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Sample records for activated partial thrombin

  1. Inhibition of thrombin activity with DNA-aptamers.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolsky, A B; Titaeva, E V; Khaspekova, S G; Spiridonova, V A; Kopylov, A M; Mazurov, A V

    2009-07-01

    The effects of two DNA aptamers (oligonucleotides) 15TBA and 31TBA (15- and 31-mer thrombin-binding aptamers, respectively) on thrombin activity were studied. Both aptamers added to human plasma dose-dependently increased thrombin time (fibrin formation upon exposure to exogenous thrombin), prothrombin time (clotting activation by the extrinsic pathway), and activated partial thromboplastin time (clotting activation by the intrinsic pathway). At the same time, these aptamers did not modify amidolytic activity of thrombin evaluated by cleavage of synthetic chromogenic substrate. Aptamers also inhibited thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation. The inhibitory effects of 31TBA manifested at lower concentrations than those of 15TBA in all tests. These data indicate that the studied antithrombin DNA aptamers effectively suppress its two key reactions, fibrin formation and stimulation of platelet aggregation, without modifying active center of the thrombin molecule. PMID:19902090

  2. Heparin enhances the catalytic activity of des-ETW-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C A; Deadman, J J; Le Bonniec, B F; Elgendy, S; Kakkar, V V; Scully, M F

    1996-04-01

    that of hirudin peptide, it is proposed that the most likely mechanism is that binding at the heparin-binding site (thrombin exosite 2) facilitates interaction at exosite 1 causing a conformational change which partially corrects the defective ground-state binding of the mutant thrombin. Although no effect was observed upon the activity of wild-type thrombin, our findings do provide further evidence of an allosteric property of thrombin which may control the geometry of, and access to, the primary specificity pocket. PMID:8670135

  3. Relation between dabigatran concentration, as assessed using the direct thrombin inhibitor assay, and activated clotting time/activated partial thromboplastin time in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kenji; Kuwahara, Taishi; Takagi, Katsumasa; Takigawa, Masateru; Nakajima, Jun; Watari, Yuji; Nakashima, Emiko; Yamao, Kazuya; Fujino, Tadashi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2015-06-15

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, we aimed to assess the associations between the dabigatran concentration (calculated through plasma-diluted thrombin time, as assessed using the Hemoclot assay) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and activated clotting time (ACT). We recruited 137 patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving a normal dose of dabigatran (300 mg/d) or a reduced dose of dabigatran (220 mg/d, usually administered to patients who were elderly, had moderate renal dysfunction, or who were also receiving verapamil). We then assessed the aPTT, ACT, and Hemoclot results of the patients and calculated the plasma dabigatran concentration. The mean plasma concentration of dabigatran was 127 ± 88 ng/ml, although no significant differences in dabigatran concentration, ACT, or aPTT were observed when we compared the 2 doses of dabigatran (300 or 220 mg/d). The dabigatran concentration was within the therapeutic levels in most patients, although a high value (>300 ng/ml) was observed in several patients, which indicated a high risk of bleeding. The dabigatran concentration was strongly and positively correlated with ACT and aPTT (r = 0.87, p <0.001; and r = 0.76, p <0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that verapamil use was independently associated with elevated dabigatran concentrations (p <0.001). Therefore, ACT and aPTT may be useful for bedside assessment of the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran, and verapamil use may be a risk factor for elevated dabigatran concentrations.

  4. Allosteric Partial Inhibition of Monomeric Proteases. Sulfated Coumarins Induce Regulation, not just Inhibition, of Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Verespy III, Stephen; Mehta, Akul Y.; Afosah, Daniel; Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteases can offer major regulatory advantages, but remains a concept on paper to date; although it has been routinely documented for receptors and oligomeric proteins. Thrombin, a key protease of the coagulation cascade, displays significant conformational plasticity, which presents an attractive opportunity to discover small molecule probes that induce sub-maximal allosteric inhibition. We synthesized a focused library of some 36 sulfated coumarins to discover two agents that display sub-maximal efficacy (~50%), high potency (<500 nM) and high selectivity for thrombin (>150-fold). Michaelis-Menten, competitive inhibition, and site-directed mutagenesis studies identified exosite 2 as the site of binding for the most potent sulfated coumarin. Stern-Volmer quenching of active site-labeled fluorophore suggested that the allosteric regulators induce intermediate structural changes in the active site as compared to those that display ~80–100% efficacy. Antithrombin inactivation of thrombin was impaired in the presence of the sulfated coumarins suggesting that allosteric partial inhibition arises from catalytic dysfunction of the active site. Overall, sulfated coumarins represent first-in-class, sub-maximal inhibitors of thrombin. The probes establish the concept of allosteric partial inhibition of soluble, monomeric proteins. This concept may lead to a new class of anticoagulants that are completely devoid of bleeding. PMID:27053426

  5. Thrombin-Mediated Direct Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2: Another Target for Thrombin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Hansen, Kristina K; Renaux, Bernard; Polley, Danny; Gibson, Stacy; Vanderboor, Christina; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2016-05-01

    Thrombin is known to signal to cells by cleaving/activating a G-protein-coupled family of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). The signaling mechanism involves the proteolytic unmasking of an N-terminal receptor sequence that acts as a tethered receptor-activating ligand. To date, the recognized targets of thrombin cleavage and activation for signaling are PAR1 and PAR4, in which thrombin cleaves at a conserved target arginine to reveal a tethered ligand. PAR2, which like PAR1 is also cleaved at an N-terminal arginine to unmask its tethered ligand, is generally regarded as a target for trypsin but not for thrombin signaling. We now show that thrombin, at concentrations that can be achieved at sites of acute injury or in a tumor microenvironment, can directly activate PAR2 vasorelaxation and signaling, stimulating calcium and mitogen-activated protein kinase responses along with triggeringβ-arrestin recruitment. Thus, PAR2 can be added alongside PAR1 and PAR4 to the targets, whereby thrombin can affect tissue function.

  6. The Organophosphate Paraoxon and Its Antidote Obidoxime Inhibit Thrombin Activity and Affect Coagulation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Golderman, Valery; Shavit-Stein, Efrat; Tamarin, Ilia; Rosman, Yossi; Shrot, Shai; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are potentially able to affect serine proteases by reacting with their active site. The potential effects of OPs on coagulation factors such as thrombin and on coagulation tests have been only partially characterized and potential interactions with OPs antidotes such as oximes and muscarinic blockers have not been addressed. In the current study, we investigated the in vitro interactions between coagulation, thrombin, the OP paraoxon, and its antidotes obidoxime and atropine. The effects of these substances on thrombin activity were measured in a fluorescent substrate and on coagulation by standard tests. Both paraoxon and obidoxime but not atropine significantly inhibited thrombin activity, and prolonged prothrombin time, thrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time. When paraoxon and obidoxime were combined, a significant synergistic effect was found on both thrombin activity and coagulation tests. In conclusion, paraoxon and obidoxime affect thrombin activity and consequently alter the function of the coagulation system. Similar interactions may be clinically relevant for coagulation pathways in the blood and possibly in the brain. PMID:27689805

  7. Thrombin induces neurodegeneration and microglial activation in the cortex in vivo and in vitro: proteolytic and non-proteolytic actions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Yong; Park, Keun Woo; Jin, Byung Kwan

    2006-08-01

    The present study evaluated the role of thrombin and its receptors in neurodegeneration and microglial activation. Immunocytochemical evidence indicated that intracortical injection of thrombin resulted in a significant loss of neurons and the activation of microglia in the rat cortex in vivo. Reverse transcription PCR and double-label immunocytochemistry further demonstrated the early and transient expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic factors as well as their colocalization within activated microglia. The thrombin-induced loss of cortical neurons was partially blocked by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, and by NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, indicating that the activation of microglia is involved in the neurotoxicity of thrombin in the cortex in vivo. In addition, thrombin activated cortical microglia in culture, as indicated by the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and produced cell death in microglia-free, neuron-enriched cortical cultures. However, agonist peptides for thrombin receptors, including protease-activated receptor-1 (SFLLRN), -3 (TFRGAP), and -4 (GYPGKF), failed to activate microglia and were not neurotoxic in culture. Intriguingly, morphological and biochemical evidence indicated that thrombin-induced neurotoxicity but not microglial activation was prevented by hirudin, a specific inhibitor of thrombin. Collectively, the present data suggest that a non-proteolytic activity of thrombin activates microglia and that the proteolytic activity mediates its neurotoxicity. PMID:16777064

  8. Molecular basis of thrombomodulin activation of slow thrombin

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, T.E.; LI, W.; HUNTINGTON, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Coagulation is a highly regulated process where the ability to prevent blood loss after injury is balanced against the maintenance of blood fluidity. Thrombin is at the center of this balancing act. It is the critical enzyme for producing and stabilizing a clot, but when complexed with thrombomodulin (TM) it is converted to a powerful anticoagulant. Another cofactor that may play a role in determining thrombin function is the monovalent cation Na+. Its apparent affinity suggests that half of the thrombin generated is in a Na+-free ‘slow’ state and half is in a Na+-coordinated ‘fast’ state. While slow thrombin is a poor procoagulant enzyme, when complexed to TM it is an effective anticoagulant. Methods To better understand this molecular transformation we solved a 2.4 Å structure of thrombin complexed with EGF domains 4–6 of TM in the absence of Na+ and other cofactors or inhibitors. Results We find that TM binds as previously observed, and that the thrombin component resembles structures of the fast form. The Na+ binding loop is observed in a conformation identical to the Na+-bound form, with conserved water molecules compensating for the missing ion. Using the fluorescent probe p-aminobenzamidine we show that activation of slow thrombin by TM principally involves the opening of the primary specificity pocket. Conclusions These data show that TM binding alters the conformation of thrombin in a similar manner as Na+ coordination, resulting in an ordering of the Na+ binding loop and an opening of the adjacent S1 pocket. We conclude that other, more subtle subsite changes are unlikely to influence thrombin specificity toward macromolecular substrates. PMID:19656282

  9. Thrombomodulin Binding Selects the Catalytically Active Form of Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Handley, Lindsey D; Treuheit, Nicholas A; Venkatesh, Varun J; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Human α-thrombin is a serine protease with dual functions. Thrombin acts as a procoagulant, cleaving fibrinogen to make the fibrin clot, but when bound to thrombomodulin (TM), it acts as an anticoagulant, cleaving protein C. A minimal TM fragment consisting of the fourth, fifth, and most of the sixth EGF-like domain (TM456m) that has been prepared has much improved solubility, thrombin binding capacity, and anticoagulant activity versus those of previous TM456 constructs. In this work, we compare backbone amide exchange of human α-thrombin in three states: apo, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK)-bound, and TM456m-bound. Beyond causing a decreased level of amide exchange at their binding sites, TM and PPACK both cause a decreased level of amide exchange in other regions including the γ-loop and the adjacent N-terminus of the heavy chain. The decreased level of amide exchange in the N-terminus of the heavy chain is consistent with the historic model of activation of serine proteases, which involves insertion of this region into the β-barrel promoting the correct conformation of the catalytic residues. Contrary to crystal structures of thrombin, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry results suggest that the conformation of apo-thrombin does not yet have the N-terminus of the heavy chain properly inserted for optimal catalytic activity, and that binding of TM allosterically promotes the catalytically active conformation. PMID:26468766

  10. Thrombin during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, L Henry; Colman, Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) ignites a massive defense reaction that stimulates all blood cells and five plasma protein systems to produce a myriad of vasoactive and cytotoxic substances, cell-signaling molecules, and upregulated cellular receptors. Thrombin is the key enzyme in the thrombotic portion of the defense reaction and is only partially suppressed by heparin. During CPB, thrombin is produced by both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathways and activated platelets. The routine use of a cell saver and the eventual introduction of direct thrombin inhibitors now offer the possibility of completely suppressing thrombin production and fibrinolysis during cardiac surgery with CPB. PMID:17126170

  11. The thrombin receptor extracellular domain contains sites crucial for peptide ligand-induced activation.

    PubMed Central

    Bahou, W F; Coller, B S; Potter, C L; Norton, K J; Kutok, J L; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    A thrombin receptor (TR) demonstrating a unique activation mechanism has recently been isolated from a megakaryocytic (Dami) cell line. To further study determinants of peptide ligand-mediated activation phenomenon, we have isolated, cloned, and stably expressed the identical receptor from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing a functional TR (CHO-TR), platelets, and HUVECs were then used to specifically characterize alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced activation responses using two different antibodies: anti-TR34-52 directed against a 20-amino acid peptide spanning the thrombin cleavage site, and anti-TR1-160 generated against the NH2-terminal 160 amino acids of the TR expressed as a chimeric protein in Escherichia coli. Activation-dependent responses to both alpha-thrombin (10 nM) and peptide ligand (20 microM) were studied using fura 2-loaded cells and microspectrofluorimetry. Whereas preincubation of CHO-TR with anti-TR34-52 abolished only alpha-thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i transients, preincubation with anti-TR1-160 abrogated both alpha-thrombin- and peptide ligand-induced responses. This latter inhibitory effect was dose dependent and similar for both agonists, with an EC50 of approximately 90 micrograms/ml. Anti-TR1-160 similarly abolished peptide ligand-induced [Ca2+]i transients in platelets and HUVECs, whereas qualitatively different responses characterized by delayed but sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i transients were evident using alpha-thrombin. Platelet aggregation to low concentrations of both ligands was nearly abolished by anti-TR1-160, although some shape change remained; anti-TR34-52 only inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced aggregation. These data establish that a critical recognition sequence for peptide ligand-mediated receptor activation is contained on the NH2-terminal portion of the receptor, upstream from the first transmembrane domain. Furthermore, alpha-thrombin

  12. The Effects of Thrombin on Adenyl Cyclase Activity and a Membrane Protein from Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, G. N.; Baenziger, Nancy Lewis; Chase, Lewis R.; Majerus, Philip W.

    1972-01-01

    Washed human platelets were incubated with 0.1-1.0 U/ml human thrombin and the effects on adenyl cyclase activity and on a platelet membrane protein (designated thrombin-sensitive protein) were studied. Adenyl cyclase activity was decreased 70-90% when intact platelets were incubated with thrombin. The T½ for loss of adenyl cyclase activity was less than 15 sec at 1 U/ml thrombin. There was no decrease of adenyl cyclase activity when sonicated platelets or isolated membranes were incubated with these concentrations of thrombin. Loss of adenyl cyclase activity was relatively specific since the activities of other platelet membrane enzymes were unaffected by thrombin. Prior incubation of platelets with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), prostaglandin E1, or theophylline protected adenyl cyclase from inhibition by thrombin. Incubation of intact but not disrupted platelets with thrombin resulted in the release of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane. The rapid release of this protein (T½ < 15 sec) at low concentrations of thrombin suggested that removal of thrombin-sensitive protein from the platelet membrane is an integral part of the platelet release reaction. This hypothesis is supported by the parallel effects of thrombin on adenyl cyclase activity and thrombin-sensitive protein release in the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP, prostaglandin E1, and theophylline at varying concentrations of thrombin. Images PMID:4331802

  13. Aspartame and aspartame derivatives effect human thrombin catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Julie E; Berliner, Lawrence J

    2004-12-20

    The study of small Asp-Phe analogs was undertaken since this dipeptide sequence is critical in fibrinogen recognition and catalysis. The inhibition of clotting activity by Asp-Phe-methyl ester (aspartame), formyl-Asp-Phe-methyl ester and acetyl-Asp-Phe was biphasic in all cases, indicating the presence of at least two binding sites. The N-terminally blocked derivatives are stronger inhibitors than aspartame. In contrast, tosyl-Gly-Pro-Arg-p'-nitroanilide hydrolysis was inhibited minimally by Asp-Phe-methyl, ester [Ki(app)=98 mM]. Acetyl-Asp-Phe inhibition of thrombin amidase activity was biphasic, tenfold stronger and appeared to be strongly cooperative. These results are discussed with respect to the inhibition of alpha-thrombin by ATP.

  14. Possible involvement of thrombin/protease-activated receptor 1 system in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yasushi; Osuga, Yutaka; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yoshino, Osamu; Koga, Kaori; Harada, Miyuki; Morimoto, Chieko; Nose, Emi; Yano, Tetsu; Tsutsumi, Osamu; Taketani, Yuji

    2005-06-01

    Endometriosis is known to be associated with local inflammatory reactions. Given the emerging concept of thrombin and its specific receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), as important players in inflammation and cell proliferation, we investigated whether thrombin and PAR1 might be involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, using a primary cell culture system of endometriotic tissues. PAR1 mRNA was expressed in primary endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Thrombin and SFLLRN (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asp), a PAR1 agonist peptide, increased the mRNA expression of IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the protein secretion of IL-8 nd MCP-1 in ESCs. The addition of thrombin inhibitor d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l arginine chloromethyl ketone (PPACK) together with thrombin inhibited the thrombin-induced secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1. Thrombin, but not SFLLRN, activated matrix metalloproteinase-2 in ESCs, and the effect was inhibited by PPACK. Thrombin and SFLLRN increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio of ESCs, indicating their cell proliferation-stimulating effects. The thrombin-induced increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio was diminished by PPACK. These findings imply that the thrombin system might be involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, stimulating inflammatory responses of endometriotic cells and their mitogenic activity. PMID:15755869

  15. How Na+ Activates Thrombin – A Review of the Functional and Structural Data

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombin is often referred to as the ultimate blood coagulation protease. This is true in both senses: it is the final protease generated in the series of proteolytic events known as the blood coagulation cascade, and it is the effector of clot formation, cleaving over twelve different substrates and interacting with at least six cofactors. Regulation of thrombin activity is thus of great relevance to determining the correct haemostatic balance, with dysregulation leading to bleeding or thrombosis. One of the most enigmatic and controversial regulators of thrombin activity is the monovalent cation Na+. When bound to Na+, thrombin adopts a ‘fast’ conformation which cleaves all procoagulant substrates more rapidly, and when free of Na+, thrombin reverts to a ‘slow’ state which preferentially activates the protein C anticoagulant pathway. Thus, Na+ binding allosterically modulates the activity of thrombin and helps determine the haemostatic balance. Over the last 30 years there has been a great deal of research into the structural basis of thrombin allostery. Biochemical and mutagenesis studies established which regions and residues are involved in the slow→fast conformational change, and recently several crystal structures of the putative slow form have been solved. In this article I review the biochemical and crystallographic data to see if we are any closer to understanding the conformational basis of the Na+ activation of thrombin. PMID:18979627

  16. Thrombin-induced activation of astrocytes in mixed rat hippocampal cultures is inhibited by soluble thrombomodulin.

    PubMed

    Niego, Be'eri; Samson, Andre L; Petersen, Karl-Uwe; Medcalf, Robert L

    2011-03-24

    Thrombin, a serine protease known for its role in coagulation, also induces a variety of protease activated receptor (PAR)-mediated responses in the central nervous system that contribute to many brain pathologies. Since the proteolytic specificity of thrombin is uniquely controlled by thrombomodulin (TM), we investigated the mechanisms by which thrombin and a recombinant soluble form of human TM (Solulin, INN: sothrombomodulin alpha; rhsTM) could influence rat hippocampal cultures. Treatment of hippocampal cultures with thrombin for up to 48h resulted in a significant morphological rearrangement with the formation of expansive cell-free areas (CFAs) and a reduction in cell viability; both effects were blocked by rhsTM. Treatment with the selective PAR-1 agonist, TRAP (SFLLRN) caused the formation of CFAs, suggesting that CFA formation involved PAR-1 signaling. Astrocytes prepared from PAR-1(-/-) mice also had an attenuated CFA response to thrombin. Thrombin-induced CFA formation was a consequence of cell movement and substantial changes in cell morphology, rather than due to cell detachment. Immunocytochemical and functional analyses revealed that the thrombin-sensitive cells within these hippocampal cultures were astrocytes. The effects of thrombin on CFA development were mediated by astrocyte-specific release of intracellular calcium and signalling through ERK1/2. rhsTM was able to attenuate thrombin-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, astrocytes were shown to maintain thrombin-sensitivity following neuronal depletion with NMDA, a result which was confirmed with pure astrocyte cultures. Hence thrombin mediates PAR-1-induced activation of hippocampal astrocytes, but not neurons, in a process that can be modulated by rhsTM. PMID:21241677

  17. Mechanism of the Anticoagulant Activity of Thrombin Mutant W215A/E217A

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Page, Michael J.; Chen, Zhiwei; Bush-Pelc, Leslie; Di Cera, Enrico

    2009-09-15

    The thrombin mutant W215A/E217A (WE) is a potent anticoagulant both in vitro and in vivo. Previous x-ray structural studies have shown that WE assumes a partially collapsed conformation that is similar to the inactive E* form, which explains its drastically reduced activity toward substrate. Whether this collapsed conformation is genuine, rather than the result of crystal packing or the mutation introduced in the critical 215-217 {beta}-strand, and whether binding of thrombomodulin to exosite I can allosterically shift the E* form to the active E form to restore activity toward protein C are issues of considerable mechanistic importance to improve the design of an anticoagulant thrombin mutant for therapeutic applications. Here we present four crystal structures of WE in the human and murine forms that confirm the collapsed conformation reported previously under different experimental conditions and crystal packing. We also present structures of human and murine WE bound to exosite I with a fragment of the platelet receptor PAR1, which is unable to shift WE to the E form. These structural findings, along with kinetic and calorimetry data, indicate that WE is strongly stabilized in the E* form and explain why binding of ligands to exosite I has only a modest effect on the E*-E equilibrium for this mutant. The E* {yields} E transition requires the combined binding of thrombomodulin and protein C and restores activity of the mutant WE in the anticoagulant pathway.

  18. The PAK system links Rho GTPase signaling to thrombin-mediated platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra M.; Loren, Cassandra P.; Haley, Kristina M.; Itakura, Asako; Pang, Jiaqing; Greenberg, Daniel L.; David, Larry L.; Manser, Ed; Chernoff, Jonathan; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the platelet actin cytoskeleton by the Rho family of small GTPases is essential for the proper maintenance of hemostasis. However, little is known about how intracellular platelet activation from Rho GTPase family members, including Rac, Cdc42, and Rho, translate into changes in platelet actin structures. To better understand how Rho family GTPases coordinate platelet activation, we identified platelet proteins associated with Rac1, a Rho GTPase family member, and actin regulatory protein essential for platelet hemostatic function. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that upon platelet activation with thrombin, Rac1 associates with a set of effectors of the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), including GIT1, βPIX, and guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEFH1. Platelet activation by thrombin triggered the PAK-dependent phosphorylation of GIT1, GEFH1, and other PAK effectors, including LIMK1 and Merlin. PAK was also required for the thrombin-mediated activation of the MEK/ERK pathway, Akt, calcium signaling, and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Inhibition of PAK signaling prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and blocked platelet focal adhesion and lamellipodia formation in response to thrombin. Together, these results demonstrate that the PAK signaling system is a key orchestrator of platelet actin dynamics, linking Rho GTPase activation downstream of thrombin stimulation to PAK effector function, MAP kinase activation, calcium signaling, and PS exposure in platelets. PMID:23784547

  19. Thrombin-activable factor X re-establishes an intrinsic amplification in tenase-deficient plasmas.

    PubMed

    Louvain-Quintard, Virginie B; Bianchini, Elsa P; Calmel-Tareau, Claire; Tagzirt, Madjid; Le Bonniec, Bernard F

    2005-12-16

    Classical hemophilia results from a defect of the intrinsic tenase complex, the main factor X (FX) activator. Binding of factor VIIa to tissue factor triggers coagulation, but little amplification of thrombin production occurs. Handling of hemophilia by injection of the deficient or missing (thus foreign) factor often causes immunological complications. Several strategies have been designed to bypass intrinsic tenase complex, but none induce true auto-amplification of thrombin production. In an attempt to re-establish a cyclic amplification of prothrombin activation in the absence of tenase, we prepared a chimera of FX having fibrinopeptide A for the activation domain (FX(FpA)). We reasoned that cascade initiation would produce traces of thrombin that would activate FX(FpA) (contrary to its normal homologue). Given that the activation domain of FX is released upon activation, thrombin cleavage would produce authentic FXa that would produce more thrombin, which in turn would activate more chimeras. FX(FpA) was indeed activable by thrombin, albeit at a relatively low rate (5 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). Nevertheless, FX(FpA) allowed in vitro amplification of thrombin production, and 100 nM efficiently corrected thrombin generation in tenase-deficient plasmas. A decisive advantage of FX(FpA) could be that the artificial cascade is self-regulating: FX(FpA) had little influence on the clotting time of normal plasma, yet corrected that of tenase deficiency. Another advantage could be the half-life of FX(FpA) in blood; FX has a half-life of about 30 h (less than 3 h for FVIIa). It is also reasonable to expect little or no immunogenicity, because FX and fibrinopeptide A both circulate normally in the blood of hemophiliacs.

  20. Active but inoperable thrombin is accumulated in a plasma protein layer surrounding Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Hurley, Sinead M; Malmström, Erik; Plug, Tom; Shannon, Oonagh; Meijers, Joost C M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    Activation of thrombin is a critical determinant in many physiological and pathological processes including haemostasis and inflammation. Under physiological conditions many of these functions are involved in wound healing or eradication of an invading pathogen. However, when activated systemically, thrombin can contribute to severe and life-threatening conditions by causing complications such as multiple multi-organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In the present study we investigated how the activity of thrombin is modulated when it is bound to the surface of Streptococcus pyogenes. Our data show that S. pyogenes bacteria become covered with a proteinaceous layer when incubated with human plasma, and that thrombin is a constituent of this layer. Though the coagulation factor is found attached to the bacteria with a functional active site, thrombin has lost its capacity to interact with its natural substrates and inhibitors. Thus, the interaction of bacteria with human plasma renders thrombin completely inoperable at the streptococcal surface. This could represent a host defense mechanism to avoid systemic activation of coagulation which could be otherwise induced when bacteria enter the circulation and cause systemic infection.

  1. Fibrinogen blocks the autoactivation and thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI on dextran sulfate.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, C F; Colman, R W

    1992-01-01

    The intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation is activated when factor XIa, one of the three contact-system enzymes, is generated and then activates factor IX. Factor XI has been shown to be efficiently activated in vitro by surface-bound factor XIIa after factor XI is transported to the surface by its cofactor, high molecular weight kininogen (HK). However, individuals lacking any of the three contact-system proteins--namely, factor XII, prekallikrein, and HK--do not suffer from bleeding abnormalities. This mystery has led several investigators to search for an "alternate" activation pathway for factor XI. Recently, factor XI has been reported to be autoactivated on the soluble "surface" dextran sulfate, and thrombin was shown to accelerate the autoactivation. However, it was also reported that HK, the cofactor for factor XIIa-mediated activation of factor XI, actually diminishes the thrombin-catalyzed activation rate of factor XI. Nonetheless, it was suggested that thrombin was a more efficient activator than factor XIIa. In this report we investigated the effect of fibrinogen, the major coagulation protein in plasma, on the activation rate of factor XI. Fibrinogen, the preferred substrate for thrombin in plasma, virtually prevented autoactivation of factor XI as well as the thrombin-mediated activation of factor XI, while having no effect on factor XIIa-catalyzed activation. HK dramatically curtailed the autoactivation of factor XI in addition to the thrombin-mediated activation. These data indicate that factor XI would not be autoactivated in a plasma environment, and thrombin would, therefore, be unlikely to potentiate the activation. We believe that the "missing pathway" for factor XI activation remains an enigma that warrants further investigation. PMID:1454798

  2. Linkage between proton binding and amidase activity in human gamma-thrombin.

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, R; Fenton, J W; Di Cera, E

    1992-02-01

    The amidase activity of human gamma-thrombin has been studied in the pH range 6-10 as a function of NaCl concentration and temperature. As recently found for human alpha-thrombin [Di Cera, E., De Cristofaro, R., Albright, D.J., & Fenton, J.W., II (1991) Biochemistry 30, 7913-7924], the Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, shows a bell-shaped dependence over this pH range with a minimum around pH 7.9 in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl at 25 degrees C. The catalytic constant, kcat, has a bell-shaped pH dependence with a maximum around pH 8.6. A thermodynamic analysis of these parameters has enabled a characterization of the linkage between proton and substrate binding, its dependence on NaCl concentration, and the relevant entropic and enthalpic contributions to binding and catalytic events. Three groups seem to be responsible for the control of gamma-thrombin amidase activity as a function of pH. One of these groups has pK values that are significantly different from those found for alpha-thrombin, and all groups show slightly perturbed enthalpies of ionization. The dependence of gamma-thrombin amidase activity on NaCl concentration is different from that of alpha-thrombin. Increasing NaCl concentration always decreases the substrate affinity for the enzyme in the case of alpha-thrombin, regardless of pH. In the case of gamma-thrombin, such an effect is observed only in the pH range 7.5-9, and a reversed linkage is observed at pH less than 7 and greater than 9.5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1310421

  3. Membrane lipid peroxidation in neurodegeneration: Role of thrombin and proteinase-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Citron, Bruce A; Ameenuddin, Syed; Uchida, K; Suo, William Z; SantaCruz, Karen; Festoff, Barry W

    2016-07-15

    Thrombin and membrane lipid peroxidation (MLP) have been implicated in various central nervous system (CNS) disorders from CNS trauma to stroke, Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Because thrombin also induces MLP in platelets and its involvement in neurodegenerative diseases we hypothesized that its deleterious effects might, in part, involve formation of MLP in neuronal cells. We previously showed that thrombin induced caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in motor neurons, via a proteinase-activated receptor (PAR1). We have now investigated thrombin's influence on the oxidative state of neurons leading to induction of MLP-protein adducts. Translational relevance of thrombin-induced MLP is supported by increased levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts (HNEPA) in AD and PD brains. We now report for the first time that thrombin dose-dependently induces formation of HNEPA in NSC34 mouse motor neuron cells using anti-HNE and anti-acrolein monoclonal antibodies. The most prominent immunoreactive band, in SDS-PAGE, was at ∼54kDa. Membrane fractions displayed higher amounts of the protein-adduct than cytosolic fractions. Thrombin induced MLP was mediated, at least in part, through PAR1 since a PAR1 active peptide, PAR1AP, also elevated HNEPA levels. Of interest, glutamate and Fe2SO4 also increased the ∼54kDa HNEPA band in these cells but to a lesser extent. Taken together our results implicate the involvement of thrombin and MLP in neuronal cell loss observed in various CNS degenerative and traumatic pathologies. PMID:27138068

  4. Thrombin-mediated activation of endogenous factor XI in plasma in the presence of physiological glycosaminoglycans occurs only with high concentrations of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; Mertens, K; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E

    1996-02-01

    The variable bleeding tendency associated with a genetic deficiency of factor XI (FXI) and the lack of bleeding disorders in individuals with a genetic deficiency of factor XII (FXII) suggest an alternative mechanism for FXI activation in vivo. Recently, thrombin has been shown to activate FXI. However, in plasma this activation has been shown to occur only with exogenous FXI and a non-physiological cofactor (sulphatides), and the occurrence of this reaction in a plasma environment has been questioned. Using recently developed sensitive assays for FXIa-inhibitor complexes we found thrombin-mediated and FXII-dependent activation of endogenous FXI in plasma in the presence of heparan sulphate, heparin, dermatan sulphate or dextran sulphate. Using heparan sulphate, which is present in the human vascular system, activation of about 1-2% of plasma FXI was observed, however, only after addition of very high amounts (500 nmol/l) of human alpha-thrombin to FXII-deficient plasma (at a 1 to 4 final dilution). We conclude that endogenous FXI in plasma can be activated by thrombin in the presence of various glycosaminoglycans, including the physiological compounds heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, but only at very high concentrations of thrombin, corresponding to 100% prothrombin activation in undiluted plasma.

  5. Interaction of hirudin with thrombin: Identification of a minimal binding domain of hirudin that inhibits clotting activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S.J.T.; Yates, M.T.; Owen, T.J.; Krstenansky, J.L. )

    1988-10-18

    Hirudin, isolated from the European leech Hirudo medicinalis, is a potent inhibitor of thrombin, forming an almost irreversible thrombin-hirudin complex. Previously, the authors have shown that the carboxyl terminus of hirudin (residues 45-65) inhibits clotting activity and without binding to the catalytic site of thrombin. In the present study, a series of peptides corresponding to this carboxyl-terminal region of hirudin have been synthesized, and their anticoagulant activity and binding properties to thrombin were examined. Binding was assessed by their ability to displace {sup 125}I-hirudin 45-65 from Sepharose-immobilized thrombin and by isolation of peptide-thrombin complexes. They show that the carboxyl-terminal 10 amino acid residues 56-65 (Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Glu-Tyr-Leu-Gln) are minimally required for binding to thrombin and inhibition of clotting. Phe-56 was critical for maintaining anticoagulant activity as demonstrated by the loss of activity when Phe-56 was substituted with D-Phe, Glu, or Leu. In addition, they found that the binding of the carboxyl-terminal peptide of hirudin with thrombin was associated with a significant conformational change of thrombin as judged by circular dichroism. This conformational change might be responsible for the loss of clotting activity of thrombin.

  6. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts. PMID:26851257

  7. Natural inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A

    2014-04-01

    The serine protease thrombin is the effector enzyme of blood coagulation. It has many activities critical for the formation of stable clots, including cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of platelets and conversion of procofactors to active cofactors. Thrombin carries-out its multiple functions by utilising three special features: a deep active site cleft and two anion binding exosites (exosite I and II). Similarly, thrombin inhibitors have evolved to exploit the unique features of thrombin to achieve rapid and specific inactivation of thrombin. Exogenous thrombin inhibitors come from several different protein families and are generally found in the saliva of haematophagous animals (blood suckers) as part of an anticoagulant cocktail that allows them to feed. Crystal structures of several of these inhibitors reveal how peptides and proteins can be targeted to thrombin in different and interesting ways. Thrombin activity must also be regulated by endogenous inhibitors so that thrombi do not occlude blood flow and cause thrombosis. A single protein family, the serpins, provides all four of the endogenous thrombin inhibitors found in man. The crystal structures of these serpins bound to thrombin have been solved, revealing a similar exosite-dependence on complex formation. In addition to forming the recognition complex, serpins destroy the structure of thrombin, allowing them to be released from cofactors and substrates for clearance. This review examines how the special features of thrombin have been exploited by evolution to achieve inhibition of the ultimate coagulation protease.

  8. Cleavage of the thrombin receptor: identification of potential activators and inactivators.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, M A; Myles, T; Tschopp, J; Stone, S R

    1996-01-01

    The kinetic parameters were determined for the hydrolysis of a peptide based on the activation site of the thrombin receptor (residues 38-60) by thrombin and 12 other proteases. The kcat and Km values for the cleavage of this peptide (TR39-40) by thrombin were 107 s-1 and 1.3 microM; the kcat/Km of TR39-40 is among the highest observed for thrombin. A model is presented that reconciles the parameters for cleavage of the peptide with the concentration dependence of cellular responses to thrombin. Cleavage of TR39-40 was not specific for thrombin. The pancreatic proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysed TR39-40 efficiently (kcat/Km > 10(6) M-1.s-1). Whereas trypsin cleaved TR39-40 at the thrombin activation site (Arg41-Ser42), chymotrypsin hydrolysed the peptide after Phe43. This chymotryptic cleavage would result in inactivation of the receptor. The efficient cleavage of TR39-40 by chymotrypsin (kcat/Km approximately 10(6) M-1.s-1) was predominantly due to a low Km value (2.8 microM). The proteases factor Xa, plasmin, plasma kallikrein, activated protein C and granzyme A also hydrolysed TR39-40 at the Arg41-Ser43 bond, but exhibited kcat/Km values that were at least 10(3)-fold lower than that observed with thrombin. Both tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators as well as granzyme B and neutrophil elastase were unable to cleave TR39-60 at appreciable rates. However, neutrophil cathepsin G hydrolysed the receptor peptide after Phe55. Like the chymotryptic cleavage, this cleavage would lead to inactivation of the receptor, but the cathepsin G reaction was markedly less efficient; the kcat/K(m) value was almost four orders of magnitude lower than that for thrombin. In addition to the above cleavage sites, a secondary site for thrombin and other arginine-specific proteases was identified at Arg46, but the cleavage at this site only occurred at very low rates and is unlikely to be significant in vivo. PMID:8947506

  9. Thrombin and human plasma kallikrein inhibition during simulated extracorporeal circulation block platelet and neutrophil activation.

    PubMed

    Wachtfogel, Y T; Kettner, C; Hack, C E; Nuijens, J H; Reilly, T M; Knabb, R M; Kucich, U; Niewiarowski, S; Edmunds, L H; Colman, R W

    1998-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes hemorrhagic complications, and initiates a chemical and cellular inflammatory response. Contact of blood with synthetic surfaces leads to qualitative and quantitative alterations in platelets, neutrophils, complement, and contact systems. Despite the fact that cardiopulmonary bypass is carried out in the presence of high doses of heparin, there is significant activation of both platelets and neutrophils. Thrombin is protected on cell and fibrin surfaces from antithrombin, even in the presence of high doses of heparin (approximately 5 U/ml). We therefore studied the effect of a small (Mr = 497), highly effective (Ki = 41 pM), reversible tripeptide inhibitor of thrombin, DUP 714 (1 microM), in a well characterized model of simulated extracorporeal circulation. In the absence of DUP 714, platelet counts decreased by 75% 5 min after the start of extracorporeal bypass and increased to 48% at 120 min of recirculation. DUP 714 significantly preserved platelet counts, decreased plasma levels of platelet beta-thromboglobulin levels, but did not prevent a decrease in sensitivity of platelets to adenosine diphosphate. Kallikrein-C1-inhibitor and C1-C1-inhibitor complexes increased progressively from 0.32 U/ml to 0.67 U/ml and from 4.45 U/ml to 7.25 U/ml, respectively, during 120 min of recirculation without DUP 714. Addition of DUP 714 significantly inhibited kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complex formation but did not affect C1-C1-inhibitor complexes. In the absence of DUP 714, human neutrophil elastase levels rose from a baseline of 0.01 +/- 0.00 microg/ml to 1.18 +/- 0.21 microg/ml during 120 min of recirculation. Human neutrophil elastase release at 120 min was significantly inhibited in the presence of DUP 714 to 37% of the value with heparin alone. These results indicated that addition of this novel thrombin (and kallikrein) inhibitor to heparin preserved platelet counts, decreased platelet secretion, and provided the additional benefit of

  10. High-resolution structures of two complexes between thrombin and thrombin-binding aptamer shed light on the role of cations in the aptamer inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Russo Krauss, Irene; Merlino, Antonello; Randazzo, Antonio; Novellino, Ettore; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    The G-quadruplex architecture is a peculiar structure adopted by guanine-rich oligonucleotidic sequences, and, in particular, by several aptamers, including the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) that has the highest inhibitory activity against human α-thrombin. A crucial role in determining structure, stability and biological properties of G-quadruplexes is played by ions. In the case of TBA, K+ ions cause an enhancement of the aptamer clotting inhibitory activity. A detailed picture of the interactions of TBA with the protein and with the ions is still lacking, despite the importance of this aptamer in biomedical field for detection and inhibition of α-thrombin. Here, we fill this gap by presenting a high-resolution crystallographic structural characterization of the thrombin–TBA complex formed in the presence of Na+ or K+ and a circular dichroism study of the structural stability of the aptamer both free and complexed with α-thrombin, in the presence of the two ionic species. The results indicate that the different effects exerted by Na+ and K+ on the inhibitory activity of TBA are related to a subtle perturbation of a few key interactions at the protein–aptamer interface. The present data, in combination with those previously obtained on the complex between α-thrombin and a modified aptamer, may allow the design of new TBA variants with a pharmacological performance enhancement. PMID:22669903

  11. Platelet activation via PAR4 is involved in the initiation of thrombin generation and in clot elasticity development.

    PubMed

    Vretenbrant, Karin; Ramström, Sofia; Bjerke, Maria; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2007-03-01

    Thrombin is a pivotal enzyme formed in the coagulation cascade and an important and potent platelet activator. The two protease-activated thrombin receptors on human platelets are denoted PAR1 and PAR4. The physiological relevance of PAR4 is still unclear, as both aggregation and secretion can be accomplished by PAR1 activation alone. In the present study we have investigated the role of PARs in platelet activation, blood coagulation, clot elasticity and fibrinolysis. Flow cytometry, free oscillation rheometry and thrombin generation measurements were used to analyze blood or platelet-rich plasma from healthy individuals. Maximum PAR1 activation with the peptide SFLLRN gave fewer fibrinogen-binding platelets with lower mean fluorescent intensity than maximum PAR4 activation with AYPGKF. Inhibition of any of the receptors prolonged clotting times. However, PAR1 is more important for fibrinolysis; inhibition of this receptor prolonged all the steps in the fibrinolytic process. Clot elasticity decreased significantly when the PAR4 receptor was inhibited. In the thrombin generation measurements, PAR4 inhibition delayed the thrombin generation start and peak, but did not affect the total amount of thrombin generated. PAR1 inhibition had no significant impact on thrombin generation. We found that PAR4 is most likely activated by low concentrations of thrombin during the initial phase of thrombin generation and is of importance to the clotting time. Furthermore, we suggest that the PAR4 receptor may have a physiological role in the stabilisation of the coagulum. PMID:17334509

  12. Modulation of thrombin-mediated activation of factor VIII:C by calcium ions, phospholipid, and platelets.

    PubMed

    Hultin, M B

    1985-07-01

    The activation of factor VIII:C by thrombin appears to be an important prerequisite for the function of factor VIII:C as a cofactor in factor X activation in coagulation. The possible modulation of factor VIII:C activation by potential cofactors such as calcium ions, phospholipid, and platelets was studied systematically. Factor VIII:C activation could not be studied in the complete absence of Ca2+, since factor VIII:C activity decayed rapidly in calcium-free buffers, EDTA, or ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid (EGTA), with only partial or no recovery of activity after readdition of Ca2+, Mn2+, or Mg2+. Added calcium chloride at 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, 50, and 200 mmol/L produced progressive inhibition of factor VIII:C activation, with complete inhibition achieved by 50 mmol/L. Crude phospholipid preparations gave varying results, while purified phospholipids either had no effect or inhibited activation. This paper reports the new finding that fresh washed human platelets markedly potentiated factor VIII:C activation by a low concentration of thrombin (0.02 U/mL), even with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (cAMP) added to the washed platelets. However, the activity of platelets in factor VIII:C activation was inhibited by inclusion of PGE1 or dibutyryl cAMP during platelet washing, and ionophore A23187 increased this platelet activity; these data suggest that platelet stimulation is involved in the development of this activity. When platelets were maximally stimulated by thrombin (0.5 U/mL), the external calcium concentration increased 55 to 160 mumol/L, as measured with murexide, supporting the possible modulation of factor VIII:C activation by a transient increase in Ca2+ at the platelet surface.

  13. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Manash S; Denney, William S; Jing, Huiyan; Diamond, Scott L

    2010-09-30

    Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF), human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa) will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i)) of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor), while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i) to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen), and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters) predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i) of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone) was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai). This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds in the

  14. A Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Agonist Prevents Thrombin-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage via the Inhibition of Microglial Activation and Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Yang, Yang; Feng, Zhou; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Liming; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Thrombin mediates the life-threatening cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage that occurs after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We previously found that the selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist JWH-133 reduced brain edema and neurological deficits following germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). We explored whether CB2R stimulation ameliorated thrombin-induced brain edema and BBB permeability as well as the possible molecular mechanism involved. A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats received a thrombin (20 U) injection in the right basal ganglia. JWH-133 (1.5 mg/kg) or SR-144528 (3.0 mg/kg) and vehicle were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected 1 h after surgery. Brain water content measurement, Evans blue (EB) extravasation, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used to study the effects of a CB2R agonist 24 h after surgery. The results demonstrated that JWH-133 administration significantly decreased thrombin-induced brain edema and reduced the number of Iba-1-positive microglia. JWH-133 also decreased the number of P44/P42(+)/Iba-1(+) microglia, lowered Evans blue extravasation, and inhibited the elevated matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-12 activities. However, a selective CB2R antagonist (SR-144528) reversed these effects. We demonstrated that CB2R stimulation reduced thrombin-induced brain edema and alleviated BBB damage. We also found that matrix metalloproteinase suppression may be partially involved in these processes. PMID:26376816

  15. Thrombin Activates Latent TGFβ1 via Integrin αvβ1 in Gingival Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, W H; Deng, Y T; Hsieh, Y P; Wu, K J; Kuo, M Y P

    2016-07-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix production. It also plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth. Thrombin is a key player in tissue repair, remodeling, and fibrosis after an injury, and it exerts profibrotic effects by activating protease-activated receptors. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2) modulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, matrix production, and wound healing. It is overexpressed in many fibrotic disorders, including gingival overgrowth, and it is positively associated with the degree of fibrosis in gingival overgrowth. In human gingival fibroblasts, we previously found that TGFβ1 induced CCN2 protein synthesis through c-jun N-terminal kinase and Smad3 activation. Thrombin stimulates CCN2 synthesis through protease-activated receptor 1 and c-jun N-terminal kinase signaling. Curcumin inhibited TGFβ1- and thrombin-induced CCN2 synthesis. In this study, we demonstrated that thrombin and protease-activated receptor 1 agonist SFLLRN induced latent TGFβ1 activation and Smad3 phosphorylation in human gingival fibroblasts. Pretreatment with a TGFβ-neutralizing antibody, TGFβ type I receptor inhibitor SB431542, and Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 inhibited approximately 86%, 94%, and 100% of thrombin-induced CCN2 synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, blocking integrin subunits αv and β1 with antibodies effectively inhibited SFLLRN-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and CCN2 synthesis and increased activated TGFβ1 levels; however, similar effects were not observed for integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5. These results suggest that protease-activated receptor 1-induced CCN2 synthesis in human gingival fibroblasts is mediated through integrin αvβ1-induced latent TGFβ1 activation and subsequent TGFβ1 signaling. Moreover, curcumin dose dependently decreased thrombin-induced activated TGFβ1 levels. Curcumin-inhibited thrombin-induced CCN2

  16. Functional role of the polysaccharide component of rabbit thrombomodulin proteoglycan. Effects on inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin, cleavage of fibrinogen by thrombin and thrombin-catalysed activation of factor V.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M C; Lindahl, U

    1990-09-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM), a major anticoagulant protein at the vessel wall, serves as a potent cofactor for the activation of Protein C by thrombin. Previous work has indicated that (rabbit) TM is a proteoglycan that contains a single polysaccharide chain, tentatively identified as a sulphated galactosaminoglycan, and furthermore suggested that this component may be functionally related to additional anticoagulant activities expressed by the TM molecule [Bourin, Ohlin, Lane, Stenflo & Lindahl (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 8044-8052]. Results of the present study establish that (enzymic) removal of the polysaccharide chain abolishes the inhibitory effect of TM on thrombin-induced fibrinogen clotting as well as the promoting effect of TM on the inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin, but does not affect the ability of TM to serve as a cofactor in the activation of Protein C. Studies of yet another biological activity of rabbit TM, namely the ability to prevent the activation of Factor V by thrombin [Esmon, Esmon & Harris (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 7944-7947], confirmed that TM markedly delays the conversion of the native 330 kDa Factor V precursor into polypeptide intermediates, and further into the 96 kDa heavy chain and 71-74 kDa light-chain components of activated Factor Va. In contrast, the activation kinetics of a similar sample of Factor V incubated with thrombin in the presence of chondroitinase ABC-digested TM did not differ from that observed in the absence of TM. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of TM on Factor V activation also depends on the presence of the polysaccharide component on the TM molecule.

  17. Thrombin conducts epithelial‑mesenchymal transition via protease‑activated receptor‑1 in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Tadayoshi; Fujimoto, Daisuke; Hirono, Yasuo; Goi, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2014-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a key step for cancer metastasis. Using an immunohistochemical approach with gastric carcinoma tissue, we found the expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), along with a metalloproteinase known to activate PAR1, were associated with poorer prognosis, compared with expression-negative tumors, and activated PAR1 promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and proliferation in vivo. In this study we observed EMT induction by the PAR1 agonist α-thrombin, in human gastric cell lines stably expressing PAR1. We investigated α-thrombin-induced changes in the cell forms of pcDNA3.1-MKN45 (MKN45/Mock), pcDNA3.1‑PAR1 transfected MKN45 (MKN45/PAR1), and MKN74. Expression levels of epithelial and mesenchymal markers as well as the distribution of transcriptional factors of E-cadherin in the cytoplasm and nucleus were also noted in these cell lines. We observed α-thrombin-induced morphological changes in MKN45/PAR1 and MKN74 cells. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of these cells indicated a fall in the expression level of E-cadherin and an increase in fibronectin expression after 48 h. PAR1 activation also induced significant increases in nuclear levels of the Snail which is a repressor of E-cadherin gene expression. We found EMT in gastric cancer cell lines that underwent α-thrombin-induced PAR1 activation. PMID:25231630

  18. Colorimetric detection of DNA by modulation of thrombin activity on gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jian, Jyun-Wei; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2011-02-18

    A colorimetric, non-cross-linking aggregation-based gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) probe has been developed for the detection of DNA and the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The probe acts by modulating the enzyme activity of thrombin relative to fibrinogen. A thrombin-binding aptamer with a 29-base-long oligonucleotide (TBA(29)) assembled on the nanoparticles (TBA(29)-AuNPs) through sandwich DNA hybridization was found to possess ultra-high anticoagulant potency. The enzyme inhibition of thrombin was determined by thrombin-induced aggregation of fibrinogen-functionalized 56 nm AuNPs (Fib-AuNPs). The potency of the inhibition of TBA(29)-AuNPs relative to thrombin--and thus the degree of aggregation of the Fib-AuNPs--is highly dependent on the concentration of perfectly matched DNA (DNA(pm)). Under optimal conditions [Tris-HCl (20 mM, pH 7.4), KCl (5 mM), MgCl(2) (1 mM), CaCl(2) (1 mM), NaCl (150 mM), thrombin (10 pM), and TBA(29)-AuNPs (20 pM)], the new TBA(29)-AuNP/Fib-AuNP probe shows linear sensitivity to DNA(pm) in the concentration range 20-500 pM with a correlation coefficient of 0.96. The limit of detection for DNA(pm) was experimentally determined to be 12 pM, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3. The new probe was successfully applied to the analysis of an SNP that is responsible for sickle cell anemia. Relative to conventional molecular-beacon-based probes, the new probe offers the advantages of higher sensitivity and selectivity towards DNA and lower cost, showing its great potential for practical studies of SNPs.

  19. A balance between TFPI and thrombin-mediated platelet activation is required for murine embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Ellery, Paul E. R.; Maroney, Susan A.; Cooley, Brian C.; Luyendyk, James P.; Zogg, Mark; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a critical anticoagulant protein present in endothelium and platelets. Mice lacking TFPI (Tfpi−/−) die in utero from disseminated intravascular coagulation. They are rescued by concomitant tissue factor (TF) deficiency, demonstrating that TFPI modulates TF function in vivo. Recent studies have found TFPI inhibits prothrombinase activity during the initiation of coagulation and limits platelet accumulation during thrombus formation, implicating TFPI in modulating platelet procoagulant activity. To examine whether altered platelet function would compensate for the lack of TFPI and rescue TFPI-null embryonic lethality, Tfpi+/− mice lacking the platelet thrombin receptor, protease activated receptor 4 (PAR4; Par4−/−), or its coreceptor, PAR3, were mated. PAR3 deficiency did not rescue Tfpi−/− embryos, but >40% of expected Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− offspring survived to adulthood. Adult Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice did not exhibit overt thrombosis. However, they had focal sterile inflammation with fibrin(ogen) deposition in the liver and elevated plasma thrombin-antithrombin complexes, indicating activation of coagulation at baseline. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice have platelet and fibrin accumulation similar to Par4−/− mice following venous electrolytic injury but were more susceptible than Par4−/− mice to TF-induced pulmonary embolism. In addition, ∼30% of the Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice were born with short tails. Tfpi−/−:Par4−/− mice are the first adult mice described that lack TFPI with unaltered TF. They demonstrate that TFPI physiologically modulates thrombin-dependent platelet activation in a manner that is required for successful embryonic development and identify a role for TFPI in dampening intravascular procoagulant stimuli that lead to thrombin generation, even in the absence of thrombin-mediated platelet activation. PMID:25954015

  20. Regulated shedding of syndecan-1 and -4 ectodomains by thrombin and growth factor receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Fitzgerald, M L; Bernfield, M

    1997-06-01

    The syndecan family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans is abundant on the surface of all adherent mammalian cells. Syndecans bind and modify the action of various growth factors/cytokines, proteases/antiproteases, cell adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix components. Syndecan expression is highly regulated during wound repair, a process orchestrated by many of these effectors. Each syndecan ectodomain is shed constitutively by cultured cells, but the mechanism and significance of this shedding are not understood. Therefore, we examined (i) whether physiological agents active during wound repair influence syndecan shedding, and (ii) whether wound fluids contain shed syndecan ectodomains. Using SVEC4-10 endothelial cells we find that certain proteases and growth factors accelerate shedding of the syndecan-1 and -4 ectodomains. Protease-accelerated shedding is completely inhibited by serum-containing media. Thrombin activity is duplicated by the 14-amino acid thrombin receptor agonist peptide that directly activates the thrombin receptor and is not inhibited by serum. Epidermal growth factor family members accelerate shedding but FGF-2, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and vascular endothelial cell growth factor 165 do not. Shed ectodomains are soluble, stable in the conditioned medium, have the same size core proteins regardless whether shed at a basal rate, or accelerated by thrombin or epidermal growth factor-family members and are found in acute human dermal wound fluids. Thus, shedding is accelerated by activation of at least two distinct receptor classes, G protein-coupled (thrombin) and protein tyrosine kinase (epidermal growth factor). Proteases and growth factors active during wound repair can accelerate syndecan shedding from cell surfaces. Regulated shedding of syndecans suggests physiological roles for the soluble proteoglycan ectodomains.

  1. Coordinate activation of human platelet protease-activated receptor-1 and -4 in response to subnanomolar alpha-thrombin.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Craven, Sharon J; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha; Freedman, John; Fenton, John W

    2008-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that human platelets activated with SFLLRN release PAR-1 activation peptide, PAR-1-(1-41), even in the presence of hirudin. This observation suggests that during their activation, platelets generate a protease that activates PAR-1. In this study, PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides were detected 10 s after thrombin, 10 microm SFLLRN, or 100 microm AYPGKF were added to platelets. When SFLLRN or AYGPKF were added to platelets, generation of PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides was complete at 10 s. Generation of both PAR-1 and -4 activation peptides in response to 1 nm alpha-thrombin was significantly inhibited by affinity-purified anti-PAR-1-(35-62) IgY, anti-PAR-4-(34-54) IgY, and by the specific PAR-1 antagonist BMS 200261, but not by the PAR-4 antagonist YD3. Effective inhibition of platelet aggregation in response to 1.0 nm alpha-thrombin occurred only in the presence of both anti-PAR span antibodies. We conclude that platelet activation initiated with thrombin proceeds via simultaneous PAR-1 and -4 activation. Inhibiting the activation of either PAR inhibits activation of the other. Both PAR-1 and -4 activation must be inhibited to prevent platelet activation subsequent to thrombin binding to platelets. The more efficient generation of PAR activation peptides by platelets activated with SFLLRN or AYGPKF, compared with alpha-thrombin, indicates that a platelet-derived serine protease that is inactivated by soybean trypsin inhibitor propagates PAR-1 and -4 activation. PMID:18682394

  2. Thrombin activation of human platelets dissociates a complex containing gelsolin and actin from phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase Cgamma1.

    PubMed Central

    Baldassare, J J; Henderson, P A; Tarver, A; Fisher, G J

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the association of two cytoskeleton proteins, gelsolin and actin, with phosphatidylinositide-specific phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) in resting and thrombin-stimulated human platelets. In unstimulated platelets, gelsolin, actin and PLCgamma1 were immunoprecipitated as a complex by a polyclonal antibody to PLCgamma1. The association of gelsolin and actin was specific for PLCgamma1 because immunoprecipitates of PLCs beta2, beta3, gamma2 and delta1, which are also expressed in human platelets, did not contain detectable gelsolin or actin. Activation with thrombin resulted in platelet aggregation and the dissociation of gelsolin and actin from PLCgamma1. Inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation blocked the dissociation of gelsolin and actin from PLCgamma1. After stimulation with thrombin, PLCgamma1 activity in immunoprecipitates was increased 2-3-fold. This elevation in PLCgamma1 activity in response to thrombin activation was not observed when platelet aggregation was blocked. Although PLCgamma1 is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to many agonists, we could not detect, by Western analysis with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma1 immunoprecipitated from thrombin-stimulated platelets. These results demonstrate that PLCgamma1 is associated with gelsolin and actin in resting platelets, and that thrombin-induced platelet aggregation results in the dissociation of PLCgamma1 from gelsolin and actin, and the stimulation of PLCgamma1 activity. PMID:9164868

  3. Thrombin activation and liver inflammation in advanced hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    González-Reimers, Emilio; Quintero-Platt, Geraldine; Martín-González, Candelaria; Pérez-Hernández, Onán; Romero-Acevedo, Lucía; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Several mechanisms are involved including direct endothelial damage by the HCV virus, with activation of tissue factor, altered fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation and activation. In advanced stages, chronic HCV infection may evolve to liver cirrhosis, a condition in which alterations in the portal microcirculation may also ultimately lead to thrombin activation, platelet aggregation, and clot formation. Therefore in advanced HCV liver disease there is an increased prevalence of thrombotic phenomena in portal vein radicles. Increased thrombin formation may activate hepatic stellate cells and promote liver fibrosis. In addition, ischemic changes derived from vascular occlusion by microthrombi favor the so called parenchymal extinction, a process that promotes collapse of hepatocytes and the formation of gross fibrous tracts. These reasons may explain why advanced HCV infection may evolve more rapidly to end-stage liver disease than other forms of cirrhosis. PMID:27182154

  4. Characterization of Thrombin-Bound Dabigatran Effects on Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Expression and Signaling In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Buxin; Soto, Antonio G.; Coronel, Luisa J.; Goss, Ashley; van Ryn, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin, the key effector protease of the coagulation cascade, drives fibrin deposition and activates human platelets through protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). These processes are critical to the progression of thrombotic diseases. Thrombin is the main target of anticoagulant therapy, and major efforts have led to the discovery of new oral direct inhibitors of thrombin. Dabigatran is the first oral anticoagulant licensed for the prevention of thromboembolisms associated with orthopedic surgery and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor that effectively blocks thrombin’s catalytic activity but does not preclude thrombin’s exosites and binding to fibrinogen. Thus, we hypothesized that catalytically inactive thrombin retains the capacity to bind to PAR1 through exosite-I and may modulate its function independent of receptor cleavage and activation. Here, we report that dabigatran at clinically relevant concentrations is an effective and acute inhibitor of thrombin-induced PAR1 cleavage, activation, internalization, and β-arrestin recruitment in vitro. Interestingly, prolonged exposure to catalytic inactive thrombin incubated with dabigatran at 20-fold higher therapeutic concentration resulted in increased PAR1 cell-surface expression, which correlated with higher detectable levels of ubiquitinated receptor. These findings are consistent with ubiquitin function as a negative regulator of PAR1 constitutive internalization. Increased PAR1 expression also enhanced agonist-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and endothelial barrier permeability. Thus, catalytically inactive thrombin appears to modulate PAR1 function in vitro by stabilizing receptor cell-surface expression; but given the high clearance rate of thrombin, the high concentration of dabigatran required to achieve this effect the in vivo physiologic relevance is unknown. PMID:25934730

  5. Thrombin-mediated IL-10 up-regulation involves protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 expression in human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Naldini, Antonella; Bernini, Claudia; Pucci, Annalisa; Carraro, Fabio

    2005-09-01

    Thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, exerts cellular effects through activation of the protease-activated receptors (PARs). Interleukin (IL)-10, besides its anti-inflammatory properties, is considered a major denominator of the immunosuppressive effect during human endotoxemia. We have recently shown that thrombin inhibits IL-12 production in human mononuclear cells and that such inhibition is accompanied by IL-10 up-regulation. To our knowledge, there are no data available to show that thrombin mediates IL-10 production by its interactions with PAR-1. We here report that human alpha-thrombin enhances IL-10 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in established monocytic cell lines and that this up-regulation requires PAR-1 expression. The use of proteolytically inactive thrombin reveals that such enhancement requires thrombin proteolytic activity. Addition of PAR-1 agonist peptides, such as SFLLRN, results in a significant increase of IL-10 production. PAR-1 expression is required for thrombin-induced IL-10 production, as shown by experiments performed with antisense or sense PAR-1 oligonucleotides. Treatment with thrombin or SFLLRN of monocytic cell lines, such as U937 and Mono Mac-6, results in an increased IL-10 production. This suggests that the observed IL-10 up-regulation may be the result of a direct interaction with monocytes. The observation that thrombin-mediated up-regulation of IL-10 may require the expression of the PAR-1 receptor identifies a new, functional link between inflammation and coagulation. Our results may also contribute to better design therapeutic strategies to treat several disorders, characterized by the presence of inflammatory as well as coagulant responses. PMID:15961578

  6. Comparison of the effects of PAR1 antagonists, PAR4 antagonists, and their combinations on thrombin-induced human platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2006-09-28

    Thrombin activates human platelets through proteolytic activation of two protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR1 and PAR4. In the present study, we show that, RWJ-56110, a potent synthetic PAR1 antagonist, inhibited platelet aggregation caused by a low concentration (0.05 U/ml) of thrombin, but lost its effectiveness when higher concentrations of thrombin were used as stimulators. YD-3, a non-peptide PAR4 antagonist, alone had little or no effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, significantly enhanced the anti-aggregatory activity of PAR1 antagonist. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that P-selectin expression in thrombin-stimulated platelets can be synergistically prevented by combined treatment of PAR1 antagonist and PAR4 antagonist. These results indicate that thrombin-induced platelet activation cannot be effectively inhibited by just blocking either single thrombin receptor pathway, and suggest a rationale for potential combination therapy in arterial thrombosis. PMID:16890935

  7. A new electrochemically active-inactive switching aptamer molecular beacon to detect thrombin directly in solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guifang; Shen, Bijun; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Jikui; Xu, Ying; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2010-06-15

    A new electrochemical aptamer molecular beacon (MB) was designed by the carminic acid (CA) covalently linking at the each end of a special single-stranded stem-loop shaped oligonucleotide and named as CAs-MB. CA is an electrochemically active molecule and two CA molecules at the ends of molecular beacon stem were closed enough to associate each other to be as CA dimer. The dimer was electrochemically inactive. It separated into two CA monomers and produced the electrochemical signal while CAs-MB combined with target. In this protocol, the detection strategy of CAs-MB for thrombin is based on electrochemical active-inactive switching between monomer and dimer forms of CA. In order to enhance the electrochemical signal, magnetic nanobeads (MNB) was applied by connecting CAs-MB with MNB through a duplex of DNA. With the magnetic enrichment, the detection limit for thrombin reached to 42.4 pM. The experiment results showed that this type of electrochemical active-inactive switching aptamer molecular beacon allowed the direct detection of target proteins in the solution with no requirement of removing uncombined CAs-MB. Besides, CAs-MB/MNB can be easily regenerated by using 2M NaCl solution to cleave the thrombin from the aptasensor. PMID:20378327

  8. A new electrochemically active-inactive switching aptamer molecular beacon to detect thrombin directly in solution.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guifang; Shen, Bijun; Zhang, Fan; Wu, Jikui; Xu, Ying; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2010-06-15

    A new electrochemical aptamer molecular beacon (MB) was designed by the carminic acid (CA) covalently linking at the each end of a special single-stranded stem-loop shaped oligonucleotide and named as CAs-MB. CA is an electrochemically active molecule and two CA molecules at the ends of molecular beacon stem were closed enough to associate each other to be as CA dimer. The dimer was electrochemically inactive. It separated into two CA monomers and produced the electrochemical signal while CAs-MB combined with target. In this protocol, the detection strategy of CAs-MB for thrombin is based on electrochemical active-inactive switching between monomer and dimer forms of CA. In order to enhance the electrochemical signal, magnetic nanobeads (MNB) was applied by connecting CAs-MB with MNB through a duplex of DNA. With the magnetic enrichment, the detection limit for thrombin reached to 42.4 pM. The experiment results showed that this type of electrochemical active-inactive switching aptamer molecular beacon allowed the direct detection of target proteins in the solution with no requirement of removing uncombined CAs-MB. Besides, CAs-MB/MNB can be easily regenerated by using 2M NaCl solution to cleave the thrombin from the aptasensor.

  9. Effects of trypsin, thrombin and proteinase-activated receptors on guinea pig common bile duct motility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Che

    2012-11-10

    Trypsin and thrombin activate proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which modulate gastrointestinal motility. The common bile duct is exposed to many proteinases that can activate PARs, especially during infection and stone obstruction. We investigated PAR effects on common bile duct motility in vitro. Contraction and relaxation of isolated guinea pig common bile duct strips caused by PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) agonists were measured using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the expression of PAR(1) and PAR(2). Thrombin and two PAR(1) peptide agonists, TFLLR-NH(2) and SFLLRN-NH(2), evoked moderate relaxation of the carbachol-contracted common bile duct in a concentration-dependent manner. Trypsin and three PAR(2) peptide agonists, 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2), SLIGKV-NH(2) and SLIGRL-NH(2), generated moderate to marked relaxation as well. The existence of PAR(1) and PAR(2) mRNA in the common bile duct was identified by RT-PCR. Moreover, two PAR(4)-selective agonists, AYPGKF-NH(2) and GYPGQV-NH(2), produced relaxation of the common bile duct. In contrast, all PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. This indicates that PAR(1), PAR(2) and PAR(4) mediate common bile duct relaxation. The thrombin, TFLLR-NH(2), trypsin, and AYPGKF-NH(2)-induced responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. Our findings provide the first evidence that PAR(1) and PAR(2) mediate whereas agonists of PAR(4) elicit relaxation of the guinea pig common bile duct. Trypsin and thrombin relax the common bile duct. PARs may play an important role in the control of common bile duct motility. PMID:22960409

  10. Evidence for the presence of a protease-activated receptor distinct from the thrombin receptor in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, R J; Derian, C K; Darrow, A L; Tomko, K A; Eckardt, A J; Seiberg, M; Scarborough, R M; Andrade-Gordon, P

    1995-01-01

    Thrombin receptor activation was explored in human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts, cells that are actively involved in skin tissue repair. The effects of thrombin, trypsin, and the receptor agonist peptides SFLLRN and TFRIFD were assessed in inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization studies. Thrombin and SFLLRN stimulated fibroblasts in both assays to a similar extent, whereas TFRIFD was less potent. Trypsin demonstrated weak efficacy in these assays in comparison with thrombin. Results in fibroblasts were consistent with human platelet thrombin receptor activation. Keratinocytes, however, exhibited a distinct profile, with trypsin being a far better activator of inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization than thrombin. Furthermore, SFLLRN was more efficacious than thrombin, whereas no response was observed with TFRIFD. Since our data indicated that keratinocytes possess a trypsin-sensitive receptor, we addressed the possibility that these cells express the human homologue of the newly described murine protease-activated receptor, PAR-2 [Nystedt, S., Emilsson, K., Wahlestedt, C. & Sundelin, J. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 9208-9212]. PAR-2 is activated by nanomolar concentrations of trypsin and possesses the tethered ligand sequence SLIGRL. SLIGRL was found to be equipotent with SFLLRN in activating keratinocyte inositolphospholipid hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. Desensitization studies indicated that SFLLRN, SLIGRL, and trypsin activate a common receptor, PAR-2. Northern blot analyses detected a transcript of PAR-2 in total RNA from keratinocytes but not fibroblasts. Levels of thrombin receptor message were equivalent in the two cell types. Our results indicate that human keratinocytes possess PAR-2, suggesting a potential role for this receptor in tissue repair and/or skin-related disorders. Images Fig. 6 PMID:7568091

  11. [Role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and myosin light chain kinase during the activation of thrombin receptors].

    PubMed

    Han, Yue; Gao, Hai-Li; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Xia; Dai, Lan; Sheng, Wen-Hong; Sun, Ai-Ning; Wu, De-Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yue; Ruan, Chang-Geng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of study was to compare the influences of wortmannin on platelet aggregation and platelet membrane surface glycoproteins GPIb expression after thrombin receptor activation, and to investigate the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in the course of thrombin receptor activation. Peptide SFLLRN (PAR1-AP) and AYPGKF (PAR4-AP) were used for stimulating platelet, and the changes of platelet aggregation and GPIb were analyzed with 100 nmol/L wortmannin (inhibitor of PI3-K) and 10 micromol/L wortmannin (inhibitor of MLCK). The results indicated that the platelet activation was influenced by either concentration of wortmannin in response to PAR stimulation. Platelet aggregation was apparently inhibited by 10 micromol/L wortmannin through both PAR peptides, and was slightly inhibited by 100 nmol/L wortmannin only under PAR1-AP activation. In addition, GPIbalpha internalization was partly inhibited by 100 nmol/L wortmannin in response to PAR1 (p < 0.05 at 1, 2, 5 min) and PAR4 (p < 0.05 at 2, 5, 10 min) activation. Meanwhile, 10 micromol/L wortmannin induced little change for GPIbalpha centralisation in the course of PAR activation, with a delayed restoration of surface GPIbalpha observed under PAR1-AP activation, and no change of GPIbalpha redistribution existed under PAR4-AP activation. It is concluded that the different roles of PI3-K and MLCK exist in the course of thrombin receptor activation. PI3-K accelerates the short course of GPIb centralisation for two PAR signal pathways, while MLCK inhibits the restoration of GPIbalpha in PAR1 pathway. PMID:19549383

  12. An autoantibody directed against human thrombin anion-binding exosite in a patient with arterial thrombosis: effects on platelets, endothelial cells, and protein C activation.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, E; Lafay, M; Gaussem, P; Picard, V; Jandrot-Perrus, M; Aiach, M; Rendu, F

    1994-09-15

    An autoantibody, developed by a patient with severe and recurrent arterial thrombosis, was characterized to be directed against the anion-binding exosite of thrombin, and inhibited all thrombin interactions requiring this secondary binding site without interfering with the catalytic site. The effect of the antibody was studied on thrombin interactions with platelets and endothelial cells from human umbilical veins (HUVEC). The autoantibody specifically and concentration-dependently inhibited alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation and prostacyclin (PGI2) synthesis from HUVEC. It had no effect when gamma-thrombin or the thrombin receptor activation peptide SFLLR were the inducers. The effect of the antibody on protein C activation has been studied. The antibody blocked the thrombin-thrombomodulin activation of protein C. The inhibition of the activation was maximal with a low concentration of thrombomodulin. The fact that the autoantibody inhibited concentration-dependent alpha-thrombin-induced platelet and endothelial cell functions emphasizes the crucial role of the anion-binding exosite of thrombin to activate its receptor. In regard to the pathology, the antibody inhibited two vascular processes implicated in thrombin-antithrombotic functions, PGI2 secretion, and protein C activation, which could be implicated in this arterial thrombotic disease.

  13. Thrombin regulation of cell function through protease-activated receptors: implications for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Derian, C K; Damiano, B P; D'Andrea, M R; Andrade-Gordon, P

    2002-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin is well recognized as being pivotal to the maintenance of hemostasis under both normal and pathological conditions. Its cellular actions are mediated through a unique family of protease-activated receptors (PARs). These receptors represent a novel family of G protein-coupled receptors that undergo proteolytic cleavage of their amino terminus and subsequent autoactivation by a tethered peptide ligand. This paper reviews the consequences of PAR activation in thrombosis, vascular injury, inflammation, tissue injury, and within the tumor microenvironment.

  14. A systems approach to hemostasis: 3. Thrombus consolidation regulates intrathrombus solute transport and local thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Stalker, Timothy J; Welsh, John D; Tomaiuolo, Maurizio; Wu, Jie; Colace, Thomas V; Diamond, Scott L; Brass, Lawrence F

    2014-09-11

    Hemostatic thrombi formed after a penetrating injury have a distinctive structure in which a core of highly activated, closely packed platelets is covered by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. We have shown that differences in intrathrombus molecular transport emerge in parallel with regional differences in platelet packing density and predicted that these differences affect thrombus growth and stability. Here we test that prediction in a mouse vascular injury model. The studies use a novel method for measuring thrombus contraction in vivo and a previously characterized mouse line with a defect in integrin αIIbβ3 outside-in signaling that affects clot retraction ex vivo. The results show that the mutant mice have a defect in thrombus consolidation following vascular injury, resulting in an increase in intrathrombus transport rates and, as predicted by computational modeling, a decrease in thrombin activity and platelet activation in the thrombus core. Collectively, these data (1) demonstrate that in addition to the activation state of individual platelets, the physical properties of the accumulated mass of adherent platelets is critical in determining intrathrombus agonist distribution and platelet activation and (2) define a novel role for integrin signaling in the regulation of intrathrombus transport rates and localization of thrombin activity. PMID:24951426

  15. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  16. Cysteine proteases from the Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited thrombin and plasmin like activities.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, H V; Riyaz, M; Venkatesh Kumar, R; Dharmappa, K K; Tarannum, Shaista; Siddesha, J M; Rajesh, R; Vishwanath, B S

    2009-10-01

    In the present study we evaluated the presence of cysteine protease from the latex of four plants Asclepias curassavica L., Calotropis gigantea R.Br., Pergularia extensa R.Br. and Cynanchum puciflorum R.Br. belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. Cysteine proteases from these plants latex exhibited both thrombin and plasmin like activities. Latex enzyme fraction in a concentration dependent manner induced the formation of clot in citrated blood plasma. Direct incubation of fibrinogen with latex enzyme fraction resulted in the formation of fibrin clot similar to thrombin enzyme. However prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot suggesting plasmin like activity. Latex enzyme fraction preferentially hydrolyzed Aalpha and Bbeta chains of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot. Latex enzyme fraction also hydrolyzed the subunits of fully cross linked fibrin efficiently, the order of hydrolysis was alpha-polymer > alpha-chains > beta-chain and gamma-gamma dimer. Cysteine proteases from all the four Asclepiadaceae plants latex exhibited similar action on fibrinogen and fibrin. This study scientifically validate the use of plant latex in stop bleeding and wound healing by traditional healers all over the world.

  17. Atorvastatin neutralises the thrombin-induced tissue factor expresion in endothelial cells via geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sales, Vicenta; Vila, Virtudes; Ferrando, Marcos; Reganon, Edelmiro

    2011-01-01

    Statins may have beneficial effects in atherogenesis given their antithrombotic properties involving non-lipid mechanisms that modify endothelial function of tissue factor induction by thrombin. In this study, we investigate the effect of atorvastatin on tissue factor (TF) activity in thrombin-stimulated endothelial cells and its regulation through mevalonate or its derivatives. First subculture of human umbilical endothelial cells was used for this study. Cells were treated with thrombin and atorvastatin for different time intervals and dosage. Tissue factor activity was measured as Factor Xa generation induced by Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa complex on confluent cells. Our results show that atorvastatin prevents the thrombin-induced up-regulation of tissue factor activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate reversed this inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on tissue factor activity, while the presence of farnesyl pyrophosphate did not prevent the atorvastatin effect on thrombin-induced tissue factor activity. Rho-kinase inhibitor did not affect the thrombin stimulation of tissue factor activity. High amount of hydrophobic isoprenoid groups decreases the thrombin-induced TF activity and may promote endothelial cell anti-thrombotic action. Rho kinase pathways do not have a major role in the thrombin-mediated TF activity. The inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on thrombin-induced TF activity was partially reversed by MVA and GGPP but not FPP.

  18. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Marx, Pauline F

    2004-09-01

    The coagulation system is a potent mechanism that prevents blood loss after vascular injury. It consists of a number of linked enzymatic reactions resulting in thrombin generation. Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen into a fibrin clot. The clot is subsequently removed by the fibrinolytic system upon wound healing. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), which is identical to the previously identified proteins procarboxypeptidase B, R, and U, forms a link between blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. TAFI circulates as an inactive proenzyme in the bloodstream, and becomes activated during blood clotting. The active form, TAFIa, inhibits fibrinolysis by cleaving off C-terminal lysine residues from partially degraded fibrin that stimulates the tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Consequently, removal of these lysines leads to less plasmin formation and subsequently to protection of the fibrin clot from break down. Moreover, TAFI may also play a role in other processes such as, inflammation and tissue repair. In this review, recent developments in TAFI research are discussed. PMID:15379716

  19. Hemostatic effect and distribution of new rhThrombin formulations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtová, L'udmila; Sadloňová, Irina; Murányi, Andrej; Zigová, Jana; Múčková, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombin (rhThrombin) is a potential hemostatic alternative to bovine and human plasma-derived thrombin. Hemostatic, liver regeneration effect and plasma concentrations of rhThrombin (SCILL) tested in the form of solution and hydrogels (thermo-sensitive poloxamer gel and carbomer gel; hameln rds) were evaluated. In the bleeding model, rhThrombin was applied locally on the bleeding site. The time to hemostasis was measured. The rhThrombin in liquid form as well as the thermo-sensitive gel forming formulation significantly reduced the bleeding time in comparison to saline. In the regeneration model, a cut in the form “V” was made on the liver and rhThrombin in both formulations was applied at defined concentrations to the wound for 5 min. The rats survived 1, 3 and 5 days after the injury and treatment. Histological examination showed better results in the group treated with rh Thrombin gel in comparison to the liquid form – solution; differences were insignificant. Low [125I]-rhThrombin radioactivity was evaluated in plasma after topical application (solution and both hydrogels) at hemostatic effective doses to partial hepatectomy in rats. Locally applied rh Thrombin on the rat damaged liver tissue never reached pharmacologically active systemic levels. The plasmatic levels and the content of this active protein in injured liver tissue were lower after application of its hydrogels versus solution. PMID:26109904

  20. Thrombin Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... monitor unfractionated heparin therapy and to detect heparin contamination in a blood sample. While it is still ... thrombin time may sometimes be ordered when heparin contamination of a sample is suspected or when a ...

  1. Transfected adenosine A1 receptor-mediated modulation of thrombin-stimulated phospholipase C and phospholipase A2 activity in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Dickenson, J M; Hill, S J

    1997-02-19

    Thrombin receptor activation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stimulates the hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids and the release of arachidonic acid. Our previous studies have shown that activation of the human transfected adenosine A1 receptor in CHO cells (CHO-A1) potentiates the accumulation of inositol phosphates elicited by endogenous P2U purinoceptors and CCKA receptors. In this study we have investigated whether adenosine A1 receptor activation can modulate thrombin-stimulated arachidonic acid release and/or inositol phospholipid hydrolysis in CHO-A1 cells. Thrombin stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid release and total [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation in CHO-A1 cells. Both these responses to thrombin were were insensitive to pertussis toxin. The protein kinase C activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), potentiated thrombin-stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid. In marked contrast, PMA inhibited thrombin-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation. The selective protein kinase C inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (3-¿1-[3-(2-isothioureido)propyl] indol-3-yl¿-4-(1-methylindol-3-yl)-3-pyrrolin-2,5-dione) had no effect on thrombin-stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid release but reversed the potentiation of thrombin-stimulated [3H]arachidonic acid release elicited by PMA. The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) augmented the release of [3H]arachidonic acid produced by thrombin. Co-activation of the adenosine A1 receptor also potentiated thrombin-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation. The synergistic interactions between the adenosine A1 receptor and thrombin were abolished in pertussis-toxin-treated cells. The potentiation of [3H]arachidonic acid release by CPA was blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitors Ro 31-8220 and GF 109203X (3-[1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1 H-indol-3-yl]-4-(1 H-indol-3-yl)- 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione). In conclusion, thrombin receptor activation in CHO-A1 cells stimulates the accumulation of [3H

  2. Anticoagulant Activity of a Unique Sulfated Pyranosic (1→3)-β-l-Arabinan through Direct Interaction with Thrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Paula V.; Quintana, Irene; Cerezo, Alberto S.; Caramelo, Julio J.; Pol-Fachin, Laercio; Verli, Hugo; Estevez, José M.; Ciancia, Marina

    2013-01-01

    A highly sulfated 3-linked β-arabinan (Ab1) with arabinose in the pyranose form was obtained from green seaweed Codium vermilara (Bryopsidales). It comprised major amounts of units sulfated on C-2 and C-4 and constitutes the first polysaccharide of this type isolated in the pure form and fully characterized. Ab1 showed anticoagulant activity by global coagulation tests. Less sulfated arabinans obtained from the same seaweed have less or no activity. Ab1 exerts its activity through direct and indirect (antithrombin- and heparin cofactor II-mediated) inhibition of thrombin. Direct thrombin inhibition was studied in detail. By native PAGE, it was possible to detect formation of a complex between Ab1 and human thrombin (HT). Ab1 binding to HT was measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra of the Ab1 complex suggested that ligand binding induced a small conformational change on HT. Ab1-thrombin interactions were studied by molecular dynamic simulations using the persulfated octasaccharide as model compound. Most carbohydrate-protein contacts would occur by interaction of sulfate groups with basic amino acid residues on the surface of the enzyme, more than 60% of them being performed by the exosite 2-composing residues. In these interactions, the sulfate groups on C-2 were shown to interact more intensely with the thrombin structure. In contrast, the disulfated oligosaccharide does not promote major conformational modifications at the catalytic site when complexed to exosite 1. These results show that this novel pyranosic sulfated arabinan Ab1 exerts its anticoagulant activity by a mechanism different from those found previously for other sulfated polysaccharides and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23161548

  3. Fibrin sealant promotes migration and proliferation of human articular chondrocytes: possible involvement of thrombin and protease-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Kirilak, Yaowanuj; Pavlos, Nathan J; Willers, Craig R; Han, Renzhi; Feng, Haotian; Xu, Jiake; Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Henry, Peter; Wood, David; Zheng, Ming H

    2006-04-01

    Fibrin sealant (FS), a biological adhesive material, has been recently recommended as an adjunct in autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). While FS has been shown to possess osteoinductive potential, little is known about its effects on chondrogenic cells. In this study, we assessed the bioactivity of FS (Tisseel) on the migration and proliferation of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. Using a co-culture assay to mimic matrix-induced ACI (MACI), chondrocytes were found to migrate from collagen membranes towards FS within 12 h of culture, with significant migratory activity evident by 24 h. In addition, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation experiments revealed that thrombin, the active component of the tissue glue, stimulated chondrocyte proliferation, with maximal efficacy observed at 48 h post-stimulation (1-10 U/ml). In an effort to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these thrombin-induced effects, we examined the expression and activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs), established thrombin receptors. Using a combination of RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, all four PARs were detected in human chondrocytes, with PAR-1 being the major isoform expressed. Moreover, thrombin and a PAR-1, but not other PAR-isotype-specific peptide agonists, were found to induce rapid intracellular Ca2+ responses in human chondrocytes in calcium mobilization assays. Together, these data demonstrate that FS supports both the migration and proliferation of human chondrocytes. We propose that these effects are mediated, at least in part, via thrombin-induced PAR-1 signalling in human chondrocytes. PMID:16525709

  4. Plasma Thrombin Generation and Sensitivity to Activated Protein C Among Patients With Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Maeve P; Kevane, Barry; O'Shea, Susan I; Quinn, Shane; Egan, Karl; Gilligan, Oonagh M; Ní Áinle, Fionnuala

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of the prothrombotic state in myeloma has yet to be definitively characterized. Similarly, while recent evidence suggests that patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) may also be at increased risk of thrombosis, the magnitude and the etiology of this risk have also yet to be defined. The present study aims to characterize patterns of plasma thrombin generation and sensitivity to the anticoagulant activity of activated protein C (APC) at the time of initial diagnosis of myeloma and in response to therapy in comparison to that observed among patients with MGUS and matched, healthy volunteers. Patients presenting with newly diagnosed/newly relapsed myeloma (n = 8), MGUS (n = 8), and matched healthy volunteers (n = 8) were recruited. Plasma thrombin generation was determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Peak thrombin generation was significantly higher in patients with myeloma (383.4 ± 33.4 nmol/L) and MGUS (353.4 ± 16.5 nmol/L) compared to healthy volunteers (276.7 ± 20.8 nmol/L; P < .05). In the presence of APC, endogenous thrombin potential was significantly lower in control plasma (228.6 ± 44.5 nmol/L × min) than in either myeloma (866.2 ± 241.3 nmol/L × min, P = .01) or MGUS plasma (627 ± 91.5 nmol/L × min, P = .003). Within the myeloma cohort, peak thrombin generation was significantly higher at diagnosis (353.2 ± 15.9 nmol/L) than following completion of the third cycle of therapy (282.1 ± 15.2 nmol/L; P < .005). Moreover, sensitivity to APC increased progressively with each cycle of chemotherapy. Further study of the etiology and evolving patterns of hypercoagulability among patients with these conditions is warranted and may have future implications for thromboprophylaxis strategies. PMID:26759370

  5. Using self-assembled aptamers and fibrinogen-conjugated gold nanoparticles to detect DNA based on controlled thrombin activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Kuo; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2011-04-15

    We have developed a colorimetric probe, based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), for the detection of DNA and for the analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP); this probe functions through the modulation of the activity of thrombin (Thr) in the presence of bivalent thrombin-binding aptamers (TBAs). The bivalent TBAs were formed from TBA(27') (comprising a 27-base sequence providing TBA(27) functionality, a T(5) linker, and an 11-base sequence for hybridization) and TBA(15') (comprising a 15-base sequence providing TBA(15) functionality, a T(5) linker, and a 12-base sequence for hybridization) through their hybridization with perfectly matched DNA (DNA(pm)). The bivalent TBAs interacted specifically with thrombin, suppressing its activity toward fibrinogen-modified Au NPs (Fib-Au NPs). The potency of the inhibitory effect of TBA(15')-TBA(27')/DNA(pm) toward thrombin - and, thus, the degree of aggregation of the Fib-Au NPs - was highly dependent on the concentration of DNA(pm). Under the optimal conditions (50 pM thrombin, 2 nM TBA(15'), 2 nM TBA(27'), and 38 pM Fib-Au NPs), the linear relationship of the response of the probe toward DNA(pm) extended from 0.1 to 2 nM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The limit of detection (LOD) for DNA(pm) was 20 pM, based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. We also applied a corresponding TBA(15″)-TBA(27″)/Thr/Fib-Au NP probe to the detection of the SNP of the Arg249Ser unit in the TP53 gene, with an LOD of 32 pM. Relative to conventional molecular beacon-based and crosslinking aggregation-based Au NP probes, our new approach offers higher sensitivity and higher selectivity toward DNA.

  6. c-Src mediates thrombin-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Chin; Chen, Bing-Chang

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we examined the regulation of NF-kappaB activation and IL-8/CXCL8 expression by thrombin in human lung epithelial cells (EC). Thrombin caused a concentration-dependent increase in IL-8/CXCL8 release in a human lung EC line (A549) and primary normal human bronchial EC. In A549 cells, thrombin, SFLLRN-NH2 (a protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) agonist peptide), and GYPGQV-NH2 (a PAR4 agonist peptide), but not TFRGAP-NH2 (a PAR3 agonist peptide), induced an increase in IL-8/CXCL8-luciferase (Luc) activity. The thrombin-induced IL-8/CXCL8 release was attenuated by D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone (a thrombin inhibitor), U73122 (a phosphoinositide-phospholipase C inhibitor), Ro-32-0432 (a protein kinsase C alpha (PKC alpha) inhibitor), an NF-kappaB inhibitor peptide, and Bay 117082 (an IkappaB phosphorylation inhibitor). Thrombin-induced increase in IL-8/CXCL8-Luc activity was inhibited by the dominant-negative mutant of c-Src and the cells transfected with the kappaB site mutation of the IL-8/CXCL8 construct. Thrombin caused time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of c-Src at tyrosine 416 and c-Src activity. Thrombin-elicited c-Src activity was inhibited by Ro-32-0432. Stimulation of cells with thrombin activated IkappaB kinase alphabeta (IKK alphabeta), IkappaB alpha phosphorylation, IkappaB alpha degradation, p50 and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein complex formation, and kappaB-Luc activity. Pretreatment of A549 cells with Ro-32-4032 and the dominant-negative mutant of c-Src DN inhibited thrombin-induced IKK alphabeta activity, kappaB-Luc activity, and NF-kappaB-specific DNA-protein complex formation. Further studies revealed that thrombin induced PKC alpha, c-Src, and IKK alphabeta complex formation. These results show for the first time that thrombin, acting through PAR1 and PAR4, activates the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C/PKC alpha/c-Src/IKK alphabeta signaling pathway

  7. Linkage between proton binding and amidase activity in human alpha-thrombin: effect of ions and temperature.

    PubMed

    Di Cera, E; De Cristofaro, R; Albright, D J; Fenton, J W

    1991-08-13

    The amidase activity of human alpha-thrombin has been studied at steady state in the pH range 6-10, as a function of NaCl concentration from 1 mM to 1 M and temperature from 10 to 40 degrees C. The Michaelis-Menten constant, Km, shows a bell-shaped dependence over this pH range with a minimum around pH 7.5 in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl at 25 degrees C. The catalytic constant, kcat, also has a bell-shaped pH dependence with multiple inflection points that are more evident at low NaCl concentrations and a maximum around pH 8.2 in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl at 25 degrees C. A detailed analysis of the results in terms of a general linkage scheme has allowed a thorough characterization of the linkage between proton and substrate binding and its dependence on NaCl concentration, as well as the relevant entropic and enthalpic contributions to binding and catalytic events. Formulation of detailed partition functions for each enzyme intermediate involved in the catalytic cycle suggests that (at least) three groups are responsible for the control of thrombin amidase activity as a function of pH. One group is to be identified with the active site His, due to its pK values in the free enzyme and the adduct and its enthalpy of ionization. The effect of NaCl concentration on amidase activity seems to be extremely specific. Comparative steady-state measurements carried out in the presence of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, and MgCl2 show that human alpha-thrombin is capable of discriminating among different cations and anions. This suggests that small ions participate as allosteric effectors in the regulation of thrombin activity. The linkage with NaCl is strongly pH dependent and increases with decreasing pH. The present results provide information on the basic aspects of human alpha-thrombin activity and regulation and enable a rigorous thermodynamic approach to other important regulatory interactions in human alpha-thrombin and its structurally perturbed derivatives. PMID:1868067

  8. [Activation of cardiac contractivity of the edible snail H. pomatia under effect of thrombin. Study of role of cAMP].

    PubMed

    Solomonova, V G; Avdonin, P P; Vinichenko, E S; Sukhanova, I F; Avdonin, P V

    2007-01-01

    Thrombin acts on mammalian cells through specific, the so-called protease-activated receptors (PARs). The thrombin action is mediated via three out of four known types of these receptors PAR(1, 3, 4). Mammalian thrombin receptors, apart from performance of other functions, control cardiac and vascular contractility. It is not known whether receptors of such kind exist in invertebrate animals. In the present work we have showed for the first time that thrombin in the concentration range of 0.01-1 units/ml increases amplitude of contractions of the isolated heart ventricle of the edible snail Helix pomatia. Its effect is reproduced by peptide ligands of receptors PAR1 and PAR4 that have sequences Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn (SFLLRN) and Glu-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Lys-Phe (QYPGKF), respectively. A potent activati of cardiac contractivity of H. pomatia is serotonin. A comparative study of mechanisms of action of serotonin and thrombin on the edible snail heart was carried out. cAMP participates in transduction of signal from serotonin receptors. On the membrane preparation from the H. pomatia heart, it was shown that thrombin and peptide ligands PAR(1, 4), unlike serotonin, did not increase adenylyl cyclase activity. Thus, mechanism of activation of cardiac contractivity of H. pomatia by thrombin differs from the action mechanism of serotonin. It is suggested that molluscs have receptors homologous to protease activated mammalian receptors. PMID:17408090

  9. GDP beta S enhances the activation of phospholipase C caused by thrombin in human platelets: evidence for involvement of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Oberdisse, E.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1987-05-14

    Guanosine 5'-O-thiotriphosphate (GTP gamma S) and thrombin stimulate the activity of phospholipase C in platelets that have been permeabilized with saponin and whose inositol phospholipids have been prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Ca/sup 2 +/ has opposite effects on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates induced by thrombin or GTP gamma S. While the action of GTP gamma S on the formation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphates is inhibited by Ca/sup 2 +/, action of thrombin is stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/. Guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP beta S), which inhibits the function of GTP-binding proteins, also inhibits the effect of GTP gamma S on phospholipase C stimulation but, surprisingly, increases the effect of thrombin. Ca/sup 2 +/ increases the inhibitory effect of GDP beta S on GTP gamma S activation of phospholipase C, but Ca/sup 2 +/ further enhances the stimulatory effect of GDP beta S on the thrombin activation of phospholipase C. This indicates that two mechanisms are responsible for the activation of phospholipase C in platelets. A GTP-binding protein is responsible for regulation of phospholipase C induced by GTP gamma S, while the effect of thrombin on the stimulation of phospholipase C is independent of GTP-binding proteins. However, the effect of thrombin may be modulated by the action of an inhibitory GTP-binding protein.

  10. Redistribution of activated pp60c-src to integrin-dependent cytoskeletal complexes in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, E A; Brugge, J S

    1993-01-01

    Thrombin stimulation of platelets induces a transient increase in the specific activity of pp60c-src followed by a redistribution of pp60c-src to the Triton X-100-insoluble, cytoskeleton-rich fraction. Concomitant with the observed increase in pp60c-src activity was a rapid dephosphorylation of tyrosine 527 in 10 to 15% of pp60c-src molecules. In addition, we found that pp60c-src from the Triton-insoluble fraction was phosphorylated on tyrosine 416, the autophosphorylation site which is phosphorylated in activated oncogenic variants of pp60src. Furthermore, in platelets from patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (which are deficient in the integrin receptor GPIIb-IIIa), pp60c-src was not translocated to the Triton-insoluble fraction, and there was a sustained increase in pp60c-src activity following thrombin treatment. These results suggest that pp60c-src is rapidly activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets, potentially by a protein tyrosine phosphatase, before it translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction, where many of its potential substrates are found. The evidence that the cytoskeletal association of pp60c-src is dependent upon engagement of the integrin receptor GPIIb-IIIa suggests that integrin-cytoskeletal complexes may serve to compartmentalize and anchor activated enzymes involved in signal transduction. Images PMID:7680100

  11. Thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species generation in platelets: A novel role for protease-activated receptor 4 and GPIbα

    PubMed Central

    Carrim, Naadiya; Arthur, Jane F.; Hamilton, Justin R.; Gardiner, Elizabeth E.; Andrews, Robert K.; Moran, Niamh; Berndt, Michael C.; Metharom, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Platelets are essential for maintaining haemostasis and play a key role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Upon ligation of platelet receptors through subendothelial matrix proteins, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, further amplifying the platelet activation response. Thrombin, a potent platelet activator, can signal through GPIbα and protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 on human platelets, and recently has been implicated in the generation of ROS. While ROS are known to have key roles in intra-platelet signalling and subsequent platelet activation, the precise receptors and signalling pathways involved in thrombin-induced ROS generation have yet to be fully elucidated. Objective To investigate the relative contribution of platelet GPIbα and PARs to thrombin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methods and results Highly specific antagonists targeting PAR1 and PAR4, and the GPIbα-cleaving enzyme, Naja kaouthia (Nk) protease, were used in quantitative flow cytometry assays of thrombin-induced ROS production. Antagonists of PAR4 but not PAR1, inhibited thrombin-derived ROS generation. Removal of the GPIbα ligand binding region attenuated PAR4-induced and completely inhibited thrombin-induced ROS formation. Similarly, PAR4 deficiency in mice abolished thrombin-induced ROS generation. Additionally, GPIbα and PAR4-dependent ROS formation were shown to be mediated through focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) proteins. Conclusions Both GPIbα and PAR4 are required for thrombin-induced ROS formation, suggesting a novel functional cooperation between GPIbα and PAR4. Our study identifies a novel role for PAR4 in mediating thrombin-induced ROS production that was not shared by PAR1. This suggests an independent signalling pathway in platelet activation that may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26569550

  12. Thrombin Enhances NGF-Mediated Neurite Extension via Increased and Sustained Activation of p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, Rania E.; Sarker, Krishna; Jin, Yan; Fu, Songbin; Rosales, Jesusa L.; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-01-01

    Rapid neurite remodeling is fundamental to nervous system development and plasticity. It involves neurite extension that is regulated by NGF through PI3K/AKT, p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. It also involves neurite retraction that is regulated by the serine protease, thrombin. However, the intracellular signaling pathway by which thrombin causes neurite retraction is unknown. Using the PC12 neuronal cell model, we demonstrate that thrombin utilizes the PI3K/AKT pathway for neurite retraction in NGF-differentiated cells. Interestingly, however, we found that thrombin enhances NGF-induced neurite extension in differentiating cells. This is achieved through increased and sustained activation of p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. Thus, thrombin elicits opposing effects in differentiated and differentiating cells through activation of distinct signaling pathways: neurite retraction in differentiated cells via PI3K/AKT, and neurite extension in differentiating cells via p44/42 MAPK and p38 MAPK. These findings, which also point to a novel cooperative role between thrombin and NGF, have significant implications in the development of the nervous system and the disease processes that afflicts it as well as in the potential of combined thrombin and NGF therapy for impaired learning and memory, and spinal cord injury which all require neurite extension and remodeling. PMID:25061982

  13. Study of the Differential Activity of Thrombin Inhibitors Using Docking, QSAR, Molecular Dynamics, and MM-GBSA

    PubMed Central

    Mena-Ulecia, Karel; Tiznado, William; Caballero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Non-peptidic thrombin inhibitors (TIs; 177 compounds) with diverse groups at motifs P1 (such as oxyguanidine, amidinohydrazone, amidine, amidinopiperidine), P2 (such as cyanofluorophenylacetamide, 2-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)acetamide), and P3 (such as phenylethyl, arylsulfonate groups) were studied using molecular modeling to analyze their interactions with S1, S2, and S3 subsites of the thrombin binding site. Firstly, a protocol combining docking and three dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship was performed. We described the orientations and preferred active conformations of the studied inhibitors, and derived a predictive CoMSIA model including steric, donor hydrogen bond, and acceptor hydrogen bond fields. Secondly, the dynamic behaviors of some selected TIs (compounds 26, 133, 147, 149, 162, and 177 in this manuscript) that contain different molecular features and different activities were analyzed by creating the solvated models and using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We used the conformational structures derived from MD to accomplish binding free energetic calculations using MM-GBSA. With this analysis, we theorized about the effect of van der Waals contacts, electrostatic interactions and solvation in the potency of TIs. In general, the contents reported in this article help to understand the physical and chemical characteristics of thrombin-inhibitor complexes. PMID:26599107

  14. Study of the Differential Activity of Thrombin Inhibitors Using Docking, QSAR, Molecular Dynamics, and MM-GBSA.

    PubMed

    Mena-Ulecia, Karel; Tiznado, William; Caballero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Non-peptidic thrombin inhibitors (TIs; 177 compounds) with diverse groups at motifs P1 (such as oxyguanidine, amidinohydrazone, amidine, amidinopiperidine), P2 (such as cyanofluorophenylacetamide, 2-(2-chloro-6-fluorophenyl)acetamide), and P3 (such as phenylethyl, arylsulfonate groups) were studied using molecular modeling to analyze their interactions with S1, S2, and S3 subsites of the thrombin binding site. Firstly, a protocol combining docking and three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship was performed. We described the orientations and preferred active conformations of the studied inhibitors, and derived a predictive CoMSIA model including steric, donor hydrogen bond, and acceptor hydrogen bond fields. Secondly, the dynamic behaviors of some selected TIs (compounds 26, 133, 147, 149, 162, and 177 in this manuscript) that contain different molecular features and different activities were analyzed by creating the solvated models and using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We used the conformational structures derived from MD to accomplish binding free energetic calculations using MM-GBSA. With this analysis, we theorized about the effect of van der Waals contacts, electrostatic interactions and solvation in the potency of TIs. In general, the contents reported in this article help to understand the physical and chemical characteristics of thrombin-inhibitor complexes. PMID:26599107

  15. Conserved structure and adjacent location of the thrombin receptor and protease-activated receptor 2 genes define a protease-activated receptor gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M.; Ishii, K.; Kuo, W. L.; Piper, M.; Connolly, A.; Shi, Y. P.; Wu, R.; Lin, C. C.; Coughlin, S. R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thrombin is a serine protease that elicits a variety of cellular responses. Molecular cloning of a thrombin receptor revealed a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by a novel proteolytic mechanism. Recently, a second protease-activated receptor was discovered and dubbed PAR2. PAR2 is highly related to the thrombin receptor by sequence and, like the thrombin receptor, is activated by cleavage of its amino terminal exodomain. Also like the thrombin receptor, PAR2 can be activated by the hexapeptide corresponding to its tethered ligand sequence independent of receptor cleavage. Thus, functionally, the thrombin receptor and PAR2 constitute a fledgling receptor family that shares a novel proteolytic activation mechanism. To further explore the relatedness of the two known protease-activated receptors and to examine the possibility that a protease-activated gene cluster might exist, we have compared the structure and chromosomal locations of the thrombin receptor and PAR2 genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic structures of the two protease-activated receptor genes were determined by analysis of lambda phage, P1 bacteriophage, and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic clones. Chromosomal location was determined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes, and the relative distance separating the two genes was evaluated both by means of two-color FISH and analysis of YACs and BACs containing both genes. RESULTS: Analysis of genomic clones revealed that the two protease-activated receptor genes share a two-exon genomic structure in which the first exon encodes 5'-untranslated sequence and signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the mature receptor protein and 3'-untranslated sequence. The two receptor genes also share a common locus with the two human genes located at 5q13 and the two mouse genes at 13D2, a syntenic region of the mouse genome. These techniques also suggest that the physical distance separating

  16. Functional selectivity of G protein signaling by agonist peptides and thrombin for the protease-activated receptor-1.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Joseph N; Shen, Lixin; Holinstat, Michael; Brooks, Joshua D; Dibenedetto, Emmanuele; Hamm, Heidi E

    2005-07-01

    Thrombin activates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) by cleavage of the amino terminus to unmask a tethered ligand. Although peptide analogs can activate PAR-1, we show that the functional responses mediated via PAR-1 differ between the agonists. Thrombin caused endothelial monolayer permeability and mobilized intracellular calcium with EC(50) values of 0.1 and 1.7 nm, respectively. The opposite order of activation was observed for agonist peptide (SFLLRN-CONH(2) or TFLLRNKPDK) activation. The addition of inactivated thrombin did not affect agonist peptide signaling, suggesting that the differences in activation mechanisms are intramolecular in origin. Although activation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 by agonist peptides induced calcium mobilization, only PAR-1 activation affected barrier function. Induced barrier permeability is likely to be Galpha(12/13)-mediated as chelation of Galpha(q)-mediated intracellular calcium with BAPTA-AM, pertussis toxin inhibition of Galpha(i/o), or GM6001 inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase had no effect, whereas Y-27632 inhibition of the Galpha(12/13)-mediated Rho kinase abrogated the response. Similarly, calcium mobilization is Galpha(q)-mediated and independent of Galpha(i/o) and Galpha(12/13) because pertussis toxin Y-27632 and had no effect, whereas U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C-beta blocked the response. It is therefore likely that changes in permeability reflect Galpha(12/13) activation, and changes in calcium reflect Galpha(q) activation, implying that the pharmacological differences between agonists are likely caused by the ability of the receptor to activate Galpha(12/13) or Galpha(q). This functional selectivity was characterized quantitatively by a mathematical model describing each step leading to Rho activation and/or calcium mobilization. This model provides an estimate that peptide activation alters receptor/G protein binding to favor Galpha(q) activation over Galpha(12/13) by approximately 800-fold. PMID:15878870

  17. Conformational transitions linked to active site ligation in human thrombin: effect on the interaction with fibrinogen and the cleavable platelet receptor.

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, R; De Candia, E; Picozzi, M; Landolfi, R

    1995-01-27

    An experimental strategy based on solution viscosity perturbation allowed us to study the energetics of amide-substrates, p-aminobenzamidine (p-ABZ) and proflavin binding to the catalytic site of two proteolyzed forms of alpha-thrombin, i.e. zeta- and gamma T-thrombin. These thrombin derivatives are cleaved at the Leu144-Gly150 loop and at the fibrinogen recognition exosite (FRS), respectively. A phenomenological analysis of thermodynamic data showed that the amide substrates and p-ABZ interactions with zeta-thrombin were respectively, associated with a chemical compensation (i.e. the linear relationship between entropy and enthalpy of binding) and a hydrophobic phenomenon (i.e. a change in the standard heat capacity). The latter was slightly lower than that previously observed for a alpha-thrombin (0.78 +/- 0.25 versus 1.01 +/- 0.17 kcal/mol K). Both phenomenon were absent in gamma T-thrombin. The interaction of a alpha-, zeta- and gamma T-thrombin with macromolecular substrates that "bridge-bind" to both the catalytic site (CS) and fibrinogen recognition exosite (FRS), such as fibrinogen and the cleavable platelet receptor (CPR), was also evaluated. These interactions were studied by following fibrinopeptide A (FpA) release and by measuring intraplatelet Ca2+ changes induced by thrombin-CPR interaction. It was found that the free energy of activation (RT ln Kcat/Km) for both fibrinogen and CPR hydrolysis followed the same hierarchy, i.e. alpha > zeta > gamma. Moreover, the values of delta Cp for alpha-, zeta- and gamma T-thrombin interaction with p-ABZ were found to be linearly correlated to the free energy of activation for both fibrinogen and CPR cleavage. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that: (1) the Leu144-Gly150 loop and the FRS are both involved in the conformational transition linked to the binding of p-aminobenzamidine to the thrombin active site; (2) the extent of thrombin's capacity to undergo conformational transitions in alpha-, zeta- and gamma

  18. Antithrombotic properties of SSR182289A, a new, orally active thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lorrain, J; Millet, L; Lechaire, I; Lochot, S; Ferrari, P; Visconte, C; Sainte-Marie, M; Lunven, C; Berry, C N; Schaeffer, P; Herbert, J-M; O'Connor, S E

    2003-02-01

    N-[3-[[[(1S)-4-(5-Amino-2-pyridinyl)-1-[[4-difluoromethylene)-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl]butyl]amino]sulfonyl][1,1'-biphenyl]-2-yl]acetamide hydrochloride (SSR182289A) is a novel, potent, and selective thrombin inhibitor. We have examined the antithrombotic properties of SSR182289A administered by i.v. and p.o. routes in several different animal thrombosis models in comparison with reference antithrombotic agents. Oral administration of SSR182289A produced dose-related antithrombotic effects in the following models; rat venous thrombosis (ED(50) 0.9 mg/kg p.o.), rat silk thread arterio-venous (AV) shunt (ED(50) 3.8 mg/kg p.o.), rat thromboplastin-induced AV shunt (ED(50) 3.1 mg/kg p.o.), rat carotid artery thrombosis (ED(200) 5.9 mg/kg p.o.), and rabbit venous thrombosis (ED(50) 7.5 mg/kg p.o.). Administered as an i.v. bolus, SSR182289A showed antithrombotic activity in the above models with ED(50)/ED(200) values in the range of 0.2 to 1.9 mg/kg i.v. SSR182289A increased rat tail transection bleeding time at doses > or =10 mg/kg p.o. In the rat thromboplastin-induced AV shunt model, SSR182289A 10 mg/kg p.o. produced marked antithrombotic effects at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after administration. Hence, SSR182289A demonstrates potent oral antithrombotic properties in animal venous, AV-shunt, and arterial thrombosis models.

  19. Thrombin produces phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-independent mechanism in the human astrocytoma cell line 1321N1.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M; Bayón, Y; Sánchez Crespo, M; Nieto, M L

    1997-01-01

    The release of [3H]arachidonic acid was studied in the 1321N1 astrocytoma cell line upon stimulation with thrombin. The effect of thrombin was antagonized by hirudin only when both compounds were added simultaneously, which suggests activation of thrombin receptor. Evidence that the cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) takes part in thrombin-induced arachidonate release was provided by the finding that thrombin induced retardation of the mobility of cPLA2 in SDS/polyacrylamide gels, which is a feature of the activation of cPLA2 by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Thrombin induced activation of two members of the MAP kinase family whose consensus primary sequence appears in cPLA2, namely p42-MAP kinase and c-Jun kinase. However, the activation of c-Jun kinase preceded the phosphorylation of cPLA2 more clearly than the activation of p42-MAK kinase did. Both cPLA2 and c-Jun kinase activation were not affected by PD-98059, a specific inhibitor of MAP kinase kinases, which indeed completely blocked p42-MAP kinase shift. Heat shock, a well-known activator of c-Jun kinase, also phosphorylated cPLA2 but not p42-MAP kinase. These data indicate the existence in astrocytoma cells of a signalling pathway triggered by thrombin receptor stimulation that activates a kinase cascade acting on the Pro-Leu-Ser-Pro consensus primary sequence, activates cPLA2, and associates the release of arachidonate with nuclear signalling pathways. PMID:9359863

  20. Influenza virus H1N1 activates platelets through FcγRIIA signaling and thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Boilard, Eric; Paré, Guillaume; Rousseau, Matthieu; Cloutier, Nathalie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Lévesque, Tania; Borgeat, Pierre; Flamand, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Platelets play crucial functions in hemostasis and the prevention of bleeding. During H1N1 influenza A virus infection, platelets display activation markers. The platelet activation triggers during H1N1 infection remain elusive. We observed that H1N1 induces surface receptor activation, lipid mediator synthesis, and release of microparticles from platelets. These activation processes require the presence of serum/plasma, pointing to the contribution of soluble factor(s). Considering that immune complexes in the H1N1 pandemic were reported to play a pathogenic role, we assessed their contribution in H1N1-induced platelet activation. In influenza-immunized subjects, we observed that the virus scaffolds with immunoglobulin G (IgG) to form immune complexes that promote platelet activation. Mechanistically, this activation occurs through stimulation of low-affinity type 2 receptor for Fc portion of IgG (FcγRIIA), a receptor for immune complexes, independently of thrombin. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches, we found that the antibodies from H3N2-immunized mice activate transgenic mouse platelets that express FcγRIIA when put in the presence of H1N1, suggesting that cross-reacting influenza antibodies suffice. Alternatively, H1N1 can activate platelets via thrombin formation, independently of complement and FcγRIIA. These observations identify both the adaptive immune response and the innate response against pathogens as 2 intertwined processes that activate platelets during influenza infections.

  1. The thrombin E192Q-BPTI complex reveals gross structural rearrangements: implications for the interaction with antithrombin and thrombomodulin.

    PubMed Central

    van de Locht, A; Bode, W; Huber, R; Le Bonniec, B F; Stone, S R; Esmon, C T; Stubbs, M T

    1997-01-01

    Previous crystal structures of thrombin indicate that the 60-insertion loop is a rigid moiety that partially occludes the active site, suggesting that this structural feature plays a decisive role in restricting thrombin's specificity. This restricted specificity is typified by the experimental observation that thrombin is not inhibited by micromolar concentrations of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). Surprisingly, a single atom mutation in thrombin (E192Q) results in a 10(-8) M affinity for BPTI. The crystal structure of human thrombin mutant E192Q has been solved in complex with BPTI at 2.3 A resolution. Binding of the Kunitz inhibitor is accompanied by gross structural rearrangements in thrombin. In particular, thrombin's 60-loop is found in a significantly different conformation. Concomitant reorganization of other surface loops that surround the active site, i.e. the 37-loop, the 148-loop and the 99-loop, is observed. Thrombin can therefore undergo major structural reorganization upon strong ligand binding. Implications for the interaction of thrombin with antithrombin and thrombomodulin are discussed. PMID:9214615

  2. Aptamer RA36 inhibits of human, rabbit, and rat plasma coagulation activated with thrombin or snake venom coagulases.

    PubMed

    Savchik, E Yu; Kalinina, T B; Drozd, N N; Makarov, V A; Zav'yalova, E G; Lapsheva, E N; Mudrik, N N; Babij, A V; Pavlova, G V; Golovin, A V; Kopylov, A M

    2013-11-01

    RA36 DNA aptamer is a direct anticoagulant prolonging clotting time of human, rabbit, and rat plasma in the thrombin time test. Anticoagulant activity of RA36 is lower than that of recombinant hirudin. During inhibition of human plasma clotting activated with echitox (coagulase from Echis multisquamatus venom), the aptamer presumably binds to meisothrombin exosite I. The sensitivity of human plasma to the aptamer 5-fold surpasses that of rat plasma. Analysis of RA36 binding to coagulase of Agkistrodon halys venom (ancistron) is required for proving the effect of aptamer on polymerization of human fibrinogen. PMID:24319726

  3. Ionophore A23187 induces a refractory state in thrombin-activated release of inositol phosphates.

    PubMed Central

    Moscat, G; Moreno, F; Iglesias, S; Garcia-Barreno, P; Municio, A M

    1986-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol cycle has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of platelet functionality through the control of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. However, the requirements of phospholipase C for Ca2+ has not yet been elucidated in intact platelets. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the Ca2+ requirements of this enzyme in platelets from miniature swine by taking advantage of the permeabilizing properties of the ionophore A23187. Our results strongly suggest that the treatment of platelets with A23187 induces a refractory state in thrombin-stimulated release of inositol phosphates while 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-secretory capacity in response to thrombin remained constant. This refractory state seems to be dependent on some cytochalasin-inhibitable cytoskeletal phenomena. PMID:3099773

  4. Nanoparticles That Sense Thrombin Activity As Synthetic Urinary Biomarkers of Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease and regulator of hemostasis that plays a critical role in the formation of obstructive blood clots, or thrombosis, that is a life-threatening condition associated with numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis and stroke. To detect thrombi in living animals, we design and conjugate thrombin-sensitive peptide substrates to the surface of nanoparticles. Following intravenous infusion, these “synthetic biomarkers” survey the host vasculature for coagulation and, in response to substrate cleavage by thrombin, release ligand-encoded reporters into the host urine. To detect the urinary reporters, we develop a companion 96-well immunoassay that utilizes antibodies to bind specifically to the ligands, thus capturing the reporters for quantification. Using a thromboplastin-induced mouse model of pulmonary embolism, we show that urinary biomarker levels differentiate between healthy and thrombotic states and correlate closely with the aggregate burden of clots formed in the lungs. Our results demonstrate that synthetic biomarkers can be engineered to sense vascular diseases remotely from the urine and may allow applications in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24015809

  5. 'Pergularain e I'--a plant cysteine protease with thrombin-like activity from Pergularia extensa latex.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, Holenarasipura V; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Frey, Brigitte M; Frey, Felix J; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S

    2010-03-01

    Pergularain e I, a cysteine protease with thrombin-like activity, was purified by ion exchange chromatography from the latex of Pergularia extensa. Its homogeneity was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), native PAGE and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The molecular mass of pergularain e I by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) was found to be 23.356 kDa and the N-terminal sequence is L-P-H-D-V-E. Pergularain e I is a glycoprotein containing approximately 20% of carbohydrate. Pergularain e I constituted 6.7% of the total protein with a specific activity of 9.5 units/mg/min with a 2.11-fold increased purity. Proteolytic activity of the pergularain e I was completely inhibited by iodoacetic acid (IAA). Pergularain e I exhibited procoagulant activity with citrated plasma and fibrinogen similar to thrombin. Pergularain e I increases the absorbance of fibrinogen solution in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. At 10 microg concentration, an absorbance of 0.48 was reached within 10 min of incubation time. Similar absorbance was observed when 0.2 NIH units of thrombin were used. Thrombin-like activity of pergularain e I is because of the selective hydrolysis of A alpha and B beta chains of fibrinogen and gamma-chain was observed to be insusceptible to hydrolysis. Molecular masses of the two peptide fragments released from fibrinogen due to the hydrolysis by pergularain e I at 5-min incubation time were found to be 1537.21 and 1553.29 and were in close agreement with the molecular masses of 16 amino acid sequence of fibrinopeptide A and 14 amino acid sequence of fibrinopeptide B, respectively. Prolonged fibrinogen-pergularain e I incubation releases additional peptides and their sequence comparison of molecular masses of the released peptides suggested that pergularain e I hydrolyzes specifically after arginine residues.

  6. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors – mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, M. T.; Burke, F.; Warnock, M.; Zhou, Y.; Sweigart, J.; Chen, A.; Ricketts, D.; Lucchesi, B. R.; Chen, Z.; Di Cera, E.; Hilfinger, J.; Kim, J. S.; Mosberg, H. I.; Schmaier, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin – RPPGF. Methods and Results These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 µm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4–8.2 µm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 µm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 µm and 16 ± 4 µm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin_s aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. Conclusion FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets. PMID:18315550

  7. Activation of pro-(matrix metalloproteinase-2) (pro-MMP-2) by thrombin is membrane-type-MMP-dependent in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and generates a distinct 63 kDa active species.

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, M A; Hollenberg, M D; Atkinson, S J; Knäuper, V; Murphy, G; Edwards, D R

    2001-01-01

    Thrombin, a critical enzyme in the coagulation cascade, has also been associated with angiogenesis and activation of the zymogen form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 or gelatinase-A). We show that thrombin activated pro-MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to generate a catalytically active 63 kDa protein that accumulated as the predominant form in the conditioned medium. This 63 kDa thrombin-activated MMP-2 is distinct from the 62 kDa species found following concanavalin A or PMA stimulated pro-MMP-2 activation. Hirudin and leupeptin blocked thrombin-induced pro-MMP-2 activation, demonstrating that the proteolytic activity of thrombin is essential. However, activation was also dependent upon membrane-type-MMP (MT-MMP) action, since it was blocked by EDTA, o-phenanthroline, hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and TIMP-4, but not TIMP-1. Thrombin inefficiently cleaved recombinant 72 kDa pro-MMP-2, but efficiently cleaved the 64 kDa MT-MMP-processed intermediate form in the presence of cells. Thrombin also rapidly (within 1 h) increased cellular MT-MMP activity, and at longer time points (>6 h) it increased expression of MT1-MMP mRNA and protein. Thus signalling via proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) may play a role in thrombin-induced MMP-2 activation, though this does not appear to involve PAR1, PAR2, or PAR4 in HUVECs. These results indicate that in HUVECs the activation of pro-MMP-2 by thrombin involves increased MT-MMP activity and preferential cleavage of the MT-MMP-processed 64 kDa MMP-2 form in the presence of cells. The integration of these proteinase systems in the vascular endothelium may be important during thrombogenesis and tissue remodelling associated with neovascularization. PMID:11415441

  8. Thrombin-Mediated Platelet Activation of Lysed Whole Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma: A Comparison Between Platelet Activation Markers and Ultrastructural Alterations.

    PubMed

    Augustine, Tanya N; van der Spuy, Wendy J; Kaberry, Lindsay L; Shayi, Millicent

    2016-06-01

    Platelet ultrastructural alterations representing spurious activation have been identified in pathological conditions. A limitation of platelet studies is that sample preparation may lead to artifactual activation processes which may confound results, impacting the use of scanning electron microscopy as a supplemental diagnostic tool. We used scanning electron microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze platelet activation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB) samples. PRP generated using a single high g force centrifugation, and WB samples treated with a red blood cell lysis buffer, were exposed to increasing concentrations of the agonist thrombin. Platelets in lysed WB samples responded to thrombin by elevating the activation marker CD62p definitively, with corresponding ultrastructural changes indicating activation. Conversely, CD62p expression in PRP preparations remained static. Ultrastructural analysis revealed fully activated platelets even under low concentration thrombin stimulation, with considerable fibrin deposition. It is proposed that the method for PRP production induced premature platelet activation, preventable by using an inhibitor of platelet aggregation and fibrin polymerization. Nevertheless, our results show a definitive correspondence between flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy in platelet activation studies, highlighting the potential of the latter technique as a supplemental diagnostic tool. PMID:27329313

  9. Actin polymerisation regulates thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) signalling after activation of PAR-4 but not PAR-1 in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Harper, Matthew T; Sage, Stewart O

    2006-05-01

    The role of actin polymerisation in regulating thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) signalling was investigated in human platelets. We have previously reported that cytochalasin D (Cyt D) inhibits thapsigargin-evoked store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), which is believed to contribute a major component of thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) entry in platelets. In contrast, Cyt D increased thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) entry to 147.5 +/- 9.2% and Sr(2+) entry to 134.2 +/- 6.4% of control. Similar results were obtained with latrunculin A. This potentiation was not affected if protein kinase C was inhibited using Ro-31-8220, suggesting that it did not involve PKC-dependent non-capacitative Ca(2+) entry. Ca(2+) entry evoked by the PAR-4 agonist, AYPGKF, was increased to 133.7 +/- 12.8% of control by Cyt D, whereas Ca(2+) signalling evoked by the PAR-1 agonist, SFLLRN, was unaffected. The PAR-4 antagonist, tcY-NH(2), abolished the effect of Cyt D on thrombin-evoked Ca(2+) entry. Biotinylation of cell-surface proteins showed that PAR-4 was internalised after stimulation by thrombin. Cyt D reduced this internalisation. These data suggest that Cyt D prevents the internalisation of PAR-4, which may lead to prolonged signalling from this receptor. This may mask a direct effect of Cyt D on the activation of SOCE after the activation of PAR-4. PMID:16702038

  10. Facile fabrication of an aptasensor for thrombin based on graphitic carbon nitride/TiO2 with high visible-light photoelectrochemical activity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dawei; Guo, Cuijuan; Ma, Hongmin; Zhao, Di; Li, Yina; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    A novel aptasensor for thrombin with high visible-light activity was facilely fabricated based on graphitic carbon nitride/TiO2 (g-C3N4/TiO2) photoelectrochemical (PEC) composite. Crystallization of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and their strong interaction with g-C3N4 sheet were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), both of which contributed to the high photocurrent intensity under visible-light irradiation. Carboxyl functionalized thrombin aptamers were first successfully bound to the g-C3N4/TiO2 modified electrode as proven by photoelectrochemical test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. Ascorbic acid was utilized as the electron donor for scavenging photo-generated holes and inhibiting light driven electron-hole pair recombination. The specific recognition between thrombin aptamer and thrombin led to the linear decrease of photocurrent with the increase of logarithm of thrombin concentration in the range of 5.0×10(-13)molL(-1) to 5.0×10(-9)molL(-1) with a detection limit of 1.2×10(-13)molL(-1). This proposed low-cost, convenient and sensitive aptasensor showed promising applications in biosensor and photoelectrochemical analysis.

  11. Platelet P2Y12 receptors enhance signalling towards procoagulant activity and thrombin generation. A study with healthy subjects and patients at thrombotic risk.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, Paola E J; Feijge, Marion A H; Giesen, Peter L A; Huijberts, Maya; van Raak, Lisette P M; Heemskerk, Johan W M

    2005-06-01

    Activated platelets participate in arterial thrombosis by forming aggregates and potentiating the coagulation through exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine. The function of the two receptors for ADP, P2Y(1) and P2Y(12), is well-established in aggregation, but is incompletely understood in the platelet procoagulant response. We established that, in PRP from healthy subjects, ADP accelerated and potentiated tissue factor induced thrombin generation exclusively via stimulation of P2Y(12) and not via P2Y(1) receptors. The P2Y(12) receptors also mediated the potentiating effect of PAR-1 stimulation on thrombin generation. Furthermore, ADP enhanced in a P2Y(12)-dependent manner the Ca(2+) response induced by thrombin, which was either added externally or generated in-situ. This ADP effect was in part dependent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and was paralleled by increased phosphatidylserine exposure. In PRP from (young) patients with either stroke or type-II diabetes, platelet-dependent thrombin generation was similarly enhanced byADP or SFLLRN as in healthy subjects. In PRP from stroke patients of older age, the P2Y(12)-mediated contribution to thrombin generation was variably reduced by two weeks of clopidogrel medication. Remaining P2Y(12) activity after medication correlated with remaining P2Y(12)-dependent P-selectin exposure, i.e. Ca(2+)-dependent secretion, likely due to incomplete antagonism of P2Y(12) receptors. Together, these results indicate that physiological platelet agonists amplify phosphatidylserine exposure and subsequent thrombin generation by release of ADP and P2Y(12)-receptor stimulation. This P2Y(12) response is accomplished by a novel Ca(2+) signalling pathway. It is similarly active in platelets from control subjects and patients at thrombotic risk. Finally, the thrombogram method is useful for measuring incomplete P2Y(12) inhibition with clopidogrel. PMID:15968399

  12. Thrombostatin FM compounds: direct thrombin inhibitors - mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, M T; Burke, F; Warnock, M; Zhou, Y; Sweigart, J; Chen, A; Ricketts, D; Lucchesi, B R; Chen, Z; Cera, E Di; Hilfinger, J; Kim, J S; Mosberg, H I; Schmaier, A H

    2008-04-29

    Novel pentapeptides called Thrombostatin FM compounds consisting mostly of D-isomers and unusual amino acids were prepared based upon the stable angiotensin converting enzyme breakdown product of bradykinin - RPPGF. These peptides are direct thrombin inhibitors prolonging the thrombin clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time at ≥0.78, 1.6, and 1.6 μm, respectively. They competitively inhibit α-thrombin-induced cleavage of a chromogenic substrate at 4.4--8.2 μm. They do not significantly inhibit plasma kallikrein, factor (F) XIIa, FXIa, FIXa, FVIIa-TF, FXa, plasmin or cathepsin G. One form, FM19 [rOicPaF(p-Me)], blocks α-thrombin-induced calcium flux in fibroblasts with an IC50 of 6.9 ± 1.2 μm. FM19 achieved 100% inhibition of threshold α- or γ-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation at 8.4 ± 4.7 μm and 16 ± 4 μm, respectively. The crystal structure of thrombin in complex with FM19 shows that the N-terminal D-Arg retrobinds into the S1 pocket, its second residue Oic interacts with His-57, Tyr-60a and Trp-60d, and its C-terminal p-methyl Phe engages thrombin's aryl binding site composed of Ile-174, Trp-215, and Leu-99. When administered intraperitoneal, intraduodenal, or orally to mice, FM19 prolongs thrombin clotting times and delays carotid artery thrombosis. FM19, a low affinity reversible direct thrombin inhibitor, might be useful as an add-on agent to address an unmet need in platelet inhibition in acute coronary syndromes in diabetics and others who with all current antiplatelet therapy still have reactive platelets.

  13. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa)

    PubMed Central

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H. J.; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1’ binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  14. Isolation, Co-Crystallization and Structure-Based Characterization of Anabaenopeptins as Highly Potent Inhibitors of Activated Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFIa).

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Herman; Liesum, Alexander; Lönze, Petra; Stump, Heike; Hoffmann, Holger; Schiell, Matthias; Kurz, Michael; Toti, Luigi; Bauer, Armin; Kallus, Christopher; Klemke-Jahn, Christine; Czech, Jörg; Kramer, Dan; Enke, Heike; Niedermeyer, Timo H J; Morrison, Vincent; Kumar, Vasant; Brönstrup, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Mature thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) is a carboxypeptidase that stabilizes fibrin clots by removing C-terminal arginines and lysines from partially degraded fibrin. Inhibition of TAFIa stimulates the degradation of fibrin clots and may help to prevent thrombosis. Applying a lead finding approach based on literature-mining, we discovered that anabaenopeptins, cyclic peptides produced by cyanobacteria, were potent inhibitors of TAFIa with IC50 values as low as 1.5 nM. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of 20 anabaenopeptins, including 13 novel congeners, as well as their pronounced structure-activity relationships (SAR) with respect to inhibition of TAFIa. Crystal structures of the anabaenopeptins B, C and F bound to the surrogate protease carboxypeptidase B revealed the binding modes of these large (~850 Da) compounds in detail and explained the observed SAR, i.e. the strong dependence of the potency on a basic (Arg, Lys) exocyclic residue that addressed the S1' binding pocket, and a broad tolerance towards substitutions in the pentacyclic ring that acted as a plug of the active site. PMID:27604544

  15. Zinc modulates thrombin adsorption to fibrin

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmeier, P.; Halbmayer, M.; Fischer, M.; Marx, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Human thrombin with high affinity to Sepharose insolubilized fibrin monomers (high-affinity thrombin) was used to investigate the effect of Zn(II) on the thrombin adsorption to fibrin. Results showed that at Zn(II) concentrations exceeding 100 mumols/l, thrombin binding to fibrin was decreased concomitant with the Zn(II) concentration and time; at lower Zn(II) concentrations, thrombin adsorption was enhanced. Experimental results were identical by using 125I-labelled high-affinity alpha-thrombin or by measuring the thrombin activity either by chromogenic substrate or by a clotting time method. In contrast, Ca(II) alone (final conc. 3 mmol/l) or in combination with Zn(II) was not effective. However, at higher Ca(II) concentrations (7.5-15 mmol/l), thrombin adsorption was apparently decreased. Control experiments revealed that Zn(II) had no impact on the clottability of fibrinogen, and that the results of the experiments with Ca(II) were not altered by possible cross-linking of fibrin. We conclude that unlike Ca(II), Zn(II) is highly effective in modulating thrombin adsorption to fibrin.

  16. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  17. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  18. 49 CFR 234.106 - Partial activation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... Grade Crossings § 234.106 Partial activation. Upon receipt of a credible report of a partial activation... to warn highway users and railroad employees at the subject crossing in the same manner as...

  19. Sulfated Low Molecular Weight Lignins, Allosteric Inhibitors of Coagulation Proteinases via the Heparin Binding Site, Significantly Alter the Active Site of Thrombin and Factor Xa Compared to Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  20. Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brian L; Desai, Umesh R

    2014-11-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  1. Modulation of 3D Fibrin Matrix Stiffness by Intrinsic Fibrinogen–Thrombin Compositions and by Extrinsic Cellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Haison; Wu, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Fibrin is a substance formed through catalytic conversion of coagulation constituents: fibrinogen and thrombin. The kinetics of the two constituents determines the structural properties of the fibrin architecture. We have shown previously that changing the fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in the final three-dimensional (3D) fibrin matrix influenced cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we further examined the effect of changing fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in the absence or presence of fibroblasts on the structural modulus or stiffness of 3D fibrin matrices. We have prepared fibroblast-free and fibroblast-embedded 3D fibrin matrices of different fibrinogen and thrombin formulations, and tested the stiffness of these constructs using standard mechanical testing assays. Results showed that there was a corresponding increase in stiffness with increasing thrombin and fibrinogen concentrations; the increase was more notable with fibrinogen and to a lesser degree with thrombin. The effect of fibroblasts on the stiffness of the fibrin construct was also examined. We have observed a small increase in the stiffness of the fibroblast-incorporated fibrin construct as they proliferated and exhibited spreading morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report detailing the relationship between fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations, cell proliferation, and stiffness in 3D fibrin matrices. The data obtained may lead to optimally design suitable bioscaffolds where we can control both cell proliferation and structural integrity for a variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:19309239

  2. Galpha12/13- and rho-dependent activation of phospholipase C-epsilon by lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin receptors.

    PubMed

    Hains, Melinda D; Wing, Michele R; Maddileti, Savitri; Siderovski, David P; Harden, T Kendall

    2006-06-01

    Because phospholipase C epsilon (PLC-epsilon) is activated by Galpha(12/13) and Rho family GTPases, we investigated whether these G proteins contribute to the increased inositol lipid hydrolysis observed in COS-7 cells after activation of certain G protein-coupled receptors. Stimulation of inositol lipid hydrolysis by endogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) or thrombin receptors was markedly enhanced by the expression of PLC-epsilon. Expression of the LPA(1) or PAR1 receptor increased inositol phosphate production in response to LPA or SFLLRN, respectively, and these agonist-stimulated responses were markedly enhanced by coexpression of PLC-epsilon. Both LPA(1) and PAR1 receptor-mediated activation of PLC-epsilon was inhibited by coexpression of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of p115RhoGEF, a GTPase-activating protein for Galpha(12/13) but not by expression of the RGS domain of GRK2, which inhibits Galpha(q) signaling. In contrast, activation of the G(q)-coupled M1 muscarinic or P2Y(2) purinergic receptor was neither enhanced by coexpression with PLC-epsilon nor inhibited by the RGS domain of p115RhoGEF but was blocked by expression of the RGS domain of GRK2. Expression of the Rho inhibitor C3 botulinum toxin did not affect LPA- or SFLLRN-stimulated inositol lipid hydrolysis in the absence of PLC-epsilon but completely prevented the PLC-epsilon-dependent increase in inositol phosphate accumulation. Likewise, C3 toxin blocked the PLC-epsilon-dependent stimulatory effects of the LPA(1), LPA(2), LPA(3), or PAR1 receptor but had no effect on the agonist-promoted inositol phosphate response of the M1 or P2Y(2) receptor. Moreover, PLC-epsilon-dependent stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, which involves Ras- but not Rho-mediated activation of the phospholipase, was unaffected by C3 toxin. These studies illustrate that specific LPA and thrombin receptors promote inositol lipid signaling via

  3. Management of anti-thrombin III deficiency during pregnancy without administration of anti-thrombin III.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, J R; Geerts, W; Panju, A; Nguyen, P; Hirsh, J

    1986-02-15

    We report a patient with hereditary antithrombin III deficiency who was successfully treated with heparin throughout pregnancy. Functional antithrombin III levels fell to 0.32 U/ml during heparin treatment, but it was possible to achieve a heparin effect, measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin clotting time and heparin assay with subcutaneous heparin in doses of 30,000 U to 35,000 U/24 hours. This achieve an long term heparin effect was obtained without the need for antithrombin III infusions.

  4. Protein kinase C and P2Y12 take center stage in thrombin-mediated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S F; Hunter, R W; Hers, I

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1), reduces platelet spreading, thrombus stability, and clot retraction. Despite an important role of mTORC1 in platelet function, little is known about how it is regulated. The objective of this study was to determine the signaling pathways that regulate mTORC1 in human platelets. Methods Mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 activation was assessed by measuring the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K). Results Thrombin or the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbal 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulated activation of mTORC1 in a PKC-dependent, Akt-independent manner that correlated with phosphorylation of tuberin/tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) (Ser939 and Thr1462). In contrast, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)–stimulated TSC2 phosphorylation was completely dependent on phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt but did not result in any detectable mTORC1 activation. Early (Ser939 and Thr1462) and late (Thr1462) TSC2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin were directly PKC dependent, whereas later TSC2 (Ser939) and p70S6K phosphorylation were largely dependent on paracrine signaling through P2Y12. PKC-mediated adenosine diphosphate (ADP) secretion was essential for thrombin-stimulated mTORC1 activation, as (i) ADP rescued p70S6K phosphorylation in the presence of a PKC inhibitor and (ii) P2Y12 antagonism prevented thrombin-mediated mTORC1 activation. Rescue of mTORC1 activation with exogenous ADP was completely dependent on the Src family kinases but independent of PI3 kinase/Akt. Interestingly, although inhibition of Src blocked the ADP rescue, it had little effect on thrombin-stimulated p70S6K phosphorylation under conditions where PKC was not inhibited. Conclusion These results demonstrate that thrombin activates the mTORC1 pathway in human platelets through PKC-mediated ADP secretion and subsequent activation of P2Y12, in a manner

  5. Dabigatran and Argatroban Diametrically Modulate Thrombin Exosite Function

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Calvin H.; Stafford, Alan R.; Leslie, Beverly A.; Fredenburgh, James C.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombin is a highly plastic molecule whose activity and specificity are regulated by exosites 1 and 2, positively-charged domains that flank the active site. Exosite binding by substrates and cofactors regulates thrombin activity by localizing thrombin, guiding substrates, and by inducing allosteric changes at the active site. Although inter-exosite and exosite-to-active-site allostery have been demonstrated, the impact of active site ligation on exosite function has not been examined. To address this gap, we used surface plasmon resonance to determine the effects of dabigatran and argatroban, active site-directed inhibitors, on thrombin binding to immobilized γA/γA-fibrin or glycoprotein Ibα peptide via exosite 1 and 2, respectively, and thrombin binding to γA/γ′-fibrin or factor Va, which is mediated by both exosites. Whereas dabigatran attenuated binding, argatroban increased thrombin binding to γA/γA- and γA/γ′-fibrin and to factor Va. The results with immobilized fibrin were confirmed by examining the binding of radiolabeled thrombin to fibrin clots. Thus, dabigatran modestly accelerated the dissociation of thrombin from γA/γA-fibrin clots, whereas argatroban attenuated dissociation. Dabigatran had no effect on thrombin binding to glycoprotein Ibα peptide, whereas argatroban promoted binding. These findings not only highlight functional effects of thrombin allostery, but also suggest that individual active site-directed thrombin inhibitors uniquely modulate exosite function, thereby identifying potential novel mechanisms of action. PMID:27305147

  6. Thrombin Induces Tumor Cell Cycle Activation and Spontaneous Growth by Down-regulation of p27Kip1, in Association with the Up-regulation of Skp2 and MiR-222

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Ibrahim, Sherif; Liu, Cynthia; Skaar, Jeffrey; Pagano, Michele; Karpatkin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The effect of thrombin on tumor cell cycle activation and spontaneous growth was examined in synchronized serum-starved tumor cell lines and a model of spontaneous prostate cancer development in TRAMP mice. BrdUrd incorporation and propidium iodide staining of prostate LNCaP cells arrested in G0 and treated with thrombin or serum revealed a 48- and 29-fold increase in S phase cells, respectively, at 8 hours. Similar results were obtained with TRAMP cells and a glioblastoma cell line, T98G. Cell cycle kinases and inhibitors in synchronized tumor cells revealed high levels of p27Kip1 and low levels of Skp2 and cyclins D1 and A. Addition of thrombin, TFLLRN, or serum down-regulated p27Kip1 with concomitant induction of Skp2, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin A with similar kinetics. LNCaP p27Kip1-transfected cells or Skp2 knockdown cells were refractory to thrombin-induced cell cycle activation. MicroRNA 222, an inhibitor of p27Kip1, was robustly up-regulated by thrombin. The in vitro observations were tested in vivo with transgenic TRAMP mice. Repetitive thrombin injection enhanced prostate tumor volume 6- to 8-fold (P < 0.04). Repetitive hirudin, a specific potent antithrombin, decreased tumor volume 13- to 24-fold (P < 0.04). Thus, thrombin stimulates tumor cell growth in vivo by down-regulation of p27Kip1. PMID:19351827

  7. The ATP-gated P2X1 receptor plays a pivotal role in activation of aspirin-treated platelets by thrombin and epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Grenegård, Magnus; Vretenbrant-Oberg, Karin; Nylander, Martina; Désilets, Stéphanie; Lindström, Eva G; Larsson, Anders; Ramström, Ida; Ramström, Sofia; Lindahl, Tomas L

    2008-07-01

    Human platelets express protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 but limited data indicate for differences in signal transduction. We studied the involvement of PAR1 and PAR4 in the cross-talk between thrombin and epinephrine. The results show that epinephrine acted via alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors to provoke aggregation, secretion, and Ca(2+) mobilization in aspirin-treated platelets pre-stimulated with subthreshold concentrations of thrombin. Incubating platelets with antibodies against PAR4 or the PAR4-specific inhibitor pepducin P4pal-i1 abolished the aggregation. Furthermore, platelets pre-exposed to the PAR4-activating peptide AYPGKF, but not to the PAR1-activating peptide SFLLRN, were aggregated by epinephrine, whereas both AYPGKF and SFLLRN synergized with epinephrine in the absence of aspirin. The roles of released ATP and ADP were elucidated by using antagonists of the purinergic receptors P2X(1), P2Y(1), and P2Y(12) (i.e. NF449, MRS2159, MRS2179, and cangrelor). Intriguingly, ATP, but not ADP, was required for the epinephrine/thrombin-induced aggregation. In Western blot analysis, a low concentration of AYPGKF, but not SFLLRN, stimulated phosphorylation of Akt on serine 473. Moreover, the phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 antagonized the effect of epinephrine combined with thrombin or AYPGKF. Thus, in aspirin-treated platelets, PAR4, but not PAR1, interacts synergistically with alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors, and the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in this cross-talk. Furthermore, in PAR4-pretreated platelets, epinephrine caused dense granule secretion, and subsequent signaling from the ATP-gated P2X(1)-receptor and the alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptor induced aggregation. These results suggest a new mechanism that has ATP as a key element and circumvents the action of aspirin on epinephrine-facilitated PAR4-mediated platelet activation. PMID:18480058

  8. [Measuring thrombin formation].

    PubMed

    Hemker, H C

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of thrombin formation makes it possible to estimate the risk of haemorrhage or thrombosis much more accurately than by using clotting time. This new technique allows better monitoring of the effect of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulant therapy. Thrombin formation is, however, not yet routinely measured. PMID:27650017

  9. Evaluation of the bone healing process utilizing platelet-rich plasma activated by thrombin and calcium chloride: a histologic study in rabbit calvaria.

    PubMed

    Betoni-Junior, Walter; Dechichi, Paula; Esteves, Jônatas Caldeira; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Magalhães, Aparecido Eurípedes Onório

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the bone healing of defects filled with particulate bone graft in combination with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), added with a mixture of calcium chloride and thrombin or just calcium chloride. Two 5-mm bone defects were created in the calvaria of 24 rabbits. Each defect was filled with particulate bone graft and PRP. In one defect the PRP was activated by a mixture of calcium chloride and thrombin; in the other, PRP was activated by calcium chloride only. The animals were euthanized 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after the surgeries, and the calvaria was submitted to histologic processing for histomorphometric analysis. The qualitative analysis has shown that both defects presented the same histologic characteristics so that a better organized, more mature, and well-vascularized bone tissue was noticed in the eighth week. A good bone repair was achieved using either the mixture of calcium chloride and thrombin or the calcium chloride alone as a restarting agent of the coagulation process.

  10. Cell-derived microparticles circulate in healthy humans and support low grade thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, R J; Nieuwland, R; Böing, A N; Romijn, F P; Hack, C E; Sturk, A

    2001-04-01

    We determined the numbers, cellular origin and thrombin-generating properties of microparticles in healthy individuals (n = 15). Microparticles, isolated from fresh blood samples and identified by flow cytometry, originated from platelets [237 x 10(6)/L (median; range 116-565)], erythrocytes (28 x 10(6)/L; 13-46), granulocytes (46 x 10(6)/L; 16-94) and endothelial cells (64 x 10(6)/L; 16-136). They bound annexin V, indicating surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, and supported coagulation in vitro. Interestingly, coagulation occurred via tissue factor (TF)-independent pathways, because antibodies against TF or factor (F)VII were ineffective. In contrast, in our in vitro experiments coagulation was partially inhibited by antibodies against FXII (12%, p = 0.006), FXI (36%, p <0.001), FIX (28%, p <0.001) or FVIII (32%, p <0.001). Both the number of annexin V-positive microparticles present in plasma and the thrombin-generating capacity inversely correlated to the plasma concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin complex (r = -0.49, p = 0.072 and r = -0.77, p = 0.001, respectively), but did not correlate to prothrombin fragment F1+2 (r = -0.002, p = 0.99). The inverse correlations between the number of microparticles and their thrombin-forming capacity and the levels of thrombin-antithrombin complex in plasma may indicate that microparticles present in the circulation of healthy individuals have an anticoagulant function by promoting the generation of low amounts of thrombin that activate protein C. We conclude that microparticles in blood from healthy individuals support thrombin generation via TF- and FVII-independent pathways, and which may have an anticoagulant function.

  11. Evidence for the selective association of a subpopulation of GPIIb-IIIa with the actin cytoskeletons of thrombin-activated platelets

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Activation of blood platelets triggers a series of responses leading to the formation and retraction of blood clots. Among these responses is the establishment of integrin-mediated transmembrane connections between extracellular matrix components and the actin cytoskeleton of the platelet. Here we report that a specific subpopulation of the major platelet integrin, glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GPIIb-IIIa) (also referred to as alpha IIb beta 3 integrin), becomes incorporated into the detergent- insoluble actin cytoskeleton of platelets during the platelet activation response. The cytoskeletal association of GPIIb-IIIa is independent of platelet aggregation and fibrin sedimentation and is sensitive to cytochalasin D treatment. As determined by Western immunoblot analysis, approximately 22% of the total cellular GPIIb-IIIa becomes associated with the actin cytoskeleton upon thrombin activation in a manner that is independent of the detection of talin, alpha- actinin, or vinculin in the complex. We found that the cytoskeleton- associated GPIIb-IIIa is derived from an intracellular source since it is not available for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination before platelet activation. Two intracellular sources of GPIIb-IIIa are present in resting platelets: GPIIb-IIIa associated with the alpha- granule secretory compartment as well as surface-inaccessible domains of the surface-connected canalicular system. Interestingly, alpha- granule secretion, which occurs in thrombin-activated platelets and results in the translocation of intracellular GPIIb-IIIa to the plasma membrane, appears to be required for the cytoskeleton incorporation of GPIIb-IIIa that we observe. Collectively, our data provide evidence that a subpopulation of GPIIb-IIIa derived from an intracellular source is selectively linked to the actin cytoskeleton of platelets upon thrombin activation in the absence of platelet aggregation. PMID:8509453

  12. Activation of tumour cell ECM degradation by thrombin-activated platelet membranes: potentially a P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Pang, J H; Coupland, L A; Freeman, C; Chong, B H; Parish, Christopher R

    2015-06-01

    The promotion of tumour metastasis by platelets may occur through several mechanisms including the induction of a more metastatic phenotype in tumour cells and assisted extravasation of circulating tumour cells. Whilst the mechanisms underlying platelet-assisted extravasation have been extensively studied, much less attention has been paid to the mechanisms underlying platelet promotion of an aggressive phenotype within a tumour cell population. Herein, we demonstrate in vitro that MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells incubated with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes adopt a Matrigel-degrading phenotype in a dose- and contact time-dependent manner. The same phenotypic change was observed with three other human tumour cell lines of diverse anatomical origin. Moreover, tumour cell lines that had been cultured with washed thrombin-activated platelet membranes had a greater metastatic capacity when injected into mice. This in vivo effect was reliant upon a co-incubation period of >2 h implying a mechanism involving more than platelet membrane binding that occurred within 5 min. Upon further investigation it was found that simultaneous blocking of the platelet-membrane proteins P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa prevented interactions between platelet membranes and MDA-MB-231 cells but also significantly reduced the ability of tumour cells to degrade Matrigel. These results confirm that platelets induce a more aggressive phenotype in tumour cells but also identify the platelet proteins involved in this effect. P-selectin and GPIIb/IIIa also play a role in assisting tumour cell extravasation and, thus, are ideal targets for the therapeutic intervention of both stages of platelet-assisted metastasis.

  13. Inhibition of thrombin-mediated cellular effects by triabin, a highly potent anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Glusa, E; Bretschneider, E; Daum, J; Noeske-Jungblut, C

    1997-06-01

    Triabin, a 17 kDa protein from the saliva of the assassin bug Triatoma pallidipennis is a potent thrombin inhibitor interfering with the anion-binding exosite of the enzyme. The recombinant protein, produced by the baculovirus/insect cell system, was used to study the inhibitory effect on thrombin-mediated cellular responses. The thrombin (1 nM)-stimulated aggregation of washed human platelets and the rise in cytoplasmic calcium in platelets were inhibited by triabin at nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, the rise in calcium induced by the thrombin receptor-activating peptide (10 microM) was not suppressed by triabin. In isolated porcine pulmonary arteries, preconstricted with PGF 2 alpha thrombin (2 nM) elicited an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by triabin in the same concentration range as found for the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Higher concentrations of triabin were required to diminish the contractile response of endotheliumdenuded pulmonary vessels to thrombin (10 nM). In cultured bovine coronary smooth muscle cells, the mitogenic activity of thrombin (3 nM), measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, was also suppressed by triabin. In all these assays, the inhibitory effect of triabin was dependent on the thrombin concentration used. These studies suggest that the new anion-binding exosite thrombin inhibitor triabin is one of the most potent inhibitors of thrombin-mediated cellular effects. PMID:9241757

  14. SLOW THROMBIN IS ZYMOGEN-LIKE

    PubMed Central

    Huntington, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Blood coagulation is the result of a cascade of zymogen activation events, however, its initiation is allosteric. Factor VIIa circulates in a zymogen-like state and is allosterically activated by binding to tissue factor. Thrombin, the final protease generated in the blood coagulation cascade, has also been shown to exist in a low activity state in the absence of cofactors, and the structural features of this ‘slow’ form has been studied for many years. In this manuscript I will review the general features that render zymogens inactive and how proteolytic cleavage results in activation, but I will also show how this distinction is blurred by zymogens that have activity (protease-like zymogens) and proteases with low activity (zymogen-like proteases). This will then be applied in the analysis of slow thrombin to reveal how allosteric activation of thrombin simply reflects the conversion from a zymogen-like enzyme to an active serine protease. PMID:19630791

  15. Partial purification of plasma thromboplastin antecedent (factor XI) and its activation by trypsin.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Ratnoff, O D; Marshall, J S; Pensky, J

    1973-04-01

    A persistent puzzle in our understanding of hemostasis has been the absence of hemorrhagic symptoms in the majority of patients with Hageman trait, the hereditary deficiency of Hageman factor (factor XII). One proposed hypothesis is that alternative mechanisms exist in blood through which plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) can become active in the absence of Hageman factor. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of several proteolytic enzymes, among them thrombin, plasma kallikrein, and trypsin, was tested upon unactivated PTA. PTA was prepared from normal human plasma by Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) adsorption, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and successive chromatography on QAE-Sephadex (twice). Sephadex-G150, and SP-Sephadex. The partially purified PTA was almost all in its native form, with a specific activity of 45-70 U/mg protein; the yield was about 10%. It contained no measurable amounts of other known clotting factors, plasmin, plasminogen, nor IgG. Incubation of PTA with trypsin generated potent clot-promoting activity that corrected the abnormally long clotting time of plasma deficient in Hageman factor or PTA but not in Christmas factor. This clot-promoting agent behaved like activated PTA on gel filtration (apparent molecular weight: 185,000) and was specifically inhibited by an antiserum directed against activated PTA. These data suggested that PTA can be converted into its active form by trypsin. PTA was not activated by thrombin, chymotrypsin, papain, ficin, plasmin, plasma kallikrein, tissue thromboplastin, or C. Trypsin converted PTA to its active form enzymatically. Whether trypsin serves to activate PTA in vivo is not yet clear.

  16. Motor neuron cell death in wobbler mutant mice follows overexpression of the G-protein-coupled, protease-activated receptor for thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Festoff, B. W.; D'Andrea, M. R.; Citron, B. A.; Salcedo, R. M.; Smirnova, I. V.; Andrade-Gordon, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration are actively sought for new therapeutic strategies. Transgenic, knockout and genetic mouse models greatly aid our understanding of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death. A naturally occurring, autosomal recessive mutant, known as wobbler, and mice transgenic for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 mutations are available, but the molecular mechanisms remain equally unknown. Both phenotypes are detectable after birth. Wobbler is detectable in the third week of life, when homozygotes (wr/wr) exhibit prominent gliosis and significant motor neuron loss in the cervical, but not in lumbar, spinal cord segments. To address molecular mechanisms, we evaluated "death signals" associated with the multifunctional serine protease, thrombin, which leads to apoptotic motor neuronal cell death in culture by cleavage of a G-protein coupled, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thrombin activities were determined with chromogenic substrate assays, Western immunoblots and immunohistochemistry were performed with anti-PAR-1 to observe localizations of the receptor and anti-GFAP staining was used to monitor astrocytosis. PAR-1 mRNA levels and locations were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridizations. Cell death was monitored with in situ DNA fragmentation assays. RESULTS: In preliminary studies we found a 5-fold increase in PAR-1 mRNA in cervical spinal cords from wr/wr, compared with wild-type (wt) littermates. Our current studies suggested that reactive astrocytosis and motor neuron cell death were causally linked with alterations in thrombin signaling. PAR-1 protein expression was increased, as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and confirmed with in situ hybridization, in phenotypic wr/wr motor neurons, compared with wt, but not in astrocytes. This increase was much greater in cervical, compared with lumbar

  17. Thrombin exacerbates brain edema in focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Wu, J; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2003-01-01

    Thrombin contributes to edema formation after intracerebral hemorrhage. Recent studies suggest that thrombin may also play a role in ischemic brain damage. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded using the suture method. We found that brain thrombin activity was elevated after permanent MCA occlusion as was prothrombin messenger RNA expression. Intracerebral injection of a thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, reduced neurological deficits following cerebral ischemia. In contrast, intracerebral administration of exogenous thrombin (at a dose that is non-toxic to normal brain), markedly exacerbated brain edema after transient focal cerebral ischemia. These results indicate that extravascular thrombin inhibition may be a new therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  18. Correlated Motions and Residual Frustration in Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is the central protease in the cascade of blood coagulation proteases. The structure of thrombin consists of a double β-barrel core surrounded by connecting loops and helices. Compared to chymotrypsin, thrombin has more extended loops that are thought to have arisen from insertions in the serine protease that evolved to impart greater specificity. Previous experiments showed thermodynamic coupling between ligand binding at the active site and distal exosites. We present a combined approach of molecular dynamics (MD), accelerated molecular dynamics (AMD), and analysis of the residual local frustration of apo-thrombin and active-site-bound (PPACK-thrombin). Community analysis of the MD ensembles identified changes upon active site occupation in groups of residues linked through correlated motions and physical contacts. AMD simulations, calibrated on measured residual dipolar couplings, reveal that upon active site ligation, correlated loop motions are quenched, but new ones connecting the active site with distal sites where allosteric regulators bind emerge. Residual local frustration analysis reveals a striking correlation between frustrated contacts and regions undergoing slow time scale dynamics. The results elucidate a motional network that probably evolved through retention of frustrated contacts to provide facile conversion between ensembles of states. PMID:23621631

  19. Role of thrombin signalling in platelets in haemostasis and thrombosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambrano, Gilberto R.; Weiss, Ethan J.; Zheng, Yao-Wu; Huang, Wei; Coughlin, Shaun R.

    2001-09-01

    Platelets are critical in haemostasis and in arterial thrombosis, which causes heart attacks and other events triggered by abnormal clotting. The coagulation protease thrombin is a potent activator of platelets ex vivo. However, because thrombin also mediates fibrin deposition and because multiple agonists can trigger platelet activation, the relative importance of platelet activation by thrombin in haemostasis and thrombosis is unknown. Thrombin triggers cellular responses at least in part through protease-activated receptors (PARs). Mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4 (ref. 9). Here we show that platelets from PAR4-deficient mice failed to change shape, mobilize calcium, secrete ATP or aggregate in response to thrombin. This result demonstrates that PAR signalling is necessary for mouse platelet activation by thrombin and supports the model that mouse PAR3 (mPAR3) does not by itself mediate transmembrane signalling but instead acts as a cofactor for thrombin cleavage and activation of mPAR4 (ref. 10). Importantly, PAR4-deficient mice had markedly prolonged bleeding times and were protected in a model of arteriolar thrombosis. Thus platelet activation by thrombin is necessary for normal haemostasis and may be an important target in the treatment of thrombosis.

  20. The roles of selected arginine and lysine residues of TAFI (Pro-CPU) in its activation to TAFIa by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengliang; Kim, Paul Y; Manuel, Reg; Seto, Marian; Whitlow, Marc; Nagashima, Mariko; Morser, John; Gils, Ann; Declerck, Paul; Nesheim, Michael E

    2009-03-13

    Thrombomodulin (TM) increases the catalytic efficiency of thrombin (IIa)-mediated activation of thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) 1250-fold. Negatively charged residues of the C-loop of TM-EGF-like domain 3 are required for TAFI activation. Molecular models suggested several positively charged residues of TAFI with which the C-loop residues could interact. Seven TAFI mutants were constructed to determine if these residues are required for efficient TAFI activation. TAFI wild-type or mutants were activated in the presence or absence of TM and the kinetic parameters of TAFI activation were determined. When the three consecutive lysine residues in the activation peptide of TAFI were substituted with alanine (K42/43/44A), the catalytic efficiencies for TAFI activation with TM decreased 8-fold. When other positively charged surface residues of TAFI (Lys-133, Lys-211, Lys-212, Arg-220, Lys-240, or Arg-275) were mutated to alanine, the catalytic efficiencies for TAFI activation with TM decreased by 1.7-2.7-fold. All decreases were highly statistically significant. In the absence of TM, catalytic efficiencies ranged from 2.8-fold lower to 1.24-fold higher than wild-type. None of these, except the 2.8-fold lower value, was statistically significant. The average half-life of the TAFIa mutants was 8.1+/-0.6 min, and that of wild type was 8.4+/-0.3 min at 37 degrees C. Our data show that these residues are important in the activation of TAFI by IIa, especially in the presence of TM. Whether the mutated residues promote a TAFI-TM or TAFI-IIa interaction remains to be determined. In addition, these residues do not influence spontaneous inactivation of TAFIa.

  1. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  2. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Elena; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α4β1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  3. Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Elena; Dianzani, Chiara; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Soluri, Maria Felicia; Clemente, Nausicaa; Cappellano, Giuseppe; Toth, Erika; Raineri, Davide; Ferrara, Benedetta; Comi, Cristoforo; Dianzani, Umberto; Chiocchetti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases. PMID:27478856

  4. The refined 1.9-A X-ray crystal structure of D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone-inhibited human alpha-thrombin: structure analysis, overall structure, electrostatic properties, detailed active-site geometry, and structure-function relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bode, W.; Turk, D.; Karshikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine proteinase that plays a key role in coagulation while exhibiting several other key cellular bioregulatory functions. The X-ray crystal structure of human alpha-thrombin was determined in its complex with the specific thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone (PPACK) using Patterson search methods and a search model derived from trypsinlike proteinases of known spatial structure (Bode, W., Mayr, I., Baumann, U., Huber, R., Stone, S.R., & Hofsteenge, J., 1989, EMBO J. 8, 3467-3475). The crystallographic refinement of the PPACK-thrombin model has now been completed at an R value of 0.156 (8 to 1.92 A); in particular, the amino- and the carboxy-termini of the thrombin A-chain are now defined and all side-chain atoms localized; only proline 37 was found to be in a cis-peptidyl conformation. The thrombin B-chain exhibits the characteristic polypeptide fold of trypsinlike serine proteinases; 195 residues occupy topologically equivalent positions with residues in bovine trypsin and 190 with those in bovine chymotrypsin with a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation of 0.8 A for their alpha-carbon atoms. Most of the inserted residues constitute novel surface loops. A chymotrypsinogen numbering is suggested for thrombin based on the topological equivalences. The thrombin A-chain is arranged in a boomeranglike shape against the B-chain globule opposite to the active site; it resembles somewhat the propeptide of chymotrypsin(ogen) and is similarly not involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. Thrombin possesses an exceptionally large proportion of charged residues. The negatively and positively charged residues are not distributed uniformly over the whole molecule, but are clustered to form a sandwichlike electrostatic potential; in particular, two extended patches of mainly positively charged residues occur close to the carboxy-terminal B-chain helix (forming the presumed heparin-binding site) and on the surface of loop segment 70

  5. BJ-48, a novel thrombin-like enzyme from the Bothrops jararacussu venom with high selectivity for Arg over Lys in P1: Role of N-glycosylation in thermostability and active site accessibility.

    PubMed

    Silva-Junior, Floriano P; Guedes, Herbert L M; Garvey, Laura C; Aguiar, Aniesse S; Bourguignon, Saulo C; Di Cera, Enrico; Giovanni-De-Simone, Salvatore

    2007-07-01

    BJ-48, a serine protease from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu, was purified to homogeneity using affinity chromatography on p-aminobenzamidine-agarose followed by HPLC gel filtration. BJ-48 presented 52kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis and 48,036Da by electron spray mass spectrometry. The enzyme was shown to be highly glycosylated with 42% of N-linked carbohydrates composed of Fuc(1):GalN(4):GlcN(5):Gal(1):Man(2) and a high content of sialic acid residues (8-12%). BJ-48 had optimal esterase activity at pH 7.5 and displayed maximum catalytic rate at 50 degrees C. Its hydrolytic activity was strongly inhibited by aprotinin and dithiothreitol while N-tosyl-l-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, 6-aminocaproic acid, E-64 and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) were ineffective. The kinetics of BJ-48 with chromogenic substrates revealed an unprecedented selectivity (10(4)-fold) for Arg over Lys in P1. BJ-48 proved to be a thrombin-like enzyme (TLE) with a specific fibrinogen-clotting activity of 73.4NIH units/mg. The TLE rapidly digested human fibrinogen Bbeta chain, but the Aalpha chain was cleaved specifically to release fibrinopeptide A with k(cat)/K(m)=2.1 microM(-1)s(-1). The TLE showed no activity toward other thrombin substrates like protein C, protease-activated receptor-1 or inhibitors such as hirudin and antithrombin. A non-denaturing procedure using PNGase F and neuraminidase followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography was employed to obtain active BJ-48 forms with variable carbohydrate content. Compared to the native enzyme, total or partially deglycosylated BJ-48 forms presented up to 2-fold reduction in their specific activities upon heating at 55/65 degrees C or treatment with SBTI. These results point out a role for BJ-48 glycosylation in thermostability and controlling the access of some canonical protein inhibitors to the active site. PMID:17433397

  6. Effect of Chronic Blood Transfusion on Biomarkers of Coagulation Activation and Thrombin Generation in Sickle Cell Patients at Risk for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adams, Robert J.; Greenberg, Charles S.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Hill, Allyson; Hibbert, Jacqueline M.; Gee, Beatrice E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercoagulability in sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with multiple SCD phenotypes, association with stroke risk has not been well described. We hypothesized that serum levels of biomarkers of coagulation activation correlate with high transcranial Doppler ultrasound velocity and decreases with blood transfusion therapy in SCD patients. Stored serum samples from subjects in the Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) trial were analyzed using ELISA and protein multiplexing techniques. 40 subjects from each treatment arm (Standard Care [SC] and Transfusion [Tx]) at three time points—baseline, study exit and one year post-trial and 10 each of age matched children with SCD but normal TCD (SNTCD) and with normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were analyzed. At baseline, median vWF, TAT and D-dimer levels were significantly higher among STOP subjects than either HbAA or SNTCD. At study exit, median hemoglobin level was significantly higher while median TCD velocity was significantly lower in Tx compared to SC subjects. Median vWF (409.6 vs. 542.9 μg/ml), TAT (24.8 vs. 40.0 ng/ml) and D-dimer (9.2 vs. 19.1 μg/ml) levels were also significantly lower in the Tx compared to the SC group at study exit. Blood levels of biomarkers coagulation activation/thrombin generation correlated positively with TCD velocity and negatively with number of blood transfusions. Biomarkers of coagulation activation/thrombin generation were significantly elevated in children with SCD, at high risk for stroke. Reduction in levels of these biomarkers correlated with reduction in stroke risk (lower TCD velocity), indicating a possible role for hypercoagulation in SCD associated stroke. PMID:26305570

  7. Thrombin Receptor-Activating Protein (TRAP)-Activated Akt Is Involved in the Release of Phosphorylated-HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets in DM Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Otsuka, Takanobu; Ogura, Shinji; Iwama, Toru; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    It is generally known that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is phosphorylated through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We have previously reported that HSP27 is released from human platelets associated with collagen-induced phosphorylation. In the present study, we conducted an investigation into the effect of thrombin receptor-activating protein (TRAP) on the release of HSP27 in platelets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels induced by TRAP were directly proportional to the aggregation of platelets. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 (Ser-78) were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAP kinase and phosphorylated-Akt in the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP but not with those of phosphorylated-p44/p42 MAP kinase. The levels of HSP27 released from the TRAP (10 µM)-stimulated platelets were correlated with the levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 in the platelets. The released platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB) levels were in parallel with the HSP27 levels released from the platelets stimulated by 10 µM TRAP. Although the area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregates (9–25 µm) induced by 10 µM TRAP showed no significant correlation with the released HSP27 levels, AUC of medium aggregates (25–50 µm), large aggregates (50–70 µm) and light transmittance were significantly correlated with the released HSP27 levels. TRAP-induced phosphorylation of HSP27 was truly suppressed by deguelin, an inhibitor of Akt, in the platelets from a healthy subject. These results strongly suggest that TRAP-induced activation of Akt in addition to p38 MAP kinase positively regulates the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets, which is closely related to the platelet hyper-aggregation in type 2 DM patients. PMID:27187380

  8. Inhibition of thrombin generation in plasma by fibrin formation (Antithrombin I).

    PubMed

    de Bosch, N B; Mosesson, M W; Ruiz-Sáez, A; Echenagucia, M; Rodriguez-Lemoin, A

    2002-08-01

    The adsorption of thrombin to fibrin during clotting defines "Antithrombin I" activity. We confirmed that thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or in Reptilase defibrinated normal plasma was higher than in normal plasma. Repletion of these fibrinogen-deficient plasmas with fibrinogen 1 (gamma A/gamma A), whose fibrin has two "low affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding sites, resulted in moderately reduced thrombin generation by 29-37%. Repletion with fibrinogen 2 (gamma'/gamma A), which in addition to low affinity thrombin-binding sites in fibrin, has a "high affinity" non-substrate thrombin binding site in the carboxy-terminal region of its gamma' chain, was even more effective and reduced thrombin generation by 57-67%. Adding peptides that compete for thrombin binding to fibrin [S-Hir53-64 (hirugen) or gamma'414-427] caused a transient delay in the onset of otherwise robust thrombin generation, indicating that fibrin formation is necessary for full expression of Antithrombin I activity. Considered together, 1) the increased thrombin generation in afibrinogenemic or fibrinogen-depleted normal plasma that is mitigated by fibrinogen replacement; 2) evidence that prothrombin activation is increased in afibrinogenemia and normalized by fibrinogen replacement; 3) the severe thrombophilia that is associated with defective thrombin-binding in dysfibrinogenemias Naples I and New York I, and 4) the association of afibrinogenemia or hypofibrinogenemia with venous or arterial thromboembolism, indicate that Antithrombin I (fibrin) modulates thromboembolic potential by inhibiting thrombin generation in blood.

  9. gammaA/gamma' fibrinogen inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lovely, Rehana S; Rein, Chantelle M; White, Tara C; Jouihan, Sari A; Boshkov, Lynn K; Bakke, Antony C; McCarty, Owen J; Farrell, David H

    2008-11-01

    The minor gammaA/gamma' fibrinogen isoform contains a high affinity binding site for thrombin exosite II that is lacking in the major gammaA/gammaA fibrinogen isoform. We therefore investigated the biological consequences of the gamma' chain binding to thrombin. Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was inhibited by gammaA/gamma' fibrinogen. Carboxyl terminal peptide fragment gamma'410-427 from the gamma' chain was also inhibitory, with an IC(50) of approximately 200 microM in whole plasma. Deletion of the peptide from either the amino or carboxyl end significantly decreased inhibition. In contrast to thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, aggregation induced by epinephrine, ADP, arachidonic acid, or SFLLRN peptide showed little inhibition by the gamma' peptide. The inhibition of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation was not due to direct inhibition of the thrombin active site, since cleavage of a small peptidyl substrate was 91% of normal even in the presence of 1 mM gamma'410-427. The gamma'410-427 peptide blocked platelet adhesion to immobilized thrombin under both static and flow conditions, blocked soluble thrombin binding to platelet GPIbalpha, and inhibited PAR1 cleavage by thrombin. These results suggest that the gamma' chain of fibrinogen inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation by binding to thrombin exosite II. Thrombin that is bound to the gamma' chain is thereby prevented from activating platelets, while retaining its amidolytic activity. PMID:18989528

  10. Thrombin selectively engages LIM kinase 1 and slingshot-1L phosphatase to regulate NF-κB activation and endothelial cell inflammation.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Antony; Marando, Catherine; Rahman, Arshad; Fazal, Fabeha

    2013-11-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) inflammation is a central event in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and its more severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome. Alterations in actin cytoskeleton are shown to be crucial for NF-κB regulation and EC inflammation. Previously, we have described a role of actin binding protein cofilin in mediating cytoskeletal alterations essential for NF-κB activation and EC inflammation. The present study describes a dynamic mechanism in which LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a cofilin kinase, and slingshot-1Long (SSH-1L), a cofilin phosphatase, are engaged by procoagulant and proinflammatory mediator thrombin to regulate these responses. Our data show that knockdown of LIMK1 destabilizes whereas knockdown of SSH-1L stabilizes the actin filaments through modulation of cofilin phosphorylation; however, in either case thrombin-induced NF-κB activity and expression of its target genes (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) is inhibited. Further mechanistic analyses reveal that knockdown of LIMK1 or SSH-1L each attenuates nuclear translocation and thereby DNA binding of RelA/p65. In addition, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion inhibited RelA/p65 phosphorylation at Ser(536), a critical event conferring transcriptional competency to the bound NF-κB. However, unlike SSH-1L, LIMK1 knockdown also impairs the release of RelA/p65 by blocking IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα. Interestingly, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion failed to inhibit TNF-α-induced RelA/p65 nuclear translocation and proinflammatory gene expression. Thus this study provides evidence for a novel role of LIMK1 and SSH-1L in selectively regulating EC inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation.

  11. Thrombin selectively engages LIM kinase 1 and slingshot-1L phosphatase to regulate NF-κB activation and endothelial cell inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Antony; Marando, Catherine; Rahman, Arshad

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) inflammation is a central event in the pathogenesis of many pulmonary diseases such as acute lung injury and its more severe form acute respiratory distress syndrome. Alterations in actin cytoskeleton are shown to be crucial for NF-κB regulation and EC inflammation. Previously, we have described a role of actin binding protein cofilin in mediating cytoskeletal alterations essential for NF-κB activation and EC inflammation. The present study describes a dynamic mechanism in which LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1), a cofilin kinase, and slingshot-1Long (SSH-1L), a cofilin phosphatase, are engaged by procoagulant and proinflammatory mediator thrombin to regulate these responses. Our data show that knockdown of LIMK1 destabilizes whereas knockdown of SSH-1L stabilizes the actin filaments through modulation of cofilin phosphorylation; however, in either case thrombin-induced NF-κB activity and expression of its target genes (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) is inhibited. Further mechanistic analyses reveal that knockdown of LIMK1 or SSH-1L each attenuates nuclear translocation and thereby DNA binding of RelA/p65. In addition, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion inhibited RelA/p65 phosphorylation at Ser536, a critical event conferring transcriptional competency to the bound NF-κB. However, unlike SSH-1L, LIMK1 knockdown also impairs the release of RelA/p65 by blocking IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation/degradation of IκBα. Interestingly, LIMK1 or SSH-1L depletion failed to inhibit TNF-α-induced RelA/p65 nuclear translocation and proinflammatory gene expression. Thus this study provides evidence for a novel role of LIMK1 and SSH-1L in selectively regulating EC inflammation associated with intravascular coagulation. PMID:24039253

  12. Thrombin stimulates tumor-platelet adhesion in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nierodzik, M L; Plotkin, A; Kajumo, F; Karpatkin, S

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a role for platelets and the platelet-adhesive proteins, fibronectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in platelet-tumor cell interaction in vitro and metastasis in vivo. The present report documents the effect of thrombin treatment of platelets on this interaction in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, thrombin at 100-1,000 mU/ml maximally stimulated the adhesion of six different tumor cell lines from three different species two- to fivefold. As little as 1-10 mU/ml was effective. The effect of thrombin was specific (inhibitable by hirudin, dansyl-arginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5 pentanediyl) amide and unreactive with the inactive thrombin analogue N-P-tosyl-L-phenylchloromethylketone-thrombin and D-phenylalanyl-L-propyl-L-arginine chloromethylketone-thrombin (PPACK-thrombin), and required high-affinity thrombin receptors (competition with PPACK-thrombin but not with N-P-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl-ketone-thrombin). Functionally active thrombin was required on the platelet surface. Binding of tumor cells to thrombin-activated platelets was inhibitable by agents known to interfere with the platelet GPIIb-GPIIIa integrin: monoclonal antibody 10E5, tetrapeptide RGDS and gamma chain fibrinogen decapeptide LGGAKQAGDV, as well as polyclonal antibodies against the platelet adhesive ligands, fibronectin and vWF. In vivo, thrombin at 250-500 mU per animal increased murine pulmonary metastases fourfold with CT26 colon carcinoma cells and 68-413-fold with B16 amelanotic melanoma cells. Thus, thrombin amplifies tumor-platelet adhesion in vitro two- to fivefold via occupancy of high-affinity platelet thrombin receptors, and modulation of GPIIb-GPIIIa adhesion via an RGD-dependent mechanism. In vivo, thrombin enhances tumor metastases 4-413-fold with two different tumor cell lines. PMID:1845869

  13. The influence of Erythropoietin on platelet activation, thrombin generation and FVII/active FVII in patients with AMI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Erythropoietin (Epo) has been shown to improve myocardial function in models of experimental myocardial infarction, but has also been associated with a rise in thromboembolic events. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Epo on platelet activation and coagulation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods The study was designed as a substudy of the randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled REVIVAL-3 (REgeneration of VItal Myocardium in ST-Segment EleVation MyocardiAL Infarction by Erythropoietin) study that investigated the effects of recombinant human Epo in AMI. Serial venous blood samples were collected before and after study medication. Circulating prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, FVII, active FVII, beta thromboglobulin (TG) and P-Selectin were measured before and 60 hours after randomization by immunoassay (n = 94). In a randomly selected subgroup platelet aggregation was measured using whole blood aggregometry (Multiplate Analyzer, n = 45). Results After 5 days an increase in FVII was observed after Epo as compared to placebo (P = 0.02), yet active FVII and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 remained unchanged. Moreover, no statistically significant differences in circulating TG or P-selectin were observed between the groups. As an expected response to peri-interventional therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin, platelet aggregation after stimulation with ADP, TRAP, ASPI or collagen decreased 12 hours and 2 days after PCI. However, no difference between the Epo and the placebo group was observed. Conclusion After treatment with Epo in patients with AMI a slight increase in circulating FVII after Epo was not associated with an increase in active FVII, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, TG or P-selectin. Moreover, platelet aggregation was not altered after treatment with Epo as compared to placebo. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01761435 PMID:25228850

  14. On the activation of bovine plasma factor XIII. Amino acid sequence of the peptide released by thrombin and the terminal residues of the subunit polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, S; Iwanaga, S; Suzuki, T

    1975-12-01

    A blood coagulation factor, Factor XIII, was highly purified from bovine fresh plasma by a method similar to those used for human plasma Factor XIII. The isolated Factor XIII consisted of two subunit polypeptides, a and b chains, with molecular weights of 79,000 +/- 2,000 and 75,000 +/- 2,000, respectively. In the conversion of Factor XIII to the active enzyme, Factor XIIIa, by bovine thrombin [EC 3.4.21.5], a peptide was liberated. This peptide, designated tentatively as "activation peptide," was isolated by gel-filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column. It contained a total of 37 amino acid residues with a masked N-terminal residue and C-terminal arginine. The whole amino acid sequence of "Activation peptide" was established by the dansyl-Edman method and standard enzymatic techniques, and the masked N-terminal residue was identified as N-acetylserine by using a rat liver acylamino acid-releasing enzyme. This enzyme specifically cleaved the N-acetylserylglutamyl peptide bond serine and the remaining peptide, which was now reactive to 1-dimethylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride. A comparison of the sequences of human and bovine "Activation peptide" revealed five amino acids replacements, Ser-3 to Thr; Gly-5 to Arg; Ile-14 to Val; Thr-18 to Asn, and Pro-26 to Leu. Another difference was the deletion of Leu-34 in the human peptide. Adsorption chromatography on a hydroxylapatite column in the presence of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate was developed as a preparative procedure for the resolution of the two subunit polypeptides, a or a' chain and b chain, constituting the protein molecule of Factor XIII or Factor XIIIa. End group analyses on the isolated pure chains revealed that the structural change of Factor XIII during activation with thrombin occurs only in the N-terminal portion of the a chain, not in the N-terminal end of the b chain or in the C-terminal ends of the a and b chains. From these results, it was concluded that the activation of bovine plasma Factor XIII

  15. Preparation and characterization of human thrombin for use in a fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Neurath, D; Semple, E; Harvey, M; Freedman, M

    2007-06-01

    Cryoprecipitate is frequently combined with thrombin to produce a fibrin sealant to enhance haemostasis during surgical procedures. We evaluated the thrombin produced from plasma using the Thrombin Processing Device (TPD)trade mark (Thermogenesis, Rancho Cordova, CA, USA). Plasma (250 mL) was processed in the CryoSeal FS System using the CP-3 disposable to produce cryoprecipitate by automated freezing and thawing. Simultaneously, thrombin was generated using the attached TPD. The cryoprecipitate and thrombin were harvested after approximately 50 min and then frozen and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis of total protein, fibrinogen, factor VIII (FVIII) activity, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and thrombin activity. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) gel electrophoresis was used to compare thrombin. After combining the thrombin with cryoprecipitate, the rate of clot initiation and strength was measured using a Thromboelastograph (TEG) (Haemoscope Corp, Skokie, IL, USA). Cryoprecipitate was produced, with a fibrinogen concentration of 22 +/- 7.7 g L(-1) (20 +/- 2% recovery), FVIII activity of 14.2 +/- 4.0 IU mL(-1) and vWF of 19.9 +/- 5.2 IU mL(-1). The separate thrombin product had a concentration of 64.3 +/- 16.7 IU mL(-1) of thrombin and a total protein of 0.39 +/- 0.1 g, with SDS gel electrophoresis showing a major band at 37 kD, as did the commercial human thrombin. The TEG curves of cryoprecipitate and TPD-produced or commercial thrombin were compared. The R values (time to clot initiation) were somewhat slower with the TPD-produced thrombin, but the maximum strength (MA) of the clots was similar. In conclusion, human thrombin can be produced during automated cryoprecipitate production. This thrombin is in sufficient concentration to initiate clotting and cross-linking of fibrin from cryoprecipitate to produce an entirely autologous fibrin glue.

  16. The interaction of thrombin with platelet protease nexin

    SciTech Connect

    Knupp, C.L. )

    1989-10-01

    Thrombin interacts with a platelet protein which is immunologically related to fibroblast protease nexin and has been termed platelet protease nexin I (PNI). Conflicting hypotheses about the relationship of the thrombin-PNI complex formation to platelet activation have been proposed. The studies presented here demonstrate that the platelet-associated and supernatant complexes with added 125I-thrombin are formed only under conditions which produce platelet activation in normal and chymotrypsin-modified platelets. The platelet-associated complex is formed prior to the appearance of complexes in supernatants. Appearance of the supernatant complex coincides with the appearance of thrombospondin in the reaction supernatants. Excess native thrombin, dansylarginine N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl) amide or hirudin can prevent radiolabeled platelet-associated complex formation if added before 125I-thrombin. DAPA or hirudin can prevent or dissociate complex formation if added up to one minute after thrombin but not at later time points. The surface associated complex is accessible to trypsin although a portion remains with the cytoskeletal proteins when thrombin-activated platelets are solubilized with Triton X 100. The surface-associated complex formation parallels many aspects of the specific measurable thrombin binding, yet it does not appear to involve other identified surface glycoprotein thrombin receptors or substrates. Although the time course of appearance of the complexes in supernatants is consistent with other data which suggest that PNI may be released from platelet granules during platelet activation, other explanations for the appearance of PNI on the platelet surface and in supernatants during platelet activation are possible.

  17. Thrombin regulation of synaptic plasticity: implications for physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Nicola; Itsekson, Zeev; Dominissini, Dan; Blatt, Ilan; Amariglio, Ninette; Rechavi, Gideon; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab

    2013-09-01

    Thrombin, a serine protease involved in the coagulation cascade has been recently shown to affect neuronal function following blood-brain barrier breakdown. Several lines of evidence have shown that thrombin may exist in the brain parenchyma under normal physiological conditions, yet its role in normal brain functions and synaptic transmission has not been established. In an attempt to shed light on the physiological functions of thrombin and Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) in the brain, we studied the effects of thrombin and a PAR1 agonist on long term potentiation (LTP) in mice hippocampal slices. Surprisingly, different concentrations of thrombin affect LTP through different molecular routes converging on PAR1. High thrombin concentrations induced an NMDA dependent, slow onset LTP, whereas low concentrations of thrombin promoted a VGCCs, mGluR-5 dependent LTP through activated Protein C (aPC). Remarkably, aPC facilitated LTP by activating PAR1 through an Endothelial Protein C Receptor (EPCR)-mediated mechanism which involves intracellular calcium stores. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which PAR1 may regulate the threshold for synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and provide additional insights into the role of this receptor in normal and pathological conditions.

  18. Site-specific interaction of thrombin and inhibitors observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, J; Friedrich, T

    1997-01-01

    We report on the application of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to observe the interaction between thrombin and thrombin inhibitors. Two site-specific fluorescent labels were used to distinguish between inhibitors directed to the active site, the exosite, or both binding sites of thrombin. For several well-known inhibitors of thrombin, the binding sites observed by FCS correspond to previous studies. The interaction of the recently discovered thrombin inhibitor ornithodorin from the tick Ornithodorus moubata with thrombin was investigated. It was found that this inhibitor, like hirudin and rhodniin, binds to both the active site and exosite of thrombin simultaneously. This study shows the feasibility of FCS as a sensitive and selective method for observing protein-ligand interactions. As an additional technique, simultaneous labeling with both fluorescent labels was successfully demonstrated. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9336216

  19. Thrombin inhibits IFN-gamma production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by promoting a Th2 profile.

    PubMed

    Naldini, Antonella; Morena, Emilia; Filippi, Irene; Pucci, Annalisa; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Cirino, Giuseppe; Carraro, Fabio

    2006-11-01

    Thrombin, the key enzyme of the coagulation cascade, is involved in inflammation. It was proposed recently that thrombin activity may play an important role in allergic inflammation. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a potent Th1-related cytokine secreted by activated T cells and is usually downregulated in allergic inflammation. We recently demonstrated that thrombin enhances interleukin-10 (IL-10) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Thus, we hypothesized that thrombin may promote a Th2 profile. We here report that human alpha- thrombin downregulates IFN-gamma expression at both protein and mRNA levels in activated PBMCs. The use of proteolytically inactive thrombin and of the specific thrombin receptor agonist peptide, SFLLRN, shows that this downregulation is thrombin specific and requires thrombin proteolytic activity. The addition of an anti- IL-10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to thrombin-treated PBMCs abolishes IFN-gamma downregulation, suggesting that thrombin exerts its effect through IL-10, a Th2-related cytokine. Furthermore, IFN-gamma reduction was accompanied by increased IL-4 release, as well as by an increase in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1. In conclusion, the observation that thrombin affects the production of IFN-gamma (Th1 profile) and IL-4 (Th2 profile) provides further evidence for the role played by thrombin in modulating Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, which could be particularly relevant in allergic inflammation. PMID:17115897

  20. Kinetics of activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa)-catalyzed cleavage of C-terminal lysine residues of fibrin degradation products and removal of plasminogen-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Foley, Jonathan H; Cook, Paul F; Nesheim, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    Partial digestion of fibrin by plasmin exposes C-terminal lysine residues, which comprise new binding sites for both plasminogen and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). This binding increases the catalytic efficiency of plasminogen activation by 3000-fold compared with tPA alone. The activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFIa) attenuates fibrinolysis by removing these residues, which causes a 97% reduction in tPA catalytic efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of TAFIa-catalyzed lysine cleavage from fibrin degradation products and the kinetics of loss of plasminogen-binding sites. We show that the k(cat) and K(m) of Glu(1)-plasminogen (Glu-Pg)-binding site removal are 2.34 s(-1) and 142.6 nm, respectively, implying a catalytic efficiency of 16.21 μm(-1) s(-1). The corresponding values of Lys(77)/Lys(78)-plasminogen (Lys-Pg)-binding site removal are 0.89 s(-1) and 96 nm implying a catalytic efficiency of 9.23 μm(-1) s(-1). These catalytic efficiencies of plasminogen-binding site removal by TAFIa are the highest of any TAFIa-catalyzed reaction with a biological substrate reported to date and suggest that plasmin-modified fibrin is a primary physiological substrate for TAFIa. We also show that the catalytic efficiency of cleavage of all C-terminal lysine residues, whether they are involved in plasminogen binding or not, is 1.10 μm(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, this value increases to 3.85 μm(-1) s(-1) in the presence of Glu-Pg. These changes are due to a decrease in K(m). This suggests that an interaction between TAFIa and plasminogen comprises a component of the reaction mechanism, the plausibility of which was established by showing that TAFIa binds both Glu-Pg and Lys-Pg. PMID:21467042

  1. Site-specific replacement of the thymine methyl group by fluorine in thrombin binding aptamer significantly improves structural stability and anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Antonella; Petraccone, Luigi; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Varra, Michela; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Pepe, Antonietta; Mayol, Luciano; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo

    2015-12-15

    Here we report investigations, based on circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular modelling, differential scanning calorimetry and prothrombin time assay, on analogues of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) in which individual thymidines were replaced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine residues. The whole of the data clearly indicate that all derivatives are able to fold in a G-quadruplex structure very similar to the 'chair-like' conformation typical of the TBA. However, only ODNs TBA-F4: and TBA-F13: have shown a remarkable improvement both in the melting temperature (ΔTm ≈ +10) and in the anticoagulant activity in comparison with the original TBA. These findings are unusual, particularly considering previously reported studies in which modifications of T4 and T13 residues in TBA sequence have clearly proven to be always detrimental for the structural stability and biological activity of the aptamer. Our results strongly suggest the possibility to enhance TBA properties through tiny straightforward modifications. PMID:26582916

  2. Site-specific replacement of the thymine methyl group by fluorine in thrombin binding aptamer significantly improves structural stability and anticoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Antonella; Petraccone, Luigi; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Varra, Michela; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Pepe, Antonietta; Mayol, Luciano; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Here we report investigations, based on circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular modelling, differential scanning calorimetry and prothrombin time assay, on analogues of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) in which individual thymidines were replaced by 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine residues. The whole of the data clearly indicate that all derivatives are able to fold in a G-quadruplex structure very similar to the ‘chair-like’ conformation typical of the TBA. However, only ODNs TBA-F4 and TBA-F13 have shown a remarkable improvement both in the melting temperature (ΔTm ≈ +10) and in the anticoagulant activity in comparison with the original TBA. These findings are unusual, particularly considering previously reported studies in which modifications of T4 and T13 residues in TBA sequence have clearly proven to be always detrimental for the structural stability and biological activity of the aptamer. Our results strongly suggest the possibility to enhance TBA properties through tiny straightforward modifications. PMID:26582916

  3. Site-specific replacement of the thymine methyl group by fluorine in thrombin binding aptamer significantly improves structural stability and anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Antonella; Petraccone, Luigi; Vellecco, Valentina; Bucci, Mariarosaria; Varra, Michela; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Pepe, Antonietta; Mayol, Luciano; Esposito, Veronica; Galeone, Aldo

    2015-12-15

    Here we report investigations, based on circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, molecular modelling, differential scanning calorimetry and prothrombin time assay, on analogues of the thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) in which individual thymidines were replaced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine residues. The whole of the data clearly indicate that all derivatives are able to fold in a G-quadruplex structure very similar to the 'chair-like' conformation typical of the TBA. However, only ODNs TBA-F4: and TBA-F13: have shown a remarkable improvement both in the melting temperature (ΔTm ≈ +10) and in the anticoagulant activity in comparison with the original TBA. These findings are unusual, particularly considering previously reported studies in which modifications of T4 and T13 residues in TBA sequence have clearly proven to be always detrimental for the structural stability and biological activity of the aptamer. Our results strongly suggest the possibility to enhance TBA properties through tiny straightforward modifications.

  4. Structure and Behavior of Human α-Thrombin upon Ligand Recognition: Thermodynamic and Molecular Dynamics Studies

    PubMed Central

    Giesel, Guilherme M.; Palmieri, Leonardo C.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Verli, Hugo; Lima, Luis Mauricio T. R.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine proteinase that plays a fundamental role in coagulation. In this study, we address the effects of ligand site recognition by alpha-thrombin on conformation and energetics in solution. Active site occupation induces large changes in secondary structure content in thrombin as shown by circular dichroism. Thrombin-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK) exhibits enhanced equilibrium and kinetic stability compared to free thrombin, whose difference is rooted in the unfolding step. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements in solution reveal an overall similarity in the molecular envelope of thrombin and thrombin-PPACK, which differs from the crystal structure of thrombin. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with thrombin lead to different conformations than the one observed in the crystal structure. These data shed light on the diversity of thrombin conformers not previously observed in crystal structures with distinguished catalytic and conformational behaviors, which might have direct implications on novel strategies to design direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:21935446

  5. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Shen, Bing; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Ping; Ji, Yonghua; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure. The purified enzyme, named AhV_TL-I, showed fibrinogenolytic activity against both the Aα and Bβ chains of bovine fibrinogen. Unlike the other SVTLEs, AhV_TL-I has poor esterolytic activity upon BAEE substrate. The N-terminal sequence of AhV_TL-I was determined to be IIGGDEXNINEHRFLVALYT, and the molecular mass was confirmed to 29389.533 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence were obtained by RT-PCR. The crystal structure of AhV_TL-I was determined at a resolution of 1.75 Å. A disaccharide was clearly mapped in the structure, which involved in regulating the esterolytic activity of AhV_TL-I. The presence of the N-glycan deformed the 99-loop, and the resulting steric hindrances hindered the substrates to access the active site. Furthermore, with the carbohydrate moiety, AhV_TL-I could induce mouse thoracic aortic ring contraction with the EC(50) of 147 nmol/L. Besides, the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were also independent of the enzymatic activity. The results of [Ca(2+)](i) measurement showed that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were attributed to Ca(2+) releasing from Ca(2+) store. Further studies showed that it was related to the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These offer new insights into the snake SVTLEs functions and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. PMID:23052203

  6. Homologous desensitization of HEL cell thrombin receptors. Distinguishable roles for proteolysis and phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Brass, L F

    1992-03-25

    Loss of sensitivity to thrombin following an initial response is characteristic of a number of cell types, including platelets. It has recently been proposed that thrombin receptors resemble other G protein-coupled receptors, but that activation involves a novel mechanism in which thrombin cleaves the receptor, exposing a new N terminus that serves as the ligand for the receptor. Based upon this model, we have examined the mechanism of thrombin receptor desensitization by comparing the effects of thrombin with those of a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal sequence of the receptor following proteolysis by thrombin: SFLLRNPNDKYEPF or TRP42/55. Like thrombin, TRP42/55 stimulated pertussis toxin-sensitive inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, raised cytosolic Ca2+, and inhibited cAMP formation in the megakaryoblastic HEL cell line. Exposure to either thrombin or TRP42/55 desensitized the cells to both, but not to a third agonist, neuropeptide Y. The rate of recovery after desensitization depended upon the order of agonist addition. Resensitization of the cell to thrombin following a brief exposure to thrombin required up to 24 h and could be inhibited with cycloheximide. Resensitization to TRP42/55 after exposure to thrombin, or to thrombin after exposure to TRP42/55, on the other hand, was detectable within 30 min and could be inhibited by serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, but not by cycloheximide. Loss of responsiveness to thrombin and TRP42/55 was also observed following addition of the phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). However, while the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine completely prevented the desensitization caused by TPA, it had only a limited effect on the desensitization caused by TRP42/55. These results demonstrate that the G protein-mediated effects of thrombin can be reproduced by a receptor-derived peptide and suggest that desensitization occurs by at least two mechanisms. The first, which is seen with thrombin

  7. Coupling of the thrombin receptor to G12 may account for selective effects of thrombin on gene expression and DNA synthesis in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Post, G R; Collins, L R; Kennedy, E D; Moskowitz, S A; Aragay, A M; Goldstein, D; Brown, J H

    1996-01-01

    In 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, thrombin, but not carbachol, induces AP-1-mediated gene expression and DNA synthesis. To understand the divergent effects of these G protein-coupled receptor agonists on cellular responses, we examined Gq-dependent signaling events induced by thrombin receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stimulation. Thrombin and carbachol induce comparable changes in phosphoinositide and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, diglyceride generation, and redistribution of protein kinase C; thus, activation of these Gq-signaling pathways appears to be insufficient for gene expression and mitogenesis. Thrombin increases Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation to a greater extent than carbachol in 1321N1 cells. The effects of thrombin are not mediated through Gi, since ribosylation of Gi/Go proteins by pertussis toxin does not prevent thrombin-induced gene expression or thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis. We recently reported that the pertussis toxin-insensitive G12 protein is required for thrombin-induced DNA synthesis. We demonstrate here, using transfection of receptors and G proteins in COS-7 cells, that G alpha 12 selectively couples the thrombin receptor to AP-1-mediated gene expression. This does not appear to result from increased mitogen-activated protein kinase activity but may reflect activation of a tyrosine kinase pathway. We suggest that preferential coupling of the thrombin receptor to G12 accounts for the selective ability of thrombin to stimulate Ras, mitogen-activated protein kinase, gene expression, and mitogenesis in 1321N1 cells. Images PMID:8930892

  8. The membrane potential modulates thrombin-stimulated Ca²⁺ mobilization and platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Albarrán, Letizia; Dionisio, Natalia; López, Esther; Salido, Ginés M; Rosado, Juan A

    2013-10-15

    G protein-coupled receptors can be directly modulated by changes in transmembrane voltage in a variety of cell types. Here we show that, while changes in the membrane voltage itself do not induce detectable modifications in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, platelet stimulation with thrombin or the PAR-1 and PAR-4 agonist peptides SFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively, results in Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores that is sensitive to the membrane depolarisation. Direct activation of G proteins or phospholipase C by AlF4(-) and m-3M3FBS, respectively, leads to Ca(2+) release that is insensitive to changes in the membrane potential. Thapsigargin-, as well as OAG-induced Ca(2+) entry are affected by the membrane voltage, probably as a result of the modification in the driving force for Ca(2+) influx; however, hyperpolarisation does not enhance thrombin- or OAG-evoked Ca(2+) entry probably revealing the presence of a voltage-sensitive regulatory mechanism. Transmembrane voltage also modulates the activity of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) most likely due to a decrease in the phosphotyrosine content of the pump. Thrombin-stimulated platelet aggregation is modulated by membrane depolarisation by a mechanism that is, at least partially, independent of Ca(2+). These observations indicate that PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are modulated by the membrane voltage in human platelets. PMID:23988350

  9. Neural correlates of partial lexical activation

    PubMed Central

    Pirog Revill, Kathleen; Aslin, Richard N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2008-01-01

    As a spoken word unfolds over time, it is temporarily consistent with the acoustic forms of multiple words. Previous behavioral research has shown that, in the face of temporary ambiguity about how a word will end, multiple candidate words are briefly activated. Here, we provide neural imaging evidence that lexical candidates only temporarily consistent with the input activate perceptually based semantic representations. An artificial lexicon and novel visual environment were used to target human MT/V5 and an area anterior to it which have been shown to be recruited during the reading of motion words. Participants learned words that referred to novel objects and to motion or color/texture changes that the objects underwent. The lexical items corresponding to the change events were organized into phonologically similar pairs differing only in the final syllable. Upon hearing spoken scene descriptions in a posttraining verification task, participants showed greater activation in the left hemisphere anterior extent of MT/V5 when motion words were heard than when nonmotion words were heard. Importantly, when a nonmotion word was heard, the level of activation in the anterior extent of MT/V5 was modulated by whether there was a phonologically related competitor that was a motion word rather than another nonmotion word. These results provide evidence of activation of a perceptual brain region in response to the semantics of a word while lexical competition is in process and before the word is fully recognized. PMID:18725635

  10. Antiplatelet therapy: thrombin receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Tomasello, Salvatore D; Ueno, Masafumi; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2011-01-01

    Activated platelets stimulate thrombus formation in response to rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque or endothelial cell erosion, promoting atherothrombotic disease. Multiple pathways contribute to platelet activation. Aspirin, an irreversible inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, in combination with clopidogrel, an inhibitor of P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate platelet receptors, represent the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Although these agents have demonstrated significant clinical benefit, the increased risk of bleeding and the recurrence of thrombotic events represent substantial limitations. Thrombin is one of the most important platelet activators. The inhibition of protease-activated receptor 1 showed a good safety profile in preclinical studies. In fact, phase II studies with vorapaxar (SCH530348) and atopaxar (E5555) showed no increase of bleeding events in addition to the current standard-of-care of antiplatelet therapy. Although the results of phase III trials for both drugs are awaited, this family is a promising new addition to the current clinical practice for patients with atherothrombotic disease, not only as an alternative, but also as additional therapy. PMID:21906120

  11. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood.

    PubMed

    Schurgers, Evelien; Moorlag, Martijn; Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  12. Thrombin Generation in Zebrafish Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hemker, Coenraad; Lindhout, Theo; Kelchtermans, Hilde; de Laat, Bas

    2016-01-01

    To better understand hypercoagulability as an underlying cause for thrombosis, the leading cause of death in the Western world, new assays to study ex vivo coagulation are essential. The zebrafish is generally accepted as a good model for human hemostasis and thrombosis, as the hemostatic system proved to be similar to that in man. Their small size however, has been a hurdle for more widespread use in hemostasis related research. In this study we developed a method that enables the measurement of thrombin generation in a single drop of non-anticoagulated zebrafish blood. Pre-treatment of the fish with inhibitors of FXa and thrombin, resulted in a dose dependent diminishing of thrombin generation, demonstrating the validity of the assay. In order to establish the relationship between whole blood thrombin generation and fibrin formation, we visualized the resulting fibrin network by scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, in this study we developed a fast and reliable method to measure thrombin generation in whole blood collected from a single zebrafish. Given the similarities between coagulation pathways of zebrafish and mammals, zebrafish may be an ideal animal model to determine the effect of novel therapeutics on thrombin generation. Additionally, because of the ease with which gene functions can be silenced, zebrafish may serve as a model organism for mechanistical research in thrombosis and hemostasis. PMID:26872266

  13. Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of SCH 530348 (Vorapaxar), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Anima; Lu, Xiaowen; Penner, Natalia; Gao, Lan; Ramanathan, Ragu; Chowdhury, Swapan K; Kishnani, Narendra S; Alton, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Vorapaxar (SCH 530348), a potent oral thrombin protease-activated receptor 1 antagonist, is being developed as an antiplatelet agent for patients with established vascular disease. The objective of this study was to identify the human liver cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme(s) responsible for the metabolism of SCH 530348. Human liver microsomes metabolized SCH 530348 to M19, an amine metabolite formed via carbamate cleavage, and M20 (monohydroxy-SCH 530348). Recombinant human CYP3A4 exhibited the most activity (11.5% profiled radioactivity) for the formation of M19, followed by markedly less substrate conversion with CYP1A1 and CYP2C19. Trace levels of M19, a major excreted human metabolite, were detected with CYP1A2, CYP3A5, and CYP4F3A. Formation of M19 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole (IC(50), 0.73 μM), 34% by tranylcypromine, and 89% by anti-CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. There was a significant correlation between the rate of M19 formation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (r = 0.75) or M19 formation and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation (r = 0.92). The results of screening, inhibition, and correlation studies confirmed that CYP3A4 is the major P450 enzyme responsible for M19 formation from SCH 530348. In contrast, formation of M20, a major circulating human metabolite at steady state, was primarily catalyzed by CYP3A4 and CYP2J2. M20 is pharmacologically equipotent to SCH 530348, whereas M19 is an inactive metabolite. Formation of M20 by human liver microsomes was inhibited 89% by ketoconazole, 75% by astemizole (a CYP2J2 inhibitor), and 43% by CYP3A4 monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 are both involved in the formation of M20 metabolite. PMID:20926621

  14. Pilot study of the efficacy of a thrombin inhibitor for use during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    DeAnda, A; Coutre, S E; Moon, M R; Vial, C M; Griffin, L C; Law, V S; Komeda, M; Leung, L L; Miller, D C

    1994-08-01

    Heparin is normally used for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), but its use is contraindicated in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, heparin-provoked thrombosis, or both. Heparin therapy can also be ineffective due to heparin resistance. A short-acting, oligonucleotide-based thrombin inhibitor (thrombin aptamer) may potentially serve as a substitute for heparin in these and other clinical situations. We tested a novel thrombin aptamer in a canine CPB pilot study to determine its anticoagulant efficacy, the resultant changes in coagulation variables, and the aptamer's clearance mechanisms and pharmacokinetics. Seven dogs were studied initially: Four received varied doses of the aptamer (to establish the pharmacokinetic profile) and 3 received heparin. Subsequently, 4 other dogs underwent CPB, receiving a constant infusion of the aptamer before CPB (to characterize the baseline coagulation status), with partial CPB and hemodilution, during 60 minutes of total CPB, and, finally, after a 2-hour recovery period. At a 0.5 mg.kg-1.min-1 dose, the activated clotting time rose with aptamer infusion from 106 +/- 12 seconds to 187 +/- 8 seconds (+/- 1 standard deviation) (p = 0.014), increased further with hemodilution (to 259 +/- 41 seconds; p = 0.017), and was even more prolonged during total CPB (> 1,500 seconds; p < 0.001). This later increase in the activated clotting time paralleled a rise in the plasma concentration of the thrombin aptamer during total CPB, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8067830

  15. Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by monocytes and endothelial cells exposed to thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    Colotta, F.; Sciacca, F. L.; Sironi, M.; Luini, W.; Rabiet, M. J.; Mantovani, A.

    1994-01-01

    Thrombin, in addition to being a key enzyme in hemostasis, affects a series of endothelial and leukocyte functions and thus may be involved in the regulation of inflammatory reactions. Because leukocyte recruitment and activation are important events in inflammatory and thrombotic processes, in this study we have examined the possibility that thrombin induces the production of a cytokine chemotactic for mononuclear phagocytes. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed in vitro to thrombin expressed transcripts of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1; alternative acronyms: JE, monocyte chemotactic and activating factor, tumor-derived chemotactic factor). Thrombin was two- to threefold less effective than endotoxin in inducing MCP-1 transcripts in PBMC. Among circulating mononuclear cells, monocytes were identified as the cells expressing MCP-1 in response to thrombin. Monocytes expressed thrombin receptor transcripts. Boiling, hirudin, antithrombin III, and mutation of the catalytic site serine 205 into alanine) blocked the capacity of thrombin to induce MCP-1 expression. The thrombin receptor-activating peptide mimicked the effect of thrombin in inducing MCP-1 expression. Induction of MCP-1 transcript by thrombin was not reduced by blocking interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor, suggesting that these mediators are not involved in thrombin-induced expression of MCP-1. In addition to monocytes, endothelial cells (EC) also expressed MCP-1 in response to thrombin, although at lower levels compared with monocytes. Actinomycin D experiments indicated that induction of MCP-1 by thrombin in PBMC and EC was gene transcription dependent. The inhibition of protein synthesis blocked thrombin-induced MCP-1 expression in PBMC, whereas it superinduced both constitutive and thrombin-inducible expression of MCP-1 in EC, indicating different mechanisms of regulation of this gene in mononuclear phagocytes versus endothelial cells. Thrombin stimulated mononuclear

  16. Inactivation of thrombin by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm.

    PubMed

    Mourão, P A; Boisson-Vidal, C; Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Drouet, B; Bros, A; Fischer, A

    2001-04-15

    A polysaccharide extracted from the sea cucumber body wall has the same backbone structure as the mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. These branches confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide. Since the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate has analogy in structure with mammalian glycosaminoglycans and sulfated fucans from brown algae, we compared its anticoagulant action with that of heparin and of a homopolymeric sulfated fucan with approximately the same level of sulfation as the sulfated fucose branches found in the sea cucumber polysaccharide. These various compounds differ not only in their anticoagulant potencies but also in the mechanisms of thrombin inhibition. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, like heparin, requires antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for thrombin inhibition. Sulfated fucans from brown algae have an antithrombin effect mediated by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, plus a direct antithrombin effect more pronounced for some fractions. But even in the case of these two polysaccharides, we observed some differences. In contrast with heparin, total inhibition of thrombin in the presence of antithrombin is not achieved with fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, possibly reflecting a less specific interaction. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is able to inhibit thrombin generation after stimulation by both contact-activated and thromboplastin-activated systems. It delayed only the contact-induced thrombin generation, as expected for an anticoagulant without direct thrombin inhibition. Overall, the specific spatial array of the sulfated fucose branches in the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate not only confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide but also determine differences in the way it inhibits thrombin.

  17. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  18. [Thrombin generation assays and their clinical application].

    PubMed

    Kern, Anita; Várnai, Katalin; Vásárhelyi, Barna

    2014-06-01

    Thrombin is a key enzyme of the coagulation system, having both pro- and anticoagulant functions. Thus, the generation of thrombin is one of the most important steps in coagulation. Global haemostasis assay, the so-called thrombin generation test is appropriate for its assessment. Since thrombin generation is sensible for both pro- and anticoagulant processes it can be applied for the general characterisation of the risk of thrombosis and bleeding, too. Clinical studies confirmed augmented thrombin generation in patients with high risk of venous or arterial thrombosis. Anticoagulant therapy (also novel oral anticoagulant treatment) can be monitored by thrombin generation. In case of haemophilia thrombin generation assays reflect bleeding severity. It is applicable for monitoring of both conventional haemophilia treatment and inhibitor-bypassing therapy, which is needed when inhibitors develop in patients. Standardization of thrombin generation methods and determination of cut off values are required before its application in clinical practice.

  19. Monitoring Low Molecular Weight Heparins at Therapeutic Levels: Dose-Responses of, and Correlations and Differences between aPTT, Anti-Factor Xa and Thrombin Generation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Owain; Lybeck, Emanuel; Strandberg, Karin; Tynngård, Nahreen; Schött, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH’s) are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH’s include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH’s varying affinities for FXa and thrombin. Aim To examine the effects of two different LMWH’s on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests’ concordance. Method Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU)/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and Hemochron Jr (HCJ)) and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat). Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP) was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents. Results Methods’ mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11) and 69s (SD 14) for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21) and 140s (SD 28) for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62–0.87), whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80–0.92). Conclusions aPTT displays a linear dose-respone to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa’s present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is

  20. Crystal Structure of Thrombin Bound to the Uncleaved Extracellular Fragment of PAR1

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, Prafull S.; Chen, Zhiwei; Di Cera, Enrico

    2010-05-11

    Abundant structural information exists on how thrombin recognizes ligands at the active site or at exosites separate from the active site region, but remarkably little is known about how thrombin recognizes substrates that bridge both the active site and exosite I. The case of the protease-activated receptor PAR1 is particularly relevant in view of the plethora of biological effects associated with its activation by thrombin. Here, we present the 1.8 {angstrom} resolution structure of thrombin S195A in complex with a 30-residue long uncleaved extracellular fragment of PAR1 that documents for the first time a productive binding mode bridging the active site and exosite I. The structure reveals two unexpected features of the thrombin-PAR1 interaction. The acidic P3 residue of PAR1, Asp{sup 39}, does not hinder binding to the active site and actually makes favorable interactions with Gly{sup 219} of thrombin. The tethered ligand domain shows a considerable degree of disorder even when bound to thrombin. The results fill a significant gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of recognition by thrombin in ways that are relevant to other physiological substrates.

  1. Interaction of C1 inhibitor with thrombin on the endothelial surface.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Sonia; Castelli, Roberto; Maiocchi, Diana; Bergamaschini, Luigi; Cugno, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    Thrombin, the central bioregulatory enzyme of haemostasis, also has a potent vasopermeability effect on the surface of endothelial cells, and has therefore been considered a major link between the activation of the coagulation pathway and inflammation. C1 inhibitor inhibits thrombin with a low second-order rate constant that can be increased by heparin. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the C1 inhibitor-induced inhibition of thrombin is potentiated on the endothelial surface. The interaction of C1 inhibitor and thrombin was evaluated in an in-vitro system of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to which purified C1 inhibitor and thrombin have been added. The role of heparins and selectins has been tested by adding heparinase and Mab to selectins. Kinetic analysis under pseudo-first-order conditions showed that the inhibitory effect of C1 inhibitor on thrombin is greater on the surface of endothelial cells. After incubating nanomolar concentrations of thrombin and micromolar concentrations of C1 inhibitor in a purified system, thrombin activity remained significant, but was almost totally suppressed in the presence of HUVECs. The abolition of such suppression by heparinase and Mab to selectins supports the involvement of heparin and selectins in C1 inhibitor-thrombin interaction. Furthermore, the second-order rate constant was 25 ± 3 /s per mol/l in our purified system, but increased to 100 ± 9 /s per mol/l in the presence of HUVECs. Our results indicate that C1 inhibitor can inhibit thrombin activity on vascular endothelium via binding to selectins and potentiation by heparins. This may contribute to the modulation of thrombin activity on vasopermeability and on coagulation especially when the major natural anticoagulant pathways are impaired. PMID:21959589

  2. Calibrated automated thrombin generation measurement in clotting plasma.

    PubMed

    Hemker, H Coenraad; Giesen, Peter; Al Dieri, Raed; Regnault, Véronique; de Smedt, Eric; Wagenvoord, Rob; Lecompte, Thomas; Béguin, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    Calibrated automated thrombography displays the concentration of thrombin in clotting plasma with or without platelets (platelet-rich plasma/platelet-poor plasma, PRP/PPP) in up to 48 samples by monitoring the splitting of a fluorogenic substrate and comparing it to a constant known thrombin activity in a parallel, non-clotting sample. Thus, the non-linearity of the reaction rate with thrombin concentration is compensated for, and adding an excess of substrate can be avoided. Standard conditions were established at which acceptable experimental variation accompanies sensitivity to pathological changes. The coefficients of variation of the surface under the curve (endogenous thrombin potential) are: within experiment approximately 3%; intra-individual: <5% in PPP, <8% in PRP; interindividual 15% in PPP and 19% in PRP. In PPP, calibrated automated thrombography shows all clotting factor deficiencies (except factor XIII) and the effect of all anticoagulants [AVK, heparin(-likes), direct inhibitors]. In PRP, it is diminished in von Willebrand's disease, but it also shows the effect of platelet inhibitors (e.g. aspirin and abciximab). Addition of activated protein C (APC) or thrombomodulin inhibits thrombin generation and reflects disorders of the APC system (congenital and acquired resistance, deficiencies and lupus antibodies) independent of concomitant inhibition of the procoagulant pathway as for example by anticoagulants.

  3. Evaluation of Potential Thrombin Inhibitors from the White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Caroline Fabri Bittencourt; Gaeta, Henrique Hessel; Belchor, Mariana Novo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Pena; Pinho, Marcus Vinícius Terashima; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Toyama, Marcos Hikari

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the effects of methanol (MeOH) and hydroalcoholic (HA) extracts and their respective partition phases obtained from white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.) leaves on human thrombin activity. Among the extracts and phases tested, only the ethyl acetate and butanolic partitions significantly inhibited human thrombin activity and the coagulation of plasma in the presence of this enzyme. Chromatographic analyses of the thrombin samples incubated with these phases revealed that different compounds were able to interact with thrombin. The butanolic phase of the MeOH extract had the most potent inhibitory effects, reducing enzymatic activity and thrombin-induced plasma coagulation. Two glycosylated flavonoids in this partition were identified as the most potent inhibitors of human thrombin activity, namely quercetin-3-O-arabinoside (QAra) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Qn). Chromatographic analyses of thrombin samples incubated with these flavonoids demonstrated the chemical modification of this enzyme, suggesting that the MeOH extract contained other compounds that both induced structural changes in thrombin and diminished its activity. In this article, we show that despite the near absence of the medical use of mangrove compounds, this plant contains natural compounds with potential therapeutic applications. PMID:26197325

  4. Partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase activity in raspberry fruits.

    PubMed

    González, E M; de Ancos, B; Cano, M P

    1999-10-01

    A partial characterization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in raspberry fruits is described. Two early cultivars harvested in May/June (Heritage and Autumm Bliss) and two late cultivars harvested in October-November (Ceva and Rubi) were analyzed for PPO activity. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using insoluble poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and Triton X-100 in sodium phosphate, pH 7.0 buffer. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of raspberry extracts under nondenaturing conditions resolved in one band (R(f)()(1) = 0.25). Raspberry PPO activity has pH optima of 8.0 and 5.5, both with catechol (0.1 M). Maximum activity was with D-catechin (catecholase activity), followed by p-coumaric acid (cresolase activity). Heritage raspberry also showed PPO activity toward 4-methylcatechol. Ceva and Autumm Bliss raspberries showed the higher PPO activity using catechol as substrate.

  5. Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher affinity and promotes clot expansion to a greater extent than thrombin.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trang T; Stafford, Alan R; Leslie, Beverly A; Kim, Paul Y; Fredenburgh, James C; Weitz, Jeffrey I

    2013-06-01

    Batroxobin is a thrombin-like serine protease from the venom of Bothrops atrox moojeni that clots fibrinogen. In contrast to thrombin, which releases fibrinopeptide A and B from the NH2-terminal domains of the Aα- and Bβ-chains of fibrinogen, respectively, batroxobin only releases fibrinopeptide A. Because the mechanism responsible for these differences is unknown, we compared the interactions of batroxobin and thrombin with the predominant γA/γA isoform of fibrin(ogen) and the γA/γ' variant with an extended γ-chain. Thrombin binds to the γ'-chain and forms a higher affinity interaction with γA/γ'-fibrin(ogen) than γA/γA-fibrin(ogen). In contrast, batroxobin binds both fibrin(ogen) isoforms with similar high affinity (Kd values of about 0.5 μM) even though it does not interact with the γ'-chain. The batroxobin-binding sites on fibrin(ogen) only partially overlap with those of thrombin because thrombin attenuates, but does not abrogate, the interaction of γA/γA-fibrinogen with batroxobin. Furthermore, although both thrombin and batroxobin bind to the central E-region of fibrinogen with a Kd value of 2-5 μM, the α(17-51) and Bβ(1-42) regions bind thrombin but not batroxobin. Once bound to fibrin, the capacity of batroxobin to promote fibrin accretion is 18-fold greater than that of thrombin, a finding that may explain the microvascular thrombosis that complicates envenomation by B. atrox moojeni. Therefore, batroxobin binds fibrin(ogen) in a manner distinct from thrombin, which may contribute to its higher affinity interaction, selective fibrinopeptide A release, and prothrombotic properties. PMID:23612970

  6. A peptide (P2) derived from the variable heavy chain of an anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody (LYP20) inhibits leucocyte adhesion to thrombin-activated platelets and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Joseph F; McGregor, John L

    2003-02-01

    P-selectin, a member of the selectin family of adhesion molecules, is present in endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies and platelet alpha-granules, and is rapidly expressed on their surface upon activation, resulting in leucocyte adhesion. LYP20 is a functional monoclonal antibody previously generated in our laboratory that binds with high affinity and specificity directed against P-selectin. This binding is largely imparted by the specific sequence of amino acids present on the hypervariable portions of the IgG chains. We now show that a peptide derived from the heavy chain of mAb LYP20 dose dependently inhibits the adhesion of poly morphonuclear cells to resting and thrombin-activated endothelial cells (EC) and platelets. The scrambled form of this peptide, identical in amino acid composition to the authentic peptide but with altered sequence, was not inhibitory at corresponding concentrations. Binding studies revealed that this peptide also dose dependently bound to both resting and thrombin-activated EC and platelets. Our results may prove useful for the development of new therapeutic inhibitors to modulate leucocyte interactions in inflammatory disorders. PMID:12588346

  7. Effect of rabbit thrombomodulin on thrombin inhibition by antithrombin in the presence of heparin.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M C

    1989-04-01

    Thrombomodulin acts as a cofactor for protein C activation by thrombin (PC activation cofactor activity) and inhibits thrombin-induced fibrinogen clotting (direct anticoagulant activity). In addition, rabbit thrombomodulin has been shown to promote thrombin inactivation by antithrombin (AT-dependent anticoagulant activity). However, a non-acidic form (i.e. non-retarded on ion-exchange chromatography) of thrombomodulin generated by limited proteolysis retained only the PC activation cofactor activity. The acidic form (retarded on ion-exchange chromatography) of thrombomodulin is now shown to prevent the rapid inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin in the presence of heparin, presumably by preventing the formation of the ternary thrombin-AT-heparin complex. This effect was not observed with non-acidic thrombomodulin. When submitted to chondroitinase digestion, thrombomodulin was converted into an essentially non-acidic form that lacked both the AT-dependent and the direct anticoagulant activities but showed a PC activation cofactor function indistinguishable from that of native thrombomodulin. This chondroitinase-digested form did not prevent the catalytic effect of heparin on the inhibition of thrombin by AT. It is concluded that the acidic domain of rabbit thrombomodulin, a chondroitin (dermatan) sulfate glycosaminoglycan, interacts with a site of the thrombin molecule that is not involved in the protein C activation cofactor function, but is essential to the cleavage of fibrinogen or binding of heparin.

  8. Thrombin-Responsive Gated Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticles As Coagulation Regulators.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravishankar; Ribes, Àngela; Mas, Núria; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Murguía, Jose R; Venkataraman, Abbaraju; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of achieving sophisticated actions in complex biological environments using gated nanoparticles is an exciting prospect with much potential. We herein describe new gated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) loaded with an anticoagulant drug and capped with a peptide containing a thrombin-specific cleavage site. When the coagulation cascade was triggered, active thrombin degraded the capping peptidic sequence and induced the release of anticoagulant drugs to delay the clotting process. The thrombin-dependent response was assessed and a significant increase in coagulation time in plasma from 2.6 min to 5 min was found. This work broadens the application of gated silica nanoparticles and demonstrates their ability to act as controllers in a complex scenario such as hemostasis. PMID:26794474

  9. The Importance of Thrombin in Cerebral Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Krenzlin, Harald; Lorenz, Viola; Danckwardt, Sven; Kempski, Oliver; Alessandri, Beat

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that prothrombin and its active derivative thrombin are expressed locally in the central nervous system. So far, little is known about the physiological and pathophysiological functions exerted by thrombin in the human brain. Extra-hepatic prothrombin expression has been identified in neuronal cells and astrocytes via mRNA measurement. The actual amount of brain derived prothrombin is expected to be 1% or less compared to that in the liver. The role in brain injury depends upon its concentration, as higher amounts cause neuroinflammation and apoptosis, while lower concentrations might even be cytoprotective. Its involvement in numerous diseases like Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia and haemorrhage is becoming increasingly clear. This review focuses on elucidation of the cerebral thrombin expression, local generation and its role in injury and disease of the central nervous system. PMID:26761005

  10. Screening of direct thrombin inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by a peak fractionation approach.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Song, Hui-Peng; Li, Ping; Zhou, Ping; Dong, Xin; Chen, Jun

    2015-05-10

    Thrombin plays a significant role in thromboembolic disease. In this work, a peak fractionation approach combined with an activity assay method was used to screen direct thrombin inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (RSM), a famous herbal remedy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. A total of 91 fractions were collected from the RSM extract, and 19 fractions out of them showed thrombin inhibitory effects with dose-effect relationship. Among them, three compounds were unambiguously identified as 15, 16-dihydrotanshinone I, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA with IC50 values of 29.39, 81.11 and 66.60μM, respectively. The three compounds were reported with direct thrombin inhibition activities for the first time and their ligand-thrombin interactions were explored by a molecular docking research. These results may contribute to explain the medical benefit of RSM for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25819728

  11. Thrombin interaction with fibrin polymerization sites.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, K

    1997-05-15

    Thrombin is central to hemostasis, and postclotting fibrinolysis and wound healing. During clotting, thrombin transforms plasma fibrinogen into polymerizing fibrin, which selectively adsorbs the enzyme into the clot. This protects thrombin from heparin-antithrombin inactivation, thus preserving the enzyme for postclotting events. To determine how the fibrin N-terminal polymerization sites of A alpha 17-23 (GPRVVER) and B beta 15-25 (GHRPLDKKREE) and their analogs may interact with thrombin, amidolysis vs. plasma- and fibrinogen-clotting assays were used to differentiate blockade of catalytic site vs. other thrombin domains. Amidolysis studies suggest GPRVVER inhibition of thrombin catalytic site through hydrophobic interaction, and GPRVVER inhibited clotting. Neither GPRP nor VVER nor the B beta 15-25 homologs inhibited amidolysis. Contrary to heparin, acyl-DKKREE promoted plasma-clotting, but inhibited fibrinogen-clotting. In addition, acyl-DKKREE reversed the anticoagulant effect of heparin (0.1 U/ml) in plasma. The results suggest fibrin B beta 15-25 interaction with thrombin, possibly by blocking the heparin-binding site. Together with the reported fibrin A alpha 27-50 binding to thrombin, polymerizing fibrin appears to initially bind to thrombin catalytic site and exosite-1 through A alpha 17-50, and to another thrombin site through B beta 15-25. As these fibrin sites are also involved in polymerization, competition of the polymerization process with thrombin-binding could subsequently dislodge thrombin from fibrin alpha-chain. This may re-expose the catalytic site and exosite-1, thus explaining the thrombogenicity of clot-bound thrombin. The implications of these findings in polymerization mechanism and anticoagulant design are discussed.

  12. Kinetic mechanism for the interaction of Hirulog with thrombin.

    PubMed

    Parry, M A; Maraganore, J M; Stone, S R

    1994-12-13

    Hirulog (D-FPRPGGGGDGDFEEIPEEYL) is a bivalent inhibitor of thrombin consisting of a moiety (D-FPRP) that binds to the active-site cleft and a hirudin-like C-terminal region (DGDFEEIPEEYL) that binds to the positively charged surface groove of thrombin known as the anion-binding exosite. The formation of the thrombin-Hirulog complex was studied using steady-state and rapid kinetics at 37 degrees C. The inhibition constant for Hirulog was found to be 1.9 nM. Hirulog was slowly degraded by thrombin with a kcat value of 0.01 s-1. The formation of the complex resulted in an enhancement of 44% in the intrinsic fluorescence of thrombin. The kinetics of the increase in thrombin fluorescence were described by a double-exponential decay. The dependence of the rate constant for the fast phase on the concentration of Hirulog could be described by the Michaelis-Menten equation with Km and kmax values of 0.75 +/- 0.12 microM and 325 +/- 17 s-1. The data were consistent with a mechanism in which the C-terminal region of Hirulog binds to the anion-binding exosite with a dissociation constant of 0.75 microM in the first step, followed by two intramolecular steps with rate constants of about 300 and 30 s-1. A C-terminal fragment of hirudin was found to compete in the first step confirming that this process corresponded to the binding of the hirudin-like C-terminus of Hirulog to the anion-binding exosite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7993908

  13. Thrombin-linked aptamer assay for detection of platelet derived growth factor BB on magnetic beads in a sandwich format.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Here we describe a thrombin-linked aptamer assay (TLAA) for protein by using thrombin as an enzyme label, harnessing enzyme activity of thrombin and aptamer affinity binding. TLAA converts detection of specific target proteins to the detection of thrombin by using a DNA sequence that consists of two aptamers with the first aptamer binding to the specific target protein and the second aptamer binding to thrombin. Through the affinity binding, the thrombin enzyme is labeled on the protein target, and thrombin catalyzes the hydrolysis of small peptide substrate into product, generating signals for quantification. As a proof of principle, we show a sandwich TLAA for platelet derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) by using anti-PDGF-BB antibody coated on magnetic beads and an oligonucleotide containing the aptamer for PDGF-BB and the aptamer for thrombin. The binding of PDGF-BB to both the antibody and the aptamer results in labeling the complex with thrombin. We achieved detection of PDGF-BB at 16 pM. This TLAA contributes a new application of thrombin and its aptamer in bioanalysis, and shows potentials in assay developments. PMID:27343590

  14. Monitoring of dabigatran therapy using Hemoclot(®) Thrombin Inhibitor assay in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Samoš, Matej; Stančiaková, Lucia; Ivanková, Jela; Staško, Ján; Kovář, František; Dobrotová, Miroslava; Galajda, Peter; Kubisz, Peter; Mokáň, Marián

    2015-01-01

    Dabigatran, a new direct thrombin inhibitor, achieves strong anticoagulation that is more predictable than warfarin. Nevertheless, a patient on dabigatran therapy (DT) may suffer from thrombotic or bleeding events. The routine monitoring of DT is not recommended, and standard coagulation tests are not sensitive enough for the assessment of DT activity. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical usefulness of the Hemoclot(®) Thrombin Inhibitor (HTI) assay in the assessment of dabigatran plasma levels in patients with non-valvular AF. Nineteen patients (12 men, 7 women) on DT were included in this preliminary prospective observational study. Dabigatran was administrated twice daily in a two dose regimens: 150 mg (5 patients) and 110 mg (14 patients). Blood samples were taken for the assessment of trough and peak levels of dabigatran. Dabigatran concentrations were measured with the HTI assay. The average dabigatran trough level was 69.3 ± 55.5 ng/ml and the average dabigatran peak level was 112.7 ± 66.6 ng/ml. The dabigatran trough plasma concentration was in the established reference range in 15 patients and the dabigatran peak plasma concentration was in the established reference range in 9 patients, respectively. Despite the fact that the activated partial thromboplastin and thrombin times were generally changed (prolonged), these tests failed to identify the patients with too low or too high dabigatran concentrations. The study confirmed the high sensitivity of the HTI assay for the assessment of dabigatran plasma levels. When compared to standard coagulation tests, the HTI is a more suitable assay for the monitoring of patients treated with dabigatran. Monitoring of DT may be beneficial in selected patients; however, further studies will be needed for the final clarification of this issue. PMID:25103614

  15. Planar Hall magnetoresistive aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Sinha, B; Ramulu, T S; Kim, K W; Venu, R; Lee, J J; Kim, C G

    2014-09-15

    The use of aptamer-based assays is an emerging and attractive approach in disease research and clinical diagnostics. A sensitive aptamer-based sandwich-type sensor is presented to detect human thrombin using a planar Hall magnetoresistive (PHR) sensor in cooperation with superparamagnetic labels. A PHR sensor has the great advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio, a small offset voltage and linear response in the low-field region, allowing it to act as a high-resolution biosensor. In the system presented here, the sensor has an active area of 50 µm × 50 µm with a 10-nm gold layer deposited onto the sensor surface prior to the binding of thiolated DNA primary aptamer. A polydimethylsiloxane well of 600-µm radius and 1-mm height was prepared around the sensor surface to maintain the same specific area and volume for each sensor. The sensor response was traced in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-functionalized magnetic labels on the sensor. A linear response to the thrombin concentration in the range of 86 pM-8.6 µM and a lower detection limit down to 86 pM was achieved by the proposed present method with a sample volume consumption of 2 µl. The proposed aptasensor has a strong potential for application in clinical diagnosis.

  16. Crystal structure of wild-type human thrombin in the Na+-free state

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel J. D.; Adams, Ty E.; Li, Wei; Huntington, James A.

    2005-01-01

    Regulation of thrombin activity is critical for haemostasis and the prevention of thrombosis. Thrombin has several procoagulant substrates, including fibrinogen and platelet receptors, and essential cofactors for stimulating its own formation. However, thrombin is also capable of serving an anticoagulant function by activating protein C. The specificity of thrombin is primarily regulated by binding to the cofactor TM (thrombomodulin), but co-ordination of Na+ can also affect thrombin activity. The Na+-free form is often referred to as ‘slow’ because of reduced rates of cleavage of procoagulant substrates, but the slow form is still capable of rapid activation of protein C in the presence of TM. The molecular basis of the slow proteolytic activity of thrombin has remained elusive, in spite of two decades of solution studies and many published crystallographic structures. In the present paper, we report the first structure of wild-type unliganded human thrombin grown in the absence of co-ordinating Na+. The Na+-binding site is observed in a highly ordered position 6 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) removed from that seen in the Na+-bound state. The movement of the Na+ loop results in non-catalytic hydrogen-bonding in the active site and blocking of the S1 and S2 substrate-binding pockets. Similar, if more dramatic, changes were observed in a previous structure of the constitutively slow thrombin variant E217K. The slow behaviour of thrombin in solutions devoid of Na+ can now be understood in terms of an equilibrium between an inert species, represented by the crystal structure described in the present paper, and an active form, where the addition of Na+ populates the active state. PMID:16201969

  17. Partial purification and characterization of contact activation cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, S; Lee, P

    1975-01-01

    The contact phase of intrinsic clotting involves Factor XI, Factor XII, Fletcher factor, and a fourth activity that we call contact activation cofactor (CAC). All four of these activities are reduced or absent in Dicalite-adsorbed plasma. A modified activated partial thromboplastin time assay for CAC has been defined by using a substrate of Dicalite-adsorbed plasma combined with partially purified sources of Factors XI and XII, and Fletcher factor. The following properties of CAC in plasma have been determined by using the assay: it is stable up to 60 min at 56 degrees C; gradually loses activity at 80 degrees C; is stable between pH 6 and 9; is precipitated by ammonium sulfate between 40% and 50% saturation; is slightly adsorbed by A1(OH)3; and is eluted from DEAE-cellulose after the major protein peaks. A purification procedure has been devised that separates CAC from other known clotting factors. Isolated CAC was less stable than CAC in plasma, but in the presence of dilute human serum albumin it retained full activity for 80 min at 56 degrees C. On gel filtration CAC had an apparent mol wt of 220,000 daltons. These properties are consistent with those described for Fitzgerald factor, which further supports the conclusion that CAC and Fitzgerald factor represent the same activity. Isolated CAC promoted the generation of activated Factor XI (XIa) in a mixture containing purified Factor XI, Factor XII, and kaolin. The amount of Factor XIa generated was proportional to the amount of added CAC. No time-consuming reaction between Factor XI or Factor XII and CAC could be demonstrated. PMID:1184736

  18. Endothelial Angiogenesis and Barrier Function in Response to Thrombin Require Ca2+ Influx through the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger*

    PubMed Central

    Andrikopoulos, Petros; Kieswich, Julius; Harwood, Steven M.; Baba, Akemichi; Matsuda, Toshio; Barbeau, Olivier; Jones, Keith; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Yaqoob, Muhammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombin acts on the endothelium by activating protease-activated receptors (PARs). The endothelial thrombin-PAR system becomes deregulated during pathological conditions resulting in loss of barrier function and a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic endothelial phenotype. We reported recently that the ion transporter Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the Ca2+-influx (reverse) mode promoted ERK1/2 activation and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated primary human vascular endothelial cells. Here, we investigated whether Ca2+ influx through NCX was involved in ERK1/2 activation, angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to thrombin. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and RNAi-mediated NCX1 knockdown attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to thrombin or an agonist of PAR-1, the main endothelial thrombin receptor. Conversely, promoting reverse-mode NCX by suppressing Na+-K+-ATPase activity enhanced ERK1/2 activation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced primary human vascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, quantified as proliferation and tubular differentiation. Reverse-mode NCX inhibitors or NCX1 knockdown preserved barrier integrity upon thrombin stimulation in vitro. Moreover, the reverse-mode NCX inhibitor SEA0400 suppressed Evans' blue albumin extravasation to the lung and kidneys and attenuated edema formation and ERK1/2 activation in the lungs of mice challenged with a peptide activator of PAR-1. Mechanistically, thrombin-induced ERK1/2 activation required NADPH oxidase 2-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reverse-mode NCX inhibitors and NCX1 siRNA suppressed thrombin-induced ROS production. We propose that reverse-mode NCX is a novel mechanism contributing to thrombin-induced angiogenesis and hyperpermeability by mediating ERK1/2 activation in a ROS-dependent manner. Targeting reverse-mode NCX could be beneficial in pathological conditions involving

  19. Active Chemical Sensing With Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosangi, Rakesh; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    We present an active-perception strategy to optimize the temperature program of metal-oxide sensors in real time, as the sensor reacts with its environment. We model the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), where actions correspond to measurements at particular temperatures, and the agent is to find a temperature sequence that minimizes the Bayes risk. We validate the method on a binary classification problem with a simulated sensor. Our results show that the method provides a balance between classification rate and sensing costs.

  20. Measurement of dabigatran in standardly used clinical assays, whole blood viscoelastic coagulation, and thrombin generation assays.

    PubMed

    van Ryn, Joanne; Grottke, Oliver; Spronk, Henri

    2014-09-01

    Dabigatran, a direct thrombin inhibitor, is increasingly used clinically as one of the new oral anticoagulants. This review summarizes the assays available to measure its activity and includes the relative sensitivity of the different assays for this agent. In addition to plasma-based clotting tests, assays commonly used in surgical/emergency settings, such as activated clotting time and thromboelastometry/thromboelastography, are reviewed. In addition, the thrombin generation assay is discussed as an important method to determine the potential risk of thrombosis or bleeding and its relevance to the measurement of direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:25168938

  1. Investigation of the selectivity of thrombin-binding aptamers for thrombin titration in murine plasma.

    PubMed

    Trapaidze, Ana; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien; Gué, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-15

    Detection of thrombin in plasma raises timely challenges to enable therapeutic management of thrombosis in patients under vital threat. Thrombin binding aptamers represent promising candidates as sensing elements for the development of real-time thrombin biosensors; however implementation of such biosensor requires the clear understanding of thrombin-aptamer interaction properties in real-like environment. In this study, we used Surface Plasmon Resonance technique to answer the questions of specificity and sensitivity of thrombin detection by the thrombin-binding aptamers HD1, NU172 and HD22. We systematically characterized their properties in the presence of thrombin, as well as interfering molecular species such as the thrombin precursor prothrombin, thrombin in complex with some of its natural inhibitors, nonspecific serum proteins, and diluted plasma. Kinetic experiments show the multiple binding modes of HD1 and NU172, which both interact with multiple sites of thrombin with low nanomolar affinities and show little specificity of interaction for prothrombin vs. thrombin. HD22, on the other hand, binds specifically to thrombin exosite II and has no affinity to prothrombin at all. While thrombin in complex with some of its inhibitors could not be recognized by any aptamer, the binding of HD1 and NU172 properties is compromised by thrombin inhibitors alone, as well as with serum albumin. Finally, the complex nature of plasma was overwhelming for HD1, but we define conditions for the thrombin detection at 10nM range in 100-fold diluted plasma by HD22. Consequently HD22 showed key advantage over HD1 and NU172, and appears as the only alternative to design an aptasensor.

  2. STIM1 and Orai1 mediate thrombin-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Claudia; Sampieri, Alicia; Vivas, Oscar; Peña-Segura, Claudia; Vaca, Luis

    2012-12-01

    In astrocytes, thrombin leads to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) elevations modulating a variety of cytoprotective and cytotoxic responses. Astrocytes respond to thrombin stimulation with a biphasic Ca(2+) increase generated by an interplay between ER-Ca(2+) release and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). In many cell types, STIM1 and Orai1 have been demonstrated to be central components of SOCE. STIM1 senses the ER-Ca(2+) depletion and binds Orai1 to activate Ca(2+) influx. Here we used immunocytochemistry, overexpression and siRNA assays to investigate the role of STIM1 and Orai1 in the thrombin-induced Ca(2+) response in primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes. We found that STIM1 and Orai1 are endogenously expressed in cortical astrocytes and distribute accordingly with other mammalian cells. Importantly, native and overexpressed STIM1 reorganized in puncta under thrombin stimulation and this reorganization was reversible. In addition, the overexpression of STIM1 and Orai1 increased by twofold the Ca(2+) influx evoked by thrombin, while knockdown of endogenous STIM1 and Orai1 significantly decreased this Ca(2+) influx. These results indicate that STIM1 and Orai1 underlie an important fraction of the Ca(2+) response that astrocytes exhibit in the presence of thrombin. Thrombin stimulation in astrocytes leads to ER-Ca(2+) release which causes STIM1 reorganization allowing the activation of Orai1 and the subsequent Ca(2+) influx.

  3. Factor Xa in mouse fibroblasts may induce fibrosis more than thrombin.

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Lisa; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Hashikata, Takehiro; Ishii, Sayaka; Kameda, Ryo; Shimohama, Takao; Tojo, Taiki; Ako, Junya

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation factors are known to play a role in wound healing by stimulating fibroblasts and might be associated with tissue fibrosis, however, only limited data exist. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), activated by thrombin or factor (F) Xa, and PAR2, activated by FXa, have recently been reported to play roles not only in the coagulation system, but also in cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, a previous report found that FX deficiency in mice led to the development of cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated cellular biological function under conditions of overexpressed thrombin and FXa in fibroblasts.Cell migration and proliferation with FXa (1U/mL) and thrombin (1U/mL) stimulation were evaluated. Cells incubated without FXa or thrombin were used as control. H2O2 and TGF-β1 production were measured using ELISA. Signal pathways were evaluated using a signal pathway reporter assay.Cell migration and proliferation were increased in FXa-stimulated cells (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation compared with control, respectively) and thrombin (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation as compared to control, respectively). H2O2 production was higher in FXa-stimulated cells compared to thrombin (1.3-fold increase) and control cells (1.4-fold increased). TGF-β1 production was up-regulated after FXa addition (12.6-fold increase compared with thrombin, 1.8-fold increase compared with control, respectively). In FXa-stimulated cells, AP-1 and NF-kB were increased compared to control (P < 0.05).These data suggest that FXa and thrombin play important roles in the fibrotic process that could also lead to cardiac fibrosis, and that at least some of these signalings are more accelerated with FXa compared to thrombin. PMID:24942638

  4. Thrombin-inhibiting nanoparticles rapidly constitute versatile and detectable anticlotting surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley Myerson, Jacob; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15 000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A (FPA) ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (˜10 min) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by MRI of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes.

  5. Thrombin-Inhibiting Nanoparticles Rapidly Constitute Versatile and Detectable Anticlotting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Jacob Wheatley; He, Li; Allen, John Stacy; Williams, Todd; Lanza, Gregory; Tollefsen, Douglas; Caruthers, Shelton; Wickline, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Restoring an antithrombotic surface to suppress ongoing thrombosis is an appealing strategy for treatment of acute cardiovascular disorders such as erosion of atherosclerotic plaque. An antithrombotic surface would present an alternative to systemic anticoagulation with attendant risks of bleeding. We have designed thrombin-targeted nanoparticles that bind to sites of active clotting to extinguish local thrombin activity and inhibit platelet deposition while exhibiting only transient systemic anticoagulant effects. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) were functionalized with thrombin inhibitors (either PPACK or bivalirudin) by covalent attachment of more than 15,000 inhibitors to each PFC NP. Fibrinopeptide A ELISA demonstrated that thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented cleavage of fibrinogen by both free and clot-bound thrombin. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that a layer of thrombin-inhibiting NPs prevented growth of clots in vitro. Thrombin-inhibiting NPs were administered in vivo to C57BL6 mice subjected to laser injury of the carotid artery. NPs significantly delayed thrombotic occlusion of the artery, whereas an equivalent bolus of free inhibitor was ineffective. For thrombin-inhibiting NPs, only a short-lived (~10 minutes) systemic effect on bleeding time was observed, despite prolonged clot inhibition. Imaging and quantification of in vivo antithrombotic NP layers was demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the PFC NP. 19F MRI confirmed colocalization of particles with arterial thrombi, and quantitative 19F spectroscopy demonstrated specific binding and retention of thrombin-inhibiting NPs in injured arteries. The ability to rapidly form and image a new antithrombotic surface in acute vascular syndromes while minimizing risks of bleeding would permit a safer method of passivating active lesions than current systemic anticoagulant regimes. PMID:25200815

  6. Reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes with thrombin-treated mouse platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1989-01-01

    The reactivity of mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC) with mouse platelets before and after thrombin treatment was assessed by flow cytometry. Anti-BrMRBC antibodies could bind to thrombin-treated platelets, although normal platelets were also weakly reactive with the antibodies. The binding of anti-BrMRBC antibodies to platelets was confirmed by complement-dependent lysis. It is suggested that thrombin-activated platelets may be a real target for anti-BrMRBC antibodies. PMID:2467876

  7. The modification of the thrombin generation test for the clinical assessment of dabigatran etexilate efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gribkova, Irina V.; Lipets, Elena N.; Rekhtina, Irina G.; Bernakevich, Alex I.; Ayusheev, Dorzho B.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Sinauridze, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    A new oral anticoagulant, dabigatran etexilate (DE, a prodrug of direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) dabigatran), has been used clinically to prevent thrombosis. The assessment of dabigatran efficiency is necessary in some clinical cases, such as renal insufficiency, risk of bleeding, and drug interactions. However, a specific thrombin generation test (TGT) that is one of the most informative and sensitive to anticoagulant therapy (calibrated automated thrombinography (САТ)) shows a paradoxical increase of test parameters, such as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak thrombin, in patients receiving DE. The paradoxical behaviour of ETP and peak thrombin in these patients in the presence of DTIs is mostly caused by a decrease in the activity of thrombin in the α2-macroglobulin-thrombin complex that is used as a calibrator in CAT. For a correct estimation of the TGT parameters in patient’s plasma containing DTIs we proposed to use our previously described alternative calibration method that is based on the measurement of the fluorescence signal of a well-known concentration of the reaction product (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin). In this study, the validity of such approach was demonstrated in an ex vivo study in patients with knee replacement and two special patients with multiple myeloma, who received DE for thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:27377013

  8. The modification of the thrombin generation test for the clinical assessment of dabigatran etexilate efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gribkova, Irina V; Lipets, Elena N; Rekhtina, Irina G; Bernakevich, Alex I; Ayusheev, Dorzho B; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Sinauridze, Elena I

    2016-01-01

    A new oral anticoagulant, dabigatran etexilate (DE, a prodrug of direct thrombin inhibitor (DTI) dabigatran), has been used clinically to prevent thrombosis. The assessment of dabigatran efficiency is necessary in some clinical cases, such as renal insufficiency, risk of bleeding, and drug interactions. However, a specific thrombin generation test (TGT) that is one of the most informative and sensitive to anticoagulant therapy (calibrated automated thrombinography (САТ)) shows a paradoxical increase of test parameters, such as endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and peak thrombin, in patients receiving DE. The paradoxical behaviour of ETP and peak thrombin in these patients in the presence of DTIs is mostly caused by a decrease in the activity of thrombin in the α2-macroglobulin-thrombin complex that is used as a calibrator in CAT. For a correct estimation of the TGT parameters in patient's plasma containing DTIs we proposed to use our previously described alternative calibration method that is based on the measurement of the fluorescence signal of a well-known concentration of the reaction product (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin). In this study, the validity of such approach was demonstrated in an ex vivo study in patients with knee replacement and two special patients with multiple myeloma, who received DE for thrombosis prophylaxis. PMID:27377013

  9. Quantitative phosphoproteomics unveils temporal dynamics of thrombin signaling in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hernández-Fernaud, Juan Ramon; van den Eshof, Bart L.; Neilson, Lisa J.; Meijer, Alexander B.; Mertens, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin is the key serine protease of the coagulation cascade and a potent trigger of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet aggregation. In recent years, PAR1 has become an appealing target for anticoagulant therapies. However, the inhibitors that have been developed so far increase bleeding risk in patients, likely because they interfere with endogenous PAR1 signaling in the endothelium. Because of its complexity, thrombin-induced signaling in endothelial cells has remained incompletely understood. Here, we have combined stable isotope amino acids in cell culture, affinity-based phosphopeptide enrichment, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and performed a time-resolved analysis of the thrombin-induced signaling in human primary endothelial cells. We identified 2224 thrombin-regulated phosphorylation sites, the majority of which have not been previously related to thrombin. Those sites were localized on proteins that are novel to thrombin signaling, but also on well-known players such as PAR1, Rho-associated kinase 2, phospholipase C, and proteins related to actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell junctions, and Weibel-Palade body release. Our study provides a unique resource of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites that may generate novel insights into an intimate understanding of thrombin-mediated PAR signaling and the development of improved PAR1 antagonists that affect platelet but not endothelial cell function. PMID:24501219

  10. Quantitative phosphoproteomics unveils temporal dynamics of thrombin signaling in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Hernández-Fernaud, Juan Ramon; van den Eshof, Bart L; Neilson, Lisa J; Meijer, Alexander B; Mertens, Koen; Zanivan, Sara

    2014-03-20

    Thrombin is the key serine protease of the coagulation cascade and a potent trigger of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet aggregation. In recent years, PAR1 has become an appealing target for anticoagulant therapies. However, the inhibitors that have been developed so far increase bleeding risk in patients, likely because they interfere with endogenous PAR1 signaling in the endothelium. Because of its complexity, thrombin-induced signaling in endothelial cells has remained incompletely understood. Here, we have combined stable isotope amino acids in cell culture, affinity-based phosphopeptide enrichment, and high-resolution mass spectrometry and performed a time-resolved analysis of the thrombin-induced signaling in human primary endothelial cells. We identified 2224 thrombin-regulated phosphorylation sites, the majority of which have not been previously related to thrombin. Those sites were localized on proteins that are novel to thrombin signaling, but also on well-known players such as PAR1, Rho-associated kinase 2, phospholipase C, and proteins related to actin cytoskeleton, cell-cell junctions, and Weibel-Palade body release. Our study provides a unique resource of phosphoproteins and phosphorylation sites that may generate novel insights into an intimate understanding of thrombin-mediated PAR signaling and the development of improved PAR1 antagonists that affect platelet but not endothelial cell function. PMID:24501219

  11. Results of clot waveform analysis and thrombin generation test for a plasma-derived factor VIIa and X mixture (MC710) in haemophilia patients with inhibitors--phase I trial: 2nd report.

    PubMed

    Shirahata, A; Fukutake, K; Mimaya, J; Takamatsu, J; Shima, M; Hanabusa, H; Takedani, H; Takashima, Y; Matsushita, T; Tawa, A; Higasa, S; Takata, N; Sakai, M; Kawakami, K; Ohashi, Y; Saito, H

    2013-03-01

    We reported the results of a clinical pharmacological study of MC710 (a mixture of plasma-derived FVIIa and FX) in haemophilia patients with inhibitors during a non-haemorrhagic state. This report provides the results of a clot waveform analysis (CWA) and thrombin generation test (TGT) using blood samples obtained in this study. CWA and TGT were conducted using blood samples obtained from a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study in which MC710 (five dose rates: 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 μg kg(-1)) was compared with NovoSeven (120 μg kg(-1)) and FEIBA (two dose rates: 50 and 75 U kg(-1)) as control drugs in 11 haemophilia patients with inhibitors without haemorrhagic symptoms. CWA showed that MC710 provided significantly greater improvement than the control drugs in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at 80 μg kg(-1); maximum clot velocity and maximum clot acceleration were more enhanced by MC710 than by control drugs. TGT revealed that MC710 significantly shortened the initiation time of thrombin generation in comparison to FEIBA and induced greater thrombin generation potency than NovoSeven. It was not clear whether or not MC710 caused significant dose-dependent changes in the two measurements; however, differences between MC710 and the control drugs were clarified. MC710 was confirmed to have superior coagulation activity and thrombin productivity and is expected to have superior bypassing activity. PMID:22989180

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Dabigatran Etexilate Mimics, a Novel Class of Thrombin Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaochi; Dai, Peng; Xu, Yungen; Chen, Qiufang; Zhu, Qihua; Gong, Guoqing

    2015-08-01

    Human α-thrombin is a particularly promising target for anticoagulant therapy, and identification of oral small-molecular inhibitors of thrombin remains a research focus. On the basis of the X-ray crystal structure of human α-thrombin and its inhibitor dabigatran, we designed and synthesized a series of dabigatran etexilate mimics containing a novel tricyclic fused scaffold. The biological evaluations reveal that all of the compounds possess moderate activity of antiplatelet aggregation induced by thrombin in vitro. Moreover, compound I-8, which contains 2-hydroxymethyl-3,5,6-trimethylpyrazine (HTMP), a cleavable moiety with antiplatelet activity, shows the best anticoagulant effect among the tested compounds in vivo. Those synthesized compounds that have better in vitro activity were subjected to bleeding complication tests, and the results demonstrate that the novel compounds are less likely to have bleeding risk than dabigatran etexilate.

  13. Thrombin induces Sp1-mediated antiviral effects in cytomegalovirus-infected human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Martin; Vogel, Jens-Uwe; Höver, Gerold; Prösch, Susanna; Kotchetkov, Ruslan; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Koch, Frank; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2004-11-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis causing retinal detachment and destruction of the blood-retina barrier is closely related to retinal hemorrhage/coagulation. However, the effects of procoagulants on HCMV (re)activation in retinal cells have not been investigated yet. Therefore, we studied whether thrombin modulates the expression of HCMV immediate early (IE) and late (L) genes in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Thrombin specifically stimulated the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) on RPE and, surprisingly, inhibited basal and 12,0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-stimulated HCMV IE gene expression in infected RPE. On the other hand, HCMV strongly induced Sp1 DNA binding activity, which was prevented by thrombin/PAR1-mediated Sp1 hyperphosphorylation. Our data suggest that thrombin/PAR-1 may inhibit Sp1-dependent HCMV replication, which might be an important regulatory mechanism for HCMV persistence and replication in RPE.

  14. Thrombin stimulation of inflammatory breast cancer cells leads to aggressiveness via the EGFR-PAR1-Pak1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Bui-Nguyen, Tri M; Divijendra Natha, Reddy S; Schwartz, Arnold M; Levine, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-12-27

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) accounts for a small fraction but aggressive form of epithelial breast cancer. Although the role of thrombin in cancer is beginning to be unfolded, its impact on the biology of IBC remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish the role of thrombin on the invasiveness of IBC cells. The IBC SUM149 cell line was treated with thrombin in the absence or presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) inhibitor. The effects of pharmacological inhibitors on the ability of thrombin to stimulate the growth rate and invasiveness were examined. We found that the inhibition of putative cellular targets of thrombin action suppresses both the growth and invasiveness of SUM149 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, thrombin-mediated increased invasion of SUM149 cells was routed through EGFR phosphorylation, and in turn, stimulation of the p21-activated kinase (Pak1) activity in a EGFR-sensitive manner. Interestingly, thrombin-mediated activation of the Pak1 pathway stimulation was blocked by erlotinib and PAR1 inhibitor. For proof-of-principle studies, we found immunohistochemical evidence of Pak1 activation as well as expression of PAR1 in IBC. Thrombin utilizes EGFR to relay signals promoting SUM149 cell growth and invasion via the Pak1 pathway. The study provides the rationale for future therapeutic approaches in mitigating the invasive nature of IBC by targeting Pak1 and/or EGFR.

  15. PAR1-dependent and independent increases in COX-2 and PGE2 in human colonic myofibroblasts stimulated by thrombin.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michelle L; Zaidi, Nosheen F; Hollenberg, Morley D; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2003-05-01

    Subepithelial myofibroblast-derived prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) regulates epithelial chloride secretion in the intestine. Thrombin is elevated in inflammatory conditions of the bowel. Therefore, we sought to determine a role for thrombin in regulating PGE(2) synthesis by colonic myofibroblasts. Incubation of cultured CCD-18Co colonic myofibroblasts with thrombin, the proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR(1))-activating peptide (Cit-NH(2)), and peptides corresponding to 2 noncatalytic regions of thrombin (TP367 and TP508) for 18 h increased both cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression (immunocytochemistry) and PGE(2) synthesis (enzyme immunoassay). Inhibition of thrombin by D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone (PPACK) did not significantly reduce PGE(2) synthesis, which remained elevated compared with control. We also investigated the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) dependence of thrombin-induced PGE(2) elevations. Recombinant human bFGF concentration dependently increased PGE(2) synthesis, and a bFGF neutralizing antibody inhibited PGE(2) synthesis induced by TP367 and TP508 (approximately 40%) and by thrombin (approximately 20%) (but not Cit-NH(2)). Thrombin, therefore, upregulates COX-2-derived PGE(2) synthesis by both catalytic cleavage of PAR(1) and bFGF-dependent noncatalytic activity. This presents a novel mechanism by which intestinal myofibroblasts might regulate epithelial chloride secretion. PMID:12505789

  16. Artificial neural networks from MATLAB in medicinal chemistry. Bayesian-regularized genetic neural networks (BRGNN): application to the prediction of the antagonistic activity against human platelet thrombin receptor (PAR-1).

    PubMed

    Caballero, Julio; Fernández, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used for medicinal chemistry modeling. In the last two decades, too many reports used MATLAB environment as an adequate platform for programming ANNs. Some of these reports comprise a variety of applications intended to quantitatively or qualitatively describe structure-activity relationships. A powerful tool is obtained when there are combined Bayesian-regularized neural networks (BRANNs) and genetic algorithm (GA): Bayesian-regularized genetic neural networks (BRGNNs). BRGNNs can model complicated relationships between explanatory variables and dependent variables. Thus, this methodology is regarded as useful tool for QSAR analysis. In order to demonstrate the use of BRGNNs, we developed a reliable method for predicting the antagonistic activity of 5-amino-3-arylisoxazole derivatives against Human Platelet Thrombin Receptor (PAR-1), using classical 3D-QSAR methodologies: Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA). In addition, 3D vectors generated from the molecular structures were correlated with antagonistic activities by multivariate linear regression (MLR) and Bayesian-regularized neural networks (BRGNNs). All models were trained with 34 compounds, after which they were evaluated for predictive ability with additional 6 compounds. CoMFA and CoMSIA were unable to describe this structure-activity relationship, while BRGNN methodology brings the best results according to validation statistics.

  17. Activated partial thromboplastin time: new tricks for an old dogma.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2008-10-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is the most common coagulation test procedure performed in routine laboratories, apart from the prothrombin time. The test is traditionally used for identifying quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation, monitoring anticoagulant therapy with unfractionated heparin, and detecting inhibitors of blood coagulation, the most common of which is the lupus anticoagulant. Whereas short APTT values have been mostly overlooked in the past, recent evidence suggests that these might be associated with hypercoagulability. Although clinical relevance is yet to be clearly defined, hypercoagulability detected by a shortened APTT appears to be significantly associated with a major risk of venous thromboembolism independently from other variables such as blood group, the presence of inherited thrombophilia, and factor VIII levels. This novel finding suggests that this traditional, simple, and inexpensive test might have renewed utility along with traditional thrombophilic tests in the evaluation of venous thromboembolic risk. In addition, APTT waveform analysis is also providing mounting evidence of added utility, in particular for identifying sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in critically ill patients (particularly where this might worsen the prognosis), for monitoring therapy in patients with inhibitors, and as a diagnostic aid to identify patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. In total, such emerging evidence suggests that the APTT is either an old dogma displaying new tricks or else might describe a new dogma for an old laboratory trick. PMID:19085761

  18. Baicalin protects against thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Xiao-Ning; Mu, Wei-Na; Liu, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Mei-Hong; Kong, Feng; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Qing-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Baicalin, an extract from the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, was shown to be neuroprotective. However, the precise mechanisms are incompletely known. In this study, we determined the effect of baicalin on thrombin induced cell injury in SH-SY5Y cells, and explored the possible mechanisms. SH-SY5Y cells was treated with thrombin alone or pre-treated with baicalin (5, 10, 20 μM) for 2 h followed by thrombin treatment. Cells without thrombin and baicalin treatment were used as controls. Cell viability was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA expression of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1). Western blotting was conducted to determine the protein expression of PAR-1, Caspase-3 and NF-κB. Baicalin reduced cell death following thrombin treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with concomitant inhibition of NF-κB activation and suppression of PAR-1 expression. In addition, baicalin reduced Caspase-3 expression. The above findings indicated that baicalin prevents against cell injury after thrombin stimulation possibly through inhibition of PAR-1 expression and NF-κB activation. PMID:26823714

  19. Reversal of trauma-induced amnesia in mice by a thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Itzekson, Zeev; Maggio, Nicola; Milman, Anat; Shavit, Efrat; Pick, Chaim G; Chapman, Joab

    2014-05-01

    Minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with the existence of retrograde amnesia and microscopic bleeds containing activated coagulation factors. In an mTBI model, we report that thrombin induces amnesia through its receptor protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1). Thrombin activity was significantly elevated (32 %, p < 0.05) 5 min following mTBI compared to controls. Amnesia was assessed by the novel object recognition test in mTBI animals and in animals injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with either thrombin or a PAR-1 agonist 1 h after the acquisition phase. Saline-injected controls had a preference index of over 0.3 while mTBI animals and those injected with thrombin or the PAR-1 agonist spent equal time with both objects indicating no recall of the object presented to them 24 h previously (p < 0.05). Co-injecting a PAR-1 antagonist (SCH79797) completely blocked the amnestic effects of mTBI, thrombin, and the PAR-1 agonist. Long-term potentiation, measured in hippocampal slices 24 h after mTBI, ICV thrombin or the PAR-1 agonist, was significantly impaired and this effect was completely reversed by the PAR-1 antagonist. The results support a crucial role for PAR-1 in the generation of amnesia following mTBI, revealing a novel therapeutic target for the cognitive effects of brain trauma.

  20. Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins differentially regulate endothelial hyperpermeability after thrombin.

    PubMed

    Adyshev, Djanybek M; Dudek, Steven M; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Kim, Kyung-mi; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Kasa, Anita; Garcia, Joe G N; Verin, Alexander D

    2013-08-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption induced by inflammatory agonists such as thrombin leads to potentially lethal physiological dysfunction such as alveolar flooding, hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema. Thrombin stimulates paracellular gap and F-actin stress fiber formation, triggers actomyosin contraction, and alters EC permeability through multiple mechanisms that include protein kinase C (PKC) activation. We previously have shown that the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) actin-binding proteins differentially participate in sphingosine-1 phosphate-induced EC barrier enhancement. Phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the COOH-terminus of ERM proteins causes conformational changes in ERM to unmask binding sites and is considered a hallmark of ERM activation. In the present study we test the hypothesis that ERM proteins are phosphorylated on this critical threonine residue by thrombin-induced signaling events and explore the role of the ERM family in modulating thrombin-induced cytoskeletal rearrangement and EC barrier function. Thrombin promotes ERM phosphorylation at this threonine residue (ezrin Thr567, radixin Thr564, moesin Thr558) in a PKC-dependent fashion and induces translocation of phosphorylated ERM to the EC periphery. Thrombin-induced ERM threonine phosphorylation is likely synergistically mediated by protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR2. Using the siRNA approach, depletion of either moesin alone or of all three ERM proteins significantly attenuates thrombin-induced increase in EC barrier permeability (transendothelial electrical resistance), cytoskeletal rearrangements, paracellular gap formation, and accumulation of phospho-myosin light chain. In contrast, radixin depletion exerts opposing effects on these indexes. These data suggest that ERM proteins play important differential roles in the thrombin-induced modulation of EC permeability, with moesin promoting barrier dysfunction and radixin opposing it. PMID:23729486

  1. Substitution of valine for glycine-558 in the congenital dysthrombin thrombin Quick II alters primary substrate specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, R.A.; Mann, K.G. )

    1989-03-07

    Thrombin Quick II is one of two dysfunctional forms of thrombin derived from the previously described congenital dysprothrombin prothrombin Quick. Thrombin Quick II does not clot fibrinogen, hydrolyze p-nitroanilide substrates of thrombin, or bind N{sup 2}-(5-(dimethylamino)naphthalene-1-sulfonyl)arginine N,N-(3-ethyl-1,5-pentanediyl)amide, a high-affinity competitive inhibitor of thrombin. To determine the structural alteration in thrombin Quick II, the reduced, carboxymethylated protein was hydrolyzed by a lysyl endopeptidase. A peptide not present in a parallel thrombin hydrolysate was identified by reverse-phase chromatography. This Gly residue, which is highly conserved in the chymotrypsin family of serine proteases, forms part of the substrate binding pocket for bulky aromatic and basic side chains in chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. However, in porcine elastase 1, the corresponding residue is threonine. Consistent with the identified structural alteration, thrombin Quick II incorporates ({sup 3}H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate stoichiometrically and hydrolyzes the elastase substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu-p-nitroanilide with a relative k{sub cat}/K{sub M} of 0.14 when compared to thrombin. This results from a 3-fold increase in K{sub M} and a 2.5-fold decrease in k{sub cat} for thrombin Quick II when compared to thrombin acting on the same substrate. These results and those of other investigators studying mutant trypsins support the conclusion that the catalytic activity of serine proteases is very sensitive to structural alterations in the primary substrate binding pocket.

  2. Theory of partial agonist activity of steroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Ong, Karen M.; Kagan, Benjamin; Simons, S. Stoney

    2015-01-01

    The different amounts of residual partial agonist activity (PAA) of antisteroids under assorted conditions have long been useful in clinical applications but remain largely unexplained. Not only does a given antagonist often afford unequal induction for multiple genes in the same cell but also the activity of the same antisteroid with the same gene changes with variations in concentration of numerous cofactors. Using glucocorticoid receptors as a model system, we have recently succeeded in constructing from first principles a theory that accurately describes how cofactors can modulate the ability of agonist steroids to regulate both gene induction and gene repression. We now extend this framework to the actions of antisteroids in gene induction. The theory shows why changes in PAA cannot be explained simply by differences in ligand affinity for receptor and requires action at a second step or site in the overall sequence of reactions. The theory also provides a method for locating the position of this second site, relative to a concentration limited step (CLS), which is a previously identified step in glucocorticoid-regulated transactivation that always occurs at the same position in the overall sequence of events of gene induction. Finally, the theory predicts that classes of antagonist ligands may be grouped on the basis of their maximal PAA with excess added cofactor and that the members of each class differ by how they act at the same step in the overall gene induction process. Thus, this theory now makes it possible to predict how different cofactors modulate antisteroid PAA, which should be invaluable in developing more selective antagonists. PMID:25984562

  3. Thrombin stimulates VSMC proliferation through an EGFR-dependent pathway: involvement of MMP-2.

    PubMed

    Smiljanic, Katarina; Obradovic, Milan; Jovanovic, Aleksandra; Djordjevic, Jelena; Dobutovic, Branislava; Jevremovic, Danimir; Marche, Pierre; Isenovic, Esma R

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), general metalloproteinases, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) in mediating the mitogenic action of thrombin in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) was investigated. The incubation of rat VSMC with thrombin (1 U/ml) for 5 min resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase of ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 8.7 ± 0.9-fold, EGFR phosphorylation by 8.5 ± 1.3-fold (p < 0.001) and DNA synthesis by 3.6 ± 0.4-fold (p < 0.001). Separate 30-min pretreatments with EGFR tyrosine kinase irreversible inhibitor, 10 µM PD169540 (PD), and 20 µM anti-HB-EGF antibody significantly reduced thrombin-stimulated EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by 81, 72 % and by 48 and 61 %, respectively. Furthermore, the same pretreatments with PD or anti-HB-EGF antibody reduced thrombin-induced VSMC proliferation by 44 and 45 %, respectively. In addition, 30-min pretreatments with 10 µM specific MMP-2 inhibitor significantly reduced thrombin-stimulated phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 by 25 %. Moreover, the same pretreatment with MMP-2 inhibitor reduced thrombin-induced VSMC proliferation by 45 %. These results show that the thrombin-induced DNA synthesis correlates with the level of ERK1/2 activation rather than EGFR activation. These results further suggest that thrombin acts through EGFR and ERK 1/2 signaling pathways involving MMP-2 to upregulate proliferation of VSMC.

  4. Thrombin-Inhibiting Anticoagulant Liposomes: Development and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Endreas, Wegderes; Brüßler, Jana; Vornicescu, Doru; Keusgen, Michael; Bakowsky, Udo; Steinmetzer, Torsten

    2016-02-01

    Many peptides and peptidomimetic drugs suffer from rapid clearance in vivo; this can be reduced by increasing their size through oligomerization or covalent conjugation with polymers. As proof of principle, an alternative strategy for drug oligomerization is described, in which peptidomimetic thrombin inhibitors are incorporated into the liposome surface. For this purpose, the inhibitor moieties were covalently coupled to a palmitic acid residue through a short bifunctionalized ethylene glycol spacer. These molecules were directly added to the lipid mixture used for liposome preparation. The obtained liposomes possess strong thrombin inhibitory potency in enzyme kinetic measurements and anticoagulant activity in plasma. Their strong potency and positive ζ potential indicate that large amounts of the benzamidine-derived inhibitors are located on the surface of the liposomes. This concept should be applicable to other drug molecules that suffer from rapid elimination and allow covalent modification with a suitable fatty acid residue. PMID:26662675

  5. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Michael; Gagnet, Paul; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Yeager, Randi; D'Amico, Michael; Guski, Katie; Scarpone, Michael; Kuebler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR). ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase) and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase) and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease) and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease). No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications. PMID:26823671

  6. Allogeneic Platelet Releasate Preparations Derived via a Novel Rapid Thrombin Activation Process Promote Rapid Growth and Increased BMP-2 and BMP-4 Expression in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Michael; Gagnet, Paul; Cunningham, Elizabeth; Yeager, Randi; D'Amico, Michael; Guski, Katie; Scarpone, Michael; Kuebler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The administration of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) represents a promising regenerative therapy for the treatment of orthopedic injuries. While ASCs can be easily isolated from liposuction-derived adipose tissue, most clinical applications will likely require in vitro culture expansion of these cells using nonxenogeneic components. In this study, platelet releasate was generated using a novel rapid thrombin activation method (tPR). ASCs grown in media supplemented with tPR proliferated much faster than ASCs grown in media supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells also retained the ability to differentiate along chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic lineages. The tPR cultured ASCs displayed elevated expression of BMP-4 (5.7 ± 0.97-fold increase) and BMP-2 (4.7 ± 1.3-fold increase) and decreased expression of PDGF-B (4.0 ± 1.4-fold decrease) and FGF-2 (33 ± 9.0-fold decrease). No significant changes in expression were seen with TGF-β and VEGF. This pattern of gene expression was consistent across different allogeneic tPR samples and different ASC lines. The use of allogeneic rapidly activated tPR to culture ASCs is associated with both an increased cell yield and a defined gene expression profile making it an attractive option for cell expansion prior to cell-based therapy for orthopedic applications.

  7. Thrombin stimulates IL-6 and IL-8 expression in cytomegalovirus-infected human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Martin; Vogel, Jens-Uwe; Höver, Gerold; Kotchetkov, Ruslan; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2004-02-01

    Recently, we reported that thrombin specifically stimulates protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signaling in RPE entailing inhibition of Sp1 dependent HCMV replication. We now studied whether thrombin modulates the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines IL-6 and IL-8 in mock- and cytomegalovirus-infected human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Our data show that thrombin/PAR-1 stimulates IL-6 and IL-8 gene transcription and protein secretion in both mock- and HCMV-infected RPE. Thrombin/PAR-1-mediated signaling stimulated PKC and NF-kappaB-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 gene expression via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and further downstream via p42/44 and p38 MAPKs. Thus, thrombin/PAR-1-mediated IL-6/IL-8 gene expression is uncoupled from Sp1 inhibition and may support proinflammatory pathomechanisms probably involved in hemorrhage/HCMV retinitis progression.

  8. Comparison of thrombin generation assay with conventional coagulation tests in evaluation of bleeding risk in patients with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Zekavat, Omid R; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Dehghani, Javad; Afrasiabi, Abdolreza; Peyvandi, Flora; Karimi, Mehran

    2014-09-01

    Based on the premise that the capacity of plasma to generate thrombin in vitro is a comprehensive and precise functional test of the clotting system, we designed a cross-sectional, single-center study involving 83 patients with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) to compare the usefulness of the thrombin generation (TG) assay versus conventional tests including prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) in predicting bleeding risk in patients with RBD in southern Iran. The TG parameters consisted of endogenous thrombin potential, lag time, peak, time to peak (ttPeak), and start tail. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed statistically significant associations between bleeding risk and lag time, ttPeak, and start tail. We determined cutoff values for these 3 TG parameters and obtained a negative predictive value of 86% to 90% in patients with RBD who had a bleeding score (BS) ≤13. The ROC curves for the association of PT and aPTT with BS did not indicate any significant association. Correlation analysis supported the results of ROC curve analysis, only lag time, ttPeak, and start tail showed significant positive correlations with BS (P < .05). Disease severity based on plasma factor activity was significantly associated with prolonged lag time and ttPeak and with prolonged PT (P <.05). We suggest that TG assay is a potentially more useful tool for predicting the bleeding risk in patients with RBD. However, the small sample size in different RBD subgroups precluded subgroup analysis. Prospective multicenter studies with larger numbers of patients are therefore advisable.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and food effect of LB30870, a novel direct thrombin inhibitor, after single oral doses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kim, John; Lee, Sung-Hack; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Yoon, Suk Kyoon; Park, Hee Dong; Kim, Aeri

    2015-01-01

    1. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and food effect of LB30870, a new selective thrombin inhibitor, were studied in 16 healthy men. 2. A double-blind, placebo-controlled single ascending dose study was done at oral doses of 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg under fasting conditions. An open, randomized, balanced cross-over food effect study was done at 60 mg dose. Plasma and urinary concentrations were measured up to 48 h post-dose. Coagulation and thrombin activity markers were measured at selected time points. 3. Cmax of LB30870 was at 1.3-3.0 h post-dose with a mean apparent terminal half-life (t1/2) of 2.8-4.1 h. AUC after doses above 15 mg appeared greater than dose-proportional. In fed state, AUC showed 80% reduction relative to fasting condition. 4. At doses 60 and 120 mg, peak activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) increased by 1.5- and 2-fold, respectively, from baseline. The aPTT and international normalized ratio (INR) were concentration-dependent, with less within-individual variability than ecarin clotting time (ECT), prothrombin time (PT), or thrombin time (TT). 5. Single oral doses of LB30870 up to 240 mg were well tolerated. The food effect must be overcome if LB30870 is to be used as an oral anti-coagulant. PMID:25673087

  10. Follow-up of thrombin generation after prostate cancer surgery: global test for increased hypercoagulability.

    PubMed

    Benyo, Matyas; Flasko, Tibor; Molnar, Zsuzsanna; Kerenyi, Adrienne; Batta, Zoltan; Jozsa, Tamas; Harsfalvi, Jolan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that evaluation of thrombin generation identifies patients at thrombotic risk. Thrombin generation has a central role in hemorrhage control and vascular occlusion and its measurement provides new metrics of these processes providing sufficient evaluation of an individual's hemostatic competence and response to anticoagulant therapy. The objective of the study is to assess a new measure of hypercoagulability that predisposes to venous thromboembolism in the postoperative period after radical prostatectomy. Pre- (day-1) and postoperative (hour 1, day 6, month 1 and 10) blood samples of 24 patients were tested for plasma thrombin generation (peak thrombin), routine hematology and hemostasis. Patients received low molecular weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis. Peak thrombin levels were higher in patients compared to controls at baseline (p<0.001), and elevated further in the early postoperative period (p<0.001). Longer general anesthesia and high body mass index were associated with increased thrombin generation after surgery (p = 0.024 and p = 0.040). D dimer and fibrinogen levels were higher after radical prostatectomy (p = 0.001 and p<0.001). Conventional clotting tests remained within the reference range. Our study contributed to the cognition of the hypercoagulable state in cancer patients undergoing pelvic surgery and revealed the course of thrombin generation after radical prostatectomy. Whilst it is unsurprising that thrombin generation increases after tissue trauma, further evaluation of this condition during the postoperative period would lead urologists to an international and well-supported consensus regarding thromboprophylaxis in order to provide better clinical outcome. Considering the routine evaluation of procoagulant activity and extending prophylactic anticoagulant therapy accordingly may potentially prevent late thrombotic events. PMID:23236465

  11. Inhibitory effect of apixaban compared with rivaroxaban and dabigatran on thrombin generation assay.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pancras C; White, Andrew; Luettgen, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    The effect of the oral direct activated factor X (factor Xa) inhibitor apixaban on tissue factor-induced thrombin generation in human plasma was investigated in vitro using the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) method and compared with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban and the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran. Pooled citrated, anticoagulated, platelet-poor human plasma was spiked with apixaban, rivaroxaban, or dabigatran at concentrations of 0.01 to 10 μM. The inhibitory potencies of the compounds were quantified by 5 CAT parameters: the control thrombin lag time (LT) and time to thrombin peak (TTP) for the doubling of inhibitor concentration (IC2x); and the control endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), thrombin peak, and maximum rate of thrombin generation (Vmax) for the inhibitor concentration, which inhibited 50% (IC50). The inhibitors modified CAT concentration dependently. Their inhibitory potencies, expressed as IC2x LT, IC2x TTP, IC50 ETP, IC50 peak thrombin, and IC50 Vmax, were as follows: 0.10 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02, 0.65 ± 0.11, 0.089 ± 0.019, and 0.049 ± 0.007 μM for apixaban; 0.049 ± 0.007, 0.070 ± 0.009, 0.43 ± 0.07, 0.048 ± 0.008, and 0.022 ± 0.005 μM for rivaroxaban; and 0.063 ± 0.019, 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.50 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.06, and 0.57 ± 0.27 μM for dabigatran. In summary, apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran have similar potencies in the prolongation of LT and TTP. The CAT parameters that are related to the rate of thrombin generation during the propagation phase (ie, peak thrombin and Vmax) are more sensitive to activities of apixaban and rivaroxaban than dabigatran. The ETP is the least sensitive parameter for measuring the activities of these inhibitors. Recombinant activated factor VII at 5 and 50 μg/mL reversed the anticoagulant effects of apixaban more at 0.2 μM than at 2 μM. Our study suggests that the CAT method is a sensitive assay to monitor the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of

  12. Thrombin-induced contraction in alveolar epithelial cells probed by traction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria; Sunyer, Raimon; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Farré, Ramon; Rotger, Mar; Navajas, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    Contractile tension of alveolar epithelial cells plays a major role in the force balance that regulates the structural integrity of the alveolar barrier. The aim of this work was to study thrombin-induced contractile forces of alveolar epithelial cells. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were challenged with thrombin, and time course of contractile forces was measured by traction microscopy. The cells exhibited basal contraction with total force magnitude 55.0 +/- 12.0 nN (mean +/- SE, n = 12). Traction forces were exerted predominantly at the cell periphery and pointed to the cell center. Thrombin (1 U/ml) induced a fast and sustained 2.5-fold increase in traction forces, which maintained peripheral and centripetal distribution. Actin fluorescent staining revealed F-actin polymerization and enhancement of peripheral actin rim. Disruption of actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D (5 microM, 30 min) and inhibition of myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 (10 microM, 30 min) and Rho kinase with Y-27632 (10 microM, 30 min) markedly depressed basal contractile tone and abolished thrombin-induced cell contraction. Therefore, the contractile response of alveolar epithelial cells to the inflammatory agonist thrombin was mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling and actomyosin activation through myosin light chain kinase and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Thrombin-induced contractile tension might further impair alveolar epithelial barrier integrity in the injured lung. PMID:16675616

  13. [Sodium ions as the effector of catalytic action of alpha-thrombin].

    PubMed

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V; Volkov, G L

    2007-01-01

    A process of thrombin interaction with synthetic and natural substrates in the presence of Na+ ions has been analyzed in the survey. Molecular bases of this interaction have been presented, interrelation between the structure and function of thrombin has been noted; the nature of the unique site of its active centre which determines high thrombin affinity for the substrates and increase of its catalytic activity defined by the term of "specificity to univalent cations" have been considered in detail. Na+ ions play the role of allosteric effector in realization of two informational states of thrombin which penform, respectively, two fundamental and competing functions in the process of hemostasis. The molecular basis of the process of Na+ binding with thrombin is rather simple and depends only on the single site which importance for the enzyme function is marked by numerous investigations of a number of authors, and it is shown that Na(+)-binding site is distributed in the other zone of thrombin molecule as compared to exosites I and II, which do not take part in Na(+)-binding and allosteric transduction. Considerable attention was given to conformational conversions of a thrombin molecule caused by Na+ ions binding. It was shown that the transition slow <--> fast of the enzyme forms leads to formation of the ion pair Arg-187: Asp-222, optimal orientation of Asp-189 and Ser-195 for binding of substrates and considerable shift of the lateral chain Glu-192 determined by the disturbance of the lattice of water molecules which connects Na(+)-binding site with aminoacid Ser-195 of the active centre of the enzyme. New data have been presented which indicate that the changes in the lattice of water molecules and allosteric nucleus of Na(+)-binding site of the enzyme are the basic link of raising the affinity between the thrombin and substrate and mechanism of the enzyme activation by Na(+)-ions. The survey touches some problems of creation of allosteric inhibitors of

  14. Studies of thrombin-induced proteoglycan release in the degradation of human and bovine cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Furmaniak-Kazmierczak, E; Cooke, T D; Manuel, R; Scudamore, A; Hoogendorn, H; Giles, A R; Nesheim, M

    1994-01-01

    Because fibrin is commonly observed within arthritic joints, studies were undertaken to determine whether purified coagulation and fibrinolytic proteases degrade cartilage in vitro and to seek evidence for the activation of coagulation in arthritic joints through measurements of the levels of inhibitor-enzyme complexes and several other proteins associated with coagulation and fibrinolysis. The concentrations of 13 plasma proteins and complexes of thrombin and Factor Xa with antithrombin III were measured in synovial fluids recovered at the time of knee replacement surgery. All zymogens necessary to constitute the coagulation cascade were present. Thrombin and the combination of prothrombin plus prothrombinase induced proteoglycan release from both normal and arthritic cartilages. Factor Xa and plasmin induced release from diseased cartilage only, and urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator, and activated protein C were without effect at the levels used. At saturating levels of thrombin (> or = 2.0 microM) 80% of the proteoglycan content of normal cartilage was released within 24 h. Thrombin, which is cationic, reversibly binds cartilage with Kd = 7.0 +/- 1.0 microM and Bmax = 820 +/- 70 ng/mg of human cartilage. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in synovial fluids and arthritis were 4-fold higher in osteo (OA) and 43-fold higher in rheumatoid (RA) than in controls (0.98 nM). Factor Xa-antithrombin III complex levels were threefold lower in OA and fivefold higher in RA than in controls (0.24 nM). These elevated levels of enzyme-inhibitor complexes imply a history of activation of coagulation within the joint, especially in RA. Since thrombin degrades cartilage in vitro and had been generated in vivo, as inferred by the existence of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, intraarticular activation of coagulation may both contribute to the pathology of arthritis and comprise a target for therapy and diagnosis. PMID:8040300

  15. Adenosine regulates the proinflammatory signaling function of thrombin in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Dinarvand, Peyman; Rezaie, Alireza R.

    2014-01-01

    The plasma level of the regulatory metabolite adenosine increases during the activation of coagulation and inflammation. Here we investigated the effect of adenosine on modulation of thrombin-mediated proinflammatory responses in HUVECs. We found that adenosine inhibits the barrier-disruptive effect of thrombin in HUVECs by a concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of cell surface expression of adenosine receptors revealed that A2A and A2B are expressed at the highest level among the four receptor subtypes (A2B>A2A>A1>A3) on HUVECs. The barrier-protective effect of adenosine in response to thrombin was recapitulated by the A2A specific agonist, CGS 21680, and abrogated both by the siRNA knockdown of the A2A receptor and by the A2A-specific antagonists, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261. The thrombin-induced RhoA activation and its membrane translocation were both inhibited by adenosine in a cAMP-dependent manner, providing a molecular mechanism through which adenosine exerts a barrier-protective function. Adenosine also inhibited thrombin-mediated activation of NF-κB and decreased adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to stimulated HUVECs via down-regulation of expression of cell surface adhesion molecules, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. Moreover, adenosine inhibited thrombin-induced elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and HMGB-1; and chemokines, MCP-1, CXCL-1 and CXCL-3. Taken together, these results suggest that adenosine may inhibit thrombin-mediated proinflammatory signaling responses, thereby protecting the endothelium from injury during activation of coagulation and inflammation. PMID:24477600

  16. In vivo fluorescence imaging of atherosclerotic plaques with activatable cell-penetrating peptides targeting thrombin activity†

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Emilia S.; Whitney, Michael A.; Friedman, Beth; Aguilera, Todd A.; Crisp, Jessica L.; Baik, Fred M.; Jiang, Tao; Baird, Stephen M.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombin and other coagulation enzymes have been shown to be important during atherosclerotic disease development. Study of these proteases is currently limited because of lack of robust molecular imaging agents for imaging protease activity in vivo. Activatable cell penetrating peptides (ACPPs) have been used to monitor MMP activity in tumors and, in principle, can be modified to detect other proteases. We have developed a probe that incorporates the peptide sequence DPRSFL from the proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) into an ACPP and shown that it is preferentially cleaved by purified thrombin. Active thrombin in serum cleaves DPRSFL–ACPP with >90% inhibition by lepirudin or argatroban. The DPRSFL–ACPP cleavage product accumulated in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in living mice, with 85% reduction in retention upon pre-injection of mice with hirudin. Uptake of the ACPP cleavage product was highest in plaques with histological features associated with more severe disease. Freshly resected human atheromas bathed in DPRSFL–ACPP retained 63% greater cleavage product compared to control ACPP. In conclusion, DPRSFL–ACPP can be used to study thrombin activity in coagulation and atherosclerosis with good spatial and temporal resolution. Thrombin-sensitive ACPPs may be developed into probes for early detection and intraoperative imaging of high risk atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:22534729

  17. [Effect of thrombin and prostaglandins E and F on various indices of carbohydrate metabolism in human platelets].

    PubMed

    Makarov, S A; Kudriavtseva, G V; Kolotilova, A I

    1985-01-01

    After incubation of intact thrombocytes with prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha stimulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities as well as an increase in the rate of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate accumulation were found. Thrombin inhibited the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by 30% in these thrombocytes. Addition of thrombin, following the incubation of thrombocytes with prostaglandins, removed the activating effect of the prostaglandins on the pentosephosphate pathway reactions, inhibited glutathione reductase and lactate dehydrogenase.

  18. Protein C inhibits endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in A549 lung cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, I.; Majerus, P.W.

    1987-05-01

    We investigated the effect of protein C on the endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. We previously showed that exposure of umbilical vein endothelial cells to thrombin stimulated the internalization and degradation of thrombin. A similar internalization was stimulated by a monoclonal antithrombomodulin antibody. We have repeated these studies in the presence of protein C and found that endocytosis of /sup 125/I-thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes, but not /sup 125/I-antithrombomodulin-thrombomodulin complexes, is inhibited. Activated protein C did not inhibit endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes. Protein C inhibited both internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-thrombin and diisopropylphosphoryl (DIP) /sup 125/I-thrombin in human lung cancer cells (A549). These effects were observed at protein C concentrations found in human plasma. Protein S had no effect on the inhibition of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes by protein C. We propose that protein C may regulate the rate of endocytosis of thrombin-thrombomodulin complexes in vivo and thereby control the capacity for endothelium to activate protein C.

  19. Monitoring thrombin generation and screening anticoagulants through pulse laser-induced fragmentation of biofunctional nanogold on cellulose membranes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jia; Chiu, Wei-Jane; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2014-09-10

    Thrombin generation (TG) has an important part in the blood coagulation system, and monitoring TG is useful for diagnosing various health issues related to hypo-coagulability and hyper-coagulability. In this study, we constructed probes by using mixed cellulose ester membranes (MCEMs) modified with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for monitoring thrombin activity using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). The LDI process produced Au cationic clusters ([Au(n)](+); n = 1-3) that we detected through MS. When thrombin reacted with fibrinogen on the Au NPs-MCEMs, insoluble fibrin was formed, hindering the formation of Au cationic clusters and, thereby, decreasing the intensity of their signals in the mass spectrum. Accordingly, we incorporated fibrinogen onto the Au NPs-MCEMs to form Fib-Au NPs-MCEM probes to monitor TG with good selectivity (>1000-fold toward thrombin with respect to other proteins or enzymes) and sensitivity (limit of detection for thrombin of ca. 2.5 pM in human plasma samples). Our probe exhibited remarkable performance in monitoring the inhibition of thrombin activity by direct thrombin inhibitors. Analyses of real samples using our new membrane-based probe suggested that it will be highly useful in practical applications for the effective management of hemostatic complications.

  20. Thrombin Cleavage of Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 Inhibits Cytoadherence

    PubMed Central

    Gillrie, Mark R.; Renaux, Bernard; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Avril, Marion; Brazier, Andrew J.; Mihara, Koichiro; Di Cera, Enrico; Milner, Danny A.; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Smith, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains one of the most deadly infections worldwide. The pathogenesis of the infection results from the sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IRBC) in vital organs, including the brain, with resulting impairment of blood flow, hypoxia, and lactic acidosis. Sequestration occurs through the adhesion of IRBC to host receptors on microvascular endothelium by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large family of variant surface antigens, each with up to seven extracellular domains that can bind to multiple host receptors. Consequently, antiadhesive therapies directed at single endothelial adhesion molecules may not be effective. In this study, we demonstrated that the serine protease thrombin, which is pivotal in the activation of the coagulation cascade, cleaved the major parasite adhesin on the surface of IRBC. As a result, adhesion under flow was dramatically reduced, and already adherent IRBC were detached. Thrombin cleavage sites were mapped to the Duffy binding-like δ1 (DBLδ1) domain and interdomains 1 and 2 in the PfEMP1 of the parasite line IT4var19. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the presence of thrombin and IRBC in cerebral malaria autopsies of children. We investigated a modified (R67A) thrombin and thrombin inhibitor, hirugen, both of which inhibit the binding of substrates to exosite I, thereby reducing its proinflammatory properties. Both approaches reduced the barrier dysfunction induced by thrombin without affecting its proteolytic activity on PfEMP1, raising the possibility that thrombin cleavage of variant PfEMP1 may be exploited as a broadly inhibitory antiadhesive therapy. PMID:27624125

  1. Effects of Aerobic Capacity on Thrombin-Induced Hydrocephalus and White Matter Injury.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Gao, Feng; Zheng, Mingzhe; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury is less in rats bred for high aerobic capacity (high capacity runners; HCR) compared with those bred for low aerobic capacity (low capacity runners; LCRs). Thrombin, an essential component in the coagulation cascade, is produced after cerebral hemorrhage. Intraventricular injection of thrombin causes significant hydrocephalus and white matter damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of exercise capacity on thrombin-induced hydrocephalus and white matter damage. Mid-aged (13-month-old) female LCRs (n = 13) and HCRs (n = 12) rats were used in this study. Rats received an intraventricular injection of thrombin (3 U, 50 μl). All rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 h and were then euthanized for brain histology and Western blot. The mortalities were 20 % in LCRs and 33 % in HCRs after thrombin injection (p > 0.05). No rats died after saline injection. Intraventricular thrombin injection resulted in hydrocephalus and periventricular white matter damage as determined on MRI. In LCR rats, thrombin induced significant ventricle enlargement (23.0 ± 2.3 vs12.8 ± 1.9 mm(3) in LCR saline group; p < 0.01) and white matter lesion (9.3 ± 7.6 vs 0.6 ± 0.5 mm(3) in LCR saline group, p < 0.05). In comparison, in HCR rats thrombin induced less ventricular enlargement (17.3 ± 3.9 vs 23.0 ± 2.3 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.01) and smaller white matter lesions (2.6 ± 1.2 mm(3) vs 9.3 ± 7.6 mm(3) in LCRs, p < 0.05). In LCR rats, there was also upregulation of heat shock protein-32, a stress marker, and microglial activation in the periventricular white matter. These changes were significantly reduced in HCR rats. Intraventricular injection of thrombin caused more white matter damage and hydrocephalus in rats with low aerobic capacity. A differential effect of thrombin may contribute to differences in the effects of cerebral

  2. TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Olate, Sergio; Martinez, Felipe; Uribe, Francisca; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a frequent pathology that causes severe facial asymmetries. The partial condylectomy generally halts the disease. The aim of this research was to examine post-condylectomy TMJ function; 14 patients were included in this study, 6 male and 8 female. The average age was 21 years old. In all, the partial condylectomy was performed with preauricular or endaural access and the osteotomy were performed with drills, saw or an ultrasonic system. The patients were assessed with 3 or more time after surgery and were considering maximum mouth opening, right and left lateralities, presence of pain, noises, alterations in the facial nerve (VII) and esthetic alteration from the scar. The analysis was performed with the visual analog scale (VAS) and with a 7 cm metallic rule. Data analysis was descriptive plus chi-square test considering p value < 0.05 for statistical differences. With an average of 11 month after surgery, the results showed that the open mouth (over 35 mm) and lateralities (average 9 mm for the both right and left side) were normal and without statistical differences between the right or left side. Noise was observed in 3 patients and pain was observed in two patients with level 2 and 1 (VAS score). Scar was not related to problem with patient and the temporal branch of facial nerve was observed with limitations but without problem for patients. It can be concluded that the condylectomy is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity for patients. PMID:24753777

  3. TMJ function after partial condylectomy in active mandibular condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Olate, Sergio; Martinez, Felipe; Uribe, Francisca; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Marcio

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a frequent pathology that causes severe facial asymmetries. The partial condylectomy generally halts the disease. The aim of this research was to examine post-condylectomy TMJ function; 14 patients were included in this study, 6 male and 8 female. The average age was 21 years old. In all, the partial condylectomy was performed with preauricular or endaural access and the osteotomy were performed with drills, saw or an ultrasonic system. The patients were assessed with 3 or more time after surgery and were considering maximum mouth opening, right and left lateralities, presence of pain, noises, alterations in the facial nerve (VII) and esthetic alteration from the scar. The analysis was performed with the visual analog scale (VAS) and with a 7 cm metallic rule. Data analysis was descriptive plus chi-square test considering p value < 0.05 for statistical differences. With an average of 11 month after surgery, the results showed that the open mouth (over 35 mm) and lateralities (average 9 mm for the both right and left side) were normal and without statistical differences between the right or left side. Noise was observed in 3 patients and pain was observed in two patients with level 2 and 1 (VAS score). Scar was not related to problem with patient and the temporal branch of facial nerve was observed with limitations but without problem for patients. It can be concluded that the condylectomy is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity for patients. PMID:24753777

  4. Rapid Purification and Procoagulant and Platelet Aggregating Activities of Rhombeobin: A Thrombin-Like/Gyroxin-Like Enzyme from Lachesis muta rhombeata Snake Venom

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Huaco, Frank Denis; Werneck, Cláudio C.; Vicente, Cristina Pontes; Vassequi-Silva, Talita; Nery-Diez, Ana Cláudia Coelho; Mendes, Camila B.; Antunes, Edson; Marangoni, Sérgio; Damico, Daniela C. S.

    2013-01-01

    We report a rapid purification method using one-step chromatography of SVSP Rhombeobin (LMR-47) from Lachesis muta rhombeata venom and its procoagulant activities and effects on platelet aggregation. The venom was fractionated by a single chromatographic step in RP-HPLC on a C8 Discovery BIO Wide Pore, showing high degree of molecular homogeneity with molecular mass of 47035.49 Da. Rhombeobin showed amidolytic activity upon BAρNA, with a broad optimum pH (7–10) and was stable in solution up to 60°C. The amidolytic activity was inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors and reducing agents, but not chelating agents. Rhombeobin showed high coagulant activity on mice plasma and bovine fibrinogen. The deduced amino acid sequence of Rhombeobin showed homology with other SVSPs, especially with LM-TL (L. m. muta) and Gyroxin (C. d. terrificus). Rhombeobin acts, in vitro, as a strong procoagulant enzyme on mice citrated plasma, shortening the APTT and PT tests in adose-dependent manner. The protein showed, “ex vivo”, a strong defibrinogenating effect with 1 µg/animal. Lower doses activated the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways and impaired the platelet aggregation induced by ADP. Thus, this is the first report of a venom component that produces a venom-induced consumptive coagulopathy (VICC). PMID:24058917

  5. Thrombin induces ischemic LTP (iLTP): implications for synaptic plasticity in the acute phase of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Efrat Shavit; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Aronovich, Anna; Reisner, Yair; Bushi, Doron; Pick, Chaim G.; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain ischemia modifies synaptic plasticity by inducing ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) of synaptic transmission through the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Thrombin, a blood coagulation factor, affects synaptic plasticity in an NMDAR dependent manner. Since its activity and concentration is increased in brain tissue upon acute stroke, we sought to clarify whether thrombin could mediate iLTP through the activation of its receptor Protease-Activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Extracellular recordings were obtained in CA1 region of hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 mice. In vitro ischemia was induced by acute (3 minutes) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). A specific ex vivo enzymatic assay was employed to assess thrombin activity in hippocampal slices, while OGD-induced changes in prothrombin mRNA levels were assessed by (RT)qPCR. Upon OGD, thrombin activity increased in hippocampal slices. A robust potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength was detected, which occluded the ability to induce further LTP. Inhibition of either thrombin or its receptor PAR1 blocked iLTP and restored the physiological, stimulus induced LTP. Our study provides important insights on the early changes occurring at excitatory synapses after ischemia and indicates the thrombin/PAR1 pathway as a novel target for developing therapeutic strategies to restore synaptic function in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:25604482

  6. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Methods: Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. Results: A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. Conclusions: The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension. PMID:27397996

  7. Oxidation of human alpha-thrombin by the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system: structural and functional effects.

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, R; Landolfi, R

    2000-02-01

    The myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system (MPOS) is exploited by white blood cells to generate reactive oxygen species in many processes involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation and atherothrombosis. This, study investigated the biochemical and functional effects of alpha-thrombin oxidation by MPOS. This system, in the presence of 100 microM L-tyrosine, caused in the thrombin molecule loss of tryptophan and lysine residues and formation of dityrosine, chloramine and carbonyl groups. The same changes could be directly induced by thrombin incubation with reagent HOCI, but not with H2O2 alone. Exposure to either MPOS or HOCl caused major functional abnormalities in human alpha-thrombin. The interaction of oxidized (ox-)thrombin with Protein C and antithrombin III-heparin complex were most sensitive to oxidation, being the kcat/Km value for Protein C hydrolysis roughly reduced 13-fold and the affinity for the antithrombin III-heparin complex decreased approximately 15-fold. Ox-thrombin interaction with small synthetic peptides showed several changes, arising from a perturbation of the S2-S3 specificity of the enzyme. Ox-thrombin was also characterized by a 5-fold decrease of the kcat/Km value for both fibrinopeptide A and B release from fibrinogen, a 5.8-fold increase of the EC50 value for platelet activation and a 2-fold decrease of binding affinity for thrombomodulin. The above results indicate a high sensitivity of thrombin to oxidative modifications by myeloperoxidase. Perturbed interactions with Protein C and the heparin-ATIII complex were the most relevant functional abnormalities of ox-thrombin. PMID:10739383

  8. Subnanomolar concentrations of thrombin enhance the volume-sensitive efflux of taurine from human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tooba A; Ward, Caroline E; Fisher, Stephen K

    2005-11-01

    The ability of subnanomolar concentrations of thrombin to protect both neurons and glia from ischemia and other metabolic insults has recently been reported. In this study, we demonstrate an additional neuroprotective property of thrombin; its ability to promote the release of the organic osmolyte, taurine, in response to hypoosmotic stress. Incubation of human 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with hypo-osmolar buffers (320-227 mOsM) resulted in a time-dependent release of taurine. Inclusion of thrombin (EC(50) = 60 pM) resulted in a marked increase in taurine efflux that, although evident under isotonic conditions (340 mOsM), was maximal at an osmolarity of 270 mOsM (3-4-fold stimulation). Thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux was dependent upon its protease activity and could be mimicked by addition of the peptide SFLLRN, a proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) subtype-specific ligand. Inclusion of anion channel blockers known to inhibit the volume-sensitive organic osmolyte anion channel attenuated thrombin-stimulated taurine release. Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) with either 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or thapsigargin, or alternatively, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with bisindolylmaleimide or chelerythrine resulted in a 30 to 50% inhibition of thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux. Under conditions in which intracellular Ca(2+) was depleted and PKC activity inhibited, thrombin-stimulated taurine efflux was reduced by >85%. The results indicate that activation of PAR-1 receptors by thrombin facilitates the ability of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells to release osmolytes in response to a reduction in osmolarity via a mechanism that is dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) and PKC activity. PMID:16051696

  9. A sensitive nanoporous gold-based electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Huajun; Sun, Yanli; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2010-08-01

    An attempt was made in the present paper to develop a nanoporous gold (NPG)-based electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection. The substrate electrode NPG was in situ fabricated by a facile one-step square wave potential pulse (SWPP) treatment. The treatment involved repeated gold oxidation-reduction and intensive H(2) bubbles evolution. After 100min treatment, the active surface area of Au increased greatly (34 times). The electrochemical aptasensor was fabricated using a layer-by-layer assembling strategy. A "sandwich" structure was formed via thrombin connecting the aptamer-modified NPG and the aptamer-modified Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs was modified with two kinds of single strand DNA (ssDNA). One was aptamer of thrombin, but the other was not, reducing the cross-reaction between thrombin and its aptamer on the same AuNP. The electrochemical signal produced by the [Ru(NH(3))(6)](3+) bound to ssDNA via electrostatic interaction was measured by chronocoulometry. Due to the amplification effects of both NPG and AuNPs, this novel NPG-based aptasensor could detect thrombin quantitatively in the range of 0.01-22nM with a detection limit as low as 30fM. The present aptasensor also exhibited excellent selectivity, stability and reusability.

  10. The ornithodorin-thrombin crystal structure, a key to the TAP enigma?

    PubMed Central

    van de Locht, A; Stubbs, M T; Bode, W; Friedrich, T; Bollschweiler, C; Höffken, W; Huber, R

    1996-01-01

    Ornithodorin, isolated from the blood sucking soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, is a potent (Ki = 10(-12) M) and highly selective thrombin inhibitor. Internal sequence homology indicates a two domain protein. Each domain resembles the Kunitz inhibitor basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and also the tick anticoagulant peptide (TAP) isolated from the same organism. The 3.1 A crystal structure of the ornithodorin-thrombin complex confirms that both domains of ornithodorin exhibit a distorted BPTI-like fold. The N-terminal portion and the C-terminal helix of each domain are structurally very similar to BPTI, whereas the regions corresponding to the binding loop of BPTI adopt different conformations. Neither of the two 'reactive site loops' of ornithodorin contacts the protease in the ornithodorin-thrombin complex. Instead, the N-terminal residues of ornithodorin bind to the active site of thrombin, reminiscent of the thrombin-hirudin interaction. The C-terminal domain binds at the fibrinogen recognition exosite. Molecular recognition of its target protease by this double-headed Kunitz-type inhibitor diverges considerably from other members of this intensely studied superfamily. The complex structure provides a model to explain the perplexing results of mutagenesis studies on the TAP-factor Xa interaction. Images PMID:8947023

  11. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403

  12. The effect of fibrin(ogen) on thrombin generation and decay.

    PubMed

    Kremers, R M W; Wagenvoord, R J; Hemker, H C

    2014-09-01

    Defibrination causes a ~30% decrease of thrombin generation (TG) which can be restored by adding native fibrinogen in its original concentration (3 mg/ml). The fibrinogen variant γA/γ', which binds thrombin with high affinity, is over four times more efficient in this respect than the more common γA/γA form. By using high tissue factor concentrations we accelerated prothrombin conversion so as to obtain a descending part of the TG curve that was governed by thrombin decay only. From that part we calculated the antithrombin (AT)- and α2-macroglobulin-dependent decay constants at a series of concentrations of native, γA/γA and γA/γ' fibrinogen. We found that the increase of TG in the presence of fibrinogen is primarily due to a dose-dependent decrease of thrombin inactivation by α2-macroglobulin, where the γA/γ' form is much more active than the γA/γA form. AT-dependent decay is somewhat decreased by γA/γ' fibrinogen but hardly by the γA/γA form. We assume that binding of thrombin to fibrin(ogen) interferes with its binding to inhibitors. Attenuation of decay only in part explains the stimulating effect of fibrinogen on TG, as fibrinogen stimulates prothrombin conversion, regardless of the fibrinogen variant.

  13. Partial characterization of Acanthamoeba castellanii (T4 genotype) DNase activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Junaid; Panjwani, Shamvil; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    The deoxyribonuclease (DNase) activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype were investigated. Using zymographic assays, the DNase activities had approximate molecular masses of 25 and 35 kDa. A. castellanii DNases exhibited activity at wide-ranging temperature of up to 60 °C and at pH ranging from 4 to 9. The DNases activities were unaffected by proteinase-K treatment, divalent cations such as Ca(++), Cu(++), Mg(++), and Zn(++), or divalent cation chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The non-reliance on divalent cations and homology data suggests that A. castellanii DNases belong to the class of eukaryotic lysosomal DNase II but exhibit robust properties. The DNases activity in A. castellanii interfered with the genomic DNA extraction. Extraction methods involving EDTA, SDS, and proteinase-K resulted in low yield of genomic DNA. On the other hand, these methods resulted in high yield of genomic DNA from human cells suggesting the robust nature of A. castellanii DNases that are unaffected by reagents normally used in blocking eukaryotic DNases. In contrast, the use of chaotropic agent such as guanidine thiocyanate improved the yield of genomic DNA from A. castellanii cells significantly. Further purification and characterization of Acanthamoeba DNases is needed to study their non-classic distinct properties and to determine their role in the biology, cellular differentiation, cell cycle progression, and arrest of Acanthamoeba.

  14. Design, synthesis and structural exploration of novel fluorinated dabigatran derivatives as direct thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Lin; Ren, Yu-Jie; Dong, Ming-Hui; Ren, Wei-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one fluorinated dabigatran derivatives were designed based on the bioisosteric principle. All derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their thrombin inhibitory activity in vitro. Among these compounds, 14h, 14m, 14s and 14t were potent and the activity was in the range of reference drug, dabigatran. Three structural changes were introduced in these 21 compounds to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the drugs. In addition, prodrugs of compounds 14h and 14s were developed to investigate their anticoagulant activities in vivo. In these experiments, compound 16 showed a fairly strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and demonstrated potent activity for inhibiting arteriovenous thrombosis with an inhibition rate of (73 ± 6) %, which was comparable to that of dabigatran etexilate (76 ± 2) %. Moreover, molecular docking studies were performed to understand the binding interactions of active compounds 14h, 14s and 14t with thrombin protein (PDB ID:1KTS). Contour maps obtained from the 3D-QSAR model are meaningful in designing more active molecules to act as direct inhibitors of thrombin.

  15. Thrombin drives tumorigenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeldt, Leah; Kombrinck, Keith; Flick, Matthew J.; Steinbrecher, Kris A.; Harmel-Laws, Eleana; Mullins, Eric S.; Shaw, Maureen; Witte, David P.; Revenko, Alexey; Monia, Brett; Palumbo, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    The established association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer underscores the importance of inflammation in colon cancer development. Based on evidence that hemostatic proteases are powerful modifiers of both inflammatory pathologies and tumor biology, gene-targeted mice carrying low levels of prothrombin were used to directly test the hypothesis that prothrombin contributes to tumor development in colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). Remarkably, imposing a modest 50% reduction in circulating prothrombin in fII+/− mice, a level that carries no significant bleeding risk, dramatically decreased adenoma formation following an azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate challenge. Similar results were obtained with pharmacological inhibition of prothrombin expression or inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Detailed longitudinal analyses showed that the role of thrombin in tumor development in CAC was temporally associated with the antecedent inflammatory colitis. However, direct studies of the antecedent colitis showed that mice carrying half-normal prothrombin levels were comparable to control mice in mucosal damage, inflammatory cell infiltration and associated local cytokine levels. These results suggest that thrombin supports early events coupled to inflammation-mediated tumorigenesis in CAC that are distinct from overall inflammation-induced tissue damage and inflammatory cell trafficking. That prothrombin is linked to early events in CAC was strongly inferred by the observation that prothrombin deficiency dramatically reduced the formation of very early, pre-cancerous aberrant crypt foci. Given the importance of inflammation in the development of colon cancer, these studies suggest that therapeutic interventions at the level of hemostatic factors may be an effective means to prevent and/or impede colitis-associated colon cancer progression. PMID:24710407

  16. Cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a new chimeric thrombin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López, M; Mende, K; Steinmetzer, T; Nowak, G

    2003-03-25

    The development of thrombin inhibitors could provide invaluable progress for antithrombotic therapy. In this paper, we report the cloning, purification and biochemical characterization of dipetarudin, a chimeric thrombin inhibitor composed of the N-terminal head structure of dipetalogastin II, the strongest inhibitor from the assassin bug Dipetalogaster maximus, and the exosite 1 blocking segment of hirudin, connected through a five glycine linker. The cloning of dipetarudin was performed by a simple method which had not been used previously to clone chimeras. Biochemical characterization of dipetarudin revealed that it is a slow, tight-binding inhibitor with a molecular mass (M(r)=7560) and a thrombin inhibitory activity (K(i)=446 fM) comparable to r-hirudin. PMID:12651003

  17. Differential involvement of thrombin receptors in Ca2+ release from two different intracellular stores in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Isaac; Ben Amor, Nidhal; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Pariente, José A; Salido, Ginés M; Rosado, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Physiological agonists increase cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration to regulate a number of cellular processes. The platelet thrombin receptors, PAR (protease-activated receptor) 1 PAR-4 and GPIb-IX-V (glycoprotein Ib-IX-V) have been described as potential contributors of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Platelets present two separate Ca2+ stores, the DTS (dense tubular system) and acidic organelles, differentiated by the distinct sensitivity of their respective SERCAs (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPases) to TG (thapsigargin) and TBHQ [2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone]. However, the involvement of the thrombin receptors in Ca2+ release from each Ca2+ store remains unknown. Depletion of the DTS using ADP, which releases Ca2+ solely from the DTS, in combination with 10 nM TG, to selectively inhibit SERCA2 located on the DTS reduced Ca2+ release evoked by the PAR-1 agonist, SFLLRN, and the PAR-4 agonist, AYPGKF, by 80 and 50% respectively. Desensitization of PAR-1 and PAR-4 or pre-treatment with the PAR-1 and PAR-4 antagonists SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2 reduced Ca2+ mobilization induced by thrombin, and depletion of the DTS after desensitization or blockade of PAR-1 and PAR-4 had no significant effect on Ca2+ release stimulated by thrombin through the GPIb-IX-V receptor. Converse experiments showed that depletion of the acidic stores using TBHQ reduced Ca2+ release evoked by SFLLRN or AYPGKF, by 20 and 50% respectively, and abolished thrombin-stimulated Ca2+ release through the GPIb-IX-V receptor when PAR-1 and PAR-4 had been desensitized or blocked. Our results indicate that thrombin-induced activation of PAR-1 and PAR-4 evokes Ca2+ release from both Ca2+ stores, while activation of GPIb-IX-V by thrombin releases Ca2+ solely from the acidic compartments in human platelets. PMID:16939417

  18. Differential involvement of thrombin receptors in Ca2+ release from two different intracellular stores in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Jardin, Isaac; Ben Amor, Nidhal; Bartegi, Ahgleb; Pariente, José A.; Salido, Ginés M.; Rosado, Juan A.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological agonists increase cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration to regulate a number of cellular processes. The platelet thrombin receptors, PAR (protease-activated receptor) 1 PAR-4 and GPIb-IX-V (glycoprotein Ib-IX-V) have been described as potential contributors of thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Platelets present two separate Ca2+ stores, the DTS (dense tubular system) and acidic organelles, differentiated by the distinct sensitivity of their respective SERCAs (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+-ATPases) to TG (thapsigargin) and TBHQ [2,5-di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-hydroquinone]. However, the involvement of the thrombin receptors in Ca2+ release from each Ca2+ store remains unknown. Depletion of the DTS using ADP, which releases Ca2+ solely from the DTS, in combination with 10 nM TG, to selectively inhibit SERCA2 located on the DTS reduced Ca2+ release evoked by the PAR-1 agonist, SFLLRN, and the PAR-4 agonist, AYPGKF, by 80 and 50% respectively. Desensitization of PAR-1 and PAR-4 or pre-treatment with the PAR-1 and PAR-4 antagonists SCH 79797 and tcY-NH2 reduced Ca2+ mobilization induced by thrombin, and depletion of the DTS after desensitization or blockade of PAR-1 and PAR-4 had no significant effect on Ca2+ release stimulated by thrombin through the GPIb-IX-V receptor. Converse experiments showed that depletion of the acidic stores using TBHQ reduced Ca2+ release evoked by SFLLRN or AYPGKF, by 20 and 50% respectively, and abolished thrombin-stimulated Ca2+ release through the GPIb-IX-V receptor when PAR-1 and PAR-4 had been desensitized or blocked. Our results indicate that thrombin-induced activation of PAR-1 and PAR-4 evokes Ca2+ release from both Ca2+ stores, while activation of GPIb-IX-V by thrombin releases Ca2+ solely from the acidic compartments in human platelets. PMID:16939417

  19. Thrombin enhances the barrier function of rat microvascular endothelium in a PAR-1-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Troyanovsky, B; Alvarez, D F; King, J A; Schaphorst, K L

    2008-02-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional coagulation protease with pro- and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. We questioned whether thrombin may have segmentally differentiated effects on pulmonary endothelium. In cultured rat endothelial cells, rat thrombin (10 U/ml) recapitulated the previously reported decrease in transmonolayer electrical resistance (TER), F-actin stress fiber formation, paracellular gap formation, and increased permeability. In contrast, in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), isolated on the basis of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin recognition, thrombin increased TER, induced fewer stress fibers, and decreased permeability. To assess for differential proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) expression as a basis for the different responses, PAR family expression was analyzed. Both pulmonary artery endothelial cells and PMVEC expressed PAR-1 and PAR-2; however, only PMVEC expressed PAR-3, as shown by both RT-PCR and Western analysis. PAR-1 activating peptides (PAR-APs: SFLLRN-NH(2) and TFLLRN-NH(2)) were used to confirm a role for the PAR-1 receptor. PAR-APs (25-250 muM) also increased TER, formed fewer stress fibers, and did not induce paracellular gaps in PMVEC in contrast to that shown in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These results were confirmed in isolated perfused rat lung preparations. PAR-APs (100 mug/ml) induced a 60% increase in the filtration coefficient over baseline. However, by transmission electron microscopy, perivascular fluid cuffs were seen only along conduit veins and arteries without evidence of intra-alveolar edema. We conclude that thrombin exerts a segmentally differentiated effect on endothelial barrier function in vitro, which corresponds to a pattern of predominant perivascular fluid cuff formation in situ. This may indicate a distinct role for thrombin in the microcirculation. PMID:18083763

  20. Thrombin as important factor for cutaneous wound healing: comparison of fibrin biomatrices in vitro and in a rat excisional wound healing model.

    PubMed

    Gugerell, Alfred; Pasteiner, Waltraud; Nürnberger, Sylvia; Kober, Johanna; Meinl, Alexandra; Pfeifer, Sabine; Hartinger, Joachim; Wolbank, Susanne; Goppelt, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Mittermayr, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Fibrin biomatrices have been used for many years for hemostasis and sealing and are a well-established surgical tool. The objective of the present study was to compare two commercially available fibrin biomatrices regarding the effect of their thrombin concentration on keratinocytes and wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Keratinocytes showed significant differences in adhesion, viability, and morphology in the presence of the fibrin matrices in vitro. A high thrombin concentration (800-1,200 IU/mL) caused deteriorated cell compatibility. By using a thrombin inhibitor, those differences could be reversed. In a rat excisional wound healing model, we observed more rapid wound closure and less wound severity in wounds treated with a fibrin matrix containing a lower concentration of thrombin (4 IU/mL). Furthermore, fewer new functional vessels and a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor were measured in wounds after 7 days treated with the matrix with higher thrombin concentration. These in vivo results may be partially explained by the in vitro biocompatibility data. Additionally, results show that low thrombin biomatrices were degraded faster than the high thrombin material. Hence, we conclude that the composition of fibrin biomatrices influences keratinocytes and therefore has an impact on wound healing.

  1. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants. PMID:25178064

  2. Selectively active markers for solving of the partial occlusion problem in matchmoving and chromakeying workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, Przemysław

    2013-09-01

    Matchmoving (Match Moving) is the process used for the estimation of camera movements for further integration of acquired video image with computer graphics. The estimation of movements is possible using pattern recognition, 2D and 3D tracking algorithms. The main problem for the workflow is the partial occlusion of markers by the actor, because manual rotoscoping is necessary for fixing of the chroma-keyed footage. In the paper, the partial occlusion problem is solved using the invented, selectively active electronic markers. The sensor network with multiple infrared links detects occlusion state (no-occlusion, partial, full) and switch LED's based markers.

  3. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  4. Regulation of Thrombin-Induced Lung Endothelial Cell Barrier Disruption by Protein Kinase C Delta

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lishi; Chiang, Eddie T.; Kelly, Gabriel T.; Kanteti, Prasad; Singleton, Patrick A.; Camp, Sara M.; Zhou, Tingting; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Wang, Ting; Black, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) plays a significant role in thrombin-induced loss of endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity; however, the existence of more than 10 isozymes of PKC and tissue–specific isoform expression has limited our understanding of this important second messenger in vascular homeostasis. In this study, we show that PKCδ isoform promotes thrombin-induced loss of human pulmonary artery EC barrier integrity, findings substantiated by PKCδ inhibitory studies (rottlerin), dominant negative PKCδ construct and PKCδ silencing (siRNA). In addition, we identified PKCδ as a signaling mediator upstream of both thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation and Rho GTPase activation affecting stress fiber formation, cell contraction and loss of EC barrier integrity. Our inhibitor-based studies indicate that thrombin-induced PKCδ activation exerts a positive feedback on Rho GTPase activation and contributes to Rac1 GTPase inhibition. Moreover, PKD (or PKCμ) and CPI-17, two known PKCδ targets, were found to be activated by PKCδ in EC and served as modulators of cytoskeleton rearrangement. These studies clarify the role of PKCδ in EC cytoskeleton regulation, and highlight PKCδ as a therapeutic target in inflammatory lung disorders, characterized by the loss of barrier integrity, such as acute lung injury and sepsis. PMID:27442243

  5. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeredo, Jorge L.; Toda, Kazuo; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA), a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth) and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space). Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g) might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter. PMID:25370031

  6. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zeredo, Zeredo L; Toda, Kazuo; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-04

    The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA), a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF), in response to partial gravity. "Partial gravity" is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth) and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space). Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2-0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g) might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  7. The antithrombotic effect of potent bifunctional thrombin inhibitors based on hirudin sequence, P551 and P532, on He-Ne laser-induced thrombosis in rat mesenteric microvessels.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Tsuda, Y; Konishi, Y; Okada, Y; Matsuoka, A; Giddings, J C; Yamamoto, J

    1998-06-01

    The antithrombotic effect of potent synthetic bifunctional non-substrate type thrombin inhibitors based on hirudin sequences, P551 and P532, on Helium-Neon laser-induced thrombosis was investigated in rat mesenteric microvessels and compared with other types of thrombin inhibitors. P551 and P532, when given intravenously, inhibited platelet-rich thrombus formation in both arterioles and venules in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was maximal immediately after intravenous administration and persisted for 20-30 minutes in both arterioles and venules. The minimal effective doses of P551 and P532 were 1.0 mg/ kg (intravenously) in both. However, the time course of the antithrombotic effect was not in keeping with the inhibitory effect measured by an activated partial thromboplastin time and was similar to other types of inhibitors in spite of different half-lives. The current findings show that P551 and P532 had significant inhibitory effects on platelet-rich thrombus formation and suggest that these bifunctional thrombin inhibitors could be potent antithrombotic agents. PMID:9694241

  8. Targeting the GPIbα Binding Site of Thrombin To Simultaneously Induce Dual Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Effects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Exosite 2 of human thrombin contributes to two opposing pathways, the anticoagulant pathway and the platelet aggregation pathway. We reasoned that an exosite 2 directed allosteric thrombin inhibitor should simultaneously induce anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects. To assess this, we synthesized SbO4L based on the sulfated tyrosine-containing sequence of GPIbα. SbO4L was synthesized in three simple steps in high yield and found to be a highly selective, direct inhibitor of thrombin. Michelis–Menten kinetic studies indicated a noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. Competitive inhibition studies suggested ideal competition with heparin and glycoprotein Ibα, as predicted. Studies with site-directed mutants of thrombin indicated that SbO4L binds to Arg233, Lys235, and Lys236 of exosite 2. SbO4L prevented thrombin-mediated platelet activation and aggregation as expected on the basis of competition with GPIbα. SbO4L presents a novel paradigm of simultaneous dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects achieved through the GPIbα binding site of thrombin. PMID:24635452

  9. Targeting the thrombin receptor modulates inflammation and astrogliosis to improve recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Radulovic, Maja; Yoon, Hyesook; Wu, Jianmin; Mustafa, Karim; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2016-09-01

    The deregulation of serine protease activity is a common feature of neurological injury, but little is known regarding their mechanisms of action or whether they can be targeted to facilitate repair. In this study we demonstrate that the thrombin receptor (Protease Activated Receptor 1, (PAR1)) serves as a critical translator of the spinal cord injury (SCI) proteolytic microenvironment into a cascade of pro-inflammatory events that contribute to astrogliosis and functional decline. PAR1 knockout mice displayed improved locomotor recovery after SCI and reduced signatures of inflammation and astrogliosis, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and STAT3 signaling. SCI-associated elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-6 were also reduced in PAR1-/- mice and co-ordinate improvements in tissue sparing and preservation of NeuN-positive ventral horn neurons, and PKCγ corticospinal axons, were observed. PAR1 and its agonist's thrombin and neurosin were expressed by perilesional astrocytes and each agonist increased the production of IL-6 and STAT3 signaling in primary astrocyte cultures in a PAR1-dependent manner. In turn, IL-6-stimulated astrocytes increased expression of PAR1, thrombin, and neurosin, pointing to a model in which PAR1 activation contributes to increased astrogliosis by feedforward- and feedback-signaling dynamics. Collectively, these findings identify the thrombin receptor as a key mediator of inflammation and astrogliosis in the aftermath of SCI that can be targeted to reduce neurodegeneration and improve neurobehavioral recovery. PMID:27145117

  10. Flow and delta-P dictate where thrombin, fibrin, and von Willebrand Factor will be found.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Hemostasis occurs in two different topological scenarios: complete severing of a vessel or disruption of the vessel wall. Either to meet the daily rigors of active life or during an acute trauma, hemostasis involves the regulated and self-limiting production of thrombin to stop bleeding. In contrast, arterial and venous thrombosis typically involves the unregulated, intraluminal growth of a clot, in the absence of bleeding. For either hemostasis or thrombosis, the presence of flow and pressure gradients (delta-P, ΔP) dictates when and where thrombin and fibrin are located and in what quantity. For hemostatic clots, fibrin formation helped limit clot growth. We found that γ'-fibrinogen had a role in limiting clot growth via anti-thrombin activity at venous, but not arterial conditions. For hemophilic blood, severe factor deficiency (<1% healthy) led to a defect in both platelet and fibrin deposition under flow. However, moderate deficiency, which is associated with a less severe bleeding phenotype, had normalized platelet function but still lacked fibrin production. We conclude signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. Finally, as a clot grows, shear stresses can become sufficiently extreme in diseased arteries to drive von Willebrand Factor self-association into massive fibers, potentially the final burst of clot growth towards full thrombotic occlusion. PMID:27207416

  11. Flow and delta-P dictate where thrombin, fibrin, and von Willebrand Factor will be found.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Scott L

    2016-05-01

    Hemostasis occurs in two different topological scenarios: complete severing of a vessel or disruption of the vessel wall. Either to meet the daily rigors of active life or during an acute trauma, hemostasis involves the regulated and self-limiting production of thrombin to stop bleeding. In contrast, arterial and venous thrombosis typically involves the unregulated, intraluminal growth of a clot, in the absence of bleeding. For either hemostasis or thrombosis, the presence of flow and pressure gradients (delta-P, ΔP) dictates when and where thrombin and fibrin are located and in what quantity. For hemostatic clots, fibrin formation helped limit clot growth. We found that γ'-fibrinogen had a role in limiting clot growth via anti-thrombin activity at venous, but not arterial conditions. For hemophilic blood, severe factor deficiency (<1% healthy) led to a defect in both platelet and fibrin deposition under flow. However, moderate deficiency, which is associated with a less severe bleeding phenotype, had normalized platelet function but still lacked fibrin production. We conclude signaling levels of thrombin can be generated during moderate hemophilia to sufficiently activate platelets to achieve primary hemostasis, even if fibrin formation remains defective. Finally, as a clot grows, shear stresses can become sufficiently extreme in diseased arteries to drive von Willebrand Factor self-association into massive fibers, potentially the final burst of clot growth towards full thrombotic occlusion.

  12. Hypersensitivity to thrombin of platelets from hypercholesterolemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Rand, M.L.; Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    Hypersensitivity of platelets to thrombin has been associated with hypercholesterolemia. The authors have examined the mechanisms involved in this hypersensitivity. Rats were given diets rich in milk fat and containing added cholesterol and taurocholate to produce hypercholesterolemia (HC) (262 +/- 25 mg%) or added sitosterol as a normocholesterolemic control (NC) (89 +/- 6 mg%). Washed platelets were prelabelled with /sup 14/C-serotonin. In the presence of acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) (to inhibit thromboxane A/sub 2/ (TXA/sub 2/) formation) and creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase (CP/CPK) (to remove released ADP), HC platelets aggregated more (26 +/- 1%) and released more /sup 14/C (9.1 +/- 2.0%) than NC platelets (aggregation: 0%, p < 0.001; /sup 14/C release: 1.5 +/- 0.5%, p < 0.002) in response to thrombin (0.075 U/ml). Thus, a pathway independent of released ADP or TXA/sub 2/ formation is involved in the hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin. Total binding of /sup 125/I-thrombin to HC platelets was less than that to NC platelets but HC platelets were smaller and had less protein than NC platelets; the thrombin binding per mg platelet protein was the same for HC and NC platelets, indicating that hypersensitivity to thrombin of HC platelets does not result from increased thrombin binding. Thus, hypersensitivity of HC platelets to thrombin is not due to TXA/sub 2/ formation, the action of released ADP or increased thrombin binding.

  13. Partial purification and characterization of isopenicillin N epimerase activity from Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S E; Westlake, D W; Wolfe, S

    1983-11-01

    Epimerase activity, which converts isopenicillin N to penicillin N, has been partially purified from cell-free extracts of Streptomyces clavuligerus. No stimulating cofactors of this activity were found, and neither EDTA nor anaerobic incubation caused significant inhibition of activity. Although pyridoxal phosphate did not stimulate epimerase activity, the presence of this cofactor was necessary for the stabilization of enzymic activity during the purification process. Epimerase activity was purified 35.5-fold by a combination of salt precipitation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. Gel filtration indicated that the epimerase has a molecular weight of 60 000 and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the 35.5-fold purified epimerase showed a major protein band running near that location. Pyridoxal phosphate antagonists did not uniformly inhibit epimerase activity, but the inhibitory effect of hydroxylamine could be partially reversed by pyridoxal phosphate.

  14. Thrombin induces expression of twist and cell motility via the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α translational pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Hsun; Chen, Chun-Han; Huang, Der-Yi; Pai, Hui-Chen; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis associated with advanced cancer is known as Trousseau's syndrome. We hypothesized that thrombin, an activator of protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-4 contributes to tumor metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that thrombin and the PAR-1 activating peptide (AP) SFLLRN, but not the PAR-4 AP GYPGKF, induced HIF-1α activities, protein expression, and cell motility in colorectal cancer cells, and these actions were significantly inhibited by the PAR-1 antagonist SCH79797. Moreover, thrombin-induced HIF-1α activity and cell motility were blocked by inhibiting important mediators of signaling transduction, including the ERK, PI3K, and mTOR pathways. These results showed that thrombin induced HIF-1α protein expression through PAR-1 and HIF-1α translational de novo protein synthesis. Twist can regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increase tumor metastasis. However, we observed that thrombin-induced HIF-1α increased Twist mRNA and its protein level was mediated by the modulation of PAR-1 activation and the HIF-1α translational pathway. In addition, Twist could increase N-cadherin but not E-cadherin to promote tumor metastasis. Overexpression of dominant-negative HIF-1α reversed thrombin-mediated Twist and Twist-induced N-cadherin expression. Moreover, siTwist inhibited Twist-induced N-cadherin and Thrombin-induced cell motility. In conclusion, our study showed that thrombin-induced HIF-1α upregulated Twist at the transcriptional level to enhance cell motility. These findings show that thrombin upregulates Twist via HIF-1α to make tumor cells malignant and also establish a link between the coagulation disorder and cancer metastasis. PMID:20857420

  15. Inhibition of the generation of thrombin and factor Xa by a fucoidan from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome.

    PubMed

    Nishino, T; Fukuda, A; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Kaji, E

    1999-10-01

    The effects of a fucoidan (C-II), which was purified from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome, on the generation of thrombin and factor Xa have been investigated by measuring the amidolytic activities by using the respective specific chromogenic substrates in both plasma and purified systems. C-II inhibited significantly the generation of thrombin in both the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways, although the intrinsic inhibitory effect by C-II was more remarkable than the extrinsic one. On the other hand, C-II was a good inhibitor of the factor Xa generation in the intrinsic pathway, while it was a poor one in the extrinsic pathway. In the purified systems C-II also inhibited the formation of prothrombin-activating complex (i.e., prothrombinase), but not its activity. The concentration of C-II required for 50% inhibition of thrombin generation was about one-tenth to one-seventh of that of the activity of the generated thrombin in plasma. These results indicate that C-II has an inhibitory effect on the generation of thrombin by blocking the formation of prothrombinase and by preventing the generation of intrinsic factor Xa in addition to its antithrombin activity, and also that the generation-inhibitory effect is more remarkable than C-II's enhancement effect on the antithrombin activity by heparin cofactor II in plasma.

  16. Loop Electrostatics Asymmetry Modulates the Preexisting Conformational Equilibrium in Thrombin.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Nicola; Zerbetto, Mirco; Acquasaliente, Laura; Tescari, Simone; Frezzato, Diego; Polimeno, Antonino; Gohara, David W; Di Cera, Enrico; De Filippis, Vincenzo

    2016-07-19

    Thrombin exists as an ensemble of active (E) and inactive (E*) conformations that differ in their accessibility to the active site. Here we show that redistribution of the E*-E equilibrium can be achieved by perturbing the electrostatic properties of the enzyme. Removal of the negative charge of the catalytic Asp102 or Asp189 in the primary specificity site destabilizes the E form and causes a shift in the 215-217 segment that compromises substrate entrance. Solution studies and existing structures of D102N document stabilization of the E* form. A new high-resolution structure of D189A also reveals the mutant in the collapsed E* form. These findings establish a new paradigm for the control of the E*-E equilibrium in the trypsin fold. PMID:27347732

  17. Thrombin Promotes Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression through the PKCδ/c-Src/EGFR/PI3K/Akt/AP-1 Signaling Pathway in Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-Yin; Lin, Hsiu-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is a key mediator of fibrin deposition, angiogenesis, and proinflammatory processes. Abnormalities in these processes are primary features of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) may contribute to the breakdown of articular cartilage during arthritis. However, the role of thrombin in MMP-13 production in chondrocytes is unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathways involved in thrombin-induced MMP-13 expression in human chondrocytes. We found that stimulation with thrombin led to increased secretion of MMP-13 in cultured human chondrocytes. Further, this thrombin-induced MMP-13 production was reduced after transfection with siRNAs against protease activated receptors 1 and 3 (PAR1 and PAR3), but not with PAR4 siRNA. Treatment with specific inhibitors for PKCδ, c-Src, EGFR, PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 or with the corresponding siRNAs against these signaling proteins also abolished the thrombin-mediated increase in MMP-13 production in chondrocytes. Our results provide evidence that thrombin acts through the PAR1/PAR3 receptors and activates PKCδ and c-Src, resulting in EGFR transactivation and activation of PI3K, Akt, and finally AP-1 on the MMP-13 promoter, thereby contributing to cartilage destruction during arthritis. PMID:24385683

  18. Trypsin and thrombin accelerate aggregation of human endocrine pancreas precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chiju; Geras-Raaka, Elizabeth; Marcus-Samuels, Bernice; Oron, Yoram; Gershengorn, Marvin C

    2006-02-01

    Human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) and human pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PANC-1) cells can be induced to form aggregates that subsequently differentiate into hormone-expressing islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs). We show that challenge of hIPCs or PANC-1 cells with thrombin or trypsin resulted in stimulation of signaling via the inositol-tris-phosphate second messenger pathway leading to rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium ion concentration in the majority of the cells. Because we found that hIPCs, PANC-1 cells, human fetal pancreas, and human adult islets express two protease-activated receptors (PARs), PAR-1 and PAR-2, we tested whether the effects of thrombin and trypsin were mediated, at least in part, by these receptors. Peptide agonists that are relatively specific for PAR-1 (SFLLRN-amide) or PAR-2 (SLIGRL-amide) stimulated increases in inositol phosphates and cytosolic calcium ion concentration, and increased the phosphorylation of Rho, a small G-protein associated with cytoskeletal changes affecting cellular morphology and migration. Most importantly, we show that these agonists increased the rate of hIPC aggregation leading to the formation of more viable, smaller ICAs. Our data show that thrombin and trypsin accelerate aggregation, an early stage of hIPC differentiation in vitro, and imply that pancreatic trypsin and thrombin may be involved in islet development in vivo. PMID:16021635

  19. Lupus anticoagulants form immune complexes with prothrombin and phospholipid that can augment thrombin production in flow.

    PubMed

    Field, S L; Hogg, P J; Daly, E B; Dai, Y P; Murray, B; Owens, D; Chesterman, C N

    1999-11-15

    Lupus anticoagulants (LA) are a family of autoantibodies that are associated with in vitro anticoagulant activity but a strong predisposition to in vivo thrombosis. They are directed against plasma phospholipid binding proteins, including prothrombin. We found that a murine monoclonal antiprothrombin antibody and 7 of 7 LA IgGs tested enhanced binding of prothrombin to 25:75 phosphatidyl serine:phosphatidyl choline vesicles in a concentration-dependent manner. We hypothesized that enhanced binding of prothrombin to phospholipid in the presence of LA IgG might result in increased thrombin production when reactions are performed in flow. Thrombin production by purified prothrombinase components was measured in a phospholipid-coated flow reactor. The flow reactor was incubated with prothrombin, calcium ions, and the IgGs and then perfused with prothrombin, calcium ions, the IgGs, factor Va, and factor Xa. A murine monoclonal antiprothrombin antibody and 4 of 6 LA IgGs from patients with a history of thrombosis increased thrombin production up to 100% over control in the first 15 minutes. In summary, LA IgGs concentrate prothrombin on a phospholipid surface that can augment thrombin production by prothrombinase in flow. These observations suggest that LA might propagate coagulation in flowing blood by facilitating prothrombin interaction with the damaged blood vessel wall.

  20. Two heads are better than one: crystal structure of the insect derived double domain Kazal inhibitor rhodniin in complex with thrombin.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, A; Lamba, D; Bauer, M; Huber, R; Friedrich, T; Kröger, B; Höffken, W; Bode, W

    1995-11-01

    Rhodniin is a highly specific inhibitor of thrombin isolated from the assassin bug Rhodnius prolixus. The 2.6 Angstrum crystal structure of the non-covalent complex between recombinant rhodniin and bovine alpha-thrombin reveals that the two Kazal-type domains of rhodniin bind to different sites of thrombin. The amino-terminal domain binds in a substrate-like manner to the narrow active-site cleft of thrombin; the imidazole group of the P1 His residue extends into the S1 pocket to form favourable hydrogen/ionic bonds with Asp189 at its bottom, and additionally with Glu192 at its entrance. The carboxy-terminal domain, whose distorted reactive-site loop cannot adopt the canonical conformation, docks to the fibrinogen recognition exosite via extensive electrostatic interactions. The rather acidic polypeptide linking the two domains is displaced from the thrombin surface, with none of its residues involved in direct salt bridges with thrombin. The tight (Ki = 2 x 10(-13) M) binding of rhodniin to thrombin is the result of the sum of steric and charge complementarity of the amino-terminal domain towards the active-site cleft, and of the electrostatic interactions between the carboxy-terminal domain and the exosite. PMID:7489704

  1. Two heads are better than one: crystal structure of the insect derived double domain Kazal inhibitor rhodniin in complex with thrombin.

    PubMed Central

    van de Locht, A; Lamba, D; Bauer, M; Huber, R; Friedrich, T; Kröger, B; Höffken, W; Bode, W

    1995-01-01

    Rhodniin is a highly specific inhibitor of thrombin isolated from the assassin bug Rhodnius prolixus. The 2.6 Angstrum crystal structure of the non-covalent complex between recombinant rhodniin and bovine alpha-thrombin reveals that the two Kazal-type domains of rhodniin bind to different sites of thrombin. The amino-terminal domain binds in a substrate-like manner to the narrow active-site cleft of thrombin; the imidazole group of the P1 His residue extends into the S1 pocket to form favourable hydrogen/ionic bonds with Asp189 at its bottom, and additionally with Glu192 at its entrance. The carboxy-terminal domain, whose distorted reactive-site loop cannot adopt the canonical conformation, docks to the fibrinogen recognition exosite via extensive electrostatic interactions. The rather acidic polypeptide linking the two domains is displaced from the thrombin surface, with none of its residues involved in direct salt bridges with thrombin. The tight (Ki = 2 x 10(-13) M) binding of rhodniin to thrombin is the result of the sum of steric and charge complementarity of the amino-terminal domain towards the active-site cleft, and of the electrostatic interactions between the carboxy-terminal domain and the exosite. Images PMID:7489704

  2. Mutant B-Raf(V600E) Promotes Melanoma Paracellular Transmigration by Inducing Thrombin-mediated Endothelial Junction Breakdown.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pu; Feng, Shan; Liu, Gentao; Wang, Heyong; Zhu, Huifeng; Ren, Qiao; Bai, Huiyuan; Fu, Changliang; Dong, Cheng

    2016-01-29

    Tumor invasiveness depends on the ability of tumor cells to breach endothelial barriers. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the adhesion of melanoma cells to endothelium regulates adherens junction integrity and modulates tumor transendothelial migration (TEM) by initiating thrombin generation. We found that the B-Raf(V600E) mutation in metastatic melanoma cells up-regulated tissue factor (TF) expression on cell membranes and promoted thrombin production. Co-culture of endothelial monolayers with metastatic melanoma cells mediated the opening of inter-endothelial spaces near melanoma cell contact sites in the presence of platelet-free plasma (PFP). By using small interfering RNA (siRNA), we demonstrated that B-Raf(V600E) and TF silencing attenuated the focal disassembly of adherens junction induced by tumor contact. Vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) disassembly was dependent on phosphorylation of p120-catenin on Ser-879 and VE-cadherin on Tyr-658, Tyr-685, and Tyr-731, which can be prevented by treatment with the thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, or by silencing the thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, in endothelial cells. We also provided strong evidence that tumor-derived thrombin enhanced melanoma TEM by inducing ubiquitination-coupled VE-cadherin internalization, focal adhesion formation, and actin assembly in endothelium. Confocal microscopic analysis of tumor TEM revealed that junctions transiently opened and resealed as tumor cells accomplished TEM. In addition, in the presence of PFP, tumor cells preferentially transmigrated via paracellular routes. PFP supported melanoma transmigration under shear conditions via a B-Raf(V600E)-thrombin-dependent mechanism. We concluded that the activation of thrombin generation by cancer cells in plasma is an important process regulating melanoma extravasation by disrupting endothelial junction integrity. PMID:26504080

  3. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ACID PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY FROM SPIRODELA OLIGORHIZA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acid phosphatase activity from the aquatic plant Spirodela oligorhiza (duckweed) was isolated and partially characterized. S. oligorhiza was grown in a hydroponic growth medium, harvested, and ground up in liquid nitrogen. The ground plant material was added to a biological ...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  5. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  6. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  7. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  8. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test....

  9. Acidosis, magnesium and acetylsalicylic acid: Effects on thrombin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, Nikolaj; Loznikova, Svetlana; Sukhodola, Aleksandr; Halets, Inessa; Bryszewska, Maria; Shcharbin, Dzmitry

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin, an enzyme from the hydrolase family, is the main component of the blood coagulation system. In ischemic stroke it acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin forming blood clots in the brain. It has been found to phosphoresce at room temperature in the millisecond and microsecond ranges. The phosphorescence of thrombin was studied under physiological conditions, in acidosis (decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0) and on the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and of acetylsalicylic acid, and its connection with thrombin function is discussed. Acidosis significantly increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. We propose that lactate-acidosis plays a protective role in stroke, preventing the formation of clots. The addition of NaCl and MgSO4 in different concentrations increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. Also, the addition of MgSO4 decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. However, magnesium sulfate and acetylsalicylic acid in the therapeutic concentrations used for treatment of ischemic stroke had no effect on thrombin internal dynamics. The data obtained will help to elucidate the conformational stability of thrombin under conditions modulating lactate-acidosis and in the presence of magnesium sulfate.

  10. Acidosis, magnesium and acetylsalicylic acid: effects on thrombin.

    PubMed

    Borisevich, Nikolaj; Loznikova, Svetlana; Sukhodola, Aleksandr; Halets, Inessa; Bryszewska, Maria; Shcharbin, Dzmitry

    2013-03-01

    Thrombin, an enzyme from the hydrolase family, is the main component of the blood coagulation system. In ischemic stroke it acts as a serine protease that converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble strands of fibrin forming blood clots in the brain. It has been found to phosphoresce at room temperature in the millisecond and microsecond ranges. The phosphorescence of thrombin was studied under physiological conditions, in acidosis (decrease of pH from 8.0 to 5.0) and on the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride) and of acetylsalicylic acid, and its connection with thrombin function is discussed. Acidosis significantly increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. We propose that lactate-acidosis plays a protective role in stroke, preventing the formation of clots. The addition of NaCl and MgSO(4) in different concentrations increased the internal dynamics of thrombin. Also, the addition of MgSO(4) decreased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. However, magnesium sulfate and acetylsalicylic acid in the therapeutic concentrations used for treatment of ischemic stroke had no effect on thrombin internal dynamics. The data obtained will help to elucidate the conformational stability of thrombin under conditions modulating lactate-acidosis and in the presence of magnesium sulfate.

  11. Trypsin, Tryptase, and Thrombin Polarize Macrophages towards a Pro-Fibrotic M2a Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J. V.; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    For both wound healing and the formation of a fibrotic lesion, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes and pro-fibrotic M2a macrophages, which together with fibroblasts form scar tissue. Monocytes can also differentiate into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The proteases thrombin, which is activated during blood clotting, and tryptase, which is released by activated mast cells, potentiate fibroblast proliferation and fibrocyte differentiation, but their effect on macrophages is unknown. Here we report that thrombin, tryptase, and the protease trypsin bias human macrophage differentiation towards a pro-fibrotic M2a phenotype expressing high levels of galectin-3 from unpolarized monocytes, or from M1 and M2 macrophages, and that these effects appear to operate through protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that proteases can initiate scar tissue formation by affecting fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and macrophages. PMID:26407067

  12. Tissue factor and cancer procoagulant expressed by glioma cells participate in their thrombin-mediated proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ogiichi, T; Hirashima, Y; Nakamura, S; Endo, S; Kurimoto, M; Takaku, A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between coagulation cascade activation and glioma cell proliferation was examined. The human glioma cell lines T98G, TM-1 and normal human astrocyte cell strain (NHA) were examined. Using anti-tissue factor (TF) antibody, immunocytochemical detection of TF antigen was obtained in both cell lines and cell strain. TF antigen in cell lysates was also measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a one-stage clotting assay, T98G, TM-1 and NHA revealed procoagulant activity (PCA) in normal human plasma and factor VII deficient plasma. PCA in normal human plasma was significantly inhibited by both inhibitory anti-TF antibody and cysteine protease inhibitor HgCl2. This result indicates that T98G, TM-1 and NHA cells express not only TF but also cancer procoagulant (CP) at the same time. In a cell proliferation assay, thrombin induced proliferation in T98G and TM-1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion and in NHA cell in a bell-shaped fashion. This mitogenic stimulant was inhibited by the specific thrombin inhibitor hirudin. The combinations of coagulation factors II, V, and X with or without factor VII induced proliferation in T98G, TM-1, and NHA cells. The maximal mitogenic stimulatory effects were larger in glioma cells than in NHA. These mitogenic stimulatory effects were also inhibited by hirudin. Each coagulation factor on its own or in any other combination of coagulation factors had no proliferative effect. Thus, these mitogenic stimulatory effects were considered to be the effect of thrombin. In conclusion, T98G and TM-1 human glioma cells express two different types of procoagulants TF and CP. In the presence of coagulation factors, these glioma cells can generate thrombin and this thrombin generation is capable of inducing glioma cell proliferation in vitro.

  13. Ex vivo reversal of effects of rivaroxaban evaluated using thromboelastometry and thrombin generation assay

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, B.; Würtinger, P.; Streif, W.; Sturm, W.; Fries, D.; Bachler, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In major bleeding events, the new direct oral anticoagulants pose a great challenge for physicians. The aim of the study was to test for ex vivo reversal of the direct oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban with various non-specific reversal agents: prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate (aPCC), recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), and fibrinogen concentrate (FI). Methods Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers and from patients treated with rivaroxaban. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with rivaroxaban to test the correlation between rivaroxaban concentration and coagulation tests. Patient blood samples were spiked with various concentrations of the above-mentioned agents and analysed using thromboelastometry and thrombin generation. Results When added in vitro, rivaroxaban was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with ROTEM® thromboelastometry EXTEM (extrinsic coagulation pathway) clotting time (CT), time to maximal velocity (MaxV−t), and with all measured thrombin generation parameters. In vivo, CT, MaxV−t, lag time, and peak thrombin generation (Cmax) were significantly correlated with rivaroxaban concentrations. Regarding reversal of rivaroxaban, all tested agents significantly (P<0.05) reduced EXTEM CT, but to different extents: rFVIIa by 68%, aPCC by 47%, PCC by 17%, and FI by 9%. Only rFVIIa reversed EXTEM CT to baseline values. Both PCC (+102%) and aPCC (+232%) altered overall thrombin generation (area under the curve) and increased Cmax (+461% for PCC, +87.5% for aPCC). Conclusions Thromboelastometry and thrombin generation assays do not favour the same reversal agents for rivaroxaban anticoagulation. Controlled clinical trials are urgently needed to establish doses and clinical efficacy of potential reversal agents. Clinical trial registration EudracCT trial no. 213-00474-30. PMID:27623677

  14. The Transition of Prothrombin to Thrombin

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    Summary The proteolytic conversion of prothrombin to thrombin catalysed by prothrombinase is one of the more extensively studied reactions of blood coagulation. Sophisticated biophysical and biochemical insights into the players of this reaction were developed in the early days of the field. Yet, many basic enzymological questions remained unanswered. I summarise new developments that uncover mechanisms by which high substrate specificity is achieved, and the impact of these strategies on enzymic function. Two principles emerge that deviate from conventional wisdom that has otherwise dominated thinking in the field. 1) Enzymic specificity is dominated by the contribution of exosite binding interactions between substrate and enzyme rather than by specific recognition of sequences flanking the scissile bond. Coupled with the regulation of substrate conformation as a result of the zymogen to proteinase transition, novel mechanistic insights result for numerous aspects of enzyme function. 2) The transition of zymogen to proteinase following cleavage is not absolute and instead, thrombin can reversibly interconvert between zymogen-like and proteinase-like forms depending on the complement of ligands bound to it. This establishes new paradigms for considering proteinase allostery and how enzyme function may be modulated by ligand binding. These insights into the action of prothrombinase on prothrombin have wide-ranging implications for the understanding of function in blood coagulation. PMID:23809130

  15. Mechanistic Modeling of the Effects of Acidosis on Thrombin Generation

    PubMed Central

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acidosis, a frequent complication of trauma and complex surgery, results from tissue hypoperfusion and IV resuscitation with acidic fluids. While acidosis is known to inhibit the function of distinct enzymatic reactions, its cumulative effect on the blood coagulation system is not fully understood. Here, we use computational modeling to test the hypothesis that acidosis delays and reduces the amount of thrombin generation in human blood plasma. Moreover, we investigate the sensitivity of different thrombin generation parameters to acidosis, both at the individual and population level. METHODS: We used a kinetic model to simulate and analyze the generation of thrombin and thrombin–antithrombin complexes (TAT), which were the end points of this study. Large groups of temporal thrombin and TAT trajectories were simulated and used to calculate quantitative parameters, such as clotting time (CT), thrombin peak time, maximum slope of the thrombin curve, thrombin peak height, area under the thrombin trajectory (AUC), and prothrombin time. The resulting samples of parameter values at different pH levels were compared to assess the acidosis-induced effects. To investigate intersubject variability, we parameterized the computational model using the data on clotting factor composition for 472 subjects from the Leiden Thrombophilia Study. To compare acidosis-induced relative parameter changes in individual (“virtual”) subjects, we estimated the probabilities of relative change patterns by counting the pattern occurrences in our virtual subjects. Distribution overlaps for thrombin generation parameters at distinct pH levels were quantified using the Bhattacharyya coefficient. RESULTS: Acidosis in the range of pH 6.9 to 7.3 progressively increased CT, thrombin peak time, AUC, and prothrombin time, while decreasing maximum slope of the thrombin curve and thrombin peak height (P < 10–5). Acidosis delayed the onset and decreased the amount of TAT generation (P

  16. Retrospective evaluation of bleeding tendency and simultaneous thrombin and plasmin generation in patients with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Van Geffen, M; Menegatti, M; Loof, A; Lap, P; Karimi, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; Brons, P; Van Heerde, W L

    2012-07-01

    Rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with varying bleeding tendency, only partially explained by their laboratory phenotype. We analysed the separate groups of RBD abnormalities, and we investigated retrospectively whether the novel haemostasis assay (NHA) was able to differentiate between bleeding tendency. We have performed simultaneous thrombin generation (TG) and plasmin generation (PG) measurements in 41 patients affected with deficiencies in prothrombin, factor (F) V, FVII, FX, FXIII and fibrinogen. Parameters of the NHA were classified based on (major or minor) bleeding tendency. Patients with deficiencies in coagulation propagation (FII, FV and FX) and major type of bleedings had diminished TG (expressed as AUC) below 20% of control. FVII deficient patients only had prolonged thrombin lag-time ratio of 1.6 ± 0.2 (P < 0.05) and normal AUC (92-125%). Afibrinogenemic patients demonstrated PG of 2-29% of normal and appeared to correlate with the type of mutation. Thrombin peak-height (57 ± 16%) was reduced (not significant) in these patients and AUC was comparable to the reference (102 ± 27%). FXIII-deficient plasmas resulted in a reduced thrombin peak-height of 59 ± 13% (P < 0.05) and normal AUC (90 ± 14%). Thrombin peak-height (P < 0.01) and plasmin potential (P < 0.05) were lower in the major bleeders compared with the minor bleeders. These results provided distinct TG and PG curves for each individual abnormality and differentiation of bleeding tendency was observed for thrombin and PG parameters. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm these retrospective results.

  17. Thrombin induces long-term potentiation of reactivity to afferent stimulation and facilitates epileptic seizures in rat hippocampal slices: toward understanding the functional consequences of cerebrovascular insults.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Nicola; Shavit, Efrat; Chapman, Joab; Segal, Menahem

    2008-01-16

    The effects of thrombin, a blood coagulation serine protease, were studied in rat hippocampal slices, in an attempt to comprehend its devastating effects when released into the brain after stroke and head trauma. Thrombin acting through its receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), produced a long-lasting enhancement of the reactivity of CA1 neurons to afferent stimulation, an effect that saturated the ability of the tissue to undergo tetanus-induced long-term potentiation. This effect was mediated by activation of a PAR1 receptor, because it was shared by a PAR1 agonist, and was blocked by its selective antagonist. An independent effect of thrombin involved the lowering of the threshold for generating epileptic seizures in CA3 region of the hippocampus. Thus, the experiments in a slice mimicked epileptic and cognitive dysfunction induced by thrombin in the brain, and suggest that these effects are mediated by activation of the PAR1 receptor. PMID:18199772

  18. Pericellular Ca2+ recycling potentiates thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals in human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Stewart O; Pugh, Nicholas; Farndale, Richard W; Harper, Alan G S

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Na+/Ca2+ exchangers (NCXs) potentiate Ca2+ signaling evoked by thapsigargin in human platelets, via their ability to modulate the secretion of autocoids from dense granules. This link was confirmed in platelets stimulated with the physiological agonist, thrombin, and experiments were performed to examine how Ca2+ removal by the NCX modulates platelet dense granule secretion. In cells loaded with the near-membrane indicator FFP-18, thrombin stimulation was observed to elicit an NCX-dependent accumulation of Ca2+ in a pericellular region around the platelets. To test whether this pericellular Ca2+ accumulation might be responsible for the influence of NCXs over platelet function, platelets were exposed to fast Ca2+ chelators or had their glycocalyx removed. Both manipulations of the pericellular Ca2+ rise reduced thrombin-evoked Ca2+ signals and dense granule secretion. Blocking Ca2+-permeable ion channels had a similar effect, suggesting that Ca2+ exported into the pericellular region is able to recycle back into the platelet cytosol. Single cell imaging with extracellular Fluo-4 indicated that thrombin-evoked rises in extracellular [Ca2+] occurred within the boundary described by the cell surface, suggesting their presence within the open canalicular system (OCS). FFP-18 fluorescence was similarly distributed. These data suggest that upon thrombin stimulation, NCX activity creates a rise in [Ca2+] within the pericellular region of the platelet from where it recycles back into the platelet cytosol, acting to both accelerate dense granule secretion and maintain the initial rise in cytosolic [Ca2+]. PMID:24303163

  19. Thrombography reveals thrombin generation potential continues to deteriorate following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery despite adequate hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond K; Sleep, Joseph R; Visner, Allison J; Raasch, David J; Lanza, Louis A; DeValeria, Patrick A; Torloni, Antonio S; Arabia, Francisco A

    2011-03-01

    The intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways of the hemostatic system converge when prothrombin is converted to thrombin. The ability to generate an adequate thrombin burst is the most central aspect of the coagulation cascade. The thrombin-generating potential in patients following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be indicative of their hemostatic status. In this report, thrombography, a unique technique for directly measuring the potential of patients' blood samples to generate adequate thrombin bursts, is used to characterize the coagulopathic profile in post-CPB patients. Post-CPB hemostasis is typically achieved with protamine reversal of heparin anticoagulation and occasionally supplemented with blood product component transfusions. In this pilot study, platelet poor plasma samples were derived from 11 primary cardiac surgery patients at five time points: prior to CPB, immediately post-protamine, upon arrival to the intensive care unit (ICU), 3 hours post-ICU admission, and 24 hours after ICU arrival. Thrombography revealed that the Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) was not different between [Baseline] and [PostProtamine] but proceeded to deteriorate in the immediate postoperative period. At the [3HourPostICU] time point, the ETP was significantly lower than the [Baseline] values, 1233 +/- 591 versus 595 +/- 379 nM.min (mean +/- SD; n=9, p < .005), despite continued adequacy of hemostasis. ETPs returned to baseline values the day after surgery. Transfusions received, conventional blood coagulation testing results, and blood loss volumes are also presented. Despite adequate hemostasis, thrombography reveals an underlying coagulopathic process that could put some cardiac surgical patients at risk for postoperative bleeding. Thrombography is a novel technique that could be developed into a useful tool for perfusionists and physicians to identify coagulopathies and optimize blood management following CPB. PMID:21449230

  20. Specificity and selectivity profile of EP217609: a new neutralizable dual-action anticoagulant that targets thrombin and factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Richard; Petitou, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    EP217609 is a new dual-action parenteral anticoagulant that combines an indirect factor Xa inhibitor (fondaparinux analog) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (α-NAPAP analog) in a single molecule together with a biotin tag to allow avidin neutralization. EP217609 exhibits an unprecedented pharmacologic profile in showing high bioavailability, long plasma half-life, and potent antithrombotic activity in animals without the complications of thrombin rebound. Here we report the exceptional specificity and selectivity profile of EP217609. EP217609 inhibited thrombin with rapid kinetics (kon > 107M−1s−1), a high affinity (KI = 30-40pM), and more than 1000-fold selectivity over other coagulation and fibrinolytic protease targets, comparing favorably with the best direct thrombin inhibitors known. EP217609 bound antithrombin with high affinity (KD = 30nM) and activated the serpin to rapidly (kass ∼ 106M−1s−1) and selectively (> 20-fold) inhibit factor Xa. The dual inhibitor moieties of EP217609 acted largely independently with only modest linkage effects of ligand occupancy of one inhibitor moiety on the potency of the other (∼ 5-fold). In contrast, avidin binding effectively neutralized the potency of both inhibitor moieties (20- to 100-fold). These findings demonstrate the superior anticoagulant efficacy and rapid avidin neutralizability of EP217609 compared with anticoagulants that target thrombin or factor Xa alone. PMID:22144183

  1. Label-free impedimetric biosensor for thrombin using the thrombin-binding aptamer as receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frense, D.; Kang, S.; Schieke, K.; Reich, P.; Barthel, A.; Pliquett, U.; Nacke, T.; Brian, C.; Beckmann, D.

    2013-04-01

    This study presents the further establishment of impedimetric biosensors with aptamers as receptors. Aptamers are short single-stranded oligonucleotides which bind analytes with a specific region of their 3D structure. Electrical impedance spectroscopy is a sensitive method for analyzing changes on the electrode surface, e.g. caused by receptor-ligand-interactions. Fast and inexpensive prototyping of electrodes on the basis of commercially available compact discs having a 24 carat gold reflective layer was investigated. Electrode structures (CDtrodes [1]) in the range from few millimetres down to 100 microns were realized. The well-studied thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) was used as receptor for characterizing these micro- and macro-electrodes. The impedance signal showed a linear correlation for concentrations of thrombin between 1.0 nM to 100 nM. This range corresponds well with most of the references and may be useful for the point-of-care testing (POCT).

  2. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bondu, Virginie; Schrader, Ron; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; McGuire, Paul; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Hjelle, Brian; Buranda, Tione

    2015-01-01

    Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus) is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients. PMID:25674766

  3. APTAMER-BASED SERRS SENSOR FOR THROMBIN DETECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H; Baker, B R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Pagba, C V; Laurence, T A; Lane, S M; Lee, L P; Tok, J B

    2008-07-02

    We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human a-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5{prime}-capped, 3{prime}-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes.

  4. In vitro interaction of C1-inhibitor with thrombin.

    PubMed

    Cugno, M; Bos, I; Lubbers, Y; Hack, C E; Agostoni, A

    2001-06-01

    Previous observations of increased generation of thrombin during acute attacks of angioedema in plasma of patients with C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency prompted us to evaluate the interaction of C1-INH with thrombin in both purified systems and human plasma. For this purpose, we used several methods: (1) sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis; (2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure complexes between C1-INH and thrombin and inactivated C1-INH; and (3) kinetic studies using a chromogenic assay. We found that the interaction of purified C1-INH with thrombin is associated with the formation of bimolecular complexes of molecular weight (Mr) 130 000 and 120 000 as well as with the appearance of a cleaved form of C1-INH of Mr 97 000. The kinetic studies of inhibition of thrombin by C1-INH showed an average second-order rate constant of 19/s per mol/l, which was significantly increased in the presence of heparin. The addition of thrombin to human plasma was not associated with detectable C1-INH-thrombin complex formation or with cleavage of C1-INH. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that C1-INH upon interaction with thrombin, in part, forms enzyme-inhibitor complexes and, in part, is cleaved. The low second-order rate constant and the lack of a significant interaction in plasma suggest that the inhibition of thrombin by C1-INH has a minor role in circulating blood; however, its role might be important at the endothelial surface, where high concentrations of glycosaminoglycans occur.

  5. Crystallographic determination of the structures of human alpha-thrombin complexed with BMS-186282 and BMS-189090.

    PubMed Central

    Malley, M. F.; Tabernero, L.; Chang, C. Y.; Ohringer, S. L.; Roberts, D. G.; Das, J.; Sack, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The crystallographic structures of the ternary complexes of human alpha-thrombin with hirugen (a sulfated hirudin fragment) and the small-molecule active site thrombin inhibitors BMS-186282 and BMS-189090 have been determined at 2.6 and 2.8 A. In both cases, the inhibitors, which adopt very similar bound conformations, bind in an antiparallel beta-strand arrangement relative to the thrombin main chain in a manner like that reported for PPACK, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl. They do, however, exhibit differences in the binding of the alkyl guanidine moiety in the specificity pocket. Numerous hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions serve to stabilize the inhibitors in the binding pocket. Although PPACK forms covalent bonds to both serine and the histidine of the catalytic triad of thrombin, neither BMS-186282 nor BMS-189090 bind covalently and only BMS-186282 forms a hydrogen bond to the serine of the catalytic triad. Both inhibitors bind with high affinity (Ki = 79 nM and 3.6 nM, respectively) and are highly selective for thrombin over trypsin and other serine proteases. PMID:8745399

  6. Optimization of the production of triabin, a novel thrombin inhibitor, in High Five™ insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Vallazza, M; Petri, T

    1999-03-01

    The isolation of a new type of thrombin inhibitor, called triabin, from the saliva of the hematophagous bug Triatoma pallidipennis, has recently been described. In the in vitro platelet aggregation inhibition assay triabin has a similar potency as the thrombin inhibitor hirudin now in phase III clinical trials. However, in another in vitro assay using a low molecular weight substrate for thrombin, triabin does not inhibit thrombin completely even at 6 fold higher molar doses in comparison with hirudin. This means that triabin has a novel mode of action towards thrombin making triabin into an interesting candidate as a therapeutic agent. Recently it has been shown that a recombinant baculovirus can be efficiently used for the triabin production in insect cells and that the yields in adherent cultures of High Five™ cells (approx. 20 mg l-1) were about 7 fold higher than in adherent cultures of Sf9 cells (approx. 3 mg l- 1). To optimize the triabin yield from the baculovirus/insect cell expression system, experiments were performed with suspension adapted cultures of High Five™ cells to investigate the effects of the state of the host cell, of the multiplicity of infection, of the cell density at the time of infection and of supplementation of the medium with nutrients and oxygen. Triabin yields of up to 200 mg l-1, as determined by an activity assay, could finally be obtained here. PMID:22359057

  7. A brief exposure to tryptase or thrombin potentiates fibrocyte differentiation in the presence of serum or SAP

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael J.V.; Galvis-Carvajal, Elkin; Gomer, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    A key question in both wound healing and fibrosis is the trigger for the initial formation of scar tissue. To help form scar tissue, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes, but fibrocyte differentiation is strongly inhibited by the plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP), and healthy tissues contain very few fibrocytes. In wounds and fibrotic lesions, mast cells degranulate to release tryptase, and in early wounds thrombin mediates blood clotting. Tryptase and thrombin are upregulated in wound healing and fibrotic lesions, and inhibition of these proteases attenuates fibrosis. Here we report that tryptase and thrombin potentiate human fibrocyte differentiation at biologically relevant concentrations and exposure times, even in the presence of concentrations of serum and SAP that normally completely inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. The fibrocyte potentiation by thrombin and tryptase is mediated by protease-activated receptors 1 and 2, respectively. Together, these results suggest that tryptase and thrombin may be an initial trigger to override SAP inhibition of fibrocyte differentiation to initiate scar tissue formation. PMID:25429068

  8. Decentralized testing for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time using a dry chemistry portable analyzer.

    PubMed

    Rose, V L; Dermott, S C; Murray, B F; McIver, M M; High, K A; Oberhardt, B J

    1993-06-01

    Previous work has established the precision and accuracy of a portable blood coagulation analysis system using paramagnetic particles contained in a dry reagent on a disposable test card. We examined the deployment of this technology in decentralized hospital settings and compared test results obtained in the surgical intensive care unit, coronary care unit, and outpatient cardiology clinic with those obtained in the central laboratory. Nursing personnel were instructed in the use of the system, and quality control testing was performed daily by the laboratory staff. In the intensive care units, patient subjects included those on whom tests of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time had been ordered. Immediate determinations were performed by the intensive care unit nursing staff on the same citrated, whole-blood samples that were subsequently sent to the central laboratory. In the outpatient cardiology clinic, fingerstick blood samples were obtained for prothrombin time determinations with the dry chemistry system. Paired prothrombin time samples obtained by venipuncture were run in the hospital laboratory. The study involved multiple users, multiple locations, two lots of activated partial thromboplastin time cards, and several different instruments, over an extended period. Correlation coefficients between the dry chemistry system and the hospital laboratory under these conditions were in an acceptable range in all sites studied. We concluded that, with appropriate training and quality assurance, the dry chemistry system provides an acceptable alternative to the hospital laboratory for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time determinations. PMID:8503733

  9. Acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in a patient taking dabigatran with radiographic evidence of recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Navdeep; El Khoury, Ramy; Misra, Vivek; Lopez, George

    2012-11-01

    Dabigatran etexelate is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to prevent stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A 51-year-old man with a history of atrial fibrillation who was taking dabigatran presented with an acute ischemic stroke. The patient had a normal international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, and an elevated thrombin time of 26.4 seconds. Recanalization of the middle cerebral artery with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was apparent on digital subtraction angiography, and there was no evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage on the repeat computed tomographic scan. This is the first report of a patient who was taking dabigatran etexilate and who had an ischemic stroke caused by a middle cerebral artery occlusion, with an elevated thrombin time and radiographic recanalization with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator without evidence of hemorrhagic transformation. PMID:22683118

  10. Partial Agonist and Antagonist Activities of a Mutant Scorpion β-Toxin on Sodium Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Karbat, Izhar; Ilan, Nitza; Zhang, Joel Z.; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Benveniste, Morris; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Scorpion β-toxin 4 from Centruroides suffusus suffusus (Css4) enhances the activation of voltage-gated sodium channels through a voltage sensor trapping mechanism by binding the activated state of the voltage sensor in domain II and stabilizing it in its activated conformation. Here we describe the antagonist and partial agonist properties of a mutant derivative of this toxin. Substitution of seven different amino acid residues for Glu15 in Css4 yielded toxin derivatives with both increased and decreased affinities for binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4 on sodium channels. Css4E15R is unique among this set of mutants in that it retained nearly normal binding affinity but lost its functional activity for modification of sodium channel gating in our standard electrophysiological assay for voltage sensor trapping. More detailed analysis of the functional effects of Css4E15R revealed weak voltage sensor trapping activity, which was very rapidly reversed upon repolarization and therefore was not observed in our standard assay of toxin effects. This partial agonist activity of Css4E15R is observed clearly in voltage sensor trapping assays with brief (5 ms) repolarization between the conditioning prepulse and the test pulse. The effects of Css4E15R are fit well by a three-step model of toxin action involving concentration-dependent toxin binding to its receptor site followed by depolarization-dependent activation of the voltage sensor and subsequent voltage sensor trapping. Because it is a partial agonist with much reduced efficacy for voltage sensor trapping, Css4E15R can antagonize the effects of wild-type Css4 on sodium channel activation and can prevent paralysis by Css4 when injected into mice. Our results define the first partial agonist and antagonist activities for scorpion toxins and open new avenues of research toward better understanding of the structure-function relationships for toxin action on sodium channel voltage sensors and toward potential toxin

  11. 75 FR 51754 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Industry and Commerce Co., Ltd.; Keyun Shipping (Tianjin) Agency Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Guanghua Activated... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration,...

  12. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International... antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering...

  13. Non-covalent thrombin inhibitors featuring P3-heterocycles with P1-bicyclic arginine surrogates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jingrong Jean; Araldi, Gian-Luca; Reiner, John E; Reddy, Komandla Malla; Kemp, Scott J; Ho, Jonathan Z; Siev, Daniel V; Mamedova, Lala; Gibson, Tony S; Gaudette, John A; Minami, Nathaniel K; Anderson, Susanne M; Bradbury, Annette E; Nolan, Thomas G; Semple, J Edward

    2002-10-21

    Novel, potent, and highly selective classes of thrombin inhibitors were identified, which resulted from judicious combination of P4-aromatics and P2-P3-heterocyclic dipeptide surrogates with weakly basic (calcd pKa approximately non-basic-8.6) bicyclic P1-arginine mimics. The design, synthesis, and biological activity of achiral, non-covalent, orally bioavailable inhibitors NC1-NC44 featuring P1-indazoles, benzimidazoles, indoles, benzotriazoles, and aminobenzisoxazoles is disclosed.

  14. Partially Oxidized Sub-10 nm MnO Nanocrystals with High Activity for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kyoungsuk; Chu, Arim; Park, Jimin; Jeong, Donghyuk; Jerng, Sung Eun; Sim, Uk; Jeong, Hui-Yun; Lee, Chan Woo; Park, Yong-Sun; Yang, Ki Dong; Kumar Pradhan, Gajendra; Kim, Donghun; Sung, Nark-Eon; Hee Kim, Sun; Nam, Ki Tae

    2015-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is considered a major bottleneck in the overall water electrolysis process. In this work, highly active manganese oxide nano-catalysts were synthesized via hot injection. Facile surface treatment generated Mn(III) species on monodisperse 10 nm MnO nanocrystals (NCs). Size dependency of MnO NCs on OER activity was also investigated. Surprisingly, the partially oxidized MnO NCs only required 530 mV @ 5 mA cm−2 under near neutral conditions. PMID:25998696

  15. Sensitivity of partially purified ice nucleation activity of Fusarium acuminatum SRSF 616.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, T L; Castrillo, L A; Lee, M R

    2001-05-01

    Factors that affect bacterial ice nucleation, including growth medium, growth phase, nutrient deprivation, and cold-temperature exposure, were investigated in the ice nucleation active (INA) fungus Fusarium acuminatum SRSF 616. Ice nucleation activity remained relatively constant throughout the growth cycle, and the cell-free culture supernatant consistently displayed higher ice nucleation activity than the hyphal pellet. Although nutrient starvation and low-temperature exposure enhance bacterial ice nucleation activity, reducing the concentration of C, N, or P in synthetischer nährstoffarmer broth (SNB) did not increase fungal ice nucleation activity, nor did exposure to 4 degrees C or 15 degrees C. From the SNB supernatant, selected INA chromatography fractions were obtained that demonstrated increased sensitivity to proteinase K and heat compared with culture supernatant. We propose that partial purification of the fungal ice nuclei resulted in removal of low-molecular-weight stabilizing factors. PMID:11400053

  16. Association of thrombin generation potential with platelet PAR-1 regulation and P-selectin expression in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Badr Eslam, Roza; Posch, Florian; Lang, Irene M; Gremmel, Thomas; Eichelberger, Beate; Ay, Cihan; Panzer, Simon

    2014-02-01

    We studied the association of thrombin generation potential with platelet protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 regulation and platelet activation in 52 stable coronary artery disease patients on continuous therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel (n = 42) or prasugrel (n = 10). Compared to controls, peak thrombin generation potential was elevated in only 11 patients (p > 0.05), while F1.2 was elevated in 26 patients (p < 0.0001). PAR-1 and thrombin inducible P-selectin expression were significantly elevated in patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). There were no significant correlations between levels of thrombin generation potential or F1.2 and PAR-1 regulation. However, there was a significant inverse correlation between levels of peak thrombin generation potential and in vitro thrombin-inducible expression of P-selectin (p = 0.002), suggesting in vivo depletion of platelet alpha granules due to ongoing platelet activation.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Bhongir, Ravi K. V.; Kjellström, Sven; Siller, Helena; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns in vitro and in vivo by preventing toll-like receptor dimerization and subsequent activation of down-stream signalling pathways. Thus, P. aeruginosa ‘hijacks' an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide-based mechanism, thereby enabling modulation and circumvention of host responses. PMID:27181065

  18. Thrombin mediates migration of rat brain astrocytes via PLC, Ca²⁺, CaMKII, PKCα, and AP-1-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Lee, I-Ta; Wu, Wen-Bin; Liu, Chiung-Ju; Hsieh, Hsi-Lung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chien-Chung; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2013-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a crucial role in pathological processes of brain inflammation, injury, and neurodegeneration. Thrombin has been known as a regulator of MMP-9 expression and cells migration. However, the mechanisms underlying thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1 cells) remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that thrombin induced the expression of pro-form MMP-9 and migration of RBA-1 cells, which were inhibited by pretreatment with the inhibitor of Gq-coupled receptor (GPAnt2A), Gi/o-coupled receptor (GPAnt2), PC-PLC (D609), PI-PLC (U73122), Ca(2+)-ATPase (thapsigargin, TG), calmodulin (CaMI), CaMKII (KN62), PKC (Gö6976 or GF109203X), MEK1/2 (PD98059), p38 MAPK (SB202190), JNK1/2 (SP600125), or AP-1 (Tanshinone IIA) or the intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA/AM) and transfection with siRNA of PKCα, Erk2, JNK1, p38 MAPK, c-Jun, or c-Fos. In addition, thrombin-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was attenuated by PPACK (a thrombin inhibitor). Thrombin further induced CaMKII phosphorylation and PKCα translocation, which were inhibited by U73122, D609, KN62, TG, or BAPTA/AM. Thrombin also induced PKCα-dependent p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2, but not p38 MAPK activation. Finally, we showed that thrombin enhanced c-Fos expression and c-Jun phosphorylation. c-Fos mRNA levels induced by thrombin were reduced by PD98059, SP600125, and Gö6976, but not SB202190. Thrombin stimulated in vivo binding of c-Fos to the MMP-9 promoter, which was reduced by pretreatment with SP600125 or PD98059, but not SB202190. These results concluded that thrombin activated a PLC/Ca(2+)/CaMKII/PKCα/p42/p44 MAPK and JNK1/2 pathway, which in turn triggered AP-1 activation and ultimately induced MMP-9 expression in RBA-1 cells.

  19. VEGF and thrombin induce MKP-1 through distinct signaling pathways: role for MKP-1 in endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Corttrell M; Chandrasekharan, Unni M; Mavrakis, Lori; DiCorleto, Paul E

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1/CL100) is a thrombin-responsive gene in endothelial cells (ECs). We now show that VEGF is another efficacious activator of MKP-1 expression in human umbilical vein ECs. VEGF-A and VEGF-E maximally induced MKP-1 expression in ECs; however, the other VEGF subtypes had no effect. Using specific neutralizing antibodies, we determined that VEGF induced MKP-1 specifically through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), leading to the downstream activation of JNK. The VEGF-A(165) isoform stimulated MKP-1 expression, whereas the VEGF-A(162) isoform induced the gene to a lesser extent, and the VEGF-A(121) isoform had no effect. Furthermore, specific blocking antibodies against neuropilins, VEGFR-2 coreceptors, blocked MKP-1 induction. A Src kinase inhibitor (PP1) completely blocked both VEGF- and thrombin-induced MKP-1 expression. A dominant negative approach revealed that Src kinase was required for VEGF-induced MKP-1 expression, whereas Fyn kinase was critical for thrombin-induced MKP-1 expression. Moreover, VEGF-induced MKP-1 expression required JNK, whereas ERK was critical for thrombin-induced MKP-1 expression. In ECs treated with short interfering (si)RNA targeting MKP-1, JNK, ERK, and p38 phosphorylation were prolonged following VEGF stimulation. An ex vivo aortic angiogenesis assay revealed a reduction in VEGF- and thrombin-induced sprout outgrowth in segments from MKP-1-null mice versus wild-type controls. MKP-1 siRNA also significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC migration using a transwell assay system. Overall, these results demonstrate distinct MAPK signaling pathways for thrombin versus VEGF induction of MKP-1 in ECs and point to the importance of MKP-1 induction in VEGF-stimulated EC migration. PMID:18003751

  20. Ultrasonic-Guided Percutaneous Injection of Pancreatic Pseudoaneurysm with Thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, Patrick Asquith, John; Chalmers, Nick

    2003-06-15

    Pancreatic pseudoaneurysm is a relatively uncommon complication of chronic pancreatitis, with an associated high mortality if rupture or hemorrhage occurs. We present a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm complicating pancreatitis which was successfully treated by direct percutaneous injection of thrombin into the aneurysmal sac. Follow-up at 8 weeks did not demonstrate recurrence. This case indicates that percutaneous thrombin injection offers effective treatment of visceral arterial pseudoaneurysms.

  1. Using the HEMOCLOT direct thrombin inhibitor assay to determine plasma concentrations of dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Joachim; Feuring, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the suitability of an accurate, sensitive, standardized, chronometric blood coagulation test to determine the anticoagulation activity of dabigatran and to quantify concentrations of dabigatran in plasma. Dabigatran was spiked at increasing concentrations in pooled citrated normal human plasma to measure diluted thrombin time with the HEMOCLOT THROMBIN INHIBITOR assay. Calibration curve linearity, inter-assay and intra-assay precision, and assay accuracy were investigated. Dabigatran stability in plasma and the feasibility of lyophilized dabigatran standards for assay calibration were assessed. Data are presented as back-calculated plasma concentrations of dabigatran using regression analysis. Dabigatran's calibration curve for thrombin clotting time was linear over the concentration range 0-4000  nmol/l (0-1886  ng/ml). The R was 0.99. Total assay imprecision for dabigatran was 4.7-12.0% coefficient of variation, with 1.2-3.1% for intra-run imprecision, 4.0-10.0% for inter-run precision and 0.3-8.3% for between-day imprecision. Assay accuracy was determined at three dabigatran concentrations; deviation from sample target concentrations ranged from -20.7% (100  nmol/l; 47.15  ng/ml) to 5.6% (1500  nmol/l; 707.3  ng/ml). Assay robustness was determined by analysing identical dabigatran samples in two independent laboratories. The mean bias of dabigatran coagulation times between laboratories was 6.6%. The HEMOCLOT Thrombin Inhibitors assay is suitable for determining the anticoagulant activity and calculating plasma concentrations of dabigatran using simple and widely available chronometric coagulation devices. The use of this rapid, established, standardized and calibrated assay should provide accurate and consistent results when assessing the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran. PMID:22227958

  2. 2-(2-Br-phenyl)-8-methoxy-benzoxazinone (HPW-RX2), a direct thrombin inhibitor with a suppressive effect on thromboxane formation in platelets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-Chung; Wang, Tsai-Wei; Wang, Wei-Ya; Hsieh, Pei-Wen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-12-19

    2-(2-Br-phenyl)-8-methoxy-benzoxazinone (HPW-RX2), a newly synthetic benzoxazinone derivative, has previously been shown to inhibit rabbit platelet aggregation caused by thrombin and arachidonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism for the antiplatelet effect of HPW-RX2 was further investigated. In human platelets, HPW-RX2 concentration-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation, ATP release, P-selectin expression, and intracellular calcium mobilization caused by thrombin. In contrast, HPW-RX2 had no significant effect on either SFLLRN- or GYPGKF-induced platelet aggregation, indicating that HPW-RX2 did not interfere with platelet thrombin receptors. Moreover, HPW-RX2 inhibited the amidolytic activity of thrombin and prolonged the fibrinogen clotting time. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of HPW-RX2 on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation is via direct inhibition of thrombin proteolytic activity. Besides the inhibition on thrombin, HPW-RX2 also prevented platelet aggregation, ATP release, and increase in [Ca2+]i caused by arachidonic acid and low concentration collagen. In a parallel manner, both arachidonic acid-induced thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin D2 formations were decreased in platelets treated with HPW-RX2. This indicates that HPW-RX2 is able to inhibit the arachidonic acid cascade at the cyclooxygenase level. This is the first report of a benzoxazinone derivative possessing both thrombin and cyclooxygenase inhibitory properties. The dual effect of HPW-RX2 might provide extra therapeutic benefits for treatment of arterial thrombosis. PMID:16313903

  3. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Christine K; Nelson, Gary; Than, Lara; Zijdewind, Inge

    2002-06-01

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce increments in the compound electromyogram (EMG) and force. Each increment corresponded to the activation of another unit. The evoked unit EMG and force was obtained by digital subtraction. The thenar muscles had between 15 and 83 units (26 +/- 19) that produced 114.3 +/- 127.1 mN force (n = 290). In six subjects, a significant positive correlation was found between activation order and unit force indicating that weaker units were excited before stronger units. These data are contrary to the notion that a reversal of unit activation order occurs during evoked versus voluntary contractions. PMID:12115967

  4. [Expression of snake venom thrombin-like enzyme calobin in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shengling; Wang, Peng; Tao, Haoxia; Zhan, Dewen; Wang, Yanchun; Wang, Lingchun; Liu, Chunjie; Zhang, Zhaoshan

    2009-04-01

    Thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs) are studied widely because of their therapeutic potential in myocardial infarction and thrombotic diseases. We synthesized the DNA fragment encoding thrombin-like enzyme calobin from Agkistrodon caliginosus (Korean Viper) venom by fusion PCR and expressed it in Pichia pastoris. After induction by 0.5% methanol for 48 h, the expression level of recombinant calobin reached 3.5 g/L in medium. The recombinant calobin was purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography and Sephacryl-S-100 gel filtration chromatography. Purified sample had a molecular weight of 32 kD shown in SDS-PAGE. It hydrolyzed fibrinogen and formed a light white hydrolysis circle in fibrinogen plate. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant calobin cleaved Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen specifically, and produced an appropriately 40 kD new band. However, we failed to find its fibrin-clot formation activity. PMID:19637626

  5. Direct thrombin inhibitor-bivalirudin functionalized plasma polymerized allylamine coating for improved biocompatibility of vascular devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Maitz, Manfred F; Zhou, Shuo; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2012-11-01

    The direct thrombin inhibitor of bivalirudin (BVLD), a short peptide derived from hirudin, has drawn an increasing attention in clinical application because it is safer and more effective than heparin for diabetic patients with moderate- or high-risk for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). In this study, BVLD was covalently conjugated on plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) coated 316L stainless steel (SS) to develop an anticoagulant surface. QCM-D real time monitoring result shows that 565±20 ng/cm2 of BVLD was bound to the PPAam surface. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the immobilization of BVLD. The conjugation of BVLD onto the PPAam coating led to enhanced binding of thrombin, and the activity of the thrombin adsorbed on its surface was effectively inhibited. As a result, the BVLD immobilized PPAam (BVLD-PPAam) substrate prolonged the clotting times, and exhibited inhibition in adhesion and activation of platelets and fibrinogen. We also found that the BVLD-PPAam coating significantly enhanced endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and release of nitric oxide (NO) and secretion of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). In vivo results indicate that the BVLD-PPAam surface restrained thrombus formation by rapidly growing a homogeneous and intact endothelium on its surface. These data suggest the potential of this multifunctional BVLD-PPAam coating for the application not only in general vascular devices such as catheters, tubes, oxygenator, hemodialysis membranes but also vascular grafts and stents.

  6. Unraveling the photoelectrochemical properties of ionic liquids: cognizance of partially reversible redox activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipal B; Chauhan, Khushbu R; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2014-11-01

    Ionic liquid based electrolytes are gaining great interest in the field of photoenergy conversion. We have found that the ionic liquids namely BMIm Cl, BMIm PF6 and BMIm Tf2N inherently offer redox activity. The device performance of the photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells of the configuration PbOx (0.25 cm(2))|blank ionic liquids|platinum (2 cm(2)) was analyzed in detail to get insights into the working principle of such systems. It was found that partially reversible redox ion pairs diminish the performance of such cells as power generating devices. The partial redox activity of the ionic liquids was confirmed by a number of observations derived from the PEC spectra. The important parameter, Vredox, which determines the performance of any PEC cell was also calculated for all the ionic liquids. The difficulties that arise in high frequency C-V measurements for ionic liquid systems were overcome by choosing the appropriate probing frequency. The evaluated Vredox of BMIm Cl, BMIm PF6 and BMIm Tf2N ionic liquids was found to be -0.30, -0.20 and -0.78 V (vs. NHE), respectively. This study will be beneficial to understand the role of ionic liquids as redox active electrolyte media in several applications.

  7. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    PubMed

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27167069

  8. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  9. An electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on the recycling of exonuclease III and double-stranded DNA-templated copper nanoparticles assisted signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xin, Meiling; Cao, Ya; Yin, Yongmei; Shu, Yongqian; Ma, Wenli

    2015-02-20

    In this paper, we report an improved electrochemical aptasensor based on exonuclease III and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-templated copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) assisted signal amplification. In this sensor, duplex DNA from the hybridization of ligated thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA) subunits and probe DNA can act as an effective template for the formation of CuNPs on the electrode surface, so copper ions released from acid-dissolution of CuNPs may catalyze the oxidation of ο-phenylenediamine to produce an amplified electrochemical response. In the presence of thrombin, a short duplex domain with four complementary base pairs can be stabilized by the binding of TBA subunits with thrombin, in which TBA subunit 2 can be partially digested from 3' terminal with the cycle of exonuclease III, so the ligation of TBA subunits and the subsequent formation of CuNPs can be inhibited. By electrochemical characterization of dsDNA-templated CuNPs on the electrode surface, our aptasensor can display excellent performances for the detection of thrombin in a broad linear range from 100 fM to 1 nM with a low detection limit of 20.3 fM, which can also specially distinguish thrombin in both PBS and serum samples. Therefore, our aptasensor might have great potential for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers in the future.

  10. Nalmefene induced elevation in serum prolactin in normal human volunteers: partial kappa opioid agonist activity?

    PubMed

    Bart, Gavin; Schluger, James H; Borg, Lisa; Ho, Ann; Bidlack, Jean M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2005-12-01

    In humans, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists lower tuberoinfundibular dopamine, which tonically inhibits prolactin release. Serum prolactin is, therefore, a useful biomarker for tuberoinfundibular dopamine. The current study evaluated the unexpected finding that the relative mu- and kappa-opioid receptor selective antagonist nalmefene increases serum prolactin, indicating possible kappa-opioid receptor agonist activity. In all, 33 healthy human volunteers (14 female) with no history of psychiatric or substance use disorders received placebo, nalmefene 3 mg, and nalmefene 10 mg in a double-blind manner. Drugs were administered between 0900 and 1000 on separate days via 2-min intravenous infusion. Serial blood specimens were analyzed for serum levels of prolactin. Additional in vitro studies of nalmefene binding to cloned human kappa-opioid receptors transfected into Chinese hamster ovary cells were performed. Compared to placebo, both doses of nalmefene caused significant elevations in serum prolactin (p<0.002 for nalmefene 3 mg and p<0.0005 for nalmefene 10 mg). There was no difference in prolactin response between the 3 and 10 mg doses. Binding assays confirmed nalmefene's affinity at kappa-opioid receptors and antagonism of mu-opioid receptors. [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding studies demonstrated that nalmefene is a full antagonist at mu-opioid receptors and has partial agonist properties at kappa-opioid receptors. Elevations in serum prolactin following nalmefene are consistent with this partial agonist effect at kappa-opioid receptors. As kappa-opioid receptor activation can lower dopamine in brain regions important to the persistence of alcohol and cocaine dependence, the partial kappa agonist effect of nalmefene may enhance its therapeutic efficacy in selected addictive diseases.

  11. In vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar, a novel platelet thrombin receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Brian E; Zhai, Ying; Hesk, David; Wirth, Mark; Wei, Huijun; Chintala, Madhu; Seiffert, Dietmar

    2015-09-01

    Vorapaxar is a novel protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) antagonist recently approved for the reduction of thrombotic cardiovascular events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction or with peripheral arterial disease. The present study provides a comprehensive in vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar interaction with the PAR1 receptor on human platelets. Similar studies were performed with a metabolite of vorapaxar (M20). Vorapaxar and M20 were competitive PAR1 antagonists that demonstrated concentration-dependent, saturable, specific, and slowly reversible binding to the receptor present on intact human platelets. The affinities of vorapaxar and M20 for the PAR1 receptor were in the low nanomolar range, as determined by saturation-, kinetic- and competitive binding studies. The calculated Kd and Ki values for vorapaxar increased in the presence of plasma, indicating a decrease in the free fraction available for binding to the PAR1 receptor on human platelets. Vorapaxar was also evaluated in functional assays using thrombin or a PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). Vorapaxar and M20 completely blocked thrombin-stimulated PAR1/β-arrestin association in recombinant cells and abolished thrombin-stimulated calcium influx in washed human platelets and vascular smooth muscle cells. Moreover, vorapaxar and M20 inhibited PAR1 agonist peptide-mediated platelet aggregation in human platelet rich plasma with a steep concentration response relationship. Vorapaxar exhibited high selectivity for inhibition of PAR1 over other platelet GPCRs. In conclusion, vorapaxar is a potent PAR1 antagonist exhibiting saturable, reversible, selective binding with slow off-rate kinetics and effectively inhibits thrombin's PAR1-mediated actions on human platelets. PMID:26022529

  12. Comparison of the structures of the cyclotheonamide A complexes of human alpha-thrombin and bovine beta-trypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, V.; Lee, A. Y.; Clardy, J.; Tulinsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thrombin, a trypsin-like serine protease present in blood, plays a central role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis. A cyclic pentapeptide, cyclotheonamide A (CtA), isolated from sponges of the genus Theonella, inhibits thrombin, trypsin, and certain other serine proteases. Enzyme inhibition data for CtA indicate that it is a moderate inhibitor of alpha-thrombin (K(i) = 1.0 nM), but substantially more potent toward trypsin (K(i) = 0.2 nM). The comparative study of the crystal structures of the CtA complexes of alpha-thrombin and beta-trypsin reported here focuses on structure-function relationships in general and the enhanced specificity of trypsin, in particular. The crystal structures of the CtA complexes of thrombin and trypsin were solved and refined at 1.7 and 2.0 A resolution, respectively. The structures show that CtA occupies the active site with the Pro-Arg motif positioned in the S2 and S1 binding sites. The alpha-keto group of CtA is involved in a tetrahedral intermediate hemiketal structure with Ser 195 OG of the catalytic triad and is positioned within bonding distance from, and orthogonal to, the re-face of the carbonyl of the arginine of CtA. As in other productive binding modes of serine proteases, the Ser 214-Gly 216 segment runs in a twisted antiparallel beta-strand manner with respect to the diaminopropionic acid (Dpr)-Arg segment of CtA. The Tyr 60A-Thr 60I insertion loop of thrombin makes a weak aromatic stacking interaction with the v-Tyr of CtA through Trp 60D. The Glu 39 Tyr and Leu 41 Phe substitutions in trypsin produce an enhanced aromatic interaction with D-Phe of CtA, which also leads to different orientations of the side chains of D-Phe and the v-Tyr. The comparison of the CtA complexes of thrombin and trypsin shows that the gross structural features of both in the active site region are the same, whereas the differences observed are mainly due to minor insertions and substitutions. In trypsin, the substitution of Ile 174

  13. Molecular modeling studies, synthesis and biological evaluation of dabigatran analogues as thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hai-Feng; Ren, Yu-Jie; Shao, Fang-Ming

    2016-01-15

    In this work, 48 thrombin inhibitors based on the structural scaffold of dabigatran were analyzed using a combination of molecular modeling techniques. We generated three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models based on three alignments for both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) to highlight the structural requirements for thrombin protein inhibition. In addition to the 3D-QSAR study, Topomer CoMFA model also was established with a higher leave-one-out cross-validation q(2) and a non-cross-validation r(2), which suggest that the three models have good predictive ability. The results indicated that the steric, hydrophobic and electrostatic fields play key roles in QSAR model. Furthermore, we employed molecular docking and re-docking simulation explored the binding relationship of the ligand and the receptor protein in detail. Molecular docking simulations identified several key interactions that were also indicated through 3D-QSAR analysis. On the basis of the obtained results, two compounds were designed and predicted by three models, the biological evaluation in vitro (IC50) demonstrated that these molecular models were effective for the development of novel potent thrombin inhibitors.

  14. Aptamer-based highly sensitive electrochemical detection of thrombin via the amplification of graphene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Bai, Lijuan; Wang, Yan

    2012-05-21

    Herein, we successfully fabricated a highly sensitive label-free electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin based on the amplification of graphene (Gra). The excellent electrochemical probe of nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (NiHCFNPs) was introduced to form Nafion-Graphene-NiHCFNPs (Nf-Gra-NiHCFNPs) nanocomposites membrane on the gold electrode. The employment of graphene not only enhanced the surface area of the electrode with increased NiHCFNPs immobilization, but also improved the conductivity of the electrode, which further effectively improved the sensitivity of this proposed aptasensor. Subsequently, AuNPs layer was formed to immobilize the thrombin aptamer (TBA) and enhance the stability of the composite monolayer mentioned above. Then, thiol-modified TBA was assembled onto the AuNPs layer. Thereafter, hexanethiol (HT) was employed to block the possible remaining active sites. With the dual amplification of Gra and AuNPs, the resulting aptasensor exhibited good current response to target thrombin with a wide linear range extended from 1 pM to 80 nM (the detection limit was 0.3 pM). Additionally, the morphologies of bare Au substrate, nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (NiHCFNPs) and nanocomposites were successfully characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  15. Development of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin.

    PubMed

    Murányi, Andrej; Bartoš, Peter; Tichý, Eduard; Lazová, Jana; Pšenková, Jana; Žabka, Marián

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was development and evaluation of gel-forming lyophilized formulation with recombinant human thrombin for topical administration. The influence of pH, ionic strength and buffer type on protein stability was evaluated as part of the pre-formulation screening studies. Results indicated an optimal pH from 6.0 to 7.0 and increased stability with increasing content of sodium chloride. The tested buffer types had no significant effect on thrombin stability. For further development, thermosensitive Pluronic® F-127 was employed as a bulking and gelling agent. Physical and mechanical characterization and viscosity measurement confirmed the gel-forming properties of the formulation at the application temperature of 32 °C. Several techniques (addition of well-soluble polyols, different freezing protocols and reconstitution under vacuum) were tested to decrease the reconstitution time. The obtained results revealed that a vacuum in the vial headspace is crucial for acceptable reconstitution. The freeze drying process has no negative impact on recombinant thrombin stability, and this was confirmed by reverse-phase-HPLC, activity assay and optical density measurements.

  16. Alginate-calcium microsphere loaded with thrombin: a new composite biomaterial for hemostatic embolization.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jing-jing; Liang, Ming; Xuan, Feng-qi; Sun, Jing-yang; Zhao, Li-jun; Zhen, Hui-zhen; Tian, Xiao-xiang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Quan-yu; Peng, Cheng-fei; Yao, Tian-ming; Li, Fei; Wang, Xiao-zeng; Han, Ya-ling; Yu, Wei-ting

    2015-04-01

    To date, transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) has become a standard treatment to control intracavitary bleeding as an alternative to surgery. Due to excellent biocompatibility and no residual in vivo, biodegradable materials are preferred in TAE. However, gelfoam is the only commercially available biodegradable embolic material used to treat blunt trauma of solid abdominal viscera until now, and controversial on its stability and reliability never stopped in the past five decades. In this study, a new biodegradable macromolecule material (thrombin-loaded alginate-calcium microspheres, TACMs) was prepared using electrostatic droplet techniques and a special method was developed for hemostatic embolization. Thrombin was successfully loaded into microspheres with high encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity. A burst release of TACMs was observed at early stage and sustained release later on, with the activity of thrombin preserved well. The strength of TACMs mixed thrombus, which was used as embolic agent, increased in a dose-dependent manner after TACMs were added. In addition, the TACMs were verified to be of no cytotoxicity and systemic toxicity, and biodegradable in vivo. Finally, the results of preliminary applications revealed that the TACMs could serve as an effective and promising embolic material for blunt trauma and hemorrhage of solid abdominal viscera. PMID:25583022

  17. A Kazal-type inhibitor with thrombin specificity from Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, T; Kröger, B; Bialojan, S; Lemaire, H G; Höffken, H W; Reuschenbach, P; Otte, M; Dodt, J

    1993-08-01

    A thrombin-specific inhibitor with an apparent molecular mass of 11 kDa has been purified from the insect Rhodnius prolixus. Amino-terminal protein sequence analysis allowed the molecular cloning of the corresponding cDNA. The open reading frame codes for a protein of about 103 amino acid residues and displays an internal sequence homology of residues 6-48 with residues 57-101 indicating a two-domain structure. Based on the amino acid sequence the two domains exhibit high homology to protease inhibitors belonging to the Kazal-type family. Model building suggests that the first domain binds to the active site with residue His10 pointing into the specificity pocket. From gel filtration and tight-binding inhibition experiments the inhibitor appears to form 1:1 complexes with thrombin. Periplasma-directed heterologous expression of the rhodniin cDNA in Escherichia coli yields the intact thrombin inhibitor. Natural and recombinant rhodniin both display inhibition constants of about 2 x 10(-13) M.

  18. Design, synthesis and antithrombotic evaluation of novel dabigatran etexilate analogs, a new series of non-peptides thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongxing; Wang, Shaochi; Diao, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Qihua; Shen, Huiliang; Han, Xueqing; Wang, Yiwei; Gong, Guoqing; Xu, Yungen

    2015-12-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in blood clotting, which makes it a promising target for the treatment of thrombotic diseases. Dabigatran is direct potent thrombin inhibitor. Based on bioisosteric and scaffold hopping principle, two dabigatran mimics (I-1 and II-1) in which the benzamidine moiety of dabigatran was replaced by a tricyclic fused scaffold were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro activities for inhibiting thrombin. The results reveal that compounds I-1 (IC50=9.20nM) and II-1 (IC50=7.48nM) are potent direct thrombin inhibitors and the activity is in the range of reference drug. On this basis, twenty-two ester and carbamate derivatives of I-1 or II-1 were prepared and evaluated for their anticoagulant activity. Prodrugs I-4a (IC50=0.73μM), I-4b (IC50=0.75μM), II-2a (IC50=1.44μM) and II-2b (IC50=0.91μM) display excellent effects of inhibiting thrombin induced-platelet aggregation. Moreover, compounds I-9 and II-4, which contain a cleavable moiety with anti-platelet activity, show the best anticoagulant efficacy among the tested compounds in the rat venous thrombosis model. The compounds which have better in vitro and in vivo activity were subjected to rat tail bleeding test, and the result demonstrates that compound I-9 is less likely to have bleeding risk than dabigatran etexilate.

  19. Thrombin generation by exposure of blood to endotoxin: a simple model to study disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Stief, T W

    2006-04-01

    Pathologic disseminated intravascular coagulation (PDIC) is a serious complication in sepsis. In an in-vitro system consisting of incubation of fresh citrated blood with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or glucans and subsequent plasma recalcification plasmatic thrombin was quantified. Five hundred microliters of freshly drawn citrated blood of healthy donors were incubated with up to 800 ng/mL LPS (Escherichia coli) or up to 80 microg/mL Zymosan A (ZyA; Candida albicans) for 30 minutes at room temperature (RT). The samples were centrifuged, and 30 microL plasma were recalcified with 1 volume or less of CaCl(2) (25 micromoles Ca(2+)/mL plasma). After 0 to 12 minutes (37 degrees C), 20 microL 2.5 M arginine, pH 8.6, were added. Thirty microliters 0.9 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine were added, and the absorbance increase at 405 nm was determined. Fifty microliters plasma were also incubated with 5 microL 250 mM CaCl2 for 5, 10, or 15 minutes (37 degrees C). Fifty microliters 2.5 M arginine stops coagulation, and 50 microL 0.77 mM HD-CHG-Ala-Arg-pNA in 2.3 M arginine starts the thrombin detection. The standard was 1 IU/mL thrombin in 7% human albumin instead of plasma. Arginine was also added in the endotoxin exposure time (EET) or in the plasma coagulation reaction time (CRT). Tissue factor (TF)-antigen and soluble CD14 were determined. LPS at blood concentrations greater than 10 ng/mL or ZyA at greater than 1 microg/mL severalfold enhance thrombin generation, when the respective plasmas are recalcified. After 30 minutes EET at RT, the thrombin activity at 12 minutes CRT generated by the addition of 200 ng/mL LPS or 20 microg/mL ZyA is approximately 200 mIU/mL compared to approximately 20 mIU/mL without addition of endotoxin, or compared to about 7 mIU/mL thrombin at 0 minutes CRT. Arginine added to blood or to plasma inhibits thrombin generation; the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC 50) is approximately 15 mM plasma concentration. Endotoxin incubation of blood

  20. 76 FR 58246 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...) Environmental Tech; Keyun Shipping (Tianjin) Agency Co., Ltd.; Kunshan Actview Carbon Technology Co., Ltd... International Trade Administration Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration,...

  1. Deformation of partially pumped active mirrors for high average-power diode-pumped solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Albach, Daniel; LeTouzé, Geoffroy; Chanteloup, Jean-Christophe

    2011-04-25

    We discuss the deformation of a partially pumped active mirror amplifier as a free standing disk, as implemented in several laser systems. We rely on the Lucia laser project to experimentally evaluate the analytical and numerical deformation models. PMID:21643092

  2. BRG1-mediated immune tolerance: facilitation of Treg activation and partial independence of chromatin remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Jani, Anant; Wan, Yisong; Huang, Haichang; Flavell, Richard; Chi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Treg activation in response to environmental cues is necessary for regulatory T cells (Tregs) to suppress inflammation, but little is known about the transcription mechanisms controlling Treg activation. We report that despite the known proinflammatory role of the chromatin-remodelling factor BRG1 in CD4 cells, deleting Brg1 in all αβ T cell lineages led to fatal inflammation, which reflected essential roles of BRG1 in Tregs. Brg1 deletion impaired Treg activation, concomitant with the onset of the inflammation. Remarkably, as the inflammation progressed, Tregs became increasingly activated, but the activation levels could not catch up with the severity of inflammation. In vitro assays indicate that BRG1 regulates a subset of TCR target genes including multiple chemokine receptor genes. Finally, using a method that can create littermates bearing either a tissue-specific point mutation or deletion, we found the BRG1 ATPase activity partially dispensable for BRG1 function. Collectively, these data suggest that BRG1 acts in part via remodelling-independent functions to sensitize Tregs to inflammatory cues, thus allowing Tregs to promptly and effectively suppress autoimmunity. PMID:23321680

  3. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. PMID:26805846

  4. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-21

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates.

  5. A Novel Photoelectrochemical Biosensor for Tyrosinase and Thrombin Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiexia; Liu, Yifan; Zhao, Guang-Chao

    2016-01-01

    A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for step-by-step assay of tyrosinase and thrombin was fabricated based on the specific interactions between the designed peptide and the target enzymes. A peptide chain with a special sequence which contains a positively charged lysine-labeled terminal, tyrosine at the other end and a cleavage site recognized by thrombin between them was designed. The designed peptide can be fixed on surface of the CdTe quantum dots (QDs)-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode through electrostatic attraction to construct the photoelectrochemical biosensor. The tyrosinase target can catalyze the oxidization of tyrosine by oxygen into ortho-benzoquinone residues, which results in a decrease in the sensor photocurrent. Subsequently, the cleavage site could be recognized and cut off by another thrombin target, restoring the sensor photocurrent. The decrease or increase of photocurrent in the sensor enables us to assay tyrosinase and thrombin. Thus, the detection of tyrosinase and thrombin can be achieved in the linear range from 2.6 to 32 μg/mL and from 4.5 to 100 μg/mL with detection limits of 1.5 μg/mL and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. Most importantly, this strategy shall allow us to detect different classes of enzymes simultaneously by designing various enzyme-specific peptide substrates. PMID:26805846

  6. Impedimetric thrombin aptasensor based on chemically modified graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Adeline Huiling; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Highly sensitive biosensors are of high importance to the biomedical field. Graphene represents a promising transducing platform for construction of biosensors. Here for the first time we compare the biosensing performance of a wide set of graphenes prepared by different methods. In this work, we present a simple and label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for thrombin based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) platforms such as graphite oxide (GPO), graphene oxide (GO), thermally reduced graphene oxide (TR-GO) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ER-GO). Disposable screen-printed electrodes were first modified with chemically modified graphene (CMG) materials and used to immobilize a DNA aptamer which is specific to thrombin. The basis of detection relies on the changes in impedance spectra of redox probe after the binding of thrombin to the aptamer. It was discovered that graphene oxide (GO) is the most suitable material to be used as compared to the other three CMG materials. Furthermore, the optimum concentration of aptamer to be immobilized onto the modified electrode surface was determined to be 10 μM and the linear detection range of thrombin was 10-50 nM. Lastly, the aptasensor was found to demonstrate selectivity for thrombin. Such simply fabricated graphene oxide aptasensor shows high promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers and point-of-care analysis.

  7. Rational design and characterization of D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-derived direct thrombin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ana C; Clement, Cristina C; Zakia, Sheuli; Gingold, Julian; Philipp, Manfred; Pereira, Pedro J B

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous social and economic impact of thrombotic disorders, together with the considerable risks associated to the currently available therapies, prompt for the development of more efficient and safer anticoagulants. Novel peptide-based thrombin inhibitors were identified using in silico structure-based design and further validated in vitro. The best candidate compounds contained both L- and D-amino acids, with the general sequence D-Phe(P3)-Pro(P2)-D-Arg(P1)-P1'-CONH₂. The P1' position was scanned with L- and D-isomers of natural or unnatural amino acids, covering the major chemical classes. The most potent non-covalent and proteolysis-resistant inhibitors contain small hydrophobic or polar amino acids (Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Thr) at the P1' position. The lead tetrapeptide, D-Phe-Pro-D-Arg-D-Thr-CONH₂, competitively inhibits α-thrombin's cleavage of the S2238 chromogenic substrate with a K(i) of 0.92 µM. In order to understand the molecular details of their inhibitory action, the three-dimensional structure of three peptides (with P1' L-isoleucine (fPrI), L-cysteine (fPrC) or D-threonine (fPrt)) in complex with human α-thrombin were determined by X-ray crystallography. All the inhibitors bind in a substrate-like orientation to the active site of the enzyme. The contacts established between the D-Arg residue in position P1 and thrombin are similar to those observed for the L-isomer in other substrates and inhibitors. However, fPrC and fPrt disrupt the active site His57-Ser195 hydrogen bond, while the combination of a P1 D-Arg and a bulkier P1' residue in fPrI induce an unfavorable geometry for the nucleophilic attack of the scissile bond by the catalytic serine. The experimental models explain the observed relative potency of the inhibitors, as well as their stability to proteolysis. Moreover, the newly identified direct thrombin inhibitors provide a novel pharmacophore platform for developing antithrombotic agents by exploring the conformational

  8. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements.

  9. Role of Rac 1 and cAMP in endothelial barrier stabilization and thrombin-induced barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Baumer, Y; Spindler, V; Werthmann, R C; Bünemann, M; Waschke, J

    2009-09-01

    Barrier stabilizing effects of cAMP as well as of the small GTPase Rac 1 are well established. Moreover, it is generally believed that permeability-increasing mediators such as thrombin disrupt endothelial barrier functions primarily via activation of Rho A. In this study, we provide evidence that decrease of both cAMP levels and of Rac 1 activity contribute to thrombin-mediated barrier breakdown. Treatment of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) with Rac 1-inhibitor NSC-23766 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) and caused intercellular gap formation. These effects were reversed by addition of forskolin/rolipram (F/R) to increase intracellular cAMP but not by the cAMP analogue 8-pCPT-2'-O-Methyl-cAMP (O-Me-cAMP) which primarily stimulates protein kinase A (PKA)-independent signaling via Epac/Rap 1. However, both F/R and O-Me-cAMP did not increase TER above control levels in the presence of NSC-23766 in contrast to experiments without Rac 1 inhibition. Because Rac 1 was required for maintenance of barrier functions as well as for cAMP-mediated barrier stabilization, we tested the role of Rac 1 and cAMP in thrombin-induced barrier breakdown. Thrombin-induced drop of TER and intercellular gap formation were paralleled by a rapid decrease of cAMP as revealed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The efficacy of F/R or O-Me-cAMP to block barrier-destabilizing effects of thrombin was comparable to Y27632-induced inhibition of Rho kinase but was blunted when Rac 1 was inactivated by NSC-23766. Taken together, these data indicate that decrease of cAMP and Rac 1 activity may be an important step in inflammatory barrier disruption.

  10. A 2D-DIGE-based proteomic analysis reveals differences in the platelet releasate composition when comparing thrombin and collagen stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Paula; Izquierdo, Irene; Rosa, Isaac; García, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Upon stimulation, platelets release a high number of proteins (the releasate). There are clear indications that these proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as atherosclerosis. In the present study we compared the platelet releasate following platelet activation with two major endogenous agonists: thrombin and collagen. Proteome analysis was based on 2D-DIGE and LC-MS/MS. Firstly, we showed the primary role of thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet secretion by these agonists; moreover, we demonstrated that GPVI is the primary responsible for collagen-induced platelet activation/aggregation. Proteomic analysis allowed the detection of 122 protein spots differentially regulated between both conditions. After excluding fibrinogen spots, down-regulated in the releasate of thrombin-activated platelets, 84 differences remained. From those, we successfully identified 42, corresponding to 37 open-reading frames. Many of the differences identified correspond to post-translational modifications, primarily, proteolysis induced by thrombin. Among others, we show vitamin K-dependent protein S, an anticoagulant plasma protein, is up-regulated in thrombin samples. Our results could have pathological implications given that platelets might be playing a differential role in various diseases and biological processes through the secretion of different subsets of granule proteins and microvesicles following a predominant activation of certain receptors. PMID:25645904

  11. Fractal gold modified electrode for ultrasensitive thrombin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuqi; Dong, Haifeng; Liu, Guodong; Wen, Yongqiang; Wang, Shutao; Zhang, Xueji

    2012-05-01

    We report a label-free and ultrasensitive aptasensor based on a fractal gold modified (FracAu) electrode for thrombin detection with a femtomolar detection limit. The FracAu electrode was prepared by electrodeposition of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) onto a bare indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. After this process the electrode was characterized by SEM. A thiol-modified aptamer against thrombin was immobilized on the FracAu electrode through a self-assembling process. Upon thrombin binding, the interfacial electron transfer of the FracAu electrode was perturbed by the formation of an aptamer-thrombin complex. The concentration of thrombin in the sample solution was determined by measuring the change in the oxidation peak current of hydroxymethyl ferrocene (C11H12FeO) with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The current response (reduced peak current) had a linear relationship with the logarithm of thrombin concentrations in the range of 10-15 to 10-10 M with a detection limit of 5.7 fM. Furthermore, the as-prepared FracAu electrode exhibited high selectivity. The application of FracAu electrodes may be extended to prepare other types of biosensors, such as immunosensors, enzyme biosensors and DNA biosensors. These results show that FracAu electrodes have great promise for clinical diagnosis of disease-related biomarkers.We report a label-free and ultrasensitive aptasensor based on a fractal gold modified (FracAu) electrode for thrombin detection with a femtomolar detection limit. The FracAu electrode was prepared by electrodeposition of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) onto a bare indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode surface. After this process the electrode was characterized by SEM. A thiol-modified aptamer against thrombin was immobilized on the FracAu electrode through a self-assembling process. Upon thrombin binding, the interfacial electron transfer of the FracAu electrode was perturbed by the formation of an aptamer-thrombin complex. The

  12. New method for determining thrombin-clottable fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Frigola, A; Angeloni, S; Cerqueti, A R

    1977-11-01

    We describe a new method for determination of thrombin-clottable fibrinogen, which eliminates the systematic error caused by occlusion of other serum proteins in the fibrin clot and reduces the sensitivity to high concentrations of fibrin degradation products. Essentially, the method consists of densitometric quantitation of the fibrin band after a standard electrophoresis run of plasma, thrombin fixation of the fibrinogen, and removal of the non-clotted proteins by washing in saline. The procedure shows good precision and gives results that are accurate, significantly correlate with results for the classical thrombin clotting method (r = 0.92, P less than .001), and are not affected by fibrin degradation product concentrations up to 900 mg/liter. These characteristics make the method especially valuable in establishing fibrogen concentration in patients who are undergoing thrombolytic therapy.

  13. Development and Optimization of a Thrombin Sandwich Aptamer Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Meneghello, Anna; Sosic, Alice; Antognoli, Agnese; Cretaio, Erica; Gatto, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    A sandwich microarray employing two distinct aptamers for human thrombin has been optimized for the detection of subnanomolar concentrations of the protein. The aptamer microarray demonstrates high specificity for thrombin, proving that a two-site binding assay with the TBA1 aptamer as capture layer and the TBA2 aptamer as detection layer can ensure great specificity at times and conditions compatible with standard routine analysis of biological samples. Aptamer microarray sensitivity was evaluated directly by fluorescent analysis employing Cy5-labeled TBA2 and indirectly by the use of TBA2-biotin followed by detection with fluorescent streptavidin. Sub-nanomolar LODs were reached in all cases and in the presence of serum, demonstrating that the optimized aptamer microarray can identify thrombin by a low-cost, sensitive and specific method.

  14. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits plasma thrombin generation via targeting of the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite.

    PubMed

    Buyue, Yang; Sheehan, John P

    2009-10-01

    Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan (DHG) is a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate with antithrombin-independent antithrombotic properties. Heparin cofactor II (HCII)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for DHG inhibition of plasma thrombin generation were evaluated. When thrombin generation was initiated with 0.2 pM tissue factor (TF), the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) for DHG inhibition was identical in mock- or HCII-depleted plasma, suggesting a serpin-independent mechanism. In the presence of excess TF, the EC(50) for DHG was increased 13- to 27-fold, suggesting inhibition was dependent on intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) components. In factor VIII-deficient plasma supplemented with 700 pM factor VIII or VIIIa, and factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with plasma-derived factor IX or 100 pM factor IXa, the EC(50) for DHG was similar. Thus, cofactor and zymogen activation did not contribute to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation. Factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with mutant factor IX(a) proteins demonstrated resistance to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation [factor IX(a) R233A > R170A > WT] that inversely correlated with protease-heparin affinity. These results replicate the effect of these mutations with purified intrinsic tenase components, and establish the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite as the relevant molecular target for inhibition by DHG. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated intrinsic tenase inhibition is a novel antithrombotic mechanism with physiologic and therapeutic applications.

  15. [Pancreatic tail pseudoaneurysm: percutaneous treatment by thrombin injection].

    PubMed

    Pacheco Jiménez, M; Moreno Sánchez, T; Moreno Rodríguez, F; Guillén Rico, M

    2014-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms secondary to acute and/or chronic pancreatitis are a relatively common and potentially serious complication. Endovascular techniques are the most currently accepted techniques, given the higher morbidity-mortality of surgery. The thrombosis of the pseudoaneurysm using an ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection is emerging as a useful option in those cases in which endovascular embolisation is not possible. We present the case of a patient with a pseudoaneurysm of the transverse pancreatic artery secondary to chronic pancreatitis, and successfully treated by administering percutaneous thrombin.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of photoactivatable peptide agonists of the human thrombin receptor.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, R; Cordier, Y; Rasmussen, U B; Schlesinger, Y; Gachet, C; Jaquinod, M; Tripet, B; Chong, P C; Pavirani, A

    1994-08-01

    Chemical synthesis and biochemical analysis of modified agonist peptides of the human thrombin receptor derived from the sequence SFLLRNP containing photoactivatable azido groups and biotin for sensitive detection is described. Substitution of leucine in position three with p-azidophenylalanine and extension of the C-terminus with a KGGK spacer containing biotin covalently linked to the side chain of the C-terminal lysine residue resulted in an active receptor agonist as determined by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. In contrast, substitution of phenylalanine in position two with p-azidophenylalanine reduced agonist activity significantly. PMID:8050586

  17. Structure-activity relationship studies on cholecystokinin: Analogues with partial agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Galas, M.C.; Lignon, M.F.; Rodriguez, M.; Mendre, C.; Fulcrand, P.; Laur, J.; Martinez, J. )

    1988-02-01

    In the present study, hepta- and octapeptide analogues of the C-terminal part of cholecystokinin, modified on the C-terminal phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. CCK analogues were prepared in which the peptide bond between aspartic acid and phenylalanine had or had not been modified and were lacking the C-terminal primary amide function. These CCK derivatives were able to cause full stimulation of amylase release from rat pancreatic acini but without a decrease in amylase release at supramaximal concentrations. There was a close relationship between the abilities of these derivatives to stimulate amylase release and their abilities to inhibit binding of {sup 125}I-BH-CCK-9 to CCK receptors on rat and guinea pig pancreatic acini. These CCK analogues were also able to recognize the guinea pig brain CCK receptors, some of them being particularly potent. The findings indicate that the aromatic ring of phenylalanine is important for the binding to brain and pancreatic CCK receptors, whereas the C-terminal primary amide function is not essential for the binding to pancreatic CCK receptors but is crucial for biological activity of rat pancreatic acini.

  18. Acute ethanol preexposure promotes liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice by activating ALDH2.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Beier, Juliane I; Baldauf, Keegan J; Jokinen, Jenny D; Zhong, Hai; Arteel, Gavin E

    2014-01-01

    It is known that chronic ethanol significantly impairs liver regeneration. However, the effect of acute ethanol exposure on liver regeneration remains largely unknown. To address this question, C57Bl6/J mice were exposed to acute ethanol (6 g/kg intragastrically) for 3 days, and partial hepatectomy (PHx) was performed 24 h after the last dose. Surprisingly, acute ethanol preexposure promoted liver regeneration. This effect of ethanol did not correlate with changes in expression of cell cycle regulatory genes (e.g., cyclin D1, p21, and p27) but did correlate with protection against the effect of PHx on indices of impaired lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Ethanol preexposure protected against inhibition of the oxidant-sensitive mitochondrial enzyme, aconitase. The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) was significantly increased by ethanol preexposure. The effect of ethanol was blocked by inhibiting (Daidzin) and was mimicked by activating (Alda-1) ALDH2. Lipid peroxides are also substrates for ALDH2; indeed, alcohol preexposure blunted the increase in lipid peroxidation (4OH-nonenal adducts) caused by PHx. Taken together, these data suggest that acute preoperative ethanol exposure "preconditions" the liver to respond more rapidly to regenerate after PHx by activating mitochondrial ALDH2, which prevents oxidative stress in this compartment.

  19. Lung Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation following Partial Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Rizzo, Vittoria; Tarantola, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute liver I/R does affect the function and/or structure of remote organs such as lung, kidney, and heart via modulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min partial hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and the portal vein. After a 60 min reperfusion, liver, lung, kidney, and heart biopsies and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatic enzymes, creatinine, urea, Troponin I and TNF-alpha, and tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and morphology were monitored. Results. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were concomitantly increased during hepatic I/R. An increase in hepatic MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was substantiated by tissue morphology alterations. Notably, acute hepatic I/R affect the lung inasmuch as MMP-9 activity and MPO levels were increased. No difference in MMPs and MPO was observed in kidney and heart. Conclusions. Although the underlying mechanism needs further investigation, this is the first study in which the MMP activation in a distant organ is reported; this event is probably TNF-alpha-mediated and the lung appears as the first remote organ to be involved in hepatic I/R injury. PMID:24592193

  20. Participation of the hypophyseal-adrenal cortex system in thrombin clearance during immobilization stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, B. A.; Uljanov, A. M.; Shapiro, F. B.; Bazazyan, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thrombin marked with I-131 resulted in a considerable increase of the thrombined clearance rate in healthy male rats during stress caused by an immobilization lasting 30 minutes, and in an increase of thrombin clearance occurred by a combination of immobilization and administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Contrary to ACTH, the thrombin clearance is not stimulated in healthy animals by hydrocortisone. The results of the examination are presented.

  1. Elucidation of Nonadditive Effects in Protein-Ligand Binding Energies: Thrombin as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Gaetano; Woods, Christopher J; Powlesland, Francis; Mey, Antonia S J S; Mulholland, Adrian J; Michel, Julien

    2016-06-23

    Accurate predictions of free energies of binding of ligands to proteins are challenging partly because of the nonadditivity of protein-ligand interactions; i.e., the free energy of binding is the sum of numerous enthalpic and entropic contributions that cannot be separated into functional group contributions. In principle, molecular simulations methodologies that compute free energies of binding do capture nonadditivity of protein-ligand interactions, but efficient protocols are necessary to compute well-converged free energies of binding that clearly resolve nonadditive effects. To this end, an efficient GPU-accelerated implementation of alchemical free energy calculations has been developed and applied to two congeneric series of ligands of the enzyme thrombin. The results show that accurate binding affinities are computed across the two congeneric series and positive coupling between nonpolar R(1) substituents and a X = NH3(+) substituent is reproduced, albeit with a weaker trend than experimentally observed. By contrast, a docking methodology completely fails to capture nonadditive effects. Further analysis shows that the nonadditive effects are partly due to variations in the strength of a hydrogen-bond between the X = NH3(+) ligands family and thrombin residue Gly216. However, other partially compensating interactions occur across the entire binding site, and no single interaction dictates the magnitude of the nonadditive effects for all the analyzed protein-ligand complexes. PMID:27248478

  2. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  3. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data. PMID:27222917

  4. Proteinase-treated photoreceptor discs. Photoelectric activity of the partially-digested rhodopsin and membrane orientation.

    PubMed

    Bayramashvili, D I; Drachev, A L; Drachev, L A; Kaulen, A D; Kudelin, A B; Martynov, V I; Skulachev, V P

    1984-08-01

    Photoreceptor discs from rod outer segments of cattle retina were treated with (a) papain, (b) thermolysin or (c) trypsin, the procedures resulting in the cleavage of the rhodopsin polypeptide chain between (a) 323 and 324, 236 and 237, 241 and 242, (b) 327 and 328, 240 and 241, or (c) 339 and 340 amino acid residues, respectively. In all the cases, partially digested rhodopsins proved to be competent in generating photoelectric potential and increasing membrane conductance of the discs adsorbed onto phospholipid-impregnated collodion film. The kinetics of generation and dissipation of photopotential as well as of formation of metarhodopsin II and of the light-induced rhodopsin protonation were found to be the same in the partially digested preparations and in the intact one. Incubation of papain-treated or thermolysin-treated discs at pH 6.0 induced formation of inside-out vesicles which, when incorporated into the collodion film, generated an oppositely directed photopotential. Treatment of such vesicles with papain gave rise to further cleavages of the polypeptide localized between 30 and 31, 186 and 187 amino acid residues. One more proteinase-sensitive site, localized between 104 and 105 residues, has been discovered in the inside-out vesicles treated with thermolysin. This fact consistent with the scheme of the 'seven column' arrangement of the visual rhodopsin [Ovchinnikov, Yu. A. (1982) FEBS Lett. 148, 179-191]. Rhodopsin, when treated with papain on both sides, was deprived of sixty amino acid residues being split in two sites in the middle part of the polypeptide, but was still active as a photoelectric energy transducer. The main specific feature inherent in the photoelectric response of the papain-treated or thermolysin-treated rhodopsin and absent from the native protein is that the former survives addition of long trains of saturating flashes when the response of the intact preparation becomes negligible. This effect was shown to be due to conversion

  5. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  6. Antitcoagulant and antiplatelet activities of scolymoside

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Eun-Kyung; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, Wonhwa; Kwak, Soyoung; Kang, Hyejin; Jung, Byeongjin; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia subternata is a medicinal plant commonly used in traditional medicine to relieve pain. Here, the anticoagulant effects of scolymoside, an active compound in C. subternata, were examined by monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), and the activities of thrombin and activated factor X (FXa). The effects of scolymoside on plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression were evaluated in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-activated human endothelial cells. Treatment with scolymoside resulted in prolonged aPTT and PT and the inhibition of thrombin and FXa activities and production. In addition, scolymoside inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. Scolymoside also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice, including a significant reduction in the PAI-1 to t-PA ratio. Collectively, these findings indicate that scolymoside possesses anticoagulant activities and could be developed as a novel anticoagulant. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(10): 577-582] PMID:25887749

  7. Thrombin-cleaved Fragments of Osteopontin Are Overexpressed in Malignant Glial Tumors and Provide a Molecular Niche with Survival Advantage*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yasuto; Shao, Zhifei; Sharif, Shadi; Du, Xiao-Yan; Myles, Timothy; Merchant, Milton; Harsh, Griffith; Glantz, Michael; Recht, Lawrence; Morser, John; Leung, Lawrence L. K.

    2013-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), which is highly expressed in malignant glioblastoma (GBM), possesses inflammatory activity modulated by proteolytic cleavage by thrombin and plasma carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2) at a highly conserved cleavage site. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL) was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from all cancer patients compared with noncancer patients. However, thrombin-cleaved OPN (OPN-R) and thrombin/CPB2-double-cleaved OPN (OPN-L) levels were markedly increased in GBM and non-GBM gliomas compared with systemic cancer and noncancer patients. Cleaved OPN constituted ∼23 and ∼31% of the total OPN in the GBM and non-GBM CSF samples, respectively. OPN-R was also elevated in GBM tissues. Thrombin-antithrombin levels were highly correlated with cleaved OPN, but not OPN-FL, suggesting that the cleaved OPN fragments resulted from increased thrombin and CPB2 in this extracellular compartment. Levels of VEGF and CCL4 were increased in CSF of GBM and correlated with the levels of cleaved OPN. GBM cell lines were more adherent to OPN-R and OPN-L than OPN-FL. Adhesion to OPN altered gene expression, in particular genes involved with cellular processes, cell cycle regulation, death, and inflammation. OPN and its cleaved forms promoted motility of U-87 MG cells and conferred resistance to apoptosis. Although functional mutation of the RGD motif in OPN largely abolished these functions, OPNRAA-R regained significant cell binding and signaling function, suggesting that the SVVYGLR motif in OPN-R may substitute for the RGD motif if the latter becomes inaccessible. OPN cleavage contributes to GBM development by allowing more cells to bind in niches where they acquire anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:23204518

  8. Thrombin receptor deficiency leads to a high bone mass phenotype by decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio.

    PubMed

    Tudpor, Kukiat; van der Eerden, Bram C J; Jongwattanapisan, Prapaporn; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Bindels, René J M; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2015-03-01

    Thrombin and its receptor (TR) are, respectively, expressed in osteoclasts and osteoblasts. However, their physiological roles on bone metabolism have not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the bone microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and demonstrated increased trabecular and cortical bone mass in femurs of TR KO mice compared to WT littermates. Trabecular thickness and connectivity were significantly enhanced. The physiological role of TR on both inorganic and organic phases of bone is illustrated by a significant increase in BMD and a decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslink concentration in TR KO mice. Moreover, TR KO cortical bone expanded and had a higher polar moment of inertia (J), implying stronger bone. Bone histomorphometry illustrated unaltered osteoblast and osteoclast number and surface in femoral metaphyses, indicating that thrombin/TR regulates osteoblasts and osteoclasts at functional levels. Serum analysis showed a decrease in RANKL and an increase in osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and reflected a reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in the TR KO group. In vitro experiments using MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated a TR-dependent stimulatory effect of thrombin on the RANKL/OPG ratio. This effect was blocked by TR antagonist and p42/p44-ERK inhibitor. In addition, thrombin also intensified p42/p44-ERK expression and phosphorylation. In conclusion, the thrombin/TR system maintains normal bone remodeling by activating RANKL and limiting OPG synthesis by osteoblasts through the p42/44-ERK signaling pathway. Consequently, TR deficiency inhibits osteoclastogenesis, resulting in a high bone mass phenotype. PMID:25460576

  9. Factor XIa and Thrombin Generation Are Elevated in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Predict Recurrent Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Loeffen, Rinske; van Oerle, René; Leers, Mathie P. G.; Kragten, Johannes A.; Crijns, Harry; Spronk, Henri M. H.; ten Cate, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Objective In acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cardiac cell damage is preceded by thrombosis. Therefore, plasma coagulation markers may have additional diagnostic relevance in ACS. By using novel coagulation assays this study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between the coagulation system and ACS. Methods We measured plasma thrombin generation, factor XIa and D-dimer levels in plasma from ACS (n = 104) and non-ACS patients (n = 42). Follow-up measurements (n = 73) were performed at 1 and 6 months. Associations between coagulation markers and recurrent cardiovascular events were calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results Thrombin generation was significantly enhanced in ACS compared to non-ACS patients: peak height 148±53 vs. 122±42 nM. There was a significantly diminished ETP reduction (32 vs. 41%) and increased intrinsic coagulation activation (25 vs. 7%) in ACS compared to non-ACS patients. Furthermore, compared to non-ACS patients factor XIa and D-dimer levels were significantly elevated in ACS patients: 1.9±1.1 vs. 1.4±0.7 pM and 495(310–885) vs. 380(235–540) μg/L. Within the ACS spectrum, ST-elevated myocardial infarction patients had the highest prothrombotic profile. During the acute event, thrombin generation was significantly increased compared to 1 and 6 months afterwards: peak height 145±52 vs. 100±44 vs. 98±33 nM. Both peak height and factor XIa levels on admission predicted recurrent cardiovascular events (OR: 4.9 [95%CI 1.2–20.9] and 4.5 [1.1–18.9]). Conclusion ACS patients had an enhanced prothrombotic profile, demonstrated by an increased thrombin generation potential, factor XIa and D-dimer levels. This study is the first to demonstrate the positive association between factor XIa, thrombin generation and recurrent cardiovascular events. PMID:27419389

  10. Partial purification and characterization of an enzyme from pea nuclei with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y L; Roux, S J

    1995-01-01

    A pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclear enzyme with protein tyrosine phosphatase activity has been partially purified and characterized. The enzyme has a molecular mass of 90 kD as judged by molecular sieve column chromatography and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Like animal protein tyrosine phosphatases it can be inhibited by low concentrations of molybdate and vanadate. It is also inhibited by heparin and spermine but not by either the acid phosphatase inhibitors citrate and tartrate or the protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. The enzyme does not require Ca2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+ for its activity but is stimulated by ethylenediaminetetraacetate and by ethyleneglycolbis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. It dephosphorylates phosphotyrosine residues on the four different 32P-tyrosine-labeled peptides tested but not the phosphoserine/threonine residues on casein and histone. Like some animal protein tyrosine phosphatases, it has a variable pH optimum depending on the substrate used: the optimum is 5.5 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled lysozyme, but it is 7.0 when the substrate is [32P]tyrosine-labeled poly(glutamic acid, tyrosine). It has a Km of 4 microM when the lysozyme protein is used as a substrate.

  11. Rational design of orally-active, pyrrolidine-based progesterone receptor partial agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Scott K.; Washburn, David G.; Frazee, James S.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Hoang, Tram H.; Lapinski, Leahann; Grygielko, Eugene T.; Glace, Lindsay E.; Trizna, Walter; Williams, Shawn P.; Duraiswami, Chaya; Bray, Jeffrey D.; Laping, Nicholas J.

    2010-09-03

    Using the X-ray crystal structure of an amide-based progesterone receptor (PR) partial agonist bound to the PR ligand binding domain, a novel PR partial agonist class containing a pyrrolidine ring was designed. Members of this class of N-alkylpyrrolidines demonstrate potent and highly selective partial agonism of the progesterone receptor, and one of these analogs was shown to be efficacious upon oral dosing in the OVX rat model of estrogen opposition.

  12. The structure-function relationship of thrombin-like enzymes from the green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris).

    PubMed

    Pradniwat, Paweena; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2015-06-15

    Pit viper venoms can decrease fibrinogen levels in snakebite patients. Studies have shown that the hypofibrinogenemia is a consequence of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs), the serine proteases that have the potential to be both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Exosites of thrombin are the molecular regions that determine the substrate specificities, but its presence and significance in TLEs are unclear. Therefore, the putative exosites of recombinant TLEs derived from Green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris), GPV-TL1 and GPV-TL2, were mutated in a Pichia pastoris system. In a previous report, GPV-TL1 showed a strong fibrinogenolytic activity on the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen, as well as a plasma clotting activity. Compared with GPV-TL1, the GPV-TL1m mutated in the putative exosite (TRN to RRR at residues 60-62) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity with a similar clotting activity of 207.1 thrombin units/mg. GPV-TL2 contained two-residue differences from GPV-TL1 in the putative exosite (N73M and V74Y). GPV-TL2 selectively cleaved only the Aα chain of fibrinogen without detectable clotting activity. The mutated GPV-TL2 (GPV-TL2m) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity compared with that of the wild type. These results support the important roles of the putative exosite in snake venom TLE activities. This information is helpful for future protein engineering. PMID:25912946

  13. The structure-function relationship of thrombin-like enzymes from the green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris).

    PubMed

    Pradniwat, Paweena; Rojnuckarin, Ponlapat

    2015-06-15

    Pit viper venoms can decrease fibrinogen levels in snakebite patients. Studies have shown that the hypofibrinogenemia is a consequence of snake venom thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs), the serine proteases that have the potential to be both diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Exosites of thrombin are the molecular regions that determine the substrate specificities, but its presence and significance in TLEs are unclear. Therefore, the putative exosites of recombinant TLEs derived from Green pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris), GPV-TL1 and GPV-TL2, were mutated in a Pichia pastoris system. In a previous report, GPV-TL1 showed a strong fibrinogenolytic activity on the Aα and Bβ chains of fibrinogen, as well as a plasma clotting activity. Compared with GPV-TL1, the GPV-TL1m mutated in the putative exosite (TRN to RRR at residues 60-62) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity with a similar clotting activity of 207.1 thrombin units/mg. GPV-TL2 contained two-residue differences from GPV-TL1 in the putative exosite (N73M and V74Y). GPV-TL2 selectively cleaved only the Aα chain of fibrinogen without detectable clotting activity. The mutated GPV-TL2 (GPV-TL2m) showed a weaker fibrinogenolytic activity compared with that of the wild type. These results support the important roles of the putative exosite in snake venom TLE activities. This information is helpful for future protein engineering.

  14. Unraveling a novel Rac1-mediated signaling pathway that regulates cofilin dephosphorylation and secretion in thrombin-stimulated platelets.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Dharmendra; Goyal, Pankaj; Dwivedi, Suman; Siess, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    In platelets stimulated by thrombin to secrete and aggregate, cofilin is rapidly dephosphorylated leading to its activation. Cofilin by severing existing actin filaments and stimulating F-actin polymerization on newly created barbed ends dynamizes the actin cytoskeleton. We previously found that cofilin dephosphorylation is Ca(2+)-dependent and occurs upstream of degranulation in stimulated platelets. We report now in thrombin-stimulated platelets that Rac1 and class II PAKs (PAK4/5/6) were rapidly (within 5 seconds) activated, whereas PAK1/2 (class I PAKs) phosphorylation was slower. The Rac1-specific inhibitor NSC23766 blocked phosphorylation of class II PAKs, but not PAK1/2. Moreover, inhibition of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin inhibited Rac1 activation and class II PAKs phosphorylation. Prevention of Rac1 activation by calcineurin inhibition or NSC23766 also blocked cofilin dephosphorylation and platelet granule secretion indicating that a calcineurin/Rac1/class II PAKs pathway regulates cofilin dephosphorylation leading to secretion. We further found that PI3-kinases were activated downstream of Rac1, but were not involved in regulating cofilin dephosphorylation and secretion in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Our study unravels a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway of secretion in stimulated platelets as a signaling pathway linking Rac1 activation to actin dynamics: calcineurin-->Rac1-->class II PAKs-->cofilin activation. We further demonstrate that this pathway is separate and independent of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway mediating secretion.

  15. GBF-dependent family genes morphologically suppress the partially active Dictyostelium STATa strain.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nao; Kanno-Tanabe, Naoko; Minemura, Kakeru; Kawata, Takefumi

    2008-02-01

    Transcription factor Dd-STATa, a functional Dictyostelium homologue of metazoan signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins, is necessary for culmination during development. We have isolated more than 18 putative multicopy suppressors of Dd-STATa using genetic screening. One was hssA gene, whose expression is known to be G-box-binding-factor-dependent and which was specific to prestalk A (pstA) cells, where Dd-STATa is activated. Also, hssA mRNA was expressed in pstA cells in the Dd-STATa-null mutant. At least 40 hssA-related genes are present in the genome and constitute a multigene family. The tagged HssA protein was translated; hssA encodes an unusually high-glycine-serine-rich small protein (8.37 kDa), which has strong homology to previously reported cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-inducible 2C and 7E proteins. Overexpression of hssA mRNA as well as frame-shifted versions of hssA RNA suppressed the phenotype of the partially active Dd-STATa strain, suggesting that translation is not necessary for suppression. Although overexpression of prespore-specific genes among the family did not suppress the parental phenotype, prestalk-specific family members did. Although overexpression of the hssA did not revert the expression of Dd-STATa target genes, and although its suppression mechanism remains unknown, morphological reversion implies functional relationships between Dd-STATa and hssA.

  16. Colloids decrease clot propagation and strength: role of factor XIII-fibrin polymer and thrombin-fibrinogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, V G

    2005-09-01

    Colloid-mediated hypocoagulability is clinically important, but the mechanisms responsible for coagulopathy have been incompletely defined. Thus, my goal was to elucidate how colloids decrease plasma coagulation function. Plasma was diluted 0% or 40% with 0.9% NaCl, three different hydroxyethyl starches (HES, mean molecular weight 450, 220 or 130 kDa), or 5% human albumin. Samples (n=6 per condition) were activated with celite, and diluted samples had either no additions or addition of fibrinogen (FI), thrombin (FIIa) or activated Factor XIII (FXIIIa) to restore protein function to prediluted values. Thrombelastographic variables measured included clot propagation (angle, alpha), and clot strength (amplitude, A; or shear elastic modulus, G). Dilution with 0.9% NaCl significantly decreased alpha, A and G-values compared to undiluted samples. Supplementation with FI, but not FIIa or FXIIIa, resulted in 0.9% NaCl-diluted thrombelastographic variable values not different from those of undiluted samples. FI supplementation of HES 450, HES 220, HES 130 and albumin-diluted samples only partially restored alpha, A and G-values compared to undiluted samples. FIIa addition only improved clot propagation and strength in albumin-diluted samples. FXIIIa supplementation improved propagation in samples diluted with HES 450, HES 220 and albumin, and clot strength improved in HES 450 and albumin-diluted plasma. Considered as a whole, these data support compromise of FIIa-FI and FXIIIa--fibrin polymer interactions as the mechanisms by which colloids compromise plasma coagulation. Investigation to determine if clinical enhancement of FXIII activity and/or FI concentration (e.g. fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate) can attenuate colloid-mediated decreases in hemostasis is warranted.

  17. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokutake, Takayoshi; Baba, Hisami; Shimada, Yuji; Takeda, Wataru; Sato, Keijiro; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kirihara, Takehiko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg) might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003). Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant. PMID:27355205

  18. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients.

    PubMed

    Tokutake, Takayoshi; Baba, Hisami; Shimada, Yuji; Takeda, Wataru; Sato, Keijiro; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kirihara, Takehiko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg) might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003). Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant.

  19. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  20. Pharmacologic partial salvage of a failing free flap with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA).

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Fuleihan, N S; Musharafieh, R S

    1999-11-01

    Despite all the technical improvements in microvascular surgery and the experience gained in clinical practice, thrombosis at the site of microanastomosis remains a significant problem and a continuous source of frustration to most microsurgeons. Early recognition of vascular complications and prompt reexploration with vascular revision remain an essential and standard conduct for salvage. However, in situations where conditions for no-reflow have been established due to severe vasospasm or prolonged ischemia time, it becomes obvious that surgical reexploration alone is not enough to salvage a failing flap or a replanted limb. In such situations, the loss of the revascularized tissues seems to be inevitable. The authors describe their experience in partially salvaging a failing free flap with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), reversing an established state of no-reflow. Pharmacologic manipulation of the complex and variable factors influencing anastomotic patency in microvascular tissue transfer seems to offer a new hope for preventing failures, as well as for salvaging failing flaps. It appears also that free-tissue transfer failure is not an all-or-none phenomenon.

  1. Effects of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allograft in the thymus of chicken embryos: thymostimulin localization and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Aita, M; Romano, N

    2006-01-01

    Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis) and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophyseal allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The embryonic thymuses were collected on day 18 and examined with histological methods, tested for the anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction, and for histoenzymatic activities and compared with normal and sham-operated embryos at the same age. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-thymostimulin, succinic dehydrogenase and ATPase enzymatic activities tested, yielded negative reactions. In partially decerebrated hypophyseal allografted embryos, the same thymic compartments improved and anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction and enzymatic activities partially recovered. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus.

  2. [Effects of partial root excision on the growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize under salt stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Cui, Li-Na; Meng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Shi, De-Yang; Dong, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Ji-Wang; Liu, Peng

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of partial root excision on the growth of two maize cultivars (Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9) throughout their growth period and the photosynthesis and leaf antioxidant enzyme activities at grain-filling stage under salt stress. Four treatments were installed, i. e., control (no salt), low salt (0.2% NaCl), moderate salt (0.4% NaCl), and high salt (0.6% NaCl). Under low salt stress, the grain yield of Zhengdan 958 and Denghai 9 with partial root excision was increased by 13.1% and 31.4%, respectively, as compared with that of the cultivars with no root excision. At jointing stage, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision was restrained, the root- and shoot dry masses under the same salt stresses being lesser than those of the cultivars with no root excision, but the growth under the conditions of no salt and low salt recovered quickly. At milk-ripe stage and under no salt and low salt conditions, the root- and shoot dry masses, leaf area, total root length, total root surface area, root activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and ear leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and CAT and POD activities of the cultivars with partial root excision were significantly larger than those of the cultivars with no root excision, while the shoot diameter and ear leaf MDA content were in adverse. Moderate and high salt stresses had greater effects on the cultivars with partial root excision. The root- and shoot dry masses, root morphology, and photosynthesis indices of the cultivars with partial root excision were smaller than those of the cultivars with no root excision, so did the grain yields. Throughout the growth period of the cultivars, the growth of the cultivars with partial root excision depended on the salt concentration, i. e., was promoted under no and low salt, and inhibited under moderate and high salt conditions.

  3. Identification of PPARgamma Partial Agonists of Natural Origin (II): In Silico Prediction in Natural Extracts with Known Antidiabetic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. Methodology/Principal Findings From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally), we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus) to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused towards the

  4. Effects of thrombin on the integrity of monolayers of cultured human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Galdal, K.S.; Evensen, S.A.; Brosstad, F.

    1982-09-01

    /sup 51/Cr-prelabelled endothelial cells (EC) in confluent monolayers were incubated in RPMI 1640 + foetal calf serum 20% (v/v) to which purified thrombin was added. Thrombin (greater than or equal to 0.1 NIH U/ml) significantly accelerated /sup 51/Cr-release and caused extensive but reversible cell contraction. Thrombin-exposed EC reacted to a new dose of thrombin with no appreciable shape change, but /sup 51/Cr-efflux was again accelerated. EC exposed to thrombin pretreated with N-bromosuccinimide (modifying the macromolecular site) or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (blocking the serine site) retained normal morphology and did not leak excess amounts of /sup 51/Cr. Antithrombin III also inhibited the effect of thrombin. Pretreatment of EC with either indomethacin, aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, pronase or neuraminidase did not influence the effect of subsequent thrombin exposure.

  5. [Presence of inhibitors of activated partial thromboplastin time (TTPA). Clinical repercussion in obstetric patients].

    PubMed

    Bustos, H H; Huber, R; Baptista, H; Izquierdo, H; Sánchez Contreras, J

    1992-01-01

    Partial thromboplastin time, activated with kaolin (TTPA) is a qualitative test used to find defects of some factor of intrinsic via of coagulation or to rule out the presence of some circulating inhibitor. The lupus anticoagulant (LA) is part of a group of several auto-antibody with pathogenic potential in several branches of medicine, mainly rheumatology, hematology and gyneco-obstetrics. In this last area the LA has been associated with different obstetrical repercussions. The purpose of this study was to determine the main obstetrical events associated with patients with circulating anticoagulants identified by TTPA with kaolin. Ninety six patients were included in cases-control study. Group I (n = 48) cases and Group II (n = 48) controls, were selected from the same population and information source. The cases were included when presenting prolongation of more than 4 seconds of TTPA activated with kaolin regarding a control with lack of correction with normal plasma. A registration sheet for data captation, was designed specially for this study. The comparability of both groups was established, as there were no differences (significant) among the variable considered as basal. The group of cases presented with a greater frequency of habitual abortion, neonatal death and thrombotic phenomena. This relationship of autoimmunological pictures with recurrent fetal loss and thromboembolic incidents has been consistently described in literature. To this respect, several immunological abnormalities. Including positive anticardiolipin antibodies and VDRL falsely positive. The incidence, in this country of these entities, is unknown. These observations show the need of a methodologic superation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The phosphorylation status of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 in astrocytes and neurons from rat hippocampus determines the thrombin-induced calcium release and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Gregor; Reiser, Georg

    2011-12-01

    Challenge of protease-activated receptors induces cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c)) increase, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation with a bandwidth of responses in individual cells. We detected in this study in situ the thrombin-induced [Ca(2+) ](c) rise and ROS formation in dissociated hippocampal astrocytes and neurons in a mixed culture. In identified cells, single cell responses were correlated with extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation level. On average, in astrocytes, thrombin induced a transient [Ca(2+) ](c) rise with concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and extrusion rate and high ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. Correlation analysis of [Ca(2+) ](c) response characteristics of single astrocytes reveals that astrocytes with nuclear phosphoERK1/2 localization have a smaller Ca(2+) amplitude and extrusion rate compared with cells with a cytosolic phosphoERK1/2 localization. In naive neurons, without thrombin challenge, variable ERK1/2 phosphorylation patterns are observed. ROS were detected by hydroethidine. Only in neurons with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation level, we see sustained intracellular rise in fluorescence of the dye lasting over several minutes. ROS formation was abolished by pre-incubation with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, thrombin induced an immediate, transient hydroethidine fluorescence increase. This was interpreted as NADPH oxidase-mediated O(2) (•-) -release into the extracellular milieu, because it was decreased by pre-incubation with apocynin, and could be eluted by superfusion. In conclusion, the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 determines the thrombin-dependent [Ca(2+) ](c) increase and ROS formation and, thus, influences the capacity of thrombin to regulate neuroprotection or neurodegeneration. PMID:21988180

  7. Differential pathway coupling efficiency of the activated insulin receptor drives signaling selectivity by xmeta, an allosteric partial agonist antibody

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    XMetA, an anti-insulin receptor (IR) monoclonal antibody, is an allosteric partial agonist of the IR. We have previously reported that XMetA activates the “metabolic-biased” Akt kinase signaling pathway while having little or no effect on the “mitogenic” MAPK signaling pathwayof ERK 1/2. To inves...

  8. Brain Endothelial Cells Synthesize Neurotoxic Thrombin in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiangling; Wright, Jill; Wall, Trevor; Grammas, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal death; thus, identifying neurotoxic proteins and their source is central to understanding and treating AD. The multifunctional protease thrombin is neurotoxic and found in AD senile plaques. The objective of this study was to determine whether brain endothelial cells can synthesize thrombin and thus be a source of this neurotoxin in AD brains. Microvessels were isolated from AD patient brains and from age-matched controls. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that thrombin message was highly expressed in microvessels from AD brains but was not detectable in control vessels. Similarly, Western blot analysis of microvessels showed that the thrombin protein was highly expressed in AD- but not control-derived microvessels. In addition, high levels of thrombin were detected in cerebrospinal fluid obtained from AD but not control patients, and sections from AD brains showed reactivity to thrombin antibody in blood vessel walls but not in vessels from controls. Finally, we examined the ability of brain endothelial cells in culture to synthesize thrombin and showed that oxidative stress or cell signaling perturbations led to increased expression of thrombin mRNA in these cells. The results demonstrate, for the first time, that brain endothelial cells can synthesize thrombin, and suggest that novel therapeutics targeting vascular stabilization that prevent or decrease release of thrombin could prove useful in treating this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:20150433

  9. Neurosteroids shift partial agonist activation of GABA(A) receptor channels from low- to high-efficacy gating patterns.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matt T; Macdonald, Robert L

    2003-11-26

    Although GABA activates synaptic (alphabetagamma) GABA(A) receptors with high efficacy, partial agonist activation of alphabetagamma isoforms and GABA activation of the primary extrasynaptic (alphabetadelta) GABA(A) receptors are limited to low-efficacy activity, characterized by minimal desensitization and brief openings. The unusual sensitivity of alphabetadelta receptor channels to neurosteroid modulation prompted investigation of whether this high sensitivity was dependent on the delta subunit or the low-efficacy channel function that it confers. We show that the isoform specificity (alphabetadelta > alphabetagamma) of neurosteroid modulation could be reversed by conditions that reversed isoform-specific activity modes, including the use of beta-alanine to achieve increased efficacy with alphabetadelta receptors and taurine to render alphabetagamma receptors low efficacy. We suggest that neurosteroids preferentially enhance low-efficacy GABA(A) receptor activity independent of subunit composition. Allosteric conversion of partial to full agonism may be a general mechanism for reversibly scaling the efficacy of GABA(A) receptors to endogenous partial agonists.

  10. Potentiation of thrombin generation in hemophilia A plasma by coagulation factor VIII and characterization of antibody-specific inhibition.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Bhavya S; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Doering, Christopher B; Meeks, Shannon L

    2012-01-01

    Development of inhibitory antibodies to coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) is the primary obstacle to the treatment of hemophilia A in the developed world. This adverse reaction occurs in 20-30% of persons with severe hemophilia A treated with fVIII-replacement products and is characterized by the development of a humoral and neutralizing immune response to fVIII. Patients with inhibitory anti-fVIII antibodies are treated with bypassing agents including recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa). However, some patients display poor hemostatic response to bypass therapy and improved treatment options are needed. Recently, we demonstrated that fVIII inhibitors display widely variable kinetics of inhibition that correlate with their respective target epitopes. Thus, it was hypothesized that for antibodies that display slow rates of inhibition, supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII would result in improved thrombin generation and be predictive of clinical responses to this novel treatment regimen. In order to test this hypothesis, 10 murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with non-overlapping epitopes spanning fVIII, differential inhibition titers, and inhibition kinetics were studied using a thrombin generation assay. Of the 3 MAbs with high inhibitory titers, only the one with fast and complete (classically defined as "type I") kinetics displayed significant inhibition of thrombin generation with no improvement upon supplementation of rfVIIa with fVIII. The other two MAbs that displayed incomplete (classically defined as "type II") inhibition did not suppress the potentiation of thrombin generation by fVIII. All antibodies that did not completely inhibit fVIII activity demonstrated potentiation of thrombin generation by the addition of fVIII as compared to rfVIIa alone. In conclusion, fVIII alone or in combination with rfVIIa corrects the thrombin generation defect produced by the majority of anti-fVIII MAbs better than single agent rfVIIa. Therefore, combined fVIII/rfVIIa therapy

  11. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor as a bleeding predictor in liver transplantation: a pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nedel, Wagner Luis; Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Pasqualotto, Alessandro Comarú

    2016-01-01

    Objective To correlate the levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in the immediate postoperative period and at 24 hours postoperatively with the volume of intraoperative bleeding. Methods Twenty-one patients allocated immediately before (elective or emergency) liver transplantation were analyzed. Blood samples were collected for thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor analysis at three different time points: immediately before liver transplantation (preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor), immediately after the surgical procedure (immediate postoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor), and 24 hours after surgery (thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor 24 hours after surgery). The primary outcome of the study was to correlate the preoperative and immediate postoperative levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor with intraoperative blood loss. Results There was a correlation between the preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels and bleeding volume (ρ = -0.469; p = 0.05) but no correlation between the immediate postoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and bleeding volume (ρ = -0.062; p = 0.79). No variable included in the linear regression analysis (prehemoglobin, prefibrinogen and preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor) was a bleeding predictor. There was a similar trend in the variation between the levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor at the three different time points and fibrinogen levels. Patients who died within 6 months (14.3%) showed decreased preoperative and immediate postoperative levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis compared with survivors (preoperative: 1.3 ± 0.15 versus 2.55 ± 0.53, p = 0.06; immediate postoperative: 1.2 ± 0.15 versus 2.5 ± 0.42, p = 0.007). Conclusion There was a moderate correlation between preoperative thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and intraoperative bleeding in liver

  12. Combined thrombin and autologous blood for repair of lumbar durotomy.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Aboul-Enein, Hisham A

    2016-10-01

    Lumbar durotomy can be intended or unintended and can result in persistent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Several methods are used to manage this complication including bed rest and CSF diversion. In this study, we theorize that the use of thrombin-soaked gel foam together with autologous blood laid on the sutured dural tear can prevent persistent CSF leak. A retrospective review of the records of patients who underwent lumbar surgery and had an unintended dural tear with CSF leak, comparing the outcome of patients who were submitted to thrombin-soaked gel foam together with autologous blood (group A) to patients treated by subfacial drain, tight bandage, and bed rest (group B). A total of 1371 patients had lumbar surgery, of whom 131 had dural tear. Group A included 62 patients, while group B included 69 patients. 8.1 % of group A patients had CSF leak as compared to 17.4 % of group B patients at postoperative day 14. The incidence of postoperative CSF leak and duration of postoperative hospital stay were statistically lower in group A than in group B (p < 0.05). Combining thrombin and autologous blood for repair of lumbar durotomy is an effective and a relatively cheap way to decrease CSF leak in the early postoperative period as well as decreasing postoperative hospital stay. It also resulted in decreased complications rate in the late postoperative period. PMID:26864189

  13. An electrochemical aptasensor electrocatalyst for detection of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Tian, Rong; Chen, Xiaojun; Li, Qingwen; Yao, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    This work reports a novel signal amplification strategy based on three-dimensional ordered macroporous C60-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (3DOM C60-PEDOT-[BMIm][BF6]) for ultrasensitive detection of thrombin by cascade catalysis of Au-PEDOT@SiO2 microspheres and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Au-PEDOT@SiO2 microspheres were constructed not only as nanocarriers to anchor the large amounts of secondary thrombin aptamers but also as nanocatalysts to catalyze the oxidation of ethanol efficiently. Significantly, the electrochemical signal was greatly enhanced based on cascade catalysis: First, ADH catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde with the concomitant generation of NADH in the presence of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NAD(+)). Then, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as nanocatalysts could effectively catalyze NADH to produce NAD(+) with the help of PEDOT as redox probe. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed aptasensor exhibits a linear range of 2 × 10(-13) to 2 × 10(-8) M with a low detection limit of 2 × 10(-14) M for thrombin detection and shows high sensitivity and good specificity. PMID:26869084

  14. Thrombin cleavage of osteopontin disrupts a pro-chemotactic sequence for dendritic cells, which is compensated by the release of its pro-chemotactic C-terminal fragment.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Morser, John; Leung, Lawrence L K

    2014-09-26

    Thrombin cleavage alters the function of osteopontin (OPN) by exposing an integrin binding site and releasing a chemotactic C-terminal fragment. Here, we examined thrombin cleavage of OPN in the context of dendritic cell (DC) migration to define its functional domains. Full-length OPN (OPN-FL), thrombin-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-R), thrombin- and carboxypeptidase B2-double-cleaved N-terminal fragment (OPN-L), and C-terminal fragment (OPN-CTF) did not have intrinsic chemotactic activity, but all potentiated CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FL possessed the highest potency, whereas OPNRAA-FL had substantially less activity, indicating the importance of RGD. We identified a conserved (168)RSKSKKFRR(176) sequence on OPN-FL that spans the thrombin cleavage site, and it demonstrated potent pro-chemotactic effects on CCL21-induced DC migration. OPN-FLR168A had reduced activity, and the double mutant OPNRAA-FLR168A had even lower activity, indicating that these functional domains accounted for most of the pro-chemotactic activity of OPN-FL. OPN-CTF also possessed substantial pro-chemotactic activity, which was fully expressed upon thrombin cleavage and its release from the intact protein, because OPN-CTF was substantially more active than OPNRAA-FLR168A containing the OPN-CTF sequence within the intact protein. OPN-R and OPN-L possessed similar potency, indicating that the newly exposed C-terminal SVVYGLR sequence in OPN-R was not involved in the pro-chemotactic effect. OPN-FL and OPN-CTF did not directly bind to the CD44 standard form or CD44v6. In conclusion, thrombin cleavage of OPN disrupts a pro-chemotactic sequence in intact OPN, and its loss of pro-chemotactic activity is compensated by the release of OPN-CTF, which assumes a new conformation and possesses substantial activity in enhancing chemokine-induced migration of DCs. PMID:25112870

  15. Feasibility of using thrombin generation assay (TGA) for monitoring of haemostasis during supplementation therapy in haemophilic patients without inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ay, Y; Balkan, C; Karapinar, D Y; Akin, M; Bilenoğlu, B; Kavakli, K

    2012-11-01

    Monitoring factor replacement treatment and observing concordance with clinical haemostasis is crucial in vital haemorrhages and major surgeries in haemophilic patients. We aimed to investigate the value of the thrombin generation assay (TGA) and thromboelastography (TEG) for monitoring haemostasis in haemophilic patients during factor replacement treatment. The study group consisted of 29 patients (21 haemophilia A, 8 haemophilia B). All the patients FVIII-inhibitor were negative. A total of 35 bleeding episodes and/or surgical interventions were evaluated. aPTT, FVIII/FIX activity, TEG and TGA tests were conducted before and after factor therapy during the bleeding episode or surgical prophylaxis of haemophilic patients. Correlations among these tests were evaluated and compared with clinical responses. No correlation was found among aPTT, factor activities and clinical outcome. There were also no correlation found between TEG parameters and clinical outcome. The only significant correlation found between TGA parameters and clinical outcome was the correlation between peak thrombin. In conclusion, we found superiority of TGA-peak thrombin over other traditional tests for monitoring haemostasis in haemophilic patients in this study.

  16. Thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation under hypothermic conditions: an in vitro evaluation of tissue factor initiated whole blood coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Whelihan, Matthew F.; Kiankhooy, Armin; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite trauma-induced hypothermic coagulopathy being familiar in the clinical setting, empirical experimentation concerning this phenomenon is lacking. In this study we investigated the effects of hypothermia on thrombin generation, clot formation and global hemostatic functions in an in vitro environment using a whole blood model and thromboelastography (TEG) which can recapitulate hypothermia. Methods Blood was collected from healthy individuals through venipuncture and treated with corn trypsin inhibitor, to block the contact pathway. Coagulation was initiated with 5pM tissue factor at temperatures 37°C, 32°C, and 27°C. Reactions were quenched over time with soluble and insoluble components of each time point analyzed for thrombin generation, fibrinogen consumption, factor (f)XIII activation and fibrin deposition. Global coagulation potential was evaluated through TEG. Results Data showed that thrombin generation in samples at 37°C and 32°C had comparable rates while 27°C had a much lower rate (39.2 ± 1.1 and 43 ± 2.4 nM/min vs 28.6 ± 4.4 nM/min, respectively). Fibrinogen consumption and fXIII activation were highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and 27°C (13.8 ± 2.9 percent/min vs 7.8 ± 1.8 percent/min, respectively). Fibrin formation as seen through clot weights also followed this trend. TEG data showed clot formation was fastest in samples at 37°C and lowest at 27°C. Maximum clot strength was similar for each temperature. Also, percent lysis of clots was highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and then 27°C. Conclusions Induced hypothermic conditions directly affect the rate of thrombin generation and clot formation while global clot stability remains intact. PMID:24331944

  17. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Jia-Ye; Hattori, Toshio; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  18. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  19. Antithrombotic and antiplatelet activities of small-molecule alkaloids from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhwa; Lee, JungIn; Kulkarni, Roshan; Kim, Mi-Ae; Hwang, Jae Sam; Na, MinKyun; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover small-molecule anticoagulants from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM). A new acylated polyamine (1) and a new sulfated quinoline alkaloid (2) were isolated from SSM. Treatment with the new alkaloids 1, 2, and indole acetic acid 4 prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and inhibited the activity and production of thrombin and activated factor X. Furthermore, compounds 1, 2, and 4 inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In accordance with these potential in vitro antiplatelet activities, compounds 1, 2, and 4 showed enhanced antithrombotic effects in an in vivo pulmonary embolism and arterial thrombosis model. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 also elicited anticoagulant effects in mice. Collectively, this study may serve as the groundwork for commercializing SSM or compounds 1, 2, and 4 as functional food components for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic conditions and serve as new scaffolds for the development of anticoagulants. PMID:26905699

  20. An electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase using a functionalized graphene hybrid for amplification.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lijuan; Yan, Bin; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo; Yuan, Yali; Xie, Shunbi; Jiang, Liping; He, Ying

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we reported a new label-free electrochemical aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of thrombin using direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOD) as a redox probe and a gold nanoparticle-polyaniline-graphene (Au-PANI-Gra) hybrid for amplification. The Au-PANI-Gra hybrid with large surface area provided a biocompatible sensing platform for the immobilization of GOD. GOD was encapsulated into the three-dimensional netlike (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) to form the MPTS-GOD biocomposite, which not only retained the native functions and properties, but also exhibited tunable porosity, high thermal stability, and chemical inertness. With abundant thiol tail groups on MPTS, MPTS-GOD was able to chemisorb onto the surface of the Au-PANI-Gra modified electrode through the strong affinity of the Au-S bond. The electrochemical signal originated from GOD, avoiding the addition or labeling of other redox mediators. After immobilizing the thiolated thrombin binding aptamer through gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), GOD as a blocking reagent was employed to block the remaining active sites of the AuNPs and avoid the nonspecific adsorption. The proposed method avoided the labeling process of redox probes and increased the amount of electroactive GOD. The concentration of thrombin was monitored based on the decrease of current response through cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.1 M PBS (pH 7.4). With the excellent direct electron transfer of double layer GOD membranes, the resulting aptasensor exhibited high sensitivity for detection of thrombin with a wide linear range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 3.0 × 10(-8) M. The proposed aptasensor also showed good stability, satisfactory reproducibility and high specificity, which provided a promising strategy for electrochemical aptamer-based detection of other biomolecules.

  1. Thrombin-cleaved COOH(-) terminal osteopontin peptide binds with cyclophilin C to CD147 in murine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zhiyong; Oliver, Tim; Guo, Hongtao; Gao, Chengjiang; Kuo, Paul C

    2007-05-01

    Osteopontin is a glycoprotein that has been linked to metastatic function in breast, lung, and prostate cancers. However, the mechanism by which osteopontin acts to induce metastatic properties is largely unknown. One intriguing feature of osteopontin is the presence of a conserved thrombin cleavage site that is COOH-terminal from a well-characterized RGD domain. Although the COOH-terminal fragment may bind to cell surface CD44 receptors, little is known about the COOH-terminal osteopontin fragment. In the current study, we use the murine mammary epithelial tumor cell lines 4T1 and 4T07; these cells are thioguanine-resistant sublines derived from the parental population of 410.4 cells from Balb/cfC3H mice. Using flow cytometry and Forster resonance energy transfer, we show that the COOH-terminal fragment of osteopontin binds with another marker of metastatic function (cyclophilin C or rotamase) to the CD147 cell surface glycoprotein (also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer), to activate Akt1/2 and matrix metalloproteinase-2. In in vitro assays, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin to generate short COOH-terminal osteopontin in the presence of cyclophilin C increases migration and invasion of both 4T07 and 4T1 cells. This interaction between osteopontin peptide and cyclophilin C has not been previously described but assigns a heretofore unknown function for the thrombin-cleaved osteopontin COOH-terminal fragment.

  2. Low paediatric thrombin generation is caused by an attenuation of prothrombin conversion.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Romy M W; Wagenvoord, Rob J; de Laat, H Bas; Monagle, Paul; Hemker, H Coenraad; Ignjatovic, Vera

    2016-06-01

    Thrombin generation (TG) is decreased in children. TG is determined by two underlying processes: the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and the inactivation of thrombin. Therefore, lower TG capacity in children can either be caused by a reduction of prothrombin conversion, an increase of thrombin inactivation, or both. In 36 children and 8 adults, TG and the factors that determine thrombin inactivation (antithrombin, α2Macroglobulin (α2M) and fibrinogen) were measured. Prothrombin conversion, thrombin inhibitor complex formation, and the overall thrombin decay capacity were determined. In silico modelling was performed to determine the contribution prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation to deviant paediatric TG. Both the amount of prothrombin converted and the maximal prothrombin conversion rate are significantly reduced in children as compared to adults. This is partly due to the prothrombin levels being lower and partly to a lower prothrombin conversion rate. The overall thrombin decay capacity is not significantly different in children, but α2Macroglobulin plays a more important role than it does in adults. In silico experiments demonstrate that reduced prothrombin conversion and to a lesser extent elevated α2M levels provide an explanation for low TG in children. Young age has a dual effect on prothrombin conversion. Lower plasma prothrombin levels result in decreased prothrombin conversion but the rate of prothrombin conversion is also decreased, i. e. the development of prothrombinase is lower than in adults.

  3. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel indazolyl glucocorticoid receptor partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John L; Sheppeck, James E; Wang, Jim; Dhar, T G Murali; Cavallaro, Cullen; Doweyko, Arthur M; Mckay, Lorraine; Cunningham, Mark D; Habte, Sium F; Nadler, Steven G; Dodd, John H; Somerville, John E; Barrish, Joel C

    2013-10-01

    SAR was used to further develop an indazole class of non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor agonists aided by a GR LBD (ligand-binding domain)-agonist co-crystal structure described in the accompanying paper. Progress towards discovering a dissociated GR agonist guided by human in vitro assays biased the optimization of this compound series towards partial agonists that possessed excellent selectivity against other nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:23916594

  4. Compound C inhibits in vitro angiogenesis and ameliorates thrombin-induced endothelial barrier failure.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Dursun; Klewer, Matthias; Bauer, Pascal; Tanislav, Christian; Sedding, Daniel; Rohrbach, Susanne; Schulz, Rainer; Aslam, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    Compound C (comp. C) is a cell-permeable pyrrazolopyrimidine derivative and widely used as adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor to characterise the role of AMPK in various physiological processes. However, its AMPK-independent effects have also been reported. In the present study we investigated the effects of moderate dose (1-10μM) comp. C on endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, in vitro angiogenesis, and endothelial barrier function. Comp. C was unable to inhibit AMPK phosphorylation (activation) induced by metformin and A-769662 in ECs even at concentration of 10μM. At lower concentration (1μM), comp. C inhibited and potentiated the inhibitory effects of metformin and A-769662 on EC proliferation, migration, tube formation, and sprouting without inducing apoptosis. However, at higher concentration (10μM), it strongly induced apoptosis as measured by enhanced caspase 3/7 activity. Moreover, comp. C antagonised thrombin-induced EC hyperpermeability accompanied by activation of Rac1 and strengthening of adherens junctions (AJs). This EC barrier protective effect was not affected by the presence of AMPK activators. The data of the present study demonstrate that long-term treatment of ECs with low concentration comp. C inhibits EC proliferation and angiogenesis without induction of apoptosis. While short-term incubation antagonises thrombin-induced EC hyperpermeability presumably via Rac1-dependent strengthening of AJs. Furthermore, higher concentration of comp. C (10μM or above) is toxic for ECs and warns that this agent should be used with caution to demonstrate the AMPK-mediated effects. PMID:26522925

  5. Heat treatment of bovine alpha-lactalbumin results in partially folded, disulfide bond shuffled states with enhanced surface activity.

    PubMed

    Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Gao, Chunli; Jenkins, John A; Mackie, Alan R; Wilde, Peter J; Mills, E N Clare; Smith, Lorna J

    2007-08-28

    Prolonged heating of holo bovine alpha-lactalbumin (BLA) at 80 degrees C in pH 7 phosphate buffer in the absence of a thiol initiator improves the surface activity of the protein at the air:water interface, as determined by surface tension measurements. Samples after 30, 60, and 120 min of heating were analyzed on cooling to room temperature. Size-exclusion chromatography shows sample heterogeneity that increases with the length of heating. After 120 min of heating monomeric, dimeric, and oligomeric forms of BLA are present, with aggregates formed from disulfide bond linked hydrolyzed protein fragments. NMR characterization at pH 7 in the presence of Ca2+ of the monomer species isolated from the sample heated for 120 min showed that it consisted of a mixture of refolded native protein and partially folded protein and that the partially folded protein species had spectral characteristics similar to those of the pH 2 molten globule state of the protein. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that the non-native species had approximately 40% of the alpha-helical content of the native state, but lacked persistent tertiary interactions. Proteomic analysis using thermolysin digestion of three predominant non-native monomeric forms isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated the presence of disulfide shuffled isomers, containing the non-native 61-73 disulfide bond. These partially folded, disulfide shuffled species are largely responsible for the pronounced improvement in surface activity of the protein on heating.

  6. l-Histidine Induces Resistance in Plants to the Bacterial Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Partially Through the Activation of Ethylene Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Shigemi; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Hong, Si Won; Takahashi, Hideki; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Wilt disease in plants, which is caused by the soil-borne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases. We previously detected bacterial wilt disease-inhibiting activity in an extract from yeast cells. In the present study, we purified this activity and identified one of the substances responsible for the activity as the amino acid histidine. The exogenous application of l-histidine, but not d-histidine, inhibited wilt disease in tomato and Arabidopsis plants without exhibiting any antibacterial activity. l-Histidine induced the expression of genes related to ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and signaling as well as the production of ET in tomato and Arabidopsis plants. l-Histidine-induced resistance to R. solanacearum was partially abolished in ein3-1, an ET-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant line. Resistance to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is known to require ET biosynthesis or signaling, was also induced by exogenously applied l-histidine. These results suggest that l-histidine induces resistance to R. solanacearum and B. cinerea partially through the activation of ET signaling in plants. PMID:27335353

  7. l-Histidine Induces Resistance in Plants to the Bacterial Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum Partially Through the Activation of Ethylene Signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Shigemi; Nakaho, Kazuhiro; Hong, Si Won; Takahashi, Hideki; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Wilt disease in plants, which is caused by the soil-borne bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most devastating plant diseases. We previously detected bacterial wilt disease-inhibiting activity in an extract from yeast cells. In the present study, we purified this activity and identified one of the substances responsible for the activity as the amino acid histidine. The exogenous application of l-histidine, but not d-histidine, inhibited wilt disease in tomato and Arabidopsis plants without exhibiting any antibacterial activity. l-Histidine induced the expression of genes related to ethylene (ET) biosynthesis and signaling as well as the production of ET in tomato and Arabidopsis plants. l-Histidine-induced resistance to R. solanacearum was partially abolished in ein3-1, an ET-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant line. Resistance to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is known to require ET biosynthesis or signaling, was also induced by exogenously applied l-histidine. These results suggest that l-histidine induces resistance to R. solanacearum and B. cinerea partially through the activation of ET signaling in plants.

  8. Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum–New Selective Partial Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M.; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P.; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPARγ agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPARγ activation using a PPARγ-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPARγ agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPARγ activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPARγ receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPARγ expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPARγ agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements. PMID:23630612

  9. Early intraplatelet signaling enhances the release of human platelet PAR-1 and -4 amino-terminal peptides in response to thrombin.

    PubMed

    Ofosu, Frederick A; Dewar, Lori; Song, Yingqi; Cedrone, Aisha C; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Craven, Sharon J

    2009-02-24

    Activation of washed human platelets initiated with alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF invariably results in the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) are amino-terminal peptides generated when PAR-1 and -4 are cleaved in their first extracellular domains after R(41) and R(47), respectively, to expose the tethered ligand domains of PAR-1 and -4. Since soybean trypsin inhibitor decreases generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) and other platelet aggregation-related responses to these three agonists, but does not inactivate alpha-thrombin, a platelet trypsin-like proteinase apparently activates PAR-1 and -4 to propagate PAR-dependent platelet responses. This study identified the signaling pathways implicated in the generation of the platelet proteinase that in turn produces PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47), to thereby drive the subsequent PAR-dependent platelet aggregation-related responses to alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF. Only inhibitors of signaling enzymes that prevented ATP release (forskolin, PGE(1), or BIMI-1) prevented or delayed the generation of PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) in response to all three agonists. SBTI prevented platelet aggregation initiated by alpha-thrombin, SFLLRN, or AYPGKF but did so less effectively when it was added 10 s after each agonist. Thus, the platelet-derived proteinase acts within 10 s of each agonist addition to generate PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47). Furthermore, alpha-thrombin may not effectively catalyze PAR-1-(1-41) and PAR-4-(1-47) generation. We propose that unidentified ATP-dependent phosphorylation reactions catalyzed by PKC help to generate the platelet-derived proteinase that propagates human platelet PAR-1 and -4 activation by the three agonists. PMID:19182900

  10. Potential probiotics from Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala. Characterization, pathogen inhibitory activity, partial characterization of bacteriocin and production of exoenzymes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anjan; Dutta, Dipanjan; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Ringø, Einar; Breines, Eva Marie; Hareide, Ellinor; Chandra, Goutam; Ghosh, Koushik

    2016-10-01

    The study explored antagonistic activity of the cellular components of potential probiotic bacteria from mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) against fish pathogens with a basic insight of the chemical nature of the antagonistic compound. Totally 208 autochthonous gut bacteria were isolated, of which 22 strains revealed antagonism towards ≥2 of the six common fish pathogens. Zones of inhibition (halo diameter) were presented as score and the four most promising strains were selected as putative probiotics based on the cumulative score assigned. Further, evaluation of different cellular components exhibited bactericidal activity against the fish pathogens. Verification of other probiotic properties revealed that each of the selected strains produced diverse extra-cellular enzymes. The selected strains grew better in intestinal mucus than skin mucus, were resistant to diluted bile juice (2-20%) and safe for the target fish. The extracellular product used as crude bacteriocin revealed thermostability (up to 90°C) and activity over wide pH range (4-9). Partial loss of activity through treatment with proteinase-K and trypsin indicated proteinaceous nature of the antibacterial compound produced by the probiotic strains. 16S rRNA partial gene sequencing revealed that the four strains CM1FG7, CM1HG5, CM3FG19 and CM3HG10 were similar to Bacillus stratosphericus (KM277362), Bacillus aerophilus (KM277363), Bacillus licheniformis (KM277364) and Solibacillus silvestris (KM277365), respectively. PMID:27663374

  11. Influence of partial activation on force-velocity properties of frog skinned muscle fibers in millimolar magnesium ion

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Segments of briefly glycerinated muscle fibers from Rana pipiens were activated rapidly by a brief exposure to 2.5 mM free calcium followed by a solution containing calcium buffered with EGTA to produce the desired level of force. Steps to isotonic loads were made using a servomotor, usually 3-5 s after the onset of activation. The relative isotonic forces (P/P0) and velocities from contractions obtained under similar circumstances were grouped together and fitted with hyperbolic functions. Under the condition of 6 mM MgCl2 and 5 mM ATP, there was no significant difference in the relative force-velocity relations obtained at full activation compared with those obtained at partial activation when developed force was approximately 40% of its full value. Control experiments showed that a variety of factors did not alter either the relative force-velocity relations or the finding that partial activation did not change these properties. The factors investigated included the decline in force that occurs with each successive contraction of skinned fibers, the segment length (over a range of 1-3 mm), the sarcomere length (over a range of 1.9-2.2 microns), the magnesium ion concentration (26 microM and 1.4 mM were tested), the ATP concentration, the presence of free calcium, and the age of the preparation (up to 30 h). Attempts to repeat earlier experiments by others showing a dependence of shortening velocity on activation were unsuccessful because the low ionic strength used in those experiments caused the fibers to break after a few contractions. The main conclusion, that the shortening velocity is independent of the level of activation, is consistent with the hypothesis that the cross- bridges act independently and that activating calcium acts only as an all-or-none switch for individual cross-bridge attachment sites, and does not otherwise influence the kinetics of cross-bridge movement. PMID:3486252

  12. Poor prognosis of hypocoagulability assessed by thrombin generation assay in disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kwon, Jihyun; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2014-04-01

    Overall assessment of the hemostatic system including procoagulant and anticoagulant changes may help assess the clinical status and prognosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The thrombin generation assay provides useful information about the global hemostatic status. Therefore, we measured several parameters of global hemostatic potential by the thrombin generation assay in patients suspected of having DIC. A total of 114 patients with suspected DIC were included. The thrombin generation assay was performed on the calibrated automated thrombogram using tissue factor with or without the addition of thrombomodulin, showing three parameters: lag time, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), and peak thrombin. Both 1 and 5 pmol/l tissue factor-stimulated ETP and peak thrombin were well correlated with DIC severity. Interestingly, antithrombin level greatly affected ETP, whereas protein C influenced lag time. Prognostic analysis revealed that the area under the curve of peak thrombin stimulated by 1 pmol/l tissue factor was superior to that of D-dimer. Moreover, multivariate Cox analysis showed that the lag time and time to peak with both 1 and 5 pmol/l tissue factor were independent prognostic markers. ETP and peak thrombin well reflect DIC severity. Hypocoagulability manifesting as prolonged lag time and time to peak is expected to be an independent prognostic marker in DIC.

  13. Thrombin and fibrinogen γ' impact clot structure by marked effects on intrafibrillar structure and protofibril packing.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Marco M; Macrae, Fraser L; Duval, Cédric; McPherson, Helen R; Bridge, Katherine I; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Ridger, Victoria C; Connell, Simon D; Philippou, Helen; Ariëns, Robert A S

    2016-01-28

    Previous studies have shown effects of thrombin and fibrinogen γ' on clot structure. However, structural information was obtained using electron microscopy, which requires sample dehydration. Our aim was to investigate the role of thrombin and fibrinogen γ' in modulating fibrin structure under fully hydrated conditions. Fibrin fibers were studied using turbidimetry, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, and magnetic tweezers in purified and plasma solutions. Increased thrombin induced a pronounced decrease in average protofibril content per fiber, with a relatively minor decrease in fiber size, leading to the formation of less compact fiber structures. Atomic force microscopy under fully hydrated conditions confirmed that fiber diameter was only marginally decreased. Decreased protofibril content of the fibers produced by high thrombin resulted in weakened clot architecture as analyzed by magnetic tweezers in purified systems and by thromboelastometry in plasma and whole blood. Fibers produced with fibrinogen γ' showed reduced protofibril packing over a range of thrombin concentrations. High-magnification electron microscopy demonstrated reduced protofibril packing in γ' fibers and unraveling of fibers into separate protofibrils. Decreased protofibril packing was confirmed in plasma for high thrombin concentrations and fibrinogen-deficient plasma reconstituted with γ' fibrinogen. These findings demonstrate that, in fully hydrated conditions, thrombin and fibrinogen γ' have dramatic effects on protofibril content and that protein density within fibers correlates with strength of the fibrin network. We conclude that regulation of protofibril content of fibers is an important mechanism by which thrombin and fibrinogen γ' modulate fibrin clot structure and strength. PMID:26608329

  14. Functional characterization of recombinant batroxobin, a snake venom thrombin-like enzyme, expressed from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Choi, Won-Seok; Koh, You-Seok; Shin, Hang-Cheol; Jang, Yangsoo; Chung, Kwang-Hoe

    2004-07-30

    A thrombin-like enzyme of Bothrops atrox moojeni venom, batroxobin, specifically cleaves fibrinogen alpha chain, resulting in the formation of non-crosslinked fibrin clots. The cDNA encoding batroxobin was cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and the molecular function of purified recombinant protein was also characterized. The recombinant batroxobin had an apparent molecular weight of 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE analysis and biochemical activities similar to those of native batroxobin. The purified recombinant protein strongly converted fibrinogen into fibrin clot in vitro, and shortened bleeding time and whole blood coagulation time in vivo. However, it did not make any considerable alterations on other blood coagulation factors. Several lines of experimental evidence in this study suggest that the recombinant batroxobin is a potent pro-coagulant agent. PMID:15280019

  15. Oral, direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors: the replacement for warfarin, leeches, and pig intestines?

    PubMed

    Straub, Alexander; Roehrig, Susanne; Hillisch, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    To prevent thromboses after surgery, patients have until now had to inject themselves daily with heparin. For stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation, patients take vitamin K antagonists of the coumarin type, which have a narrow therapeutic window and whose dosage must be regularly monitored. In order to improve the standard of therapy in thromboembolic diseases such as deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke in atrial fibrillation, intensive research has been carried out over the last decade in the search for new, orally active thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors. A number of these compounds are already on the market or are in advanced clinical development; they could revolutionize the anticoagulant market.

  16. Inhibition of Hageman factor, plasma thromboplastin antecedent, thrombin and other clotting factors by phenylglyoxal hydrate (38500).

    PubMed

    Radnoff, O D; Saito, H

    1975-01-01

    Exposure of purified Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) to phenylglyoxal hydrate (PHG), an agent reacting with arginine residues in protein, inhibited its coagulant properties upon subsequent exposure of negatively charged agents. Once HF had been exposed to kaolin or ellagic acid, however, subsequent addition of PHG was much less inhibitory. PHG had no effect upon the ability of HF to bind to negatively charged surfaces. PGH also inhibited preparations of activated PTA (Factor XI) and thrombin, and, when incubated with plasma, reduced the titer of coagulable fibrinogen, PTA Christmas factor (Factor IX), antihemophilic factor (Factor VIII), Factor VII, Stuart factor (Factor X), proaccelerin (Factor V) and prothrombin (Factor II), and to a lesser degres, HF.

  17. Thrombin generation using the calibrated automated thrombinoscope to assess reversibility of dabigatran and rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Richard; Thom, James; Wood, Alicia; Phillips, Michael; Muhammad, Shoaib; Baker, Ross

    2014-05-01

    The new direct-acting anticoagulants such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban are usually not monitored but may be associated with haemorrhage, particularly where renal impairment occurs. They have no effective "antidotes". We studied 17 patients receiving dabigatran 150 mg twice daily for non-valvular atrial fibrillation and 15 patients receiving rivaroxaban 10 mg daily for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after hip or knee replacement surgery. We assessed the effect of these drugs on commonly used laboratory tests and Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) using plasma samples. We also assessed effects in fresh whole blood citrated patient samples using thromboelastography on the TEG and the ROTEM. The efficacy of nonspecific haemostatic agents prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), Factor VIII Inhibitor By-passing Activity (FEIBA) and recombinant activated factor VII (rVIIa) were tested by reversal of abnormal thrombin generation using the CAT. Concentrations added ex vivo were chosen to reflect doses normally given in vivo. Dabigatran significantly increased the dynamic parameters of the TEG and ROTEM and the lag time of the CAT. It significantly reduced the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and reduced the peak height of the CAT. Rivaroxaban did not affect the TEG and ROTEM parameters but did increase the lag time and reduce ETP and peak height of the CAT. For both drugs, these parameters were significantly and meaningfully corrected by PCC and FEIBA and to a lesser but still significant extent by rFVIIa. These results may be useful in devising a reversal strategy in patients but clinical experience will be needed to verify them.

  18. Benzodiazepine modulation of partial agonist efficacy and spontaneously active GABAA receptors supports an allosteric model of modulation

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Scott S; Lee, Yan T; Farb, David H; Gibbs, Terrell T

    2005-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have been used extensively for more than 40 years because of their high therapeutic index and low toxicity. Although BZDs are understood to act primarily as allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors, the mechanism of modulation is not well understood. The applicability of an allosteric model with two binding sites for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and one for a BZD-like modulator was investigated. This model predicts that BZDs should enhance the efficacy of partial agonists. Consistent with this prediction, diazepam increased the efficacy of the GABAA receptor partial agonist kojic amine in chick spinal cord neurons. To further test the validity of the model, the effects of diazepam, flurazepam, and zolpidem were examined using wild-type and spontaneously active mutant α1(L263S)β3γ2 GABAA receptors expressed in HEK-293 cells. In agreement with the predictions of the allosteric model, all three modulators acted as direct agonists for the spontaneously active receptors. The results indicate that BZD-like modulators enhance the amplitude of the GABA response by stabilizing the open channel active state relative to the inactive state by less than 1 kcal, which is similar to the energy of stabilization conferred by a single hydrogen bond. PMID:15912137

  19. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hetero-chitooligosaccharides prepared from partially different deacetylated chitosans.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyo-Jam; Je, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2003-08-13

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of hetero-chitooligosaccharides (hetero-COSs) prepared from partially different deacetylated chitosans was investigated. Partially deacetylated chitosans, 90, 75, and 50% deacetylated chitosan, were prepared from crab chitin by N-deacetylation with 40% sodium hydroxide solution for durations. In addition, nine kinds of hetero-COSs with relatively high molecular masses (5000-10 000 Da; 90-HMWCOSs, 75-HMWCOSs, and 50-HMWCOSs), medium molecular masses (1000-5000 Da; 90-MMWCOSs, 75-MMWCOSs, and 50-MMWCOSs), and low molecular masses (below 1000 Da; 90-LMWCOSs, 75-LMWCOSs, and 50-LMWCOSs) were prepared using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. ACE inhibitory activity of hetero-COSs was dependent on the degree of deacetylation of chitosans. 50-MMWCOSs that are COSs hydrolyzed from 50% deacetylated chitosan, the relatively lowest degree of deacetylation, exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity, and the IC(50) value was 1.22 +/- 0.13 mg/mL. In addition, the ACE inhibition pattern of the 50-MMWCOSs was investigated by Lineweaver-Burk plots, and the inhibition pattern was found to be competitive.

  20. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K. )

    1991-04-30

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. ({sup 14}C)Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of ({sup 14}C)methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA{sup +} led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S{sup 14}CN{sup {minus}}. These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the {approximately}69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels.

  1. TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in sake yeast Kyokai no. 7, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Nobushige; Sato, Aya; Hosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Industrial yeasts are generally unable to sporulate but treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin restores this ability in a sake yeast strain Kyokai no. 7 (K7), Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This finding suggests that TORC1 is active under sporulation conditions. Here, using a reporter gene assay, Northern and Western blots, we tried to gain insight into how TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells. Similarly to a laboratory strain, RPS26A transcription was repressed and Npr1 was dephosphorylated in K7 cells, indicative of the expected loss of TORC1 function under nitrogen starvation. The expression of nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive genes, however, was not induced, the level of Cln3 remained constant, and autophagy was more slowly induced than in a laboratory strain, all suggestive of active TORC1. We conclude that TORC1 activity is partially reduced under nitrogen starvation conditions in K7 cells.

  2. Tissue factor-dependent pathway is not involved in exercise-induced formation of thrombin and fibrin.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Claus; Bierhaus, Angelika; Kinscherf, Ralf; Hack, Volker; Luther, Thomas; Nawroth, Peter Paul; Bärtsch, Peter

    2002-01-01

    In healthy individuals, prolonged intensive physical exercise leads to an activation of blood coagulation that results in the formation of thrombin and fibrin. This study investigated whether oxidative stress during intensive physical exercise induces tissue factor (TF) via activation of the redox-responsive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Twelve young men performed a standardized 1-h maximal run on a treadmill that gave rise to significant increases of markers of thrombin and fibrin formation. The ratio of intracellular reduced to oxidized glutathione as measured by HPLC decreased from 23.3 +/- 10.7 to 14.2 +/- 6.5 (P < 0.05), indicating the generation of free radicals during exercise. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays from nuclear extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that exercise testing increased NF-kappaB (p50/p65) binding activity to a NF-kappaB consensus sequence by 105 +/- 68% (P < 0.01) but did not affect NF-kappaB (p65/c-Rel) binding to a nonconsensus-kappaB-like site present in the TF promoter. Consistently, there was no exercise-induced increase in TF expression as demonstrated by TF-specific immunofluorescence staining and ELISA. Thus selective activation of NF-kappaB (p50/p65) during intensive physical exercise does not result in the expression of TF, suggesting that the TF-dependent pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells does not account for exercise-induced formation of thrombin and fibrin.

  3. Partial purification of histone H3 proteolytic activity from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-06-01

    The proteolytic clipping of histone tails has recently emerged as a novel form of irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) of histones. Histone clipping has been implicated as a regulatory process leading to the permanent removal of PTMs from histone proteins. However, there is scarcity of literature that describes the identification and characterization of histone-specific proteases. Here, we employed various biochemical methods to report histone H3-specific proteolytic activity from budding yeast. Our results demonstrate that H3 proteolytic activity was associated with sepharose bead matrices and activity was not affected by a variety of stress conditions. We have also identified the existence of an unknown protein that acts as a physiological inhibitor of the H3-clipping activity of yeast H3 protease. Moreover, through protease inhibition assays, we have also characterized yeast H3 protease as a serine protease. Interestingly, unlike glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), yeast H3 proteolytic activity was not inhibited by Stefin B. Together, our findings suggest the existence of a novel H3 protease in yeast that is different from other reported histone H3 proteases. The presence of histone H3 proteolytic activity, along with the physiological inhibitor in yeast, suggests an interesting molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of histone proteases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Efficacious and orally bioavailable thrombin inhibitors based on a 2,5-thienylamidine at the P1 position: discovery of N-carboxymethyl-d-diphenylalanyl-l-prolyl[(5-amidino-2-thienyl)methyl]amide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Koo; Park, Cheol Won; Jung, Won-Hyuk; Park, Hee Dong; Lee, Sun Hwa; Chung, Kyung Ha; Park, Su Kyung; Kwon, O Hwan; Kang, Myunggyun; Park, Doo-Hee; Lee, Sang Koo; Kim, Eunice E; Yoon, Suk Kyoon; Kim, Aeri

    2003-08-14

    Thrombin, a crucial enzyme in the blood coagulation, has been a target for antithrombotic therapy. Orally active thrombin inhibitors would provide effective and safe prophylaxis for venous and arterial thrombosis. We conducted optimization of a highly efficacious benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitor LB30812 (3, K(i) = 3 pM) to improve oral bioavailability. Of a variety of arylamidines investigated at the P1 position, 2,5-thienylamidine effectively replaced the benzamidine without compromising the thrombin inhibitory potency and oral absorption. The sulfamide and sulfonamide derivatization at the N-terminal position in general afforded highly potent thrombin inhibitors but with moderate oral absorption, while the well-absorbable N-carbamate derivatives exhibited limited metabolic stability in S9 fractions. The present work culminated in the discovery of the N-carboxymethyl- and 2,5-thienylamidine-containing compound 22 that exhibits the most favorable profiles of anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities as well as oral bioavilability (K(i) = 15 pM; F = 43%, 42%, and 15% in rats, dogs, and monkeys, respectively). This compound on a gravimetric basis was shown to be more effective than a low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, in the venous thrombosis models of rat and rabbit. Compound 22 (LB30870) was therefore selected for further preclinical and clinical development. PMID:12904065

  5. Effect of the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on allergic lung inflammation induced by repeated house dust mite administration in mice.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johannes D; Berkhout, Lea C; de Stoppelaar, Sacha F; Yang, Jack; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Meijers, Joost C M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-10-15

    Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways; asthma patients are hampered by recurrent symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing caused by bronchial obstruction. Most asthma patients suffer from chronic allergic lung inflammation triggered by allergens such as house dust mite (HDM). Coagulation activation in the pulmonary compartment is currently recognized as a feature of allergic lung inflammation, and data suggest that coagulation proteases further drive inflammatory mechanisms. Here, we tested whether treatment with the oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran attenuates allergic lung inflammation in a recently developed HDM-based murine asthma model. Mice were fed dabigatran (10 mg/g) or placebo chow during a 3-wk HDM airway exposure model. Dabigatran treatment caused systemic thrombin inhibitory activity corresponding with dabigatran levels reported in human trials. Surprisingly, dabigatran did not lead to inhibition of HDM-evoked coagulation activation in the lung as measured by levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes and D-dimer. Repeated HDM administration caused an influx of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lungs, mucus production in the airways, and a T helper 2 response, as reflected by a rise in bronchoalveolar IL-4 and IL-5 levels and a systemic rise in IgE and HDM-IgG1. Dabigatran modestly improved HDM-induced lung pathology (P < 0.05) and decreased IL-4 levels (P < 0.01), without influencing other HDM-induced responses. Considering the limited effects of dabigatran in spite of adequate plasma levels, these results argue against clinical evaluation of dabigatran in patients with asthma.

  6. Sulfated polysaccharides from Loligo vulgaris skin: potential biological activities and partial purification.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalek, Baha Eddine; Sila, Assaâd; Krichen, Fatma; Karoud, Wafa; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ayadi, Mohamed Ali; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics, biological properties, and purification of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from squid (Loligo vulgaris) skin were investigated. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined using X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin (SPSS) contained 85.06% sugar, 2.54% protein, 1.87% ash, 8.07% sulfate, and 1.72% uronic acid. The antioxidant properties of SPSS were investigated based on DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (IC50 = 19.42 mg mL(-1)), hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.91 mg mL(-1)), and β-carotene bleaching inhibition (IC50 = 2.79 mg mL(-1)) assays. ACE-inhibitory activity of SPSS was also investigated (IC50 = 0.14 mg mL(-1)). Further antimicrobial activity assays indicated that SPSS exhibited marked inhibitory activity against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. Those polysaccharides did not display hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes. Fractionation by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography showed three major absorbance peaks. Results of this study suggest that sulfated polysaccharides from squid skin are attractive sources of polysaccharides and promising candidates for future application as dietary ingredients.

  7. Management of major bleedings during anticoagulant treatment with the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran or warfarin.

    PubMed

    Fernlöf, Gunilla; Sjöström, Britta M; Lindell, Klas M; Wall, Ulrika E

    2009-12-01

    Several new oral anticoagulants are currently investigated in phase III programmes, mainly with inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin as their pharmacological target. Advantages are expected with these new drugs compared with vitamin K antagonists, but one potential drawback is the lack of specific antidotes. During the clinical studies with ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor withdrawn due to hepatic side effects, investigators were instructed to manage bleedings with routine measures. We have retrospectively tried to assess whether this was sufficient or whether there was a need for reversal strategies. The study population consisted of patients with major bleedings in three long-term studies (104 ximelagatran, 155 warfarin). All individual patient narratives were reviewed with respect to management of the bleeding. Complementary data were retrieved from the data-based case report forms. Approximately, two of three of the patients in both groups were subject to some kind of treatment. One-third (1/3) in both groups had transfusions documented and/or received specific medication. Vitamin K was given more often to warfarin patients. Two ximelagatran patients received prothrombin complex (four-factor concentrate), but one was a patient with a severe hepatopathy suspected to be drug-induced. Overall, the case descriptions did not reveal any apparent differences in the course of events between groups. We found no indications that the lack of an antidote posed a clinical problem in patients treated with ximelagatran as compared with warfarin. The relatively short half-life of melagatran, the active metabolite of ximelagatran, may have contributed to these results.

  8. A plasmin-activatable thrombin inhibitor reduces experimental thrombosis and assists experimental thrombolysis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, W P; Eltringham-Smith, L J; Gataiance, S; Bhakta, V

    2015-05-01

    The leech protein hirudin is a potent natural thrombin inhibitor. Its potential as an antithrombotic agent is limited by its promotion of bleeding. We attempted to modify this profile by positioning albumin and a plasmin cleavage site on its N-terminus, in recombinant protein HSACHV3 [comprising hirudin variant 3 (HV3) fused to the C-terminus of human serum albumin (HSA) via a plasmin cleavage site (C)], Previously we showed that HSACHV3 inhibited thrombin in a plasmin-dependent manner, and that, unlike HV3, it did not increase bleeding in vivo when administered to mice. Here we tested HSACHV3 for the ability to reduce thrombosis and assist enzymatic thrombolysis in animal models. Intravenous administration of HSACHV3, but not a control protein lacking the plasmin cleavage site (HSAHV3), reduced thrombus weight by 2.1-fold in the ferric chloride-injured mouse vena cava. Similarly, thrombi formed in a rabbit jugular vein stasis model were 1.7-fold lighter in animals treated with HSACHV3 compared to those receiving HSAHV3. Administration of 60 mg/kg body weight HSACHV3 prolonged the time to occlusion in the ferric chloride-injured mouse carotid artery by threefold compared to vehicle controls, while equimolar HSAHV3 had no effect. HSACHV3 had no ability to restore flow to the murine carotid arteries occluded by ferric chloride treatment, but combining HSACHV3 (60 mg/kg) with recombinant mutant tissue plasminogen activator (TNKase) significantly reduced the time to restore patency to the artery compared to TNKase alone. Unlike unfused HV3, HSACHV3 did not increase bleeding in a mouse liver laceration model. Our results show that HSACHV3 acts as an antithrombotic agent that does not promote bleeding and which speeds the time to flow restoration when used as an adjunct to pharmacological thrombolysis in animal models. PMID:25481811

  9. Structural basis for PPAR partial or full activation revealed by a novel ligand binding mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelli, Davide; Cerchia, Carmen; Montanari, Roberta; Loiodice, Fulvio; Tortorella, Paolo; Laghezza, Antonio; Cervoni, Laura; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of the metabolic homeostasis and therefore represent valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The development of more balanced drugs interacting with PPARs, devoid of the side-effects showed by the currently marketed PPARγ full agonists, is considered the major challenge for the pharmaceutical companies. Here we present a structure-based virtual screening approach that let us identify a novel PPAR pan-agonist with a very attractive activity profile and its crystal structure in the complex with PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. In PPARα this ligand occupies a new pocket whose filling is allowed by the ligand-induced switching of the F273 side chain from a closed to an open conformation. The comparison between this pocket and the corresponding cavity in PPARγ provides a rationale for the different activation of the ligand towards PPARα and PPARγ, suggesting a novel basis for ligand design.

  10. Limitation in tidal volume expansion partially determines the intensity of physical activity in COPD.

    PubMed

    Kortianou, Eleni A; Aliverti, Andrea; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Vasilopoulou, Maroula; Nasis, Ioannis; Asimakos, Andreas; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), reduced levels of daily physical activity are associated with the degree of impairment in lung, peripheral muscle, and central hemodynamic function. There is, however, limited evidence as to whether limitations in tidal volume expansion also, importantly, determine daily physical activity levels in COPD. Eighteen consecutive patients with COPD [9 active (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1: 1.59 ± 0.64 l) with an average daily movement intensity >1.88 m/s(2) and 9 less active patients (FEV1: 1.16 ± 0.41 l) with an average intensity <1.88 m/s(2)] underwent a 4-min treadmill test at a constant speed corresponding to each individual patient's average movement intensity, captured by a triaxial accelerometer during a preceding 7-day period. When chest wall volumes, captured by optoelectronic plethysmography, were expressed relative to comparable levels of minute ventilation (ranging between 14.5 ± 4.3 to 33.5 ± 4.4 l/min), active patients differed from the less active ones in terms of the lower increase in end-expiratory chest wall volume (by 0.15 ± 0.17 vs. 0.45 ± 0.21 l), the greater expansion in tidal volume (by 1.76 ± 0.58 vs. 1.36 ± 0.24 l), and the larger inspiratory reserve chest wall volume (IRVcw: by 0.81 ± 0.25 vs. 0.39 ± 0.27 l). IRVcw (r(2) = 0.420), expiratory flow (r(2) change = 0.174), and Borg dyspnea score (r(2) change = 0.123) emerged as the best contributors, accounting for 71.7% of the explained variance in daily movement intensity. Patients with COPD exhibiting greater ability to expand tidal volume and to maintain adequate inspiratory reserve volume tend to be more physically active. Thus interventions aiming at mitigating restrictions on operational chest wall volumes are expected to enhance daily physical activity levels in COPD. PMID:25398190

  11. Effect of short term external perturbations on bacterial ecology and activities in a partial nitritation and anammox reactor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sha; Bhattacharjee, Ananda S; Weissbrodt, David G; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Goel, Ramesh

    2016-11-01

    This research investigated the short term effects of temperature changes (lasting 2-4weeks each) from 35±2°C to 21±2°C and 13±2°C and sulfide toxicity on partial nitrification-anammox (PN/A) system. Temperatures below 20°C and sulfide content as low as 5mgSL(-1) affected both aerobic and anaerobic catabolic activities of ammonia oxidation and the expression of related functional gene markers. The activity of AOB was inversely correlated with ammonium monooxygenase (amoA) gene expression. In contrast, the activity of AMX bacteria was positively correlated with the expression of their hydrazine synthase (hzsA) gene. Although the overall activities of AMX bacteria decreased at lower temperatures, the AMX bacteria were still active at the low temperatures. The inverse correlation between amoA gene expressions and the corresponding AOB activities was surprising. 16S rDNA based high throughput amplicon sequencing revealed the dominance of Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria phyla the distribution of which changed with temperature changes. PMID:27522119

  12. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan; Wang, Yanzhen; Cai, Guangsheng; Kong, Fange; Wang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chuanbin; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM) and liquid cultured mycelia (TM) in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases. PMID:26697489

  13. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, and Preliminary Rescission in Part, 75 FR 26927 (May 13... review was requested. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic...

  14. A novel enzyme activity involving the demethylation of specific partially methylated oligogalacturonides.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Martin A K; Benen, Jacques A E

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the enzymic digestion of pectic substrates using different polygalacturonase (PG) preparations have revealed evidence for a previously unreported enzyme activity carried out by a contaminating enzyme in one of the preparations. This observed activity involves the demethylation of specific oligogalacturonides, namely 2-methyltrigalacturonic acid and 2,3-dimethyltetragalacturonic acid. However, no large-scale demethylation of highly methylated polymeric substrates is found, demonstrating that the enzyme responsible is not a conventional pectin methylesterase (PME). Furthermore, it has been shown that a commercial sample of fungal PME from Aspergillus niger demethylates all of the oligogalacturonides present as primary products of endo-PG digestion, in contrast with the activity observed here. On the basis of the known methyl ester distribution of the endo-PG-generated fragments and knowledge of which of these oligogalacturonides are demethylated, it is concluded that the observed activity can be explained by the existence of an exo-acting methylesterase that attacks the non-reducing end of the oligogalacturonide molecules. PMID:12097140

  15. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Wang, Yanzhen; Cai, Guangsheng; Kong, Fange; Wang, Xiaohan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Chuanbin; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong

    2015-01-01

    Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM) and liquid cultured mycelia (TM) in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases. PMID:26697489

  16. Permeability-increasing activity in hereditary angioneurotic edema plasma. II. Mechanism of formation and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, V H; Ratnoff, O D; Dias Da Silva, W; Rosen, F S

    1969-04-01

    Plasma from persons with hereditary angioneurotic edema readily developed the capacity to increase vascular permeability and to induce the isolated rat uterus to contract. Both activities resided in a small, heat-stable molecule that was apparently a polypeptide. Crude preparations of the polypeptide were inactivated during incubation with trypsin. They also failed to produce pain and erythema, but caused markedly increased vascular permeability in human skin. These characteristics differ from those of bradykinin, from which crude preparations of the polypeptide could also be distinguished by electrophoretic mobility and paper chromatographic behavior. Proof that the polypeptide is truly different from bradykinin must await its further purification. Histamine played no role in the activities observed. Although the enzymes functioning to release the permeability factor and kinin activities in hereditary angioneurotic edema plasma were not clearly defined, one or more plasma enzymes other than C'1 esterase presumably participated either in conjunction with C'1 esterase or in pari passu events to release the polypeptide mediating these activities. PMID:5813121

  17. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS- induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  18. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, J; McMahon, M; DeFranco, A L

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a highly conserved component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release various cytokine and eicosanoid mediators of the immune response. The mechanism by which LPS stimulates these cells is poorly characterized. One of the most rapid LPS-stimulated events is the phosphorylation and activation of the p42 and p44 isoforms of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. We wished to examine the role of MAP kinase in LPS-induced signaling in murine macrophages by activating MAP kinase independently of LPS. An expression vector encoding a Raf-1:estrogen receptor (ER) chimeric protein was transfected into the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Activation of this chimeric protein (delta Raf-1:ER) by estradiol resulted in rapid and prolonged activation of MAP kinase, as expected from previous results implicating Raf-1 as an upstream activator of this signaling cascade. LPS stimulation induced accumulation of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 messenger RNA, whereas delta Raf-1:ER activation did not, perhaps accounting for the more prolonged activation of MAP kinase seen in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation. Similarly, activation of DNA binding by the transcription factor, nuclear factor (NF) kappa B, as assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, occurred in response to LPS stimulation but not in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for murine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), we found that LPS and PMA stimulation and delta Raf-1:ER activation induced secretion of TNF-alpha, although the amount of TNF-alpha secreted in response to delta Raf-1:ER activation and PMA stimulation was approximately 20-fold less than that secreted in response to LPS. Correspondingly, accumulation of TNF-alpha messenger RNA was weakly induced by delta Raf-1:ER activation or PMA stimulation, whereas strong induction was noted in

  19. Peak Thrombin Generation and Subsequent Venous Thromboembolism: The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE)

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background Thrombin is an enzyme essential to the acceleration of the coagulation cascade and the conversion of fibrinogen to clottable fibrin. Objectives We evaluated the relation of basal peak thrombin generation to risk of future VTE, and determined whether associations were independent of other coagulation markers. Methods LITE ascertained VTE in two prospective population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Peak thrombin generation was measured on stored plasma in a nested case-control sample (434 cases, 1,004 controls). Logistic regression was used to estimate the relation of peak thrombin generation to VTE, adjusted for age, sex, race, center and BMI. Mediation was evaluated by additionally adjusting for factor VIII and D-dimer. Results Relative to the first quartile of peak thrombin generation, the odds ratio (95% CI) of VTE for those above the median was 1.74 (1.28–2.37). The association was modestly attenuated by adjustment for factor VIII and D-dimer 1.47 (1.05–2.05). Associations appeared stronger for idiopathic than for secondary VTE. Elevated peak thrombin generation more than added to the VTE risk associated with Factor V Leiden or low aPTT. Conclusions In this prospective study of two independent cohorts, elevated basal peak thrombin generation was associated with subsequent risk of VTE, independent of established VTE risk factors. PMID:19656279

  20. Effect of thrombomodulin on the kinetics of the interaction of thrombin with substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Hofsteenge, J; Taguchi, H; Stone, S R

    1986-01-01

    Thrombomodulin decreased by 20-30% the Michaelis constant of two tripeptidyl p-nitroanilide substrates of thrombin. Thrombomodulin increased the rate of inactivation of thrombin by two peptidyl chloromethane inhibitors by a similar amount. This effect appeared to be due to a decrease in the dissociation constants of the inhibitors. An improved method for the separation of fibrinopeptides A and B by h.p.l.c. was developed, and this method was used to study the effect of thrombomodulin on the thrombin-catalysed cleavage of fibrinogen. In this reaction, thrombomodulin was a competitive inhibitor with respect to the A alpha-chain of fibrinogen. The release of fibrinopeptide B was also inhibited by thrombomodulin. Analysis of the inhibition caused by thrombomodulin with respect to fibrinopeptides A and B yielded the same dissociation constant for the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. In the presence of thrombomodulin, the rate of inactivation of thrombin by antithrombin III was stimulated 4-fold. This stimulation showed saturation kinetics with respect to thrombomodulin. Thrombomodulin was found to compete with hirudin for a binding site on thrombin. As a result of this competition, hirudin became a slow-binding inhibitor of thrombin at high thrombomodulin concentrations. Estimates of the dissociation constant for thrombomodulin were obtained in several of the above experiments, and the weighted mean value was 0.7 nM. PMID:3026312

  1. Plasma centrifugation does not influence thrombin-antithrombin and plasmin-antiplasmin levels but determines platelet microparticles count

    PubMed Central

    Gruszczyński, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Przemysław; Kowalik, Artur; Wybrańska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Centrifugation is an essential step for plasma preparation to remove residual elements in plasma, especially platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs). Our working hypothesis was that centrifugation as a preanalytical step may influence some coagulation parameters. Materials and methods Healthy young men were recruited (N = 17). For centrifugation, two protocols were applied: (A) the first centrifugation at 2500 x g for 15 min and (B) at 2500 x g for 20 min at room temperature with a light brake. In protocol (A), the second centrifugation was carried out at 2500 x g for 15 min, whereas in protocol (B), the second centrifugation involved a 10 min spin at 13,000 x g. Thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) and plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. PMPs were stained with CD41 antibody and annexin V, and analyzed by flow cytometry method. Procoagulant activity was assayed by the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram method as a slope of thrombin formation (CAT velocity). Results Median TAT and PAP concentrations did not differ between the centrifugation protocols. The high speed centrifugation reduced the median (IQR) PMP count in plasma from 1291 (841-1975) to 573 (391-1010) PMP/µL (P = 0.001), and CAT velocity from 2.01 (1.31-2.88) to 0.97 (0.82-1.73) nM/min (P = 0.049). Spearman’s rank correlation analysis showed correlation between TAT and PMPs in the protocol A plasma which was (rho = 0.52, P < 0.050) and between PMPs and CAT for protocol A (rho = 0.74, P < 0.050) and protocol B (rho = 0.78, P < 0.050). Conclusion Centrifugation protocols do not influence the markers of plasminogen (PAP) and thrombin (TAT) generation but they do affect the PMP count and procoagulant activity. PMID:26110034

  2. A new dicoumarin and anticoagulant activity from Viola yedoensis Makino.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai Yan; Hong, Jun Li; Shu, Pan; Ni, Yue Juan; Qin, Min Jian

    2009-07-01

    A new dicoumarin, named as dimeresculetin (1), together with another dicoumarin, euphorbetin (2) and esculetin (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the dried whole plants of Viola yedoensis Makino. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 7-hydroxy-6-[(6,7-dihydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl)oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of extensive NMR, as well as the other spectral analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited anticoagulant activities with respect to activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT).

  3. Partial in vitro analysis of toxic and antigenic activities of eleven Peruvian pitviper snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Duarte, C; Lopes-Peixoto, J; Fonseca-de-Souza, B R; Stransky, S; Oliveira, D; Schneider, F S; Lopes-de-Souza, L; Bonilla, C; Silva, W; Tintaya, B; Yarleque, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-12-15

    This work used eleven Peruvian snake venoms (Bothrops andianus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops castelnaudi, Bothriopsis chloromelas, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops neuwiedi, Bothriopsis oligolepis, Bothriopsis peruviana, Bothrops pictus and Bothriopsis taeniata) to perform in vitro experimentation and determine its main characteristics. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), snake venom serine protease (SVSP) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) activities; toxicity by cell viability assays using MGSO3, VERO and HeLa cell lineages; and crossed immunoreactivity with Peruvian (PAV) and Brazilian (BAV) antibothropic polyvalent antivenoms, through ELISA and Western Blotting assays, were determined. Results show that the activities tested in this study were not similar amongst the venoms and each species present their own peculiarities, highlighting the diversity within Bothrops complex. All venoms were capable of reducing cell viability of all tested lineages. It was also demonstrated the crossed recognition of all tested venoms by both antivenoms. PMID:26365916

  4. Structural basis for PPAR partial or full activation revealed by a novel ligand binding mode

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Davide; Cerchia, Carmen; Montanari, Roberta; Loiodice, Fulvio; Tortorella, Paolo; Laghezza, Antonio; Cervoni, Laura; Pochetti, Giorgio; Lavecchia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of the metabolic homeostasis and therefore represent valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases. The development of more balanced drugs interacting with PPARs, devoid of the side-effects showed by the currently marketed PPARγ full agonists, is considered the major challenge for the pharmaceutical companies. Here we present a structure-based virtual screening approach that let us identify a novel PPAR pan-agonist with a very attractive activity profile and its crystal structure in the complex with PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. In PPARα this ligand occupies a new pocket whose filling is allowed by the ligand-induced switching of the F273 side chain from a closed to an open conformation. The comparison between this pocket and the corresponding cavity in PPARγ provides a rationale for the different activation of the ligand towards PPARα and PPARγ, suggesting a novel basis for ligand design. PMID:27708429

  5. Killer activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: partial characterization and strategies to improve the biocontrol efficacy in winemaking.

    PubMed

    de Ullivarri, Miguel Fernández; Mendoza, Lucía M; Raya, Raúl R

    2014-11-01

    Killer yeasts are considered potential biocontrol agents to avoid or reduce wine spoilage by undesirable species. In this study two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (Cf8 and M12) producing killer toxin were partially characterized and new strategies to improve their activity in winemaking were evaluated. Killer toxins were characterized by biochemical tests and growth inhibition of sensitive yeasts. Also genes encoding killer toxin were detected in the chromosomes of both strains by PCR. Both toxins showed optimal activity and production at conditions used during the wine-making process (pH 3.5 and temperatures of 15-25 °C). In addition, production of both toxins was higher when a nitrogen source was added. To improve killer activity different strategies of inoculation were studied, with the sequential inoculation of killer strains the best combination to control the growth of undesired yeasts. Sequential inoculation of Cf8-M12 showed a 45 % increase of killer activity on sensitive S. cerevisiae and spoilage yeasts. In the presence of ethanol (5-12 %) and SO2 (50 mg/L) the killer activity of both toxins was increased, especially for toxin Cf8. Characteristics of both killer strains support their future application as starter cultures and biocontrol agents to produce wines of controlled quality.

  6. Linking mutagenic activity to micropollutant concentrations in wastewater samples by partial least square regression and subsequent identification of variables.

    PubMed

    Hug, Christine; Sievers, Moritz; Ottermanns, Richard; Hollert, Henner; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-11-01

    We deployed multivariate regression to identify compounds co-varying with the mutagenic activity of complex environmental samples. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents with a large share of industrial input of different sampling dates were evaluated for mutagenic activity by the Ames Fluctuation Test and chemically characterized by a screening for suspected pro-mutagens and non-targeted software-based peak detection in full scan data. Areas of automatically detected peaks were used as predictor matrix for partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS) in combination with measured mutagenic activity. Detected peaks were successively reduced by the exclusion of all peaks with lowest variable importance until the best model (high R(2) and Q(2)) was reached. Peaks in the best model co-varying with the observed mutagenicity showed increased chlorine, bromine, sulfur, and nitrogen abundance compared to original peak set indicating a preferential selection of anthropogenic compounds. The PLS regression revealed four tentatively identified compounds, newly identified 4-(dimethylamino)-pyridine, and three known micropollutants present in domestic wastewater as co-varying with the mutagenic activity. Co-variance between compounds stemming from industrial wastewater and mutagenic activity supported the application of "virtual" EDA as a statistical tool to separate toxicologically relevant from less relevant compounds. PMID:26070082

  7. Reconstitution of glucotoxic HIT-T15 cells with somatostatin transcription factor-1 partially restores insulin promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Harmon, J S; Tanaka, Y; Olson, L K; Robertson, R P

    1998-06-01

    activity after STF-1 transfection. We conclude that loss of RIPE-3b1 activity precedes loss of STF-1 activity in glucotoxic HIT-T15 cells and that defective promoter activity can be partially restored by STF-1 transfection and predict that eventual cloning of the RIPE-3b1 gene will allow cotransfection studies with both factors that will allow full reconstitution of insulin promoter activity. PMID:9604866

  8. Reconstitution of glucotoxic HIT-T15 cells with somatostatin transcription factor-1 partially restores insulin promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Harmon, J S; Tanaka, Y; Olson, L K; Robertson, R P

    1998-06-01

    activity after STF-1 transfection. We conclude that loss of RIPE-3b1 activity precedes loss of STF-1 activity in glucotoxic HIT-T15 cells and that defective promoter activity can be partially restored by STF-1 transfection and predict that eventual cloning of the RIPE-3b1 gene will allow cotransfection studies with both factors that will allow full reconstitution of insulin promoter activity.

  9. Thrombin binds to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and enhances colony-stimulating factor-1-driven mitogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Clohisy, D.R.; Erdmann, J.M.; Wilner, G.D. )

    1990-05-15

    The binding and mitogenic properties of thrombin have been established in various transformed cell lines. In such systems, thrombin induces cell division in the absence of exogenous growth factors, and the enzyme is considered to act directly as a mitogen. This study explores thrombin's interaction with nontransformed, growth factor-dependent cells. Binding of 125I-alpha-thrombin to colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1-dependent bone marrow-derived macrophages is saturable, time-dependent, and displaceable by both unlabeled alpha-thrombin, and esterolytically inactive thrombin. Both dissociation studies of pre-bound radio-labeled thrombin and Scatchard analysis assisted by the program Ligand suggest adherence of thrombin-binding data to a multi-site model. There are an estimated 2 x 10(4) high affinity sites (Kd = 7 x 10(-9)M) and 2 x 10(6) low affinity sites (Kd = 9 x 10(-7)M) per cell. Quiescent bone marrow-derived macrophages were cultured with either 10(-8)M thrombin, 1000 units of CSF-1/ml, or both and (3H)thymidine incorporation was determined. Thrombin alone did not induce mitogenesis. CSF-1 induced mitogenesis with peak (3H) thymidine incorporation occurring 24 h after addition of the mitogen. This CSF-1-dependent mitogenic influence was enhanced greater than 2-fold by treatment with thrombin.

  10. Thrombin mutant W215A/E217A treatment improves neurological outcome and attenuates central nervous system damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Verbout, Norah G; Yu, Xiaolin; Healy, Laura D; Phillips, Kevin G; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J T; Offner, Halina

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease characterized by demyelination and axonal damage of the central nervous system. The pathogenesis of MS has also been linked to vascular inflammation and local activation of the coagulation system, resulting in perivascular fibrin deposition. Treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of human MS, with antithrombotic and antiinflammatory activated protein C (APC) reduces disease severity. Since recombinant APC (Drotecogin alfa), originally approved for the treatment of severe sepsis, is not available for human MS studies, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic activation of endogenous protein C could likewise improve the outcome of EAE. Mice were immunized with murine myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptides and at the onset of EAE symptoms, were treated every other day with either WE thrombin (25 μg/kg; i.v.), a selective recombinant protein C activator thrombin analog, or saline control. Mice were monitored for changes in disease score until euthanized for ex vivo analysis of inflammation. Administration of WE thrombin significantly ameliorated clinical severity of EAE, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination, suppressed the activation of macrophages comprising the CD11b + population and reduced accumulation of fibrin (ogen) in the spinal cord. These data suggest that symptomatic MS may respond to a treatment strategy that involves temporal pharmacological enhancement of endogenous APC generation. PMID:24810631

  11. Antimicrobial and anticoagulant activities of N-chlorotaurine, N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine, and N-monochloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine in human blood.

    PubMed

    Martini, C; Hammerer-Lercher, A; Zuck, M; Jekle, A; Debabov, D; Anderson, M; Nagl, M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential application of N-chlorotaurine (NCT), N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine (NVC-422), and N-monochloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine (NVC-612) as catheter lock solutions for the prevention of catheter blockage and catheter-related bloodstream infections by testing their anticoagulant and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities in human blood. NCT, NVC-422, NVC-612, and control compounds were serially diluted in fresh human blood to evaluate the effects on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, and direct thrombin inhibition. Quantitative killing assays against pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, were performed in the presence of heparin and human blood. NCT and NVC-612 (1.38 mM each) and 1.02 mM NVC-422 prolonged prothrombin time (Quick value, 17 to 30%), activated partial thromboplastin time 3- to 4-fold to 76 to 125 s, and thrombin time 2- to 4-fold to 34 to 68 s. Fibrinogen decreased from 258 to 283 mg/dl (range of controls) to <40 mg/dl. No direct thrombin inhibition was observed by NVC-422 or NVC-612. Heparin did not influence the bactericidal activity of NCT. The microbicidal activities of NCT, NVC-422, and NVC-612 were maintained in diluted human blood. NCT, NVC-612, and NVC-422 have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity in blood and anticoagulant activity targeting both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of the coagulation system. These properties support their application as catheter lock solutions. PMID:22252818

  12. Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra.

    PubMed

    Simlai, Aritra; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Mandal, Anurup; Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Samanta, Amalesh; Roy, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance towards the antibiotics in use today has been a source of growing concern in the modern healthcare system around the world. To counter this major threat, there is an urgent need for discovery of new antimicrobials. Many plants, like mangroves, possess highly diversified list of natural phytochemicals which are known to have wide range of bioactivities. These phytochemicals can be good sources for the discovery of new drugs. In this study, we report the partial phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a semi-purified fraction isolated from the wood tissue of Ceriops decandra, a mangrove plant. This fraction named CD-3PM was chromatographically separated from C. decandra wood extract and was subjected to different spectral analyses to determine its partial chemical nature. The structural investigation indicates the presence of two diterpenoids, i) 3β, 13β-Dihydroxy-8-abietaen-7-one and ii) 3β-Hydroxy-8,13-abietadien-7-one in the CD-3PM fraction. The antimicrobial potential of this fraction was evaluated by microdilution-MTT assay against several organisms. Among the nine microorganisms found to be sensitive to the CD-3PM fraction, six organisms are reported to be pathogenic in nature. The CD-3PM fraction with broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy revealed the presence of two diterpenoids and possesses potential applications in drug discovery process and food processing industries. PMID:27065777

  13. Partial purification and characterization of an antimicrobial activity from the wood extract of mangrove plant Ceriops decandra

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Mandal, Anurup; Bhattacharya, Kashinath; Samanta, Amalesh; Roy, Amit

    2016-01-01

    The development of resistance towards the antibiotics in use today has been a source of growing concern in the modern healthcare system around the world. To counter this major threat, there is an urgent need for discovery of new antimicrobials. Many plants, like mangroves, possess highly diversified list of natural phytochemicals which are known to have wide range of bioactivities. These phytochemicals can be good sources for the discovery of new drugs. In this study, we report the partial phytochemical characterization and antimicrobial activities of a semi-purified fraction isolated from the wood tissue of Ceriops decandra, a mangrove plant. This fraction named CD-3PM was chromatographically separated from C. decandra wood extract and was subjected to different spectral analyses to determine its partial chemical nature. The structural investigation indicates the presence of two diterpenoids, i) 3β, 13β-Dihydroxy-8-abietaen-7-one and ii) 3β-Hydroxy-8,13-abietadien-7-one in the CD-3PM fraction. The antimicrobial potential of this fraction was evaluated by microdilution-MTT assay against several organisms. Among the nine microorganisms found to be sensitive to the CD-3PM fraction, six organisms are reported to be pathogenic in nature. The CD-3PM fraction with broad spectrum antimicrobial efficacy revealed the presence of two diterpenoids and possesses potential applications in drug discovery process and food processing industries. PMID:27065777

  14. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  15. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-07-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP-DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP-DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP-DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  16. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP–DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP–DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP–DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  17. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  18. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de Los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  19. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  20. P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation is essential for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in response to partial hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Bryan C.; Sun, Hongdan; Mei, Yu; Maynard, Janielle P.; Cheruvu, Sayuri; Mani, Arunmani; Hernandez-Garcia, Andres; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Karpen, Saul J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides via activation of P2 purinergic receptors influence hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration in response to 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). Adult hepatocytes express multiple P2Y (G protein-coupled) and P2X (ligand-gated ion channels) purinergic receptor subtypes. However, the identity of key receptor subtype(s) important for efficient hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers remains unknown. To evaluate the impact of P2Y2 purinergic receptor-mediated signaling on hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers, wild-type (WT) and P2Y2 purinergic receptor knockout (P2Y2−/−) mice were subjected to 70% PH. Liver tissues were analyzed for activation of early events critical for hepatocyte priming and subsequent cell cycle progression. Our findings suggest that early activation of p42/44 ERK MAPK (5 min), early growth response-1 (Egr-1) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity (30 min), and subsequent hepatocyte proliferation (24–72 h) in response to 70% PH were impaired in P2Y2−/− mice. Interestingly, early induction of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and cytokine-mediated signaling (NF-κB, STAT-3) were intact in P2Y2−/− remnant livers, uncovering the importance of cytokine-independent and nucleotide-dependent early priming events critical for subsequent hepatocyte proliferation in regenerating livers. Hepatocytes isolated from the WT and P2Y2−/− mice were treated with ATP or ATPγS for 5–120 min and 12–24 h. Extracellular ATP alone, via activation of P2Y2 purinergic receptors, was sufficient to induce ERK phosphorylation, Egr-1 protein expression, and key cyclins and cell cycle progression of hepatocytes in vitro. Collectively, these findings highlight the functional significance of P2Y2 purinergic receptor activation for efficient hepatocyte priming and proliferation in response to PH. PMID:25301185

  1. The lack of effect of a prophylactic dose of enoxaparin on thrombin generation in patients subjected to nephrectomy because of kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Szczepański, M; Szostek, P; Pypno, W; Borówka, A

    2001-12-15

    It is assumed that major surgery, connected with extensive tissue dissection, brings about the release of tissue factor into circulation and subsequent activation of coagulation system. This activation results in the thrombin generation, which is supposed to be suppressed by the low-molecular-mass heparins (LMMH), administered to the surgical patients as the prophylaxis against postoperative venous thromboembolism. We have estimated the concentration of circulating thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex in patients subjected to transperitoneal nephrectomy and randomized into controls and who received 40-mg enoxaparin 12 h before and 12 h after the operation and then once daily for 7 days. We have observed a sharp rise of TAT concentration at the end of surgery and it corresponded to the simultaneous drop of antithrombin (AT) activity. TAT concentration gradually decreased and AT activity increased up to the end of observations on the seventh postoperative day, but there were no differences observed between the groups of patients. We have also observed a biphasic increase of plasmin-plasmin inhibitor (PPI) complex concentration in our patients. Again, there were no differences in PPI between the groups of patients. It is our conclusion that under the conditions of this study, the well-known prophylactic effect of enoxaparin against the venous thromboembolic complications was not mediated by the inhibition of intraoperative thrombin generation. The anti-inflammatory or biophysical influence of LMMH may be rather taken into account in surgical patients receiving prophylactic doses of these heparins.