays, and the activities of the respiratory chain complexes (complex I: NADH CoQ1 reductase, complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, complex III: ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase) and citrate synthase (CS) were measured by enzymatic assay. Protein expression analyses were performed by western blot. Results SNP at a concentration of 0.5 mM induced cell death, shown by the MTT method at different time points. The percentages of viable cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 86.11 ± 4.9%, 74.31 ± 3.35%, and 43.88 ± 1.43%, respectively, compared to the basal level of 100% (*p < 0.05). SNP at 0.5 mM induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane at 12 hours with a decrease in the ratio of polarized cells (basal = 2.48 ± 0.28; SNP 0.5 mM = 1.57 ± 0.11; *p < 0.01). The time course analyses of treatment with SNP at 0.5 mM demonstrated that treatment reliably and

  15. Sleep active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase are active after both acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, M R; Kim, Y; Karpova, S A; Winston, S; McCarley, R W; Strecker, R E; Gerashchenko, D

    2013-09-05

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) delta power (~0.5-4 Hz), also known as slow wave activity (SWA), is typically enhanced after acute sleep deprivation (SD) but not after chronic sleep restriction (CSR). Recently, sleep-active cortical neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were identified and associated with enhanced SWA after short acute bouts of SD (i.e., 6h). However, the relationship between cortical nNOS neuronal activity and SWA during CSR is unknown. We compared the activity of cortical neurons expressing nNOS (via c-Fos and nNOS immuno-reactivity, respectively) and sleep in rats in three conditions: (1) after 18-h of acute SD; (2) after five consecutive days of sleep restriction (SR) (18-h SD per day with 6h ad libitum sleep opportunity per day); (3) and time-of-day matched ad libitum sleep controls. Cortical nNOS neuronal activity was enhanced during sleep after both 18-h SD and 5 days of SR treatments compared to control treatments. SWA and NREM sleep delta energy (the product of NREM sleep duration and SWA) were positively correlated with enhanced cortical nNOS neuronal activity after 18-h SD but not 5days of SR. That neurons expressing nNOS were active after longer amounts of acute SD (18h vs. 6h reported in the literature) and were correlated with SWA further suggest that these cells might regulate SWA. However, since these neurons were active after CSR when SWA was not enhanced, these findings suggest that mechanisms downstream of their activation are altered during CSR.

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates the insulin-induced activation of the nitric oxide synthase in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ingrid; Schulz, Christian; Fichtlscherer, Birgit; Kemp, Bruce E; Fisslthaler, Beate; Busse, Rudi

    2003-11-01

    Little is known about the signaling cascades that eventually regulate the activity of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in platelets. Here, we investigated the effects of insulin on the phosphorylation and activation of eNOS in washed human platelets and in endothelial cells. Insulin activated the protein kinase Akt in cultured endothelial cells and increased the phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser(1177) but failed to increase endothelial cyclic GMP levels or to elicit the relaxation of endothelium-intact porcine coronary arteries. In platelets, insulin also elicited the activation of Akt as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS and initiated NO production which was associated with increased cyclic GMP levels and the inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation. The insulin-induced inhibition of aggregation was accompanied by a decreased Ca(2+) response to thrombin and was also prevented by N(omega) nitro-L-arginine. In platelets, but not in endothelial cells, insulin induced the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic stress-sensing kinase which was sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin and the AMPK inhibitor iodotubercidin. Moreover, the insulin-mediated inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation was prevented by iodotubercidin. Insulin-independent activation of the AMPK using 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, increased platelet eNOS phosphorylation, increased cyclic GMP levels and attenuated platelet aggregation. These results highlight the differences in the signal transduction cascade activated by insulin in endothelial cells and platelets, and demonstrate that insulin stimulates the formation of NO in human platelets, in the absence of an increase in Ca(2+), by acti-vating PI3-K and AMPK which phosphorylates eNOS on Ser(1177).

  17. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage.

    PubMed

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Komur, Baran; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders.

  18. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  19. An octamer motif is required for activation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Darville, Martine I; Terryn, Sara; Eizirik, Décio L

    2004-03-01

    Nitric oxide, generated by the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is a potential mediator of cytokine-induced beta-cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. We have previously shown that cytokine-induced iNOS expression is cycloheximide (CHX) sensitive and requires nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation. In the present study, we show that an octamer motif located 20 bp downstream of the proximal NF-kappa B binding site in the rat iNOS promoter is critical for IL-1 beta and interferon-gamma induction of promoter activity in rat primary beta-cells and insulin-producing RINm5F cells. In gel shift assays, the octamer motif bound constitutively the transcription factor Oct1. Neither Oct1 nor NF-kappa B binding activities were blocked by CHX, suggesting that other factor(s) synthesized in response to IL-1 beta contribute to iNOS promoter induction. The high mobility group (HMG)-I(Y) protein also bound the proximal iNOS promoter region. HMG-I(Y) binding was decreased in cells treated with CHX and HMG-I(Y) silencing by RNA interference reduced IL-1 beta-induced iNOS promoter activity. These results suggest that Oct1, NF-kappa B, and HMG-I(Y) cooperate for transactivation of the iNOS promoter in pancreatic beta-cells.

  20. Diethylcarbamazine activity against Brugia malayi microfilariae is dependent on inducible nitric-oxide synthase and the cyclooxygenase pathway

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Helen F; Plant, Leigh D; Taylor, Mark J

    2005-01-01

    Background Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been used for many years in the treatment of human lymphatic filariasis. Its mode of action is not well understood, but it is known to interact with the arachidonic acid pathway. Here we have investigated the contribution of the nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways to the activity of DEC against B. malayi microfilariae in mice. Methods B. malayi microfilariae were injected intravenously into mice and parasitaemia was measured 24 hours later. DEC was then administered to BALB/c mice with and without pre-treatment with indomethacin or dexamethasone and the parasitaemia monitored. To investigate a role for inducible nitric oxide in DEC's activity, DEC and ivermectin were administered to microfilaraemic iNOS-/- mice and their background strain (129/SV). Western blot analysis was used to determine any effect of DEC on the production of COX and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins. Results DEC administered alone to BALB/c mice resulted in a rapid and profound reduction in circulating microfilariae within five minutes of treatment. Microfilarial levels began to recover after 24 hours and returned to near pre-treatment levels two weeks later, suggesting that the sequestration of microfilariae occurs independently of parasite killing. Pre-treatment of animals with dexamethasone or indomethacin reduced DEC's efficacy by almost 90% or 56%, respectively, supporting a role for the arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase pathways in vivo. Furthermore, experiments showed that treatment with DEC results in a reduction in the amount of COX-1 protein in peritoneal exudate cells. Additionally, in iNOS-/- mice infected with B. malayi microfilariae, DEC showed no activity, whereas the efficacy of another antifilarial drug, ivermectin, was unaffected. Conclusion These results confirm the important role of the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in DEC's mechanism of action in vivo and show that in addition to its effects on the 5

  1. Gastroprotective activity of synthetic coumarins: Role of endogenous prostaglandins, nitric oxide, non-protein sulfhydryls and vanilloid receptors.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Beatriz; Quispe, Cristina; Simirgiotis, Mario; Torres-Benítez, Alfredo; Reyes-Ortíz, Johanna; Areche, Carlos; García-Beltrán, Olimpo

    2016-12-01

    Natural or synthetic coumarins showed gastroprotective and antiulcer activity in animal models. In this study, we have synthetized twenty coumarins using classic methods to evaluate their gastroprotective effects on the ethanol/HCl-induced gastric lesion model in mice at 20mg/kg. Among the coumarins synthetized, compounds 6 and 10 showed the greatest gastroprotective activity being as active as lansoprazole at 20mg/kg and reducing gastric lesions by 75 and 76%, respectively. Then, in a second experiment, compounds 6 and 10 were re-evaluated in order to understand the possible mode of gastroprotective activity. Regarding coumarin 6, the protective effect was reduced by pre-treatment of the mice with N-ethylmaleimide and l-NAME suggesting that sulfhydryl compounds and endogenous nitric oxide are involved in its gastroprotective activity. While for coumarin 10 the effect was reduced by pre-treatment with indomethacin suggesting that prostaglandins are positively involved in its gastroprotective activity.

  2. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by Jeju plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Yim, Eun-Young; Song, Gwanpil; Kim, Gi-Ok; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in large amounts by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be responsible for the vasodilation and hypotension observed during septic shock and inflammation. Thus, inhibitors of iNOS may be useful candidates for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanied by the overproduction of NO. In this study, we prepared alcoholic extracts of Jeju plants and screened them for their inhibitory activity against NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Among the 260 kinds of plant extract tested, 122 extracts showed potent inhibitory activity towards NO production by more than 25% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Plants such as Malus sieboldii, Vaccinium oldhamii, Corylus hallaisanensis, Carpinus laxiflora, Styrax obassia, and Securinega suffruticosa showed the most potent inhibition (above 70%) at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. The cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays and most plant extracts exhibited only moderate cytotoxicity at 100 µg/mL. Therefore, these plants should be considered promising candidates for the further purification of bioactive compounds and would be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanying overproduction of NO. PMID:21217861

  3. Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway.

  4. Chitosan and blueberry treatment induces arginase activity and inhibits nitric oxide production during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Eda; Uslu, Sema; Burukoglu, Dilek; Musmul, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver diseases have become a major problem of the worldwide. More than 50% of all cases of liver failure can be attributed to drugs. Among these, acetaminophen is the most common cause. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the the hepatoprotective effects of blueberry and chitosan on tissue arginase activity, ornithine and nitric oxide levels during the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight per day), blueberry (60 mg/kg body weight per day) and, chitosan (200 mg/kg body weight per day) were administered to the rats by oral gavage during the experimental period. Results: Blueberry and chitosan significantly decreased liver arginase activity and ornithine levelsand and increased nitric oxide levels. Glutathione levels were remarkably increased by chitosan and blueberry treatments. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that blueberry and chitosan effectively protected against the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective effect afforded by blueberry and chitosan can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:24991095

  5. Use-dependent loss of active sympathetic neurogenic vasodilation after nitric oxide synthase inhibition in conscious rats. Evidence for the presence of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, R. L.; Shaffer, R. A.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether air-jet stress-induced active sympathetic hindlimb vasodilation in conscious rats involves the release of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors. We determined the effects of repeated episodes of air-jet stress (six episodes given 5 minutes apart) on mean arterial pressure and vascular resistances in the mesenteric bed and intact and sympathetically denervated hindlimb beds of conscious rats treated with saline or the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 25 mumol/kg IV). In saline-treated rats, air-jet stress produced alerting behavior, minor changes in blood pressure, pronounced mesenteric vaso-constriction, and immediate and marked vasodilation in the sympathetically intact hindlimb but a minor vasodilation in the sympathetically denervated hindlimb. Each air-jet stress produced virtually identical responses. In L-NAME-treated rats, the first air-jet stress produced vasodilator responses in the sympathetically intact and sympathetically denervated hindlimbs that were similar to those in the saline-treated rats. However, each subsequent air-jet stress produced progressively smaller vasodilator responses in the sympathetically intact but not the sympathetically denervated hindlimb. There was no loss of air-jet stress-induced alerting behavior or mesenteric vasoconstriction, suggesting that L-NAME did not interfere with the central processing of the air-jet or the resultant changes in autonomic nerve activity. The progressive diminution of air-jet stress-induced vasodilation in the intact hindlimb of L-NAME-treated rats may be due to the use-dependent depletion of preformed stores of nitric oxide-containing factors that cannot be replenished in the absence of nitric oxide synthesis.

  6. Variation of D-region nitric-oxide density with solar activity and season at the dip equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarty, D. K.; Pakhomov, S. V.; Beig, G.

    1989-01-01

    To study the solar control on electron density (N sub e) in the equatorial D region, a program was initiated with Soviet collaboration in 1979. A total of 31 rockets were launched during the high solar activity period, and 47 rockets during the low solar activity period, from Thumba to measure the N sub e profiles. Analysis of the data shows that the average values of N sub e for the high solar activity period are higher by a factor of about 2 to 3 compared to the low solar activity values. It was found that a single nitric oxide density, (NO), profile cannot reproduce all the observed N sub e profiles. An attempt was made to reproduce theoretically the observed N sub e profiles by introducing variation in (NO) for the different solar activity periods and seasons.

  7. Nitric oxide: a challenge to chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lon

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine recognized the biological significance of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is derived from the amino acid arginine. It is intimately involved with circulatory vessel dilation where, for example, it protects against heart attacks, and is the basis for new medications such as Sildenafil (Viagra). Nitric oxide acts as a neurotransmitter and can modulate many neurological reactions. The immune system uses nitric oxide to destroy pathogens by interfering with key enzymes. Nitric oxide is responsible for both osteoclastic and osteoblastic responses in bone and is a key player in the degenerative aspects of arthritis. The process of apoptosis employs nitric oxide in the orderly removal of unneeded cells. There is clear evidence that major signaling and control mechanisms exist in the body apart from the nervous system. Chiropractic is thus faced with the challenge of how to incorporate this new knowledge which conflicts with traditional chiropractic concepts.

  8. The Effect of Anandamide on Uterine Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity Depends on the Presence of the Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Sordelli, Micaela S.; Beltrame, Jimena S.; Burdet, Juliana; Zotta, Elsa; Pardo, Romina; Cella, Maximiliano; Franchi, Ana M.; Ribeiro, Maria Laura

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot−1 h−1) compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03) and 5 (0.35±0.02) of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01). This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2), and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA) and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04) and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06) inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy) through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05). While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02), a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01). Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These data

  9. Nitric oxide in marine photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Castellano, Immacolata; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Palumbo, Anna; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a versatile and powerful signaling molecule in plants. However, most of our understanding stems from studies on terrestrial plants and very little is known about marine autotrophs. This review summarizes current knowledge about the source of nitric oxide synthesis in marine photosynthetic organisms and its role in various physiological processes under normal and stress conditions. The interactions of nitric oxide with other stress signals and cross talk among secondary messengers are also highlighted.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Viviane F; Lancheros, Cesar A C; Narciso, Adélia M; Valereto, Elaine C S; Kobayashi, Renata K T; Seabra, Amedea B; Nakazato, Gerson

    2014-10-01

    Bovine mastitis is a serious veterinary disease that causes great loss to the dairy industry worldwide. It is a major infectious disease and is difficult to manage and control. Furthermore, emerging multidrug resistant bacteria that cause mastitis have complicated such management. The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antibacterial activity of nitric oxide-releasing polymeric particles against Staphylococcus aureus (MBSA) and Escherichia coli (MBEC), which were isolated from bovine mastitis. Fifteen MBSA isolates and fifteen MBEC were collected from subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis. Biocompatible polymeric particles composed of alginate/chitosan or chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of thiol groups of MSA-containing particles formed S-nitroso-MSA particles, which are NO donors. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA particles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The antibacterial activity of NO-releasing particles was evaluated by incubating the particles with an MBSA multi-resistant strain, which is responsible for bovine mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration for S-nitroso-MSA-alginate/chitosan particles against MBSA ranged from 125 μg/mL to 250 μg/mL. The results indicate that NO-releasing polymeric particles are an interesting approach to combating bacteria resistance in bovine mastitis treatment and prevention.

  11. The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea.

    PubMed

    King, S Bruce

    2003-03-01

    Hydroxyurea is used to treat a variety of cancers and sickle cell disease. Despite this widespread use, a complete mechanistic understanding of the beneficial actions of this compound remains to be understood. Hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and increases the levels of fetal hemoglobin, which explains a portion of the effects of this drug. Administration of hydroxyurea to patients results in a significant increase in levels of iron nitrosyl hemoglobin, nitrite and nitrate suggesting the in vivo metabolism of hydroxyurea to nitric oxide. Formation of nitric oxide from hydroxyurea may explain a portion of the observed effects of hydroxyurea treatment. At the present, the mechanism or mechanisms of nitric oxide release, the identity of the in vivo oxidant and the site of metabolism remain to be identified. Chemical oxidation of hydroxyurea produces nitric oxide and nitroxyl, the one-electron reduced form of nitric oxide. These oxidative pathways generally proceed through the nitroxide radical (2) or C-nitrosoformamide (3). Biological oxidants, including both iron and copper containing enzymes and proteins, also convert hydroxyurea to nitric oxide or its decomposition products in vitro and these reactions also occur through these intermediates. A number of other reactions of hydroxyurea including the reaction with ribonucleotide reductase and irradiation demonstrate the potential to release nitric oxide and should be further investigated. Gaining an understanding of the metabolism of hydroxyurea to nitric oxide will provide valuable information towards the treatment of these disorders and may lead to the development of better therapeutic agents.

  12. Study of Atmospheric Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of energetic nitrogen atoms to the production of nitric oxide in the thermosphere and their influence on the infrared emission spectrum. The nitric oxide molecules are important contributors to the cooling of the atmosphere. We first pointed out that in determining the energy distribution of the nitrogen atoms, it is important to take into account the thermal motion of the atmospheric gases. It had been ignored in all earlier studies. The source spectra are broadened considerably by the center of mass motion of the reactants. We worked out the consequences for the production of nitric oxide at night, using as sources of energetic N atoms, NO(+) + e yield N + O, N(D-2) + O yield N + O. The high energy tail is enhanced by orders of magnitude. We had earlier suggested (Sharma et al. 1993) that the reaction of energetic nitrogen atoms with O2 was responsible for the rotationally enhanced NO identified in the infrared spectrum. Our calculations provided quantitative confirmation of the suggestion. We proceeded to explore the validity of another approximation used in earlier analyses, the hard sphere approximation for the energy loss in elastic collisions. We carried out precise quantum mechanical calculations of the elastic 2 differential scattering of nitrogen atoms in collisions with oxygen atoms and showed that although the hard sphere approximation was nowhere of high precision, reasonable results could be obtained with an effective cross section of 6 x 10(exp 15)sq cm. We also initiated a program to include inelastic energy loss processes in the determination of the energy distribution function. We began a calculation of the rotation and vibrational excitation cross sections of molecular nitrogen and nitrogen atoms and developed a method for including inelastic energy loss as a function of scattering angle in the Boltzmann equation. A procedure for obtaining the solution of the Boltzman equation was worked out.

  13. Novel effects of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, K. L.; Martin, E.; Turko, I. V.; Murad, F.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a simple free radical gas, elicits a surprisingly wide range of physiological and pathophysiological effects. NO interacts with soluble guanylate cyclase to evoke many of these effects. However, NO can also interact with molecular oxygen and superoxide radicals to produce reactive nitrogen species that can modify a number of macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. NO can also interact directly with transition metals. Here, we have reviewed the non--3',5'-cyclic-guanosine-monophosphate-mediated effects of NO including modifications of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

  14. Release of nitric oxide during the T cell-independent pathway of macrophage activation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, K.P.; Rogers, H.W.; Corbett, J.A.; Schreiber, R.D.; McDaniel, M.L.; Unanue, E.R. )

    1993-02-01

    Immunodeficient mice are remarkably resistant to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection. The authors examined the role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the CB-17/lcr SCID (SCID) response to LM. SCID spleen cells produced large quantities of NO (as measured by nitrite formation) when incubated in the presence of heat-killed LM. NO produced large quantities of nitrite in response to LM, but only in the presence of IFN-[gamma]. The production of NO induced by LM was not affected by neutralizing antibodies to TNF or IL-1. The production of NO was inhibited by addition of either of two inhibitors of NO synthase, N[sup G]-monomethyl arginine, or aminoguanidine. In a different situation, NK cells that were stimulated by TNF and Listeria products to release IFN-[gamma] did not produce NO. Macrophages cultured with IFN-[gamma] killed live LM. This increased killing of LM was significantly inhibited by amino-guanidine. In vivo, administration of aminoguanidine resulted in a marked increase in the mortality and spleen bacterial loads of LM-infected SCID or immunocompetent control mice. It is concluded that NO is a critical effector molecule of T cell-independent natural resistence of LM as studied in the SCID mouse, and that the NO-mediated response is essential for both SCID and immunocompetent host to survive after LM infection. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxing activities of gamma-butyrobetaine esters: possible link to the antiischemic activities of mildronate.

    PubMed

    Sjakste, Nikolajs; Kleschyov, Andrei L; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Baumane, Larisa; Dzintare, Maija; Meirena, Dainuvite; Sjakste, Jelizaveta; Sydow, Karsten; Münzel, Thomas; Kalvinsh, Ivars

    2004-07-08

    Mildronate [3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazine) propionate (THP)] is an antiischemic drug acting mainly via inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Some effects of the drug cannot be explained by the latter mechanism. We tested the eventual nitric oxide (NO) dependence of the mildronate action. Mildronate, gamma-butyrobetaine (GBB) and GBB methyl ester induced transient increases in nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in rat blood and myocardium. In vitro, these compounds neither modified the activities of purified neuronal and endothelial recombinant nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) nor were able to interact with their active site. GBB induced vasodilatation at high concentrations only (EC50 = 5 x 10(-5) M) while mildronate alone displayed no vasodilating effect although it enhanced the GBB vasodilating activity. GBB methyl and ethyl esters were found more potent vasodilators (EC50 = 2.5 x 10(-6) M). Pretreatment of aortic rings with NOS inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) abolished vasodilating effects of the compounds. A hypothesis explaining NO and endothelium-dependent effects of mildronate and its analogues is proposed.

  16. In vivo treatment with progestogens causes immunosuppression of carp Cyprinus carpio leucocytes by affecting nitric oxide production and arginase activity.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, C; Neumann, N; Preuer, T; Kloas, W

    2011-07-01

    In this study, carp Cyprinus carpio were injected with various steroid compounds, including synthetic and natural progestogens and the glucocorticoid cortisol, to investigate effects on leucocytes isolated from their kidneys. Injection of cortisol led to an increased spleeno-somatic index (I(S)) on day 21 post-injection (pi) and immunosuppressive effects measured as decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased arginase activity in isolated leucocytes on days 14 and 21 pi, respectively. Moreover, reduced NO production was also observed after injection of the synthetic progestogens, levonorgestrel (LEV) and medroxyprogesterone acetate. In addition, LEV influenced arginase activity in head kidney cells on day 14 and day 21 pi. This study is the first demonstration in fishes that the application of these steroid compounds in vivo affects NO production and arginase activity of isolated leucocytes.

  17. Effects of clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol on nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-activated N9 cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yue; Wu, Chun Fu; Yang, Jing Yu; He, Xiang; Bi, Xiu Li; Yu, Liang; Guo, Tao

    2006-12-30

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness of unknown etiology and the basis for its treatment rests in the symptomatic response to antipsychotics. It was found that some of the patients with schizophrenia elicited microglia activation. The present study used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse microglial cell line N9 as an in vitro model to mimic microglia activation seen in the patients with schizophrenia. The effects of clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol on the release of nitric oxide (NO) by LPS-stimulated N9 cells were investigated. The results showed that olanzapine significantly inhibited NO release by LPS-stimulated N9 cells. Clozapine and haloperidol did not show significant effects on this model. The present study suggested that the inhibiting effect of olanzapine on the NO release by LPS-stimulated microglial cells might be a new mechanism through which olanzapine exhibits its therapeutic effect in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  18. Blocking the mitogen activated protein kinase-p38 pathway is associated with increase expression of nitric oxide synthase and higher production of nitric oxide by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-03-15

    This study evaluated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway in the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages ingesting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms in vitro. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the MAPKp38 pathway and activation of the MAPKp38, interleukin - (IL) IL-10, IL-12, iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were evaluated. Incubation of macrophages with MAP organisms activates the MAPKp38 pathway at early time points post infection. Chemically inhibition of MAPKp38 before incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in increased expression of IL-12 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h, decreased expression of IL-10 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h and increased expression of iNOS mRNA at 2 and 6h. Nitric oxide was evaluated to indirectly determine the effects of MAPKp38 pathway on the anti-microbial activity of bovine macrophages. Incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in modest increased production of NO at 4 and 6h post infection. Pretreatment of bovine macrophages with the MAPKp38 inhibitor SB203580 before addition of MAP organisms resulted in increased production of NO at 2, 4, 6 and 24h post infection. This study expanded our knowledge of the importance of the MAPKp38 pathway in limiting an appropriate macrophage response to MAP and suggested how activation of MAPKp38 pathway may be a target of this organism to disrupt earlier antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages. These findings raises the interesting possibility that the cellular manipulation of MAPKp38 may be useful in designing novel vaccines against MAP.

  19. Effects of Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) Injected Ghrelin on Cardiac Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity/Expression in Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Sudar Milovanovic, E; Jovanovic, A; Misirkic-Marjanovic, M; Vucicevic, Lj; Janjetovic, K; Isenovic, E R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity/expression in high fat (HF), obese rats.For this study, male Wistar rats fed with HF diet (30% fat) for 4 weeks were injected every 24 h for 5 days intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) or with an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Control rats were ICV injected with an equal volume of PBS. Glucose, insulin and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured in serum, while arginase activity and citrulline concentrations were measured in heart lysate. Protein iNOS and regulatory subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), phosphorylation of enzymes protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser(473), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) at Tyr(202)/Tyr(204) were determined in heart lysate by Western blot. For gene expression of iNOS qRT-PCR was used.Results show significantly (p<0.01) higher serum NO production in ghrelin treated HF rats compared with HF rats. Ghrelin significantly reduced citrulline concentration (p<0.05) and arginase activity (p<0.01) in HF rats. In ghrelin treated HF rats, gene and protein expression of iNOS and NFκB-p65 levels were significantly (p<0.05) increased compared with HF rats. Increased phosphorylation of Akt (p<0.01) and decreased (p<0.05) ERK1/2 phosphorylation were detected in HF ghrelin treated rats compared with HF rats hearts.Results from this study indicate that exogenous ghrelin induces expression and activity of cardiac iNOS via Akt phosphorylation followed by NFκB activation in HF rats.

  20. Phenylephrine activates eNOS Ser 1177 phosphorylation and nitric oxide signaling in renal hypertensive rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno R; Pernomian, Laena; Grando, Marcella D; Bendhack, Lusiane M

    2014-09-05

    The endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the control of the vascular tone. This work aimed to evaluate the role of an α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) on eNOS activity and downstream signaling pathway activation in normotensive (2K) and renal hypertensive (2K-1C) intact-endothelium rat aortas. Concentration-effect curves were performed for PE in intact-endothelium aortas from 2K and 2K-1C rats, in the absence of or in the presence of NOS or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Intact endothelium aortas were stimulated with PE in organ chambers and eNOS Ser(1177)/Thr(495) phosphorylation expression was evaluated by western blot. Nitric Oxide (NO) production was evaluated in isolated endothelial cells from 2K and 2K-1C rat aortas by flow-cytometry using NO selective fluorescent probe, DAF-2DA. The sGC activity/expression was also evaluated. PE-induced contractile response is lower in 2K-1C than in 2K intact-endothelium rat aorta. This is due to higher eNOS Ser(1177) phosphorylation in 2K-1C, which induces the eNOS overactivation. It was abolished by NOS or sGC inhibition. Phenylephrine reduces NO production in 2K as compared to the basal level, but it is not modified in 2K-1C. In PE-stimulated endothelial cells, the NO production is higher in 2K-1C than in 2K. Phenylephrine induces higher cGMP production in 2K-1C than in 2K, despite the lower expression of sGC in 2K-1C. Our results suggest that alpha1-adrenoceptor activation contributes to the increased activity of the enzyme eNOS by Ser(1177) phosphorylation in 2K-1C intact-endothelium aorta, which consequently decreases PE-induced contractile response.

  1. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M; Fledderus, Joost O; Braam, Branko; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Joles, Jaap A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated reactive oxygen species production contributes to oleic acid (OA)-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells, due to eNOS uncoupling. We measured reactive oxygen species production and eNOS activity in cultured endothelial cells (bEnd.3) in the presence of OA bound to bovine serum albumin, using the CM-H2DCFDA assay and the L-arginine/citrulline conversion assay, respectively. OA induced a concentration-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production, which was inhibited by the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA). OA had little effect on eNOS activity when stimulated by a calcium-ionophore, but decreased both basal and insulin-induced eNOS activity, which was restored by TTFA. Pretreatment of bEnd.3 cells with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) prevented OA-induced reactive oxygen species production and restored inhibition of eNOS activity by OA. Elevation of OA levels leads to both impairment in receptor-mediated stimulation of eNOS and to production of mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species and hence endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Granulocytic Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells Expansion during Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis Is Associated with High Nitric Oxide Plasma Level

    PubMed Central

    El Daker, Sary; Sacchi, Alessandra; Tempestilli, Massimo; Carducci, Claudia; Goletti, Delia; Vanini, Valentina; Colizzi, Vittorio; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Martini, Federico; Martino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still the principal cause of death caused by a single infectious agent, and the balance between the bacillus and host defense mechanisms reflects the different manifestations of the pathology. The aim of this work was to study the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) during active pulmonary tuberculosis at the site of infection. We observed an expansion of MDSCs in the lung and blood of patients with active TB, which are correlated with an enhanced amount of nitric oxide in the plasma. We also found that these cells have the remarkable ability to suppress T-cell response, suggesting an important role in the modulation of the immune response against TB. Interestingly, a trend in the diminution of MDSCs was found after an efficacious anti-TB therapy, suggesting that these cells may be used as a potential biomarker for monitoring anti-TB therapy efficacy. PMID:25879532

  3. JS-K, a nitric oxide prodrug, induces cytochrome c release and caspase activation in HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Udupi, Vidya; Yu, Margaret; Malaviya, Swati; Saavedra, Joseph E; Shami, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells. The NO prodrug O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, or JS-K, has potent antileukemic activity. JS-K induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells by a caspase-dependent mechanism. The purpose of this study was to determine the pathway through which JS-K induces apoptosis. We show that JS-K alters mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and induces cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Treatment with JS-K resulted in activation of Caspase (Casp) 9, Casp 3 and Casp 8. JS-K constitutes a promising lead for a new class of anti-leukemic agents.

  4. Modulation of AP-1 activity by nitric oxide (NO) in vitro: NO-mediated modulation of AP-1.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, A; Sano, K; Oh, E; Tsuchiya, T; Tsuda, M

    1994-08-29

    To understand the role of nitric oxide (NO) in controlling the specific DNA-binding activities of transcriptional factors, we investigated the in vitro effect of the NO-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the AP-1 activity of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells. A gel-mobility assay showed that SNP inhibited AP-1 activity in the presence, but not the absence of dithiothreitol (DTT). This DTT-dependent inhibition of AP-1 activity by SNP corresponded with the activation of the chemical reactivity of SNP with DTT, which can be monitored by the production of nitrite (NO2-). In contrast, diamide, a typical sulfhydryl oxidizing agent, inhibited AP-1 activity in the absence of DTT and its inhibitory effect was reversed competitively by DTT. Studies using structurally or functionally related analogues of SNP demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of the AP-1 moiety mediated by some NO-carriers but not by free NO, which can be produced by the chemical reaction of SNP with DTT, was responsible for the inhibition of AP-1 activity, suggesting NO-mediated regulation of the AP-1 transcriptional factor.

  5. Superinduction of cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human osteoarthritis-affected cartilage. Influence of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Amin, A R; Attur, M; Patel, R N; Thakker, G D; Marshall, P J; Rediske, J; Stuchin, S A; Patel, I R; Abramson, S B

    1997-01-01

    Cartilage specimens from osteoarthritis (OA)-affected patients spontaneously released PGE2 at 48 h in ex vivo culture at levels at least 50-fold higher than in normal cartilage and 18-fold higher than in normal cartilage + cytokines + endotoxin. The superinduction of PGE2 production coincides with the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in OA-affected cartilage. Production of both nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2 by OA cartilage explants is regulated at the level of transcription and translation. Dexamethasone inhibited only the spontaneously released PGE2 production, and not NO, in OA-affected cartilage. The NO synthase inhibitor HN(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate inhibited OA cartilage NO production by > 90%, but augmented significantly (twofold) the spontaneous production of PGE2 in the same explants. Similarly, addition of exogenous NO donors to OA cartilage significantly inhibited PGE2 production. Cytokine + endotoxin stimulation of OA explants increased PGE2 production above the spontaneous release. Addition of L-NMMA further augmented cytokine-induced PGE2 production by at least fourfold. Inhibition of PGE2 by COX-2 inhibitors (dexamethasone or indomethacin) or addition of exogenous PGE2 did not significantly affect the spontaneous NO production. These data indicate that human OA-affected cartilage in ex vivo conditions shows (a) superinduction of PGE2 due to upregulation of COX-2, and (b) spontaneous release of NO that acts as an autacoid to attenuate the production of the COX-2 products such as PGE2. These studies, together with others, also suggest that PGE2 may be differentially regulated in normal and OA-affected chondrocytes. PMID:9077531

  6. Nitric Oxide Mediated Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Activation of Multiple Regulatory Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari M.; Lee, Sang-Uk; Adamu, Teferi A.; Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kyung-Min; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Imbalance between the accumulation and removal of nitric oxide and its derivatives is a challenge faced by all plants at the cellular level, and is especially important under stress conditions. Exposure of plants to various biotic and abiotic stresses causes rapid changes in cellular redox tone potentiated by the rise in reactive nitrogen species that serve as signaling molecules in mediating defensive responses. To understand mechanisms mediated by these signaling molecules, we performed a large-scale analysis of the Arabidopsis transcriptome induced by nitrosative stress. We generated an average of 84 and 91 million reads from three replicates each of control and 1 mM S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO)-infiltrated Arabidopsis leaf samples, respectively. After alignment, more than 95% of all reads successfully mapped to the reference and 32,535 genes and 55,682 transcripts were obtained. CysNO infiltration caused differential expression of 6436 genes (3448 up-regulated and 2988 down-regulated) and 6214 transcripts (3335 up-regulated and 2879 down-regulated) 6 h post-infiltration. These differentially expressed genes were found to be involved in key physiological processes, including plant defense against various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormone signaling, and other developmental processes. After quantile normalization of the FPKM values followed by student's T-test (P < 0.05) we identified 1165 DEGs (463 up-regulated and 702 down-regulated) with at least 2-folds change in expression after CysNO treatment. Expression patterns of selected genes involved in various biological pathways were verified using quantitative real-time PCR. This study provides comprehensive information about plant responses to nitrosative stress at transcript level and would prove helpful in understanding and incorporating mechanisms associated with nitrosative stress responses in plants. PMID:27446194

  7. Prolactin alters blood pressure by modulating the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Albert S.; Grant, Ruriko; Tomita, Hirofumi; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of a cleaved form of prolactin (molecular weight 16 kDa) have been associated with preeclampsia. To study the effects of prolactin on blood pressure (BP), we generated male mice with a single-copy transgene (Tg; inserted into the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase locus) that enables inducible hepatic production of prolactin and its cleavage product. The Tg is driven by the indole-3-carbinol (I3C)-inducible rat cytochrome P450 1A1 promoter. When the Tg mice were fed normal chow (NC), plasma prolactin concentrations were comparable to those in female WT mice in the last third of pregnancy, and BP was lower than in WT mice (∼95 mm Hg vs. ∼105 mm Hg). When the Tg mice were fed chow containing IC3, plasma prolactin concentrations increased threefold, BP increased to ∼130 mm Hg, and cardiac function became markedly impaired. IC3 chow did not affect the WT mice. Urinary excretion of nitrite/nitrate and the amount of Ser1177-phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) were significantly greater in the Tg mice fed NC than in WT mice, as they are during pregnancy. However, when I3C was fed, these indicators of NO production became significantly less in the Tg mice than in WT mice. The effects of increased plasma prolactin were abolished by a genetic absence of eNOS. Thus, a threefold increase in plasma prolactin is sufficient to increase BP significantly and to markedly impair cardiac function, with effects mediated by NO produced by eNOS. We suggest that pregnant women with abnormally high prolactin levels may need special attention. PMID:27791173

  8. 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(E)-propenylbenzofuran promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Angela; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Baumgartner, Lisa; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M

    2012-09-15

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates important vaso-protective and immunomodulatory effects. Aim of this study was to examine whether lignan derivatives isolated from the roots of the anti-inflammatory medicinal plant Krameria lappacea influence eNOS activity and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release. The study was performed using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy926 cells. Among the eleven isolated compounds only 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(E)-propenylbenzofuran (DPPB) was able to increase eNOS enzyme activity. DPPB (1-10 μM) treatment for 24 h induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in eNOS activity as determined by the [(14)C]L-arginine/[(14)C]L-citrulline conversion assay. Immunoblotting studies further revealed a time-dependent DPPB-induced increase in eNOS-Ser(1177) and decrease in eNOS-Thr(495) phosphorylation, as well as increased AMPK phosphorylation at Thr(172), whereas Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) was not affected. Si-RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK and inhibition of CaMKKβ by STO 609, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) chelation by Bapta AM abolished the stimulating effect of DPPB on eNOS-Ser(1177) and AMPK-Thr(172) phosphorylation. Furthermore, we could show that DPPB increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations assessed with the fluorescent dye Fluo-3-AM. DPPB enhances eNOS activity and endothelial NO release by raising intracellular Ca(2+) levels and increases signaling through a CaMKKβ-AMPK dependent pathway.

  9. Blocking systemic nitric oxide production alters neuronal activation in brain structures involved in cardiovascular regulation during polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Fernando Henrique Pascoti; Corrêa, Pollyanna Barbosa Farias; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela Ravanelli; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2009-04-10

    In a previous study, we concluded that overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the late phase of sepsis prevents hypothalamic activation, blunts vasopressin secretion and contributes to hypotension, irreversible shock and death. The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate if the same neuronal activation pattern happens in brain structures related to cardiovascular functions. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, or saline 30 min before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgeries. The animals were perfused 6 or 24h after the surgeries and the brains were removed and processed for Fos immunocytochemistry. We observed an increase (P<0.001) in c-fos expression 6h after CLP in the area postrema (AP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), ventral lateral medulla (VLM), locus coeruleus (LC) and parabrachial nucleus (PB). At 24h after CLP, however, c-fos expression was strongly decreased in all these nuclei (P<0.05), except for the VLM. Aminoguanidine reduced c-fos expression in the AP and NTS at 6h after CLP, but showed an opposite effect at 24h, with an increase in the AP, NTS, and also in the VLM. No such effect was observed in the LC and PB at 6 or 24h. In all control animals, c-fos expression was minimal or absent. We conclude that in the early phase of sepsis iNOS-derived NO may be partially responsible for the activation of brain structures related to cardiovascular regulation. During the late phase, however, this activation is reduced or abolished.

  10. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  11. Nitric oxide, malnutrition and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Brunini, Tatiana M C; Moss, Monique B; Siqueira, Mariana A S; Santos, Sérgio F F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2007-04-01

    The conditionally essential amino acid L-arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, a key second messenger involved in physiological functions including endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Extracellular L-arginine transport seems to be essential for the production of NO by the action of NO synthases (NOS), even when the intracellular levels of L-arginine are available in excess (L-arginine paradox). Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex clinical condition associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and thrombosis leading to cardiovascular events. Various studies document that markers of malnutrition and inflammation, such as low body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There is considerable literature demonstrating that a disturbance in the nitric oxide control mechanism plays a role in mediating the haemodynamic and haemostatic disorders present in CRF. Endogenous analogues of L-arginine, ADMA and L-NMMA, which can inhibit NO synthesis and L-arginine transport, are increased whilst L-arginine is reduced in plasma from all stages of CRF patients. In this context, the uptake of L-arginine in blood cells is increased in undialysed CRF patients and in patients treated by CAPD and haemodialysis. In platelets obtained from haemodialysis patients, the activation of L-arginine transport and NO production was limited to well-nourished patients. Impairment in nitric oxide bioactivity, coupled with malnutrition and inflammation, may contribute to increased incidence of atherothrombotic events in CRF. This article summarizes the current knowledge of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and malnutrition in CRF and briefly describes possible therapeutic interventions.

  12. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  13. Relaxin exerts two opposite effects on mechanical activity and nitric oxide synthase expression in the mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Baccari, M C; Traini, C; Garella, R; Cipriani, G; Vannucchi, M G

    2012-11-01

    The hormone relaxin exerts a variety of functions on the smooth muscle of reproductive and nonreproductive organs, most of which occur through a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. In the stomach and ileum, relaxin causes muscle relaxation by modulating the activity and expression of different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms region-dependently. Nothing is known on the effects of relaxin in the colon, the gut region expressing the highest number of neuronal (n) NOSβ-immunoreactive neurons and mainly involved in motor symptoms of pregnancy and menstrual cycle. Therefore, we studied the effects of relaxin exposure in the mouse proximal colon in vitro evaluating muscle mechanical activity and NOS isoform expression. The functional experiments showed that relaxin decreases muscle tone and increases amplitude of spontaneous contractions; the immunohistochemical results showed that relaxin increases nNOSβ and endothelial (e) NOS expression in the neurons and decreases nNOSα and eNOS expression in the smooth muscle cells (SMC). We hypothesized that, in the colon, relaxin primarily increases the activity and expression of nNOSβ and eNOS in the neurons, causing a reduction of the muscle tone. The downregulation of nNOSα and eNOS expression in the SMC associated with increased muscle contractility could be the consequence of continuous exposue of these cells to the NO of neuronal origin. These findings may help to better understand the physiology of NO in the gastrointestinal tract and the role that the "relaxin-NO" system plays in motor disorders such as functional bowel disease.

  14. Increased activity of guanylate cyclase in the atherosclerotic rabbit aorta: role of non-endothelial nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed Central

    Rupin, A.; Behr, D.; Verbeuren, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to examine the effects of putative non-endothelial nitric oxide on the soluble guanylate cyclase activity of severe atherosclerotic aortae from hypercholesterolaemic rabbits fed a cholesterol rich diet for 45 weeks. 2. The guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) content of aortae from rabbits fed either a control diet or a diet containing 0.3% cholesterol for 45 weeks was quantified in saline extracts or in trichloracetic acid/either extracts by use of a competitive immunoenzymatic assay. Rabbit anti-cyclic GMP immunoglobulin G was covalently linked to the solid phase, in order to avoid false positive results due to high rabbit immunoglobulin G concentrations in the atherosclerotic saline extracts. 3. Saline extracts of atherosclerotic aortae which were harvested immediately after death (intact aortae) contained about 6 fold more cyclic GMP than control aortae when expressed in pmol cyclic GMP mg-1 protein. The cyclic GMP concentrations in trichloracetic acid/ether extracts of atherosclerotic and control aortae expressed in pmol mg-1 fresh tissue were not significantly different. 4. Neointimal-medial explants from atherosclerotic and control aortae were placed in a physiological saline solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for six hours in an incubator gassed with 5% CO2. Before the incubation, the cyclic GMP concentrations in saline extracts of atherosclerotic explants (0.74 +/- 0.27 pmol mg-1) were found to be 17 fold higher than those of control explants (0.043 +/- 0.008 pmol mg-1). The cyclic GMP content of control explants decreased significantly after 6 h of incubation, while that of atherosclerotic explants remained elevated. 5. Chronic administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, at 12 mg kg-1 day-1 subcutaneously for one month did not reduce the cyclic GMP concentration of intact atherosclerotic aortae, while that of intact aortae from control rabbits

  15. Estimation of nitric oxide synthase activity via LC-MS/MS determination of 15N3-citrulline in biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Beom Soo; Fung, Ho-Leung; Upadhyay, Mahesh; Shin, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    Rationale We showed that the metabolite peaks of 15N3-citrulline (15N3-CIT) and 15N3-arginine (15N3-ARG) could be detected when 15N4-ARG was metabolized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in endothelial cells. The usefulness of these metabolites as potential surrogate indices of nitric oxide (NO) generation is evaluated. Methods A hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric assay (LC-MS/MS) was utilized for the simultaneous analysis of 15N4-ARG, ARG, CIT, 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG. 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG from impurities of 15N4-ARG were determined and corrected for the calculation of their concentration. 15N4-ARG-derived NO, i.e., 15NO formation was determined by analyzing 15N-nitrite accumulation by another LC-MS/MS assay. Results After EA.hy926 human endothelial cells were challenged with 15N4-ARG for 2 hours, the peak intensities of 15N3-CIT and 15N3-ARG significantly increased with 15N4-ARG concentration and positively correlated with 15N-nitrite production. The estimated Km values were independent of the metabolite (i.e., 15N3-CIT, 15N3-CIT+15N3-ARG or 15N-nitrite) used for calculation. However, after correction for its presence as a chemical contaminant of 15N4-ARG, 15N3-ARG was only a marginal contributor for the estimation of NOS activity. Conclusions These data suggest that the formation of 15N3-CIT can be used as an indicator of NOS activity when 15N4-ARG is used as a substrate. This approach may be superior to the radioactive 14C-CIT method which can be contaminated by 14C-urea, and to the 14N-nitrite method which lacks sensitivity. PMID:26349467

  16. Nanocarriers for Nitric Oxide Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Juliana; Marotta-Oliveira, Samantha S.; Cicillini, Simone Aparecida; Eloy, Josimar de Oliveira; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising pharmaceutical agent that has vasodilative, antibacterial, and tumoricidal effects. To study the complex and wide-ranging roles of NO and to facilitate its therapeutic use, a great number of synthetic compounds (e.g., nitrosothiols, nitrosohydroxyamines, N-diazeniumdiolates, and nitrosyl metal complexes) have been developed to chemically stabilize and release NO in a controlled manner. Although NO is currently being exploited in many biomedical applications, its use is limited by several factors, including a short half-life, instability during storage, and potential toxicity. Additionally, efficient methods of both localized and systemic in vivo delivery and dose control are needed. One strategy for addressing these limitations and thus increasing the utility of NO donors is based on nanotechnology. PMID:21869934

  17. UV Induced Oxidation of Nitric Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde, F. (Inventor); Luecke, Dale E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide in a gaseous stream is converted to nitrogen dioxide using oxidizing species generated at least in part using in situ UV radiation sources. The sources of the oxidizing species include oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen may be a component of the gaseous stream or added to the gaseous stream, preferably near a UV radiation source, and is converted to ozone by the UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is decomposed through a combination of vaporization and UV irradiation. The hydrogen peroxide is preferably stored at stable concentration levels, i.e., approximately 50% by volume and increased in concentration in a continuous process preceding vaporization within the flow channel of the gaseous stream and in the presence of the UV radiation sources.

  18. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enhances superoxide activity in canine kidney.

    PubMed

    Majid, Dewan S A; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith E; Castillo, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the role of a potential interaction between superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) and nitric oxide (NO) in regulating kidney function, we examined the renal responses to intra-arterial infusion of a superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol (0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)), in anesthetized dogs treated with or without NO synthase inhibitor, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine (NLA; 50 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)). In one group of dogs (n = 10), tempol infusion alone for 30 min before NLA infusion did not cause any significant changes in renal blood flow (RBF; 5.2 +/- 0.4 to 5.0 +/- 0.4 ml.min(-1).g(-1)), glomerular filtration rate (GFR; 0.79 +/- 0.04 to 0.77 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).g(-1)), urine flow (V; 13.6 +/- 2.1 to 13.9 +/- 2.5 microl.min(-1).g(-1)), or sodium excretion (U(Na)V; 2.4 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.3 micromol.min(-1).g(-1)). Interestingly, when tempol was infused in another group of dogs (n = 12) pretreated with NLA, it caused increases in V (4.4 +/- 0.4 to 9.7 +/- 1.4 microl.min(-1).g(-1)) and in U(Na)V (0.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.2 micromol.min(-1).g(-1)) without affecting RBF or GFR. Although NO inhibition caused usual qualitative responses in both groups of dogs, the antidiuretic (47 +/- 5 vs. 26 +/- 4%) and antinatriuretic (67 +/- 4 vs. 45 +/- 11%) responses to NLA were seen much less in dogs pretreated with tempol. NLA infusion alone increased urinary excretion of 8-isoprostane (13.9 +/- 2.7 to 22.8 +/- 3.6 pg.min(-1).g(-1); n = 7), which returned to the control levels (11.6 +/- 3.4 pg.min(-1).g(-1)) during coadministration of tempol. These data suggest that NO synthase inhibition causes enhancement of endogenous O(2)(-) levels and support the hypothesis that NO plays a protective role against the actions of O(2)(-) in the kidney.

  19. Neutralizing a Surface Charge on the FMN Subdomain Increases the Activity of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase by Enhancing the Oxygen Reactivity of the Enzyme Heme-Nitric Oxide Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Fadlalla, Mohammed; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Ray, Sougata Sinha; Panda, Koustubh; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOSs) are calmodulin-dependent flavoheme enzymes that oxidize l-Arg to nitric oxide (NO) and l-citrulline. Their catalytic behaviors are complex and are determined by their rates of heme reduction (kr), ferric heme-NO dissociation (kd), and ferrous heme-NO oxidation (kox). We found that point mutation (E762N) of a conserved residue on the enzyme's FMN subdomain caused the NO synthesis activity to double compared with wild type nNOS. However, in the absence of l-Arg, NADPH oxidation rates suggested that electron flux through the heme was slower in E762N nNOS, and this correlated with the mutant having a 60% slower kr. During NO synthesis, little heme-NO complex accumulated in the mutant, compared with ∼50–70% of the wild-type nNOS accumulating as this complex. This suggested that the E762N nNOS is hyperactive because it minimizes buildup of an inactive ferrous heme-NO complex during NO synthesis. Indeed, we found that kox was 2 times faster in the E762N mutant than in wild-type nNOS. The mutational effect on kox was independent of calmodulin. Computer simulation and experimental measures both indicated that the slower kr and faster kox of E762N nNOS combine to lower its apparent Km,O2 for NO synthesis by at least 5-fold, which in turn increases its V/Km value and enables it to be hyperactive in steady-state NO synthesis. Our work underscores how sensitive nNOS activity is to changes in the kox and reveals a novel means for the FMN module or protein-protein interactions to alter nNOS activity. PMID:19473991

  20. Inorganic nitrite attenuates NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide generation in activated macrophages via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Giulietti, Alessia; Terrando, Niccolo; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Carlström, Mattias

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Immune cells are major sources of superoxide (O2(∙-)) as part of the innate host defense system, but exaggerated and sustained O2(∙-) generation may lead to progressive inflammation and organ injuries. Previous studies have proven organ-protective effects of inorganic nitrite, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), in conditions manifested by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study aimed at investigating the potential role of nitrite in modulating NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity in immune cells. Mice peritoneal macrophages or human monocytes were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without coincubation with nitrite. O2(∙-) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation were detected by lucigenin-based chemiluminescence and fluorescence techniques, respectively. The intracellular NO production was measured by DAF-FM DA fluorescence. NOX isoforms and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression were detected by qPCR. LPS increased both O2(∙-) and ONOO(-) production in macrophages, which was significantly reduced by nitrite (10µmol/L). Mechanistically, the effects of nitrite are (1) linked to increased NO generation, (2) similar to that observed with the NO donor DETA-NONOate, and (3) can be abolished by the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or by the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor febuxostat. Nox2 expression was increased in activated macrophages, but was not influenced by nitrite. However, nitrite attenuated LPS-induced upregulation of iNOS expression. Similar to that observed in mice macrophages, nitrite also reduced O2(∙-) generation in LPS-activated human monocytes. In conclusion, XO-mediated reduction of nitrite attenuates NOX activity in activated macrophages, which may modulate the inflammatory response.

  1. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase activity contributes to the regulation of peripheral vascular tone in patients with cirrhosis and ascites

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, J W; Dover, A R; Chia, S; Cruden, N L M; Hayes, P C; Newby, D E

    2006-01-01

    Background Overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and increased nitric oxide generation may be associated with the hyperdynamic circulation of patients with cirrhosis. We have, for the first time, used the highly selective iNOS inhibitor, 1400W, to determine whether iNOS activity contributes to the regulation of vascular tone in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Methods Bilateral forearm blood flow was measured using strain gauge plethysmography in eight patients with cirrhosis and ascites, and eight matched healthy volunteers during intrabrachial infusion of 1400W (0.1–1 μmol/min), NG‐monomethyl‐L‐arginine (L‐NMMA, a non‐selective NOS inhibitor; 2–8 μmol), and norepinephrine (a control vasoconstrictor; 60–480 pmol/min). Results In patients with cirrhosis, 1400W, L‐NMMA, and norepinephrine caused dose dependent reductions in forearm blood flow: peak reductions of 11 (5)%, 37 (4)%, and 48 (5)%, respectively (p<0.05 for all). In contrast, 1400W had no effect on blood flow (+4 (8)%; NS) in healthy controls despite similar reductions in blood flow with L‐NMMA and norepinephrine (39 (5)% and 49 (5)%, respectively; p<0.05 for both). Conclusions We have, for the first time, demonstrated that 1400W causes peripheral vasoconstriction in patients with cirrhosis but not healthy matched controls. This suggests that iNOS contributes to the regulation of peripheral vascular tone in patients with cirrhosis and ascites, and may contribute towards the hyperdynamic circulation associated with this condition. PMID:16299035

  3. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by dietary isoflavones: role of NO in Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Mann, Giovanni E; Rowlands, David J; Li, Francois Y L; de Winter, Patricia; Siow, Richard C M

    2007-07-15

    The endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, and increased oxidative stress in vascular disease leads to reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of resistance vessels. Although epidemiological evidence suggests that diets containing high amounts of natural antioxidants afford protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), antioxidant supplementation trials have largely reported only marginal health benefits. There is controversy concerning the cardiovascular benefits of prolonged estrogen/progestin or soy isoflavone therapy for postmenopausal women and patients with an increased risk of CHD. Research on the potential health benefits of soy isoflavones and other polyphenols contained in red wine, green and black tea and dark chocolate developed rapidly during the 1990's, and recent clinical trials and studies in animal models and cultured endothelial cells provide important and novel insights into the mechanisms by which dietary polyphenols afford protection against oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight that NO and reactive oxygen radicals may mediate dietary polyphenol induced activation of Nrf2, which in turn triggers antioxidant response element (ARE) driven transcription of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant defense enzymes in vascular cells.

  4. Involvement of nitric oxide in oxidative burst, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activation and Taxol production induced by low-energy ultrasound in Taxus yunnanensis cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian Wen; Zheng, Li Ping; Wu, Jian Yong; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2006-12-01

    This work was to characterize the generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Taxus yunnanensis cells exposed to low-energy ultrasound (US) and the signal role of NO in elicitation of plant defense responses and secondary metabolite accumulation. The US sonication (3.5-55.6 mW/cm(3) at 40 kHz fixed frequency) for 2 min induced a rapid and dose-dependent NO production in the Taxus cell culture, which exhibited a biphasic time course, reaching the first plateau within 1.5 h and the second within 7 h after US sonication. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) potentiated US-induced H(2)O(2) production and cell death. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) or scavenging NO by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde (PTIO) partially blocked the US-induced H(2)O(2) production and cell death. Moreover, the NO inhibitors suppressed US-induced activation of phenylalanine ammonium-lyase (PAL) and accumulation of diterpenoid taxanes (Taxol and baccatin III). These results suggest that NO plays a signal role in the US-induced responses and secondary metabolism activities in the Taxus cells.

  5. Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.

    PubMed

    Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

    2010-04-01

    Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

  6. Melatonin and its precursors scavenge nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, Y.; Mori, A.; Liburdy, R.; Packer, L.

    1998-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of melatonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan was examined by the Griess reaction using flow injection analysis. 1-Hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene(NOC-7) was used as NO generator. The Griess reagent stoichiometrically reacts with NO2-, which was converted by a cadmium-copper reduction column from the stable end products of NO oxidation. Except for tryptophan, all the compounds examined scavenged NO in a dose-dependent manner. Melatonin, which has a methoxy group in the 5-position and an acetyl side chain, exhibited the most potent scavenging activity among the compounds tested. Serotonin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively, showed moderate scavenging activity compared to melatonin. Tryptophan, which has neither a methoxy nor a hydroxyl group in the 5-position, exhibited the least NO scavenging activity.

  7. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  8. Distribution of nitric oxide in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mesáros, S; Grunfeld, S

    1997-01-01

    We report here the in vitro measurements of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system using a porphyrinic sensor specific for NO. Nitric oxide concentrations were measured directly in different parts of the heart and also in different arteries and veins, ranging from 100 microm to 5 mm in diameter. Highest NO. concentrations were found in the heart and particularly in the areas of aortic and pulmonary valves. The NO. concentration in the arteries was higher than in the veins. A clearcut positive correlation was obtained by plotting the vessel diameter and production of nitric oxide.

  9. Sampling nitric oxide from combustion gases.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.; Houseman, J.; Teixeira, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental study of several sampling tube and probe material compositions and designs aimed at preventing nitric oxide reduction when sampling nitric oxide from combustion gases. A 250,000 Btu/h furnace fired with technical grade methane was used for testing the sampling probes over a wide range of air-fuel mixtures. The results obtained include the finding that the use of stainless steel in probes creates inaccuracies in near-stoichiometric and fuel-rich sampling in hydrocarbon flames. For very fuel-rich flames, water cooling is needed even in quartz probes to prevent significant reduction of nitric oxide.-

  10. Development of sensors for nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Glazier, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) in mammalian systems has recently been recognized. Interest in NO stems from the discovery of its role in several processes. Firstly, NO is found to be an endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Release of NO by endothelial cells lining blood vessels causes the surrounding smooth muscle of the vessel walls to relax. Secondly, it is known to inhibit the aggregation and adhesion of platelets in blood vessels. Thirdly, NO is believed to be formed by activated macrophage cells to assist in killing foreign cells. Lastly, NO acts in the brain both as a feedback messenger from post- to presynaptic nerve cells and as a conventional neurotransmitter affecting cells other than presynaptic nerve cells. In addition to these roles, it is likely that NO is involved in other processes given its reactivity and potential presence in all mammalian cells. Measurement of NO flux within biological systems is a challenging problem as NO is generated in the nanomolar to micromolar range and is subject to rapid oxidation. The three most common assay techniques for NO in biological systems include: (a) electron paramagnetic resonance detection, (b) hemoglobin oxidation, and (c) chemiluminescence detection with ozone. The authors have initiated research on the construction of a hemoglobin-based, fiber-optic sensor for the detection of nitric oxide in biological systems and progress toward this goal will be presented.

  11. Central blockade of nitric oxide transmission impairs exercise-induced neuronal activation in the PVN and reduces physical performance.

    PubMed

    Lima, Paulo M A; Santiago, Henrique P; Szawka, Raphael E; Coimbra, Cândido C

    2014-09-01

    The blockade of central nitric oxide (NO) signaling modifies the thermoregulatory and metabolic adjustments that occur during exercise, thereby impairing physical performance. However, the brain areas involved in this response remain unknown. Nitrergic neurons are present in the hypothalamic areas that are activated during exercise and participate in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, such as, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate whether brain NO signaling affects thermoregulation during exercise through the activation of hypothalamic neurons, rats underwent acute submaximal treadmill exercise (18 mmin(-1), 5% inclination) until fatigue received an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.43 μmol Nω-nitro-l-arginine metil ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or saline (SAL). Skin tail temperature (Tsk) and internal body temperature (Ti) were continuously recorded and c-Fos expression was determined in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME treatment reduced physical performance by 48%, which was positively correlated with tail vasodilation capacity, which was reduced by 28%, and negatively correlated with heat storage rate (HSR), which was increased by 38%. Physical exercise until fatigue increased the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the PVN and the SON. L-NAME-treatment significantly reduced the exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the PVN, whereas it had no effect in the SON. Interestingly, the number of c-Fos-ir neurons in the PVN was closely correlated with physical performance and inversely associated with HSR. Thus, the inhibition of central NO attenuates neuronal activation induced by exercise in the PVN, impairs the autonomic regulation of heat dissipation, and anticipates the fatigue. Brain NO seems to play a role in exercise performance through the regulation of neuronal activation in the PVN, but not in the SON, although the SON neurons are also activated by running

  12. Nitric oxide changes its role as a modulator of respiratory motor activity during development in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Chen, Anna K; Jessop, Kristy L

    2005-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a unique chemical messenger that has been shown to play a role in the modulation of breathing in amphibians and other vertebrates. In the post-metamorphic tadpole and adult amphibian brainstem, NO, acting via the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), is excitatory to the generation of lung burst activity. In this study, we examine the modulation of breathing by NO during development of the amphibian brainstem. Isolated brainstem preparations from pre-metamorphic and late-stage post-metamorphic tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to determine the role of NO in modulating central respiratory neural activity. Respiratory neural activity was monitored with suction electrodes recording extracellular activity of cranial nerve rootlets that innervate respiratory musculature. Brainstems were superfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at 20-22 degrees C containing l-nitroarginine (l-NA; 1-10 mM), a non-selective NOS inhibitor. In pre-metamorphic tadpoles, l-NA increased fictive gill ventilation frequency and amplitude, and increased lung burst frequency. By contrast, l-NA applied to the post-metamorphic tadpole brainstem had little effect on fictive buccal activity, but significantly decreased lung burst frequency and the frequency of lung burst episodes. These data indicate that early in development, NO provides a tonic inhibitory input to gill and lung burst activity, but as development progresses, NO provides an excitatory input to lung ventilation. This changing role for NO coincides with the shift in importance in the different respiratory modes during development in amphibians; that is, pre-metamorphic tadpoles rely predominantly on gill ventilation whereas post-metamorphic tadpoles have lost the gills and are obligate air-breathers primarily using lungs for gas exchange. We hypothesize that NO provides a tonic input to the respiratory CPG during development and this changing role reflects the modulatory influence of NO

  13. Rapid nontranscriptional activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates increased cerebral blood flow and stroke protection by corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Limbourg, Florian P.; Huang, Zhihong; Plumier, Jean-Christophe; Simoncini, Tommaso; Fujioka, Masayuki; Tuckermann, Jan; Schütz, Günther; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Liao, James K.

    2002-01-01

    Many cellular responses to corticosteroids involve the transcriptional modulation of target genes by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). A rapid, non-nuclear effect of GR was found to mediate neuroprotection. High-dose corticosteroids (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally), given within 2 hours of transient cerebral ischemia, acutely increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, augmented regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) by 40% to 50%, and reduced cerebral infarct size by 32%. These neuroprotective effects of corticosteroids were abolished by the GR antagonist RU486 and by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and were absent in eNOS–/– mice. To determine the mechanism by which GR activated eNOS, we measured the effect of corticosteroids on PI3K and the protein kinase Akt. In a ligand-dependent manner, GR activated PI3K and Akt in vitro and in vivo caused NO-dependent vasodilation, which was blocked by cotreatment with RU486 or the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 but not by transcriptional inhibitors. Indeed, a mutant GR, which cannot dimerize and bind to DNA, still activated PI3K and Akt in response to corticosteroids. These findings indicate that non-nuclear GR rapidly activates eNOS through the PI3K/Akt pathway and suggest that this mechanism mediates the acute neuroprotective effects of corticosteroids through augmentation of CBF. PMID:12464678

  14. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation.

  15. New concepts in vascular nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Oeckler, R A; Wolin, M S

    2000-09-01

    Low levels of nitric oxide (NO) control the activities of guanylate cyclase and mitochondrial respiration. Increasing NO levels interact with multiple signaling systems through the formation of peroxynitrite and other oxidation products. Signaling mechanisms linked to NO participate in the prevention of acute responses such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis and the recruitment of inflammatory cells. In contrast, processes related to vascular remodeling, and responses to injury that are associated with the progression and adaptation to disease processes, are not as well understood. Many of the opposing processes involved in these adaptations may originate from the diverse signaling mechanisms that NO and its oxidized products can regulate in a cell-specific manner in the vessel wall.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add nitric oxide to gases that are to be breathed by a patient. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is to...

  18. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of nitric oxide...

  2. Nitric oxide synthase during early embryonic development in silkworm Bombyx mori: Gene expression, enzyme activity, and tissue distribution.

    PubMed

    Kitta, Ryo; Kuwamoto, Marina; Yamahama, Yumi; Mase, Keisuke; Sawada, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    To elucidate the mechanism for embryonic diapause or the breakdown of diapause in Bombyx mori, we biochemically analyzed nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during the embryogenesis of B. mori. The gene expression and enzyme activity of B. mori NOS (BmNOS) were examined in diapause, non-diapause, and HCl-treated diapause eggs. In the case of HCl-treated diapause eggs, the gene expression and enzyme activity of BmNOS were induced by HCl treatment. However, in the case of diapause and non-diapause eggs during embryogenesis, changes in the BmNOS activity and gene expressions did not coincide except 48-60 h after oviposition in diapause eggs. The results imply that changes in BmNOS activity during the embryogenesis of diapause and non-diapause eggs are regulated not only at the level of transcription but also post-transcription. The distribution and localization of BmNOS were also investigated with an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies against the universal NOS; the localization of BmNOS was observed mainly in the cytoplasm of yolk cells in diapause eggs and HCl-treated diapause eggs. These data suggest that BmNOS has an important role in the early embryonic development of the B. mori.

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A.; Víctor, Víctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, José M.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys118, suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys118 contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  4. Oscillations of nitric oxide concentration in the perturbed denitrification pathway of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, I

    1992-01-01

    The metabolism of nitric oxide in Paracoccus denitrificans has been studied using a Clark-type electrode. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and the SH reagent N-ethylmaleimide, both of which released nitric oxide from cells respiring nitrite, were found to be efficient inhibitors of nitric oxide reductase activity. Control experiments with another uncoupler, pentachlorophenol, showed that the inhibitory effect of CCCP was not the result of a decrease in membrane potential. The denitrification pathway in cells with partly inhibited nitric oxide reductase, or in a reconstituted system containing purified nitric reductase and membrane vesicles, exhibited marked sustained oscillations of nitric oxide concentration. The occurrence of the oscillations was strictly dependent on the initial concentration of nitrite. The observed oscillatory kinetics is considered to reflect two regulatory signals destabilizing the denitrification pathway, namely the inhibition of nitric oxide reductase by nitric oxide and/or by nitrite. PMID:1325776

  5. Nitrite-dependent nitric oxide production pathway: implications for involvement of active nitrogen species in photoinhibition in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, H

    2000-01-01

    Air pollution studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous free radical, is a potent photosynthetic inhibitor that reduces CO2 uptake activity in leaves. It is now recognized that NO is not only an air pollutant but also an endogenously produced metabolite, which may play a role in regulating plant cell functions. Although many studies have suggested the presence of mammalian-type NO synthase (NOS) in plants, the source of NO is still not clear. There has been a number of studies indicating that plant cells possess a nitrite-dependent NO production pathway which can be distinguished from the NOS-mediated reaction. Nitrate reductase (NR) has been recently found to be capable of producing NO through one-electron reduction of nitrite using NAD(P)H as an electron donor. This review focuses on current understanding of the mechanism for the nitrite-dependent NO production in plants. Impacts of NO produced by NR on photosynthesis are discussed in association with photo-oxidative stress in leaves. PMID:11128001

  6. Nitric oxide production by Tunguska meteor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1978-01-01

    The nonequilibrium chemical processes of nitric oxide formation are computed for the wake of the Tunguska meteor of 1908. The wake characteristics are derived by carrying out an optically-thick radiation field analysis for ablation of the meteoroid. The wake flow field is approximated by a one-dimensional, well-stirred reactor model. Known characteristics of the Tunguska event are imposed as constraints, and three controlling parameters - chemical composition, density, and velocity - are varied over a range around the values derived by Korobeinikov et al. (1976) and Petrov and Stulov (1975). The calculation shows that at least 19 million tons of nitric oxide is produced between the altitudes of 10 and 50 km. The anomalous atmospheric phenomena following the event are attributed to the reactions involving nitric oxide thus produced and atmospheric ozone. It is speculated that the nitric oxide produced by the event fertilized the area near the fall, causing the observed rapid plant growth.

  7. Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity, in vitro and ex vivo, of selected medicinal plants traditionally used in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Basu, Subhalakshmi; Hazra, Banasri

    2006-10-01

    Steroidal and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, despite their various side effects, are in great demand worldwide. Alternatively, herbal formulations provide relief to a large percentage of the population suffering from inflammatory diseases. Therefore, such practices need to be rationalized through a mechanistic approach. Thus, four traditional medicinal plants, namely Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn., Rubia cordifolia Linn., Lantana camara Linn. and Morinda citrifolia Linn. were selected for a study on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO*), a key mediator in the phenomenon of inflammation, signifying the presence of effective antiinflammatory constituents therein. Plant samples were extracted with different solvents for evaluation of their inhibitory activity on NO* produced in vitro from sodium nitroprusside, and in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages, ex vivo. Further, the inhibition of NO* synthesis was correlated with the reduction of iNOS protein expression through Western blot. Notable NO* scavenging activity was exhibited in vitro by some extracts of V. madraspatana, R. cordifolia and L. camara (IC(50) < 0.2 mg/mL). Most of them showed marked inhibition (60%-80%), ex vivo, at a dose of 80 microg/mL without appreciable cytotoxic effect on the cultured macrophages. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that the modulatory effect of the samples had occurred through suppression of iNOS protein.

  8. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol protects cardiac cells from hypoxia via CB2 receptor activation and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Shmist, Yelena A; Goncharov, Igor; Eichler, Maor; Shneyvays, Vladimir; Isaac, Ahuva; Vogel, Zvi; Shainberg, Asher

    2006-02-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component of marijuana, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system during stress conditions, but the defence mechanism is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the central (CB1) and the peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptor expression in neonatal cardiomyoctes and possible function in the cardioprotection of THC from hypoxia. Pre-treatment of cardiomyocytes that were grown in vitro with 0.1 - 10 microM THC for 24 h prevented hypoxia-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and preserved the morphological distribution of alpha-sarcomeric actin. The antagonist for the CB2 (10 microM), but not CB1 receptor antagonist (10 microM) abolished the protective effect of THC. In agreement with these results using RT-PCR, it was shown that neonatal cardiac cells express CB2, but not CB1 receptors. Involvement of NO in the signal transduction pathway activated by THC through CB2 was examined. It was found that THC induces nitric oxide (NO) production by induction of NO synthase (iNOS) via CB2 receptors. L-NAME (NOS inhibitor, 100 microM) prevented the cardioprotection provided by THC. Taken together, our findings suggest that THC protects cardiac cells against hypoxia via CB2 receptor activation by induction of NO production. An NO mechanism occurs also in the classical pre-conditioning process; therefore, THC probably pre-trains the cardiomyocytes to hypoxic conditions.

  9. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Antioxidative Mechanism in Yeast through the Activation of the Transcription Factor Mac1

    PubMed Central

    Nasuno, Ryo; Aitoku, Miho; Manago, Yuki; Nishimura, Akira; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses various defense mechanisms against environmental stresses that generate reactive oxygen species, leading to growth inhibition or cell death. Our recent study showed a novel antioxidative mechanism mediated by nitric oxide (NO) in yeast cells, but the mechanism underlying the oxidative stress tolerance remained unclear. We report here one of the downstream pathways of NO involved in stress-tolerance mechanism in yeast. Our microarray and real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that exogenous NO treatment induced the expression of genes responsible for copper metabolism under the control of the transcription factor Mac1, including the CTR1 gene encoding high-affinity copper transporter. Our ChIP analysis also demonstrated that exogenous NO enhances the binding of Mac1 to the promoter region of target genes. Interestingly, we found that NO produced under high-temperature stress conditions increased the transcription level of the CTR1 gene. Furthermore, NO produced during exposure to high temperature also increased intracellular copper content, the activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase Sod1, and cell viability after exposure to high-temperature in a manner dependent on Mac1. NO did not affect the expression of the MAC1 gene, indicating that NO activates Mac1 through its post-translational modification. Based on the results shown here, we propose a novel NO-mediated antioxidative mechanism that Mac1 activated by NO induces the CTR1 gene, leading to an increase in cellular copper level, and then Cu(I) activates Sod1. This is the first report to unveil the mechanism of NO-dependent antioxidative system in yeast. PMID:25423296

  10. [Nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation].

    PubMed

    Cristol, J P; Maggi, M F; Guérin, M C; Torreilles, J; Descomps, B

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced enzymatically in biological systems from the guanidino group of L-arginine. Its large spectrum of biological effects is achieved through chemical interactions with different targets including oxygen (O2), superoxide (O2o-) and other oxygen reactive species (ROS), transition metals and thiols. Superoxide anions and other ROS have been reported to react with NO to produce peroxynitrite anions that can decompose to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and hydroxyl radial (OHo). Thus, NO has been reported to have a dual effect on lipid peroxidation (prooxidant via the peroxynitrite or antioxydant via the chelation of ROS). In the present study we have investigated in different models the in vitro and in vivo action of NO on lipid peroxidation. Copper-induced LDL oxidation were used as an in vitro model. Human LDL (100 micrograms ApoB/ml) were incubated in oxygene-saturated PBS buffer in presence or absence of Cu2+ (2.5 microM) with increasing concentrations of NO donnors (sodium nitroprussiate or nitroso-glutathione). LDL oxidation was monitored continuously for conjugated diene formation (234 nm) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) accumulation. Exogenous NO prevents in a dose dependent manner the progress of copper-induced oxidation. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), characterized by an overproduction of ROS, is used as an in vivo model. Anaesthetized rats were submitted to 1 hour renal ischaemia following by 2 hours of reperfusion. Sham-operated rats (SOP) were used as control. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by measuring the HNE accumulated in rats kidneys in presence or absence of L-arginine or D-arginine infusion. L-arginine, but not D-arginine, enhances HNE accumulation in I/R but not in SOP (< 0.050 pmol/g tissue in SOP versus 0.6 nmol/g tissue in I/R), showing that, in this experimental conditions, NO produced from L-arginine, enhances the toxicity of ROS. This study shows that the pro- or antioxydant effects of NO are different

  11. [Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrate reductase activity, nitric oxide content and gas exchange in winter wheat leaves].

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of different nitrogen application rates on the nitrate reductase (NR) activity, nitric oxide (NO) content and gas exchange parameters in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves from tillering stage to heading stage and on grain yield were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE) of leaves as well as the grain yield were increased with increasing nitrogen application rate first but decreased then, with the values of all these parameters reached the highest in treatment N180. The NR activity increased with increasing nitrogen application rate, and there was a significant linear correlation between NR activity and NO content at tillering and jointing stages (R2 > or = 0.68, n = 15). NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (G(s)) (R2 > or = 0.43, n = 15). The lower NO content produced by lower NR activity under lower nitrogen application rate promoted the stoma opened, while the higher NO content produced by higher NR activity under higher nitrogen application rate induced the stoma closed. Although the leaf NO content had a quadratic positive correlation with stomatal conductance (R2 > or = 0.36, n = 15), no remarkable correlation was observed between NR activity and NO content at heading stage, suggesting that nitrogen fertilization could not affect leaf NO content through promoting NR activity, and further more, regulate the stomatal action. Under appropriate nitrogen application the leaf NR activity and NO content were lower, G(s), T(r) and IWUE were higher, and thus, the crop had a better drought-resistant ability, higher P(n), and higher grain yield.

  12. N-terminal domain of soluble epoxide hydrolase negatively regulates the VEGF-mediated activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hsin-Han; Hammock, Bruce D.; Su, Kou-Hui; Morisseau, Christophe; Kou, Yu Ru; Imaoka, Susumu; Oguro, Ami; Shyue, Song-Kun; Zhao, Jin-Feng; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    Aims The mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has both an epoxide hydrolase and a phosphatase domain. The role of sEH hydrolase activity in the metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells (ECs) has been well defined. However, far less is known about the role of sEH phosphatase activity in eNOS activation. In the present study, we investigated whether the phosphatase domain of sEH was involved in the eNOS activation in ECs. Methods and results The level of eNOS phosphorylation in aortas is higher in the sEH knockout (sEH−/−) mice than in wild-type mice. In ECs, pharmacological inhibition of sEH phosphatase or overexpressing sEH with an inactive phosphatase domain enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, overexpressing the phosphatase domain of sEH prevented the VEGF-mediated NO production and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser617, Ser635, and Ser1179. Additionally, treatment with VEGF induced a c-Src kinase-dependent increase in transient tyrosine phosphorylation of sEH and the formation of a sEH–eNOS complex, which was abolished by treatment with a c-Src kinase inhibitor, PP1, or the c-Src dominant-negative mutant K298M. We also demonstrated that the phosphatase domain of sEH played a key role in VEGF-induced angiogenesis by detecting the tube formation in ECs and neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Conclusion In addition to epoxide hydrolase activity, phosphatase activity of sEH plays a pivotal role in the regulation of eNOS activity and NO-mediated EC functions. PMID:22072631

  13. Nitric oxide inhibits isoproterenol-stimulated adipocyte lipolysis through oxidative inactivation of the beta-agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, P; Cacho, J; Crespo, M D; Herrera, E; Ramos, P

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in the inhibition of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue by as yet unknown mechanisms. In the present study, it is shown that the nitric oxide donor, 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine, antagonized isoproterenol (isoprenaline)-induced lipolysis in rat adipocytes, freshly isolated from white adipose tissue, by decreasing the potency of the beta-agonist without affecting its efficacy. These data suggest that nitric oxide did not act downstream of the beta-adrenoceptor but reduced the effective concentration of isoproterenol. In support of the latter hypothesis, we found that pre-treatment of isoproterenol with nitric oxide abolished the lipolytic activity of the catecholamine. Spectroscopic data and HPLC analysis confirmed that the nitric oxide-mediated inactivation of isoproterenol was in fact because of the modification of the catecholamine through a sequence of oxidation reactions, which apparently involved the generation of an aminochrome. Similarly, aminochrome was found to be the primary product of isoproterenol oxidation by 3-morpholinosydnonimine and peroxynitrite. Finally, it was shown that nitric oxide released from cytokine-stimulated adipocytes attenuated the lipolytic effect of isoproterenol by inactivating the catecholamine. In contrast with very recent findings, which suggest that nitric oxide impairs the beta-adrenergic action of isoproterenol through intracellular mechanisms and not through a chemical reaction between NO and the catecholamine, we showed that nitric oxide was able to attenuate the pharmacological activity of isoproterenol in vitro as well as in a nitric oxide-generating cellular system through oxidation of the beta-agonist. These findings should be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of studies used to investigate the role of nitric oxide as a modulator of isoproterenol-stimulated signal transduction pathways. PMID:11023835

  14. Nitric oxide inhibits isoproterenol-stimulated adipocyte lipolysis through oxidative inactivation of the beta-agonist.

    PubMed

    Klatt, P; Cacho, J; Crespo, M D; Herrera, E; Ramos, P

    2000-10-15

    Nitric oxide has been implicated in the inhibition of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue by as yet unknown mechanisms. In the present study, it is shown that the nitric oxide donor, 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine, antagonized isoproterenol (isoprenaline)-induced lipolysis in rat adipocytes, freshly isolated from white adipose tissue, by decreasing the potency of the beta-agonist without affecting its efficacy. These data suggest that nitric oxide did not act downstream of the beta-adrenoceptor but reduced the effective concentration of isoproterenol. In support of the latter hypothesis, we found that pre-treatment of isoproterenol with nitric oxide abolished the lipolytic activity of the catecholamine. Spectroscopic data and HPLC analysis confirmed that the nitric oxide-mediated inactivation of isoproterenol was in fact because of the modification of the catecholamine through a sequence of oxidation reactions, which apparently involved the generation of an aminochrome. Similarly, aminochrome was found to be the primary product of isoproterenol oxidation by 3-morpholinosydnonimine and peroxynitrite. Finally, it was shown that nitric oxide released from cytokine-stimulated adipocytes attenuated the lipolytic effect of isoproterenol by inactivating the catecholamine. In contrast with very recent findings, which suggest that nitric oxide impairs the beta-adrenergic action of isoproterenol through intracellular mechanisms and not through a chemical reaction between NO and the catecholamine, we showed that nitric oxide was able to attenuate the pharmacological activity of isoproterenol in vitro as well as in a nitric oxide-generating cellular system through oxidation of the beta-agonist. These findings should be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of studies used to investigate the role of nitric oxide as a modulator of isoproterenol-stimulated signal transduction pathways.

  15. Quinone Induced Activation of Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling by Aspirin Prodrugs Masquerading as Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Tareisha; Piyankarage, Sujeewa C.; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Abdul-Hay, Samer; Vanni, Michael; Litosh, Vladislav; Luo, Jia; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The promising therapeutic potential of the NO-donating hybrid aspirin prodrugs (NO-ASA), includes induction of chemopreventive mechanisms, and has been reported in almost 100 publications. One example, NCX-4040 (pNO-ASA), is bioactivated by esterase to a quinone methide (QM) electrophile. In cell cultures, pNO-ASA and QM-donating X-ASA prodrugs that cannot release NO rapidly depleted intracellular GSH and caused DNA damage; however, induction of Nrf2 signaling elicited cellular defense mechanisms including upregulation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL). In HepG2 cells, the “NO-specific” 4,5-diaminofluorescein reporter, DAF-DA, responded to NO-ASA and X-ASA, with QM-induced oxidative stress masquerading as NO. LC-MS/MS analysis demonstrated efficient alkylation of Cys residues of proteins including glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GST-P1) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Evidence was obtained for alkylation of Keap1 Cys residues associated with Nrf2 translocation to the nucleus, nuclear translocation of Nrf2, activation of antioxidant response element (ARE), and upregulation of cytoprotective target genes. At least in cell culture, pNO-ASA acts as a QM-donor, bioactivated by cellular esterase activity to release salicylates, NO3−, and an electrophilic QM. Finally, two novel aspirin prodrugs were synthesized, both potent activators of ARE, designed to release only the QM and salicylates on bioactivation. Current interest in electrophilic drugs acting via Nrf2 signaling suggests that QM-donating hybrid drugs can be designed as informative chemical probes in drug discovery. PMID:23035985

  16. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on highbush blueberry PSII photochemical activity and antioxidant system under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-rong; Meng, Yan-ling; Sun, Yang; Liu, Qing-zhong

    2010-10-01

    Taking the test tube 'Duke' highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) seedlings having been transplanted to the field for 6 months as test materials, this paper studied the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on their growth, PS II photochemical activity, and antioxidant system under high temperature stress. Applying 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP) could alleviate the decrease of maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency under light (phi PS II), photochemical quench (q(P)), and nonphotochemical quench (NPQ) caused by high temperature, and prevented the damage of high temperature on photosynthetic apparatus. Comparing with the control, treatments NO decreased the leaf membrane permeability and MDA content, increased the SOD and CAT activities significantly, and promoted proline accumulation. Appropriate concentration SNP could significantly alleviate the damage of high temperature stress on highbush blueberry seedlings, and 0.5 mmol x L(-1) of SNP had the most satisfactory effect.

  17. Is there a role of inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the delayed antiarrhythmic effect of sodium nitrite?

    PubMed

    Demeter-Haludka, Vivien; Juhász, László; Kovác, Mária; Gardi, János; Végh, Ágnes

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine whether inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a role in the delayed antiarrhythmic effect of sodium nitrite. Twenty-one dogs were infused intravenously with sodium nitrite (0.2 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1)) for 20 min, either in the absence (n = 12) or in the presence of the iNOS inhibitor S-(2-aminoethyl)-isothiourea (AEST) (total dose 2.0 mg·kg(-1) i.v., n = 9). Control dogs (n = 12) were given saline. Twenty-four hours later, all of the dogs were subjected to a 25 min period occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by rapid reperfusion. Dogs treated with AEST and nitrite received again AEST prior to the occlusion. Compared with the controls, sodium nitrite markedly reduced the number of ectopic beats, the number and incidence of ventricular tachycardia, and the incidence of ventricular fibrillation during occlusion and increased survival (0% versus 50%) from the combined ischaemia and reperfusion insult. Although AEST completely inhibited iNOS activity, the nitrite-induced increase in NO bioavailability during occlusion was not substantially modified. Furthermore, AEST attenuated but did not completely abolish the antiarrhythmic effect of nitrite. The marked delayed antiarrhythmic effect of sodium nitrite is not entirely due to the activation of iNOS; other mechanisms may certainly play a role.

  18. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W C; Lee, Pinky S C; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced the Ca(2+) surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production.

  19. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  20. The Volatile Oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in HUVEC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Lee, Pinky S. C.; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M.; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T. X.; Aisa, Haji A.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca2+ level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, reduced the Ca2+ surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production. PMID:25643147

  1. Nitric oxide inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 6 activity is dependent upon lipid rafts and caveolin signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Bundey, Richard A; Insel, Paul A

    2004-05-07

    Several cell types, including cardiac myocytes and vascular endothelial cells, produce nitric oxide (NO) via both constitutive and inducible isoforms of NO synthase. NO attenuates cardiac contractility and contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure, although the precise molecular mechanisms for these effects are poorly defined. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms type 5 and 6, which are preferentially expressed in cardiac myocytes, may be inhibited via a direct nitrosylation by NO. Because endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and NOS3), beta-adrenergic (betaAR) receptors, and AC6 all can localize in lipid raft/caveolin-rich microdomains, we sought to understand the role of lipid rafts in organizing components of betaAR-G(s)-AC signal transduction together with eNOS. Using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, we found that disruption of lipid rafts with beta-cyclodextrin inhibited forskolin-stimulated AC activity and cAMP production, eliminated caveolin-3-eNOS interaction, and increased NO production. betaAR- and G(s)-mediated activation of AC activity were inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin treatment, but prostanoid receptor-stimulated AC activity, which appears to occur outside caveolin-rich microdomains, was unaffected unless eNOS was overexpressed and lipid rafts were disrupted. An NO donor, SNAP, inhibited basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in both native cardiac myocytes and cardiac myocytes and pulmonary artery endothelial cells engineered to overexpress AC6. These effects of SNAP were independent of guanylyl cyclase activity and were mimicked by overexpression of eNOS. The juxtaposition of eNOS with betaAR and AC types 5 and 6 results in selective regulation of betaAR by eNOS activity in lipid raft domains over other G(s)-coupled receptors localized in nonraft domains. Thus co-localization of multiple signaling components in lipid rafts provides key spatial regulation of AC activity.

  2. Estrogen, but not progesterone, induces the activity of nitric oxide synthase within the medial preoptic area in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Fernanda Barbosa; Ota, Fábio Honda; Cabral, Fernanda Jankur; Del Bianco Borges, Bruno; Franci, Celso Rodrigues

    2014-08-26

    The control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion depends on the action of ovarian steroids and several substances, including nitric oxide (NO). NO in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) stimulates the proestrus surge of luteinizing hormone (LH). We studied the effect of estrogen (Tamoxifen-TMX) and progesterone (RU-486) antagonists on mRNA and protein expression of NO synthase (NOS), the enzyme that produces NO, as well as its activity within MPOA. Female rats received s.c. injections of TMX (3mg/animal) on first and second days of the estrous cycle (9 am), RU-486 (2mg/animal) on first, second, (8 am and 5 pm) and third days of the estrous cycle (8 am) or oil (controls) and were killed on the third day (5 pm). Real time-PCR and western blotting were performed to study NOS mRNA and protein expressions. The NOS activity was indirectly assessed by measuring the conversion from [(14)C]-L-arginine into [(14)C]-L-citrulline. TMX significantly decreased neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA expression (90%), and the activity of NOS, but did not alter nNOS protein expression. Also, TMX significantly decreased LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone plasma levels. RU-486 nor affected NOS mRNA and protein expressions neither the NOS activity in the MPOA, but reduced FSH levels. The nitrergic system in the MPOA can be stimulated by estrogen whereas TMX decreased NOS activity and mRNA expression. In conclusion, the involvement of the nitrergic system in the MPOA to induce the surge of LH on proestrus depends on the estrogen action to stimulate the mRNA-nNOS expression and the activity of nNOS but it does not seem to depend on progesterone action.

  3. Stimulation of calcium-sensing receptors induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations via nitric oxide production and activation of IKCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Harry Z.E.; Shi, Jian; Jahan, Kazi S.; Martinucci, Matthew C.; Gilbert, Steven J.; Vanessa Ho, W.-S.; Albert, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of vascular calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) is reported to induce both constrictions and relaxations. However, cellular mechanisms involved in these responses remain unclear. The present study investigates the effect of stimulating CaSRs on vascular contractility and focuses on the role of the endothelium, nitric oxide (NO) and K+ channels in these responses. In wire myography studies, increasing [Ca2 +]o from 1 mM to 6 mM induced concentration-dependent relaxations of methoxamine pre-contracted rabbit mesenteric arteries. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were dependent on a functional endothelium, and were inhibited by the negative allosteric CaSR modulator Calhex-231. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were reduced by inhibitors of endothelial NO synthase, guanylate cyclase, and protein kinase G. CaSR activation also induced NO production in freshly isolated endothelial cells (ECs) in experiments using the fluorescent NO indicator DAF-FM. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of large (BKCa) and intermediate (IKCa) Ca2 +-activated K+ channels (iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin), and Kv7 channels (linopirdine) also reduced [Ca2 +]o-induced vasorelaxations. Increasing [Ca2 +]o also activated IKCa currents in perforated-patch recordings of isolated mesenteric artery ECs. These findings indicate that stimulation of CaSRs induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations which are mediated by two separate pathways involving production of NO and activation of IKCa channels. NO stimulates PKG leading to BKCa activation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas IKCa activity contributes to endothelium-derived hyperpolarisations. PMID:26772767

  4. Physiological dilation of uteroplacental arteries in the guinea pig depends on nitric oxide synthase activity of extravillous trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Nanaev, A; Chwalisz, K; Frank, H G; Kohnen, G; Hegele-Hartung, C; Kaufmann, P

    1995-12-01

    The trophoblast invasion of uteroplacental arteries in the guinea pig has been studied by means of electron microscopy and immunohistochemisty. To identify trophoblast cells, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, antibodies against cytokeratins, smooth muscle myosin, desmin, and vimentin were employed. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical expression patterns of nitric oxide synthase isoforms (eNOS, mNOS and bNOS) were studied and were compared with the enzyme histochemical staining for NADPH-diaphorase. Dilation of uteroplacental arteries begins prior to day 30, when trophoblast cells that coexpress endothelial and macrophage nitric oxide synthase can be found in the vicinity of the vessels and replace the surrounding peritoneal mesothelium. Trophoblast invasion of the arterial walls and the subsequent wall destruction are only secondary effects. Starting around day 50, the final steps of pregnancy-dependent vessel modifications involve intraarterial trophoblast adhesion to the endothelium and subsequent replacement of the endothelium by the trophoblast cells. These may centrifugally invade the vessel media eventually forming intraluminal plugs. These findings led us to the conclusion that in the guinea pig pregnancy-induced physiological dilation of the uteroplacental arteries is due to the effect of nitric oxide rather than being caused by trophoblast-induced media destruction.

  5. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is dependent on its interaction with globular actin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Qiongyu; Chen, Nan; Shaifta, Yasin; Xie, Liping; Lu, Hui; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Qi; Hamid, Colleen; Becker, Silke; Ji, Yong; Ferro, Albert

    2011-09-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been reported to associate with globular actin, and this association increases eNOS activity. Adenosine, histamine, salbutamol and thrombin cause activation of eNOS through widely different mechanisms. Whether these eNOS agonists can regulate eNOS activity through affecting its association with actin is unknown. As previously reported, we confirmed in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) that histamine and thrombin increased intracellular Ca(2+) whereas adenosine and salbutamol did not, and that these four agonists caused different effects on actin filament structure. Nevertheless, despite their divergent effects on intracellular Ca(2+) and on actin filament structure, we found by immunoprecipitation that adenosine, histamine, salbutamol and thrombin all caused an increase in association between eNOS and globular actin. This increase of association was inhibited by pre-treatment with phalloidin, an actin filament stabilizer. All of these agonists also increased phosphorylation of eNOS on serine residue 1177, eNOS activity, and cyclic guanosine-3', 5'-monophosphate, and these increases were all attenuated by phalloidin. Agonist-induced phosphorylation of eNOS on serine 1177 was attenuated by Akt inhibition, whereas association of eNOS with actin was not. We also found, in HEK-293 cells transfected with the eNOS mutants eNOS-S1177A or eNOS-S1177D, that the association between eNOS and globular actin was decreased as compared to cells transfected with wild-type eNOS. We conclude that association of globular actin with eNOS plays an essential and necessary role in agonist-induced eNOS activation, through enabling its phosphorylation by Akt at serine residue 1177.

  6. Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits Rho-associated kinase activity in patients with angina pectoris: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Noma, Kensuke; Fujimura, Noritaka; Kajikawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakashima, Ayumu; Kihara, Yasuki; Liao, James K; Higashi, Yukihito

    2015-07-01

    The RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway has a key physiological role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Increased ROCK activity is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect, whereas the exogenous NO-mediated cardiovascular effect still remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous NO on ROCK activity in patients with angina pectoris. This is a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled study. A total of 30 patients with angina pectoris were randomly assigned to receive 40 mg day(-1) of isosorbide mononitrate (n=15, 12 men and 3 women, mean age of 63±12 years, isosorbide mononitrate group) or conventional treatment (n=15, 13 men and 2 women, mean age of 64±13 years, control group) for 12 weeks. ROCK activity in peripheral leukocytes was measured by western blot analysis. ROCK activities at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment were decreased in the isosorbide mononitrate group (0.82±0.33 at 0 week, 0.62±0.20 at 4 weeks, 0.61±0.19 at 12 weeks, n=15 in each group, P<0.05, respectively) but not altered in the control group. ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression levels were similar in all treatment periods in the two groups. These findings suggest that the administration of exogenous NO can inhibit ROCK activity, indicating that the usage of exogenous NO could have a protective effect in patients with angina pectoris.

  7. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  8. Nitric oxide may mediate nipple erection.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Murat; Ozluk, Yasemin; Sanli, Oner; Asoglu, Oktar; Kadioglu, Ates

    2012-01-01

    The nipple is a specialized structure that can become erect by cold, sexual arousal, breast-feeding, or other tactile stimulations, which can induce the milk ejection reflex and sexual arousal because of intense sensory innervation. The studies that have been conducted thus far to identify the mechanism of nipple erection (NE) are not sufficient. It has been stated that NE occurs via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and smooth muscle contraction. The purposes of this study were to investigate the existence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the nipple-areola complex (NAC) to explain the NE mechanism. Considering that smooth muscle relaxation might be effective in NE, endothelial and neuronal NOS expression and localization were investigated via immunohistochemical methods on sagittal sections from 17 human NACs. The results of this study indicate that eNOS is expressed in the vascular endothelium, ductal epithelium, and smooth muscles, whereas nNOS is expressed in the neural fibers, smooth muscles, ductal epithelium, and vascular endothelium in the NAC. Sinusoidal spaces with endothelial layers similar to those found in penile cavernosal tissue are not found in the NAC. Various mediators are known to affect the function of the NAC smooth muscles; however, this study demonstrates that enzymes (eNOS and nNOS) that synthesize nitric oxide are expressed in the NAC.

  9. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingzi; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-10-01

    As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO) affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP)] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  10. Redox-dependent open and closed forms of the active site of the bacterial respiratory nitric-oxide reductase revealed by cyanide binding studies.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Karin L C; Watmough, Nicholas J; Thomson, Andrew J; Richardson, David J; Field, Sarah J

    2004-04-23

    The bacterial respiratory nitric-oxide reductase (NOR) catalyzes the respiratory detoxification of nitric oxide in bacteria and Archaea. It is a member of the well known super-family of heme-copper oxidases but has a [heme Fe-non-heme Fe] active site rather than the [heme Fe-Cu(B)] active site normally associated with oxygen reduction. Paracoccus denitrificans NOR is spectrally characterized by a ligand-to-metal charge transfer absorption band at 595 nm, which arises from the high spin ferric heme iron of a micro-oxo-bridged [heme Fe(III)-O-Fe(III)] active site. On reduction of the nonheme iron, the micro-oxo bridge is broken, and the ferric heme iron is hydroxylated or hydrated, depending on the pH. At present, the catalytic cycle of NOR is a matter of much debate, and it is not known to which redox state(s) of the enzyme nitric oxide can bind. This study has used cyanide to probe the nature of the active site in a number of different redox states. Our observations suggest that the micro-oxo-bridged [heme Fe(III)-O-Fe(III)] active site represents a closed or resting state of NOR that can be opened by reduction of the non-heme iron.

  11. Enhanced production of nitric oxide in A549 cells through activation of TRPA1 ion channel by cold stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenwu; Wang, Zhonghua; Cao, Jianping; Wang, Xu; Han, Yaling; Ma, Zhuang

    2014-08-31

    The respiratory epithelium is exposed to the external environment, and inhalation of cold air is common during the season of winter. In addition, the lung is a major source of nitric oxide (NO). However, the effect of cold stress on the production of NO is still unclear. In the present work, We measured the change of NO in single cell with DACF-DA and the change in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in A549 cell. We observed that cold stress (from 20 °C to 5 °C) induced an increase of NO in A549 cell, which was completely abolished by applying an extracellular Ca(2+) free medium. Further experiments showed that cold-sensing transient receptor potential subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) channel agonist (allyl isothiocyanate, AITC) increased the production of NO and the level of [Ca(2+)]c in A549 cell. Additionally, TRPA1 inhibitor, Ruthenium red (RR) and camphor, significantly blocked the enhanced production of NO and the rise of [Ca(2+)]c induced by AITC or cold stimulation, respectively. Taken together, these data indicated that cold-induced TRPA1 activation was responsible for the enhanced production of NO in A549 cell.

  12. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Bi, Cathy W C; Xu, Li; Tian, Xiao Yu; Liu, Jian; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Lau, Chi Wai; Lau, David T W; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Huang, Yu; Tsim, Karl W K

    2012-01-01

    Fo Shou San (FSS) is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui) in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS) were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+) and a reduction of ROS.

  13. Remote ischemia preconditioning increases red blood cell deformability through red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase activation.

    PubMed

    Grau, Marijke; Kollikowski, Alexander; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-09-12

    Remote ischemia preconditioning (rIPC), short cycles of ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) of a region remote from the heart, protects against myocardial I/R injury. This effect is triggered by endothelial derived nitric oxide (NO) production. Red blood cells (RBC) are also capable of NO production and it is hypothesized that the beneficial effect of rIPC in terms of cardioprotection is strengthened by increased RBC dependent NO production and improved RBC function after rIPC maneuver. For this purpose, twenty male participants were subjected to four cycles of no-flow ischemia with subsequent reactive hyperemia within the forearm. Blood sampling and measurement of blood pressures and heart rate were carried out pre intervention, after each cycle and 15 min post intervention at both the non-treated and treated arm. These are the first results that show improved RBC deformability in the treated arm after rIPC cycles 1- 4 caused by significantly increased RBC-NO synthase activation. This in turn was associated to increased NO production in both arms after rIPC cycles 3 + 4. Also, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased after rIPC. The findings lead to the conclusion that the cardioprotective effects associated with rIPC include improvement of the RBC-NOS/NO signaling in RBC.

  14. Differential regulatory role of nitric oxide in mediating nitrate reductase activity in roots of tomato (Solanum lycocarpum)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chong Wei; Du, Shao Ting; Zhang, Yong Song; Lin, Xian Yong; Tang, Cai Xian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to stimulate the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) in plant roots supplied with a low level of nitrate, and to affect proteins differently, depending on the ratio of NO to the level of protein. Nitrate has been suggested to regulate the level of NO in plants. This present study examined interactive effects of NO and nitrate level on NR activity in roots of tomato (Solanum lycocarpum). Methods NR activity, mRNA level of NR gene and concentration of NR protein in roots fed with 0·5 mm or 5 mm nitrate and treated with the NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylamine NONOate sodium (NONOate), and the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO), were measured in 25-d-old seedlings. Key Results Addition of SNP and NONOate enhanced but cPTIO decreased NR activity in the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate. The opposite was true for the roots fed with 5 mm nitrate. However, the mRNA level of the NR gene and the protein concentration of NR enzyme in the roots were not affected by SNP treatment, irrespective of nitrate pre-treatment. Nevertheless, a low rate of NO gas increased while cPTIO decreased the NR activities of the enzyme extracts from the roots at both nitrate levels. Increasing the rate of NO gas further increased NR activity in the enzyme extracts of the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate but decreased it when 5 mm nitrate was supplied. Interestingly, the stimulative effect of NO gas on NR activity could be reversed by NO removal through N2 flushing in the enzyme extracts from the roots fed with 0·5 mm nitrate but not from those with 5 mm nitrate. Conclusions The effects of NO on NR activity in tomato roots depend on levels of nitrate supply, and probably result from direct interactions between NO and NR protein. PMID:19376780

  15. Amphotericin B severely affects expression and activity of the endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase involving altered mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Suschek, Christoph Viktor; Bonmann, Eckhard; Kleinert, Hartmut; Wenzel, Michael; Mahotka, Csaba; Kolb, Hubert; Förstermann, Ulrich; Gerharz, Claus-Dieter; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic use of the antifungal drug amphotericin B (AmB) is limited due to severe side effects like glomerular vasoconstriction and risk of renal failure during AmB administration. As nitric oxide (NO) has substantial functions in renal autoregulation, we have determined the effects of AmB on endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS) expression and activity in human and rat endothelial cell cultures.AmB used at concentrations of 0.6 to 1.25 μg ml−1 led to increases in ecNOS mRNA and protein expression as well as NO production. This was the result of an increased ecNOS mRNA half-life. In contrast, incubation of cells with higher albeit subtoxic concentrations of AmB (2.5–5.0 μg ml−1) resulted in a decrease or respectively in completely abolished ecNOS mRNA and protein expression with a strongly reduced or inhibited ecNOS activity, due to a decrease of ecNOS mRNA half-life. None of the AmB concentrations affected promoter activity as found with a reporter gene construct stably transfected into ECV304 cells.Thus, our experiments show a concentration-dependent biphasic effect of AmB on expression and activity of ecNOS, an effect best explained by AmB influencing ecNOS mRNA stability. In view of the known renal accumulation of this drug the results reported here could help to elucidate its renal toxicity. PMID:11015297

  16. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci favor conversion of arginine into ornithine despite a widespread genetic potential for nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Mainar, María; Weckx, Stefan; Leroy, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Within ecosystems that are poor in carbohydrates, alternative substrates such as arginine may be of importance to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, the versatility of arginine conversion in CNS remains largely uncharted. Therefore, a set of 86 strains belonging to 17 CNS species was screened for arginine deiminase (ADI), arginase, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities, in view of their ecological relevance. In fermented meats, for instance, ADI could improve bacterial competitiveness, whereas NOS may serve as an alternative nitrosomyoglobin generator to nitrate and nitrite curing. About 80% of the strains were able to convert arginine, but considerable inter- and intraspecies heterogeneity regarding the extent and mechanism of conversion was found. Overall, ADI was the most commonly employed pathway, resulting in mixtures of ornithine and small amounts of citrulline. Under aerobic conditions, which are more relevant for skin-associated CNS communities, several strains shifted toward arginase activity, leading to the production of ornithine and urea. The obtained data indeed suggest that arginase occurs relatively more in CNS isolates from a dairy environment, whereas ADI seems to be more abundant in strains from a fermented meat background. With some exceptions, a reasonable match between phenotypic ADI and arginase activity and the presence of the encoding genes (arcA and arg) was found. With respect to the NOS pathway, however, only one strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110) displayed phenotypic NOS-like activity under aerobic conditions, despite a wide prevalence of the NOS-encoding gene (nos) among CNS. Hence, the group of CNS displays a strain- and condition-dependent toolbox of arginine-converting mechanisms with potential implications for competitiveness and functionality.

  17. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Favor Conversion of Arginine into Ornithine despite a Widespread Genetic Potential for Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Mainar, María; Weckx, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Within ecosystems that are poor in carbohydrates, alternative substrates such as arginine may be of importance to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). However, the versatility of arginine conversion in CNS remains largely uncharted. Therefore, a set of 86 strains belonging to 17 CNS species was screened for arginine deiminase (ADI), arginase, and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities, in view of their ecological relevance. In fermented meats, for instance, ADI could improve bacterial competitiveness, whereas NOS may serve as an alternative nitrosomyoglobin generator to nitrate and nitrite curing. About 80% of the strains were able to convert arginine, but considerable inter- and intraspecies heterogeneity regarding the extent and mechanism of conversion was found. Overall, ADI was the most commonly employed pathway, resulting in mixtures of ornithine and small amounts of citrulline. Under aerobic conditions, which are more relevant for skin-associated CNS communities, several strains shifted toward arginase activity, leading to the production of ornithine and urea. The obtained data indeed suggest that arginase occurs relatively more in CNS isolates from a dairy environment, whereas ADI seems to be more abundant in strains from a fermented meat background. With some exceptions, a reasonable match between phenotypic ADI and arginase activity and the presence of the encoding genes (arcA and arg) was found. With respect to the NOS pathway, however, only one strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110) displayed phenotypic NOS-like activity under aerobic conditions, despite a wide prevalence of the NOS-encoding gene (nos) among CNS. Hence, the group of CNS displays a strain- and condition-dependent toolbox of arginine-converting mechanisms with potential implications for competitiveness and functionality. PMID:25281381

  18. Efficient synthesis of 2-amino-6-arylbenzothiazoles via Pd(0) Suzuki cross coupling reactions: potent urease enzyme inhibition and nitric oxide scavenging activities of the products.

    PubMed

    Gull, Yasmeen; Rasool, Nasir; Noreen, Mnaza; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Yaqoob, Asma; Kousar, Shazia; Rasheed, Umer; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Zubair, Muhammad; Islam, Md Saiful

    2013-07-25

    In general, benzothiazole derivatives have attracted great interest due to thier pharmaceutical and biological importance. New 2-amino-6-arylbenzothiazoles were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields via Suzuki cross coupling reactions using various aryl boronic acids and aryl boronic acid pinacol esters and the antiurease and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity of the products were also examined. The most active compound concerning urease enzyme inhibition was 6-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole-2-amine 3e, with an IC₅₀ value of 26.35 µg/mL. Compound 3c, 6-(4-methoxyphenyl) benzo[d]thiazole-2-amine, exhibited the highest nitric oxide percentage scavenging at 100 µg/mL.

  19. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  20. Nitric oxide ameliorates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Manish Singh; Srivastava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Alka; Singh, Anumeha; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2016-11-01

    In cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120, iron deficiency leads to oxidative stress with unavoidable consequences. Nitric oxide reduces pigment damage and supported the growth of Anabaena 7120 in iron-deficient conditions. Elevation in nitric oxide accumulation and reduced superoxide radical production justified the role of nitric oxide in alleviating oxidative stress in iron deficiency. Increased activities of antioxidative enzymes and higher levels of ROS scavengers (ascorbate, glutathione and thiol) in iron deficiency were also observed in the presence of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide also supported the membrane integrity of Anabaena cells and reduces protein and DNA damage caused by oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency. Results suggested that nitric oxide alleviates the damaging effects of oxidative stress induced by iron deficiency in cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120.

  1. Glial activation is associated with l-DOPA induced dyskinesia and blocked by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bortolanza, Mariza; Cavalcanti-Kiwiatkoski, Roberta; Padovan-Neto, Fernando E; da-Silva, Célia Aparecida; Mitkovski, Miso; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Del-Bel, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    l-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease but can induce debilitating abnormal involuntary movements (dyskinesia). Here we show that the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is accompanied by upregulation of an inflammatory cascade involving nitric oxide. Male Wistar rats sustained unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle. After three weeks animals started to receive daily treatment with L-DOPA (30 mg/kg plus benserazide 7.5 mg/kg, for 21 days), combined with an inhibitor of neuronal NOS (7-nitroindazole, 7-NI, 30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (saline-PEG 50%). All animals treated with L-DOPA and vehicle developed abnormal involuntary movements, and this effect was prevented by 7-NI. L-DOPA-treated dyskinetic animals exhibited an increased striatal and pallidal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in reactive astrocytes, an increased number of CD11b-positive microglial cells with activated morphology, and the rise of cells positive for inducible nitric oxide-synthase immunoreactivity (iNOS). All these indexes of glial activation were prevented by 7-NI co-administration. These findings provide evidence that the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in the rat is associated with activation of glial cells that promote inflammatory responses. The dramatic effect of 7-NI in preventing this glial response points to an involvement of nitric oxide. Moreover, the results suggest that the NOS inhibitor prevents dyskinesia at least in part via inhibition of glial cell activation and iNOS expression. Our observations indicate nitric oxide synthase inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for preventing neuroinflammatory and glial components of dyskinesia pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease.

  2. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  3. Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hien, Tran Thi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-11-15

    The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-{alpha} induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-{alpha}-induced nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin induced the phosphorylation of eNOS and the production of NO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin activated eNOS through ER-dependent PI3-kinase and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin-induced NO was involved in the inhibition of NF-kB activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Puerarin may help for prevention of vascular dysfunction and diabetes.

  4. Astrocytes inhibit nitric oxide-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics in activated microglia: involvement of ATP released via pannexin 1 channels.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A; Montero, Trinidad D; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2013-12-01

    Under inflammatory conditions, microglia exhibit increased levels of free intracellular Ca(2+) and produce high amounts of nitric oxide (NO). However, whether NO, Ca(2+) dynamics, and gliotransmitter release are reciprocally modulated is not fully understood. More importantly, the effect of astrocytes in the potentiation or suppression of such signaling is unknown. Our aim was to address if astrocytes could regulate NO-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics and ATP release in LPS-stimulated microglia. Griess assays and Fura-2AM time-lapse fluorescence images of microglia revealed that LPS produced an increased basal [Ca(2+) ]i that depended on the sequential activation of iNOS, COXs, and EP1 receptor. TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited the abovementioned responses and also abolished LPS-induced ATP release by microglia. Luciferin/luciferase assays and dye uptake experiments showed that release of ATP from LPS-stimulated microglia occurred via pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels, but not connexin 43 hemichannels. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated microglia, exogenous ATP triggered activation of purinergic P2Y1 receptors resulting in Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Interestingly, TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited ATP-induced Ca(2+) response in LPS-stimulated microglia to that observed in control microglia. Finally, COX/EP1 receptor signaling and activation of P2 receptors via ATP released through Panx1 channels were critical for the increased NO production in LPS-stimulated microglia. Thus, Ca(2+) dynamics depended on the inflammatory profile of microglia and could be modulated by astrocytes. The understanding of mechanisms underlying glial cell regulatory crosstalk could contribute to the development of new treatments to reduce inflammatory cytotoxicity in several brain pathologies.

  5. The involvement of the release of nitric oxide in the pharmacological activity of the new furoxan derivative CHF 2363.

    PubMed Central

    Civelli, M.; Giossi, M.; Caruso, P.; Razzetti, R.; Bergamaschi, M.; Bongrani, S.; Gasco, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The mechanism of action and the pharmacological effects of the new furoxan derivative, CHF 2363 (4-ethoxy-3-phenylsulphonylfuroxan), were investigated. 2. Pre-incubation of CHF 2363 with human platelet-rich plasma produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the platelet aggregation induced by collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and platelet activating factor (PAF). The test compound was about 5 times more potent than sodium nitroprusside. 3-Isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) potentiated the antiaggregating effect of CHF 2363. 3. CHF 2363 was a potent inhibitor of rubbed endothelium rabbit aortic ring contraction induced by noradrenaline. Comparison of IC50 values showed that CHF 2363 was as potent as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). 4. Increasing concentrations of CHF 2363 elevated platelet guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP) levels. Adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels were unaffected. 5. Oxyhaemoglobin reduced all the pharmacological actions of the test compound. Moreover, CHF 2363 concentration-dependently released nitric oxide (NO) in platelet-rich plasma. The NO release was correlated to its ability to increase platelet cyclic GMP levels. 6. After exposure of rat aortic strips to supramaximal concentrations of GTN (550 microM), the vasorelaxant activity of CHF 2363 did not change, although that of GTN decreased about 55 fold. 7. It has been concluded that the new furoxan derivative CHF 2363 exerts a potent antiaggregating and vasorelaxant activity via NO release and increase of cyclic GMP levels. No in vitro cross tolerance between GTN and CHF 2363 was observed. PMID:8799563

  6. Nitric Oxide-Induced Autophagy in MC3T3-E1 Cells is Associated with Cytoprotection via AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Yoon; Park, Min Young; Park, Sam Young; Yoo, Hong Il; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Jae Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of bone remodeling, whereas high concentration of NO promotes cell death of osteoblast. However, it is not clear yet whether NO-induced autophagy is implicated in cell death or survival of osteoblast. The present study is aimed to examine the role of NO-induced autophagy in the MC3T3-E1 cells and their underlying molecular mechanism. The effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, on the cytotoxicity of the MC3T3-E1 cells was determined by MTT assay and expression of apoptosis or autophagy associated molecules was evaluated by western blot analysis. The morphological observation of autophagy and apoptosis by acridine orange stain and TUNEL assay were performed, respectively. Treatment of SNP decreased the cell viability of the MC3T3-E1 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. SNP increased expression levels of p62, ATG7, Beclin-1 and LC3-II, as typical autophagic markers and augmented acidic autophagolysosomal vacuoles, detected by acridine orange staining. However, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3MA), the specific inhibitor for autophagy, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 in the SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major autophagy regulatory kinase, was activated in SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. In addition, pretreatment with compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK, decreased cell viability, whereas increased the number of apoptotic cells, cleaved PARP and caspase-3 levels compared to those of SNP-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, it is speculated that NO-induced autophagy functions as a survival mechanism via AMPK activation against apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cells. PMID:26557017

  7. Nitric oxide signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms mediates phosphodiesterase activity, decreased cyclic di-GMP levels, and enhanced dispersal.

    PubMed

    Barraud, Nicolas; Schleheck, David; Klebensberger, Janosch; Webb, Jeremy S; Hassett, Daniel J; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2009-12-01

    Bacteria in biofilms often undergo active dispersal events and revert to a free-swimming, planktonic state to complete the biofilm life cycle. The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) was previously found to trigger biofilm dispersal in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa at low, nontoxic concentrations (N. Barraud, D. J. Hassett, S. H. Hwang, S. A. Rice, S. Kjelleberg, and J. S. Webb, J. Bacteriol. 188:7344-7353, 2006). NO was further shown to increase cell motility and susceptibility to antimicrobials. Recently, numerous studies revealed that increased degradation of the secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) by specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) triggers a planktonic mode of growth in eubacteria. In this study, the potential link between NO and c-di-GMP signaling was investigated by performing (i) PDE inhibitor studies, (ii) enzymatic assays to measure PDE activity, and (iii) direct quantification of intracellular c-di-GMP levels. The results suggest a role for c-di-GMP signaling in triggering the biofilm dispersal event induced by NO, as dispersal requires PDE activity and addition of NO stimulates PDE and induces the concomitant decrease in intracellular c-di-GMP levels in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, gene expression studies indicated global responses to low, nontoxic levels of NO in P. aeruginosa biofilms, including upregulation of genes involved in motility and energy metabolism and downregulation of adhesins and virulence factors. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of candidate genes and physiological characterization of the corresponding mutant strains uncovered that the chemotaxis transducer BdlA is involved in the biofilm dispersal response induced by NO.

  8. ACTIVATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE AND HEME OXYGENASE-1 EXPRESSION BY ELECTROPHILIC NITRO-FATTY ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Rudolph, Volker; Cole, Marsha P.; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Woodcock, Steven R.; Batthyany, Carlos; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species mediate a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction, with secondary oxidized and nitrated byproducts of these reactions contributing to the pathogenesis of numerous vascular diseases. While oxidized lipids and lipoproteins exacerbate inflammatory reactions in the vasculature, in stark contrast the nitration of polyunsaturated fatty acids and complex lipids yield electrophilic products that exhibit pluripotent anti-inflammatory signaling capabilities acting via both cGMP-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Herein we report that nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) treatment increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the vasculature, thus transducing vascular protective effects associated with enhanced NO production. Administration of OA-NO2 via osmotic pump results in a significant increase in eNOS and HO-1 mRNA in mouse aortas. Moreover, HPLC-MS/MS analysis showed that NO2-FAs are rapidly metabolized in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and treatment with NO2-FAs stimulated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179. These post-translational modifications of eNOS, in concert with elevated eNOS gene expression, contributed to an increase in endothelial NO production. In aggregate, OA-NO2-induced eNOS and HO-1 expression by vascular cells can induce beneficial effects on endothelial function and provide a new strategy for treating various vascular inflammatory and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19857569

  9. Human- and mouse-inducible nitric oxide synthase promoters require activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C and NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Spitsin, S. V.; Farber, J. L.; Bertovich, M.; Moehren, G.; Koprowski, H.; Michaels, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The production of nitric oxide by type II inducible nitric oxide synthase (type II NOS) gene is controlled at least in part by transcriptional activation. Although the murine and human type II NOS genes share significant sequence homology, they differ in the induction stimuli required for activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The A549 human and murine RAW 264.7 cell lines were cultured in the presence of inducers of the type II NOS gene and exposed to specific inhibitors of phosphatidyl choline-specific phospholipase C, NF-kappa B, and endocytosis, as well as to reagents that deplete stores of ATP or prevent the acidification of endosomes. The effect of these reagents on the induction of the type II NOS gene transcription, translation, and NO expression was studied using electromobility shift assays, Western blotting, and the detection of NO as nitrates, as appropriate. Additionally, the ability of the native human type II NOS NF-kappa B recognition sequence to bind NF-kappa B was compared with a concensus sequence and with a mutated oligomer. RESULTS: Type II NOS production by both human and mouse cells could be prevented by the addition of the specific inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, D609, and of agents that interfere with the activation of NF-kappa B. Both mouse and human cells also required acidic endosome formation and the production of 1,2-diacylglycerol for type II NOS expression. Additionally, the native human type II NOS NF-kappa B recognition sequence bound NF-kappa B with significantly less affinity than did the recognition sequence derived from the human immunoglobulin light-chain gene promoter. CONCLUSIONS: These experiments show that whereas mouse cells can be activated by lipopolysaccharide to produce nitric oxide, and human cells require activation by a mixture of cytokines to produce nitric oxide, the intracellular activation pathway following receptor binding of these heterologous stimuli is shared. Additionally

  10. Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber water extracts induce nitric oxide and cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Park, Chang-Shin; Lim, Yunsook; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-04-01

    Natural products are increasingly recognized as potential targets for drug discovery and development. We previously reported that Paeonia japonica, Houttuynia cordata, and Aster scaber enhanced macrophage activation both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we investigated the immunomodulating effects of these plants on lipopolysacharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. An aqueous extract of each plant was administered to female BALB/c mice every other day for 4 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were then collected and incubated to examine the immunoreactivity of macrophages against LPS at different time points. The expression levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inhibitory factor kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) proteins and the production of NO metabolite (nitrite), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in the activated macrophages treated with extracts from each plant individually or combined. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were produced by A. scaber-, P. japonica-, and H. cordata-treated macrophages following 24 hours of LPS stimulation. P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber treatment also induced the production of nitrate by LPS-treated macrophages. Induction of iNOS mRNA and protein was also different in each group. PGE(2) secretion was up-regulated by all extract-treated macrophages at early time points; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups by 8 hours post-LPS stimulation. Treatment with A. scaber extract resulted in the highest levels of IkappaBalpha degradation. Our findings illustrate that the natural plant products P. japonica, H. cordata, and A. scaber may enhance immune function by modulating ex vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine and NO production as well as the expression of iNOS and COX-2.

  11. JS-K, an arylating nitric oxide (NO) donor, has synergistic anti-leukemic activity with cytarabine (ARA-C).

    PubMed

    Shami, Paul J; Maciag, Anna E; Eddington, Jordan K; Udupi, Vidya; Kosak, Ken M; Saavedra, Joseph E; Keefer, Larry K

    2009-11-01

    We have designed prodrugs that release nitric oxide (NO) on metabolism by glutathione S-transferases (GST). This design exploits the upregulation of GST in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K, a member of this class) has potent anti-leukemic activity. HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells were used for in vitro studies of the combination of JS-K with daunorubicin (DAUNO), cytarabine (ARA-C) or etoposide (ETOP) using the median effect method to determine synergistic, antagonistic, or additive effects. Combinations of JS-K added simultaneously, 2h before or 2h after the other compounds were used. JS-K and DAUNO were antagonistic in all three drug sequences. JS-K and ETOP were also antagonistic but to a lesser degree. JS-K and ARA-C showed strong synergy. The combination index at the 50% fraction affected was 0.37+/-0.23, 0.24+/-0.27, and 0.15+/-0.11 for simultaneous, JS-K first and ARA-C first additions, respectively. JS-K by itself induced DNA strand breaks at relatively high concentrations. However, at submicromolar concentrations, it significantly augmented ARA-C-induced DNA strand breaks. NMR spectroscopy revealed no evidence of chemical interaction between JS-K and the other chemotherapeutic agents. We conclude that ARA-C and JS-K have synergistic anti-leukemic activity and warrant further exploration in combination.

  12. Role of nitric oxide in thermotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Yi; Zhou, Shuo; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Haijun

    2010-01-01

    A tCaM3 is a key factor in heat shock (HS) signal transduction. Nitric oxide (NO) is believed to mediate a variety of resistant reactions against environmental factors. Our experiments indicate that under heat stress NO induces thermotolerance. In order to do so, NO is signal molecule acting upstream of AtCaM3, stimulating the DNA-binding activity of HS transcription factors as well as the accumulation of heat shock proteins. As a novel HS signaling molecule, NO signal pathway is little known and several unexpected results are emerging. Herein we are discussing them and conclude that in order to obtain a more profound understanding of this new role of NO, detailed research will be needed in the future. PMID:21057186

  13. The role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nitric oxide reductase in nitric oxide detoxification in soya bean root nodules.

    PubMed

    Meakin, G E; Jepson, B J N; Richardson, D J; Bedmar, E J; Delgado, M J

    2006-02-01

    The identification of nitric oxide-bound leghaemoglobin within soya bean nodules has led to the question of how Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids overcome the toxicity of this nitric oxide. It has previously been shown that one candidate for nitric oxide detoxification, the respiratory nitric oxide reductase, is expressed in soya bean nodules from plants supplied with nitrate. In this paper, the role of this enzyme in nitric oxide detoxification is assessed and discussion is provided on other possible B. japonicum nitric oxide detoxification systems.

  14. Nitric oxide/cGMP pathway signaling actively down-regulates α4β1-integrin affinity: an unexpected mechanism for inducing cell de-adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Integrin activation in response to inside-out signaling serves as the basis for rapid leukocyte arrest on endothelium, migration, and mobilization of immune cells. Integrin-dependent adhesion is controlled by the conformational state of the molecule, which is regulated by seven-transmembrane Guanine nucleotide binding Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). α4β1-integrin (CD49d/CD29, Very Late Antigen-4, VLA-4) is expressed on leukocytes, hematopoietic progenitors, stem cells, hematopoietic cancer cells, and others. VLA-4 conformation is rapidly up-regulated by inside-out signaling through Gαi-coupled GPCRs and down-regulated by Gαs-coupled GPCRs. However, other signaling pathways, which include nitric oxide-dependent signaling, have been implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion. The goal of the current report was to study the effect of nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway on VLA-4 conformational regulation. Results Using fluorescent ligand binding to evaluate the integrin activation state on live cells in real-time, we show that several small molecules, which specifically modulate nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway, as well as a cell permeable cGMP analog, can rapidly down-modulate binding of a VLA-4 specific ligand on cells pre-activated through three Gαi-coupled receptors: wild type CXCR4, CXCR2 (IL-8RB), and a non-desensitizing mutant of formyl peptide receptor (FPR ΔST). Upon signaling, we detected rapid changes in the ligand dissociation rate. The dissociation rate after inside-out integrin de-activation was similar to the rate for resting cells. In a VLA-4/VCAM-1-specific myeloid cell adhesion system, inhibition of the VLA-4 affinity change by nitric oxide had a statistically significant effect on real-time cell aggregation. Conclusions We conclude that nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway can rapidly down-modulate the affinity state of the VLA-4 binding pocket, especially under the condition of sustained Gαi-coupled GPCR signaling

  15. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fangfang; Lu, Rui; Liu, Huiying; Shi, Ben; Zhang, Jianhua; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK.

  16. Nitric oxide-activated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase regulates the abscisic acid-induced antioxidant defence in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aying; Jiang, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and calcium (Ca2+)/calmodulin (CaM) are all required for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defence. Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a strong candidate for the decoder of Ca2+ signals. However, whether CCaMK is involved in ABA-induced antioxidant defence is unknown. The results of the present study show that exogenous and endogenous ABA induced increases in the activity of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK in leaves of maize. Subcellular localization analysis showed that ZmCCaMK is located in the nucleus, the cytoplasm, and the plasma membrane. The transient expression of ZmCCaMK and the RNA interference (RNAi) silencing of ZmCCaMK analysis in maize protoplasts revealed that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence. Moreover, treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) induced the activation of ZmCCaMK and the expression of ZmCCaMK. Pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor blocked the ABA-induced increases in the activity and the transcript level of ZmCCaMK. Conversely, RNAi silencing of ZmCCaMK in maize protoplasts did not affect the ABA-induced NO production, which was further confirmed using a mutant of OsCCaMK, the homologous gene of ZmCCaMK in rice. Moreover, H2O2 was also required for the ABA activation of ZmCCaMK, and pre-treatments with an NO scavenger and inhibitor inhibited the H2O2-induced increase in the activity of ZmCCaMK. Taken together, the data clearly suggest that ZmCCaMK is required for ABA-induced antioxidant defence, and H2O2-dependent NO production plays an important role in the ABA-induced activation of ZmCCaMK. PMID:22865912

  17. [Potentiation of nitric oxide-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by levomycetin, tetracycline, and oxolin].

    PubMed

    Shchegolev, A Iu; Sidorova, T A; Severina, I S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of antibiotics laevomycetin and tetracycline and the antivirus agent oxolin on the activity of human platelet soluble guanylate cyclase, the stimulation of the enzyme by NO-donors (sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and spermine nanoate (spermine NONO)) and the combination of spermine NONO and YC-1 was investigated. All preparations used in the concentration range 0,1-10 mM had no effect on the basal activity of guanylate cyclase but potentiated the SNP-induced activation of this enzyme. All preparations used synergistically increased (similar to YC-1) spermine NONO-induced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. At the same time these compounds did not produce the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve characteristic for YC-1. Moreover, all compounds used did not influence the leftward shift of spermine NONO concentration response curve obtained in the presence of YC-1. This demonstrated that there was no competition between YC-1 and the drugs for interaction with the enzyme. The revealed regulatory phenomen of laevomycetin, tetracycline and oxolin to increase synergistically NO-dependent activation of soluble guanylate cyclase may cause additional pharmacological effects during prolong treatment by these drugs. This fact is necessary taking into account.

  18. Contribution of central nervous system endothelial nitric oxide synthase to neurohumoral activation in heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Vinicia C; Son, Sook J; Sonner, Patrick M; Zheng, Hong; Patel, Kaushik P; Stern, Javier E

    2011-09-01

    Neurohumoral activation, a hallmark in heart failure (HF), is linked to the progression and mortality of HF patients. Thus, elucidating its precise underlying mechanisms is of critical importance. Other than its classic peripheral vasodilatory actions, the gas NO is a pivotal neurotransmitter in the central nervous system control of the circulation. While accumulating evidence supports a contribution of blunted NO function to neurohumoral activation in HF, the precise cellular sources, and NO synthase (NOS) isoforms involved, remain unknown. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the expression, cellular distribution, and functional relevance of the endothelial NOS isoform within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in sham and HF rats. Our results show high expression of endothelial NOS in the paraventricular nucleus (mostly confined to astroglial cells), which contributes to constitutive NO bioavailability, as well as tonic inhibition of presympathetic neuronal activity and sympathoexcitatory outflow from the paraventricular nucleus. A diminished endothelial NOS expression and endothelial NOS-derived NO availability were found in the paraventricular nucleus of HF rats, resulting, in turn, in blunted NO inhibitory actions on neuronal activity and sympathoexcitatory outflow. Taken together, our study supports blunted central nervous system endothelial NOS-derived NO as a pathophysiological mechanism underlying neurohumoral activation in HF.

  19. Chemical constituents of malagasy Liverworts. 6. A myltaylane caffeate with nitric oxide inhibitory activity from Bazzania nitida.

    PubMed

    Harinantenaina, Liva; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2007-05-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the Malagasy liverwort, Bazzania nitida, led to the isolation of (+)-(lS,4R)-7-hydroxycalamenene (1), together with a new myltayl-4(12)-ene-2-caffeate (2). Although cyclomyltaylane sesquiterpenoids have been known to be present in Bazzania species, this is the second isolation of myltaylane-type sesuiterpenoids from the genus. Biosynthetically, myltaylane sesquiterpenoids are proposed to be derived from chamigrene with a route different from those of cyclomyltaylanoids. The chemosystematics of Bazzania species is also discussed. Compound 2 showed potent inhibition of nitric oxide in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells (IC50 = 6.3 microM).

  20. Nitric oxide synthesis and signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ian D; Neill, Steven J; Hancock, John T

    2008-05-01

    As with all organisms, plants must respond to a plethora of external environmental cues. Individual plant cells must also perceive and respond to a wide range of internal signals. It is now well-accepted that nitric oxide (NO) is a component of the repertoire of signals that a plant uses to both thrive and survive. Recent experimental data have shown, or at least implicated, the involvement of NO in reproductive processes, control of development and in the regulation of physiological responses such as stomatal closure. However, although studies concerning NO synthesis and signalling in animals are well-advanced, in plants there are still fundamental questions concerning how NO is produced and used that need to be answered. For example, there is a range of potential NO-generating enzymes in plants, but no obvious plant nitric oxide synthase (NOS) homolog has yet been identified. Some studies have shown the importance of NOS-like enzymes in mediating NO responses in plants, while other studies suggest that the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) is more important. Still, more published work suggests the involvement of completely different enzymes in plant NO synthesis. Similarly, it is not always clear how NO mediates its responses. Although it appears that in plants, as in animals, NO can lead to an increase in the signal cGMP which leads to altered ion channel activity and gene expression, it is not understood how this actually occurs. NO is a relatively reactive compound, and it is not always easy to study. Furthermore, its biological activity needs to be considered in conjunction with that of other compounds such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can have a profound effect on both its accumulation and function. In this paper, we will review the present understanding of how NO is produced in plants, how it is removed when its signal is no longer required and how it may be both perceived and acted upon.

  1. Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B.; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  2. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  3. Nitric oxide and receptors for VIP and PACAP in cutaneous active vasodilation during heat stress in humans.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Dean L; Zhao, Joan L; Wu, Yubo; Johnson, John M

    2012-11-01

    VPAC2 receptors sensitive to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), PAC1 receptors sensitive to PACAP, and nitric oxide (NO) generation by NO synthase (NOS) are all implicated in cutaneous active vasodilation (AVD) through incompletely defined mechanisms. We hypothesized that VPAC2/PAC1 receptor activation and NO are synergistic and interdependent in AVD and tested our hypothesis by examining the effects of VPAC2/PAC1 receptor blockade with and without NOS inhibition during heat stress. The VPAC2/PAC1 antagonist, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide 6-38 (PACAP6-38) and the NOS inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) were administered by intradermal microdialysis. PACAP6-38, l-NAME, a combination of PACAP6-38 and l-NAME, or Ringer's solution alone were perfused at four separate sites. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry at each site. Body temperature was controlled with water-perfused suits. Blood pressure was monitored by Finapres, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) calculated (CVC = laser-Doppler flowmetry/mean arterial pressure). The protocol began with a 5- to 10-min baseline period without antagonist perfusion, followed by perfusion of PACAP6-38, l-NAME, or combined PACAP6-38 and l-NAME at the different sites in normothermia (45 min), followed by 3 min of whole body cooling. Whole body heating was then performed to induce heat stress and activate AVD. Finally, 58 mM sodium nitroprusside were perfused at all sites to effect maximal vasodilation for normalization of blood flow data. No significant differences in CVC (normalized to maximum) were found among Ringer's PACAP6-38, l-NAME, or combined antagonist sites during normothermia (P > 0.05 among sites) or cold stress (P > 0.05 among sites). CVC responses at all treated sites were attenuated during AVD (P < 0.05 vs. Ringer's). Attenuation was greater at l-NAME and combined PACAP6-38- and l

  4. Microparticles Carrying Sonic Hedgehog Favor Neovascularization through the Activation of Nitric Oxide Pathway in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Benameur, Tarek; Soleti, Raffaella; Porro, Chiara; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martínez, Maria Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background Microparticles (MPs) are vesicles released from plasma membrane upon cell activation and during apoptosis. Human T lymphocytes undergoing activation and apoptosis generate MPs bearing morphogen Shh (MPsShh+) that are able to regulate in vitro angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we investigated the ability of MPsShh+ to modulate neovascularization in a model of mouse hind limb ischemia. Mice were treated in vivo for 21 days with vehicle, MPsShh+, MPsShh+ plus cyclopamine or cyclopamine alone, an inhibitor of Shh signalling. Laser doppler analysis revealed that the recovery of the blood flow was 1.4 fold higher in MPsShh+-treated mice than in controls, and this was associated with an activation of Shh pathway in muscles and an increase in NO production in both aorta and muscles. MPsShh+-mediated effects on flow recovery and NO production were completely prevented when Shh signalling was inhibited by cyclopamine. In aorta, MPsShh+ increased activation of eNOS/Akt pathway, and VEGF expression, being inhibited by cyclopamine. By contrast, in muscles, MPsShh+ enhanced eNOS expression and phosphorylation and decreased caveolin-1 expression, but cyclopamine prevented only the effects of MPsShh+ on eNOS pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that MPsShh+ treatment increased FGF5, FGF2, VEGF A and C mRNA levels and decreased those of α5-integrin, FLT-4, HGF, IGF-1, KDR, MCP-1, MT1-MMP, MMP-2, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TSP-1 and VCAM-1, in ischemic muscles. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that MPsShh+ may contribute to reparative neovascularization after ischemic injury by regulating NO pathway and genes involved in angiogenesis. PMID:20856928

  5. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Pyakurel, Kusma; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  6. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Breast Cancer: Role of TIMP-1 in NO-mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ridnour, Lisa A.; Barasch, Kimberly M.; Windhausen, Alisha N.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Lizardo, Michael M.; Yfantis, Harris G.; Lee, Dong H.; Switzer, Christopher H.; Cheng, Robert Y. S.; Heinecke, Julie L.; Brueggemann, Ernst; Hines, Harry B.; Khanna, Chand; Glynn, Sharon A.; Ambs, Stefan; Wink, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of therapeutic response and cancer patient survival can be improved by the identification of molecular markers including tumor Akt status. A direct correlation between NOS2 expression and elevated Akt phosphorylation status has been observed in breast tumors. Tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) has been proposed to exert oncogenic properties through CD63 cell surface receptor pathway initiation of pro-survival PI3k/Akt signaling. We employed immunohistochemistry to examine the influence of TIMP-1 on the functional relationship between NOS2 and phosphorylated Akt in breast tumors and found that NOS2-associated Akt phosphorylation was significantly increased in tumors expressing high TIMP-1, indicating that TIMP-1 may further enhance NO-induced Akt pathway activation. Moreover, TIMP-1 silencing by antisense technology blocked NO-induced PI3k/Akt/BAD phosphorylation in cultured MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. TIMP-1 protein nitration and TIMP-1/CD63 co-immunoprecipitation was observed at NO concentrations that induced PI3k/Akt/BAD pro-survival signaling. In the survival analysis, elevated tumor TIMP-1 predicted poor patient survival. This association appears to be mainly restricted to tumors with high NOS2 protein. In contrast, TIMP-1 did not predict poor survival in patient tumors with low NOS2 expression. In summary, our findings suggest that tumors with high TIMP-1 and NOS2 behave more aggressively by mechanisms that favor Akt pathway activation. PMID:22957045

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 mediates nitric oxide activation of endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    López-Rivera, Esther; Lizarbe, Tania R.; Martínez-Moreno, Mónica; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Rodríguez-Barbero, Alicia; Rodrigo, José; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Álvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Lamas, Santiago; Zaragoza, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which NO elicits endothelial cell (EC) migration we used murine and bovine aortic ECs in an in vitro wound-healing model. We found that exogenous or endogenous NO stimulated EC migration. Moreover, migration was significantly delayed in ECs derived from endothelial NO synthase-deficient mice compared with WT murine aortic EC. To assess the contribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 to NO-mediated EC migration, we used RNA interference to silence MMP-13 expression in ECs. Migration was delayed in cells in which MMP-13 was silenced. In untreated cells MMP-13 was localized to caveolae, forming a complex with caveolin-1. Stimulation with NO disrupted this complex and significantly increased extracellular MMP-13 abundance, leading to collagen breakdown. Our findings show that MMP-13 is an important effector of NO-activated endothelial migration. PMID:15728377

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide pathways in short term modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase activity by endothelins 1 and 3 in the rat anterior hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Morgazo, Carolina; Perfume, Guadalupe; Legaz, Guillermina; di Nunzio, Andrea; Hope, Sandra I; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2005-09-02

    The ability of endothelins 1 and 3 (ET-1 and ET-3) to reduce neuronal norepinephrine release through ETB receptor activation involving nitric oxide (NO) pathways in the rat anterior hypothalamus region (AHR) was previously reported. In the present work, we studied the effects of ET-1 and -3 on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the possible involvement of NO pathways. Results showed that ET-1 and -3 (10 nM) diminished TH activity in AHR and this effect was blocked by a selective ETB receptor antagonist (100 nM BQ-788), but not by a ET(A) receptor antagonist (BQ-610). To confirm these results, 1 microM IRL-1620 (ET(B) agonist) reduced TH activity whereas 300 nM sarafotoxin S6b falled to modify it. N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 microM), 7-nitroindazole (10 microM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-ona (10 microM), KT5823 (2 microM), inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, NO-sensitive-guanylyl cyclase, and protein kinase G, respectively, did not modify the reduction of TH activity produced by ETs. In addition, both 100 microM sodium nitroprusside and 50 microM 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (NO donor and guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate analog, respectively) diminished TH activity. Present results showed that ET-1 and ET-3 diminished TH activity through the activation of ET(B) receptors involving the NO/guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate/protein kinase G pathway. Taken jointly present and previous results it can be concluded that both ETs play an important role as modulators of norepinephrine neurotransmission in the rat AHR.

  9. Ethylene mediates brassinosteroid-induced stomatal closure via Gα protein-activated hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chenyu; Qi, Cheng; Ren, Hongyan; Huang, Aixia; Hei, Shumei; She, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, whether and how they promote stomatal closure is not fully clear. In this study, we report that 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), a bioactive BR, induces stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering a signal transduction pathway including ethylene synthesis, the activation of Gα protein, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO) production. EBR initiated a marked rise in ethylene, H(2)O(2) and NO levels, necessary for stomatal closure in the wild type. These effects were abolished in mutant bri1-301, and EBR failed to close the stomata of gpa1 mutants. Next, we found that both ethylene and Gα mediate the inductive effects of EBR on H(2)O(2) and NO production. EBR-triggered H(2)O(2) and NO accumulation were canceled in the etr1 and gpa1 mutants, but were strengthened in the eto1-1 mutant and the cGα line (constitutively overexpressing the G protein α-subunit AtGPA1). Exogenously applied H(2)O(2) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) rescued the defects of etr1-3 and gpa1 or etr1 and gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure, whereas the stomata of eto1-1/AtrbohF and cGα/AtrbohF or eto1-1/nia1-2 and cGα/nia1-2 constructs had an analogous response to H(2)O(2) or SNP as those of AtrbohF or Nia1-2 mutants. Moreover, we provided evidence that Gα plays an important role in the responses of guard cells to ethylene. Gα activator CTX largely restored the lesion of the etr1-3 mutant, but ethylene precursor ACC failed to rescue the defects of gpa1 mutants in EBR-induced stomatal closure. Lastly, we demonstrated that Gα-activated H(2)O(2) production is required for NO synthesis. EBR failed to induce NO synthesis in mutant AtrbohF, but it led to H(2)O(2) production in mutant Nia1-2. Exogenously applied SNP rescued the defect of AtrbohF in EBR-induced stomatal closure, but H(2)O(2) did not reverse the lesion of EBR-induced stomatal closure in Nia1-2. Together, our

  10. Regulation of cytosolic COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 production by nitric oxide in activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Patel, R; Attur, M G; Dave, M; Abramson, S B; Amin, A R

    1999-04-01

    Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) when stimulated with LPS show 90% distribution of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the nuclear fraction and approximately 10% in the cytosolic fraction. Further analysis of this cytosolic fraction at 100,000 x g indicates that the COX-2 is distributed both in the 100,000 x g soluble fraction and membrane fraction. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS in the presence of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA at concentrations that inhibit nitrite accumulation by /=85% with higher concentrations of L-NMMA shows 1) up-regulation of PGE2 production, 2) accumulation of COX-2 protein in the 100,000 x g soluble and membrane fractions of the cytosolic fraction, and 3) with no significant effects on the accumulation of COX-2 mRNA. These experiments suggest that low concentrations of nitric oxide (10-15% of the total) attenuate PGE2 production in response to LPS in RAW 264.7 cells. This inhibition is, in part, due to decreased expression of cytosolic COX-2 protein.

  11. Assessing the physiological concentration and targets of nitric oxide in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Catherine N; Attwell, David

    2008-01-01

    Low nanomolar concentrations of nitric oxide activate guanylyl cyclase to produce cGMP, which has diverse physiological effects. Higher concentrations inhibit mitochondrial respiration at cytochrome c oxidase and this has been proposed to be important physiologically, increasing oxygen permeation into tissue (by reducing the oxygen use of cells near blood vessels), activating AMP kinase, and regulating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and oxygen use. It is unclear, however, whether nitric oxide can accumulate physiologically to concentrations at which inhibition of respiration occurs. In rat cerebellar slices, we activated nitric oxide production from each isoform of nitric oxide synthase. Only activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which is expressed pathologically, caused any significant inhibition of respiration. Modelling oxygen and nitric oxide concentrations predicted that, in vivo, physiological nitric oxide levels are too low to affect respiration. Even pathologically, the nitric oxide concentration may only rise to 2.5 nm, producing a 1.5% inhibition of respiration. Thus, under physiological conditions, nitric oxide signals do not inhibit respiration but are well-tuned to the dynamic range of guanylyl cyclase activation. PMID:18535091

  12. Role of exhaled nitric oxide in asthma.

    PubMed

    Yates, D H

    2001-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an evanescent atmospheric gas, has recently been discovered to be an important biological mediator in animals and humans. Nitric oxide plays a key role within the lung in the modulation of a wide variety of functions including pulmonary vascular tone, nonadrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmission and modification of the inflammatory response. Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and increased synthesis of NO and other highly reactive and toxic substances (reactive oxygen species). Pro- inflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha and IL-1beta are secreted in asthma and result in inflammatory cell recruitment, but also induce calcium- and calmodulin-independent nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and perpetuate the inflammatory response within the airways. Nitric oxide is released by several pulmonary cells including epithelial cells, eosinophils and macrophages, and NO has been shown to be increased in conditions associated with airway inflammation, such as asthma and viral infections. Nitric oxide can be measured in the expired air of several species, and exhaled NO can now be rapidly and easily measured by the use of chemiluminescence analysers in humans. Exhaled NO is increased in steroid-naive asthmatic subjects and during an asthma exacerbation, although it returns to baseline levels with appropriate anti-inflammatory treatment, and such measurements have been proposed as a simple non-invasive method of measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Here the chemical and biological properties of NO are briefly discussed, followed by a summary of the methodological considerations relevant to the measurement of exhaled NO and its role in lung diseases including asthma. The origin of exhaled NO is considered, and brief mention made of other potential markers of airway inflammation or oxidant stress in exhaled breath.

  13. Nitric oxide stimulates human sperm motility via activation of the cyclic GMP/protein kinase G signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Erica; De Angelis, Federico; Gazzano, Elena; Hassanpour, Hossain; Bertagna, Angela; Aldieri, Elisabetta; Revelli, Alberto; Ghigo, Dario

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a modulator of several physiological processes, is involved in different human sperm functions. We have investigated whether NO may stimulate the motility of human spermatozoa via activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cGMP pathway. Sperm samples obtained by masturbation from 70 normozoospermic patients were processed by the swim-up technique. The kinetic parameters of the motile sperm-rich fractions were assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. After a 30-90  min incubation, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) exerted a significant enhancing effect on progressive motility (77, 78, and 78% vs 66, 65, and 62% of the control at the corresponding time), straight linear velocity (44, 49, and 48 μm/s vs 34, 35, and 35.5 μm/s), curvilinear velocity (81, 83, and 84 μm/s vs 68 μm/s), and average path velocity (52, 57, and 54 μm/s vs 40, 42, and 42 μm/s) at 5 μM but not at lower concentrations, and in parallel increased the synthesis of cGMP. A similar effect was obtained with the NO donor spermine NONOate after 30 and 60  min. The GSNO-induced effects on sperm motility were abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (a specific sGC inhibitor) and mimicked by 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP; a cell-permeating cGMP analog); the treatment with Rp-8-Br-cGMPS (an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinases) prevented both the GSNO- and the 8-Br-cGMP-induced responses. On the contrary, we did not observe any effect of the cGMP/PRKG1 (PKG) pathway modulators on the onset of hyperactivated sperm motility. Our results suggest that NO stimulates human sperm motility via the activation of sGC, the subsequent synthesis of cGMP, and the activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinases.

  14. Cyclosporin A inhibits flow-mediated activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase by altering cholesterol content in caveolae.

    PubMed

    Lungu, Andreea O; Jin, Zheng-Gen; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Tatsuo; Wong, Chelsea; Berk, Bradford C

    2004-11-19

    Fluid shear stress generated by blood flowing over the endothelium is a major determinant of arterial tone, vascular remodeling, and atherogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an essential role in regulation of vascular function and structure by blood flow. Although cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitory ligand of cyclophilin A, is a widely used immunosuppressive drug, it causes arterial hypertension in part by impairing eNOS-dependent vasodilation. Here we show that CsA inhibits fluid shear stress-mediated eNOS activation in endothelial cells via decreasing cholesterol content in caveolae. Exposure of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells to 1 mum CsA for 1 h significantly inhibited NO production and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179 induced by flow (shear stress=dynes/cm2). The effect of CsA was not related to inhibition of two known eNOS kinases, protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase A, because CsA did not affect Akt or protein kinase A activation. In rabbit aorta perfused ex vivo, CsA also significantly inhibited flow-induced eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1179 but had no effect on Akt measured by phosphorylation at Ser-473. However, CsA treatment decreased cholesterol content in caveolae and displaced eNOS from caveolae, which may be caused by CsA disrupting the association of caveolin-1 and cyclophilin A. The magnitude of the cholesterol depleting effect was similar to that of beta-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol-binding molecule, and beta-cyclodextrin had a similar inhibitory effect on flow-mediated eNOS activation. Treating bovine aortic endothelial cells for 24 h with 30 mug/ml cholesterol blocked the CsA effect and restored eNOS phosphorylation in response to flow. These data suggest that decreasing cholesterol content in caveolae by CsA is a potentially important pathogenic mechanism for CsA-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing ruthenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Ming; Liao, Kai-Jun; Lok, Chun-Nam; Che, Chi-Ming

    2011-10-14

    Nitric oxide-releasing ruthenium nanoparticles were synthesized by the reaction of alkanethiolate-protected ruthenium nanoparticles with tert-butyl nitrite ((t)BuONO), and their water-soluble derivatives are able to deliver NO to proteins such as reduced myoglobin upon light irradiation in aqueous media.

  16. BIOGENIC NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM CROPLAND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of nitric oxide (NO) were determined during late spring and summer 1995 and the spring of 1996 from four agricultural soils on which four different crops were grown. These agricultural soils were located at four different sites throughout North Carolina. Emission rates ...

  17. Nitric oxide. Novel biology with clinical relevance.

    PubMed Central

    Billiar, T R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The author provides the reader with a view of the regulation and function of nitric oxide (NO), based on the three distinct enzyme isoforms that synthesize NO. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Nitric oxide is a short-lived molecule exhibiting functions as diverse as neurotransmission and microbial killing. Recent advances in the characterization of the enzymes responsible for NO synthesis and in the understanding of how NO interacts with targets have led to new insights into the many facets of this diverse molecule. METHODS: Nitric oxide is produced by one of three enzyme isoforms of NO synthesis. These enzymes vary considerably in their distribution, regulation, and function. Accordingly, the NO synthesis or lack of NO production will have consequences unique to that isoform. Therefore, this review summarizes the regulation and function of NO generated by each of the three isoforms. RESULTS: Nitric oxide exhibits many unique characteristics that allow this molecule to perform so many functions. The amount, duration, and location of the NO synthesis will depend on the isoform of NO synthase expressed. For each isoform, there probably are disease processes in which deficiency states exist. For induced NO synthesis, states of overexpression exist. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the regulation and function of the enzymes that produce NO and the unique characteristics of each enzyme isoform is likely to lead to therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat a number of diseases. PMID:7537035

  18. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5165 - Nitric oxide administration apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nitric oxide administration apparatus. 868.5165... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5165 Nitric oxide administration apparatus. (a) Identification. The nitric oxide administration apparatus is a device used to add...

  1. Inhibitory effects of sesquiterpenes from bay leaf on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages: structure requirement and role of heat shock protein induction.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Kagerura, T; Toguchida, I; Ueda, H; Morikawa, T; Yoshikawa, M

    2000-04-21

    The methanolic extract from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel) was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages. Through bioassay-guided separation, fourteen known sesquiterpenes were isolated from the active fraction and were examined for ability to inhibit the NO production. Seven sesquiterpene lactones (costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, eremanthine, zaluzanin C, magnolialide, santamarine and spirafolide) potently inhibited LPS-induced NO production (IC50 = 1.2 approximately 3.8 microM). Other sesquiterpene constituents also showed the inhibitory activity (IC50 > or = 21 microM), but their inhibitory activities were less than those of sesquiterpene lactones. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone also showed inhibitory activity (IC50 = 9.6 microM), while mokko lactone and watsonol A etc., reductants of the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety by NaBH4 or DIBAL, and a 2-mercaptoethanol adduct of dehydrocostus lactone showed little activity (IC50 > or = 18 microM). These results indicated that the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety is important for the activity. Furthermore, costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in accordance with induction of heat shock protein 72 (HSP 72). These results suggested that, as one of their mechanisms of action, sesquiterpene lactones induce HSP 72 thereby preventing nuclear factor-kappaB activation followed by iNOS induction.

  2. Prenylflavones from Psoralea corylifolia inhibit nitric oxide synthase expression through the inhibition of I-kappaB-alpha degradation in activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming Hong; Kim, Jae Yeon; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2005-12-01

    The overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) switches the function of NO from a physiological neuromodulator to a neurotoxic effector in central nervous system (CNS) after brain injury. From the methanol extracts of Psoralea corylifolia, we purified two inhibitors of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia by activity guided purification along with two inactive compounds. The active compounds were identified as a chromenoflavanone [7,8-dihydro-8-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H,6H-benzo-(1,2-b:5,4-b')dipyran-6-one] (1) and 4-hydroxylonchocarpin (2). And the inactive two compounds were identified as bavachinin (3) and bavachalcone (4) by spectral analysis. The compound 2 was isolated first time from this plant. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the production of NO in LPS-activated microglia in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)'s were 11.4, 10.2 microM, respectively). They also suppressed the expression of protein and mRNA of iNOS in LPS-activated microglial cells at 10 muM as observed in Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiment. Furthermore they inhibited the degradation of I-kappaB-alpha in activated microglia. These results imply that compounds 1 and 2 can be lead compounds for the development of neuroprotective drug with the inhibitory activity of NO overproduction by activated microglial cells.

  3. Nitric oxide signalling: insect brains and photocytes.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Barry A; Aprille, June; Modica-Napolitano, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    The success of insects arises partly from extraordinary biochemical and physiological specializations. For example, most species lack glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and respiratory-gas transport proteins and thus allow oxygen to diffuse directly into cells. To counter the increased potential for oxidative damage, insect tissues rely on the indirect protection of the thioredoxin reductase pathway to maintain redox homoeostasis. Such specializations must impact on the control of reactive oxygen species and free radicals such as the signalling molecule NO. This chapter focuses on NO signalling in the insect central nervous system and in the light-producing lantern of the firefly. It is shown that neural NO production is coupled to both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The NO-mediated increase in cGMP evokes changes in spike activity of neurons controlling the gut and body wall musculature. In addition, maps of NO-producing and -responsive neurons make insects useful models for establishing the range and specificity of NO's actions in the central nervous system. The firefly lantern also provides insight into the interplay of tissue anatomy and cellular biochemistry in NO signalling. In the lantern, nitric oxide synthase is expressed in tracheal end cells that are interposed between neuron terminals and photocytes. Exogenous NO can activate light production and NO scavengers block evoked flashes. NO inhibits respiration in isolated lantern mitochondria and this can be reversed by bright light. It is proposed that NO controls flashes by transiently inhibiting oxygen consumption and permitting direct oxidation of activated luciferin. It is possible that light production itself contributes to the restoration of mitochondrial activity and consequent cessation of the flash.

  4. Apple fruit responses following exposure to nitric oxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exogenous nitric oxide (.NO) applied as gas or generated from .NO releasing compounds has physiological activity in cut apple fruit tissues. Studies were conducted to characterize .NO production by whole fruit as well as to assess responses of whole fruit to exogenous .NO. .NO and ethylene product...

  5. Hemoglobin-mediated nitric oxide signaling

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Christine; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    The rate that hemoglobin reacts with nitric oxide (NO) is limited by how fast NO can diffuse into the heme pocket. The reaction is as fast as any ligand/protein reaction can be and the result, when hemoglobin is in its oxygenated form, is formation of nitrate in what is known as the dioxygenation reaction. As nitrate, at the concentrations made through the dioxygenation reaction, is biologically inert, the only role hemoglobin was once thought to play in NO signaling was to inhibit it. However, there are now several mechanisms that have been discovered by which hemoglobin may preserve, control, and even create NO activity. These mechanisms involve compartmentalization of reacting species and conversion of NO from or into other species such as nitrosothiols or nitrite which could transport NO activity. Despite the tremendous amount of work devoted to this field, major questions concerning precise mechanisms of NO activity preservation as well as if and how Hb creates NO activity remain unanswered. PMID:23624304

  6. Anti-pruritic activity of pioglitazone on serotonin-induced scratching in mice: possible involvement of PPAR-gamma receptor and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Milad; Rajaba, Armin; Imran khan, Muhammad; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rastegar, Hosein; Dehpour, Ahmadreza

    2014-12-05

    Pioglitazone is a member of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists, particularly used in management of type II diabetes. However it also has effects in some dermatological disorders. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of pioglitazone and the association of nitric oxide, in serotonin-induced scratching in mice. In order to produce the scratching activity, serotonin (141 nm/site) was administered intradermally in the nape of the neck. Pioglitazone in concentrations of 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg, was peroral administered (p.o) as a single dose, 4 h before the serotonin injection. PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662 (2 mg/kg, i.p); a non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 1 mg/kg, i.p); or a nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i.p.); adminstrated 15 min before pioglitazone were analyzed for anti-scratching activity. Results obtained showed that pioglitazone (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o) reduced the scratching in a dose-dependent manner. GW9662 inverted the anti-scratching effect of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg). Acute dose of L-NAME (1 mg/kg, i.p) also prevented the anti-scratching property of pioglitazone (80 mg/kg, p.o); although L-arginine was used in sub-effective dose (100 mg/kg, i.p), however it potentiated the anti-scratching behavior when co-injected with pioglitazone (20 mg/kg, p.o). The results indicate that acute pioglitazone has an anti-scratching effect on serotonin-induced scratching in mice. It is concluded that anti-scratching outcome of acute pioglitazone is initiated via activation of PPAR-γ receptor and to some extent by the NO pathway.

  7. The oral microbiome and nitric oxide homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hezel, M P; Weitzberg, E

    2015-01-01

    The tiny radical nitric oxide (NO) participates in a vast number of physiological functions including vasodilation, nerve transmission, host defence and cellular energetics. Classically produced by a family of specific enzymes, NO synthases (NOSs), NO signals via reactions with other radicals or transition metals. An alternative pathway for the generation of NO is the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway in which the inorganic anions nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) are reduced to NO and other reactive nitrogen intermediates. Nitrate and nitrite are oxidation products from NOS-dependent NO generation but also constituents in our diet, mainly in leafy green vegetables. Irrespective of origin, active uptake of circulating nitrate in the salivary glands, excretion in saliva and subsequent reduction to nitrite by oral commensal bacteria are all necessary steps for further NO generation. This central role of the oral cavity in regulating NO generation from nitrate presents a new and intriguing aspect of the human microbiome in health and disease. In this review, we present recent advances in our understanding of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and specifically highlight the importance of the oral cavity as a hub for its function.

  8. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  9. Nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide alterations in chronically stressed rats: a model for nitric oxide in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang-Feng; Lu, Yun-Rong; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Bo; Fu, Xin-Yan; Luo, Jian-Hong; Bao, Ai-Min

    2014-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase-1 (NOS1) are involved in the stress response and in depression. We compared NOS-NO alterations in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans. In the hypothalamus of male CUS rats we determined NOS activity, and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) we determined NOS1-immunoreactive (ir) cell densities and co-localization of NOS1 with stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OXT). We measured plasma NO levels and cortisol in male medicine-naïve MDD patients and plasma NO and corticosterone (CORT) in CUS rats. In the CUS rat total NOS activity in the hypothalamus (P=0.018) and NOS1-ir cell density in the PVN were both significantly decreased (P=0.018), while NOS1 staining was mainly expressed in OXT-ir neurons in this nucleus. Interestingly, plasma NO levels were significantly increased both in male CUS rats (P=0.001) and in male MDD patients (P<0.001). Plasma CORT levels were increased in male CUS rats (P=0.001), while male MDD patients did not show a significant change in cortisol levels. In conclusion, the changes in plasma and hypothalamic NOS-NO of CUS rats and MDD were similar. The male CUS rat model may thus help us with our investigation of the mechanism underlying NOS-NO alterations in depression.

  10. Integrated signaling network involving calcium, nitric oxide, and active oxygen species but not mitogen-activated protein kinases in BcPG1-elicited grapevine defenses.

    PubMed

    Vandelle, Elodie; Poinssot, Benoît; Wendehenne, David; Bentéjac, Marc; Alain, Pugin

    2006-04-01

    We have already reported the identification of the endopolygalacturonase 1 (BcPG1) from Botrytis cinerea as a potent elicitor of defense responses in grapevine, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of the present study is the analysis of the signaling pathways triggered by BcPG1 in grapevine cells. Our data indicate that BcPG1 induces a Ca2+ entry from the apoplasm, which triggers a phosphorylation-dependent nitric oxide (NO) production via an enzyme probably related to a NO synthase. Then NO is involved in (i) cytosolic calcium homeostasis, by activating Ca2+ release from internal stores and regulating Ca2+ fluxes across the plasma membrane, (ii) plasma membrane potential variation, (iii) the activation of active oxygen species (AOS) production, and (iv) defense gene expression, including phenylalanine ammonia lyase and stilbene synthase, which encode enzymes responsible for phytoalexin biosynthesis. Interestingly enough, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is independent of this regulation pathway that closely connects Ca2+, NO, and AOS.

  11. Oxidized LDL at low concentration promotes in-vitro angiogenesis and activates nitric oxide synthase through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in human coronary artery endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Shan; Wong, Siu Ling; Lau, Chi Wai; Huang, Yu; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Low-concentration oxidized LDL enhances angiogenesis through nitric oxide (NO). {yields} Oxidized LDL increases intracellular NO levels via eNOS phosphorylation. {yields} Akt/PI3K signaling mediates oxidized LDL-induced eNOS phosphorylation. -- Abstract: It has long been considered that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) causes endothelial dysfunction and is remarkably related to the development of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of oxLDL at very low concentration (<10 {mu}g/ml) on the endothelial cells remains speculative. Nitric oxide (NO) has a crucial role in the endothelial cell function. In this study, we investigated the effect of oxLDL at low concentration on NO production and proliferation, migration, tube formation of the human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). Results showed that oxLDL at 5 {mu}g/ml enhanced HCAEC proliferation, migration and tube formation. These phenomena were accompanied by an increased intracellular NO production. L-NAME (a NOS inhibitor), LY294002 and wortmannin (PI3K inhibitors) could abolish oxLDL-induced angiogenic effects and prevent NO production in the HCAEC. The phosphorylation of Akt, PI3K and eNOS were up-regulated by oxLDL, which was attenuated by LY294002. Our results suggested that oxLDL at low concentration could promote in-vitro angiogenesis and activate nitric oxide synthesis through PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in HCAEC.

  12. Melampolides from the leaves of Smallanthus sonchifolius and their inhibitory activity of lps-induced nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Seon A; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Min Hee; Hwang, Ji Sang; Park, Jeong Sook; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Kun; Lee, Myung Koo; Lee, Heesoon; Kim, Wook; Lee, Dongho; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2008-02-01

    Two new melampolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 8beta-epoxyangeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (1) and 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-ethoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (2), were isolated from the leaves of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolia (POEPP. et ENDL.) H. Robinson] along with eleven known melampolides, allo-schkuhriolide (3), enhydrin (4), polymatin A (5), fluctuanin (6), 8beta-angeloyloxy-9alpha-acetoxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (7), 8beta-angeloyloxy-14-oxo-acanthospermolide (8), 8beta-methacryloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (9), uvedalin (10), polymatin B (11), 8beta-tigloyloxymelampolid-14-oic acid methyl ester (12), and sonchifolin (13). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. All isolates were evaluated for inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells.

  13. The involvement of nitric oxide in the hemodynamic and metabolic activities of the brain and small intestine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmasov, M.; Barbiro-Michaely, E.; Mayevsky, A.

    2009-02-01

    Nitric oxide is a mediator in many physiological processes including vasodilatation of blood vessels, neurotransmission and prevention of platelet aggregation. It has also a role in the pathophysiology of sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, various traumatic events and critical conditions involved with circulatory abnormalities. The last one is accompanied by blood flow redistribution and is considered to be the putative cause of altered oxygen metabolism in various pathophysiological conditions. The present study tested the involvement of NO in the brain as a vital organ versus the small intestine, a less vital organ using the non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME and exogenous NO donor - nitrite. The parameters that were simultaneously monitored in both organs included mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), tissue blood flow (TBF), using laser Doppler flowmetery and NADH fluorescence using the fluorometric technique. Three groups were tested. Group 1 - L-NAME +nitrite, group 2 - control L-NAME and group 3 - control nitrite. Following LNAME, MAP significantly increased and remained elevated through the entire experiment. TBF decreased in both organs with full recovery in the brain and no recovery in the intestine, whereas NADH showed no significant changes. Nitrite alone had no significant effect on the parameters in any of the organs. In group 1 the infusion of nitrite decreased the level of elevated MAP earlier induced by L-NAME. Nitrite also recovered the reduced TBF in the brain whereas it had no beneficial effect on intestinal blood flow indicating for its regulatory role in the brain but not in the intestine.

  14. Direct vasorelaxation by a novel phytoestrogen tanshinone IIA is mediated by nongenomic action of estrogen receptor through endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and calcium mobilization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guanwei; Zhu, Yan; Guo, Hao; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Hong; Gao, Xiumei

    2011-03-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) has been widely used in China and other Asian countries for treating various cardiovascular diseases resulting from its ability to improve coronary microcirculation and increase coronary blood flow. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), the major active lipophilic ingredient responsible for the beneficial actions of Salvia miltiorrhiza, has been shown to induce vasodilation in coronary arteries. Because our recent study identified Tan IIA as a new member of the phytoestrogens, we hypothesized that its action might be mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) in vascular endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to assess whether cardiovascular protection exerted by Tan IIA is mediated by the ER signal pathway and whether the genomic or nongenomic action of ER is involved within arteries and vascular endothelial cells. The effect of Tan IIA on blood vessels was investigated by vascular ring assay using endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortas. Similar to estrogen, Tan IIA caused an nitric oxide- and endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was blocked by ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells were used as a model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of Tan IIA-induced vasorelaxation. We demonstrate that Tan IIA is capable of activating the estrogen receptor signal pathway, leading to increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression, nitric oxide production, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Ca mobilization. Collectively, these effects contribute to Tan IIA's vasodilative activity effects of y ER antagonist Cnt of cardiovascular diseases. Our findings support a continued effort in discovering and developing novel phytoestrogens as an alternative hormone replacement therapy for safer and more effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Nitric oxide methods in seed biology.

    PubMed

    Bethke, Paul C; Libourel, Igor G L; Vitecek, Jan; Jones, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitous signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in seed biology. Experiments with this biologically important gas require special provisions because NO in aerobic environments is readily converted into other oxides of nitrogen. In this chapter, we describe methods for the application of NO as a gas, and through the use of NO-donor compounds. We included information on the removal or reduction of NO with NO scavengers. Methods for detecting NO using NO-reactive fluorescent probes, and an apparatus incorporating an oxidizer column are also described.

  16. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 coordinates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase/PPAR-γ/endothelial nitric oxide synthase pathways that enhance nitric oxide generation in human glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) degrades asymmetric dimethylarginine, which inhibits nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS). Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that binds to antioxidant response elements and transcribes many antioxidant genes. Because the promoters of the human DDAH-1 and DDAH-2, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and PPAR-γ genes contain 2 to 3 putative antioxidant response elements, we hypothesized that they were regulated by Nrf2/antioxidant response element. Incubation of human renal glomerular endothelial cells with the Nrf2 activator tert-butylhydroquinone (20 μmol·L(-1)) significantly (P<0.05) increased NO and activities of NOS and DDAH and decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine. It upregulated genes for hemoxygenase-1, eNOS, DDAH-1, DDAH-2, and PPAR-γ and partitioned Nrf2 into the nucleus. Knockdown of Nrf2 abolished these effects. Nrf2 bound to one antioxidant response element on DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 and PPAR-γ promoters but not to the eNOS promoter. An increased eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (P-eNOSser-1177) expression with tert-butylhydroquinone was prevented by knockdown of PPAR-γ. Expression of Nrf2 was reduced by knockdown of PPAR-γ, whereas PPAR-γ was reduced by knockdown of Nrf2, thereby demonstrating 2-way positive interactions. Thus, Nrf2 transcribes HO-1 and other genes to reduce reactive oxygen species, and DDAH-1 and DDAH-2 to reduce asymmetric dimethylarginine and PPAR-γ to increase eNOS and its phosphorylation and activity thereby coordinating 3 pathways that enhance endothelial NO generation.

  17. Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Carrasco-Yepez, Marisela; Miliar-García, Angel; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2007-07-01

    Free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri produces an acute and fatal infectious disease called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), whose pathophysiological mechanism is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in PAM. Although NO has a cytotoxic effect on various parasites, it is produced by others as part of the pathology, as is the case with Entamoeba histolytica. To test for the production of NO, we analyzed whether antibodies against mammalian NO synthase isoforms (neuronal, inducible, and endothelial) presented immunoreactivity to N. fowleri proteins. We found that the trophozoites produced NO in vitro. The Western blot results, which showed N. fowleri trophozoites, contained proteins that share epitopes with the three described mammalian NOS, but have relative molecular weights different than those described in the literature, suggesting that N. fowleri may contain undescribed NOS isoforms. Moreover, we found that trophozoites reacted to the NOS2 antibody, in amebic cultures as well as in the mouse brain infected with N. fowleri, suggesting that nitric oxide may participate in the pathogenesis of PAM. Further research aimed at determining whether N. fowleri contains active novel NOS isoforms could lead to the design of new therapies against this parasite.

  18. Nitric oxide stress and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase impair β-cell sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b activity and protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tong, X; Kono, T; Evans-Molina, C

    2015-06-18

    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) pump maintains a steep Ca(2+) concentration gradient between the cytosol and ER lumen in the pancreatic β-cell, and the integrity of this gradient has a central role in regulated insulin production and secretion, maintenance of ER function and β-cell survival. We have previously demonstrated loss of β-cell SERCA2b expression under diabetic conditions. To define the mechanisms underlying this, INS-1 cells and rat islets were treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) combined with or without cycloheximide or actinomycin D. IL-1β treatment led to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression, which occurred concurrently with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). IL-1β led to decreased SERCA2b mRNA and protein expression, whereas time-course experiments revealed a reduction in protein half-life with no change in mRNA stability. Moreover, SERCA2b protein but not mRNA levels were rescued by treatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NMMA (NG-monomethyl L-arginine), whereas the NO donor SNAP (S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine) and the AMPK activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) recapitulated the effects of IL-1β on SERCA2b protein stability. Similarly, IL-1β-induced reductions in SERCA2b expression were rescued by pharmacological inhibition of AMPK with compound C or by transduction of a dominant-negative form of AMPK, whereas β-cell death was prevented in parallel. Finally, to determine a functional relationship between NO and AMPK signaling and SERCA2b activity, fura-2/AM (fura-2-acetoxymethylester) Ca(2+) imaging experiments were performed in INS-1 cells. Consistent with observed changes in SERCA2b expression, IL-1β, SNAP and AICAR increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and decreased ER Ca(2+) levels, suggesting congruent modulation of SERCA activity under these conditions. In aggregate, these results show that SERCA2b

  19. Nitric oxide induces heat-shock protein 70 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q; Hu, Y; Kleindienst, R; Wick, G

    1997-01-01

    Current data suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is a double-edged sword that could result in relaxation and/or cytotoxicity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) via cGMP- dependent or -independent signal pathways. Stress or heat shock proteins (hsps) have been shown to be augmented in arterial SMCs during acute hypertension and atherosclerosis, both conditions that are believed to correlate with disturbed NO production. In the present study, we demonstrate that NO generated from sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and spermine/nitric oxide complex leads to hsp70 induction in cultured SMCs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that hsp70 protein expression peaked between 6 and 12 h after treatment with SNP, and elevated protein levels were preceded by induction of hsp70 mRNA within 3 h. Induction of hsp70 mRNA was associated with the activation of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), suggesting that the response was regulated at the transcriptional level. HSF1 activation was completely blocked by hemoglobin, dithiothreitol, and cycloheximide, suggesting that the protein damage and nascent polypeptide formation induced by NO may initiate this activation. Furthermore, SMCs pretreated with heat shock (42 degrees C) for 30 min were significantly protected from death induced by NO. Thus, we provide evidence that NO induces hsp70 expression in SMCs via HSF1 activation. Induction of hsp70 could be important in protecting SMCs from injury resulting from NO stimulation. PMID:9276725

  20. Biphasic effect of IL-1beta on the activity of argininosuccinate synthetase in Caco-2 cells. Involvement of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Brasse-Lagnel, Carole; Lavoinne, Alain; Fairand, Alain; Vavasseur, Karine; Deniel, Nicolas; Husson, Annie

    2006-06-01

    The expression of the argininosuccinate synthetase gene (ASS), the limiting enzyme of arginine synthesis, was previously shown to be rapidly induced by a short-term (4 h) exposure to IL-1beta in Caco-2 cells [Biochimie, 2005, 403-409]. The present report shows that, by contrast, a long-term (24 h) exposure to IL-1beta inhibited the ASS activity despite an increase in both specific mRNA level and protein amount, demonstrating a post-translational effect. Concerning the mechanism involved, we demonstrate that the inhibiting effect is linked to the production of nitric oxide (NO) induced by IL-1beta. Indeed, the inhibiting effect of IL-1beta was totally blocked in the presence of l-NMMA, an inhibitor of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, or by culturing the cells in an arginine-deprived medium. Moreover, a decrease in the ASS activity was induced by culturing the cells in the presence of SNAP, a NO donor. Conversely, blocking the action of NO by antioxidant agents, the stimulatory effect of IL-1beta on ASS activity was restored, as measured at 24 h. Finally, such an inhibiting effect of NO on ASS activity may be related, at least in part, to S-nitrosylation of the protein. The physiological relevance of the antagonistic effects of IL-1beta and NO on ASS is discussed.

  1. Modulation of nitric oxide bioavailability by erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuang-Tse; Han, Tae H.; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Vaughn, Mark W.; van Herle, Helga; Hein, Travis W.; Zhang, Cuihua; Kuo, Lih; Liao, James C.

    2001-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) activates soluble guanylyl cyclase in smooth muscle cells to induce vasodilation in the vasculature. However, as hemoglobin (Hb) is an effective scavenger of NO and is present in high concentrations inside the red blood cell (RBC), the bioavailability of NO would be too low to elicit soluble guanylyl cyclase activation in the presence of blood. Therefore, NO bioactivity must be preserved. Here we present evidence suggesting that the RBC participates in the preservation of NO bioactivity by reducing NO influx. The NO uptake by RBCs was increased and decreased by altering the degree of band 3 binding to the cytoskeleton. Methemoglobin and denatured hemoglobin binding to the RBC membrane or cytoskeleton also were shown to contribute to reducing the NO uptake rate of the RBC. These alterations in NO uptake by the RBC, hence the NO bioavailability, were determined to correlate with the vasodilation of isolated blood vessels. Our observations suggest that RBC membrane and cytoskeleton associated NO-inert proteins provide a barrier for NO diffusion and thus account for the reduction in the NO uptake rate of RBCs.

  2. Activation of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor stimulates nitric oxide (NO) release via protein kinase C-alpha in HEC-1B human endometrial epithelial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Dearn, S.; Rahman, M.; Lewis, A.; Ahmed, Z.; Eggo, M. C.; Ahmed, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impairment of the fertility in the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor transgenic female mice suggests changes in PAF functions can influence uterine receptivity. We hypothesized that vasodilatory actions of PAF in the uterus was exerted by PAF-mediated nitric oxide (NO) release via activation of isoenzyme-specific protein kinase C (PKC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inducible and endothelial NOS was shown by Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR in cDNA synthesized from RNA extract of proliferative and secretory endometrium as well endometrial epithelial cell lines HEC-1B. The effect of WEB2170, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and Ro31-8220 on PAF mediated NO release by HEC-1B cell was determined. PAF induced translocation of PKCalpha in HEC-1B cell and its antagonist effect by Ro 31-8220 was studied by Western immunoblot analysis. PKC isoenzyme regulated by PAF was determined in HEC-1B cell lysate by immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: PAF-evoked a rapid and concentration-dependent biphasic increase in total NO in human HEC-1B endometrial epithelial cell line [as measured by a Sievers NOA 280A NO Chemiluminescent Analyser.] This increase in NO release was attenuated by the PAF receptor antagonist, WEB2170. Inhibition of NO synthesis by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine produced marked dose-dependent attenuation of PAF-mediated NO release, indicating nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. PAF-mediated NO release was also inhibited by the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 and by the removal of extracellular calcium, suggesting a dependency on PKC and calcium, respectively. RT-PCR analysis showed expression of inducible NOS and endothelial NOS in human endometrium, myometrium and HEC-1B cells. Western immunoblot analysis showed PKCalpha, betaII and iota were the principal isozymes present in the HEC-1B cell line and normal endometrium, suggesting that both HEC-1B cells and normal endometrium have similar PKC isozymes. PAF induced the translocation of

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T.C. Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T.; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S.; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO) - a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells. PMID:26390975

  4. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  5. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  6. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, A; Pendreigh, R H; Plevin, R

    1995-01-01

    1. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma-interferon (IFN gamma) alone or in combination stimulated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and increased the expression of the 130 kDa isoform of NOS. 2. LPS-induced NOS activity was reduced by incubation with CD14 neutralising antibodies and abolished in macrophages deprived of serum. 3. LPS stimulated a small increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages which was dependent on the presence of serum. However, IFN gamma did not potentiate LPS-stimulated PKC activity. 4. The protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, abolished both LPS- and IFN gamma-stimulated protein kinase C activity and the induction of NOS activity. 5. LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genestein. Genestein also reduced LPS-stimulated protein kinase C activity but did not affect the response to the protein kinase C activator, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). 6. Nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly-ADP ribosylation, abolished LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity. 7. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of a factor which stimulates nucleotide exchange activity on the 21 kDa ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF, reduced LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity by approximately 80%. 8. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase and poly-ADP ribosylation pathways in the regulation of the induction of nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages by LPS and IFN gamma. Images Figure 2 PMID:7533621

  7. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells by the norsesterterpene peroxide, epimuqubilin A.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Park, Eun-Jung; Rostama, Bahman; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2010-03-01

    Seven norsesterterpene peroxides: epimuqubilin A (1), muqubilone B (2), unnamed cyclic peroxide ester (3), epimuqubilin B (4), sigmosceptrellin A methyl ester (5), sigmosceptrellin A (6), and sigmosceptrellin B methyl ester (7), isolated from the marine sponge Latrunculia sp., were examined with regard to their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The results indicated epimuqubilin A (1) possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide release with an IC(50) value of 7.4 microM, a level three times greater than the positive control, L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate, followed by 6 (sigmosceptrellin A, IC(50) = 9.9 microM), whereas other compounds exhibited only modest activity (Table 1). These compounds did not show appreciable cytotoxicity at their IC(50) values for NO-inhibitory activity. The structure-activity upon NO inhibition could be summarized as follows: (1) a monocyclic carbon skeleton framework was essential for activity, (2) free acids gave higher activity, (3) the orientation of H3-22 with an equatorial position increased activity, and (4) a bicyclic structure reduced activity. This is the first report of a norsesterterpene peroxide with NO-inhibitory activity. In addition, compounds 1-7 were also evaluated for their inhibitory activities in the yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3beta assay. In summary, several norsesterterpene peroxides showed novel biological activities of inhibition in NO production, suggesting that these might provide leads for anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agents.

  8. Inhibitory effects of sesquiterpenes from Saussurea lappa on the overproduction of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha release in LPS-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Hui; He, En-Qi; Jiang, Yong-Tao; Liu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), derived from L-arginine, is produced by two types (constitutive and inducible) of nitric oxide synthase (NOS: cNOS and iNOS). The NO produced in large amounts by the iNOS is known to be responsible for inflammation, the vasodilation, and hypotension observed in septic shock and cancer metastasis. The inhibitors of the overproduction of NO, thus, may be useful candidates for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. We have found that the petroleum ether extract of Saussurea lappa Decne, which is a wild species wildly distributed in India, can strongly inhibit the overproduction of NO in mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, 13 sesquiterpenes were isolated from the active petroleum ether extract. Furthermore, another five sesquiterpenes were synthesized by chemical methods. In the present study, their effects on LPS-induced NO production and TNF-alpha release are reported. Compounds 1, 3, 9, 17, and 18 showed significant inhibitory activities on the production of NO and release of TNF-alpha with IC(50) values lower than 1 micromol/l. SAR studies suggest that the exocyclic double bond (Delta(11(13))) is necessary for the inhibitory activities of sesquiterpenes on the NO production.

  9. Near infrared radiation protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhanyang; Li, Zhaoyu; Liu, Ning; Jizhang, Yunneng; McCarthy, Thomas J; Tedford, Clark E; Lo, Eng H; Wang, Xiaoying

    2015-06-01

    Near infrared radiation (NIR) has been shown to be neuroprotective against neurological diseases including stroke and brain trauma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study we aimed to investigate the hypothesis that NIR may protect neurons by attenuating oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and modulating cell survival/death signaling. Primary mouse cortical neurons were subjected to 4 h OGD and NIR was applied at 2 h reoxygenation. OGD significantly increased NO level in primary neurons compared to normal control, which was significantly ameliorated by NIR at 5 and 30 min post-NIR. Neither OGD nor NIR significantly changed neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA or total protein levels compared to control groups. However, OGD significantly increased nNOS activity compared to normal control, and this effect was significantly diminished by NIR. Moreover, NIR significantly ameliorated the neuronal death induced by S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), a NO donor. Finally, NIR significantly rescued OGD-induced suppression of p-Akt and Bcl-2 expression, and attenuated OGD-induced upregulation of Bax, BAD and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest NIR may protect against OGD at least partially through reducing NO production by down-regulating nNOS activity, and modulating cell survival/death signaling.

  10. Structural insights into the role of iron–histidine bond cleavage in nitric oxide-induced activation of H-NOX gas sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Herzik, Mark A.; Jonnalagadda, Rohan; Kuriyan, John; Marletta, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Heme-nitric oxide/oxygen (H-NOX) binding domains are a recently discovered family of heme-based gas sensor proteins that are conserved across eukaryotes and bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) binding to the heme cofactor of H-NOX proteins has been implicated as a regulatory mechanism for processes ranging from vasodilation in mammals to communal behavior in bacteria. A key molecular event during NO-dependent activation of H-NOX proteins is rupture of the heme–histidine bond and formation of a five-coordinate nitrosyl complex. Although extensive biochemical studies have provided insight into the NO activation mechanism, precise molecular-level details have remained elusive. In the present study, high-resolution crystal structures of the H-NOX protein from Shewanella oneidensis in the unligated, intermediate six-coordinate and activated five-coordinate, NO-bound states are reported. From these structures, it is evident that several structural features in the heme pocket of the unligated protein function to maintain the heme distorted from planarity. NO-induced scission of the iron–histidine bond triggers structural rearrangements in the heme pocket that permit the heme to relax toward planarity, yielding the signaling-competent NO-bound conformation. Here, we also provide characterization of a nonheme metal coordination site occupied by zinc in an H-NOX protein. PMID:25253889

  11. Polyphosphoester-based cationic nanoparticles serendipitously release integral biologically-active components to serve as novel degradable inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuefei; Zhang, Shiyi; Zhang, Fuwu; Loftis, Alexander; Pavía-Sanders, Adriana; Zou, Jiong; Fan, Jingwei; Taylor, John-Stephen A; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-10-18

    A degradable polyphosphoester (PPE)-based cationic nanoparticle (cSCK), which is integrated constructed as a novel degradable drug device, demonstrates surprisingly efficient inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) transcription, and eventually inhibits nitric oxide (NO) over-production, without loading of any specific therapeutic drugs. This system may serve as a promising anti-inflammatory agent toward the treatment of acute lung injury.

  12. Nitric oxide and pH modulation in gynaecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Carlos; Araos, Joaquín; Naranjo, Luciano; Barros, Eric; Subiabre, Mario; Toledo, Fernando; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Chiarello, Delia I; Pardo, Fabián; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide plays several roles in cellular physiology, including control of the vascular tone and defence against pathogen infection. Neuronal, inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms synthesize nitric oxide. Cells generate acid and base equivalents, whose physiological intracellular concentrations are kept due to membrane transport systems, including Na(+) /H(+) exchangers and Na(+) /HCO3(-) transporters, thus maintaining a physiological pH at the intracellular (~7.0) and extracellular (~7.4) medium. In several pathologies, including cancer, cells are exposed to an extracellular acidic microenvironment, and the role for these membrane transport mechanisms in this phenomenon is likely. As altered NOS expression and activity is seen in cancer cells and because this gas promotes a glycolytic phenotype leading to extracellular acidosis in gynaecological cancer cells, a pro-inflammatory microenvironment increasing inducible NOS expression in this cell type is feasible. However, whether abnormal control of intracellular and extracellular pH by cancer cells regards with their ability to synthesize or respond to nitric oxide is unknown. We, here, discuss a potential link between pH alterations, pH controlling membrane transport systems and NOS function. We propose a potential association between inducible NOS induction and Na(+) /H(+) exchanger expression and activity in human ovary cancer. A potentiation between nitric oxide generation and the maintenance of a low extracellular pH (i.e. acidic) is proposed to establish a sequence of events in ovarian cancer cells, thus preserving a pro-proliferative acidic tumour extracellular microenvironment. We suggest that pharmacological therapeutic targeting of Na(+) /H(+) exchangers and inducible NOS may have benefits in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Allele-specific transcriptional activity of the variable number of tandem repeats of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with idiopathic achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Michela; Palumbo, Ilaria; Pesce, Marcella; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Annese, Vito; Petruzzelli, Raffaella; Izzo, Paola; Sepulveres, Rossana; Bruzzese, Dario; Esposito, Giuseppe; Cuomo, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of genes involved in the regulation of the immune response are risk factors for achalasia, but their contribution to disease pathogenesis is unknown. Nitric oxide is involved both in immune function and inhibitory neurotransmission. Objective The objective of this article is to assess the association and the functional relevance of the CCTTT-inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) gene promoter polymorphism in achalasia. Methods Genomic DNA was isolated from 181 achalasia patients and 220 controls. Genotyping of the (CCTTT)n repeats was performed by PCR and capillary electrophoresis, and data analyzed by considering the frequency of the different alleles. HT29 cells were transfected with iNOS luciferase promoter-reporter plasmids containing different (CCTTT)n. Results The alleles’ distribution ranged from 7 to 18, with a peak frequency at 12 repeats. Analysis of the allele frequencies revealed that individuals carrying 10 and 13 CCTTT repeats were respectively less and more frequent in achalasia (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.5 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1–2.4, all p < 0.05). Long repeats were also significantly associated with an earlier onset of the disease (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.13–2.53, p = 0.01). Transfection experiments revealed a similar allele-specific iNOS transcriptional activity. Conclusion The functional polymorphism (CCTTT) of NOS2 promoter is associated with achalasia, likely by an allele-specific modulation of nitric oxide production. PMID:28344787

  14. Nitric oxide inhibitory activity and antioxidant evaluations of 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs, a novel series of curcuminoid and diarylpentanoid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Leong, Sze Wei; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Munirah; Abas, Faridah; Mohd Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi; Rullah, Kamal; Lam, Kok Wai; Abdul Bahari, Mohd Nazri; Ahmad, Syahida; Tham, Chau Ling; Shaari, Khozirah; Lajis, Nordin H

    2015-08-15

    A series of twenty-four 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs were synthesized and evaluated for their nitric oxide inhibition and antioxidant activity. Six compounds (3, 8, 10, 17, 18 and 19) were found to exhibit significant NO inhibitory activity in LPS/IFN-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages, of which compound 10 demonstrated the highest activity with the IC50 value of 4.2 ± 0.2 μM. Furthermore, two compounds (10 and 17) displayed antioxidant activity upon both the DPPH scavenging and FRAP analyses. However, none of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs significantly scavenged NO radical. Structure-activity comparison suggested that 3,4-dihydroxylphenyl ring is crucial for bioactivities of the 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs. The results from this study and the reports from previous studies indicated that compound 10 could be a candidate for further investigation on its potential as a new anti-inflammatory agent.

  15. Nitric oxide pathways in circular muscle of the rat jejunum before and after small bowel transplantation.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, B M; Duenes, J A; Ohtani, N; Shibata, C; Farrugia, G; Anding, W J; Sarr, M G

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide synthase is upregulated after small bowel transplantation which may have implications in enteric dysfunction after small bowel transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide in nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory function after small bowel transplantation in rat jejunal circular muscle. The following four groups of rats (n = >/=8 rats per group) were studied: Neurally intact control animals; 1 week after anesthesia and sham celiotomy, and either 1 week or 8 weeks after isogeneic, orthotopic small bowel transplantation. Full-thickness jejunal circular muscle strips were evaluated under isometric conditions for spontaneous contractile activity, response to electrical field stimulation, and effects of exogenous nitric oxide and nitric oxide antagonists. Spontaneous activity did not differ among groups. Electrical field stimulation inhibited activity similarly in all groups. Exogenous nitric oxide, NG-monomethyl L-arginine monoacetate salt (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), and methylene blue (cGMP antagonist) had no effect on spontaneous activity. Neither nitric oxide antagonist altered the inhibitory response to neural excitation by electrical field stimulation in any group. Nitric oxide, a known inhibitory neurotransmitter in other gut smooth muscle, has no apparent role in rat jejunal circular muscle before or after small bowel transplantation.

  16. Structures of human constitutive nitric oxide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Jamal, Joumana; Plaza, Carla; Pineda, Stephanie Hai; Chreifi, Georges; Jing, Qing; Cinelli, Maris A.; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Mammals produce three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): neuronal NOS (nNOS), inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS). The overproduction of NO by nNOS is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, a desirable therapeutic goal is the design of drugs that target nNOS but not the other isoforms. Crystallography, coupled with computational approaches and medicinal chemistry, has played a critical role in developing highly selective nNOS inhibitors that exhibit exceptional neuroprotective properties. For historic reasons, crystallography has focused on rat nNOS and bovine eNOS because these were available in high quality; thus, their structures have been used in structure–activity–relationship studies. Although these constitutive NOSs share more than 90% sequence identity across mammalian species for each NOS isoform, inhibitor-binding studies revealed that subtle differences near the heme active site in the same NOS isoform across species still impact enzyme–inhibitor interactions. Therefore, structures of the human constitutive NOSs are indispensible. Here, the first structure of human neuronal NOS at 2.03 Å resolution is reported and a different crystal form of human endothelial NOS is reported at 1.73 Å resolution. PMID:25286850

  17. Nitric oxide negatively regulates mammalian adult neurogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packer, Michael A.; Stasiv, Yuri; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Chmielnicki, Eva; Grinberg, Alexander; Westphal, Heiner; Goldman, Steven A.; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2003-08-01

    Neural progenitor cells are widespread throughout the adult central nervous system but only give rise to neurons in specific loci. Negative regulators of neurogenesis have therefore been postulated, but none have yet been identified as subserving a significant role in the adult brain. Here we report that nitric oxide (NO) acts as an important negative regulator of cell proliferation in the adult mammalian brain. We used two independent approaches to examine the function of NO in adult neurogenesis. In a pharmacological approach, we suppressed NO production in the rat brain by intraventricular infusion of an NO synthase inhibitor. In a genetic approach, we generated a null mutant neuronal NO synthase knockout mouse line by targeting the exon encoding active center of the enzyme. In both models, the number of new cells generated in neurogenic areas of the adult brain, the olfactory subependyma and the dentate gyrus, was strongly augmented, which indicates that division of neural stem cells in the adult brain is controlled by NO and suggests a strategy for enhancing neurogenesis in the adult central nervous system.

  18. Nitric oxide and thiol groups.

    PubMed

    Gaston, B

    1999-05-05

    S-Nitroso(sy)lation reactions have recently been appreciated to regulate protein function and mediate 'nitrosative' stress. S-Nitrosothiols (SNOs) have been identified in a variety of tissues, and represent a novel class of signaling molecules which may act independently of homolytic cleavage to NO - and, indeed, in a stereoselective fashion - or be metabolized to other bioactive nitrogen oxides. It is now appreciated that sulfur-NO interactions have critical physiological relevance to mammalian neurotransmission, ion channel function, intracellular signaling and antimicrobial defense. These reactions are promising targets for the development of new medical therapies.

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation through obacunone-dependent arginase inhibition restored impaired endothelial function in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Park, Minjin; Lee, Jeong hyung; Min, Byung Sun; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2014-03-01

    Endothelial arginase constrains the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by substrate depletion and reduces nitric oxide bioavailability. During the screening course of arginase inhibitor, we found obacunone as an arginase inhibitor. We tested the hypothesis that obacunone regulates vascular endothelial NO production. Obacunone incubation inhibited arginase I and II activities in liver and kidney lysates, respectively, in dose-dependent manner. Obacunone reciprocally increased nitrite/nitrate (NOx) production in HUVECs. In isolated aortic rings, obacunone increased intracellular l-arginine concentration and enhanced eNOS coupling, leading to increased NO and decreased superoxide production, with no changes in protein expression. Vasoconstriction response to U46619 was attenuated in obacunone-treated aortic vessels compared to that in untreated vessels. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant response to acetylcholine was significantly increased in obacunone-treated vessels and was modulated by the NO-dependent signaling cascade. The dose-dependent vasorelaxant response to Ach was reduced in the aortic vessels of ApoE-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. Obacunone incubation increased vasorelaxation to the level of a WT mouse, although the endothelium-independent response to sodium nitroprusside was identical among the groups. Therefore, obacunone may help treat cardiovascular diseases derived from endothelial dysfunction and may be useful for designing pharmaceutical compounds.

  20. Phenolic compounds from plants as nitric oxide production inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Conforti, F; Menichini, F

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic free radical produced from L-arginine by constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase (cNOS and iNOS) in numerous mammalian cells and tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (O2-) and their reaction product peroxynitrite (ONOO-) may be generated in excess during the host response against viral and antibacterial infections and contribute to some pathogenesis by promoting oxidative stress, tissue injury and, even, cancer. Oxidative damage, caused by action of free radicals, may initiate and promote the progression of a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes and inflammation. The mechanism of inflammation injury is attributed, in part, to release of reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils and macrophages. ROS propagate inflammation by stimulating release of mediators such as NO and cytokines. The interest of the research is motivated by the current need to find new substances of natural origin which have demonstrated effectiveness in the described fields of application and low degree of toxicity for humans. Natural products provide a vast pool of NO inhibitors that can possibly be developed into clinical products. This article reviews some plenolic secondary metabolites from plants with NO inhibitory properties and their structure-activity relationship studies that can be focused for drug development programs.

  1. Cytokine and nitric oxide production following severe envenomation.

    PubMed

    Petricevich, Vera L

    2004-09-01

    Venom is a complex mixture of many substances such as toxins, enzymes, growth factor activators, and inhibitors are particularly responsible for the deleterious effects of cells. These constituents interact in the body with a large number of proteins and receptors, and this interaction determines the eventual inflammatory effect of the compounds. Envenomation by bees, scorpions, snakes, spiders and wasps involves the activation of the inflammatory response with the release and activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators, such as nitric oxide. Recently, a battery of cytokines produced by activated T cells or macrophages have been added to in envenomations. Cytokines are important for the interactions between cells in the immune and inflammatory responses. Although the pathophysiology of envenomation is not fully understood, venom and immune responses are known to trigger the release of cytokines and nitric oxide. The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and, as well as a host of physiologic events such as activation of vasodilation, hypotension and increased nitric oxide production. Accumulating evidence indicates that these cytokines play important roles in mediating cell recruitment and activation necessary for inflammation and the repair of tissue damage. A better understanding of the involvement of the inflammatory system in different envenoming syndromes may have future therapeutic benefits.

  2. Role of Nitric Oxide in the Regulation of Renin and Vasopressin Secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Ian A.

    1994-01-01

    Research during recent years has established nitric oxide as a unique signaling molecule that plays important roles in the regulation of the cardiovascular, nervous, immune, and other systems. Nitric oxide has also been implicated in the control of the secretion of hormones by the pancreas, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, and evidence is accumulating that it contributes to the regulation of the secretion of renin and vasopressin, hormones that play key roles in the control of sodium and water balance. Several lines of evidence have implicated nitric oxide in the control of renin secretion. The enzyme nitric oxide synthase is present in vascular and tubular elements of the kidney, particularly in cells of the macula densa, a structure that plays an important role in the control of renin secretion. Guanylyl cyclase, a major target for nitric oxide, is also present in the kidney. Drugs that inhibit nitric oxide synthesis generally suppress renin release in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a stimulatory role for the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the control of renin secretion. Under some conditions, however, blockade of nitric oxide synthesis increases renin secretion. Recent studies indicate that nitric oxide not only contributes to the regulation of basal renin secretion, but also participates in the renin secretory responses to activation of the renal baroreceptor, macula densa, and beta adrenoceptor mechanisms that regulate renin secretion. Histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have revealed the presence of nitric oxide synthase in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and in the posterior pituitary gland. Colocalization of nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin has been demonstrated in some hypothalamic neurons. Nitric oxide synthase activity in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased by maneuvers known to stimulate vasopressin secretion, including salt loading and dehydration, Administration of L-arginine and nitric

  3. Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A.; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the “final common pathway”, through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients. PMID:20703435

  4. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pitocco, Dario; Zaccardi, Francesco; Di Stasio, Enrico; Romitelli, Federica; Santini, Stefano A; Zuppi, Cecilia; Ghirlanda, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    In the recent decades, oxidative stress has become focus of interest in most biomedical disciplines and many types of clinical research. Increasing evidence from research on several diseases show that oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetes, obesity, cancer, ageing, inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, apoptosis, cardiovascular diseases, and heart failure. Based on this research, the emerging concept is that oxidative stress is the "final common pathway", through which risk factors of several diseases exert their deleterious effects. Oxidative stress causes a complex dysregulation of cell metabolism and cell-cell homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. These are the two most relevant mechanisms in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications, the leading cause of death in diabetic patients.

  5. A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mubeen A.; Roberts, Kelly N.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase; NOX) is a complex enzyme responsible for increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide (O2.−). NOX derived O2.− is a key player in oxidative stress and inflammation mediated multiple secondary injury cascades (SIC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The O2.− reacts with nitric oxide (NO), produces various reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and contributes to apoptotic cell death. Following a unilateral cortical contusion, young adult rats were killed at various times post injury (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h). Fresh tissue from the hippocampus was analyzed for NOX activity, and level of O2.−. In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67Phox, p47Phox and p40Phox) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS). Results show that both enzymes and levels of O2.− and NO have time dependent injury effects in the hippocampus. Translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins into membrane, NOX activity and O2.− were also increased in a time dependent fashion. Both, NOX activity and O2.− were increased at 6 h. Levels of p-eNOS increased within 1 h, with significant elevation of NO at 12 h post TBI. Levels of NO failed to show a significant association with p-eNOS, but did associate with O2.−. NOX up-regulation strongly associated with both the levels of O2.− and also total NO. The initial 12 hours post TBI are very important as a possible window of opportunity to interrupt SIC. It may be important to selectively target the translocation of cytosolic subunits for the modulation of NOX function. PMID:25224032

  6. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy. PMID:28361987

  7. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-03-31

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy.

  8. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Stress Response Induced by Diatom Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  9. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms.

  10. Updated role of nitric oxide in disorders of erythrocyte function.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Marc J; Maley, Jason H; Lasker, George F; Kadowitz, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator that plays a critical role in disorders of erythrocyte function. Sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and banked blood preservation are three conditions where nitric oxide is intimately related to dysfunctional erythrocytes. These conditions are accompanied by hemolysis, thrombosis and vasoocclusion. Our understanding of the interaction between nitric oxide, hemoglobin, and the vasculature is constantly evolving, and by defining this role we can better direct trials aimed at improving the treatments of disorders of erythrocyte function. Here we briefly discuss nitric oxide's interaction with hemoglobin through the hypothesis regarding Snitrosohemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and myoglobin as nitrite reductases. We then review the current understanding of the role of nitric oxide in sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and banked blood, and discuss therapeutics in development to target nitric oxide in the treatment of some of these disorders.

  11. Reduction of nitric oxide emissions from a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, R.A.; Pritchard, H.O.

    1980-05-27

    A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide emissions is provided by employing successive combustion zones wherein after combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide emissions. Low nitric oxide emissions are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion, which usually result in large emissions of nitric oxide in a primary combustion zone, to be accompanied by low nitric oxide emissions resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion, ignited by the emission products from the primary zone, in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low emissions of nitric oxide.

  12. The Role of Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling in Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rabender, Christopher S.; Alam, Asim; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Cardnell, Robert J.; Yakovlev, Vasily A.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Graves, Paul; Zweit, Jamal; Mikkelsen, Ross B.

    2015-01-01

    Here evidence suggests that nitric oxide synthases (NOS) of tumor cells, in contrast to normal tissues, synthesize predominantly superoxide and peroxynitrite. Based on HPLC analysis, the underlying mechanism for this uncoupling is a reduced tetrahydrobiopterin: dihydrobiopterin ratio (BH4:BH2) found in breast, colorectal, epidermoid and head and neck tumors compared to normal tissues. Increasing BH4:BH2 and reconstitution of coupled NOS activity in breast cancer cells with the BH4 salvage pathway precursor, sepiapterin, causes significant shifts in downstream signaling including increased cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) activity, decreased β-catenin expression and TCF4 promoter activity, and reduced NF-κB promoter activity. Sepiapterin inhibited breast tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo as measured by clonogenic assay, Ki67 staining and 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). In summary, using diverse tumor types, it is demonstrated that the BH4:BH2 ratio is lower in tumor tissues and as a consequence nitric oxide synthase activity generates more peroxynitrite and superoxide anion than nitric oxide resulting in important tumor growth promoting and anti-apoptotic signaling properties. Implications The synthetic BH4, Kuvan®, is used to elevate BH4:BH2 in some phenylketonuria patients and to treat diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction suggesting a novel, testable approach for correcting an abnormality of tumor metabolism to control tumor growth. PMID:25724429

  13. Development and characterization of glutamyl-protected N-hydroxyguanidines as reno-active nitric oxide donor drugs with therapeutic potential in acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingzhi; Milliken, Philip; Kulczynska, Agnieszka; Slawin, Alex M Z; Gordon, Adele; Kirkby, Nicholas S; Webb, David J; Botting, Nigel P; Megson, Ian L

    2013-07-11

    Acute renal failure (ARF) has high mortality and no effective treatment. Nitric oxide (NO) delivery represents a credible means of preventing the damaging effects of vasoconstriction, central to ARF, but design of drugs with the necessary renoselectivity is challenging. Here, we developed N-hydroxyguanidine NO donor drugs that were protected against spontaneous NO release by linkage to glutamyl adducts that could be cleaved by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), found predominantly in renal tissue. Parent NO donor drug activity was optimized in advance of glutamyl adduct prodrug design. A lead compound that was a suitable substrate for γ-GT-mediated deprotection was identified. Metabolism of this prodrug to the active parent compound was confirmed in rat kidney homogenates, and the prodrug was shown to be an active vasodilator in rat isolated perfused kidneys (EC50 ~50 μM). The data confirm that glutamate protection of N-hydroxyguanidines is an approach that might hold promise in ARF.

  14. Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase: A quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kejing; Pittman, Roland N.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2009-01-01

    A large loss of blood during hemorrhage can result in profound shock, a state of hypotension associated with hemodynamic abnormalities. One of the hypotheses to account for this collapse of homeostasis is that the production of nitric oxide (NO), a gas molecule that dilates blood vessels, is significantly impaired during hemorrhage, resulting in a mismatch between O2 delivery and the metabolic activity in the tissues. NO can be released from multiple sources in the vasculature. Recent studies have shown that erythrocytes express functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), which potentially serves as an intraluminal NO source. NO delivery from this source is complex: Erythrocytes are not only NO producers but also act as potent sinks because of the high affinity of NO for hemoglobin. To test our hypothesis that the loss of erythrocytic NOS3 during hemorrhage contributes to NO deficiency-related shock, we have constructed a multicellular computational model that simulates NO production and transport to allow us to quantify the loss of NO under different hemorrhagic conditions. Our model shows that: (1) during mild hemorrhage and subsequent hemodilution (hematocrit >30%), NO from this intraluminal source is only slightly decreased in the vascular smooth muscle, but the NO level is significantly reduced under severe hemorrhagic conditions (hematocrit <30%); (2) whether a significant amount of NO from this source can be delivered to vascular smooth muscle is strongly dependent on the existence of a protective mechanism for NO delivery; (3) if the expression level of NOS3 on erythrocytes is similar to that on endothelial cells, we estimate ~13 pM NO at the vascular smooth muscle from this source when such a protective mechanism is involved. This study provides a basis for detailed studies to characterize the impairment of NO release pathways during hemorrhage and yield important insights for the development of resuscitation methods. PMID:19285090

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen . Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  16. Regulatory effects of anesthetics on nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenguo; Liu, Qin; Zhu, Xiao; Wu, Zhi; Li, Dongpei; Huang, Fang; He, Hongwen

    2016-04-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas in the biological system, which is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family. NO acts as a biological mediator and plays important roles in different systems in humans. The NO/NOS system exerts a broad spectrum of signaling functions involved in vasodilation, inflammation, oxidative stress, cardioprotection and neuroprotection. It has been demonstrated that intravenous and volatile anesthetics (such as propofol, ketamine, midazolam, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, etc.) modulate NO production through multiple mechanisms that may influence physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review focuses on the effects of different anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation in different disease conditions. Possible cellular mechanisms and intermediate role of NO/NOS in anesthetic-mediated organ protection are also discussed. It would be interesting to clarify the impact of anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation. This review gives an overview of the effects of different anesthetics on NO/NOS regulation and function in different physiologic and pathophysiologic states.

  17. Polarographic detection of nitric oxide released from cardiovascular compounds in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Penke, B; Balogh, G E; Papp, J G

    1998-03-01

    In order to detect the concentration of nitric oxide, known to be one of the biologically active principles of certain cardiovascular compounds, a highly selective polarographic/amperometric device was used. The nitric oxide-releasing properties of sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, nicorandil, and the molsidomine metabolite, 3-morpholinosydnonimine, were compared in the following cell-free experimental solutions in vitro: in Krebs-Henseleit solution with and without a sulfhydryl donor, L-cysteine, in an acidic, reducing medium, and in Krebs-Henseleit solution with superoxide dismutase enzyme. Sodium nitroprusside released similar concentrations of nitric oxide in Krebs-Henseleit solution and in the acidic, reducing medium. L-Cysteine inhibited the release of nitric oxide at physiological pH. In the presence of nitroglycerine, nitric oxide signals were detected in the acidic, reducing environment and in L-cysteine-rich Krebs-Henseleit solution but not in the absence of the sulfhydryl donor. Amperometric signals could not be detected after adding nicorandil in all the experimental conditions used. 3-Morpholinosydnonimine released nitric oxide only in the presence of the superoxide dismutase enzyme. Our results suggest that the polarographic electrode is able to detect the release of nitric oxide from sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerine, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine in the absence of biological material. The present observations support the importance of the chemical environment during the detection of nitric oxide from donor compounds in the common in vitro bathing systems.

  18. Nitric oxide and plant iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela

    2015-03-01

    Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes.

  19. High red blood cell nitric oxide synthase activation is not associated with improved vascular function and red blood cell deformability in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Grau, Marijke; Mozar, Anaïs; Charlot, Keyne; Lamarre, Yann; Weyel, Linda; Suhr, Frank; Collins, Bianca; Jumet, Stéphane; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Lemonne, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Bloch, Wilhelm; Connes, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Human red blood cells (RBC) express an active and functional endothelial-like nitric oxide (NO) synthase (RBC-NOS). We report studies on RBC-NOS activity in sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a genetic disease characterized by decreased RBC deformability and vascular dysfunction. Total RBC-NOS content was not significantly different in SCA patients compared to healthy controls; however, using phosphorylated RBC-NOS-Ser(1177) as a marker, RBC-NOS activation was higher in SCA patients as a consequence of the greater activation of Akt (phosphorylated Akt-Ser(473) ). The higher RBC-NOS activation in SCA led to higher levels of S-nitrosylated α- and β-spectrins, and greater RBC nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels compared to healthy controls. Plasma nitrite content was not different between the two groups. Laser Doppler flowmetric experiments demonstrated blunted microcirculatory NO-dependent response under hyperthermia in SCA patients. RBC deformability, measured by ektacytometry, was reduced in SCA in contrast to healthy individuals, and pre-shearing RBC in vitro did not improve deformability despite an increase of RBC-NOS activation. RBC-NOS activation is high in freshly drawn blood from SCA patients, resulting in high amounts of NO produced by RBC. However, this does not result in improved RBC deformability and vascular function: higher RBC-NO is not sufficient to counterbalance the enhanced oxidative stress in SCA.

  20. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  1. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  2. Intact mitochondrial Ca2+ uniport is essential for agonist-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)

    PubMed Central

    Charoensin, Suphachai; Eroglu, Emrah; Opelt, Marissa; Bischof, Helmut; Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T.; Kirsch, Andrijana; Depaoli, Maria R.; Frank, Saša; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Malli, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake regulates diverse endothelial cell functions and has also been related to nitric oxide (NO•) production. However, it is not entirely clear if the organelles support or counteract NO• biosynthesis by taking up Ca2+. The objective of this study was to verify whether or not mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake influences Ca2+-triggered NO• generation by endothelial NO• synthase (eNOS) in an immortalized endothelial cell line (EA.hy926), respective primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and eNOS-RFP (red fluorescent protein) expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We used novel genetically encoded fluorescent NO• probes, the geNOps, and Ca2+ sensors to monitor single cell NO• and Ca2+ dynamics upon cell treatment with ATP, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-generating agonist. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake was specifically manipulated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of recently identified key components of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter machinery. In endothelial cells and the eNOS-RFP expressing HEK293 cells we show that reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake upon the knock-down of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) protein and the essential MCU regulator (EMRE) yield considerable attenuation of the Ca2+-triggered NO• increase independently of global cytosolic Ca2+ signals. The knock-down of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1), a gatekeeper of the MCU, increased both mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration and Ca2+-induced NO• signals. The positive correlation between mitochondrial Ca2+ elevation and NO• production was independent of eNOS phosphorylation at serine1177. Our findings emphasize that manipulating mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake may represent a novel strategy to control eNOS-mediated NO• production. PMID:27923677

  3. Delphinidin, an active compound of red wine, inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via nitric oxide pathway and regulation of calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sophie; Giannone, Grégory; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martinez, M Carmen

    2003-07-01

    1. Epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of natural dietary polyphenolic compounds might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and also protect against cancer. The present study investigates the effects of delphinidin, an anthocyanin present in red wine, on bovine aortic endothelial cells apoptosis. 2. Based on flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analysis and detection of mitochondrial cytochrome c release, we show that delphinidin (10(-2) g l(-1)) alone had no effect either on necrosis or on apoptosis, but it significantly reduced apoptosis elicited by actinomycin D (1 micro g ml(-1), 24 h) and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (10 micro g ml(-1), 18 h). 3. The protective effect of delphinidin was abolished by inhibitors of nitric oxide-synthase (NOS) (L-NA, 100 micro M and SMT, 100 micro M), guanylyl cyclase (ODQ, 100 micro M) and MAP kinase (PD98059, 30 micro M). 4. Western blot analysis and protein detection by confocal microscopy demonstrate that the antiapoptotic effect of delphinidin was associated with an increased endothelial NOS expression mediated by a MAP kinase pathway. 5. Finally, delphinidin alone had no effect on cytosolic-free calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), but normalized the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) produced by actinomycin D towards the control values, suggesting that the antiapoptotic effect of delphinidin is associated with the maintenance of [Ca(2+)](i) in the physiological range. 6. All of the observed effects of delphinidin may preserve endothelium integrity, the alteration of which lead to pathologies including cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and is often associated with cancers. In conclusion, the protective effect of delphinidin against endothelial cell apoptosis contributes to understand the potential benefits of a consumption rich in polyphenols.

  4. Process-driven bacterial community dynamics are key to cured meat colour formation by coagulase-negative staphylococci via nitrate reductase or nitric oxide synthase activities.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Mainar, María; Leroy, Frédéric

    2015-11-06

    The cured colour of European raw fermented meats is usually achieved by nitrate-into-nitrite reduction by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), subsequently generating nitric oxide to form the relatively stable nitrosomyoglobin pigment. The present study aimed at comparing this classical curing procedure, based on nitrate reductase activity, with a potential alternative colour formation mechanism, based on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, under different acidification profiles. To this end, meat models with and without added nitrate were fermented with cultures of an acidifying strain (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494) and either a nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus carnosus strain or a rare NOS-positive CNS strain (Staphylococcus haemolyticus G110), or by relying on the background microbiota. Satisfactory colour was obtained in the models prepared with added nitrate and S. carnosus. In the presence of nitrate but absence of added CNS, however, cured colour was only obtained when L. sakei CTC 494 was also omitted. This was ascribed to the pH dependency of the emerging CNS background microbiota, selecting for nitrate-reducing Staphylococcus equorum strains at mild acidification conditions but for Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains with poor colour formation capability when the pH decrease was more rapid. This reliance of colour formation on the composition of the background microbiota was further explored by a side experiment, demonstrating the heterogeneity in nitrate reduction of a set of 88 CNS strains from different species. Finally, in all batches prepared with S. haemolyticus G110, colour generation failed as the strain was systematically outcompeted by the background microbiota, even when imposing milder acidification profiles. Thus, when aiming at colour formation through CNS metabolism, technological processing can severely interfere with the composition and functionality of the meat-associated CNS communities, for both nitrate reductase and NOS activities

  5. Myocardial calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase activity is present in dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy but not in ischaemic or valvar heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Belder, A. J.; Radomski, M. W.; Why, H. J.; Richardson, P. J.; Martin, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the activity of the calcium-dependent constitutive (cNOS) and calcium-independent inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) synthases in heart tissue from patients with different cardiac diseases. PATIENTS AND DESIGN--Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with dilated hearts (by echocardiography and ventriculography) and normal coronary arteries (by selective angiography). Recognised clinical, radiological, and histopathological criteria were used to diagnose non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n = 6), inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM) (n = 5), and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) (n = 3). Comparative groups were chosen with similarly dilated hearts caused by ischaemic (n = 5) or valvar disease (n = 4), and, in addition, non-dilated hearts with ischaemic (n = 5) and valvar (n = 3) disease. Venous blood was taken at the time of myocardial biopsy for assay of plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). RESULTS--Myocardial tissue from patients with DCM, ICM, and PPCM showed considerable iNOS activity (16.8 (2.7) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min) with little or no cNOS activity (1.3 (0.9) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min). In contrast, myocardial tissue from patients with both dilated and non-dilated hearts of ischaemic or valvar aetiology showed cNOS and little, if any, iNOS activity (dilated--cNOS 11.7 (2.4) and iNOS 0.8 (0.6) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min; non-dilated--cNOS 12.1 (1.8) and iNOS 1.4 (0.8) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min). Plasma TNF alpha was detectable only in patients with inflammatory DCM. CONCLUSIONS--These results support the hypothesis the generation of nitric oxide by iNOS accounts for some of the dilatation and impaired contractility associated with inflammatory and non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and peripartum cardiomyopathy. PMID:7488459

  6. Activated Macrophages as a Novel Determinant of Tumor Cell Radioresponse: The Role of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition of Cellular Respiration and Oxygen Sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Heng; De Ridder, Mark; Verovski, Valeri N.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Jordan, Benedicte F.; Law, Kalun; Monsaert, Christinne; Van den Berge, Dirk L.; Verellen, Dirk; Feron, Olivier; Gallez, Bernard; Storme, Guy A.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is known to inhibit metabolic oxygen consumption because of interference with mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study examined whether activation of iNOS (a) directly in tumor cells or (b) in bystander macrophages may improve radioresponse through sparing of oxygen. Methods and Materials: EMT-6 tumor cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-gamma, and examined for iNOS expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and enzymatic activity. Tumor cells alone, or combined with macrophages were subjected to metabolic hypoxia and analyzed for radiosensitivity by clonogenic assay, and for oxygen consumption by electron paramagnetic resonance and a Clark-type electrode. Results: Both tumor cells and macrophages displayed a coherent picture of iNOS induction at transcriptional/translational levels and NO/nitrite production, whereas macrophages showed also co-induction of the inducible heme oxygenase-1, which is associated with carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin production. Activation of iNOS in tumor cells resulted in a profound oxygen sparing and a 2.3-fold radiosensitization. Bystander NO-producing, but not CO-producing, macrophages were able to block oxygen consumption by 1.9-fold and to radiosensitize tumor cells by 2.2-fold. Both effects could be neutralized by aminoguanidine, a metabolic iNOS inhibitor. An improved radioresponse was clearly observed at macrophages to tumor cells ratios ranging between 1:16 to 1:1. Conclusions: Our study is the first, as far as we are aware, to provide evidence that iNOS may induce radiosensitization through oxygen sparing, and illuminates NO-producing macrophages as a novel determinant of tumor cell radioresponse within the hypoxic tumor microenvironment.

  7. Nitric oxide-mediated antitumor activity induced by the extract from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in a macrophage cell line, RAW264.7.

    PubMed

    Sanzen, I; Imanishi, N; Takamatsu, N; Konosu, S; Mantani, N; Terasawa, K; Tazawa, K; Odaira, Y; Watanabe, M; Takeyama, M; Ochiai, H

    2001-12-01

    We have investigated D-fraction (MDF) extracted from Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) on the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 (RAW) cells, a murine monocyte/macrophage cell line, with special reference to antitumor activity of MDF against human hepatoma-derived huH-1 cells. MDF could induce iNOS mRNA expression in RAW cells in a dose range of more than 30 microg/ml, but the effect of 10 microg/ml of MDF was negligible. The iNOS mRNA expression induced by 100 microg/ml of MDF was 6 hrs later, but lasted for a longer time than that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a representative iNOS inducer. Although iNOS mRNA levels in MDF-stimulated cells were almost equal to LPS-stimulated cells at the peak time, the cumulative amount of nitrite was only about 50% compared with that of LPS-treated cells. When huH-I cells were cultured in MDF containing media in a 24-well plate with inserted porous bottom in the presence or absence of RAW cells, the viability of huH-1 cells decreased significantly only in the presence of RAW cells in MDF dose-dependent manner. This antitumor activity of RAW cells in the presence of MDF was abolished or attenuated by the addition of L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor, confirming that this phenomenon is due to iNOS-mediated NO production by RAW cells, but not direct cytotoxic activity of MDF against huH-1 cells. These data suggest that MDF is a novel inducer for iNOS which contributes at least in part to antitumor activity of MDF.

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development.

  9. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juvic M; Casart, Ysabel C; Camejo, María I

    2016-01-01

    Placental explant culture, and cellular cytolysis and cellular differentiation have been previously studied. However, oxidative stress and nitric oxide profiles have not been evaluated in these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the release of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide from placental explants cultured over a seven day period. Placental explants were maintained for seven days in culture and the medium was changed every 24 hours. The response was assessed in terms of syncytiotrophoblast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG), cellular cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), and nitric oxide (NO). Levels of hCG increased progressively from day two to attain its highest level on days four and five after which it decreased gradually. In contrast, the levels of LDH, TBARS, and NO were elevated in the early days of placental culture when new syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast were forming and also in the last days of culture when tissue was declining. In conclusion, the levels of NO and lipid peroxidation follow a pattern similar to LDH and contrary to hCG. Future placental explant studies to evaluate oxidative stress and NO should consider the physiological changes inherent during the time of culture.

  10. Methanolic Extract of Clinacanthus nutans Exerts Antinociceptive Activity via the Opioid/Nitric Oxide-Mediated, but cGMP-Independent, Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Hafiz; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Omar, Maizatul Hasyima; Yakob, Yusnita; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Ching, Siew Mooi; Ahmad, Zuraini; Abdul Kadir, Arifah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated. The results showed that MECN produced a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all nociceptive models with the recorded ED50 value of 279.3 mg/kg for the ACT, while, for the early and late phases of the FT, the value was >500 mg/kg or 227.7 mg/kg, respectively. This antinociceptive activity was fully antagonized by naloxone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) but was partially reversed by l-arginine (l-arg; a nitric oxide [NO] precursor), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME; an NO synthase inhibitor), or their combinations thereof. In contrast, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) enhanced the extract's antinociception. UHPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds with antinociceptive action. In conclusion, MECN exerted the peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of the opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent, systems. PMID:27190528

  11. Methanolic Extract of Clinacanthus nutans Exerts Antinociceptive Activity via the Opioid/Nitric Oxide-Mediated, but cGMP-Independent, Pathways.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Hafiz; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Omar, Maizatul Hasyima; Yakob, Yusnita; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Ching, Siew Mooi; Ahmad, Zuraini; Abdul Kadir, Arifah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the mechanisms of antinociceptive effect of methanol extract of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) leaves (MECN) using various animal nociceptive models. The antinociceptive activity of orally administered 10% DMSO, 100 mg/kg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 5 mg/kg morphine, or MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was determined using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction (ACT), formalin-induced paw licking (FT), and hot plate tests (HPT). The role of opioid and nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO/cGMP) systems was also investigated. The results showed that MECN produced a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all nociceptive models with the recorded ED50 value of 279.3 mg/kg for the ACT, while, for the early and late phases of the FT, the value was >500 mg/kg or 227.7 mg/kg, respectively. This antinociceptive activity was fully antagonized by naloxone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) but was partially reversed by l-arginine (l-arg; a nitric oxide [NO] precursor), Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME; an NO synthase inhibitor), or their combinations thereof. In contrast, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) enhanced the extract's antinociception. UHPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds with antinociceptive action. In conclusion, MECN exerted the peripherally and centrally mediated antinociceptive activity via the modulation of the opioid/NO-mediated, but cGMP-independent, systems.

  12. Solubilization and Resolution of the Membrane-Bound Nitrite Reductase from Paracoccus Halodenitrificans into Nitrite and Nitric Oxide Reductases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Michael A.; Cronin, Sonja E.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1984-01-01

    Membranes prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans reduced nitrite or nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. Extraction of these membranes with the detergent CHAPSO [3-(3-Chlolamidoporopyldimethylammonio)-1-(2- hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate)], followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation of the solubilized proteins, resulted in the separation of nitrite and nitric oxide reductase activities. The fraction containing nitrite reductase activity spectrally resembled a cd-type cytochrome. Several cytochromes were detected in the nitric oxide reductase fraction. Which, if any, of these cytochromes is associated with the reduction of nitric oxide is not clear at this time.

  13. Nitric oxide signals ROS scavenger-mediated enhancement of PAL activity in nitrogen-deficient Matricaria chamomilla roots: side effects of scavengers.

    PubMed

    Kovácik, Jozef; Klejdus, Borivoj; Backor, Martin

    2009-06-15

    Owing to the abundance of phenolic metabolites in plant tissue, their accumulation represents an important tool for stress protection. However, the regulation of phenolic metabolism is still poorly known. The regulatory role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in nitrogen (N)-deficient chamomile roots treated for 24 h was studied using three ROS scavengers [dithiothreitol (DTT), salicylhydroxamic acid, and sodium benzoate]. Scavengers decreased the level of hydrogen peroxide and/or superoxide (and up-regulated ascorbate/guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione reductase), but, surprisingly, stimulated PAL activity. This up-regulation was correlated with increases in nitric oxide (NO) content, total soluble phenols, selected phenolic acids, and, partially, lignin (being expressed the most in DTT-exposed roots). We therefore tested the hypothesis that NO may be involved in these changes. Application of 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) decreased PAL activity and the accumulation of soluble phenols in all treatments. Exogenous H(2)O(2) and NO also stimulated PAL activity and the accumulation of phenols. We conclude that NO, in addition to hydrogen peroxide, may regulate PAL activity during N deficiency. The anomalous effect of PTIO on NO content and possible mechanism of ROS scavenger-evoked NO increases in light of the current knowledge are also discussed.

  14. Nitric oxide from a "green" perspective.

    PubMed

    Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2015-02-15

    The molecule nitric oxide (NO) which is involved in practically all biochemical and physiological plant processes has become a subject for plant research. However, there remain many unanswered questions concerning how, where and when this molecule is enzymatically generated in higher plants. This mini-review aims to provide an overview of NO in plants for those readers unfamiliar with this field of research. The review will therefore discuss the importance of NO in higher plants at the physiological and biochemical levels, its involvement in designated nitro-oxidative stresses in response to adverse abiotic and biotic environmental conditions, NO emission/uptake from plants, beneficial plant-microbial interactions, and its potential application in the biotechnological fields of agriculture and food nutrition.

  15. Nitric oxide rescues thalidomide mediated teratogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Siamwala, Jamila H.; Veeriah, Vimal; Priya, M. Krishna; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; T, Pradeep; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-01-01

    Thalidomide, a sedative drug given to pregnant women, unfortunately caused limb deformities in thousands of babies. Recently the drug was revived because of its therapeutic potential; however the search is still ongoing for an antidote against thalidomide induced limb deformities. In the current study we found that nitric oxide (NO) rescues thalidomide affected chick (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. This study confirms that NO reduced the number of thalidomide mediated limb deformities by 94% and 80% in chick and zebrafish embryos respectively. NO prevents limb deformities by promoting angiogenesis, reducing oxidative stress and inactivating caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. We conclude that NO secures angiogenesis in the thalidomide treated embryos to protect them from deformities. PMID:22997553

  16. Polysulfides (H2Sn) produced from the interaction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO) activate TRPA1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Ryo; Koike, Shin; Takano, Yoko; Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Urano, Yasuteru; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exerts synergistic effects with another gaseous signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) on ion channels and vasculature. However, the mechanism of the synergy is not well understood. Here, we show that the interaction between H2S and NO generates polysulfides (H2Sn), which activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels. High performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis, along with the imaging of intracellular Ca2+ and H2Sn, showed that H2Sn and their effects were abolished by cyanolysis and by reducing substances such as dithiothreitol (DTT), cysteine, and glutathione (GSH). However, the effects of nitroxyl or nitrosopersulfide, other potential products of H2S and NO interaction, are not affected by cyanolysis or reducing substances. This study demonstrates that H2Sn are products of synergy between H2S and NO and provides a new insight into the signaling mechanisms. PMID:28378773

  17. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Ranran; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Huijun; Yan, Minggang; Chen, Ni; Xie, Huaqiang; Ke, Shouwei

    2016-02-01

    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The association between elevated CO2-induced alterations of NR activity and nitric oxide (NO) was examined in Col-0 Arabidopsis fed with 0.2-10 mM nitrate, using NO donors, NO scavenger, and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor. The noa1 mutant, in which most NOS activity was lost, and the NR activity-null mutant nia1 nia2 were also used to examine the above association. In response to CO2 elevation, NR activity increased in low-nitrate Col-0 plants but was inhibited in high-nitrate Col-0 plants. NO scavenger and NOS inhibitor could eliminate these two responses, whereas the application of NO donors mimicked these distinct responses in ambient CO2-grown Col-0 plants. Furthermore, in both low- and high-nitrate conditions, elevated CO2 increased NOS activity and NO levels in Col-0 and nia1 nia2 plants but had little effect on NO level and NR activity in noa1 plants. Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that, in response to CO2 elevation, either the NR activity induction in low-nitrate plants or the NR activity inhibition in high-nitrate plants is regulated by NOS-generated NO.

  18. Nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase after acute hypobaric hypoxia in the rat caudate putamen.

    PubMed

    Encinas, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Ana Patricia; Salas, Eduardo; Castro-Blanco, Susana; Muñoz, Priscila; Rodrigo, José; Serrano, Julia

    2004-03-01

    Changes in the production system of nitric oxide (NO), a multifunctional biological messenger known to participate in blood-flow regulation, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection or neurotoxicity, were investigated in the caudate putamen of adult rats submitted to hypobaric hypoxia. Employing immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, enzymatic assay, and NADPH-diaphorase staining, we demonstrate that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) activity were transiently activated by 7 h of exposure to a simulated altitude of 8325 m (27,000 ft). In addition, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity and blood vessel NADPH-diaphorase staining peaked immediately after the hypoxic stimulus, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and activity remained unaltered. Nitrotyrosine formation, a marker of protein nitration, was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, and was found to increase parallel to nitric oxide synthesis. We conclude that the nitric oxide system undergoes significant transient alterations in the caudate putamen of adult rats submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia.

  19. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneous hypertensive rats via down-regulation of caveolin-1 and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Suh, Jung-Won; Choi, Dong-Ju; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cho, Young-Seok; Youn, Tae-Jin; Chae, In-Ho; Kim, Kwang-Il; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Buyng-Hee; Park, Young-Bae

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Caveolin-1 regulates nitric oxide (NO) signaling by modulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The purpose of this study was to examine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor improves impaired endothelial function of the aorta in spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) and to determine the underlying mechanisms involved. Eight-week-old male SHR were assigned to either a control group (CON, n=11) or a rosuvastatin group (ROS, n=12), rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) administered for eight weeks. Abdominal aortic rings were prepared and responses to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) were determined in vitro. To evaluate the potential role of NO and caveolin-1, we examined the plasma activity of NOx, eNOS, phosphorylated-eNOS and expression of caveolin-1. The relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly enhanced in ROS compared to CON. Expression of eNOS RNA was unchanged, whereas NOx level and phosphorylated-eNOS at serine-1177 was increased accompanied with depressed level of caveolin-1 in ROS. We conclude that 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor can improve impaired endothelial dysfunction in SHR, and its underlying mechanisms are associated with increased NO production. Furthermore, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor can activate the eNOS by phosphorylation related to decreased caveolin-1 abundance. These results imply the therapeutic strategies for the high blood pressure-associated endothelial dysfunction through modifying caveolin status.

  20. The morphogenic/cytotoxic and prostaglandin-stimulating activities of interleukin-1 beta in the rat ovary are nitric oxide independent.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shlomo, I; Adashi, E Y; Payne, D W

    1994-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated as a mediator of physiologic and pathologic cellular injury. Since the cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induces nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity as well as effects morphogenic/cytotoxic changes and increased prostaglandin (PGE2) levels in cultured whole ovarian dispersates, we set out to determine whether these actions are interrelated. Treatment with IL-1 beta resulted in a marked increase in media nitrite and nitrate accumulation, morphological alterations, and increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into media. Addition of IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) eliminated these IL-1 beta effects. In contrast, specific inhibitors of NOS failed to reverse IL-1 beta-induced morphogenic changes or LDH release in spite of complete reduction of media nitrite to control levels. Similarly, treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1, inhibited IL-1 beta-induced nitrite accumulation, but had no effect on the morphologic or cytotoxic endpoints. Moreover, the addition of sodium nitroprusside, an NO generator, resulted in progressive increments in media nitrite content without a corresponding increase in the IL-1 beta-associated morphogenic changes or media LDH content. Furthermore, IL-1-induced PGE2 accumulation remained unaffected by specific NOS inhibition. These observations support the view that NO does not mediate the morphogenic/cytotoxic or inflammatory-like (e.g., PGE2 inducing) properties of IL-1 beta in cultured whole ovarian dispersates. Although the precise role of NO in ovarian physiology remains unknown, it is possible that NO participates in the periovulatory modulation of ovarian blood flow by virtue of its potent vasodilatory activity. Images PMID:7523451

  1. Activation of mTOR/p70S6 kinase by ANG II inhibits insulin-stimulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-Ju; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated tissue levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) are associated with impairment of insulin actions in metabolic and cardiovascular tissues. ANG II-stimulated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) in cardiovascular tissues is implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and vascular remodeling. However, the role of ANG II-stimulated mTOR/p70S6K in vascular endothelium is poorly understood. In the present study, we observed that ANG II stimulated p70S6K in bovine aortic endothelial cells. ANG II increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser636/639 and inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). An inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, attenuated the ANG II-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6K and phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Ser636/639) and blocked the ability of ANG II to impair insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of eNOS, nitric oxide production, and mesenteric-arteriole vasodilation. Moreover, point mutations of IRS-1 at Ser636/639 to Ala prevented the ANG II-mediated inhibition of insulin signaling. From these results, we conclude that activation of mTOR/p70S6K by ANG II in vascular endothelium may contribute to impairment of insulin-stimulated vasodilation through phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser636/639. This ANG II-mediated impairment of vascular actions of insulin may help explain the role of ANG II as a link between insulin resistance and hypertension. PMID:22028412

  2. Enhanced Nitric Oxide Synthase Activation via Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Is Involved in the Preserved Vasodilation in Aortas from Metabolic Syndrome Rats.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; McGuire, John J; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation via protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in mesenteric arteries from SHRSP.Z-Leprfa/IzmDmcr rats (SHRSP.ZF) with metabolic syndrome even though nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation is attenuated. Therefore, we examined the PAR2 mechanisms underlying metabolic syndrome-resistant vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF aortas with ageing. In isolated aortas, the PAR2 agonist 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide (2fly) caused vasodilation that was sustained in male SHRSP.ZF until 18 weeks of age, but was attenuated afterwards compared with age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (controls) at 23 weeks. In contrast, acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was impaired in SHRSP.ZF already at 18 weeks of age. Treatments of aortas with inhibitors of NO synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase abolished the sustained 2fly- and residual acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in SHRSP.ZF at 18 weeks of age. In the aortas of SHRSP.ZF, 8-bromo-cGMP-induced vasodilation, NO production and cGMP accumulation elicited by 2fly were not different from in the controls. PAR2 agonist increased phospho-Ser1177-eNOS protein content only in SHRSP.ZF aortas. These results indicate that vasodilation mediated by PAR2 is sustained even though NO-dependent relaxation is attenuated with ageing/exposure to metabolic disorders in large-caliber arteries from SHRSP.ZF. PAR2 stimulation of NO production via an additional pathway that targets phosphorylation of Ser1177-eNOS suggests a regulatory mechanism for sustaining agonist-mediated vasodilation in metabolic syndrome.

  3. P2Y12 receptor blockade synergizes strongly with nitric oxide and prostacyclin to inhibit platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Melissa V.; Knowles, Rebecca B. M.; Lundberg, Martina H.; Tucker, Arthur T.; Mohamed, Nura A.; Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Armstrong, Paul C. J.; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In vivo platelet function is a product of intrinsic platelet reactivity, modifiable by dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), and the extrinsic inhibitory endothelial mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2), that are powerfully potentiated by P2Y12 receptor blockade. This implies that for individual patients endothelial mediator production is an important determinant of DAPT effectiveness. Here, we have investigated this idea using platelets taken from healthy volunteers treated with anti‐platelet drugs. Methods Three groups of male volunteers (n = 8) received either prasugrel (10 mg), aspirin (75 mg) or DAPT (prasugrel + aspirin) once daily for 7 days. Platelet reactivity in the presence of diethylammonium (Z)‐1‐(N,N‐diethylamino)diazen‐1‐ium‐1,2‐diolate (DEA/NONOate) and PGI2 was studied before and following treatment. Results Ex vivo, PGI2 and/or DEA/NONOate had little inhibitory effect on TRAP‐6‐induced platelet reactivity in control conditions. However, in the presence of DAPT, combination of DEA/NONOate + PGI2 reduced platelet aggregation (74 ± 3% to 19 ± 6%, P < 0.05). In vitro studies showed even partial (25%) P2Y12 receptor blockade produced a significant (67 ± 2% to 39 ± 10%, P < 0.05) inhibition when DEA/NONOate + PGI2 was present. Conclusions We have demonstrated that PGI2 and NO synergize with P2Y12 receptor antagonists to produce powerful platelet inhibition. Furthermore, even with submaximal P2Y12 blockade the presence of PGI2 and NO greatly enhances platelet inhibition. Our findings highlight the importance of endothelial mediator in vivo modulation of P2Y12 inhibition and introduces the concept of refining ex vivo platelet function testing by incorporating an assessment of endothelial function to predict thrombotic outcomes better and adjust therapy to prevent adverse outcomes in individual patients. PMID:26561399

  4. 21 CFR 868.2380 - Nitric oxide analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nitric oxide analyzer. 868.2380 Section 868.2380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2380 Nitric oxide analyzer....

  5. Nitric Oxide--Some Old and New Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscough, Eric W.; Brodie, Andrew M.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the role it plays in physiology and neurobiology, there is a rebirth of interest in nitric oxide. It can affect enzyme and immune system regulation and cytotoxicity. Nitric oxide may represent a new class of signaling molecules--gases that pass through cells and vanish. Overactive neurons produce large amounts of NO which may be linked…

  6. The Iron-Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrazine by Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-07-17

    To assess the importance of iron to hydrazine stability, the study of hydrazine oxidation by nitric acid has been extended to investigate the iron-catalyzed oxidation. This report describes those results.

  7. Reduction of nitric oxide emissions from a combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, R. A.; Pritchard, H. O. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A turbojet combustor and method for controlling nitric oxide emissions by employing successive combustion zones is described. After combustion of an initial portion of the fuel in a primary combustion zone, the combustion products of the primary zone are combined with the remaining portion of fuel and additional plenum air and burned in a secondary combustion zone under conditions that result in low nitric oxide emissions. Low nitric oxide emissions are achieved by a novel turbojet combustor arrangement which provides flame stability by allowing stable combustion to be accompanied by low nitric oxide emissions resulting from controlled fuel-lean combustion (ignited by the emission products from the primary zone) in a secondary combustion zone at a lower combustion temperature resulting in low emission of nitric oxide.

  8. Nitric Oxide Modulators: An Emerging Class of Medicinal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, S. R.; Satyanarayana, K.; Rao, M. N. A.; Pai, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide, a unique messenger in biological system, is ubiquitously present virtually in all tissues revealing its versatile nature of being involved in diverse physiological functions such as vascular tone, inhibition of platelet aggregation, cell adhesion, neurotransmission and enzyme and immune regulation. The tremendous advancements made in the past few decades in this area suggests that the nitric oxide modulation either by its exogenous release through nitric oxide donors or inhibition of its synthesis by nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in physiological milieu may provide newer clinical strategies for the treatment of some diseases. In this review, an attempt is made to document and understand the biological chemistry of different classes of nitric oxide modulators that would prove to be a fruitful area in the years to come. PMID:23798773

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Chuk-Me-Sun-Dan on NMDA- and AMPA-evoked nitric oxide synthase activity in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Koo, Byung-Soo; Choi, Eun-Gyu; Park, Jae-Bok; Cho, Chang-Ho; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Chukmesundan (CMSD) is composed of 8 medicinal herbs including Panex ginseng C.A. MEYER, Atractylodes macrocephala KOID, Poria cocos WOLF, Pinellia ternata BREIT, Brassica alba BOISS, Aconitum carmichaeli DEBX, Cynanchum atratum BGE, and Cuscuta chinensis LAM and used for the treatment of various symptoms accompanying hypertension and cerebrovascular disorders. This study was carried out to examine the effects of CMSD on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-evoked, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-evoked nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in mouse brain. In adult forebrain, CMSD influences neuronal maintenance and is neuroprotective in several injury models through mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Interaction is observed between CMSD and nitric oxide (NO). Because NO affects both neural plasticity and degeneration, we hypothesized that CMSD might rapidly modulate NO production. Using in vivo microdialysis we measured conversion of L-[14C] arginine to L-[14C] citrulline as an accurate reflection of NOS activity in adult mouse hippocampus. CMSD significantly reduced NOS activities to 62% of basal levels within 2 days of onset of delivery and maintained NOS activity at less than 45% of baseline throughout 3 days of delivery. These effects did not occur with control (distilled water) and were not mediated by effect of CMSD on glutamate levels. In addition, simultaneous delivery of CMSD treatment prevented significant increases in NOS activity triggered by the glutamate receptor agonists NMDA and AMPA. Rapid suppression by CMSD of basal and glutamate-stimulated NOS activity may regulate neuromodulatory functions of NO or protect neurons from NO toxicity and suggests a novel mechanism for rapidly mediating functions of CMSD. It is shown that NMDA receptor stimulation leads to activation of p21ras (Ras) through generation of NO via neuronal NOS. The competitive NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester, and CMSD prevents Ras

  10. Nitric Oxide Signaling and Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tao Li, Jessica; Somasundaram, Chandra; Bian, Ka; Xiong, Weijun; Mahmooduddin, Faiz; Nath, Rahul K.; Murad, Ferid

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to examine whether nitric oxide signaling plays a role in human embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural cells. This article reviews current literature on nitric oxide signaling and neural stem cell differentiation for potential therapeutic application to peripheral nerve regeneration. Methods: Human embryonic H9-stem cells were grown, maintained on mitomycin C–treated mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer, cultured on Matrigel to be feeder-free, and used for all the experiments. Fluorescent dual-immunolabeling and confocal image analysis were used to detect the presence of the neural precursor cell markers nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the percentage of expression. Results: We have shown the confocal image of stage 1 human embryonic stem cells coexpressing nestin and nitric oxide synthase-1. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis indicated 24.3% positive labeling of nitric oxide synthase-1. Adding retinoic acid (10−6 M) to the culture medium increased the percent of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 33.9%. Combining retinoic acid (10−6 M) with 8-brom cyclic guanosine monophosphate (10−5 M), the fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated a further increase of nitric oxide synthase-1 positive cells to 45.4%. Our current results demonstrate a prodifferentiation potency of nitric oxide synthase-1, stimulated by retinoic acid with and without cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Conclusion: We demonstrated for the first time how nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling contributes to the development of neural precursors derived from human embryonic stem cells and enhances the differentiation of precursors toward functional neurons for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:20563304

  11. Effect of potassium channel blockade and alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation on the release of nitric oxide from non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerves.

    PubMed

    De Man, J G; Boeckxstaens, G E; Herman, A G; Pelckmans, P A

    1994-05-01

    1. Using a superfusion bioassay cascade, we studied the effect of K+ channel blockers and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agents on the release of a transferable factor, previously characterized as nitric oxide (NO) or a nitric oxide-related substance (NO-R), in response to non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) nerve stimulation in the canine ileocolonic junction (ICJ). 2. The non-selective K+ channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 50 microM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM) and the more selective blocker of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, charybdotoxin (Leiurus quinquestriatus venom (LQV), 0.4 microgram ml-1), significantly enhanced the release of NO-R induced by low frequency stimulation (2-4 Hz). In the presence of 4-AP and TEA, the release of NO-R was nearly abolished by tetrodotoxin (2 microM), and by L-NG-nitroarginine (L-NOARG, 0.1 mM). Relaxations induced by direct injection of exogenous NO (5-50 pmol) or nitroglycerin (GTN, 10-30 pmol) onto the rabbit aortic detector ring were not affected. 3. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, UK-14,304 (0.3 microM) inhibited the release of NO-R induced by low (2-4 Hz), but not that induced by high (16 Hz), frequency stimulation. This inhibitory effect was completely reversed by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.3 microM). Neither UK-14,304 nor yohimbine affected the relaxations induced by exogenous NO (5 pmol) or GTN (10 pmol) on the aortic detector ring.3+

  12. Reduction of large-conductance Ca²(+) -activated K(+) channel with compensatory increase of nitric oxide in insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Shangjian; Deng, Zhengrong; Wei, Liqiang; Liang, Lei; Ai, Wenting; Shou, Xiling; Chen, Xinyi

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality are both increased by insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BK(Ca)) plays a pivotal role in the diastolic function of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the role of this channel in insulin resistance remains unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into an insulin resistant group and control group. We investigated the BK(Ca) current and subunit expression in myocytes from aortas and mesenteric arteries by Western blot, real-time PCR and the whole-cell patch-clamp methods. BK(Ca) current was decreased in smooth muscle cells in insulin resistant rats, compared with that in control group. Peak BK(Ca) current at + 60 mV was significantly decreased after iberiotoxin (IBTX) perfusion at 100 nmol/L (64.2 ± 4.7 versus 20.3 ± 3.5% in thoracic aortas and 65.6 ± 6.2 versus 29.3 ± 3.9% in mesenteric arteries, both p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in BK(Ca) alpha subunit between the two groups, both at the level of mRNA and protein. BK(Ca) beta 1 subunit expression in aortas and mesenteric arteries from the insulin resistant group was lower than in those from control group. The plasma level of nitric oxide was higher in the insulin resistant group than in the control group. Our results demonstrated that the BK(Ca) channel is decreased both in macrovessels and microvessels in insulin resistant rats. These impairments may be related to the down-regulation of β1 subunit expression and compensatory increase in plasma nitric oxide levels.

  13. Plant pathogenic Streptomyces species produce nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in response to host signals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent intercellular signal for defense, development and metabolism in animals and plants. In mammals, highly regulated nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) generate NO. NOS homologs exist in some prokaryotes, but direct evidence for NO production by these proteins has been lacking...

  14. Nitric Oxide in Astrocyte-Neuron Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nianzhen

    2002-01-01

    Astrocytes, a subtype of glial cell, have recently been shown to exhibit Ca2+ elevations in response to neurotransmitters. A Ca2+ elevation can propagate to adjacent astrocytes as a Ca2+ wave, which allows an astrocyte to communicate with its neighbors. Additionally, glutamate can be released from astrocytes via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, thus modulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In this dissertation, the author investigated the roles of another endogenous signal, nitric oxide (NO), in astrocyte-neuron signaling. First the author tested if NO is generated during astrocytic Ca2+ signaling by imaging NO in purified murine cortical astrocyte cultures. Physiological concentrations of a natural messenger, ATP, caused a Ca2+-dependent NO production. To test the roles of NO in astrocytic Ca2+ signaling, the author applied NO to astrocyte cultures via addition of a NO donor, S-nitrosol-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). NO induced an influx of external Ca2+, possibly through store-operated Ca2+ channels. The NO-induced Ca2+ signaling is cGMP-independent since 8-Br-cGMP, an agonistic analog of cGMP, did not induce a detectable Ca2+ change. The consequence of this NO-induced Ca2+ influx was assessed by simultaneously monitoring of cytosolic and internal store Ca2+ using fluorescent Ca2+ indicators x-rhod-1 and mag-fluo-4. Blockage of NO signaling with the NO scavenger PTIO significantly reduced the refilling percentage of internal stores following ATP-induced Ca2+ release, suggesting that NO modulates internal store refilling. Furthermore, locally photo-release of NO to a single astrocyte led to a Ca2+ elevation in the stimulated astrocyte and a subsequent Ca2+ wave to neighbors. Finally, the author tested the role of NO inglutamate-mediated astrocyte-neuron signaling by

  15. Oxidative stress modulates the nitric oxide defense promoted by Escherichia coli flavorubredoxin.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Joana M; Justino, Marta C; Melo, Ana M P; Teixeira, Miguel; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2012-07-01

    Mammalian cells of innate immunity respond to pathogen invasion by activating proteins that generate a burst of oxidative and nitrosative stress. Pathogens defend themselves from the toxic compounds by triggering a variety of detoxifying enzymes. Escherichia coli flavorubredoxin is a nitric oxide reductase that is expressed under nitrosative stress conditions. We report that in contrast to nitrosative stress alone, exposure to both nitrosative and oxidative stresses abolishes the expression of flavorubredoxin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments showed that under these conditions, the iron center of the flavorubredoxin transcription activator NorR loses the ability to bind nitric oxide. Accordingly, triggering of the NorR ATPase activity, a requisite for flavorubredoxin activation, was impaired by treatment of the protein with the double stress. Studies of macrophages revealed that the contribution of flavorubredoxin to the survival of E. coli depends on the stage of macrophage infection and that the lack of protection observed at the early phase is related to inhibition of NorR activity by the oxidative burst. We propose that the time-dependent activation of flavorubredoxin contributes to the adaptation of E. coli to the different fluxes of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide to which the bacterium is subjected during the course of macrophage infection.

  16. Oxidative Stress Modulates the Nitric Oxide Defense Promoted by Escherichia coli Flavorubredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Joana M.; Justino, Marta C.; Melo, Ana M. P.; Teixeira, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cells of innate immunity respond to pathogen invasion by activating proteins that generate a burst of oxidative and nitrosative stress. Pathogens defend themselves from the toxic compounds by triggering a variety of detoxifying enzymes. Escherichia coli flavorubredoxin is a nitric oxide reductase that is expressed under nitrosative stress conditions. We report that in contrast to nitrosative stress alone, exposure to both nitrosative and oxidative stresses abolishes the expression of flavorubredoxin. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments showed that under these conditions, the iron center of the flavorubredoxin transcription activator NorR loses the ability to bind nitric oxide. Accordingly, triggering of the NorR ATPase activity, a requisite for flavorubredoxin activation, was impaired by treatment of the protein with the double stress. Studies of macrophages revealed that the contribution of flavorubredoxin to the survival of E. coli depends on the stage of macrophage infection and that the lack of protection observed at the early phase is related to inhibition of NorR activity by the oxidative burst. We propose that the time-dependent activation of flavorubredoxin contributes to the adaptation of E. coli to the different fluxes of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide to which the bacterium is subjected during the course of macrophage infection. PMID:22563051

  17. Hydroxychavicol, a Piper betle leaf component, induces apoptosis of CML cells through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-dependent JNK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation and overrides imatinib resistance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayashree B; Mahato, Sanjit K; Joshi, Kalpana; Shinde, Vaibhav; Rakshit, Srabanti; Biswas, Nabendu; Choudhury Mukherjee, Indrani; Mandal, Labanya; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Chowdhury, Avik A; Chaudhuri, Jaydeep; Paul, Kausik; Pal, Bikas C; Vinayagam, Jayaraman; Pal, Churala; Manna, Anirban; Jaisankar, Parasuraman; Chaudhuri, Utpal; Konar, Aditya; Roy, Siddhartha; Bandyopadhyay, Santu

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic extract of Piper betle (Piper betle L.) leaves was recently found to induce apoptosis of CML cells expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl with imatinib resistance phenotype. Hydroxy-chavicol (HCH), a constituent of the alcoholic extract of Piper betle leaves, was evaluated for anti-CML activity. Here, we report that HCH and its analogues induce killing of primary cells in CML patients and leukemic cell lines expressing wild type and mutated Bcr-Abl, including the T315I mutation, with minimal toxicity to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. HCH causes early but transient increase of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species-dependent persistent activation of JNK leads to an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide generation. This causes loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, cleavage of caspase 9, 3 and poly-adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase leading to apoptosis. One HCH analogue was also effective in vivo in SCID mice against grafts expressing the T315I mutation, although to a lesser extent than grafts expressing wild type Bcr-Abl, without showing significant bodyweight loss. Our data describe the role of JNK-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide for anti-CML activity of HCH and this molecule merits further testing in pre-clinical and clinical settings.

  18. Effect of simulated microgravity and centrifugation on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    Bone is a highly mechanosensitive tissue, which can adapt functionally to varying levels of mechanical loads throughout a lifetime. Osteocytes are thought to be the most mechanically sensitive bone cell population. In order to understand the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss, it's very important to research the behavior of osteocytes under microgravity. In this study, rotary cell culture system was used to simulate microgravity. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in osteocyte-like cell MLO-Y4 was investigated under simulated microgravity. And the effect of centrifugation on NOS activity in sedentary and rotary culture cell was also investi-gated. The cultured cells were divided into four groups, including sedentary control (CON), sedentary control and centrifugation (CONC), rotary culture (RT), rotary and centrifugation (RTC). In CONC and RTC, NOS activity was determined after centrifugation (1100g 5min). The results showed NOS activity decreased significantly in RT compared with CON. However, this difference disappeared after centrifugation. On the other hand, NOS activity increased significant in RTC compared with RT while there was no difference between CON and CONC. These results indicate the normal centrifugation could counter the effect of simulated micro-gravity on NOS activity. However, it has no effect on the cells cultured under 1G. In general, osteocytes under simulated microgravity are more sensitive to centrifugation than that under 1G.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide potentiates interleukin-1{beta}-induced nitric oxide production via enhancement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Sun-Oh; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Oh, Gi-Su; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lee, Bok-Soo; Lee, Seoul; Kim, Du Yong; Rhew, Hyun Yul; Lee, Kang-Min; Chung, Hun-Taeg . E-mail: htchung@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2006-07-07

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and nitric oxide (NO) are endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine and L-arginine, respectively. They might constitute a cooperative network to regulate their effects. In this study, we investigated whether H{sub 2}S could affect NO production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). Although H{sub 2}S by itself showed no effect on NO production, it augmented IL-{beta}-induced NO production and this effect was associated with increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. IL-1{beta} activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this activation was also enhanced by H{sub 2}S. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by the selective inhibitor U0126 inhibited IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation, iNOS expression, and NO production either in the absence or presence of H{sub 2}S. Our findings suggest that H{sub 2}S enhances NO production and iNOS expression by potentiating IL-1{beta}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation through a mechanism involving ERK1/2 signaling cascade in rat VSMCs.

  20. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NO’s pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  1. Nitric Oxide Signaling in the Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Buerk, Donald G.; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Jaron, Dov

    2013-01-01

    Several apparent paradoxes are evident when one compares mathematical predictions from models of nitric oxide (NO) diffusion and convection in vasculature structures with experimental measurements of NO (or related metabolites) in animal and human studies. Values for NO predicted from mathematical models are generally much lower than in vivo NO values reported in the literature for experiments, specifically with NO microelectrodes positioned at perivascular locations next to different sizes of blood vessels in the microcirculation and NO electrodes inserted into a wide range of tissues supplied by the microcirculation of each specific organ system under investigation. There continues to be uncertainty about the roles of NO scavenging by hemoglobin versus a storage function that may conserve NO, and other signaling targets for NO need to be considered. This review describes model predictions and relevant experimental data with respect to several signaling pathways in the microcirculation that involve NO. PMID:22196161

  2. Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Megson, I L

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

  3. Nitric oxide and hyperoxic acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-wu; Han, Cui-hong; Zhang, Pei-xi; Zheng, Juan; Liu, Kan; Sun, Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) refers to the damage to the lungs secondary to exposure to elevated oxygen partial pressure. HALI has been a concern in clinical practice with the development of deep diving and the use of normobaric as well as hyperbaric oxygen in clinical practice. Although the pathogenesis of HALI has been extensively studied, the findings are still controversial. Nitric oxide (NO) is an intercellular messenger and has been considered as a signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Although the role of NO in the occurrence and development of pulmonary diseases including HALI has been extensively studied, the findings on the role of NO in HALI are conflicting. Moreover, inhalation of NO has been approved as a therapeutic strategy for several diseases. In this paper, we briefly summarize the role of NO in the pathogenesis of HALI and the therapeutic potential of inhaled NO in HALI. PMID:27867474

  4. An intercomparison of nitric oxide measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M., Jr.; Gregory, G. L.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Carroll, M. A.; Mcfarland, M.; Ridley, B. A.; Davis, D. D.; Bradshaw, J.; Rodgers, M. O.; Torres, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of nitric oxide (NO) are discussed. The intercomparison was part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment and was conducted at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser-induced fluorescence system and two chemiluminescence instruments. The intercomparisons were performed with ambient air at NO mixing ratios ranging from 10 to 60 pptv and NO-enriched ambient air at mixing ratios from 20 to 170 pptv. All instruments sampled from a common manifold. The techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the NO mixing ratio. Agreement among the three techniques was placed at approximately + or - 30 percent. Within this level of agreement, no artifacts or species interferences were identified.

  5. The emerging multifaceted roles of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, P C; Schroeder, R A

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive free radical with a multitude of organ specific regulatory functions. Since 1985, NO has been the subject of numerous research efforts and as a result, has been found to play a major role in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous systems. In addition, deranged NO synthesis is the basis for a number of pathophysiologic states, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, pyloric stenosis, and the hypertension associated with renal failure. Traditional NO donors such as sodium nitroprusside and new pharmacologic NO adducts such as S-nitrosothiols may serve as exogenous sources of NO for the treatment of NO-deficient pathologic states. This review is an attempt to acquaint the surgical community with the fundamentals of NO biochemistry and physiology. Increased knowledge of its functions in normal homeostasis and pathologic states will enable physicians to better understand these disease processes and utilize new pharmacologic therapies. PMID:7717775

  6. Nitric oxide signalling via cytoskeleton in plants.

    PubMed

    Yemets, Alla I; Krasylenko, Yuliya A; Lytvyn, Dmytro I; Sheremet, Yarina A; Blume, Yaroslav B

    2011-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in plant cell mediates processes of growth and development starting from seed germination to pollination, as well as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. However, proper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of NO signalling in plants has just begun to emerge. Accumulated evidence suggests that in eukaryotic cells NO regulates functions of proteins by their post-translational modifications, namely tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosylation. Among the candidates for NO-downstream effectors are cytoskeletal proteins because of their involvement in many processes regulated by NO. This review discusses new insights in plant NO signalling focused mainly on the involvement of cytoskeleton components into NO-cascades. Herein, examples of NO-related post-translational modifications of cytoskeletal proteins, and also indirect NO impact, are discussed. Special attention is paid to plant α-tubulin tyrosine nitration as an emerging topic in plant NO research.

  7. Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.

    PubMed

    Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere.

  8. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  9. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment. PMID:25114633

  10. Nitric oxide generating/releasing materials

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hongying; Nacharaju, Parimala; Friedman, Adam; Friedman, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    Harnessing the impressive therapeutic potential of Nitric oxide (NO) remains an ongoing challenge. This paper describes several of the current strategies both with respect to the underlying chemistry and physics and to the applications where they have shown promise. Included in this overview are molecular systems such as NONOates that release NO through chemical reactions and delivery vehicles such as nanoparticles that can generate, store, transport and deliver NO and related bioactive forms of NO such as nitrosothiols. Although there has been much positive movement, it is clear that we are only at the early stages of knowing how to precisely produce, transport and deliver to targeted sites therapeutic levels of NO and related molecules. PMID:26855790

  11. Interplay Between Nitric Oxide and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Neuronal Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Biojone, Caroline; Casarotto, Plinio Cabrera; Joca, Samia Regiane; Castrén, Eero

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous neuromodulator that displays a core role in several neuronal processes. Beyond regulating the release of neurotransmitters, nitric oxide also plays a role in cell differentiation and maturation in the central nervous system. Although the mode of action of nitric oxide is not fully understood, it involves the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase as well as the nitration and S-nitrosylation of specific amino acid residues in other proteins. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a member of neurotrophic factor family and, acting through its receptor tropomyosinrelated kinase B, increases the production of nitric oxide, modulates neuronal differentiation and survival, and plays a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation. Furthermore, nitric oxide is an important regulator of the production of these factors. The aim of the present review is to present a condensed view of the evidence related to the interaction between nitric oxide and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Additionally, we conducted bioinformatics analysis based on the amino acid sequences of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase receptors, and proposed that nitric oxide might nitrate/S-nitrosylate these proteins. Thus, we suggest a putative direct mode of action between these molecules to be further explored.

  12. Melatonin inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 in murine macrophages by suppressing NF-κB and STAT1 activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Lee, Ju-Youn; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2011-03-01

    Although a range of biological and pharmacological activities of melatonin have been reported, little is known about its potential anti-inflammatory efficacy in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on the production of inflammatory mediators by murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium, and sought to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. Melatonin suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. P. intermedia LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity was significantly inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin did not reduce NF-κB transcriptional activity at the level of IκB-α degradation. Melatonin blocked NF-κB signaling through the inhibition of nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and suppressed STAT1 signaling. Although further research is required to clarify the detailed mechanism of action, we conclude that melatonin may contribute to blockade of the host-destructive processes mediated by these two proinflammatory mediators and could be a highly efficient modulator of host response in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease.

  13. Hypoxic increase in nitric oxide generation of rat sensory neurons requires activation of mitochondrial complex II and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Henrich, M; Paddenberg, R; Haberberger, R V; Scholz, A; Gruss, M; Hempelmann, G; Kummer, W

    2004-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that sensory neurons of rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respond to hypoxia with an activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) resulting in enhanced NO production associated with mitochondria which contributes to resistance against hypoxia. Extracellular calcium is essential to this effect. In the present study on rat DRG slices, we set out to determine what types of calcium channels operate under hypoxia, and which upstream events contribute to their activation, thereby focusing upon mitochondrial complex II. Both the metallic ions Cd2+ and Ni2+, known to inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels and T-type channels, respectively, and verapamil and nifedipine, typical blocker of L-type calcium channels completely prevented the hypoxic neuronal NO generation. Inhibition of complex II by thenoyltrifluoroacetone at the ubiquinon binding site or by 3-nitropropionic acid at the substrate binding site largely diminished hypoxic-induced NO production while having an opposite effect under normoxia. An additional blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels entirely abolished the hypoxic response. The complex II inhibitor malonate inhibited both normoxic and hypoxic NO generation. These data show that complex II activity is required for increased hypoxic NO production. Since succinate dehydrogenase activity of complex II decreased at hypoxia, as measured by histochemistry and densitometry, we propose a hypoxia-induced functional switch of complex II from succinate dehydrogenase to fumarate reductase, which subsequently leads to activation of voltage-gated calcium channels resulting in increased NO production by eNOS.

  14. [Nitric oxide is a major player in plant immune system].

    PubMed

    Koen, Emmanuel; Lamotte, Olivier; Besson-Bard, Angélique; Bourque, Stéphane; Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Wendehenne, David

    2013-03-01

    In animals, nitric oxide (NO) functions as a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in diverse physiological processes such as immunity. Recent studies provided evidence that plants challenged by pathogenic microorganisms also produce NO. The emerging picture is that NO functions as a signal in plant immunity and executes part of its effects through posttranslational protein modifications. Notably, the characterization of S-nitrosylated proteins provided insights into the molecular mechanisms by which NO exerts its activities. Based on these findings, it appears that NO is involved in both the activation and the negative control of the signaling pathways related to plant immunity.

  15. Nitric oxide is required for the auxin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and protein denitrosylation during root growth responses in arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Cejudo, Francisco J.; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Auxin is the main phytohormone controlling root development in plants. This study uses pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine the role of auxin and nitric oxide (NO) in the activation of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTR), and the effect that this activity has on root growth responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with auxin with or without the NTR inhibitors auranofin (ANF) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB). NTR activity, lateral root (LR) formation and S-nitrosothiol content were measured in roots. Protein S-nitrosylation was analysed by the biotin switch method in wild-type arabidopsis and in the double mutant ntra ntrb. Key Results The auxin-mediated induction of NTR activity is inhibited by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO), suggesting that NO is downstream of auxin in this regulatory pathway. The NTR inhibitors ANF and DNCB prevent auxin-mediated activation of NTR and LR formation. Moreover, ANF and DNCB also inhibit auxin-induced DR5 : : GUS and BA3 : : GUS gene expression, suggesting that the auxin signalling pathway is compromised without full NTR activity. Treatment of roots with ANF and DNCB increases total nitrosothiols (SNO) content and protein S-nitrosylation, suggesting a role of the NTR-thioredoxin (Trx)-redox system in protein denitrosylation. In agreement with these results, the level of S-nitrosylated proteins is increased in the arabidopsis double mutant ntra ntrb as compared with the wild-type. Conclusions The results support for the idea that NTR is involved in protein denitrosylation during auxin-mediated root development. The fact that a high NO concentration induces NTR activity suggests that a feedback mechanism to control massive and unregulated protein S-nitrosylation could be operating in plant cells. PMID:26229066

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase drives mTOR pathway activation and proliferation of human melanoma by reversible nitrosylation of TSC2.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rivera, Esther; Jayaraman, Padmini; Parikh, Falguni; Davies, Michael A; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Milton, Denái R; Chipuk, Jerry E; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Estrada, Yeriel; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the cancers of fastest-rising incidence in the world. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is overexpressed in melanoma and other cancers, and previous data suggest that iNOS and nitric oxide (NO) drive survival and proliferation of human melanoma cells. However, specific mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly defined. One candidate is the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, which plays a major role in proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis of melanoma and other cancers. We used the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay to test the hypothesis that melanoma growth is regulated by iNOS-dependent mTOR pathway activation. Both pharmacologic inhibition and siRNA-mediated gene silencing of iNOS suppressed melanoma proliferation and in vivo growth on the CAM in human melanoma models. This was associated with strong downregulation of mTOR pathway activation by Western blot analysis of p-mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p-P70S6K), p-S6RP, and p-4EBP1. iNOS expression and NO were associated with reversible nitrosylation of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 2, and inhibited dimerization of TSC2 with its inhibitory partner TSC1, enhancing GTPase activity of its target Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), a critical activator of mTOR signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor specimens from stage III melanoma patients showed a significant correlation between iNOS expression levels and expression of the mTOR pathway members. Exogenously supplied NO was also sufficient to reverse the mTOR pathway inhibition by the B-Raf inhibitor vemurafenib. In summary, covalent modification of TSC2 by iNOS-derived NO is associated with impaired TSC2/TSC1 dimerization, mTOR pathway activation, and proliferation of human melanoma. This model is consistent with the known association of iNOS overexpression and poor prognosis in melanoma and other cancers.

  17. Nitric oxide modulates chromatin folding in human endothelial cells via protein phosphatase 2A activation and class II histone deacetylases nuclear shuttling.

    PubMed

    Illi, Barbara; Dello Russo, Claudio; Colussi, Claudia; Rosati, Jessica; Pallaoro, Michele; Spallotta, Francesco; Rotili, Dante; Valente, Sergio; Ragone, Gianluca; Martelli, Fabio; Biglioli, Paolo; Steinkuhler, Christian; Gallinari, Paola; Mai, Antonello; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Gaetano, Carlo

    2008-01-04

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates important endothelial cell (EC) functions and gene expression by a molecular mechanism which is still poorly characterized. Here we show that in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) NO inhibited serum-induced histone acetylation and enhanced histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. By immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses it was found that NO induced class II HDAC4 and 5 nuclear shuttling and that class II HDACs selective inhibitor MC1568 rescued serum-dependent histone acetylation above control level in NO-treated HUVECs. In contrast, class I HDACs inhibitor MS27-275 had no effect, indicating a specific role for class II HDACs in NO-dependent histone deacetylation. In addition, it was found that NO ability to induce HDAC4 and HDAC5 nuclear shuttling involved the activation of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). In fact, HDAC4 nuclear translocation was impaired in ECs expressing small-t antigen and exposed to NO. Finally, in cells engineered to express a HDAC4-Flag fusion protein, NO induced the formation of a macromolecular complex including HDAC4, HDAC3, HDAC5, and an active PP2A. The present results show that NO-dependent PP2A activation plays a key role in class II HDACs nuclear translocation.

  18. [Nitric oxide and anti-protozoan chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2004-06-01

    Constitutive nitric oxide (NO) is generated by constitutively expressed types of NO-synthase enzymes (NOS-I and -III), being involved in physiological processes such as nervous transmission and vasodilatation. Inducible NO, synthesized by the NO-synthase isoform NOS-II, is an anti-pathogen and tumoricidal agent. However, inducible NO production requires a tight control because of cytotoxic and immune-modulation activity. NO produced by human and canine macrophages has long been demonstrated to be involved in the intracellular killing of Leishmania. Mechanisms of parasite survival and persistence in the host have been throughly investigated, and include suppression of NOS-II and the parasite entry into NOS-II negative cells. Both intracellular and extracellular morphotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi are killed by NO in vitro and in vivo, although a role of NO in the pathogenesis of heart disease has been reported. Killing of extracellular protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Naegleria fowleri by activated macrophages is also mediated by NO. The main control of Plasmodium spp infection in human and murine hepatocytes, and in human monocytes is achieved by NO-mediated mechanisms. Protection from severe malaria in African children has been found associated with polymorphisms of the NOS-II promoter; however, a pathogenic role of endogenous NO has been documented in cerebral malaria. Although several macromolecules are putative NO targets, recent experimental work has shown that NO-releasing compounds inhibit cysteine proteases (CP) of P. falciparum, T. cruzi and L. infantum in a dose-dependent manner. CPs are present in a wide range of parasitic protozoa and appear to be relevant in several aspects of the life cycle and of the parasite-host relationships. Comparative analysis of 3-D amino acid sequence models of CPs from a broad range of living organisms, from viruses to mammals, suggests that the Sy atom of the Cys catalytic residue undergoes NO-dependent chemical

  19. Response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts to pulsating fluid flow: nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 release and expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    van der Pauw, M T; Klein-Nulend, J; van den Bos, T; Burger, E H; Everts, V; Beertsen, W

    2000-12-01

    The capacity of the periodontal ligament to alter its structure and mass in response to mechanical loading has long been recognized. However, the mechanism by which periodontal cells can detect physical forces and respond to them is largely unknown. Besides transmission of forces via cell-matrix or cell-cell interactions, the strain-derived flow of interstitial fluid through the periodontal ligament may mechanically activate the periodontal cells, as well as ensure transport of cell signaling molecules, nutrients and waste products. Mechanosensory cells, such as endothelial and bone cells, are reported to respond to a flow of fluid with stimulated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide production. Therefore, we examined the PGE2 and nitric oxide response of human periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts to pulsating fluid flow and assessed the expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. Periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts were subjected to a pulsating fluid flow (0.7 +/- 0.02 Pa, 5 Hz) for 60 min. PGE2 and nitric oxide concentrations were determined in the conditioned medium after 5, 10, 30 and 60 min of flowing. After fluid flow the cells were cultured for another 60 min without mechanical stress. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts, but not gingival fibroblasts, responded to fluid flow with significantly elevated release of nitric oxide and decreased expression of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. In both periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts, PGE2 production was significantly increased after 60 min of flowing. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts, but not gingival fibroblasts, produced significantly higher levels of PGE2 during the postflow culture period. We conclude that human periodontal ligament fibroblasts are more responsive to pulsating fluid flow than gingival fibroblasts. The similarity of the early nitric oxide and PGE2 responses to fluid flow in periodontal fibroblasts with bone cells and

  20. Nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune myocarditis dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goren, N; Leiros, C P; Sterin-Borda, L; Borda, E

    1998-11-01

    This study reports the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in heart from autoimmune myocarditis mice associated with an alteration in their contractile behavior. By mean of the production of [U-14C]citrulline from [U-14C]arginine and immunoblot assay, the expression of iNOS was demonstrated in autoimmune atria that was normally absent. The iNOS activity decreased with administration of dexamethasone and in mice treated with monoclonal anti-interferon-gamma antibody (anti-IFN-gamma mAb). The inhibitors of protein kinase C activity (staurosporine) but not calcium/calmodulin (trifluoperazine) attenuated the iNOS activity. Moreover, autoimmune atria presented contractile alterations (lower values of dF/dt than control). The in vivo treatment with inhibitors of NOS activity or anti-IFN-gamma mAb or dexamethasone improved the contractile activity of autoimmune atria with no change in the contractility of normal atria. The results suggest that the infiltrative cells in myocarditis heart have a potential role in cardiac dysfunction by production of IFN-gamma and subsequent expression of iNOS, that in turn alter the contractile behavior of the heart. The data indicate that cytokines induced activation of L-arginine nitric oxide pathway in myocarditis atria leading to contractile dysfunction.

  1. JS-K, a glutathione/glutathione S-transferase-activated nitric oxide donor of the diazeniumdiolate class with potent antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Shami, Paul J; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wang, Lai Y; Bonifant, Challice L; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Singh, Shivendra V; Gu, Yijun; Fox, Stephen D; Buzard, Gregory S; Citro, Michael L; Waterhouse, David J; Davies, Keith M; Ji, Xinhua; Keefer, Larry K

    2003-04-01

    We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) inhibits growth and induces differentiation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells, with the HL-60 human myeloid leukemia line being particularly sensitive to NO-mediated cytolysis. With the goal of identifying a prodrug that can target NO to the leukemia cells without inducing NO-mediated systemic hypotension, we have screened a series of O(2)-aryl diazeniumdiolates designed to be stable at physiological pH but to release NO upon reaction with glutathione. O(2)-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (JS-K) proved to be the most active antiproliferative agent among those tested in HL-60 cells, with an IC(50) of 0.2-0.5 microM. After 5 days of exposure to 0.5 micro M JS-K, HL-60 cells had differentiated and acquired some of the phenotypic features of normal monocytes. One- to 2-day treatment with JS-K at concentrations of 0.5-1 microM resulted in apoptosis induction in a concentration- and caspase-dependent manner. JS-K also inhibited the growth of solid tumor cell lines but to a lesser extent than HL-60 cells. JS-K was administered i.v. to nonobese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient mice at doses of up to 4 micromol/kg without inducing significant hypotension. The growth of s.c. implanted HL-60 cells was reduced by approximately 50% when the mice received i.v. injections three times/week with 4 micromol/kg boluses of JS-K. Histological examination of tumor explants from JS-K-treated animals revealed extensive necrosis. Similar results were seen with s.c. human prostate cancer (PPC-1) xenografts. Our data indicate that JS-K is a promising lead compound for the possible development of a novel class of antineoplastic agents.

  2. Arginase regulates red blood cell nitric oxide synthase and export of cardioprotective nitric oxide bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiangning; Gonon, Adrian T; Sjöquist, Per-Ove; Lundberg, Jon O; Pernow, John

    2013-09-10

    The theory that red blood cells (RBCs) generate and release nitric oxide (NO)-like bioactivity has gained considerable interest. However, it remains unclear whether it can be produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), which is present in RBCs, and whether NO can escape scavenging by hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that arginase reciprocally controls NO formation in RBCs by competition with eNOS for their common substrate arginine and that RBC-derived NO is functionally active following arginase blockade. We show that rodent and human RBCs contain functional arginase 1 and that pharmacological inhibition of arginase increases export of eNOS-derived nitrogen oxides from RBCs under basal conditions. The functional importance was tested in an ex vivo model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inhibitors of arginase significantly improved postischemic functional recovery in rat hearts if administered in whole blood or with RBCs in plasma. By contrast, arginase inhibition did not improve postischemic recovery when administered with buffer solution or plasma alone. The protective effect of arginase inhibition was lost in the presence of a NOS inhibitor. Moreover, hearts from eNOS(-/-) mice were protected when the arginase inhibitor was given with blood from wild-type donors. In contrast, when hearts from wild-type mice were given blood from eNOS(-/-) mice, the arginase inhibitor failed to protect against ischemia-reperfusion. These results strongly support the notion that RBCs contain functional eNOS and release NO-like bioactivity. This process is under tight control by arginase 1 and is of functional importance during ischemia-reperfusion.

  3. Biomimetic and microbial reduction of nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, W.T.; Le, U.; Ronda, S.

    1995-12-31

    The biomimetic reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) by dithiothreitol in the presence of cyanocobalamin and cobalt-centered porphyrins has been investigated. Reactions were monitored directly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy vapor-phase spectra. Reaction rates were twofold faster for the corrin than for the cobalt-centered porphyrins. The stoichiometry showed the loss of two molecules of NO per molecule of N{sub 2}O produced. We have also demonstrated that the facultative anaerobe and chemoautotroph, Thiobacillus denitrificans, can be cultured anoxically in batch reactors using NO as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). We have proposed that the concentrated stream of NO{sub x}, as obtained from certain regenerable processes for the gas desulfurization and NO{sub x} removal, could be converted to N{sub 2} for disposal by contact with a culture of T. denitrificans. Four heterotrophic bacteria have also been identified that may be grown in batch cultures with succinate, yeast extract, or heat and alkali pretreated sewage sludge as carbon and energy sources and NO as a terminal electron acceptor. These are Paracoccus dentrificans, Pseudomonas denitrificans, Alcaligens denitrificans, and Thiophaera pantotropha.

  4. Spatial-temporal distribution of nitric oxide involved in regulation of phenylalanine ammonialyase activation and Taxol production in immobilized Taxus cuspidata cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wen-Hai; Cheng, Jing-sheng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2009-02-05

    The generation of nitric oxide (NO) in Taxus cuspidata in immobilized support matrices and the potential role of NO as signal molecular in regulation of Taxol production were investigated. It was found that the immobilization induced a spatial and temporal-dependent NO burst in immobilized supported matrices. NO level reached the maximum in the central zone of immobilized supported matrices on day 20, which was more than twice compared with that in suspended cells. Further investigations showed that the phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity and Taxol production of the 20-day-old immobilized T. cuspidata cells increased by onefold and 11% after 4h treatment with 20 microM NO donor (sodium nitroprusside), respectively. NO inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine and NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxyde partially blocked PAL activity and Taxol accumulation in immobilized cells. These results suggest that NO plays a signal role in regulation of PAL activity and Taxol production in immobilized T. cuspidata cells.

  5. MIF-driven activation of macrophages induces killing of intracellular Trypanosoma cruzi dependent on endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Cutrullis, Romina A; Petray, Patricia B; Corral, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key player in innate immunity. MIF has been considered critical for controlling acute infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Our study aimed to analyze whether MIF could favor microbicidal activity of the macrophage, a site where T. cruzi grows and the initial effector cell against this parasite. Using murine macrophages infected in vitro, we examined the effect of MIF on their parasiticidal ability and attempted to identify inflammatory agents involved in MIF-induced protection. Our findings show that MIF is readily secreted from peritoneal macrophages upon T. cruzi infection. MIF activates both primary and J774 phagocytes boosting the endogenous production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha via mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling, as well as the release of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, leading to enhanced pathogen elimination. MIF can also potentiate the effect of interferon-gamma on T. cruzi killing by J774 and mouse peritoneal macrophages, rendering these cells more competent in reducing intracellular parasite burden. The present results unveil a novel innate immune pathway that contributes to host defense and broaden our understanding of the regulation of inflammatory mediators implicated in early parasite containment that is decisive for resistance to T. cruzi infection.

  6. Effect of simulated microgravity on nitric oxide synthase activity of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 in response to fluid shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lian-Wen; Yang, Xiao; Fan, Yu-Bo

    It is well known that microgravity could induce bone loss. However, the mechanism remains poorly understood. Osteocytes are extremely sensitive to fluid shear stress, even more than osteobleasts. The effect of simulated microgravity on osteocytes in response to fluid shear was investigated in this study in order to see if the mechanosensibility of osteocytes changed under simulated microgravity. The osteocyte-like cell line, MLO-Y4, was cultured and divided into four groups, including control (CON), control and shear (CONS), rotary (RT), rotary and shear (RTS). In RT and RTS, the cells were cultured in the rotary cell culture system to simulate microgravity condition. After 5 days, the cells in RTS and CONS were subjected to flow shear for 15 min. Then nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in the cells was measured using assay kit. The results showed that NOS activity in respond to fluid shear decreased significantly in RTS compared with CONS. In addition, there was significant difference in NOS activity between CONS and CON while no significant difference between RTS and RT. These indicates that the mechanosensibility of osteocytes decreased under simulated microgravity and this maybe the partly causes of the poor effect of exercise to counter microgravity-induced-bone loss. However, further research need to be done to support this finding.

  7. Comparative analysis of the constituents in Saposhnikoviae Radix and Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma by monitoring inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Kamino, Takuya; Shimokura, Toshihiro; Morita, Yusuke; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Mikio; Tanaka, Ken

    2016-04-01

    During the development of natural herbal medicines in Japan, Glehniae Radix cum Rhizoma (Hamabofu in Japanese) has been used as a substitute for Saposhnikoviae Radix (Bofu). Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae. For example, Bofu is included in Jumihaidokuto by a manufacturer, whereas Hamabofu is included instead of Bofu in the same formula by other manufacturers. Although both Bofu and Hamabofu are used for their expected anti-inflammatory effects, differences in their medicinal properties are not well characterized. In addition, there have been very few reports comparing the pharmacological activities of the constituents in Bofu and Hamabofu. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts of Bofu and Hamabofu by monitoring levels of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) produced in rat hepatocytes. Moreover, the chemical constituents responsible for the activity were investigated. Our results showed that ethyl acetate fractions of Bofu and Hamabofu extracts contain different compounds, although both fractions suppressed NO production in rat hepatocytes. The linear dihydropyranochromones from the Bofu extract (i.e., 3'-O-angeloylhamaudol, ledebouriellol and hamaudol) suppressed NO production, whereas the coumarins from the Hamabofu extract (i.e., umbelliferone and scopoletin) also suppressed NO production. These results suggest that linear dihydropyranochromones and coumarins are responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of Bofu and Hamabofu. It is plausible that Bofu and Hamabofu are blended differently in several Kampo formulae due to many constituents with as yet unidentified pharmacological activity.

  8. Implications of glial nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Jose Enrique; Tarragon, Ernesto; Campuzano, Carmen María; Ros-Bernal, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26347610

  9. Nitric oxide scavengers differentially inhibit ammonia oxidation in ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Laura A; Ross, Ashley A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2016-04-01

    Differential inhibitors are important for measuring the relative contributions of microbial groups, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), to biogeochemical processes in environmental samples. In particular, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) represents a nitric oxide scavenger used for the specific inhibition of AOA, implicating nitric oxide as an intermediate of thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation. This study investigated four alternative nitric oxide scavengers for their ability to differentially inhibit AOA and AOB in comparison to PTIO. Caffeic acid, curcumin, methylene blue hydrate and trolox were tested onNitrosopumilus maritimus, two unpublished AOA representatives (AOA-6f and AOA-G6) as well as the AOB representative Nitrosomonas europaea All four scavengers inhibited ammonia oxidation by AOA at lower concentrations than for AOB. In particular, differential inhibition of AOA and AOB by caffeic acid (100 μM) and methylene blue hydrate (3 μM) was comparable to carboxy-PTIO (100 μM) in pure and enrichment culture incubations. However, when added to aquarium sponge biofilm microcosms, both scavengers were unable to inhibit ammonia oxidation consistently, likely due to degradation of the inhibitors the