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Sample records for activated porcine embryos

  1. Inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity affects porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Si-Jing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Jia, Ru-Xia; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocyte asymmetric division relies on the eccentric positioning of the spindle, resulting in the polar body formation. Small signaling G protein Rac1 is a member of GTPases, which regulates a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. However, effects of Rac1 on the porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development are not fully understood. In present study we investigated the role of Rac1 in oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage. We first found that Rac1 localized at the cortex of the porcine oocytes, and disrupting the Rac1 activities by treating with NSC 23766 led to the failure of polar body emission. In addition, a majority of treated oocytes exhibited abnormal spindle morphology, indicating that Rac1 may involve into porcine oocyte spindle formation. This might be due to the regulation of Rac1 on MAPK, since p-MAPK expression decreased after NSC 23766 treatments. Moreover, we found that the position of most meiotic spindles in treated oocytes were away from the cortex, indicating the roles of Rac1 on meiotic spindle positioning. Our results also showed that inhibition of Rac1 activity caused the failure of early embryo development. Therefore, our study showed the critical roles of Rac1 GTPase on porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo cleavage. PMID:27694954

  2. Acid peptidase activity released from in vitro produced porcine embryos: a candidate marker to predict developmental competence.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Spate, Lee; Prather, Randall S; Green, Jonathan A

    2009-04-01

    The ability to efficiently create high quality embryos, competent to produce normal viable offspring in vitro, facilitates diverse technological advancements in animal agriculture and assisted reproduction. Current methods for evaluation of embryos are predominantly based on morphological characteristics which are prone to potential bias of the scorer. Metabolic and genetic markers have also been explored for quality assessment, but they are cost prohibitive or require longer periods of time for evaluation. We hypothesized that secreted enzymes could provide another means of embryo quality assessment. In this report, we provide evidence that medium conditioned by porcine embryos often has proteolytic activity that operates in acidic conditions (acid peptidase activity or APA). The APA could be inhibited by pepstatin A, suggesting that the activity is derived from one or more aspartic peptidases. We also provide evidence that single embryos, incubated for as few as 24 hr, released enough APA that it was possible to measure it accurately at day 5 of culture. We also observed that such activity on day 6 could be positively correlated with advanced developmental stage and embryo quality. In addition, those embryos that were graded identically by morphological evaluations often differed in the amount of APA--with some being significantly higher than the experimental threshold value. Therefore, the APA of embryos might serve as an additional marker for evaluation of embryos.

  3. ROCK activity regulates functional tight junction assembly during blastocyst formation in porcine parthenogenetic embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein serine/threonine kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are Rho subfamily GTPase downstream effectors that regulate cell migration, intercellular adhesion, cell polarity, and cell proliferation by stimulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Inhibition of ROCK proteins affects specification of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages, compaction, and blastocyst cavitation. However, the molecules involved in blastocyst formation are not known. Here, we examined developmental competence and levels of adherens/tight junction (AJ/TJ) constituent proteins, such as CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1, as well as expression of their respective mRNAs, after treating porcine parthenogenetic four-cell embryos with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 100 µM for 24 h. Following this treatment, the blastocyst development rates were 39.1, 20.7, 10.0, and 0% respectively. In embryos treated with 20 µM treatment, expression levels of CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1 mRNA and protein molecules were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). FITC-dextran uptake assay revealed that the treatment caused an increase in TE TJ permeability. Interestingly, the majority of the four-cell and morula embryos treated with 20 µM Y-27643 for 24 h showed defective compaction and cavitation. Taken together, our results indicate that ROCK activity may differentially affect assembly of AJ/TJs as well as regulate expression of genes encoding junctional proteins. PMID:27077008

  4. RNA Profiles of Porcine Embryos during Genome Activation Reveal Complex Metabolic Switch Sensitive to In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Østrup, Olga; Olbricht, Gayla; Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Collas, Philippe; Cabot, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization is followed by complex changes in cytoplasmic composition and extensive chromatin reprogramming which results in the abundant activation of totipotent embryonic genome at embryonic genome activation (EGA). While chromatin reprogramming has been widely studied in several species, only a handful of reports characterize changing transcriptome profiles and resulting metabolic changes in cleavage stage embryos. The aims of the current study were to investigate RNA profiles of in vivo developed (ivv) and in vitro produced (ivt) porcine embryos before (2-cell stage) and after (late 4-cell stage) EGA and determine major metabolic changes that regulate totipotency. The period before EGA was dominated by transcripts responsible for cell cycle regulation, mitosis, RNA translation and processing (including ribosomal machinery), protein catabolism, and chromatin remodelling. Following EGA an increase in the abundance of transcripts involved in transcription, translation, DNA metabolism, histone and chromatin modification, as well as protein catabolism was detected. The further analysis of members of overlapping GO terms revealed that despite that comparable cellular processes are taking place before and after EGA (RNA splicing, protein catabolism), different metabolic pathways are involved. This strongly suggests that a complex metabolic switch accompanies EGA. In vitro conditions significantly altered RNA profiles before EGA, and the character of these changes indicates that they originate from oocyte and are imposed either before oocyte aspiration or during in vitro maturation. IVT embryos have altered content of apoptotic factors, cell cycle regulation factors and spindle components, and transcription factors, which all may contribute to reduced developmental competence of embryos produced in vitro. Overall, our data are in good accordance with previously published, genome-wide profiling data in other species. Moreover, comparison with mouse and human embryos

  5. Supplement of autologous ooplasm into porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos does not alter embryo development.

    PubMed

    Lee, W-J; Lee, J-H; Jeon, R-H; Jang, S-J; Lee, S-C; Park, J-S; Lee, S-L; King, W-A; Rho, G-J

    2017-02-13

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered as the technique in which a somatic cell is introduced into an enucleated oocyte to make a cloned animal. However, it is unavoidable to lose a small amount of the ooplasm during enucleation step during SCNT procedure. The present study was aimed to uncover whether the supplement of autologous ooplasm could ameliorate the oocyte competence so as to improve low efficiency of embryo development in porcine SCNT. Autologous ooplasm-transferred (AOT) embryos were generated by the supplementation with autologous ooplasm into SCNT embryos. They were comparatively evaluated with respect to embryo developmental potential, the number of apoptotic body formation and gene expression including embryonic lineage differentiation, apoptosis, epigenetics and mitochondrial activity in comparison with parthenogenetic, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and SCNT embryos. Although AOT embryos showed perfect fusion of autologous donor ooplasm with recipient SCNT embryos, the supplement of autologous ooplasm could not ameliorate embryo developmental potential in regard to the rate of blastocyst formation, total cell number and the number of apoptotic body. Furthermore, overall gene expression of AOT embryos was presented with no significant alterations in comparison with that of SCNT embryos. Taken together, the results of AOT demonstrated inability to make relevant values improved from the level of SCNT embryos to their IVF counterparts.

  6. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  7. Expression patterns of sirtuin genes in porcine preimplantation embryos and effects of sirtuin inhibitors on in vitro embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Seong-Sung; Cheong, Seung-A; Yoon, Junchul David; Jeon, Yubyeol; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2012-10-15

    We examined the expression patterns of porcine sirtuin 1 to 3 (Sirt1-3) genes in preimplantation embryos derived from parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We also investigated the effects of sirtuin inhibitors (5 mM nicotinamide [NAM] and 100 μM sirtinol) on embryonic development of PA and IVF embryos under in vitro culture (IVC). The expression patterns of Sirt1-3 mRNA in preimplantation embryos of PA, IVF, and SCNT were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased from metaphase stage of oocyte to blastocyst stage. Especially, the expressions of Sirt1-3 in SCNT blastocysts were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and Sirt2 in PA blastocyst was significantly higher compared with the IVF blastocysts. Treatment with sirtuin inhibitors during IVC resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased blastocyst formation and total cell number of blastocyst derived from PA (NAM: 29.4% and 29.6, sirtinol: 31.0% and 30.3, and control: 40.9% and 41.7, respectively) and IVF embryos (NAM: 10.4% and 30.9, sirtinol: 6.3% and 30.5, and control: 16.7% and 42.8, respectively). There was no significant difference in cleavage rate in both PA and IVF embryos. The early and expanded blastocyst formations at Day 7 were significantly lower in the sirtuin inhibitors-treated groups than the control. It was demonstrated that sirtuin inhibitor (NAM) influenced the percentage of blastocyst formation and total cell number of PA derived blastocyst when NAM was added during day 4 to 7 (22.1% and 32.4) or day 0 to 7 (23.1% and 31.6) of IVC compared with the control (41.8% and 41.5). No significant difference in cleavage rates appeared among the groups. The blastocysts derived from PA embryos treated with sirtuin inhibitors showed lower (P < 0.05) expressions of POU5F1 and Cdx2 genes. Also, Sirt2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in sirtinol treated group and Sirt3 mRNA expression was also significantly decreased in both NAM and sirtinol

  8. Generation and developmental characteristics of porcine tetraploid embryos and tetraploid/diploid chimeric embryos.

    PubMed

    He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Shi, Yongqian; Xie, Bingteng; Jiao, Mingxia; Huang, Tianqing; Guo, Shimeng; Hu, Kui; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize electrofusion conditions for generating porcine tetraploid (4n) embryos and produce tetraploid/diploid (4n/2n) chimeric embryos. Different electric field intensities were tested and 2 direct current (DC) pulses of 0.9 kV/cm for 30 μs was selected as the optimum condition for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce 4n embryos. The fusion rate of 2-cell embryos and the development rate to blastocyst of presumably 4n embryos, reached 85.4% and 28.5%, respectively. 68.18% of the fused embryos were found to be 4n as demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Although the number of blastomeres in 4n blastocysts was significantly lower than in 2n blastocysts (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in developmental rates of blastocysts between 2n and 4n embryos (P>0.05), suggesting that the blastocyst forming capacity in 4n embryos is similar to those in 2n embryos. Moreover, 4n/2n chimeric embryos were obtained by aggregation of 4n and 2n embryos. We found that the developmental rate and cell number of blastocysts of 4-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n) chimeric embryos were significantly higher than those of 2-cell (4n)/4-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/8-cell (2n), 4-cell (4n)/2-cell (2n) chimeric embryos (P<0.05). Consistent with mouse chimeras, the majority of 4n cells contribute to the trophectoderm (TE), while the 2n cells are mainly present in the inner cell mass (ICM) of porcine 4n/2n chimeric embryos. Our study established a feasible and efficient approach to produce porcine 4n embryos and 4n/2n chimeric embryos.

  9. Treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine enhances the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Huan, Yan Jun; Zhu, Jiang; Xie, Bing Teng; Wang, Jian Yu; Liu, Shi Chao; Zhou, Yang; Kong, Qing Ran; He, Hong Bin; Liu, Zhong Hua

    2013-10-01

    The efficiency of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. In most cloned embryos, epigenetic reprogramming is incomplete, and usually the genome is hypermethylated. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) could improve the developmental competence of cow, pig, cat and human SCNT embryos in previous studies. However, the parameters of 5-aza-dC treatment among species are different, and whether 5-aza-dC could enhance the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos has still not been well studied. Therefore, in this study, we treated porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF) that then were used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer or fibroblast-derived reconstructed embryos with 5-aza-dC, and the concentration- and time-dependent effects of 5-aza-dC on porcine cloned embryos were investigated by assessing pseudo-pronucleus formation, developmental potential and pluripotent gene expression of these reconstructed embryos. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC significantly reduced the DNA methylation level in PFF (0 nM vs. 10 nM vs. 25 nM vs. 50 nM, 58.70% vs. 37.37% vs. 45.43% vs. 39.53%, P<0.05), but did not improve the blastocyst rate of cloned embryos derived from these cells. Treating cloned embryos with 25 nM 5-aza-dC for 24 h significantly enhanced the blastocyst rate compared with that of the untreated group. Furthermore, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, significantly promoted pseudo-pronucleus formation at 4 h post activation (51% for cloned embryos treated, 34% for donor cells treated and 36% for control, respectively, P<0.05) and enhanced the expression levels of pluripotent genes (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) up to those of in vitro fertilized embryos during embryo development. In conclusion, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, with 5-aza-dC enhanced the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos by promotion of pseudo-pronucleus formation and improvement of pluripotent gene expression.

  10. Metal mesh vitrification (MMV) method for cryopreservation of porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Y; Kojima, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kikuchi, K; Funahashi, H

    2008-09-15

    The objective was to develop a simpler, more reliable vitrification method for porcine embryos. Prepubertal donor gilts were induced to ovulate with eCG and hCG, and then inseminated artificially. Morulae and expanding blastocysts approximately 200 microm in diameter were collected 6 or 7d after hCG treatment. Embryos collected from donor gilts were maintained, so as to be individually recognizable, and handled in batches of four or five. The embryos together with a minimum volume (<2 microL) of vitrification solution were placed onto stainless steel metal meshes or plastic plates, and then plunged into liquid nitrogen-metal mesh vitrification (MMV) and plastic plate vitrification (PPV), respectively. The meshes or plates were stored in 1.8-mL cryotubes submerged in liquid nitrogen. Stored embryos were subsequently removed, cultured in medium for 24 h, and then assessed for viability. The survival rate (84.4%) of expanding blastocysts cooled by MMV was higher than that (53.1%) of embryos cooled by PPV (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in total cell number between MMV and PPV. The survival rate of morulae cooled by MMV was 55.0%. Transfer of 200 expanding blastocysts cooled by MMV to 10 synchronized recipient gilts resulted in 37 live piglets from 7 recipients. In conclusion, the MMV method was an effective vitrification procedure for cryopreservation of expanding porcine blastocysts. However, there was a batch effect on embryo survival after vitrification.

  11. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  12. Embryo Aggregation Promotes Derivation Efficiency of Outgrowths from Porcine Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Goo; Park, Jin-Kyu; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Son, Hye-Young; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (pESCs) have become an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic applications and producing transgenic animals. However, despite numerous reports of putative pESC lines, deriving validated pESC lines from embryos produced in vitro remains difficult. Here, we report that embryo aggregation was useful for deriving pESCs from in vitro-produced embryos. Blastocysts derived from embryo aggregation formed a larger number of colonies and maintained cell culture stability. Our derived cell lines demonstrated expression of pluripotent markers (alkaline phosphatase, Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog), an ability to form embryoid bodies, and the capacity to differentiate into the three germ layers. A cytogenetic analysis of these cells revealed that all lines derived from aggregated blastocysts had normal female and male karyotypes. These results demonstrate that embryo aggregation could be a useful technique to improve the efficiency of deriving ESCs from in vitro-fertilized pig embryos, studying early development, and deriving pluripotent ESCs in vitro in other mammals. PMID:26580280

  13. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure

    PubMed Central

    JEON, Yubyeol; NAM, Yeong-Hee; CHEONG, Seung-A; KWAK, Seong-Sung; LEE, Eunsong; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation. PMID:27064112

  14. Oxamflatin Treatment Enhances Cloned Porcine Embryo Development and Nuclear Reprogramming*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jiude; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Spate, Lee D.; Walters, Eric M.; O'Gorman, Chad; Lee, Kiho; Samuel, Melissa S.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Wells, Kevin; Rivera, Rocio M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is thought to be the main reason for low cloning efficiency by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as Scriptaid, improve developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species. Another HDACi, Oxamflatin, is about 100 times more potent than Scriptaid in the ability to inhibit nuclear-specific HDACs. The present study determined the effects of Oxamflatin treatment on embryo development, DNA methylation, and gene expression. Oxamflatin treatment enhanced blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos in vitro. Embryo transfer produced more pigs born and fewer mummies from the Oxamflatin-treated group compared to the Scriptaid-treated positive control. Oxamflatin also decreased DNA methylation of POU5F1 regulatory elements and centromeric repeat elements in day-7 blastocysts. When compared to in vitro–fertilized (IVF) embryos, the methylation status of POU5F1, NANOG, and centromeric repeat was similar in the cloned embryos, indicating these genes were successfully reprogrammed. However, compared to the lack of methylation of XIST in day-7 IVF embryos, a higher methylation level in day-7 cloned embryos was observed, implying that X chromosomes were activated in day-7 IVF blastocysts, but were not fully activated in cloned embryos, i.e., reprogramming of XIST was delayed. A time-course analysis of XIST DNA methylation on day-13, -15, -17, and -19 in vivo embryos revealed that XIST methylation initiated at about day 13 and was not completed by day 19. The methylation of the XIST gene in day-19 control cloned embryos was delayed again when compared to in vivo embryos. However, methylation of XIST in Oxamflatin-treated embryos was comparable with in vivo embryos, which further demonstrated that Oxamflatin could accelerate the delayed reprogramming of XIST gene and thus might improve cloning efficiency. PMID:25548976

  15. In vitro effects of relaxin on gene expression in porcine cumulus ooxyte complexes and developing embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relaxin hormone peptide is found in porcine follicular and utero-tubal fluids, but its possible actions during early embryo development are still undetermined. Here, we investigated the effects of porcine relaxin during oocyte maturation and embryo development, and gene expression in the pig. Immat...

  16. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haichao; Wang, Huaizhong; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Chang; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12–30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25) by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation). This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy. PMID:26703736

  18. Effects of trichostatin A on histone acetylation and methylation characteristics in early porcine embryos after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peiqing; Zhu, Kongju; Ji, Qianqian; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng

    2013-09-01

    Until now, the efficiency of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. Efforts to improve cloning efficiency have demonstrated a positive role of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of deacetylases, on the development of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos in many species. Here, we report the effects of TSA on pre-implantation development of porcine NT embryos. Our results showed that treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos with 50 nmol/L TSA for 24 h after activation significantly improved the production of blastocysts (P < 0.05), while treating donor cells with the same solution resulted in increases in cleavage rates and blastomere numbers (P < 0.05). However, TSA treatment of both donor cells and SCNT embryos did not improve blastocyst production, nor did it increase blastomere numbers. Using indirect immunofluorescence, we found that TSA treatment of NT embryos could improve the reprogramming of histone acetylation at lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9) and affect nuclear swelling of transferred nuclei. However, no apparent effect of TSA treatment on H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) was observed. These findings suggest a positive effect of TSA treatment (either treating NT embryos or donor cells) on the development of porcine NT embryos, which is achieved by improving epigenetic reprogramming.

  19. Gene Expression of Dnmt1 Isoforms in Porcine Oocytes, Embryos, and Somatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    DeCourcy, Kristi; Ball, Suyapa F.; Hylan, Darin; Ayares, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the mouse, the dynamics of genomic methylation and the initial events of gametic imprinting are controlled by the activity of an oocyte isoform of the DNA methyltransferase-1 (Dnmt1o) enzyme. The objectives of this study were to identify the alternative splicing variants of Dnmt1 in porcine oocytes and determine the gene expression pattern of the different Dnmt1 isoforms during embryo development. A rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE ) system was used to amplify the 5′ cDNA end of Dnmt1 isoforms in porcine oocytes. RNA levels of the Dnmt1 isoforms were analyzed in porcine oocytes and embryos. DNMT1 protein expression of oocytes and somatic cells were analyzed by western blot and immunostaining. Two new Dnmt1o RNA isoforms were identified—Dnmt1o1 and Dnmt1o2. The previously reported somatic Dnmt1 isoform (Dnmt1s) was expressed at low but constant levels in oocytes and embryos from the two-cell to the blastocyst stage. Abundant RNA levels of Dnmt1o1 and Dnmt1o2 were detected in oocytes and embryos from the two- to the eight- to 16-cell stage. Levels of these Dnmt1o transcripts were low at the morula and blastocyst stages. Although Dnmt1s was present in all the somatic cell types analyzed, Dnmt1o1 and Dnmt1o2 were not detected in any somatic tissues. As predicted by the RNA sequence and verified by western blot analysis, Dnmt1o1 and Dnmt1o2 RNAs translate one DNMT1o enzyme. Western blot analysis confirmed that both the oocyte and the somatic forms of DNMT1 protein are present in porcine oocytes and early embryos, whereas somatic cells produce only DNMT1s protein. DNMT1o is localized mainly in the nuclei of oocytes and early embryos, whereas DNMT1s is expressed in the ooplasm cortex of oocytes and cytoplasm of early embryos. PMID:23808878

  20. Treating Cloned Embryos, But Not Donor Cells, with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine Enhances the Developmental Competence of Porcine Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    HUAN, Yan Jun; ZHU, Jiang; XIE, Bing Teng; WANG, Jian Yu; LIU, Shi Chao; ZHOU, Yang; KONG, Qing Ran; HE, Hong Bin; LIU, Zhong Hua

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. In most cloned embryos, epigenetic reprogramming is incomplete, and usually the genome is hypermethylated. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) could improve the developmental competence of cow, pig, cat and human SCNT embryos in previous studies. However, the parameters of 5-aza-dC treatment among species are different, and whether 5-aza-dC could enhance the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos has still not been well studied. Therefore, in this study, we treated porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF) that then were used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer or fibroblast-derived reconstructed embryos with 5-aza-dC, and the concentration- and time-dependent effects of 5-aza-dC on porcine cloned embryos were investigated by assessing pseudo-pronucleus formation, developmental potential and pluripotent gene expression of these reconstructed embryos. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC significantly reduced the DNA methylation level in PFF (0 nM vs. 10 nM vs. 25 nM vs. 50 nM, 58.70% vs. 37.37% vs. 45.43% vs. 39.53%, P<0.05), but did not improve the blastocyst rate of cloned embryos derived from these cells. Treating cloned embryos with 25 nM 5-aza-dC for 24 h significantly enhanced the blastocyst rate compared with that of the untreated group. Furthermore, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, significantly promoted pseudo-pronucleus formation at 4 h post activation (51% for cloned embryos treated, 34% for donor cells treated and 36% for control, respectively, P<0.05) and enhanced the expression levels of pluripotent genes (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) up to those of in vitro fertilized embryos during embryo development. In conclusion, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, with 5-aza-dC enhanced the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos by promotion of pseudo-pronucleus formation and improvement of pluripotent gene expression. PMID

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  2. [Some factors affecting in vitro development of porcine embryo reconstitution from somatic cells nuclear transfer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, De Fu; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yin; Wang, Kai; Schellander, Karl; Lin, Cai Lu

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, a study on reconstitution of porcine oocytes by using nuclear transfer with cumulus cells(CC) and fibroblast cells(FC) was carried out. Reconstituted oocytes which were the fusion with CC and showed a cleavage rate of 56.7%, developed to morula(11.7%) and blastocysts(6.7%) phases which were higher than those derived from the fusion with FC(p < 0.05). The results of this study also involved the effects of oocyte collection method and maturational age of recipient oocytes during the in vitro development of nuclear-transfer embryos which were reconstructed with cultured cumulus cells. The cumulus cells synchronized in G0/G1 phases through serum-starvation culture, were transferred into enucleated oocytes which were collected by aspiration or dissection method and cultured for 33 or 44 h. Reconstituted embryos were activated with a combination of calcium ionophore A23187 or electric pulsation and 6-DMAP, and cultured for 6 days. As for the oocytes collection methods, activation treatment in the presence of cytochalasin B did not affect the developmental rate of embryos reconstituted with 44-h-mature recipients. However, the development rate of reconstituted embryos with 33-h-mature recipients was significantly higher(p < 0.05) by activation with the combination of electric pulsation and 6-DMAP. These results suggest that reconstituted porcine embryos derived from cultured cumulus cells can develop to the blastocyst stage and that the development of the former could be improved by reconstruction with young oocyte cytoplast after the activation with the combination of electric pulsation and 6-DMAP.

  3. Effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal-stem-cell bioactive materials on porcine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min-Jee; Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Jun-Beom; Jeong, Chang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key-Jung; Park, Se-Pill

    2013-12-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) secrete bioactive materials that are beneficial for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we characterized human hAT-MSC bioactive material (hAT-MSC-BM), and examined the effect of hAT-MSC-BM on porcine embryo development. hAT-MSC-BM was enriched with several growth factors and cytokines, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Among the various concentrations and days of treatment tested, 10% hAT-MSC-BM treatment beginning on culture Day 4 provided the best environment for the in vitro growth of parthenogenetic porcine embryos. While the addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the hatching rate and the total cell number of parthenogenetic porcine embryos compared with the control and hAT-MSC culture medium group, the best results were from the group cultured with 10% hAT-MSC-BM. Mitochondrial activity was also higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression levels of development and anti-apoptosis genes were significantly higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group than in control, hAT-MSC culture medium, or 10% FBS groups, whereas the transcript abundance of an apoptosis gene was slightly lower. Treatment with 10% hAT-MSC-BM starting on Day 4 also improved the development rate and the total cell number of in vitro-fertilized embryos. This is the first report on the benefits of hAT-MSC-BM in a porcine embryo in vitro culture system. We conclude that hAT-MSC-BM is a new, alternative supplement that can improve the development of porcine embryos during both parthenogenesis and fertilization in vitro.

  4. Embryo development of porcine oocytes after injection with miniature pig sperm and their extracts.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Daizou; Maeda, Teruo

    2009-12-01

    This study examined embryo development of porcine oocytes after microinjection of sperm extracts (SE) in porcine intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). SE was prepared from miniature pig sperm by a nonionic surfactant, and various concentrations (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg/mL) of SE were injected into the matured oocytes with a first polar body. In the pronuclear stage, the rate of oocytes with two pronuclei and a second polar body (21.4%) in the sperm and SE (0.04 mg/mL) injection group was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to other groups. The rate of 2-4-cell stage in sperm and SE (0.04 mg/mL) injection group was 38.1%, and it was significantly higher than that in the sperm injection group (22.9%). The rate of blastocyst stage in sperm and SE (0.04 mg/mL) injection group was 21.4%, the value was significantly higher than those in SE (0.08 mg/mL) injection group (0%), sperm injection group (5.7%), and sperm and SE (0.08 mg/mL) injection group (2.6%). These results suggest that SE induces activation of porcine oocytes and their further embryonic development, and that SE is effective for porcine ICSI.

  5. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  6. Effective vitrification and warming of porcine embryos using a pH-stable, chemically defined medium

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Cristina; Martinez, Cristina A.; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A.; Martinez, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pH-stable media would simplify embryo vitrification and the warming of porcine embryos and might facilitate the application of embryo transfer in practice. In this work, we investigated whether a pH-stable basal medium constituted of Tyrode’s lactate medium, polyvinyl alcohol, and HEPES for buffering was suitable for porcine embryo vitrification warming in place of the conventional gas-equilibrated media. A high percentage (>90%) of embryos survived vitrification and warming in this medium, achieving in vitro survival rates similar to embryos vitrified-warmed using the conventional protocol and their fresh counterparts. The pH-stable medium did not affect the in vivo developmental competence of the vitrified-warmed embryos. A farrowing rate of 71.4% (5/7) with 10.4 ± 3.1 piglets born was obtained for the embryos vitrified and warmed in this medium and transferred to selected recipients. This medium will enable the use of simple, safe and standardized protocols for the vitrification and warming of porcine embryos for optimal embryo survival and quality when applied under field conditions. This study opens new possibilities for the widespread use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:27666294

  7. Dynamics of lamin A/C in porcine embryos produced by nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kiho; Fodor, William L; Machaty, Zoltan

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the presence of lamin A/C in porcine nuclear transfer embryos and to determine whether lamin A/C can serve as a potential marker for nuclear reprogramming. First, lamin A/C was studied in oocytes and embryos produced by fertilization or parthenogenetic oocyte activation. We found that lamin A/C was present in the nuclear lamina of oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage while it was absent in mature oocytes. Lamin A/C was detected throughout preimplantation development in both in vivo-derived and parthenogenetic embryos. Incubation of the activated oocytes in the presence of alpha-amanitin (an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II), or cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) did not perturb lamin A/C assembly, indicating that the assembly resulted from solubilized lamins dispersed in the cytoplasm. In nuclear transfer embryos, the lamin A/C signal that had previously been identified in fibroblast nuclei disappeared soon after fusion. It became detectable again after the formation of the pronucleus-like structure, and all nuclear transfer embryos displayed lamin A/C staining during early development. Olfactory bulb progenitor cells lacked lamin A/C; however, when such cells were fused with enucleated oocytes, the newly formed nuclear envelopes stained positive for lamin A/C. These findings suggest that recipient oocytes remodel the donor nuclei using type A lamins dispersed in the ooplasm. The results also indicate that lamin A/C is present in the nuclear envelope of pig oocytes and early embryos and unlike in some other species, its presence after nuclear transfer is not an indicator of erroneous reprogramming.

  8. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  9. Production of CMAH Knockout Preimplantation Embryos Derived From Immortalized Porcine Cells Via TALE Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moon, JoonHo; Lee, Choongil; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Ji-Yei; Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jang, Goo

    2014-05-27

    Although noncancerous immortalized cell lines have been developed by introducing genes into human and murine somatic cells, such cell lines have not been available in large domesticated animals like pigs. For immortalizing porcine cells, primary porcine fetal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured using the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. After selecting cells with neomycin for 2 weeks, outgrowing colonized cells were picked up and subcultured for expansion. Immortalized cells were cultured for more than 9 months without changing their doubling time (~24 hours) or their diameter (< 20 µm) while control cells became replicatively senescent during the same period. Even a single cell expanded to confluence in 100 mm dishes. Furthermore, to knockout the CMAH gene, designed plasmids encoding a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs) pairs were transfected into the immortalized cells. Each single colony was analyzed by the mutation-sensitive T7 endonuclease I assay, fluorescent PCR, and dideoxy sequencing to obtain three independent clonal populations of cells that contained biallelic modifications. One CMAH knockout clone was chosen and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloned embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immortalized porcine fibroblasts were successfully established using the human hTERT gene, and the TALENs enabled biallelic gene disruptions in these immortalized cells.

  10. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    PubMed

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P < 0.05) attachment, outgrowth formation and primary colonization in both 2× and 3× aggregated cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P < 0.05) in those derived from TSA-treated 3× blastocysts (36.7 and 26.7%) than from the non-treated aggregated group (23.1 and 11.5%). These cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in

  11. Generating Porcine Chimeras Using Inner Cell Mass Cells and Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Honda, Kasumi; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Hayashida, Gota; Kobayashi, Mirina; Kuramoto, Momoko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Fujishiro, Shuh-hei; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and validation of stem cell therapies using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be optimized through translational research using pigs as large animal models, because pigs have the closest characteristics to humans among non-primate animals. As the recent investigations have been heading for establishment of the human iPS cells with naïve type characteristics, it is an indispensable challenge to develop naïve type porcine iPS cells. The pluripotency of the porcine iPS cells can be evaluated using their abilities to form chimeras. Here, we describe a simple aggregation method using parthenogenetic host embryos that offers a reliable and effective means of determining the chimera formation ability of pluripotent porcine cells. Methodology/Significant Principal Findings In this study, we show that a high yield of chimeric blastocysts can be achieved by aggregating the inner cell mass (ICM) from porcine blastocysts with parthenogenetic porcine embryos. ICMs cultured with morulae or 4–8 cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos derived from in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes can aggregate to form chimeric blastocysts that can develop into chimeric fetuses after transfer. The rate of production of chimeric blastocysts after aggregation with host morulae (20/24, 83.3%) was similar to that after the injection of ICMs into morulae (24/29, 82.8%). We also found that 4–8 cell-stage embryos could be used; chimeric blastocysts were produced with a similar efficiency (17/26, 65.4%). After transfer into recipients, these blastocysts yielded chimeric fetuses at frequencies of 36.0% and 13.6%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Our findings indicate that the aggregation method using parthenogenetic morulae or 4–8 cell-stage embryos offers a highly reproducible approach for producing chimeric fetuses from porcine pluripotent cells. This method provides a practical and highly accurate system for evaluating pluripotency of undifferentiated cells, such

  12. Disruption of the myostatin gene in porcine primary fibroblasts and embryos using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hong-Xiao; Wang, Huili; Xiong, Kai; Qin, Ling; Liu, Honglin

    2014-04-01

    Myostatin represses muscle growth by negatively regulating the number and size of muscle fibers. Myostatin lossof- function can result in the double-muscling phenotype and increased muscle mass. Thus, knockout of myostatin gene could improve the quality of meat from mammals. In the present study, zinc finger nucleases, a useful tool for generating gene knockout animals, were designed to target exon 1 of the myostatin gene. The designed ZFNs were introduced into porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos via electroporation and microinjection, respectively. Mutations around the ZFNs target site were detected in both primary fibroblasts and blastocysts. The proportion of mutant fibroblast cells and blastocyst was 4.81% and 5.31%, respectively. Thus, ZFNs can be used to knockout myostatin in porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos.

  13. Disruption of the Myostatin Gene in Porcine Primary Fibroblasts and Embryos Using Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hong-Xiao; Wang, Huili; Xiong, Kai; Qin, Ling; Liu, Honglin

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin represses muscle growth by negatively regulating the number and size of muscle fibers. Myostatin loss-of-function can result in the double-muscling phenotype and increased muscle mass. Thus, knockout of myostatin gene could improve the quality of meat from mammals. In the present study, zinc finger nucleases, a useful tool for generating gene knockout animals, were designed to target exon 1 of the myostatin gene. The designed ZFNs were introduced into porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos via electroporation and microinjection, respectively. Mutations around the ZFNs target site were detected in both primary fibroblasts and blastocysts. The proportion of mutant fibroblast cells and blastocyst was 4.81% and 5.31%, respectively. Thus, ZFNs can be used to knockout myostatin in porcine primary fibroblasts and early implantation embryos. PMID:24802055

  14. Piglets produced by transfer of vitrified porcine embryos after stepwise dilution of cryoprotectants.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Takei, M; Kano, M; Tomita, M; Leibo, S P

    1998-02-01

    A total of 498 porcine embryos at various stages of development collected from superovulated gilts was used to investigate cryopreservation. First, blastocysts (BL), expanded blastocysts (ExB), and hatched blastocysts (HB) were used to determine the effect of exposure to concentrated solutions of ethylene glycol as cryoprotective additives (CPAs) on embryo survival. Then, survival of other embryos after vitrification by rapid cooling was determined. Based on their development after 48 h in culture, embryos were not injured by being exposed to 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) for 15 min or to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then to a solution of 8.0 M EG in 7% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) for 1 min. The CPAs were removed from the embryos by diluting them with 1.7 M galactose. To vitrify the embryos, they were exposed to 2.0 M EG for 5 min and then were pipetted directly into short columns of 8.0 M EG-PVP contained within (1.25-ml plastic straws and separated from long columns of 1.7 M galactose by an air bubble. The straws were plunged directly into LN2. After the straws were warmed rapidly in a 25 degrees C water bath, the embryos were immediately mixed with galactose within the straws by shaking them vigorously to mix the contents. In sequential experiments, three methods were used to dilute the CPA solutions. Method 1: Embryos in the EG-PVP-galactose mixture were expelled from the straws and rinsed and cultured in modified CZB medium (mCZB). Method II: Embryos in the mixture were placed briefly into 1.5 M EG and then rinsed and cultured in mCZB. Method III: Embryos in the mixture were rinsed in 1.0 M EG and then in 0.5 M EG and finally rinsed with mCZB and cultured. After 48 h in culture, the respective percentages of survival of embryos vitrified as BL, ExB, or HB were: Method I, 21, 32, and 13%; Method II, 9, 40, and 24%; Method III, 35, 85, and 71%. Of 20 additional ExB vitrified embryos diluted by Method III and transferred into a recipient, four developed into live piglets

  15. Characterization of the altered gene expression profile in early porcine embryos generated from parthenogenesis and somatic cell chromatin transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chi; Dobrinsky, John; Tsoi, Stephen; Foxcroft, George R; Dixon, Walter T; Stothard, Paul; Verstegen, John; Dyck, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro production of early porcine embryos is of particular scientific and economic interest. In general, embryos produced from in vitro Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) manipulations, such as somatic cell chromatin transfer (CT) and parthenogenetic activation (PA), are less developmentally competent than in vivo-derived embryos. The mechanisms underlying the deficiencies of embryos generated from PA and CT have not been completely understood. To characterize the altered genes and gene networks in embryos generated from CT and PA, comparative transcriptomic analyses of in vivo (IVV) expanded blastocysts (XB), IVV hatched blastocyst (HB), PA XB, PA HB, and CT HB were performed using a custom microarray platform enriched for genes expressed during early embryonic development. Differential expressions of 1492 and 103 genes were identified in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. The "eIF2 signalling", "mitochondrial dysfunction", "regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signalling", "protein ubiquitination", and "mTOR signalling" pathways were down-regulated in PA HB. Dysregulation of notch signalling-associated genes were observed in both PA and CT HB. TP53 was predicted to be activated in both PA and CT HB, as 136 and 23 regulation targets of TP53 showed significant differential expression in PA and CT HB, respectively, in comparison with IVV HB. In addition, dysregulations of several critical pluripotency, trophoblast development, and implantation-associated genes (NANOG, GATA2, KRT8, LGMN, and DPP4) were observed in PA HB during the blastocyst hatching process. The critical genes that were observed to be dysregulated in CT and PA embryos could be indicative of underlying developmental deficiencies of embryos produced from these technologies.

  16. Trichostatin A affects histone acetylation and gene expression in porcine somatic cell nucleus transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Martí-Gutiérrez, N; Escorihuela, E; Moreno, R; Stojkovic, M

    2009-11-01

    Epigenetic aberrancies likely preclude correct and complete nuclear reprogramming after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) and may underlie the observed reduced viability of cloned embryos. In the current study, we tested the effects of the histone deacetylase-inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on preimplantation development and on histone acetylation and the gene expression of nucleus transfer (NT) porcine (Sus scrofa) embryos. Our results showed that 5 nM TSA for 26 h after reconstitution resulted in embryos (NTTSA) that reached the blastocyst stage at a higher level (48.1% vs. 20.2%) and increased number of cells (105.0 vs. 75.3) than that of the control (NTC) embryos. In addition, and unlike the NTC embryos, the treated embryos displayed a global acetylated histone H4 at lysine 8 profile similar to the in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and cultured embryos during the preimplantation development. Finally, we determined that several transcription factors exert a dramatic amount of genetic control over pluripotency, including Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Rex01, the imprinting genes Igf2 and Igf2r, and the histone deacetyltransferase gene Hdac2. The NT blastocysts showed similar levels of Oct4, Cdx2, and Hdac2 but lower levels of Nanog than those of the IVF blastocyst. However, the NTTSA blastocysts showed similar levels of Rex01, Igf2, and Igf2r as those of IVF blastocysts, whereas the NTC blastocysts showed significantly lower levels for those genes. Our results suggest that TSA improves porcine SCNT preimplantation development and affects the acetylated status of the H4K8, rendering acetylation levels similar to those of the IVF counterparts.

  17. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  18. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development.

  19. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  20. Improvement of porcine cloning efficiency by trichostain A through early-stage induction of embryo apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qianqian; Zhu, Kongju; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Zhenwei; Huang, Yuankai; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong; Mo, Delin; Cong, Peiqing

    2013-03-15

    Trichostain A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos in many species, apparently by improved epigenetic reprogramming. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TSA-induced apoptosis in cloned porcine embryos. At various developmental stages, a comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were used to detect apoptosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency. In this study, TSA significantly induced apoptosis (in a dose-dependent manner) at the one-, two-, and four-cell stages. However, in blastocyst stage embryos, TSA decreased the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in TSA-treated versus control embryos at the two-cell stage (not statistically significant). The expression ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of antiapoptotic potential, was higher in TSA-treated groups at the one-, two-, and four-cell and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, expression levels of pluripotency-related genes, namely, Oct4 and Nanog, were elevated at the morula stage (P < 0.05) in TSA treatment groups. We concluded that inducing apoptosis might be a mechanism by which TSA promotes development of reconstructed embryos. At the initial stage of apoptosis induction, abnormal cells were removed, thereby enhancing proliferation of healthy cells and improving embryo quality.

  1. Timing of first embryonic cleavage is a positive indicator of the in vitro developmental potential of porcine embryos derived from in vitro fertilization, somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Isom, S Clay; Li, Rong Feng; Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2012-03-01

    Evidence in many species has suggested that those embryos that cleave earliest after fertilization are more developmentally competent than those that cleave relatively later after fertilization. Herein we document this phenomenon in porcine in vitro-fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and parthenogenetic (PA) embryos. In vitro-matured pig oocytes were used to generate IVF, SCNT, and PA embryos. At 24 hr post-activation (or insemination; hpa/hpi), embryos were visually assessed, and cleaved embryos were moved into a new culture well. This process was repeated at 30 and 48 hpa/hpi. All embryos were allowed to develop 7 days in culture. For IVF embryos, 39.9%, 24.6%, and 10.5% of fast-, intermediate-, or slow-cleaving embryos, respectively, developed into blastocysts by day 7. For SCNT embryos, 31.8% of fast-, 5.7% of intermediate-, and 2.9% of late-cleaving embryos achieved the blastocyst stage of development. For PA embryos, the percentages of those cleaved embryos that developed to blastocyst were 59.3%, 36.7%, and 7.5% for early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, respectively. Using RNA collected from early-, intermediate-, and late-cleaving embryos, real-time PCR was performed to assess the transcript levels of 14 different genes of widely varied function. The qPCR results suggest that maternal mRNA degradation may not proceed in an appropriate pattern in slow-cleaving embryos. These findings (1) confirm that, as observed in other species, earlier-cleaving porcine embryos are more successful at developing in culture than are slower-cleaving embryos, and (2) implicate mechanisms of maternal transcript destruction as potential determinants of oocyte/embryo quality.

  2. Targeted DNA methylation analysis by high throughput sequencing in porcine peri-attachment embryos.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Benson H; Cox, Lindsay; Ward, Anika; Heywood, Sierra; Prather, Randall S; Isom, S Clay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a next-generation sequencing-based method for DNA methylation analysis in porcine embryonic samples. Fourteen discrete genomic regions were amplified by PCR using bisulfite-converted genomic DNA derived from day 14 in vivo-derived (IVV) and parthenogenetic (PA) porcine embryos as template DNA. Resulting PCR products were subjected to high-throughput sequencing using the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx platform. The average depth of sequencing coverage was 14,611 for IVV and 17,068 for PA. Quantitative analysis of the methylation profiles of both input samples for each genomic locus showed distinct differences in methylation profiles between IVV and PA samples for six of the target loci, and subtle differences in four loci. It was concluded that high throughput sequencing technologies can be effectively applied to provide a powerful, cost-effective approach to targeted DNA methylation analysis of embryonic and other reproductive tissues.

  3. Effect of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes evaluated by the subsequent in vitro development of embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, M A; Alfonso, J; García-Mengual, E; Salvador, I; Duque, C C; Molina, I

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant human (rh) FSH and LH on in vitro maturation of pig oocytes compared with a conventional hormonal supplement based on equine (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG), as evaluated by the developmental ability of 3 types of pig embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or artificial activation (ATA). In Exp. 1, one cumulus-oocyte complex group (A group) was supplemented with rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.1 IU/mL each), and the other group (B group) was supplemented with PMSG and hCG (10 IU/mL each). No differences in nuclear maturation between the A and B groups were observed (68.5 vs. 71.4%, respectively). No differences were detected between hormonal treatments in the rates of cleavage or blastocyst formation of ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos. Total cell number of the embryos was not significantly different in any experimental group (A: 31.1, 28.5, and 19.8 vs. B: 25.2, 25.5, and 20.6 for ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos, respectively). In Exp. 2, the effects of different concentrations of rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.5, 0.1, or 0.05 IU/mL) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation and in vitro development of embryos obtained by IVF were studied. No effect of different hormonal concentrations on blastocyst formation rates was observed (8.5, 13.0, and 5.7%, respectively). Blastocyst cell number was not different in any experimental group. In conclusion, the results obtained here permit us to substitute PMSG and hCG with rh-FSH and rh-LH and to produce pig embryos obtained by IVF, ICSI, or ATA.

  4. Effect of histone acetylation modification with MGCD0103, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on nuclear reprogramming and the developmental competence of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Cloning remains as an important technique to enhance the reconstitution and distribution of animal population with high-genetic merit. One of the major detrimental factors of this technique is the abnormal epigenetic modifications. MGCD0103 is known as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the effect of MGCD0103 on the in vitro blastocyst formation rate in porcine somatic cell nuclear transferred (SCNT) embryos and expression in acetylation of the histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H4 lysine 12. We compared the in vitro embryonic development of SCNT embryos treated with different concentrations of MGCD0103 for 24 hours. Our results reported that treating with 0.2-μM MGCD0103 for 24 hours effectively improved the development of SCNT embryos, in comparison to the control group (blastocyst formation rate, 25.5 vs. 10.7%, P < 0.05). Then we tested the in vitro development of SCNT embryos treated with 0.2-μM MGCD0103 for various intervals after activation. Treatment for 6 hours significantly improved the development of pig SCNT embryos, compared with the control group (blastocyst formation rate, 21.2 vs. 10.5%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, MGCD0103 supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increases the average fluorescence intensity of AcH3K9 and AcH4K12 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear stage. To examine the in vivo development, MGCD0103-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and three fetuses developed. These results suggest that MGCD0103 can enhance the nuclear reprogramming and improve in vitro developmental potential of porcine SCNT embryos.

  5. Development of porcine tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos is influenced by oocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Liu, Di; Ma, Hong; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Peng, Fu-Gang; Bai, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Cloning efficiency in mammalian systems remains low because reprogramming of donor cells is frequently incomplete. Nuclear factors in the oocyte are removed by enucleation, and this removal may adversely affect reprogramming efficiency. Here, we investigated the role of porcine oocyte nuclear factors during reprogramming. We introduced somatic cell nuclei into intact MII oocytes to establish tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos containing both somatic nuclei and oocyte nuclei. We then examined the influence of the oocyte nucleus on tetraploid SCNT embryo development by assessing characteristics including pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation. Overall, tetraploid SCNT embryos have a higher developmental competence than do standard diploid SCNT embryos. Therefore, we have established an embryonic model in which a fetal fibroblast nucleus and an oocyte metaphase II plate coexist. Tetraploid SCNT represents a new research platform that is potentially useful for examining interactions between donor nuclei and oocyte nuclei. This platform should facilitate further understanding of the roles played by nuclear factors during reprogramming.

  6. Forskolin improves the cryosurvival of in vivo-derived porcine embryos at very early stages using two vitrification methods.

    PubMed

    Gomis, J; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Parrilla, I; Angel, M A; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of forskolin on the viability of in vivo-derived porcine embryos vitrified by the superfine open pulled straw (SOPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV) methods at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and blastocyst stages. Zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos, and morulae were obtained from superovulated sows. After collection, embryos were cultured for 24h with 0 or 10 μM forskolin and then vitrified using the SOPS and SSV method, or not vitrified (fresh controls). Fresh and vitrified-warmed 2-cells, 4-cells, and blastocysts were cultured for additional 96 h, 72 h and 24 h, respectively. At the end of the culture, embryos were evaluated for progression to the blastocyst stage and total cell number. The vitrification method did not affect any of the parameters evaluated for any embryo stage. Forskolin increased (P<0.01) the blastocyst formation and the final developmental stage of vitrified 2- and 4-cell embryos. However, these embryos exhibited lower (P<0.003) blastocyst formation rates than their fresh counterparts. The total cell number and hatching rate were similar in both groups (vitrified and fresh) of 2- and 4-cell embryos. Vitrified blastocysts exhibited viabilities, final developmental stages, hatching rates, and total cell numbers that were similar to those of their fresh counterparts, regardless of the addition of forskolin. In conclusion, the SOPS and SSV methods are suitable for the cryopreservation of in vivo-derived 2- to 4-cell porcine embryos. Pre-treatment with forskolin for 24h before vitrification improves the cryotolerance of 2- and 4-cell porcine embryos.

  7. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between day 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in estrogen production for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to ~20% of embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongati...

  8. Quisinostat treatment improves histone acetylation and developmental competence of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Luo, Qi-Rong; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Wang, Jun-Xia; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-02-22

    Abnormal epigenetic modifications are considered a main contributing factor to low cloning efficiency. In the present study, we explored the effects of quisinostat, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on blastocyst formation rate in porcine somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, on acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9), and on expression of POU5F1 protein and apoptosis-related genes BAX and BCL2. Our results showed that treatment with 10 nM quisinostat for 24 h significantly improved the development of reconstructed embryos compared to the untreated group (19.0 ± 1.6% vs. 10.2 ± 0.9%; P < 0.05). Quisinostat-treated SCNT embryos also possessed significantly increased AcH3K9 at the pseudo-pronuclear stage (P < 0.05), as well as improved immunostaining intensity for POU5F1 at the blastocyst stage (P < 0.05). While no statistical difference in BAX expression was observed, BCL2 transcript abundance was significantly different in the quisinostat-treated compared to the untreated control group. Of the 457 quisinostat-treated cloned embryos transferred into three surrogates, six fetuses developed from the one sow that became pregnant. These findings suggested that quisinostat can regulate gene expression and epigenetic modification, facilitating nuclear reprogramming and subsequently improving the developmental competence of pig SCNT embryos and blastocyst quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  10. Census of genes expressed in porcine embryos and reproductive tissues by mining an expressed sequence tag database based on human genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhihua; Zhang, Ming; Wasem, Vaughn D; Michal, Jennifer J; Zhang, Hao; Wright, Raymond W

    2003-10-01

    A total of 98,898 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from embryos and reproductive tissues in pigs were identified in the GenBank "est_others" database. Pig embryos were collected at 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 30, and 45 days after gestation. The reproductive tissues were sampled from testis, ovary, endometrium, hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, uterus, and placenta. A gene-oriented approach was developed to annotate these porcine EST sequences to census the genes expressed from these sources. Of the 33 308 mRNA sequences from the human genes used as references (data accessed on 1 November 2002), 9410 had the porcine EST homologs expressed in embryos and 11 795 had the EST homologs expressed in reproductive tissues. The entire genome contributes at least 28.3% of its genes to embryo development and 35.4% of its genes to reproduction. Using the EST entry numbers as indicators of gene expression, we determined that the gene expression patterns differ significantly between embryos and reproductive tissues in pigs. The basic active genes were identified for each source, but most of them are not coexpressed abundantly. Few genes were expressed on the Y chromosome (P < 0.01), but they may represent counterparts of the double-dose genes that remain active in an inactivated X chromosome in females but are needed for proper development and growth. The census provides a panel of transcripts in a broad sense that can be used as targets to study the mechanisms involved in embryo development and reproduction in pigs and other mammals, including humans.

  11. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Bethany K.; Spate, Lee D.; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most in vitro culture conditions are less‐than‐optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional‐profiling database to identify culture‐induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo‐produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria‐related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro‐produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246–258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. PMID:26824641

  12. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  13. Femtosecond laser-induced fusion of nonadherent cells and two-cell porcine embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuetemeyer, Kai; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    Cell fusion is a fundamental biological process that can be artificially induced by different methods. Although femtosecond (fs) lasers have been successfully employed for cell fusion over the past few years, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In our experimental study, we investigated the correlation between fs laser-induced cell fusion and membrane perforation, and the influence of laser parameters on the fusion efficiency of nonadherent HL-60 cells. We found that shorter exposure times resulted in higher fusion efficiencies with a maximum of 21% at 10 ms and 100 mJ/cm2 (190 mW). Successful cell fusion was indicated by the formation of a long-lasting vapor bubble in the irradiated area with an average diameter much larger than in cell perforation experiments. With this knowledge, we demonstrated, for the first time, the fusion of very large parthenogenetic two-cell porcine embryos with high efficiencies of 55% at 20 ms and 360 mJ/cm2 (670 mW). Long-term viability of fused embryos was proven by successful development up to the blastocyst stage in 70% of cases with no significant difference to controls. In contrast to previous studies, our results indicate that fs laser-induced cell fusion occurs when the membrane pore size exceeds a critical value, preventing immediate membrane resealing.

  14. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Miki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Honda, Kasumi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Takahiro; Matsuda, Taisuke; Matsumura, Yukina; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Takahashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes have been used to create genetically modified pigs for various biomedical purposes. However, porcine embryos derived from IVM oocytes are very cryosensitive. Developing improved cryopreservation methods would facilitate the production of genetically modified pigs and also accelerate the conservation of genetic resources. We recently developed a novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method; the present study was initiated to determine whether this new method permits the cryopreservation of IVM oocyte-derived porcine embryos. Embryos were created from the in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes with frozen-thawed sperm derived from a transgenic pig carrying a humanized Kusabira-Orange (huKO) gene. Morula-stage embryos were assigned to vitrification and nonvitrification groups to compare their in vitro and in vivo developmental abilities. Vitrified morulae developed to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to that of nonvitrified embryos (66/85, 77.6% vs. 67/84, 79.8%). Eighty-eight blastocysts that developed from vitrified morulae were transferred into the uteri of three recipient gilts. All three became pregnant and produced a total of 17 piglets (19.3%). This piglet production was slightly lower, albeit not significantly, than that of the nonvitrification group (27/88, 30.7%). Approximately half of the piglets in the vitrification (10/17, 58.8%) and nonvitrification (15/27, 55.6%) groups were transgenic. There was no significant difference in the growth rates among the piglets in the two groups. These results indicate that the HFV method is an extremely effective method for preserving cryosensitive embryos such as porcine in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived morulae.

  15. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L

    2015-01-01

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity.

  16. An environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture impairs sperm function and embryo development in the porcine model.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Céline; Guillemette, Christine; Paradis, René; Sirard, Marc-André; Ayotte, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of an environmentally relevant mixture of more than 15 organochlorines on the development of pig oocytes and sperm during in vitro fertilization (IVF). Oocytes were cocultured with sperm in IVF medium containing increasing concentrations of an organochlorine mixture, similar to that found in women of highly exposed populations. Exposure to the organochlorine mixture diminished oocyte penetration rates and polyspermy in a linear manner. The mixture did not affect rates of cleavage nor development to multicell embryos. However, rates of development to the blastocyst stage were lower at the highest concentration at which oocyte penetration was observed. The same experiment was performed using oocytes that were preexposed during in vitro maturation. This greater exposure to the mixture also reduced penetration in a dose-response manner and affected polyspermy. Frozen-thawed pig sperm were also cultured in IVF medium containing the same organochlorine concentrations. Sperm motility parameters were immediately reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the organochlorines, followed by diminished viability 2 h later. From these results, it appears that reduced sperm quality would account for decreases in fertilization, polyspermy, and blastocyst formation. These results suggest that exposing porcine oocytes and sperm to an environmentally pertinent organochlorine mixture in vitro disrupts the oocyte block to polyspermy, sperm fertility, and further embryonic development, and supports recent concerns that such pollutants harm reproductive health in humans and other species.

  17. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  18. Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 by Aurora B is essential for chromosome condensation in porcine embryos during the first mitotic division.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changchao; Zhang, Zixiao; Cui, Panpan; Liao, Yaya; Zhang, Yue; Yao, Lingyun; Rui, Rong; Ju, Shiqiang

    2017-02-20

    Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 (H3S10ph) is involved in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation and decondensation, which plays an important regulatory role during mitotic cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, whether H3S10ph plays a similar role in early porcine embryos during the first mitotic division remains uncertain. In this study, the subcellular localization and possible roles of H3S10ph were evaluated in the first mitotic cell cycle progression of porcine embryos using western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and barasertib (H3S10ph upstream regulator Aurora-B inhibitor) treatments. H3S10ph exhibited a dynamic localization pattern and was localized to chromosomes from prometaphase to anaphase stages. Treatment of porcine embryos with barasertib inhibited mitotic division at the prophase stage and was associated with a defect in chromosome condensation accompanied by the reduction of H3S10ph. These results indicated that H3S10ph is involved in the first mitotic division in porcine embryos through its regulatory function in chromosome condensation, which further affects porcine embryo cell cycle progression during mitotic division.

  19. Sex determination of porcine embryos using a new developed duplex polymerase chain reaction procedure based on the amplification of repetitive sequences.

    PubMed

    Torner, Eva; Bussalleu, Eva; Briz, M Dolors; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; Bonet, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays have become increasingly prevalent for sexing embryos. The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable duplex PCR procedure based on the amplification of porcine repetitive sequences for sexing porcine tissues, embryos and single cells. Primers were designed targeting the X12696 Y chromosome-specific repeat sequence (SUSYa and SUSYb; sex-related primer sets), the multicopy porcine-specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene (SUS12S; control primer set) and the X51555 1 chromosome repeat sequence (SUS1; control primer set). The specificity of the primer sets was established and the technique was optimised by testing combinations of two specific primer sets (SUSYa/SUS12S; SUSYb/SUS12S), different primer concentrations, two sources of DNA polymerase, different melting temperatures and different numbers of amplification cycles using genomic DNA from porcine ovarian and testicular tissue. The optimised SUSYa/SUS12S- and SUSYb/SUS12S-based duplex PCR procedures were applied to porcine in vitro-produced (IVP) blastocysts, cell-stage embryos and oocytes. The SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based procedure successfully sexed porcine single cells and IVP cell-stage embryos (100% efficiency), as well as blastocysts (96.6% accuracy; 96.7% efficiency). This is the first report to demonstrate the applicability of these repetitive sequences for this purpose. In conclusion, the SUSYb/SUS12S primer-based duplex PCR procedure is highly reliable and sensitive for sexing porcine IVP embryos.

  20. Concentration and composition of free amino acids and osmolalities of porcine oviductal and uterine fluid and their effects on development of porcine IVF embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongfeng; Whitworth, Kristin; Lai, Liangxue; Wax, David; Spate, Lee; Murphy, Clifton N; Rieke, August; Isom, Clay; Hao, Yanhong; Zhong, Zhisheng; Katayama, Mika; Schatten, Heide; Prather, Randall S

    2007-09-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and the osmolalities in porcine oviductal (OF) and uterine fluids (UFs) on day 3 (D3) and day 5 (D5) were measured by HPLC and Vapor Pressure Osmometer, respectively. Based on these measurements we designed new media based on PZM3 by modifying the amino acid composition and osmolality. The effectiveness of the modified PZM3 on the development of porcine IVF embryos was then investigated. A total of 24 free amino acids were measured, including 20 protein and 4 nonprotein amino acids (beta-alanine, taurine, ornithine, and citrulline). There was no significant difference in the total concentration of amino acids among D3OF (13.06 +/- 3.63 mmol/L), D3UF (10.54 +/- 5.16 mmol/L), or D5UF (10.23 +/- 6.69 mmol/L). But the total concentration of amino acids in D5OF (5.89 +/- 1.47 mmol/L) was significantly lower than the three fluids above. Some individual amino acids varied significantly depending on where they were collected and from which day. The blastocyst rates of porcine IVF embryos were not improved when embryos were cultured in PZM3 with amino acids at D3OF (PZM3-D3OF, 20.3 +/- 7.9%) or D5UF (PZM3-D5UF, 14.3 +/- 10.7%) concentrations or in PZM3-D3OF for the first 48 (20.5 +/- 15.1), 72 (25.6 +/- 10.4), and 96 (18.7 +/- 10.0) hr and then transferred into PZM3-D5UF compared with PZM3 with Sigma amino acid solution (PZM3-SAA) (30.8 +/- 9.1%). However, when IVF embryos were cultured in PZM3-D5UF, the average nuclear number per blastocyst (57.6 +/- 8.3) was increased compared to PZM3-SAA (40.5 +/- 3.5). The osmolalities in D3OF, D3UF, D5OF, and D5UF were 318 +/- 8, 320 +/- 32, 321, and 293 +/- 8 mOsM, respectively. When the IVF embryos were cultured in PZM3-SAA and PZM3-D3OF at a variety of osmolalities (150-360 mOsM), higher blastocyst rates were obtained at 270-300 mOsM in the PZM3-SAA group (24.6-33.9%) and 270-290 mOsM in PZM3-D3OF group (22.4-24.2%). The blastocyst rate gradually decreased when the osmolality was increased or

  1. Effect of the well of the well (WOW) system on in vitro culture for porcine embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Taka, Mikiko; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Fukui, Yutaka

    2005-08-01

    For developmental competence of porcine embryos in vitro, it is important to improve the culture environment. The present study was performed to evaluate four different culture systems for in vitro matured porcine oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); drop, well and two sizes of the well of the well (WOW) systems (500 and 1,000 microm in diameter). The cleavage rate on Day 2 and the mean cell number in blastocysts on Day 6 were not significantly different among the four treatments. However, the 1,000 microm WOW (24.6%) resulted in a significantly higher (P<0.05) blastocyst rate than those in the other culture systems (12.9, 14.8, and 7.1% for drop, well, and 500 microm WOW, respectively). The present study indicates that the microenvironment created by the 1,000 microm diameter WOW improves blastocyst production of in vitro matured porcine oocytes after ICSI, and that the effectiveness of the WOW system is dependent on the size (diameter) of the WOW.

  2. Impairment of preimplantation porcine embryo development by histone demethylase KDM5B knockdown through disturbance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Xianlong; Dobbs, Kyle B; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Whitworth, Kristin; Walters, Eric M; Prather, Randall S; Zhao, Jianguo

    2015-03-01

    KDM5B (JARID1B/PLU1) is a H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase that is implicated in cancer development and proliferation and is also indispensable for embryonic stem cell self-renewal, cell fate, and murine embryonic development. However, little is known about the role of KDM5B during preimplantation embryo development. Here we show that KDM5B is critical to porcine preimplantation development. KDM5B was found to be expressed in a stage-specific manner, consistent with demethylation of H3K4me3, with the highest expression being observed from the 4-cell to the blastocyst stages. Knockdown of KDM5B by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides injection impaired porcine embryo development to the blastocyst stage. The impairment of embryo development might be caused by increased expression of H3K4me3 at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, which disturbs the balance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications at the blastocyst stage. Decreased abundance of H3K27me3 at blastocyst stage activates multiple members of homeobox genes (HOX), which need to be silenced for faithful embryo development. Additionally, the histone demethylase KDM6A was found to be upregulated by knockdown of KDM5B, which indicated it was responsible for the decreased abundance of H3K27me3 at the blastocyst stage. The transcriptional levels of Ten-Eleven Translocation gene family members (TET1, TET2, and TET3) are found to be increased by knockdown of KDM5B, which indicates cross talk between histone modifications and DNA methylation. The studies above indicate that KDM5B is required for porcine embryo development through regulating the balance of bivalent H3K4me3-H3K27me3 modifications.

  3. Activation of porcine cytomegalovirus, but not porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus, in pig-to-baboon xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Nicolas J; Livingston, Christine; Knosalla, Christoph; Barth, Rolf N; Yamamoto, Shin; Gollackner, Bernd; Dor, Frank J M F; Buhler, Leo; Sachs, David H; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Cooper, David K C; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-05-01

    Tissue-invasive disease due to porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) has been demonstrated after pig-to-baboon solid-organ xenotransplantation. Porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV)-1 is associated with B cell proliferation and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in swine but has not been observed in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Activation of PCMV and PLHV-1 was investigated in 22 pig-to-baboon xenotransplants by use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. PCMV was found in all xenografts; increased viral replication occurred in 68% of xenografts during immunosuppression. PLHV-1 was found in 12 xenografts (55%); no increases in viral replication occurred during immunosuppression. Control immunosuppressed swine coinfected with PCMV and PLHV-1 had activation of PCMV but not PLHV-1. PCMV, but not PLHV-1, is activated in solid-organ xenotransplantation.

  4. Porcine Cloned Embryos Reconstructed with the Cell Nuclei of Tetraploid M-phase Fibroblast Cells Can Restore Normal Diploidy at the Blastocyst Stage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Qiu, Y G; Tian, J T; Wang, C S; An, T Z

    2016-11-17

    The cell cycle of donor cells as a major factor that affects cloning efficiency remains debatable. G2/M phase cells as a donor can successfully produce cloned animals, but a minimal amount is known regarding nuclear remodeling events. In this study, porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) were carefully synchronized at G1 or M phase as donor cells. Most of the cloned embryos reconstructed from PFFs at G1 (G1-embryos) or M (M-embryos) phase formed a pronucleus-like nucleus (PN) within 6-h post fusion (hpf), but the M-embryos formed PN earlier than the G1-embryos did. Moreover, 77.4% of the M-embryos formed two PNs, whereas the G1-embryos formed a single PN. The rate of extrusion of polar body-like structures by the M-embryos was significantly lower than that extruded by the G1-embryos (26.3% vs. 37.1%, P < 0.05), and DNA synthesis in most embryos in both groups was initiated at 9-12 hpf. Most of the M-embryos were octoploid before the first cleavage. Furthermore, 81.25% of the blastomeres of blastocysts developed from the M-embryos showed abnormal ploidy compared with those developed from the G1-embryos (22.55%). However, some of the blastomeres remained diploid in all the M-embryos tested. A portion of the blastomeres restored normal diploidy in some of the M-embryos at the blastocyst stage. This finding provides an explanation for M-embryos developing to term.

  5. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within alginate hydrogel systems either supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 or conjugated with arg-gly-asp peptide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although deficiencies in porcine embryo elongation play a significant role on early embryonic mortality and establishment of within–litter developmental variation, the exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased within the uterine milieu during...

  6. Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer with porcine oocytes as recipients: A novel bioassay system for assessing the competence of canine somatic cells to develop into embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, S; Narita, K; Yamashiro, H; Sugawara, A; Shoji, T; Terashita, Y; Nishimori, K; Konno, T; Yoshida, M; Sato, E

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer (iSCNT) could be a useful bioassay system for assessing the ability of mammalian somatic cells to develop into embryos. To examine this possibility, we performed canine iSCNT using porcine oocytes, allowed to mature in vitro, as recipients. Canine fibroblasts from the tail tips and dewclaws of a female poodle (Fp) and a male poodle (Mp) were used as donors. We demonstrated that the use of porcine oocytes induced blastocyst formation in the iSCNT embryos cultured in porcine zygote medium-3. In Fp and Mp, the rate of blastocyst formation from cleaved embryos (Fp: 6.3% vs. 22.4%; and Mp: 26.1% vs. 52.4%) and the number of cells at the blastocyst stage (Fp: 30.7 vs. 60.0; and Mp: 27.2 vs. 40.1) were higher in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells than in those derived from tail-tip cells (P<0.05). The use of donor cells of any type in later passages decreased the rate of blastocyst formation. Treatment with trichostatin-A did not improve the rate of blastocyst formation from cleaved dewclaw cell-derived embryos but did so in the embryos derived from the tail-tip cells of Fp. Only blastocysts derived from dewclaw cells of Mp developed outgrowths. However, outgrowth formation was retrieved in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells of Fp by aggregation at the 4-cell stage. We inferred that iSCNT performed using porcine oocytes as recipients could represent a novel bioassay system for evaluating the developmental competence of canine somatic cells.

  7. Inhibition of cathepsin B activity reduces apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria in porcine parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Seon-Hyang; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; LIANG, Shuang; CUI, Xiang-Shun; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family, has recently been implicated in the quality and developmental competence of bovine preimplantation embryos. In this study, to determine whether inhibition of cathepsin B activity can improve porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo developmental competence, we supplemented in vitro maturation or embryo culture media with E-64, a cathepsin B inhibitor. Cathepsin B activity was high in poor quality germinal vesicle stage oocytes, but no differences in mRNA expression or protein localization were observed between good and poor quality oocytes, which were categorized based on morphology. Following treatment with 1 μM E-64, cathepsin B activity sharply decreased in 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. E-64 had no effect on cell number but significantly (P < 0.05) increased blastocyst formation and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It also significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential in blastocysts, reducing the release of cytochrome c and resulting in decreased expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. In conclusion, inhibition of cathepsin B activity in porcine parthenotes using 1 μM E-64 resulted in attenuation of apoptosis via a reduction in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. PMID:25903788

  8. Inhibition of cathepsin B activity reduces apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Hyang; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liang, Shuang; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family, has recently been implicated in the quality and developmental competence of bovine preimplantation embryos. In this study, to determine whether inhibition of cathepsin B activity can improve porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo developmental competence, we supplemented in vitro maturation or embryo culture media with E-64, a cathepsin B inhibitor. Cathepsin B activity was high in poor quality germinal vesicle stage oocytes, but no differences in mRNA expression or protein localization were observed between good and poor quality oocytes, which were categorized based on morphology. Following treatment with 1 μM E-64, cathepsin B activity sharply decreased in 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. E-64 had no effect on cell number but significantly (P < 0.05) increased blastocyst formation and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It also significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential in blastocysts, reducing the release of cytochrome c and resulting in decreased expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. In conclusion, inhibition of cathepsin B activity in porcine parthenotes using 1 μM E-64 resulted in attenuation of apoptosis via a reduction in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

  9. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent, pluripotent stem cells established from inner cell mass of porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Sinha, Sunilima; Alexenko, Andrei P; Spate, Lee; Prather, Randall S; Roberts, R Michael

    2011-08-19

    The pig is important for agriculture and as an animal model in human and veterinary medicine, yet despite over 20 years of effort, there has been a failure to generate pluripotent stem cells analogous to those derived from mouse embryos. Here we report the production of leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent, so-called naive type, pluripotent stem cells from the inner cell mass of porcine blastocysts by up-regulating expression of KLF4 and POU5F1. The alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies resulting from reprogramming resemble mouse embryonic stem cells in colony morphology, cell cycle interval, transcriptome profile, and expression of pluripotent markers, such as POU5F1, SOX2, and surface marker SSEA1. They are dependent on leukemia inhibitory factor signaling for maintenance of pluripotency, can be cultured over extended passage, and have the ability to form teratomas. These cells derived from the inner cell mass of pig blastocysts are clearly distinct from the FGF2-dependent "primed" induced pluripotent stem cells described recently from porcine mesenchymal cells. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the up-regulation of KLF4, as well as POU5F1, is required to create and stabilize the naive pluripotent state and may explain why the derivation of embryonic stem cells from pigs and other ungulates has proved so difficult.

  10. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

  11. Effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of Xist on the developmental efficiency of cloned male porcine embryos

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, Fang; HUANG, Zhihua; YUAN, Yujuan; SHI, Junsong; CAI, Gengyuan; LIU, Dewu; WU, Zhenfang; LI, Zicong

    2016-01-01

    Xist is an X-linked gene responsible for cis induction of X chromosome inactivation. Studies have indicated that Xist is abnormally activated in the active X chromosome in cloned mouse embryos due to loss of the maternal Xist-repressing imprint following enucleation during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Inhibition of Xist expression by injecting small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been shown to enhance the in vivo developmental efficiency of cloned male mouse embryos by more than 10-fold. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar procedure can be applied to improve the cloning efficiency in pigs. We first found that Xist mRNA levels at the morula stage were aberrantly higher in pig SCNT embryos than in in vivo fertilization-derived pig embryos. Injection of a preselected effective anti-Xist siRNA into 1-cell-stage male pig SCNT embryos resulted in significant inhibition of Xist expression through the 16-cell stage. This siRNA-mediated inhibition of Xist significantly increased the total cell number per cloned blastocyst and significantly improved the birth rate of cloned healthy piglets. The present study contributes useful information on the action of Xist in the development of pig SCNT embryos and proposes a new method for enhancing the efficiency of pig cloning. PMID:27569767

  12. Factors Determining the Efficiency of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Data Analysis with Over 200,000 Reconstructed Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianbin; Dou, Hongwei; Xiang, Xi; Li, Yong; Pang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Yijie; Chen, Yu; Luan, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenxian; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data analysis in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research is usually limited to several hundreds or thousands of reconstructed embryos. Here, we report mass results obtained with an established and consistent porcine SCNT system (handmade cloning [HMC]). During the experimental period, 228,230 reconstructed embryos and 82,969 blastocysts were produced. After being transferred into 656 recipients, 1070 piglets were obtained. First, the effects of different types of donor cells, including fetal fibroblasts (FFs), adult fibroblasts (AFs), adult preadipocytes (APs), and adult blood mesenchymal (BM) cells, were investigated on the further in vitro and in vivo development. Compared to adult donor cells (AFs, APs, BM cells, respectively), FF cells resulted in a lower blastocyst/reconstructed embryo rate (30.38% vs. 37.94%, 34.65%, and 34.87%, respectively), but a higher overall efficiency on the number of piglets born alive per total blastocysts transferred (1.50% vs. 0.86%, 1.03%, and 0.91%, respectively) and a lower rate of developmental abnormalities (10.87% vs. 56.57%, 24.39%, and 51.85%, respectively). Second, recloning was performed with cloned adult fibroblasts (CAFs) and cloned fetal fibroblasts (CFFs). When CAFs were used as the nuclear donor, fewer developmental abnormalities and higher overall efficiency were observed compared to AFs (56.57% vs. 28.13% and 0.86% vs. 1.59%, respectively). However, CFFs had an opposite effect on these parameters when compared with CAFs (94.12% vs. 10.87% and 0.31% vs. 1.50%, respectively). Third, effects of genetic modification on the efficiency of SCNT were investigated with transgenic fetal fibroblasts (TFFs) and gene knockout fetal fibroblasts (KOFFs). Genetic modification of FFs increased developmental abnormalities (38.96% and 25.24% vs. 10.87% for KOFFs, TFFs, and FFs, respectively). KOFFs resulted in lower overall efficiency compared to TFFs and FFs (0.68% vs. 1.62% and 1.50%, respectively). In conclusion

  13. Factors Determining the Efficiency of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Data Analysis with Over 200,000 Reconstructed Embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbin; Dou, Hongwei; Xiang, Xi; Li, Lin; Li, Yong; Lin, Lin; Pang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Yijie; Chen, Yu; Luan, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenxian; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gabor; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research is usually limited to several hundreds or thousands of reconstructed embryos. Here, we report mass results obtained with an established and consistent porcine SCNT system (handmade cloning [HMC]). During the experimental period, 228,230 reconstructed embryos and 82,969 blastocysts were produced. After being transferred into 656 recipients, 1070 piglets were obtained. First, the effects of different types of donor cells, including fetal fibroblasts (FFs), adult fibroblasts (AFs), adult preadipocytes (APs), and adult blood mesenchymal (BM) cells, were investigated on the further in vitro and in vivo development. Compared to adult donor cells (AFs, APs, BM cells, respectively), FF cells resulted in a lower blastocyst/reconstructed embryo rate (30.38% vs. 37.94%, 34.65%, and 34.87%, respectively), but a higher overall efficiency on the number of piglets born alive per total blastocysts transferred (1.50% vs. 0.86%, 1.03%, and 0.91%, respectively) and a lower rate of developmental abnormalities (10.87% vs. 56.57%, 24.39%, and 51.85%, respectively). Second, recloning was performed with cloned adult fibroblasts (CAFs) and cloned fetal fibroblasts (CFFs). When CAFs were used as the nuclear donor, fewer developmental abnormalities and higher overall efficiency were observed compared to AFs (56.57% vs. 28.13% and 0.86% vs. 1.59%, respectively). However, CFFs had an opposite effect on these parameters when compared with CAFs (94.12% vs. 10.87% and 0.31% vs. 1.50%, respectively). Third, effects of genetic modification on the efficiency of SCNT were investigated with transgenic fetal fibroblasts (TFFs) and gene knockout fetal fibroblasts (KOFFs). Genetic modification of FFs increased developmental abnormalities (38.96% and 25.24% vs. 10.87% for KOFFs, TFFs, and FFs, respectively). KOFFs resulted in lower overall efficiency compared to TFFs and FFs (0.68% vs. 1.62% and 1.50%, respectively). In conclusion, this is the

  14. In Vitro Elongation of Porcine Embryos Using Alginate Hydrogels as a Three-Dimensional Extracellular Matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the pig, the pre-implantation period of pregnancy is highly influential on sow productivity and therefore the profitability of swine production. Between Day 11 and 12 of gestation, the embryo undergoes a significant morphological change, during which it transforms from an ovoid structure of about...

  15. Porcine embryo production following in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection from vitrified immature oocytes matured with a granulosa cell co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Casillas, Fahiel; Ducolomb, Yvonne; Lemus, Ana E; Cuello, Cristina; Betancourt, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the capacity of vitrified-warmed porcine immature oocytes to mature and to be fertilized using in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to determine the subsequent embryo development. Immature oocytes were vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethylsulphoxide as cryoprotectants and the Cryolock method. After warming oocytes were cultured 44 h for maturation. Oocytes were randomly distributed in three treatment groups and subjected to in vitro fertilization (Experiment 1) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Experiment 2) procedures. The results indicate that the embryo development was higher in denuded oocytes co-cultured with granulosa cells (NkO-CC group) fertilized by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared to cumulus-cell oocyte complexes (COCs group), showing no significant differences with control. Vitrified denuded oocytes matured with a co-culture system NkO-CC group, displayed higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production than vitrified COCs group. Blastocysts were successfully obtained after IVF and ICSI procedures; however, the development to the blastocyst stage was better after IVF. These results show that the vitrification-warming media, the employment of a granulosa cell co-culture system and the Cryolock method during vitrification, increased the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of vitrified porcine immature oocytes. Further experiments are required to enhance porcine embryo production after vitrification.

  16. Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome-wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Oh, Jong-Nam; Park, Chi-Hun; Lee, Dong-Kyung; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-11-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an epigenetic mechanism that occurs in the eutherian embryo development to equalize the dosage of X-linked genes between males and females. This event is regulated by various factors, and the genes located in the X-chromosome inactivation center (XIC), which is known to be an evolutionary conserved region, are associated with XCI; however, a number of studies regarding this epigenetic event and genomic region are primarily performed in mouse models despite its species-specific features. Thus, in this study, the porcine XIC was identified, and we analyzed the expression of XIC-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the porcine XIC is synteny with that of human and the non-coding RNAs were less conserved compared with the protein coding genes in the XIC. Among the XIC-linked genes, the expression levels of CHIC1 and RLIM were decreased from morula to blastocyst development and their dosage was compensated between the male and female blastocysts. Additionally, the CpG sites of CHIC1 were approximately 50% methylated in parthenote blastocysts. Contrary to these genes, XIST and LOC102165544, an uncharacterized non-coding gene, showed dramatically increased expression levels after the morula stage and preferential female expression in blastocysts. Imprinted XIST expression was not observed, and their CpG sites were hypo-methylated in parthenogenic blastocysts. These results demonstrate that the porcine XIC consists of an evolutionary conserved structure with fewer sequences conserved non-coding RNAs. In addition, a few XIC-linked genes would likely achieve dosage compensation, but XCI would not be completed in porcine blastocysts.

  17. Vesicles Cytoplasmic Injection: An Efficient Technique to Produce Porcine Transgene-Expressing Embryos.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, C G; Bevacqua, R J; Lorenzo, M S; Tello, M F; Willis, M; Buemo, C P; Lombardo, D M; Salamone, D F

    2016-08-01

    The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids showed to improve the efficiency of cytoplasmic injection of transgenes in cattle. Here, this technique was tested as a simplified alternative for transgenes delivery in porcine zygotes. To this aim, cytoplasmic injection of the plasmid alone was compared to the injection with plasmids co-incubated with vesicles both in diploid parthenogenic and IVF zygotes. The plasmid pcx-egfp was injected circular (CP) at 3, 30 and 300 ng/μl and linear (LP) at 30 ng/μl. The experimental groups using parthenogenetic zygotes were as follows: CP naked at 3 ng/μl (N = 105), 30 ng/μl (N = 95) and 300 ng/μl (N = 65); Sham (N = 105); control not injected (N = 223); LP naked at 30 ng/μl (N = 78); LP vesicles (N = 115) and Sham vesicles (N = 59). For IVF zygotes: LP naked (N = 44) LP vesicles (N = 94), Sham (N = 59) and control (N = 79). Cleavage, blastocyst and GFP+ rates were analysed by Fisher's test (p < 0.05). The parthenogenic CP naked group showed lower cleavage respect to control (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of plasmids to allow development to blastocyst stage was 30 ng/μl. There were no differences in DNA fragmentation between groups. The parthenogenic LP naked group resulted in high GFP rates (46%) and also allowed the production of GFP blastocysts (33%). The cytoplasmic injection with LP vesicles into parthenogenic zygotes allowed 100% GFP blastocysts. Injected IVF showed higher cleavage rates than control (p < 0.05). In IVF zygotes, only the use of vesicles produced GFP blastocysts. The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids improves the transgene expression efficiency for cytoplasmic injection in porcine zygotes and constitutes a simple technique for easy delivery of plasmids.

  18. Comparison of the effects of pretreatment with Veramix sponge (medroxyprogesterone acetate) or CIDR (natural progesterone) in combination with an injection of estradiol-17β on ovarian activity, endocrine profiles, and embryo yields in cyclic ewes superovulated in the multiple-dose Folltropin-V (porcine FSH) regimen.

    PubMed

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Szpila, Patrycja; Oliveira, Maria E F; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Kridli, Rami T; Zieba, Dorota A

    2015-10-15

    Follicular wave status at the beginning of exogenous FSH administration is an important contributor to variability in superovulatory responses in ruminants. Studies in ewes have shown a decrease in the number of ovulations when superovulation is initiated in the presence of ostensibly ovulatory-sized ovarian follicles. Hormonal ablation of large antral follicles with the progestin-estradiol (E2-17β) treatment significantly reduces this variability in superovulated anestrous ewes, but the effects of the treatment in cycling ewes have not yet been assessed. Sixteen Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes (November-December) received either medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP)-releasing intravaginal sponges (60 mg) or controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices (containing 300 mg of natural progesterone) for 14 days (Days 0-14), with a single intramuscular injection of 350 μg of E2-17β on Day 6. The superovulatory treatment consisted of six injections of porcine FSH (Folltropin-V) given twice daily, followed by a bolus GnRH injection (50 μg intramuscular) on Day 15. There were no differences (P < 0.05) in the ovulatory responses and embryo yields between the two groups of ewes. In both subsets of animals, the next follicular wave emerged ∼2.5 days after an E2-17β injection (P > 0.05). A decline in maximum follicle size after an E2-17β injection was more abrupt in CIDR- compared with MAP-treated animals, and the ewes pretreated with exogenous progesterone had significantly more 3-mm follicles at the start of the superovulatory treatment. The metabolic clearance rate of exogenous E2-17β appeared to be greater in MAP-treated ewes, but circulating concentrations of porcine FSH failed to increase significantly after each Folltropin-V injection in CIDR-treated animals. The CIDR-treated ewes exceeded (P < 0.05) their MAP-treated counterparts in serum E2-17β concentrations during superovulation. In spite of differences in antral follicle numbers and endocrine profiles

  19. TSA and BIX-01294 Induced Normal DNA and Histone Methylation and Increased Protein Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Biao; Zuo, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hui; Ding, Jianping; Li, Yunsheng; Huang, Weiping; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-01-01

    The poor efficiency of animal cloning is mainly attributed to the defects in epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells’ chromatins during early embryonic development. Previous studies indicated that inhibition of histone deacetylases or methyltransferase, such as G9A, using Trichostatin A (TSA) or BIX-01294 significantly enhanced the developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, potential mechanisms underlying the improved early developmental competence of SCNT embryos exposed to TSA and BIX-01294 are largely unclear. Here we found that 50 nM TSA or 1.0 μM BIX-01294 treatment alone for 24 h significantly elevated the blastocyst rate (P < 0.05), while further improvement was not observed under combined treatment condition. Furthermore, co-treatment or TSA treatment alone significantly reduced H3K9me2 level at the 4-cell stage, which is comparable with that in in vivo and in vitro fertilized counterparts. However, only co-treatment significantly decreased the levels of 5mC and H3K9me2 in trophectoderm lineage and subsequently increased the expression of OCT4 and CDX2 associated with ICM and TE lineage differentiation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that co-treatment of TSA and BIX-01294 enhances the early developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos via improvements in epigenetic status and protein expression. PMID:28114389

  20. Effect of Trans-ε-Viniferin on In Vitro Porcine Oocyte Maturation and Subsequent Developmental Competence in Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    JEON, Yubyeol; KWAK, Seong-Sung; CHEONG, Seung-A; SEONG, Yeon Hee; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trans-ε-viniferin is a naturally occurring polyphenol belonging to the stilbenoid family that has been isolated from Vitis amurensis, one of the most common wild grapes in Asia. We investigated the effects of trans-ε-viniferin on in vitro maturation (IVM) and developmental competence after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or parthenogenesis (PA). We observed that trans-ε-viniferin treatment during IVM did not improve nuclear maturation rates of oocytes in any group, but significantly increased (P<0.05) intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the 0.5 µM treatment group. Trans-ε-viniferin treatment during IVM of recipient oocytes promoted higher (P<0.05) expression of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) mRNA in the 0.5 µM treatment group as compared with the control group. However, the expression of essential transcriptional and apoptosis-related genes did not significantly differ from that of the control. In cumulus cells, pro-apoptosis gene expressions were changed as apoptosis decreased. Oocytes treated with trans-ε-viniferin during IVM did not have significantly different cleavage rates or blastocyst formation rates after PA, but total cell numbers were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the 0.5 and 5.0 µM treatment groups compared with those in the control group. IVF embryos showed similar results. In conclusion, these results indicate that trans-ε-viniferin treatment during porcine IVM increased the total cell number of blastocysts, possibly by increasing intracellular GSH synthesis, reducing ROS levels, increasing DNMT1 gene expression of oocytes and decreasing pro-apoptosis gene expressions of cumulus cells. PMID:23698084

  1. Expression of Six Proteins Causes Reprogramming of Porcine Fibroblasts Into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells With Both Active X Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tani, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Seiki; Donai, Kenichiro; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Miyagawa, Makoto; Song, Sanghoun; Onuma, Manabu; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei; Honda, Arata

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we created porcine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with the expression of six reprogramming factors (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc, Lin28, and Nanog). The resulting cells showed growth dependent on LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and expression of multiple stem cell markers. Furthermore, the iPS cells caused teratoma formation with three layers of differentiation and had both active X chromosomes (XaXa). Our iPS cells satisfied the both of important characteristics of stem cells: teratoma formation and activation of both X chromosomes. Injection of these iPS cells into morula stage embryos showed that these cells participate in the early stage of porcine embryogenesis. Furthermore, the RNA-Seq analysis detected that expression levels of endogenous pluripotent related genes, NANOG, SOX2, ZFP42, OCT3/4, ESRRB, and ERAS were much higher in iPS with six factors than that with four reprogramming factors. We can conclude that the expression of six reprogramming factors enables the creation of porcine iPS cells, which is partially close to naive iPS state. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 537-553, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively.

  3. The effect of soluble uterine factors on porcine embryo development within a three-dimensional alginate matrix system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between day 10 and 12 of gestation in the pig, the embryo undergoes a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation. During elongation the embryo produces and secretes estrogen, which serves as a key signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy. The uterine environment prepares for embryo elong...

  4. Zinc modulates PPARgamma signaling and activation of porcine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Meerarani, Purushothaman; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Hennig, Bernhard

    2003-10-01

    Dietary zinc has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is a critical component of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene expression and regulation. To assess the protective mechanisms of PPARgamma in endothelial cell dysfunction and the role of zinc in the modulation of PPARgamma signaling, cultured porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were exposed to the membrane-permeable zinc chelator N,N,N'N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylene diamine (TPEN), thiazolidinedione (TZD; PPARgamma agonist) or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE; PPARgamma antagonist). Subsequently, endothelial cells were activated by treatment with linoleic acid (90 micro mol/L) for 6 h. Zinc chelation by TPEN increased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1, decreased PPARgamma expression and activation as well as up-regulated interleukin (IL)-6 expression and production. These effects were fully reversed by zinc supplementation. In addition, exposure to TZD down-regulated linoleic acid-induced DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1, whereas BADGE further induced activation of these oxidative stress-sensitive transcription factors. Most importantly, the TZD-mediated down-regulation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and reduced inflammatory response were impaired during zinc chelation. These data suggest that zinc plays a critical role in PPARgamma signaling in linoleic acid-induced endothelial cell activation and indicate that PPARgamma signaling is impaired during zinc deficiency.

  5. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  6. Non-surgical deep intrauterine transfer of superfine open pulled straw (SOPS)-vitrified porcine embryos: evaluation of critical steps of the procedure.

    PubMed

    Gomis, J; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Parrilla, I; Angel, M A; Maside, C; del Olmo, D; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2012-10-01

    transferred to each of 10 gilts. Five recipients farrowed an average of 10.4 ± 0.9 piglets. In conclusion, the method of one-step warming in a syringe has a negative effect on the in vitro and in vivo viability of SOPS-vitrified porcine embryos. In addition, NET of SOPS-vitrified embryos warmed by the one-step method in a dish showed promising reproductive performance of recipients. However, despite the great potential of this technology, further developments are required for large-scale commercial applications.

  7. Zygotic genome activation in isogenic and hybrid plant embryos.

    PubMed

    Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2016-02-01

    Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is the onset of large-scale transcription that occurs after fertilization. In animal embryos, ZGA occurs after a period of transcriptional quiescence that varies between species. In plants, the timing of ZGA may also vary between species, and may or may not occur in a parent-of-origin dependent manner: some studies have shown a maternal bias in mRNA transcripts and gene activity in early embryogenesis, while other experiments have found the contribution of maternal and paternal genomes to be equal. In order to differentiate between maternal and paternal mRNAs, RNA sequencing studies of ZGA in plants have used embryos hybrid for polymorphic accessions. A recent genetic assay in Arabidopsis demonstrated significant variation in paternal allele activity between some hybrid combinations and isogenic embryos, as well as between different hybrid combinations, suggesting a possible source for conflicting results obtained by various experiments on paternal genome activation. We review recent literature on paternal genome activation studies in the zygote in both isogenic and hybrid embryos, and discuss possible explanations for the effects of hybridization on gene expression in early embryogenesis in plants.

  8. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  9. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  10. Prediction of porcine blastocyst formation using morphological, kinetic, and amino acid depletion and appearance criteria determined during the early cleavage of in vitro-produced embryos.

    PubMed

    Booth, Paul J; Watson, Terry J; Leese, Henry J

    2007-11-01

    The determination for early cleavage-stage embryos of noninvasive morphologic and metabolic criteria that are predictive of blastocyst development and/or full-term viability remains an important research target. We describe the derivation of a logistic regression model that predicts the probability of porcine blastocyst formation in vitro. Pig zygotes, derived by in vitro maturation and fertilization of slaughterhouse oocytes, were cultured in NCSU-23 medium that was supplemented with a mixture of 20 amino acids (NCSU-23(aa)). On Day 1, at 21, 23, 25, 27, 29 and 31 h postinsemination, cleaving embryos were evaluated morphologically in terms of the: i) number of blastomeres, ii) evenness of division, and iii) degree of fragmentation. These embryos were then placed in 1.5-microl drops of NCSU-23(aa) for 24 h, after which time the three morphologic criteria were re-evaluated and 1.2 microl of spent medium were removed for analysis by HPLC, in order to determine the net rates of amino acid depletion and appearance. Embryos were then cultured singly in NCSU-23(aa) by placing them between the filaments of a woven polyester mesh until Day 6, in order to permit the identification of individual embryos. Of 256 cleaved embryos, 28.7 +/- 6.2% (n = 5 replicates) developed into blastocysts. Discriminant analysis was used to select a subset of amino acids (threonine, valine, lysine, and phenylalanine) that discriminated optimally between embryos that became blastocysts or degenerated. These discriminant scores were entered into the logistic regression. Significant univariate relationships were established between the probability of blastocyst development and amino acid score (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.69, P < 0.001), cleavage time (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71-0.87, P < 0.001), degree of fragmentation on Day 1 (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.84, P = 0.009) and Day 2 (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.78, P = 0.002), evenness of division on Day 2 (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0

  11. Altered expression of BRG1 and histone demethylases, and aberrant H3K4 methylation in less developmentally competent embryos at the time of embryonic genome activation.

    PubMed

    Glanzner, Werner G; Wachter, Audrey; Coutinho, Ana Rita S; Albornoz, Marcelo S; Duggavathi, Raj; GonÇAlves, Paulo B D; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics is a fundamental regulator underlying many biological functions, such as development and cell differentiation. Epigenetic modifications affect key chromatin regulation, including transcription and DNA repair, which are critical for normal embryo development. In this study, we profiled the expression of epigenetic modifiers and patterns of epigenetic changes in porcine embryos around the period of embryonic genome activation (EGA). We observed that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) and Lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), which can alter the methylation status of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4), localize to the nucleus at Day 3-4 of development. We then compared the abundance of epigenetic modifiers between early- and late-cleaving embryos, which were classified based on the time to the first cell cleavage, to investigate if their nuclear localization contributes to developmental competence. The mRNA abundance of BRG1, KDM1A, as well as other lysine demethylases (KDM1B, KDM5A, KDM5B, and KDM5C), were significantly higher in late- compared to early-cleaving embryos near the EGA period, although these difference disappeared at the blastocyst stage. The abundance of H3K4 mono- (H3K4me) and di-methylation (H3K4me2) during the EGA period was reduced in late-cleaving and less developmentally competent embryos. By contrast, BRG1, KDM1A, and H3K4me2 abundance was greater in embryos with more than eight cells at Day 3-4 of development compared to those with fewer than four cells. These findings suggest that altered epigenetic modifications of H3K4 around the EGA period may affect the developmental capacity of porcine embryos to reach the blastocyst stage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  13. Use of a novel polydimethylsiloxane well insert to successfully mature, culture and identify single porcine oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Paczkowski, Melissa; Wheeler, Matthew B; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) well-insert system for oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) in pigs. The PDMS well inserts, consisting of multiple microwells with connecting microchannels, resulted in equivalent blastocyst development compared with standard microdrop culture for IVC. These PDMS well inserts were then evaluated for IVM or IVC in a rocking versus static environment. The rocking environment during both oocyte IVM and embryo culture had detrimental effects on oocyte and embryo development compared with a static environment. Importantly, blastocyst development of oocytes and embryos cultured in the PDMS well inserts in the static environment was equivalent to that of standard microdrops. Further analysis of transcript abundance in blastocysts produced from these different environments revealed that the PDMS well-insert system may produce more viable embryos. In conclusion, this PDMS well-insert system can successfully mature oocytes and culture embryos in an individually-identifiable manner without compromising, and perhaps enhancing, developmental potential.

  14. Molecular Evolution of the Porcine Type I Interferon Family: Subtype-Specific Expression and Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Bergkamp, Joseph; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs), key antiviral cytokines, evolve to adapt with ever-changing viral threats during vertebrate speciation. Due to novel pathogenic pressure associated with Suidae speciation and domestication, porcine IFNs evolutionarily engender both molecular and functional diversification, which have not been well addressed in pigs, an important livestock species and animal model for biomedical sciences. Annotation of current swine genome assembly Sscrofa10.2 reveals 57 functional genes and 16 pseudogenes of type I IFNs. Subfamilies of multiple IFNA, IFNW and porcine-specific IFND genes are separated into four clusters with ∼60 kb intervals within the IFNB/IFNE bordered region in SSC1, and each cluster contains mingled subtypes of IFNA, IFNW and IFND. Further curation of the 57 functional IFN genes indicates that they include 18 potential artifactual duplicates. We performed phylogenetic construction as well as analyses of gene duplication/conversion and natural selection and showed that porcine type I IFN genes have been undergoing active diversification through both gene duplication and conversion. Extensive analyses of the non-coding sequences proximal to all IFN coding regions identified several genomic repetitive elements significantly associated with different IFN subtypes. Family-wide studies further revealed their molecular diversity with respect to differential expression and restrictive activity on the resurgence of a porcine endogenous retrovirus. Based on predicted 3-D structures of representative animal IFNs and inferred activity, we categorized the general functional propensity underlying the structure-activity relationship. Evidence indicates gene expansion of porcine type I IFNs. Genomic repetitive elements that associated with IFN subtypes may serve as molecular signatures of respective IFN subtypes and genomic mechanisms to mediate IFN gene evolution and expression. In summary, the porcine type I IFN profile has been phylogenetically

  15. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  16. Evaluation of a quali embryo model for the detection of botulism toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Japanese quail embryo (Coturnix japonica) was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving ...

  17. Evaluation of a quail embryo model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quail embryo was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving 20 ng of BoNT or higher had m...

  18. Influence of embryo handling and transfer method on pig cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Luo, Lvhua; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Haiyu; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dewu; Zeng, Fang; Cai, Gengyuan; Ji, Hongmei; Tang, Fei; Wang, Qinglai; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2015-03-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique could be used to produce genetically superior or genetically engineered cloned pigs that have wide application in agriculture and bioscience research. However, the efficiency of porcine SCNT currently is very low. Embryo transfer (ET) is a key step for the success of SCNT. In this study, the effects of several ET-related factors, including cloned embryo culture time, recipient's ovulation status, co-transferred helper embryos and ET position, on the success rate of pig cloning were investigated. The results indicated that transfer of cloned embryos cultured for a longer time (22-24h vs. 4-6h) into pre-ovulatory sows decreased recipient's pregnancy rate and farrowing rate, and use of pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory sows as recipients for SCNT embryos cultured for 22-24h resulted in a similar porcine SCNT efficiency. Use of insemination-produced in vivo fertilized, parthenogenetically activated and in vitro fertilized embryos as helper embryos to establish and/or maintain pregnancy of SCNT embryos recipients could not improve the success rate of porcine SCNT. Transfer of cloned embryos into double oviducts of surrogates significantly increased pregnancy rate as well as farrowing rate of recipients, and the developmental rate of transferred cloned embryos, as compared to unilateral oviduct transfer. This study provided useful information for optimization of the embryo handling and transfer protocol, which will help to improve the ability to generate cloned pigs.

  19. Supplementation with spermine during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes improves early embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Jin, J X; Lee, S; Khoirinaya, C; Oh, A; Kim, G A; Lee, B C

    2016-03-01

    Spermine plays an important role in protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells, but there are few studies on the effects of spermine on porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spermine on in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and their developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We evaluated nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH), and ROS levels in oocytes, and their subsequent embryonic development, as well as gene expression in mature oocytes, cumulus cells, and PA blastocysts. After treatment with various concentrations of spermine in IVM culture medium, there was no significant difference in nuclear maturation rate. However, spermine treatment groups (10- 500 µM) showed significantly increased intracellular GSH levels and decreased ROS levels compared to the control ( < 0.05). Furthermore, 10 µM spermine supported significantly higher blastocyst formation rates after PA than the control group ( < 0.05). According to the optimal condition from the PA results, we investigated the effects of 10 µM spermine on SCNT, and it also significantly improved blastocyst formation rates compared with the control group ( < 0.05). In evaluating the effects of 10 µM spermine on gene expression, there was significantly lower expression of a proapoptotic gene () and higher expression of an antiapoptotic gene () in cumulus cells ( < 0.05). was increased in spermine-treated oocytes. Levels of transcription for and were significantly increased in PA blastocysts. In conclusion, 10 µM spermine supplementation during IVM improved the development of porcine PA and SCNT embryos by increasing intracellular GSH, scavenging ROS levels, and regulating gene expression.

  20. The Recipients' Parity Does Not Influence Their Reproductive Performance Following Non-Surgical Deep Uterine Porcine Embryo Transfer.

    PubMed

    Martinez, E A; Nohalez, A; Martinez, C A; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Cuello, C; Gil, M A

    2016-02-01

    With the development of the non-surgical deep uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) technology, the commercial applicability of ET in pigs is now possible. There are, nevertheless, many factors that influence NsDU-ET effectiveness that need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the weaned recipients' parity on fertility and prolificacy following NsDU-ET. The recipients (n = 120) were selected based on their reproductive history and body condition and grouped into three categories according to their parity: primiparous sows, sows of parity 2 and sows of parities from 3 to 5. Thirty fresh embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) were non-surgically transferred into one uterine horn of each recipient. It was possible to insert the NsDU-ET catheter through the cervix along a uterine horn in 98.3% of the recipients. The parity had no influence on the difficulty grade of the insertions or on the percentage of correct insertions. The cervix and uterine wall were not perforated during the insertions, and vaginal discharge was not observed after transfer in any of the recipients. There were no differences in the pregnancy rates (74.8%), farrowing rates (71.2%) or litter sizes (9.6 ± 3.3) between groups. Also, there were no differences between groups regarding to the piglets' birthweights or piglet production efficiency. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that weaned sows from parity 1 to 5 are appropriate to be used as recipients in NsDU-ET programs, which increase the possibilities for the utilization of ET in the recipient farms.

  1. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kito, Seiji; Minami, Naojiro; Kubota, Toshiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic materials sequestered by autophagosomes are degraded in lysosomes. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is highly activated after fertilization and is essential for further embryonic development. Here, we developed a simple fluorescence-based method for visualizing autophagic activity in live mouse embryos. Our method is based on imaging of the fluorescence intensity of GFP-LC3, a versatile marker for autophagy, which is microinjected into the embryos. Using this method, we show that embryonic autophagic activity declines with advancing maternal age, probably due to a decline in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also demonstrate that embryonic autophagic activity is associated with the developmental viability of the embryo. Our results suggest that embryonic autophagic activity can be utilized as a novel indicator of embryo quality. PMID:24681842

  2. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kito, Seiji; Minami, Naojiro; Kubota, Toshiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2014-03-01

    Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic materials sequestered by autophagosomes are degraded in lysosomes. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is highly activated after fertilization and is essential for further embryonic development. Here, we developed a simple fluorescence-based method for visualizing autophagic activity in live mouse embryos. Our method is based on imaging of the fluorescence intensity of GFP-LC3, a versatile marker for autophagy, which is microinjected into the embryos. Using this method, we show that embryonic autophagic activity declines with advancing maternal age, probably due to a decline in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also demonstrate that embryonic autophagic activity is associated with the developmental viability of the embryo. Our results suggest that embryonic autophagic activity can be utilized as a novel indicator of embryo quality.

  3. A single nucleotide polymorphism of porcine MX2 gene provides antiviral activity against vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Tungtrakoolsub, Pullop; Morozumi, Takeya; Uenishi, Hirohide; Kawahara, Manabu; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in porcine MX2 gene affect its antiviral potential. MX proteins are known to suppress the multiplication of several viruses, including influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). In domestic animals possessing highly polymorphic genome, our previous research indicated that a specific SNP in chicken Mx gene was responsible for its antiviral function. However, there still has been no information about SNPs in porcine MX2 gene. In this study, we first conducted polymorphism analysis in 17 pigs of MX2 gene derived from seven breeds. Consequently, a total of 30 SNPs, of which 11 were deduced to cause amino acid variations, were detected, suggesting that the porcine MX2 is very polymorphic. Next, we classified MX2 into eight alleles (A1-A8) and subsequently carried out infectious experiments with recombinant VSVΔG*-G to each allele. In A1-A5 and A8, position 514 amino acid (514 aa) of MX2 was glycine (Gly), which did not inhibit VSV multiplication, whereas in A6 and A7, 514 aa was arginine (Arg), which exhibited the antiviral ability against VSV. These results demonstrate that a SNP at 514 aa (Gly-Arg) of porcine MX2 plays a pivotal role in the antiviral activity as well as that at 631 aa of chicken Mx.

  4. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulism toxin serotypes A, B E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng and chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  5. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin serotypes A, B, E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng adn chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  6. Dehydrogenase and Oxoreductase Activities of Porcine Placental 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    dehydrogenase (IIB-HSD) were measured in tissue fragment cultures on day 75 of gestation. Dehydrogenase activity was over fivefold greater than oxoreductase...oxoreductase activities in porcine placentae under physiological conditions using placental explant culture and endogenous concentrations of coenzymes and...f!M range). In human placental tissue fragments at midterm and late pregnancy ( 12, 18) and in trophoblast cell cultures from term placentae ( 41

  7. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  8. Cytoskeleton structure, pattern of mitochondrial activity and ultrastructure of frozen or vitrified sheep embryos.

    PubMed

    Dalcin, Luciana; Silva, Renata C; Paulini, Fernanda; Silva, Bianca D M; Neves, Jairo P; Lucci, Carolina M

    2013-10-01

    Even though sheep embryo cryopreservation is a commonly used procedure the survival and pregnancy outcomes can vary greatly. This study investigated whether cryopreservation was causing subtle changes in ultrastructure, mitochondrial activity or cytoskeletal integrity. Sheep embryos were either slow cooled in 1.5 M EG (n = 22), or vitrified in 20% EG + 20% DMSO with 0.5 M sucrose in Open Pulled Straws (OPS) (n = 24). One hour after warming the cryopreserved embryos differed from control embryos in that they had no mitochondrial activity combined with cytoskeletal disorganization and large vesicles. Vitrified embryos also showed many points of cytoskeleton disruption. Ultrastructural alterations resulting from actin filaments disorganization were observed in both cryopreserved groups. This includes areas presenting no cytoplasmic organelles, Golgi complex located far from the nucleus and a decrease of specialized intercellular junctions. Additionally, large vesicles were observed in vitrified morulae and early blastocysts. The alterations after cryopreservation were proportional to embryo quality as assessed using the stereomicroscope. Even in the absence of mitochondrial activity, grade I and II cryopreserved embryos contained mitochondria with normal ultrastructure. Embryos classified as grade I or II in the stereomicroscope revealed mild ultrastructural alterations, meaning that this tool is efficient to evaluate embryos after cryopreservation.

  9. Secretory expression of porcine interferon-gamma in baculovirus using HBM signal peptide and its inhibition activity on the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Wang, Zhen-Ya; Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Bao-An; Wang, Ya-Bin; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Rui

    2009-12-15

    The gene sequence encoding mature porcine interferon-gamma (PoIFN-gamma) fused with a C-terminal 6x histidine tag was cloned into the baculovirus pFastBac Dual vector of the Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus expression system under the control of PH promoter. The authentic signal sequence of porcine interferon-gamma was substituted with the honeybee melittin (HBM) signal sequence, and expressed in insect cells. The recombinant proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and immunofluorescence assay. The nickel affinity column purified recombinant porcine interferon-gamma with HBM signal peptide (rPoIFN-gammaH) was shown to be a 19kDa protein as confirmed by Western blot analysis. The recombinant PoIFN-gammaH was shown to have cytokine activity, inhibiting the cytopathic effect of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in PK-15 cells at about 1.07x10(6)U/mL. The 2(-7) dilution of the rPoIFN-gammaH in culture supernatant protected the MARC-145 cells from the cytopathic effect caused by 100TCID(50) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

  10. Cloning and transcriptional activity analysis of the porcine cofilin 2 gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Mei; Lang, Bin; Zhu, Hong-yan; Du, Hai-ting; Tian, Yu-min; Su, Yu-hong

    2014-09-01

    Cofilins (CFL), including CFL1 and CFL2, are members of the family of actin-binding proteins in eukaryote. CFL2 is predominantly expressed in mammalian skeletal muscle and heart and is important to muscle fiber formation and muscular regeneration. To study transcriptional regulation of porcine CFL2, a 2.5 kb upstream sequence starting from the major CFL2 transcriptional start site was cloned by genome walking. Twelve DNA fragments of the 5' flank region of the porcine CFL2 gene were further isolated from porcine genomic DNA via PCR and inserted into the luciferase reporter vector pGL4.10 to make 12 CFL2 reporter constructs. All reporter vectors were transfected into C2C12, NIH3T3, or Hela cells and their relative luciferase activity measured after 48 h, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that there were two TATA-boxes at the -508 bp and -453 bp, as well as a GC-box and a CAAT-box in this sequence. Additional transcription factor binding sites including SP1, AP1, AP2, and GATA-1 sites were also predicted. The transcriptional activity of pGL4.10-1554 (1502 bp to +51 bp) was the strongest, and the promoter's active region was mapped to a region from -1502 bp to -1317 bp. Our data provide a foundation for future studies into transcriptional regulation of CFL2.

  11. Detection of botulinum toxin types A, B, E, and F activity using the quail embryo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently demonstrated an effective new model for the detection of botulinum toxin type A using quail embryos in place of the mouse model. These experiments demonstrated that the Japanese quail embryo at 15 days of incubation was an effective vertebrate animal model to detect the activity of botu...

  12. Effects of fluoridation of porcine hydroxyapatite on osteoblastic activity of human MG63 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Baoxin; Mai, Sui; Wu, Xiayi; Zhang, Hanqing; Qiao, Wei; Luo, Xin; Chen, Zhuofan

    2015-06-01

    Biological hydroxyapatite, derived from animal bones, is the most widely used bone substitute in orthopedic and dental treatments. Fluorine is the trace element involved in bone remodeling and has been confirmed to promote osteogenesis when administered at the appropriate dose. To take advantage of this knowledge, fluorinated porcine hydroxyapatite (FPHA) incorporating increasing levels of fluoride was derived from cancellous porcine bone through straightforward chemical and thermal treatments. Physiochemical characteristics, including crystalline phases, functional groups and dissolution behavior, were investigated on this novel FPHA. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the FPHA to examine cell attachment, cytoskeleton, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation for in vitro cellular evaluation. Results suggest that fluoride ions released from the FPHA play a significant role in stimulating osteoblastic activity in vitro, and appropriate level of fluoridation (1.5 to 3.1 atomic percents of fluorine) for the FPHA could be selected with high potential for use as a bone substitute.

  13. Elevated endometrial natural killer cell activity during early porcine pregnancy is conceptus-mediated.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Croy, B A; Chapeau, C; King, G J

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated an extended time course of endometrial NK cell activity during gestation and the mechanisms underlying changes in uterine NK cell activity in pigs. Endometrial tissues were collected from cyclic, pseudopregnant and pregnant nulliparous pigs on various days post-estrus, and from pigs 10 days after insemination with seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa. NK effector cells were isolated from each endometrial sample, size fractionated and tested for cytolytic activity against NK target cells (K562) using chromium release assays and immunocytochemically for the frequency of perforin-positive cells. Various cell fractions showed different levels of NK activity and had different proportions of cells expressing perforin. Morphologically, cells in the fraction with maximal NK activity almost all showed typical lymphocyte size and shape. Substantially elevated NK cell activity was recorded in pregnant pigs on days 10 and 20 of gestation. By day 30, the cytolytic activity declined dramatically to an almost undetectable level. Very little activity was found in uterine cells isolated from cyclic, pseudopregnant, and seminal plasma or killed spermatozoa inseminated animals, and no differences were detected either between follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle or between different days of pseudopregnancy. These results indicate that elevated NK cell activity during early porcine pregnancy cannot be attributed to contributions from either the maternal systemic endocrine status or from components of boar semen. The changes in NK cell activity observed in porcine endometrial tissues during early pregnancy must therefore be associated with the actual presence of conceptuses.

  14. Photochemical activation increases the porcine corneal stiffness and resistance to collagenase digestion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ti; Peng, Yinbo; Shen, Nianci; Yu, Yan; Yao, Min; Zhu, Jingyin

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we explore the effect of photochemical activation induced corneal cross-linking, utilizing Rose Bengal (RB) and 532 nm green light irradiation (RB-PCL), on porcine corneal biomechanical rigidity and the biochemical resistance against collagenase digestion. A protocol with a wavelength of 532 nm and illumination intensity of 0.4W/cm(2) for 250 s to deliver a dose of 100 J/cm(2) was chosen. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that the diffusion depth of RB into porcine cornea was approximately 150 μm and mostly localized in anterior stroma 25 min followed by RB application. After photochemical cross-linking, an increase in tensile strength (by average 200%) and Young's modulus (by average 200%) in porcine corneas was observed. The corneal buttons treated by RB-PCL showed doubling of collagenase digestion time from 10.8 ± 3.1 days in the blank group to 19.7 ± 6.2 days in the RB-PCL group, indicating increased resistance to enzymatic digestion. In conclusion, Collagen cross-linking by RB-PCL increased both the biomechanical stiffness and the biochemical resistance against collagenase digestion in porcine corneas, therefore to allow stabilizing and solidifier the cornea. The advantages and disadvantages of RB-PCL versus UVA/riboflavin cross-linking technique (UV-CXL) are fully explored. Due to the nature of minimal penetration of RB into corneal stroma, the RB-PCL method could potentially be used in patients with corneal thickness less than 400 μm where UV-CXL is limited.

  15. The decellularized porcine heart valve matrix in tissue engineering: platelet adhesion and activation.

    PubMed

    Kasimir, Marie-Theres; Weigel, Guenter; Sharma, Jyotindra; Rieder, Erwin; Seebacher, Gernot; Wolner, Ernst; Simon, Paul

    2005-09-01

    An approach in tissue engineering of heart valves is the use of decellularized xenogeneic matrices to avoid immune response after implantation. The decellularization process must preserve the structural components of the extracellular matrix to provide a biomechanically stable scaffold. However, it is known that in vascular lesions platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix components occurs and platelet activation is induced. In the present study we examined the effects of a decellularized porcine heart valve matrix on thrombocyte activation and the influence of re-endothelialisation in vitro. Porcine pulmonary conduits were decellularized using Triton X-100, Na-deoxycholate and Igepal CA-630 followed by a ribonuclease digestion. Cryostat sections of decellularized heart valves with and without seeding with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with platelet rich plasma. Samples were either stained with fluorescent antibodies for CD41 and PAC-I (recognizing the activated fibrinogen receptor) or fixed with glutaraldehyde. Thereafter, the samples were processed for laser scanning microscopy (LSM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Examination by LSM showed numerous platelets with co-localized staining for CD41 and PAC-1 on the nonseeded decellularized heart valve matrix whereas after seeding with endothelial cells no platelet activation was detected. SEM revealed platelet adhesion and aggregate formation only on the surface of the non-seeded or partially denuded matrix specimens. We show in this study that the decellularized porcine matrix acts as a platelet-activating surface. Seeding with endothelial cells effectively abolishes the platelet adhesion and activation and therefore is necessary to eliminate thrombogenicity in tissue engineered heart valves.

  16. Characterization of the effects of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis and on AMP-activated protein kinase activation in oocytes and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Magyara, Nora; Collignon, Coralie

    2014-05-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin (MET) inhibit resumption of meiosis in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The objective of this study was to characterize the inhibitory effect of MET on porcine oocyte meiosis by: (1) determining the effects of an AMPK inhibitor and of inhibitors of signalling pathways involved in MET-induced AMPK activation in other cell types on MET-mediated meiotic arrest in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes; (2) determining whether MET and AICAR treatments lead to increased activation of porcine oocyte and/or cumulus cell AMPK as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase; and (3) determining the effects of inhibition of the AMPK kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), and Ca2+ chelation on oocyte meiotic maturation and AMPK activation in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC; 1 μM) did not reverse the inhibitory effect of AICAR (1 mM) and MET (2 mM) on porcine oocyte meiosis. Additionally, CC had a significant inhibitory effect on its own. eNOS, c-Src and PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitors did not reverse the effect of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis. The level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in oocytes and cumulus cells did not change in response to culture in the presence of MET, AICAR, CC, the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM for 3 h, but STO-609 increased the percentage of porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) that remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of culture. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of MET and AICAR on porcine oocyte meiosis was probably not mediated through activation of AMPK.

  17. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on porcine gastrointestinal electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Wechsung, E; Houvenaghel, A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of intravenous infusion of VIP, 150 and 300 pmol/kg/min, on gastrointestinal electrical activity was studied in conscious piglets with electrodes implanted in the wall of the antrum pylori, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Both doses resulted in a decrease in antral electrical activity. In the small intestine, only the lower dose caused a shortening of the irregular spiking activity phase in the jejunum and ileum. In the jejunum this resulted in a reduction of the MMC interval. It may be concluded that the prevailing effect of VIP is an inhibition of gastrointestinal electrical activity in the piglet.

  18. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  19. Characterization of the peptidase activity of recombinant porcine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-2.

    PubMed

    Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Green, Jonathan A

    2008-12-01

    The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) belong to the aspartic peptidase family. They are expressed exclusively in trophoblasts of even-toed ungulates such as swine, cattle, sheep, etc. In pigs, two distinct PAG transcripts (and some variants) have been described. One of the transcripts, porcine PAG-1 (poPAG-1) may not be capable of acting as a peptidase. The second transcript, poPAG-2, possesses a conserved catalytic centre and has been predicted, but not shown, to have proteolytic activity. The thrust of this work was to test such a possibility. PoPAG-2 was expressed as a recombinant protein with an amino-terminal 'FLAG-tag' in a Baculoviral expression system. The expressed proteins were affinity purified by using an anti-FLAG antibody. The purified preparations were then analysed for proteolytic activity against a fluorescent substrate. Porcine PAG-2 had optimal proteolytic activity around pH 3.5. Against this substrate, it had a k(cat)/K(m) of 1.2 microM(-1) s(-1) and was inhibited by the aspartic peptidase inhibitor, pepstatin A, with a K(i) of 12.5 nM. Since the proteolytic activity of PAGs in the pig has now been established, the search for putative substrates to gain insight into the physiological role of PAGs will likely be the focus of future investigations.

  20. Influence of Delipation on the Energy Metabolism in Pig Parthenogenetically Activated Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Niu, Y; Chi, D; Zeng, Y; Liu, H; Dai, Y; Li, J

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed not only to measure the effect of delipation on the developmental viability of pig parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, but also to evaluate the changes of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and gene (Acsl3, Acadsb, Acaa2, Glut1) expression level at different stages after delipation. Results showed that no effect was observed on the cleavage ability, but significant lower blastocyst rate was obtained in delipated embryos. Copy number of mtDNA decreased gradually from MII to four-cell stages and subsequently kept consistent with blastocyst stage both in delipated and control embryos, but the copy number of mtDNA in delipated embryos was similar to that in the control groups no matter at which developmental stage was observed. Both in delipated and control embryos, ATP content progressive decreased from one-cell to blastocyst stages, while just at one-cell stage, a significant decrease of ATP level was observed in delipated embryos compared with that of control. The level of ROS increased obviously after delipation at cleavage stage, but no difference was seen at blastocyst stage. Finally, the expression level of genes related to fatty acids beta-oxidation (Acadsb and Acaa2) was decreased, while the expression level of genes related to glucose metabolism (Glut 1) was upregulated after delipation. In conclusion, the reduction of lipids in pig oocytes will affect the developmental competence of pig PA embryos by disturbed energy metabolism and ROS stress.

  1. Antiviral Activity of Porcine Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 against Swine Viruses in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Chang, Hongtao; Yang, Xia; Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jun

    2015-11-17

    Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), as an important transcription factor, is abundantly induced upon virus infections and participates in host antiviral immune responses. However, the roles of porcine IRF1 (poIRF1) in host antiviral defense remain poorly understood. In this study, we determined that poIRF1 was upregulated upon infection with viruses and distributed in nucleus in porcine PK-15 cells. Subsequently, we tested the antiviral activities of poIRF1 against several swine viruses in cells. Overexpression of poIRF1 can efficiently suppress the replication of viruses, and knockdown of poIRF1 promotes moderately viral replication. Interestingly, overexpression of poIRF1 enhances dsRNA-induced IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation, whereas knockdown of poIRF1 cannot significantly affect the activation of IFN-β promoter induced by RNA viruses. This study suggests that poIRF1 plays a significant role in cellular antiviral response against swine viruses, but might be dispensable for IFN-β induction triggered by RNA viruses in PK-15 cells. Given these results, poIRF1 plays potential roles in cellular antiviral responses against swine viruses.

  2. Developmental kinetics of pig embryos by parthenogenetic activation or by handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, R; Liu, Y; Villemoes, K; Purup, S; Callesen, H

    2013-10-01

    The developmental kinetics of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation without (PAZF) or with (PAZI) zona pellucida or by handmade cloning (HMC) was compared by time-lapse videography. After cumulus cell removal, the matured oocytes were either left zona intact (PAZI) or were made zona free by pronase digestion (PAZF) before they were activated (PA). Other matured oocytes were used for HMC based on foetal fibroblast cells. On Day 0 (day of PA or reconstruction), the embryos were cultured for 7 days in vitro in our time-lapse system. Pictures were taken every 30 min, and afterwards, each cell cycle was identified for each embryo to be analysed. Results showed that the PA embryos (both PAZF and PAZI) had shorter first cell cycle compared with HMC (17.4. 17.8 vs 23.6 h), but had a longer time length from four cell to morula stages (57.9, 53.8 vs 44.9 h). However, at the second cell cycle, PAZF embryos needed shorter time, while PAZI embryos had similar time length as HMC embryos, and both were longer than PAZF (23.4, 24.8 vs 14.6 h). Both PAZF and PAZI embryos used similar time to reach the blastocyst stage, and this was later than HMC embryos. In addition, when all of these embryos were grouped into viable (developed to blastocysts) and non-viable (not developed to blastocysts), the only difference in the time length was observed on the first cell cycle (18.6 vs 24.5 h), but not on the later cell cycles. In conclusion, our results not only give detailed information regarding the time schedule of in vitro-handled pig embryos, but also indicate that the first cell cycle could be used as a selecting marker for embryo viability. However, to evaluate the effect of the produced techniques, the whole time schedule of the pre-implantation developmental kinetics should be observed.

  3. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  4. The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

    2006-03-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  5. Developmental onset of mixed-function oxidase activity in preimplantation mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Filler, R.; Lew, K.J.

    1981-11-01

    Two-cell embryos, obtained from the C57BL/6N and DBA/2N strains, were cultured in media that supported in vitro differentiation and that contained (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene. High-pressure liquid chromatography of the activated intermediates formed during in vitro early embryonic development indicated that the onset of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon activation coincided with blastocyst formation. Comparison of individual oxygenated intermediates metabolically formed from embryos genetically ''responsive'' or ''nonresponsive'' to aromatic hydrocarbons revealed significant quantitative differences in the production of dihydrodiol, quinone, and phenolic derivatives. In addition to exhibiting basal mixed-function oxidase activity, blastocysts were also responsive to enzymatic induction when exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The presence of operative metabolite-detoxifying pathways was also assayed. Enzymatic treatment of water-soluble metabolites with ..beta..-glucuronidase or arylsulfatase revealed that neither glucuronic acid conjugates nor sulfate ester derivatives were present. These data, therefore, provide direct evidence that late preimplanation mouse embryos (day 3 1/2 of gestation) are similar to later developmental stages in having the enzymatic capability for xenobiotic activation and enzyme induction but are dissimilar with respect to their detoxification mechanisms(s). Moreover, the ability of preimplantation embryos to activate directly polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon to bioreactive intermediates may be of importance in assessing the ontological susceptibility of the developing embryo to carcinogenic or teratogenic chemicals.

  6. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  7. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming. PMID:26894831

  8. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    PubMed

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  9. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles.

  10. Haplotypes of the porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with backfat thickness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. It is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene (PPARD) has been assigned to a region on porcine chromosome 7, which harbours a quantitative trait locus for backfat. Thus, PPARD is considered a functional and positional candidate gene for backfat thickness. The purpose of this study was to test this candidate gene hypothesis in a cross of breeds that were highly divergent in lipid deposition characteristics. Results Screening for genetic variation in porcine PPARD revealed only silent mutations. Nevertheless, significant associations between PPARD haplotypes and backfat thickness were observed in the F2 generation of the Mangalitsa × Piétrain cross as well as a commercial German Landrace population. Haplotype 5 is associated with increased backfat in F2 Mangalitsa × Piétrain pigs, whereas haplotype 4 is associated with lower backfat thickness in the German Landrace population. Haplotype 4 and 5 carry the same alleles at all but one SNP. Interestingly, the opposite effects of PPARD haplotypes 4 and 5 on backfat thickness are reflected by opposite effects of these two haplotypes on PPAR-δ mRNA levels. Haplotype 4 significantly increases PPAR-δ mRNA levels, whereas haplotype 5 decreases mRNA levels of PPAR-δ. Conclusion This study provides evidence for an association between PPARD and backfat thickness. The association is substantiated by mRNA quantification. Further studies are required to clarify, whether the observed associations are caused by PPARD or are the result of linkage disequilibrium with a causal variant in a neighbouring gene. PMID:19943979

  11. Excess boron reduces polyphenol oxidase activities in embryo and endosperm of maize seed during germination.

    PubMed

    Olçer, Hillya; Kocaçaliskan, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of boron (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 20 mM) as boric acid on the rate of germination and polyphenol oxidase activities in embryo and endosperm tissues of maize seeds (Zea mays L. cv. Arifiye) were studied. The germination percentage of maize seeds was not affected by boron concentrations up to 10 mM, and decreased by 20 mM. Distilled water and lower boron concentrations (0.1 and 1 mM) increased polyphenol oxidase activities at the beginning of germination up to 12 h whereas its excess levels (10 and 20 mM) decreased polyphenol oxidase activities in embryos and endosperm during germination. Polyphenol oxidase activities with o-diphenolic substrates (caffeic acid, catechol and dopa) were found to be higher than with a monophenolic substrat (tyrosine) in both embryos and endosperms. Further, caffeic acid oxidizing polyphenol oxidase was found to show more activity in embryos of the seeds germinating in distilled water when compared to other substrates.

  12. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  13. Sequential activation of ground pads reduces skin heating during radiofrequency tumor ablation: in vivo porcine results.

    PubMed

    Schutt, David J; Swindle, M Michael; Helke, Kristi L; Bastarrika, Gorka; Schwarz, Florian; Haemmerich, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Skin burns below ground pads during monopolar RF ablation are increasingly prevalent, thereby hindering the development of higher power RF generators capable of creating larger tumor ablation zones in combination with multiple or new applicators. Our goal was to evaluate reduction in skin temperatures via additional ground pads in an in vivo porcine model. Three ground pads placed on the animal's abdomen were activated either simultaneously or sequentially, where activation timing was adjusted to equilibrate skin temperature below each pad. Thirteen RF ablations (n = 4 simultaneous at 300 W, n = 5 sequential at 300 W, and n = 4 sequential at 375 W) were performed for 12 min via two internally cooled cluster electrodes placed in the gluteus maximus of domestic swine. Temperature rise at each pad and burn degree as determined via histology were compared. Ablation zone size was determined via T2-weighted MRI. Maximum temperature rise was significantly higher with simultaneous activation than with either of the sequential activation group (21.4 degrees C versus 8.1 degrees C or 9.6 degrees C, p < 0.01). Ablation zone diameters during simultaneous (300 W) and sequential activations (300 and 375 W) were and 6.9 +/- 0.3, 5.6 +/- 0.3, and 7.5 +/- 0.6 cm, respectively. Sequential activation of multiple ground pads results in significantly lower skin temperatures and less severe burns, as measured by histological examination.

  14. Utilization of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulinum toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium botulinum is a ubiquitous microorganism which can produce botulinum toxins and the ability to assess toxin activity in a food sample is critical. As an alternative to the mouse assay incubating quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus gallus domestics) embryos were evaluat...

  15. Genome activation in bovine embryos: review of the literature and new insights from RNA sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Heininen-Brown, Mari; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard

    2014-09-01

    Maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is the period in early embryonic development when maternal RNAs and proteins stored in the oocyte are gradually degraded and transcription of the embryonic genome is activated. First insights into the timing of embryonic genome activation (EGA) came from autoradiographic analyses of embryos following incorporation of [(3)H]uridine. These studies identified the eight- to 16-cell stage of bovine embryos as the period of major EGA, but detected first transcriptional activity already in one-cell embryos. Subsequent studies compared the transcriptome profiles of untreated embryos and of embryos incubated with the transcription inhibitor α-amanitin to reveal transcripts of embryonic origin. In addition, candidate gene-based and global gene expression studies over several stages of early development were performed and characteristic profiles were revealed. However, the onset of embryonic transcription was obscured by the presence of maternal transcripts and could only be determined for genes which are not expressed in oocytes. Using RNA sequencing of bovine germinal vesicle and metaphase II oocytes, and of four-cell, eight-cell, 16-cell and blastocyst stage embryos, we established the most comprehensive transcriptome data set of bovine oocyte maturation and early development. EGA was analyzed by (i) detection of embryonic transcripts which are not present in oocytes; (ii) detection of transcripts from the paternal allele; and (iii) detection of primary transcripts with intronic sequences. Using these three approaches we were able to map the onset of embryonic transcription for almost 7400 genes. Genes activated at the four-cell stage or before were functionally related to RNA processing, translation, and transport, preparing the embryo for major EGA at the eight-cell stage, when genes from a broad range of functional categories were found to be activated. These included transcriptional and translational functions as well as protein

  16. ATP7B activity is stimulated by PKCɛ in porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiza H D; Britto-Borges, Thiago; Vieyra, Adalberto; Lowe, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Copper is necessary for all organisms since it acts as a cofactor in different enzymes, although toxic at high concentrations. ATP7B is one of two copper-transporting ATPases in humans, its vital role being manifested in Wilson disease due to a mutation in the gene that encodes this pump. Our objective has been to determine whether pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC) modulate ATP7B activity. Different isoforms of PKC (α, ɛ, ζ) were found in Golgi-enriched membrane fractions obtained from porcine liver. Cu(I)-ATPase activity was assessed in the presence of different activators and inhibitors of PKC signaling pathways. PMA (10(-8) M), a PKC activator, increased Cu(I)-ATPase activity by 60%, whereas calphostin C and U73122 (PKC and PLC inhibitors, respectively) decreased the activity by 40%. Addition of phosphatase λ decreased activity by 60%, irrespective of pre-incubation with PMA. No changes were detected with 2 μM Ca(2+), whereas PMA plus EGTA increased activity. This enhanced activity elicited by PMA decreased with a specific inhibitor of PKCɛ to levels comparable with those found after phosphatase λ treatment, showing that the ɛ isoform is essential for activation of the enzyme. This regulatory phosphorylation enhanced Vmax without modifying affinities for ATP and copper. It can be concluded that signaling pathways leading to DAG formation and PKCɛ activation stimulate the active transport of copper by ATP7B, thus evidencing a central role for this specific kinase-mediated mechanism in hepatic copper handling.

  17. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  18. cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rennex, D.; Hemmings, B.A.; Hofsteenge, J.; Stone, S.R. )

    1991-02-26

    Prolyl endopeptidase is a cytoplasmic serine protease. The enzyme was purified from porcine kidney, and oligonucleotides based on peptide sequences from this protein were used to isolate a cDNA clone from a porcine brain library. This clone contained the complete coding sequence of prolyl endopeptidase and encoded a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 80751 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of prolyl endopeptidase showed no sequence homology with other known serine proteases. ({sup 3}H)Diisopropyl fluorophosphate was used to identify the active-site serine of prolyl endopeptidase. One labeled peptide was isolated and sequenced. The sequence surrounding the active-site serine was Asn-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Gly-Gly. This sequence is different from the active-site sequences of other known serine proteases. This difference and the lack of overall homology with the known families of serine proteases suggest that prolyl endopeptidase represents a new type of serine protease.

  19. Semisynthesis and biological activity of porcine [LeuB24]insulin and [LeuB25]insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Tager, H; Thomas, N; Assoian, R; Rubenstein, A; Saekow, M; Olefsky, J; Kaiser, E T

    1980-01-01

    Two analogs of porcine insulin with substitutions of leucine for phenylalanine in the COOH-terminal region of the insulin B chain have been prepared by a combination of solid-phase synthesis and semisynthesis. Solid-phase synthesis of the substituted octapeptides B23-B30 bearing the trifluoracetyl group on lysine-B29, enzymatic coupling of the octapeptides to bis(tertiary-butyloxycarbonyl)desoctapeptide insulin by trypsin, and deprotection of the corresponding adducts in formic acid and piperidine resulted in two insulin derivatives, one with leucine at position B24 and the other with leucine at position B25. These analogs had only about 10% and 1%, respectively, of the activity of porcine insulin in competing for the binding of [125I]iodoinsulin to both rat adipocytes and human IM-9 lymphocytes. The relative potencies of the analogs in stimulating glucose oxidation by rat adipocytes decreased in the order porcine insulin > [LeuB24]insulin > [LeuB25]insulin. However, at high concentrations both analogs had full agonists activity. Experiments in which the semisynthetic insulins were mixed with the native hormone showed that [LeuB24]insulin, but not [LeuB25]insulin, was an active antagonist of insulin action. These results suggest that the antagonistic activity of a human insulin variant having leucine at position B24 or B25 can be assigned to the molecule with the sequence Gly-Leu-Phe-Tyr (residues B23-B26) in its active site. Images PMID:6997872

  20. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway through I{kappa}B degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B. . E-mail: KleiboekerS@Missouri.edu

    2005-11-10

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-{kappa}B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B activation was characterized by translocation of NF-{kappa}B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene expression. NF-{kappa}B activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-{kappa}B activation. Degradation of I{kappa}B protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of I{kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}DN) significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activation induced by PRRSV. However, I{kappa}B{alpha}DN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-{kappa}B was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-{kappa}B activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.

  1. Genome-Wide Dynamic Profiling of Histone Methylation during Nuclear Transfer-Mediated Porcine Somatic Cell Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zubing; Li, Yunsheng; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Meiling; Zhou, Naru; Wu, Ronghua; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yunhai

    2015-01-01

    The low full-term developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is mainly attributed to imperfect epigenetic reprogramming in the early embryos. However, dynamic expression patterns of histone methylation involved in epigenetic reprogramming progression during porcine SCNT embryo early development remain to be unknown. In this study, we characterized and compared the expression patterns of multiple histone methylation markers including transcriptionally repressive (H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me2 and H4K20me3) and active modifications (H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2 and H3K79me3) in SCNT early embryos from different developmental stages with that from in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts. We found that the expression level of H3K9me2, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 of SCNT embryos from 1-cell to 4-cell stages was significantly higher than that in the IVF embryos. We also detected a symmetric distribution pattern of H3K9me2 between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) in SCNT blastocysts. The expression level of H3K9me2 in both lineages from SCNT expanded blastocyst onwards was significantly higher than that in IVF counterparts. The expression level of H4K20me2 was significantly lower in SCNT embryos from morula to blastocyst stage compared with IVF embryos. However, no aberrant dynamic reprogramming of H3K27me2/3 occurred during early developmental stages of SCNT embryos. The expression of H3K4me3 was higher in SCNT embryos at 4-cell stage than that of IVF embryos. H3K4me2 expression in SCNT embryos from 8-cell stage to blastocyst stage was lower than that in the IVF embryos. Dynamic patterns of other active histone methylation markers were similar between SCNT and IVF embryos. Taken together, histone methylation exhibited developmentally stage-specific abnormal expression patterns in porcine SCNT early embryos.

  2. Genome-Wide Dynamic Profiling of Histone Methylation during Nuclear Transfer-Mediated Porcine Somatic Cell Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Meiling; Zhou, Naru; Wu, Ronghua; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yunhai

    2015-01-01

    The low full-term developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos is mainly attributed to imperfect epigenetic reprogramming in the early embryos. However, dynamic expression patterns of histone methylation involved in epigenetic reprogramming progression during porcine SCNT embryo early development remain to be unknown. In this study, we characterized and compared the expression patterns of multiple histone methylation markers including transcriptionally repressive (H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K27me2, H3K27me3, H4K20me2 and H4K20me3) and active modifications (H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K36me2, H3K36me3, H3K79me2 and H3K79me3) in SCNT early embryos from different developmental stages with that from in vitro fertilization (IVF) counterparts. We found that the expression level of H3K9me2, H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 of SCNT embryos from 1-cell to 4-cell stages was significantly higher than that in the IVF embryos. We also detected a symmetric distribution pattern of H3K9me2 between inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) in SCNT blastocysts. The expression level of H3K9me2 in both lineages from SCNT expanded blastocyst onwards was significantly higher than that in IVF counterparts. The expression level of H4K20me2 was significantly lower in SCNT embryos from morula to blastocyst stage compared with IVF embryos. However, no aberrant dynamic reprogramming of H3K27me2/3 occurred during early developmental stages of SCNT embryos. The expression of H3K4me3 was higher in SCNT embryos at 4-cell stage than that of IVF embryos. H3K4me2 expression in SCNT embryos from 8-cell stage to blastocyst stage was lower than that in the IVF embryos. Dynamic patterns of other active histone methylation markers were similar between SCNT and IVF embryos. Taken together, histone methylation exhibited developmentally stage-specific abnormal expression patterns in porcine SCNT early embryos. PMID:26683029

  3. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants.

    PubMed

    Olivares-González, Lorena; Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Hervás, David; Marín, María Pilar; Lahoz, Agustin; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2) for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation) mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions.

  4. cGMP-Phosphodiesterase Inhibition Prevents Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death Activation in Porcine Retinal Explants

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-González, Lorena; Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Hervás, David; Marín, María Pilar; Lahoz, Agustin; Millán, José María

    2016-01-01

    Retinal hypoxia and oxidative stress are involved in several retinal degenerations including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, central retinal artery occlusion, or retinopathy of prematurity. The second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been reported to be protective for neuronal cells under several pathological conditions including ischemia/hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the accumulation of cGMP through the pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) with Zaprinast prevented retinal degeneration induced by mild hypoxia in cultures of porcine retina. Exposure to mild hypoxia (5% O2) for 24h reduced cGMP content and induced retinal degeneration by caspase dependent and independent (PARP activation) mechanisms. Hypoxia also produced a redox imbalance reducing antioxidant response (superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) and increasing superoxide free radical release. Zaprinast reduced mild hypoxia-induced cell death through inhibition of caspase-3 or PARP activation depending on the cell layer. PDE inhibition also ameliorated the effects of mild hypoxia on antioxidant response and the release of superoxide radical in the photoreceptor layer. The use of a PKG inhibitor, KT5823, suggested that cGMP-PKG pathway is involved in cell survival and antioxidant response. The inhibition of PDE, therefore, could be useful for reducing retinal degeneration under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. PMID:27861632

  5. Proteomic analysis of the porcine platelet proteome and alterations induced by thrombin activation.

    PubMed

    Esteso, Gloria; Mora, María Isabel; Garrido, Juan José; Corrales, Fernando; Moreno, Angela

    2008-12-02

    Platelets are enucleated cells derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes and defects in platelet functions could be involved in many cardiovascular diseases. Proteomics can be used to provide a new insight in the study of these platelet functions and can help to identify the biochemical events underlying platelet activation. In this study, we have obtained a reference 2-DE map of porcine platelet proteins. A large number of cytoskeletal and metabolic proteins were found as well as some proteins related to cell mobility and immunological functions. Other proteins implicated in the cell signalling process, transport or apoptosis were also identified. Moreover, we have analysed, by 2D-DIGE methodology, quantitative modifications of platelet proteins following their activation by thrombin. 26 spots exhibited statistically significant differences, and a total of 16 spots corresponding to 13 different proteins were successfully identified. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the association of the deregulated proteins with canonical pathways highlighted two major pathways; coagulation system and integrin signalling. These results confirm that this proteomic approach (based on 2D-DIGE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic and pathway databases) has proved to be a powerful tool when applied to studying signalling pathways that could play a relevant role in the activation of platelets.

  6. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI).

    PubMed

    Xie, Lilan; Fang, Liurong; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Cai, Kaimei; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-03-01

    The DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors (DAI) is a recently identified DNA sensor for intracellular DNA that triggers a signal for the production of type I IFN. Here we report the cloning and characterization of porcine DAI (poDAI). The full-length of poDAI encodes 439 amino acids, contains two N-terminal DNA-binding domains and shows similarity to mouse, rat, dog, monkey, human, horse and cattle counterparts ranging from 44% to 67%. poDAI mRNA expression was mainly detected in spleen, lung, kidney and small intestine. Over-expression of poDAI activated transcription factors IRF3 and NF-kappaB and induced IFN-beta in different porcine cell lines, but to varying degrees. Deletion mutant analysis revealed that both the DNA-binding domains and the C-terminus are required for full activation of IFN-beta. siRNA targeting poDAI significantly decreased poly(dAT:dAT)- or Pseudorabies virus (PRV)-induced IFN-beta activation. These results indicate that DAI is an important immuno-regulator of the porcine innate immune system.

  7. JAK2 mediates the acute response to decreased cell volume in mouse preimplantation embryos by activating NHE1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenxi; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-02-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos are particularly sensitive to increased osmolarity within their normal physiological range. The detrimental effects can be alleviated by organic osmolytes such as glycine transported into early embryos, an effect thought to be due to the organic osmolyte replacing a portion of intracellular inorganic ions accumulated during acute cell volume regulation. However, no mechanism of cell volume regulation dependent on inorganic ions has been identified in preimplantation embryos. We found that decreased cell volume rapidly activated Na(+)/H(+) exchange in preimplantation mouse embryos. This activity was likely mediated by the NHE1 (Slc9a1) isoform, since it was blocked by the highly selective NHE1 inhibitor, cariporide, which also inhibited the ability of the 1-cell embryo to maintain cell volume. How NHE1 is activated by decreased cell volume is not generally well understood. Full activation of NHE1 by decreased cell volume in 2-cell mouse embryos required the activity of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (Jak2), since NHE1 activation was inhibited by the general tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, several selective inhibitors of Jak2, and dominant negative Jak2 expressed in 2-cell embryos. Decreased cell volume furthermore resulted in increased tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in 2-cell embryos detected both by anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and an antibody directed against active phospho-Jak2. Thus, Jak2 apparently serves as a cell volume sensor in embryos. Evidence from pharmacological inhibitors further indicated that NHE1 activation by decreased cell volume was dependent on calmodulin activity, likely downstream of Jak2, and required active phospholipase C.

  8. Histamine H3 receptor activation inhibits neurogenic sympathetic vasoconstriction in porcine nasal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Varty, LoriAnn M; Hey, John A

    2002-10-11

    Histamine release from mast cells is a primary mediator of rhinorrhea, nasal mucosal swelling, increased secretion, sneezing, pruritus and congestion that occur in allergic rhinitis. It is well known that histamine H(1) receptor antagonists inhibit the itch and rhinorhea, but do not block the allergic nasal congestion. A growing body of evidence shows that in addition to histamine H(1) receptors, activation of H(3) receptors may contribute to the procongestant nasal actions of histamine. Activation of the prejunctional histamine H(3) receptor modulates sympathetic control of nasal vascular tone and resistance. The present study was conducted to further characterize the role of histamine H(3) receptors on neurogenic sympathetic vascular contractile responses in isolated porcine nasal turbinate mucosa. We presently found that the histamine H(3) receptor agonist, (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (10-1000 nM), inhibited electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic vasomotor contractions in a concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with either of the selective histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, thioperamide and clobenpropit, blocked the sympathoinhibitory effect of (R)-alpha-methylhistamine in porcine turbinate mucosa. The effect of compound 48/80, an agent that elicits the release of endogenous histamine from mast cells on nasal sympathetic contractile responses, was also tested. The action of compound 48/80 to release mast cell-derived histamine in the nose mimics many of the nasal responses associated with allergic rhinitis, extravascular leakage and decreased nasal patency. We presently found that compound 48/80 also inhibited the electrical field stimulation-induced sympathetic response. Pretreatment with the H(3) receptor antagonist clobenpropit blocked the sympathoinhibitory action of compound 48/80 on sympathetic contractile responses in nasal mucosa. Taken together, these studies indicate that histamine H(3) receptors modulate vascular contractile

  9. Inhibition of Porcine Pancreatic Amylase Activity by Sulfamethoxazole: Structural and Functional Aspect.

    PubMed

    Maity, Sujan; Mukherjee, Koel; Banerjee, Amrita; Mukherjee, Suman; Dasgupta, Dipak; Gupta, Suvroma

    2016-06-01

    Combating Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a pivotal challenge in front of the present world. Several lines of therapy are in practice for resisting this deadly disease which often culminates with cardiovascular complexities, neuropathy and retinopathy. Among various therapies, administration of alpha glucosidase inhibitors is common and widely practiced. Sulfonylurea category of anti diabetic drug often suffers from cross reactivity with sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a common drug in use to treat a handful of microbial infections. However the specific cellular target generating postprandial hypoglycemia on SMX administration is till date unraveled. The present work has been initiated to elucidate the effects of a group of sulfonamide drugs inclusive of SMX for their amylase inhibitory role. SMX inhibits porcine pancreatic amylase (PPA) in a noncompetitive mode with an average IC50 value 0.94 mM respectively. Interaction of SMX with PPA is manifested with gradual quenching of tryptophan fluorescence with concomitant shift in lambda max value (λmax). Binding is governed by entropy driven factor (24.8 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) with unfavorable contribution from enthalpy change. SMX interferes with the activity of acarbose in a synergistic mode to reduce the effective dose of acarbose as evident from the in vitro PPA inhibition study. In summary, loss of PPA activity in presence of SMX is indicative of structural changes of PPA which is further augmented in the presence of acarbose as explained in the schematic model and docking study.

  10. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  11. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    PubMed

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  12. The development of hindlimb motor activity studied in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J; Landmesser, L

    1987-10-01

    The development of hindlimb motor activity was studied in an isolated preparation of the chick spinal cord. The motor output from lumbosacral segments was characterized by recording the pattern of ventral root and muscle nerve discharge in 6-14-d-old embryos. In addition, the synaptic drive underlying motoneuron activity was monitored electrotonically from the ventral roots. Spontaneous motor activity consisted of recurring episodes of cyclical motoneuron discharge. During development, both the number of cycles in each episode and the intensity of discharge in each cycle progressively increased. Monophasic, positive ventral root potentials accompanied each cycle of motoneuron discharge. Prior to the innervation of hindlimb muscles at stage 26, ventral root discharge was barely detectable despite the presence of large ventral root potentials. Following hindlimb muscle innervation, each cycle of activity was initiated by a brief, intense discharge that coincided with the rising phase of the ventral root potential. In embryos older than stage 30, the initial discharge was followed, after a delay, by a more prolonged discharge. The duration of ventral root potentials was shortest in the stage 26 embryos, but was similar in embryos at stage 29 and older. The developmental changes in the coordination of antagonist activity were documented by recording the pattern of discharge in sartorius (flexor) and caudilioflexorius (extensor) muscle nerves between stage 30 and stage 36. At stage 30 both sets of motoneurons were coactivated during the brief discharge that initiated each cycle. By stage 31 a second discharge occurred in each cycle. The second discharge was delayed in flexor, but not in extensor, motoneurons, which led to an alternating pattern of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2.

  14. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-07

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P < 0.05), suggesting that a sperm-related enzymatic reaction is involved in sperm motility. Under this protocol, MTT reduction was coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay.

  15. Relationship between Porcine Sperm Motility and Sperm Enzymatic Activity using Paper-based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Koji; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian sperm motility has traditionally been analyzed to determine fertility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) systems. To develop low-cost and robust male fertility diagnostics, we created a paper-based MTT assay and used it to estimate motile sperm concentration. When porcine sperm motility was inhibited using sperm enzyme inhibitors for sperm enzymes related to mitochondrial activity and glycolysis, we simultaneously recorded sperm motility and enzymatic reactivity using a portable motility analysis system (iSperm) and a paper-based MTT assay, respectively. When using our paper-based MTT-assay, we calculated the area mean value signal intensity (AMV) to evaluate enzymatic reactivity. Both sperm motility and AMV decreased following treatment with iodoacetamide (IODO) and 3-bromopyruvic acid (3BP), both of which are inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We found a correlation between recorded motility using iSperm and AMV from our paper-based assay (P < 0.05), suggesting that a sperm-related enzymatic reaction is involved in sperm motility. Under this protocol, MTT reduction was coupled with catalysis of GAPDH and was promoted by electron transfer from NADH. Based on this inhibitor study, sperm motility can be estimated using our paper-based MTT-assay. PMID:28387379

  16. In-vivo tissue repair using light-activated surgical adhesive in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Riley, Jill N.; Dickson, Tonya J.; Hou, Dong Ming; Rogers, Pamela; March, Keith L.

    2001-05-01

    An in vivo study was conducted to investigate the feasibility, mechanical function, and chronic biocompatibility of a new light-activated surgical adhesive for achieving rapid hemostasis of the puncture site following diagnostic catheterization and interventional cardiac procedures. Porcine carotid arteries (nequals6) and femoral arteries (nequals6) were exposed, and an incision was made in the arterial walls using a 16G needle. The surgical adhesive, composed of a poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold doped with the traditional protein solder mix of serum albumin and indocyanine green dye, was used to close the incisions in conjunction with an 805-nm diode laser. Blood flow was restored to the vessels immediately after the procedure and the incision sites were checked for patency. The strength and hemostatic abilities of the new surgical adhesive were evaluated in the context of arterial pressure, persistence of hemostatis and presence of any inflammatory reaction after 3 days. After this evaluation period, the surgical procedure was repeated on the carotid arteries (nequals6) and femoral arteries (nequals6) of three additional animals that had been heparinized prior to surgery to closer approximate the conditions seen in a typical vascular surgical setting.

  17. Wnt-Signaling-Mediated Antiosteoporotic Activity of Porcine Placenta Hydrolysates in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Lee, Na Ra; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-osteoporotic effects of two types of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) were evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats orally administered PPH without (WPPH) or with (NPPH) ovarian hormones (1 g/kg bw/day). PPH groups were compared with OVX rats with estrogen replacement (0.1 mg/kg bw conjugated estrogen; EST), or dextrose (placebo; OVX-control) All rats received high-fat/calcium-deficient diets for 12 weeks. NPPH contained less estrogen and progesterone, but more essential amino acids, whereas the opposite was true for WPPH. NPPH decreased body weight and peri-uterine fat pads, and maintained uterus weight. NPPH rats had higher femur and lumbar spine bone mass density compared to controls; but less than those of EST rats. Serum phosphorus and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were reduced in NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone turnover marker levels were reduced NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. WPPH produced results similar to those of NPPH, but less significant. Both NPPH and estrogen upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, while the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1 was suppressed. In conclusion, NPPH exerted anti-osteoporotic effects by activating osteogenesis and stimulating Wnt signaling, possibly mediated by the various amino acids and not ovarian hormones. PMID:23258987

  18. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  19. Innocuity and anti-Newcastle-virus-activity of Cladosiphon okamuranus fucoidan in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Avila, Laura M; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Regina; Rodriguez-Santillan, Patricia; Aguilar-Briseño, Jose Alberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina; Cruz-Suarez, L Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the potential toxicity and antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one of the most serious threats to the poultry industry in the world. Toxicity was assayed on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) secondary cultures at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1500 μg per mL culture medium, assessing the cell viability by the yellow tetrazolium MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, and on 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by inoculation of 2 to 500 μg doses in the allantoic cavity, assessing the embryos morphology and liver histology. At 48 h post-inoculation, viability of CEF exposed to concentrations up to 10 μg/mL was not significantly affected, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration was estimated as of 1062 μg/mL; after exposure in ovo, some chick embryos showed liver steatosis when treated with fucoidan doses over 20 μg per egg (15 to 28% at 200 μg, 27 to 56% at 500 μg), but no change was detected in their size or aspect. Antiviral activity was tested by treating 9-day-old embryos via the allantoic route with 0.25 to 16 μg fucoidan doses that were applied at different times (-1, 0 and +1 h) relative to the inoculation of 10,000 folds the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50) of the NDV, La Sota strain. At 72 h post infection, virus titration in the allantoic fluid by hemagglutination assay (HA) showed a considerable and significant inhibition of infectivity for all doses, the best result (a 90% decrease) being obtained in embryos treated with 1 μg fucoidan one hour before infection. Viral RNA semi-quantification in pooled liver and small intestine of embryos that had been treated with 4 and 16 μg fucoidan 1 h before the infection showed reductions of the virus replication by 60 and 99.8%, respectively. Since this high anti-NDV activity in ovo was obtained with quite innocuous doses, fucoidan from C. okamuranus could be a potential

  20. The human PRD-like homeobox gene LEUTX has a central role in embryo genome activation

    PubMed Central

    Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Madissoon, Elo; Vesterlund, Liselotte; Töhönen, Virpi; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Plaza Reyes, Alvaro; Petropoulos, Sophie; Månsson, Robert; Linnarsson, Sten; Bürglin, Thomas; Lanner, Fredrik; Hovatta, Outi; Katayama, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    Leucine twenty homeobox (LEUTX) is a paired (PRD)-like homeobox gene that is expressed almost exclusively in human embryos during preimplantation development. We previously identified a novel transcription start site for the predicted human LEUTX gene based on the transcriptional analysis of human preimplantation embryos. The novel variant encodes a protein with a complete homeodomain. Here, we provide a detailed description of the molecular cloning of the complete homeodomain-containing LEUTX. Using a human embryonic stem cell overexpression model we show that the complete homeodomain isoform is functional and sufficient to activate the transcription of a large proportion of the genes that are upregulated in human embryo genome activation (EGA), whereas the previously predicted partial homeodomain isoform is largely inactive. Another PRD-like transcription factor, DPRX, is then upregulated as a powerful repressor of transcription. We propose a two-stage model of human EGA in which LEUTX acts as a transcriptional activator at the 4-cell stage, and DPRX as a balancing repressor at the 8-cell stage. We conclude that LEUTX is a candidate regulator of human EGA. PMID:27578796

  1. Efficient targeted gene disruption in Xenopus embryos using engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs).

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong; Guo, Xiaogang; Liu, Yun; Cao, Yang; Deng, Yi; Chen, Xiongfeng; Cheng, Christopher H K; Dawid, Igor B; Chen, Yonglong; Zhao, Hui

    2012-10-23

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are an approach for directed gene disruption and have been proved to be effective in various animal models. Here, we report that TALENs can induce somatic mutations in Xenopus embryos with reliably high efficiency and that such mutations are heritable through germ-line transmission. We modified the Golden Gate method for TALEN assembly to make the product suitable for RNA transcription and microinjection into Xenopus embryos. Eight pairs of TALENs were constructed to target eight Xenopus genes, and all resulted in indel mutations with high efficiencies of up to 95.7% at the targeted loci. Furthermore, mutations induced by TALENs were highly efficiently passed through the germ line to F(1) frogs. Together with simple and reliable PCR-based approaches for detecting TALEN-induced mutations, our results indicate that TALENs are an effective tool for targeted gene editing/knockout in Xenopus.

  2. Generation of gene disruptions by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in Xenopus tropicalis embryos.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong; Guo, Xiaogang; Deng, Yi; Chen, Yonglong; Zhao, Hui

    2013-05-10

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are novel engineered DNA nucleases, and have been proven to be effective for gene specific targeting in various species. Recently we reported gene disruptions in Xenopus embryos by using TALENs. Here we summarize the protocol that is used in our studies for gene disruption. This protocol covers selection of TALEN targeting sites, TALEN assembly with a modified Golden Gate method, and injection of TALEN mRNAs into Xenopus tropicalis embryos. We also provide details for detection of somatic and germ line transmitted mutations. And finally, we briefly describe establishment of knockout Xenopus lines. This protocol will facilitate broader applications of TALENs in studies of Xenopus biology.

  3. Activation of the epithelial Na+ channel triggers prostaglandin E₂ release and production required for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Guo, Jing Hui; Liu, Xinmei; Zhang, Runju; Tsang, Lai Ling; Dong, Jian Da; Chen, Hui; Yu, Mei Kuen; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Fok, Kin Lam; Chung, Yiu Wa; Huang, Hefeng; Zhou, Wen Liang; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-07-01

    Embryo implantation remains a poorly understood process. We demonstrate here that activation of the epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC) in mouse endometrial epithelial cells by an embryo-released serine protease, trypsin, triggers Ca²⁺ influx that leads to prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) release, phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, the enzyme required for prostaglandin production and implantation. We detected maximum ENaC activation, as indicated by ENaC cleavage, at the time of implantation in mice. Blocking or knocking down uterine ENaC in mice resulted in implantation failure. Furthermore, we found that uterine ENaC expression before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is markedly lower in women with implantation failure as compared to those with successful pregnancy. These results indicate a previously undefined role of ENaC in regulating the PGE₂ production and release required for embryo implantation, defects that may be a cause of miscarriage and low success rates in IVF.

  4. High-content screen using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos identifies a novel kinase activator and inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Geldenhuys, Werner J; Bergeron, Sadie A; Mullins, Jackie E; Aljammal, Rowaa; Gaasch, Briah L; Chen, Wei-Chi; Yun, June; Hazlehurst, Lori A

    2017-02-28

    In this report we utilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in a phenotypical high-content screen (HCS) to identify novel leads in a cancer drug discovery program. We initially validated our HCS model using the flavin adenosine dinucleotide (FAD) containing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase (ERO1) inhibitor EN460. EN460 showed a dose response effect on the embryos with a dose of 10μM being significantly lethal during early embryonic development. The HCS campaign which employed a small library identified a promising lead compound, a naphthyl-benzoic acid derivative coined compound 1 which had significant dosage and temporally dependent effects on notochord and muscle development in zebrafish embryos. Screening a 369 kinase member panel we show that compound 1 is a PIM3 kinase inhibitor (IC50=4.078μM) and surprisingly a DAPK1 kinase agonist/activator (EC50=39.525μM). To our knowledge this is the first example of a small molecule activating DAPK1 kinase. We provide a putative model for increased phosphate transfer in the ATP binding domain when compound 1 is virtually docked with DAPK1. Our data indicate that observable phenotypical changes can be used in future zebrafish screens to identify compounds acting via similar molecular signaling pathways.

  5. Metabolite fingerprinting of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) embryos to assess active pathways during oil synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Sonera, Marcos Corchado; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), a plant naturalized to North America, accumulates high levels of erucic acid in its seeds, which makes it a promising biodiesel and industrial crop. The main carbon sinks in pennycress embryos were found to be proteins, fatty acids, and cell wall, which respectively represented 38.5, 33.2, and 27.0% of the biomass at 21 days after pollination. Erucic acid reached a maximum of 36% of the total fatty acids. Together these results indicate that total oil and erucic acid contents could be increased to boost the economic competitiveness of this crop. Understanding the biochemical basis of oil synthesis in pennycress embryos is therefore timely and relevant to guide future breeding and/or metabolic engineering efforts. For this purpose, a combination of metabolomics approaches was conducted to assess the active biochemical pathways during oil synthesis. First, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites highlighted three main families of compounds: organic acids, amino acids, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Secondly, these intermediates were quantified in developing pennycress embryos by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Finally, partitional clustering analysis grouped the intracellular metabolites that shared a similar pattern of accumulation over time into eight clusters. This study underlined that: (i) sucrose might be stored rather than cleaved into hexoses; (ii) glucose and glutamine would be the main sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; and (iii) glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin cycle were active in developing pennycress embryos. PMID:25711705

  6. Metabolite fingerprinting of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) embryos to assess active pathways during oil synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Cocuron, Jean -Christophe; Sonera, Marcos Corchado; ...

    2015-02-22

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), a plant naturalized to North America, accumulates high levels of erucic acid in its seeds, which makes it a promising biodiesel and industrial crop. The main carbon sinks in pennycress embryos were found to be proteins, fatty acids, and cell wall, which respectively represented 38.5, 33.2, and 27.0% of the biomass at 21 days after pollination. Erucic acid reached a maximum of 36% of the total fatty acids. Together these results indicate that total oil and erucic acid contents could be increased to boost the economic competitiveness of this crop. Understanding the biochemical basis of oilmore » synthesis in pennycress embryos is therefore timely and relevant to guide future breeding and/or metabolic engineering efforts. For this purpose, a combination of metabolomics approaches was conducted to assess the active biochemical pathways during oil synthesis. First, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites highlighted three main families of compounds: organic acids, amino acids, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Secondly, these intermediates were quantified in developing pennycress embryos by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Finally, partitional clustering analysis grouped the intracellular metabolites that shared a similar pattern of accumulation over time into eight clusters. In conclusion, this study underlined that: (i) sucrose might be stored rather than cleaved into hexoses; (ii) glucose and glutamine would be the main sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; and (iii) glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin cycle were active in developing pennycress embryos.« less

  7. Metabolite fingerprinting of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) embryos to assess active pathways during oil synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Sonera, Marcos Corchado; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2015-07-01

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), a plant naturalized to North America, accumulates high levels of erucic acid in its seeds, which makes it a promising biodiesel and industrial crop. The main carbon sinks in pennycress embryos were found to be proteins, fatty acids, and cell wall, which respectively represented 38.5, 33.2, and 27.0% of the biomass at 21 days after pollination. Erucic acid reached a maximum of 36% of the total fatty acids. Together these results indicate that total oil and erucic acid contents could be increased to boost the economic competitiveness of this crop. Understanding the biochemical basis of oil synthesis in pennycress embryos is therefore timely and relevant to guide future breeding and/or metabolic engineering efforts. For this purpose, a combination of metabolomics approaches was conducted to assess the active biochemical pathways during oil synthesis. First, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites highlighted three main families of compounds: organic acids, amino acids, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Secondly, these intermediates were quantified in developing pennycress embryos by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Finally, partitional clustering analysis grouped the intracellular metabolites that shared a similar pattern of accumulation over time into eight clusters. This study underlined that: (i) sucrose might be stored rather than cleaved into hexoses; (ii) glucose and glutamine would be the main sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; and (iii) glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin cycle were active in developing pennycress embryos.

  8. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  9. Expression of genes in the canine pre-implantation uterus and embryo: implications for an active role of the embryo before and during invasion.

    PubMed

    Schäfer-Somi, S; Beceriklisoy, H B; Budik, S; Kanca, H; Aksoy, O A; Polat, B; Cetin, Y; Ay, S S; Aslan, S

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess genes expressed in maternal uterine tissue and pre-implantation embryos which are presumably involved in maternal recognition and establishment of canine pregnancy. For this purpose, 10 pregnant bitches were ovariohysterectomized between days 10 and 12 after mating. Four non-pregnant bitches served as controls. Early pregnancy was verified by flushing the uterine horns with PBS solution. The collected embryos (n = 60) were stored deep-frozen (-80 degrees C). Uterine tissue was excised, snaps frozen in liquid nitrogen and homogenized using TRI Reagent. All embryos from one litter were thawed together and also homogenized in TRI Reagent. RT-PCR was performed to prove mRNA expression of progesterone receptor, key enzymes of the prostaglandin synthesis pathway, selected growth factors, cytokines, immune cell receptors, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP). Only pregnant uteri revealed the presence of mRNA for interferon (IFN)-gamma, IL-4 and CD-8, which resembles the milieu in humans and other mammalians. Similarly, in day 10 embryos, mRNA for transforming growth factor-beta, insulin-like growth factor-1,-2, hepatocyte growth factor, leukaemia inhibitor factor, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta,-6,-8, cyclooxygenase-2, CD4(+) cells, and MMP-2 and -9 were detected, but not MHC-I or -II. We therefore suppose that the canine embryo, like its human counterpart, actively initiates measures to prevent attacks from the maternal immune system to prepare its own adhesion, nidation, growth and further development.

  10. A non-destructive in ovo assay to quantify EROD activity in embryo-larval Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Kuhn-Hines, A.; Coiro, L.; Munns, W.R. Jr.; Cooper, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sensitive embryo-larval estuarine fish exposed to organic contaminants such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) have been shown to demonstrate characteristic biochemical responses, and impaired development and reduced survival. One of the best studied of these biochemical responses is induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes, e.g., CYP1A, frequently assessed as ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity. Standard methods to measure EROD activity in embryo-larval fish require destructive samples, composited from many embryos, precluding information on individual variation in EROD activity or concurrent observation of health effects. A novel method has been developed that employs the non-destructive observation in individual embryos of EROD activity, demonstrated by the production and accumulation in the embryonic bladder of the fluorescent product, resorufin. EROD activity in a living embryo is quantified by bladder fluorescence using microfluorometric instrumentation. Using this technique, the authors were able to follow individual fish throughout embryonic and early larval development making temporal observations of EROD activity as well as developmental progress, lesion characterization, hatch rate and success, and post-hatch growth and survival. Results were used to examine differential responsiveness to EROD-inducing organic contaminants of embryo-larval fish from parental populations inhabiting PHAH-contaminated or uncontaminated environments.

  11. Regulation of thyroid peroxidase activity by thyrotropin, epidermal growth factor and phorbol ester in porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Kikuo; Hiraiwa, Masaki; Emoto, Tatsushi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Shin-Ichi ); Ohmori, Takeshi; Koizumi, Narumi; Hosoya, Toichiro )

    1989-01-01

    The activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in porcine follicles cultured for 96 h in suspension with five hormones (5H) still attained over 50% of that in the freshly isolated follicles. On the other hand, the activity in those cultured with 5H + TSH (6H) was several times higher than that cultured with 5H after 96 h, although an initial decrease of TPO activity during the first 24 h of culture was observed in both conditions. The ability of follicles to metabolize iodide when cultured with 6H for 96 h was also several times higher than that of those cultured with 5H. The half-maximal dose of TSH for stimulation of TPO activity and iodide metabolism was 0.03 - 0.04 mU/ml and the effect was mediated by cAMP. These results indicate that in porcine thyroid follicles in primary suspension culture, TPO activity as well as the ability of iodide metabolism is induced by chronic TSH stimulation. In addition, epidermal growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate completely inhibited TSH stimulation on both activities and also basal (5H) activity of iodide metabolism.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of ethanol treatment during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and subsequent embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghoon; Kim, Eunhye; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2014-11-01

    Ethanol is frequently used as a solvent in several techniques for in vitro production (IVP). It is also used for the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes. Although a number of studies have suggested that ethanol has detrimental effects on fibroblasts and neuronal cells, little attention has been paid to the effects of ethanol on porcine oocytes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of ethanol to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium. We investigated the effects of ethanol (0, 1 and 3%) on the following parameters: nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and subsequent embryonic development following PA and in vitro fertilization (IVF). After 44 h of IVM, the 3% group showed a significant (P<0.05) decrease in nuclear maturation (34.0%) compared with the control group (70.3%). The 1 and 3% groups exhibited a significant (P<0.05) decrease in GSH levels and an increase in ROS levels compared with the control group. Compared with the control group, the 3% group had significantly (P<0.05) lower cleavage rates following PA (51.6 vs. 86.9%) and IVF (53.2 vs. 70.6%), as well as lower blastocyst formation rates and decreased total cell numbers following PA (11.3% and 31.8 vs. 53.6% and 65.4, respectively) and IVF (4.1% and 22.0 vs. 36.1% and 70.3, respectively). We evaluated the mRNA expression levels of DNA repair‑related and apoptosis‑related genes in the cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs). The 1% ethanol group showed significantly (P<0.05) higher mRNA expression levels of poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase‑1 (PARP‑1), Bax, Bak and caspase‑3, and the 3% ethanol group had significantly (P<0.05) increased PARP‑1, Bax and caspase‑3 mRNA expression levels compared with the control group. Our results suggest that treatment with >1% ethanol during IVM exerts a toxic effect on the developmental potential of PA and IVF porcine embryos by decreasing the intracellular GSH level, thereby

  13. Effect of PMA-induced protein kinase C activation on development and apoptosis in early zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Samardzija, Dragana; Stanic, Bojana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana; Andric, Nebojsa

    2016-12-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have been implicated in several key steps during early development, but the consequences of xenobiotic-induced PKC activation during early embryogenesis are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) concentrations (0-200μg/L) at different time points after fertilization. Results showed that 200μgPMA/L caused development of yolk bags, cardiac edema, slow blood flow, pulsating blood flow, slow pulse, elongated heart, lack of tail fins, curved tail, and coagulation. PMA exposure decreased survival rate of the embryos starting within the first 24h and becoming more pronounced after prolonged exposure (96h). PMA increased the number of apoptotic cells in the brain region as demonstrated by acridine orange staining and caused up-regulation of caspase 9 (casp9) and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (puma) mRNA in whole embryos. PMA caused oxidative stress in the embryos as demonstrated by decreased mRNA expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 2. Inhibition of Pkc with GF109203X improved overall survival rate, reduced apoptosis in the brain and decreased expression of casp9 and puma in the PMA-exposed embryos. However, Pkc inhibition neither prevented development of deformities nor reversed oxidative stress in the PMA-exposed embryos. These data suggest that direct over-activation of Pkc during early embryogenesis of zebrafish is associated with apoptosis and decreased survival rate of the embryos.

  14. Cytochrome P-450 metabolic activity in embryonic and extraembryonic tissue lineages of mouse embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, R A; Meneses, J; Spindle, A; Wu, K; Galloway, S M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse morulae, blastocysts, and embryonic and extraembryonic tissue layers were examined for benzo[a]-pyrene metabolism by cytochrome P-450, using the sister chromatid exchange assay. Benzo[a]pyrene exposure in vitro increased sister chromatid exchanges in blastocysts of all genetically responsive mice examined [BALB/cDub, C3H/AnfCum, and outbred Dub:(ICR) strains] but not blastocysts of the nonresponsive AKR/J strain. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment of responsive 7 1/2- and 8 1/2-day (postimplantation-stage) embryos, either intact or as separate tissue layers, increased sister chromatid exchanges in tissues of both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages--i.e., in the embryo proper, in isolated embryonic ectoderm, and in yolk sac, chorion, extraembryonic ectoderm, and extraembryonic endoderm layers. These results indicate that cytochrome P-450 is active in most or all tissues of the early mammalian embryo. It could metabolize xenobiotic molecules reaching the conceptus near the onset of morphogenesis and organogenesis, or it could have another as yet undefined role in normal development. PMID:3858824

  15. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  16. Homeodomain transcription factor Hesx1/Rpx occupies Prop-1 activation sites in porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) beta subunit promoter.

    PubMed

    Susa, Takao; Nakayama, Michie; Kitahara, Kousuke; Kimoto, Fuyuko; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2007-06-08

    Homeodomain repressor factor Hesx1/Rpx plays a crucial role in the formation of Rathke's pouch at the start of pituitary organogenesis and represses the Prop-1-dependent expression of Pit-1 gene, which promotes the differentiation of Pit-1-dependent hormone producing cells. Recently, we discovered a novel function of Prop-1 by which it activates the porcine follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit (FSHbeta) gene through Fd2 region (-852/-746). The present study aimed to determine whether Hesx1 exerts its role in the Prop-1-dependent activation of FSHbeta gene. Transient transfection assay for the porcine FSHbeta promoter -985/+10, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and DNase I footprinting analysis for Fd2 region were carried out. Transfection assay in GH3 cells demonstrated that expression of Hesx1 alone does not change the promoter activity but the coexpression with Prop-1 represses the Prop-1-dependent activation of FSHbeta promoter. Similar results were obtained for the mutant reporter vector deleting the region -745/-104 indicating that Fd2 region is a target site of Hesx1 as well as Prop-1. EMSA and DNase I footprinting analysis using recombinant Hesx1 and Prop-1 protein demonstrated that Hesx1 and Prop-1 certainly bind to the AT-rich regions in a different manner. These results suggest that Hesx1 blocks the advanced expression of FSHbeta gene in the early stage of pituitary development, and Prop-1 thereafter appears and activates this gene.

  17. Black ginseng inhibits ethanol-induced teratogenesis in cultured mouse embryos through its effects on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Yon, Jung-Min; Baek, In-Jeoung; Park, Chun Gui; Lee, Beom Jun; Yun, Young Won; Nam, Sang-Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is caused by excessive ethanol consumption during pregnancy. We investigated the effect of black ginseng (red ginseng that is subjected to 9 cycles of 95-100 degrees C for 2-3h) on ethanol-induced teratogenesis using an in vitro whole embryo culture system. Postimplantational mouse embryos at embryonic day 8.5 were exposed to ethanol (1 microl/ml) in the presence or absence of black ginseng (1, 10, and 100 microg/ml) for 2 days, and then morphological scoring and real-time PCR analysis were carried out. In ethanol-treated embryos, the total morphological score and individual scores for flexion, heart, fore-, mid-, and hindbrains, otic, optic, and olfactory systems, branchial bars, maxillary and mandibular processes, caudal neural tube, and somites were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Treatment with black ginseng improved most of the morphological scores significantly as compared to ethanol-treated embryos (p<0.05). The mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes cytosolic glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx, and selenoprotein P were significantly decreased in ethanol-treated embryos, but co-treatment with black ginseng restored the mRNA levels to those of control embryos. These results indicate that black ginseng has a protective effect on ethanol-induced teratogenesis through the augmentation of antioxidative activity in embryos.

  18. Excision and transposition activity of Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Sasakura, Yasunori; Yaguchi, Junko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Yajima, Mamiko

    2010-03-01

    Tc1/mariner superfamily transposons are used as transformation vectors in various model organisms. The utility of this transposon family is evidenced by the fact that Tc1/mariner transposons have loose host specificity. However, the activity of these transposons has been observed in only a few organisms, and a recent study in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis suggests that not all Tc1/ mariner transposons show loose host specificity. To understand host specificity, we used sea urchins, since they have a long history as materials of embryology and developmental biology. Transposon techniques have not been reported in this organism, despite the likelihood that these techniques would open up many experimental possibilities. Here we tested the activity of three Tc1/ mariner transposons (Minos, Sleeping Beauty, and Frog Prince) in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Minos has both excision and transposition activity in H. pulcherrimus embryos, whereas no excision activity was detected for Sleeping Beauty or Frog Prince. This study suggests that Minos is active in a broad range of non-host organisms and can be used as a transformation tool in sea urchin embryos.

  19. Unmasking Activation of the Zygotic Genome Using Chromosomal Deletions in the Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    De Renzis, Stefano; Elemento, Olivier; Tavazoie, Saeed; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2007-01-01

    During the maternal-to-zygotic transition, a developing embryo integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal mRNAs with transcriptional activation of its own genome. By combining chromosomal ablation in Drosophila with microarray analysis, we characterized the basis of this integration. We show that the expression profile for at least one third of zygotically active genes is coupled to the concomitant degradation of the corresponding maternal mRNAs. The embryo uses transcription and degradation to generate localized patterns of expression, and zygotic transcription to degrade distinct classes of maternal transcripts. Although degradation does not appear to involve a simple regulatory code, the activation of the zygotic genome starts from intronless genes sharing a common cis-element. This cis-element interacts with a single protein, the Bicoid stability factor, and acts as a potent enhancer capable of timing the activity of an exogenous transactivator. We propose that this regulatory mode links morphogen gradients with temporal regulation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PMID:17456005

  20. 107 RESEARCH PRIORITIES FOR SAFE SANITARY TRADE OF EMBRYO AND SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Fieni, F; Grant, C; Gard-Schnuelle, J; Perry, G; Wrenzycki, C; Blondin, P

    2016-01-01

    Embryo transfer and artificial insemination are utilised nationally and internationally for the introduction, improvement, and preservation of livestock genetics. Embryos present a lower risk of infectious disease transmission than do live animals. In order to maintain the sanitary security and to facilitate the trade of embryos and semen worldwide, the Health and Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Embryo Technology Society designed, developed, and conducted a survey to determine research priority. The survey questionnaire was sent to 32 government representatives and 76 embryo transfer and artificial insemination industry representatives around the world to countries where artificial breeding industries are active and well developed. A total of 16 answers were received, 9/32 (28%) from government representatives and 7/76 (9%) from industry representatives. The global feedback was 15%. The survey indicated that, in terms of research priority, embryos and semen were equally important. With regards to embryo research priorities, the survey results ranked in vitro-produced embryos research as the most important, followed by in vitro-derived embryos, and then oocytes. Apart from scrapie for embryos and Campylobacteriosis for semen, research priorities were similar for the major pathogens of embryos and semen, in particular, bovine viral diarrhoea and paratuberculosis (Johne's disease; Table 1). Emerging or less common diseases were not forgotten. Other diseases suggested but not listed in Table 1 included bluetongue, foot and mouth disease, lentivirus, arbovirus, bovine tuberculosis, porcine epidemic diarrhoea, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, African swine fever, and ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (Jaagsiekte). The survey highlighted the need to focus research largely on ruminant species (Table 1). Other issues identified by the survey included (i) alternative or indirect processes for determining the sanitary quality of in vitro

  1. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ligands affect progesterone and 17β-estradiol secretion by porcine corpus luteum during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska, A; Bogacki, M; Chojnowska, K; Bogacka, I

    2014-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands on progesterone (P4) and 17β-estradiol (E2) secretion and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) mRNA abundance in porcine corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The PPAR agonists reduced P4 secretion by the CL during pregnancy whereas they were ineffective during the estrous cycle. An inhibitory effect of WY-14643 (PPARα agonist) on P4 release was noted on days 14-16 of pregnancy. The treatment of the CL with L-165,045 (PPARβ agonist) diminished P4 release by the tissue during both stages of pregnancy. A natural PPARγ agonist, PGJ2, reduced P4 release on days 14-16 or days 10-12 of pregnancy, respectively. Rosiglitazone (PPARγ agonist) inhibited P4 secretion by the CL on days 10-12 of pregnancy. In turn, PPARα ligands effect on E2 release was differential. While PPARγ activator diminished E2 secretion by the CL explants during all tested stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, PPARβ ligands did not induce any change in E2 level. In turn, PPARβ agonist reduced E2 release by the tissue during both stages of pregnancy but did not affect the secretion during the estrous cycle. In the present study there was a lack of PPAR ligands effect on 3β-HSD mRNA abundance. In summary, the results suggest that PPARs are involved in the regulation of progesterone and 17β-estradiol release by porcine CL. Porcine CL indicates a different receptivity to PPAR ligands depending on the reproductive status of animals.

  2. Developmental activation of the capability to undergo checkpoint-induced apoptosis in the early zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, R; Hunter, P; Yager, T D

    1999-05-15

    In this study, we demonstrate the developmental activation, in the zebrafish embryo, of a surveillance mechanism which triggers apoptosis to remove damaged cells. We determine the time course of activation of this mechanism by exposing embryos to camptothecin, an agent which specifically inhibits topoisomerase I within the DNA replication complex and which, as a consequence of this inhibition, also produces strand breaks in the genomic DNA. In response to an early (pre-gastrula) treatment with camptothecin, apoptosis is induced at a time corresponding approximately to mid-gastrula stage in controls. This apoptotic response to a block of DNA replication can also be induced by early (pre-MBT) treatment with the DNA synthesis inhibitors hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. After camptothecin treatment, a high proportion of cells in two of the embryo's three mitotic domains (the enveloping and deep cell layers), but not in the remaining domain (the yolk syncytial layer), undergoes apoptosis in a cell-autonomous fashion. The first step in this response is an arrest of the proliferation of all deep- and enveloping-layer cells. These cells continue to increase in nuclear volume and to synthesize DNA. Eventually they become apoptotic, by a stereotypic pathway which involves cell membrane blebbing, "margination" and fragmentation of nuclei, and cleavage of the genomic DNA to produce a nucleosomal ladder. Fragmentation of nuclei can be blocked by the caspase-1,4,5 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO, but not by the caspase-2,3,7[, 1] inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. This suggests a functional requirement for caspase-4 or caspase-5 in the apoptotic response to camptothecin. Recently, Xenopus has been shown to display a developmental activation of the capability for stress- or damaged-induced apoptosis at early gastrula stage. En masse, our experiments suggest that the apoptotic responses in zebrafish and Xenopus are fundamentally similar. Thus, as for mammals, embryos of the lower vertebrates exhibit the

  3. The anti-porcine parvovirus activity of nanometer propolis flavone and propolis flavone in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xia; Guo, Zhenhuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yonglu; Wang, Jinliang; Fan, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of nanometer propolis flavone (NPF) on inhibiting porcine parvovirus (PPV) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effect of NPF on cellular infectivity of PPV was carried out before and after adding drug and simultaneous adding and PPV after being mixed. In vivo, the anti-PPV effect of NPF in guinea pigs was performed. Results. The results showed that NPF could significantly inhibit PPV infecting porcine kidney- (PK-) 15 cells compared with propolis flavone (PF), and the activity of NPF was the best in preadding drug pattern. NPF at high and medium doses was able to observably restrain PPV copying in lung, gonad, blood, and spleen, decrease the impact of PPV on weight of guinea pigs, and improve hemagglutination inhibition (HI) of PPV in serum. In addition, it could also increase the contents of IL-2 and IL-6 in serum after PPV challenge. Conclusion. These results indicated that NPF could significantly improve the anti-PPV activity of PF, and its high concentration possessed the best efficacy. Therefore, NPF would be expected to be exploited into a new-style antiviral drug.

  4. Elevated glucose and angiotensin II increase 12-lipoxygenase activity and expression in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, R; Gu, J L; Rossi, J; Gonzales, N; Lanting, L; Xu, L; Nadler, J

    1993-01-01

    The lipoxygenase (LO) pathway of arachidonate metabolism has been suggested to play a key role in atherosclerosis and in mediating several actions of angiotensin II (AII). However, the relationship between LO activation and factors linked to accelerated diabetic vascular disease such as hyperglycemia and AII is not known. We have investigated the effect of high glucose (HG; 25 mM) and AII on LO activity as well as LO protein and mRNA expression in porcine aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs). We observed that cells cultured in HG had significantly higher levels of the cell-associated LO products 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). AII added to cells grown in HG specifically further increased only cell-associated 12-HETE levels. Using immunoblot analysis and reverse transcriptase PCRs, we demonstrated the presence in PVSMCs of porcine leukocyte-type 12-LO protein and mRNA, respectively. Furthermore, the levels of both were markedly upregulated by AII as well as by HG. These studies suggest that enhanced 12-LO activity and expression are mechanisms for accelerated vascular disease produced by HG and AII in diabetes mellitus. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8506339

  5. Effects of species and cellular activity of oviductal epithelial cells on their dialogue with co-cultured mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Wen; Ma, Suo-Feng; Yu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Xia; Lan, Guo-Cheng; Liu, Xin-Yong; Han, Zheng-Bin; Tan, Jing-He

    2007-01-01

    An efficient co-culture system, especially with oviductal or uterine epithelial cells, is important not only for the production of high quality embryos, but also for the study of the molecular dialogue between embryos and their maternal environment. Although mouse embryos have been co-cultured successfully with oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) from several species, studies on the effects of species and functionality of OECs are few. Reports concerning the necessity of direct contact between the embryo and OECs and about the culture of mouse embryos in medium conditioned with heterologous OECs have been controversial. In this study, pronuclear embryos from Kunming mice, characterized by an obvious two-cell block in vitro, were co-cultured with mouse, goat, and chick OECs. The functionality of OECs was determined by analyzing the cell cycle, apoptosis, the numbers of mitochondria and cilia, and the ability both to support embryonic development and to remove hypoxanthine from the culture medium. The necessity of direct contact between OECs and embryos was studied by repeated renewal of culture medium with fresh conditioned medium, the culture of embryos in plastic wells connected by tunnels to wells with OEC monolayers, and the co-culture of embryos separated from OECs by a filter. Both goat and chick OECs supported mouse embryonic development, but their embryotrophic lifespan was shorter than that of the mouse OECs. Whereas media conditioned with mouse OECs supported mouse embryonic development satisfactorily, medium conditioned with goat OECs supported little development. Immediate dialogue between heterologous OECs and embryos was essential for efficient co-culture, whereas direct contact between the two cell types was not; neither dialogue nor contact was needed between isologous OECs and embryos. Embryotrophic activity and the ability to remove hypoxanthine from conditioned medium declined with time after confluence and number of passages of OECs, mainly because

  6. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events.

  7. Quantitative Single-Embryo Profile of Drosophila Genome Activation and the Dorsal-Ventral Patterning Network.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Jeremy E; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2016-04-01

    During embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster, the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) marks a significant and rapid turning point when zygotic transcription begins and control of development is transferred from maternally deposited transcripts. Characterizing the sequential activation of the genome during the MZT requires precise timing and a sensitive assay to measure changes in expression. We utilized the NanoString nCounter instrument, which directly counts messenger RNA transcripts without reverse transcription or amplification, to study >70 genes expressed along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of early Drosophila embryos, dividing the MZT into 10 time points. Transcripts were quantified for every gene studied at all time points, providing the first dataset of absolute numbers of transcripts during Drosophila development. We found that gene expression changes quickly during the MZT, with early nuclear cycle 14 (NC14) the most dynamic time for the embryo. twist is one of the most abundant genes in the entire embryo and we use mutants to quantitatively demonstrate how it cooperates with Dorsal to activate transcription and is responsible for some of the rapid changes in transcription observed during early NC14. We also uncovered elements within the gene regulatory network that maintain precise transcript levels for sets of genes that are spatiotemporally cotranscribed within the presumptive mesoderm or dorsal ectoderm. Using these new data, we show that a fine-scale, quantitative analysis of temporal gene expression can provide new insights into developmental biology by uncovering trends in gene networks, including coregulation of target genes and specific temporal input by transcription factors.

  8. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  9. Detecting cardiac contractile activity in the early mouse embryo using multiple modalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiann-Mun; Miranda, António M. A.; Bub, Gil; Srinivas, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The heart is one of the first organs to develop during mammalian embryogenesis. In the mouse, it starts to form shortly after gastrulation, and is derived primarily from embryonic mesoderm. The embryonic heart is unique in having to perform a mechanical contractile function while undergoing complex morphogenetic remodeling. Approaches to imaging the morphogenesis and contractile activity of the developing heart are important in understanding not only how this remodeling is controlled but also the origin of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Here, we describe approaches for visualizing contractile activity in the developing mouse embryo, using brightfield time lapse microscopy and confocal microscopy of calcium transients. We describe an algorithm for enhancing this image data and quantifying contractile activity from it. Finally we describe how atomic force microscopy can be used to record contractile activity prior to it being microscopically visible. PMID:25610399

  10. Expression of Maternally and Embryonically Derived Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase (Hprt) Activity in Mouse Eggs and Early Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Paul G.

    1983-01-01

    X-chromosome activity in early mouse development has been studied by a gene dosage method that involves measuring the activity level of the X-linked enzyme hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) in single eggs and embryos from XO females and from females heterozygous for In(X)1H, a paracentric inversion of the X chromosome. The HPRT activity in oocytes increased threefold over a 24-hr period beginning after ovulation. Afterward, the activity plateaued in unfertilized eggs but continued to increase for at least 66 hr in presumed OY embryos. Both before and after ovulation, the level of activity in unfertilized eggs from In(X)/X females was twice that from XO females, and the distributions of activity in eggs for both sets of females remained unimodal. Beginning with the two-cell stage, distributions of activity for embryos from In(X)/X females were trimodal, which is evidence for embryonic activity. It is proposed that activation of a maternal mRNA or proenzyme is responsible for the HPRT activity increase in oocytes and early embryos and is supplemented by dosage-dependent activity of the embryonic Hprt gene as early as the two-cell stage. PMID:6618165

  11. Effect of cocaine, ethanol or nicotine on ornithine decarboxylase activity in early chick embryo brain.

    PubMed

    Beeker, K; Smith, C; Pennington, S

    1992-09-18

    Fetal drug exposure causes multiple deficits in the developing child. For both humans and animal models, the single most common drug-related problem is fetal growth suppression. This defect is associated with significant perinatal morbidity and mortality and may also be related to significant behavioral problems appearing later in life. Studies focussed on the molecular mechanism of fetal drug effects in placental models are complicated by multiple interactions of the drug with mother, placenta and fetus. Using early (76-168 h) chick embryos as a non-placental model, and three common drugs of abuse (nicotine, ethanol and cocaine) it was found that each drug suppressed the peak in fetal brain ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity that normally occurs at 120 h of development. For each drug, the decrease in ODC activity at 120 h was followed by a small but significant increase in ODC. Thus, although the drug-treated embryos were smaller in size, they appeared to be undergoing compensatory growth and, in fact, became equal in weight to the vehicle-treated animals, if allowed to hatch.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of BMP-Responsive Smad Activity in Live Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Derek W.; Febbo, Jennifer A.; Roman, Beth L.

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are critical players in development and disease, regulating such diverse processes as dorsoventral patterning, palate formation, and ossification. These ligands are classically considered to signal via BMP receptor-specific Smad proteins 1, 5, and 8. To determine the spatiotemporal pattern of Smad1/5/8 activity and thus canonical BMP signaling in the developing zebrafish embryo, we generated a transgenic line expressing EGFP under the control of a BMP responsive element. EGFP is expressed in many established BMP signaling domains and is responsive to alterations in BMP type I receptor activity and smad1 and smad5 expression. This transgenic Smad1/5/8 reporter line will be useful for determining ligand and receptor requirements for specific domains of BMP activity, as well as for genetic and pharmacological screens aimed at identifying enhancers or suppressors of canonical BMP signaling. PMID:21337466

  13. The Well-of-the-Well system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development.

    PubMed

    Vajta, Gábor; Korösi, Tamás; Du, Yutao; Nakata, Kumiko; Ieda, Shoko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2008-07-01

    Transfer of human embryos at the blastocyst stage may offer considerable benefits including an increased implantation rate and a decreased risk of multiple pregnancies; however, blastocyst culture requires an efficient and reliable in-vitro embryo culture system. In this study, the effect of the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species, including humans. The WOW system resulted in significant improvement when comparing the drops for culture of in-vitro-matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes, and in-vivo-derived mouse zygotes. In human embryos, using a sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW developed to the blastocyst stage in a significantly higher proportion than did embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P < 0.05). In a separate study, also in human, a total of 48 patients with a cumulative 214 unsuccessful previous IVF cycles were selected for the trials. In subsequent intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, oocytes/embryos were cultured individually in the WOW system or in microdrops. Transferable quality blastocyst development (48.9% of cultured zygotes) was observed in the WOW system. Ninety-four blastocysts transferred to 45 patients resulted in clinical pregnancy rates of 48.9%, including nine twin pregnancies, seven single pregnancies, five miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy. The results indicate that the WOW system provides a promising alternative for microdrop culture of mammalian embryos, including human embryos.

  14. [Effect of change in activity level of catecholaminergic systems on motor, respiratory, and cardiac activities in rat embryos].

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, O P; Vdovichenko, N D; Kuznetsov, S V

    2012-01-01

    Parameters of motor, respiratory and cardiac activities were studied in rat embryos (E17-20) after changes in activity level of catecholaminergic systems. To produce conditions for excessive level of catecholamines, the animal were administered individually with preparation of L-DOPA at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. Also studied was action of L-DOPA after blockade of D1-(antagonist - SCH-23390, 0.1 mg/kg), D2-(antagonist - sulpiride, 50 mg/kg) dopaminic, and beta2-(antagonist - propranolol, 1 mg/kg) adrenergic receptors. It was found out in E17-18 that the DOPA administration regardless of dose, while in E19-20 dose-dependently produces continuous generalized activity. Between E18 and E19, ontogenetically new is the appearance in 92 % of embryos of stereotypical head movements (circular movements, lateral and dorso-ventral flexions) following in the nearsecond rhythm. Injection of DOPA to rat embryos increased 2-6 times the number of respiratory movements by the gasping type in E17-20 and decreased the amount of episodes of continuous rhythmical respiration in E19-20. No significant heart rate changes were observed after introduction of DOPA to E17-20. There was noted a tendency for a weak acceleration of the heart rate. The changes in activities of the motor and respiratory systems due to a rise of catecholamine level are not connected with activation of the dopamine system, as they are not reduced by blockade of dopamine receptors.

  15. NHE1 is the sodium-hydrogen exchanger active in acute intracellular pH regulation in preimplantation mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Siyanov, Violetta; Baltz, Jay M

    2013-06-01

    Sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHE) of the Slc9 gene family are the major regulators of intracellular pH against acidosis in mammalian cells. Of five plasma membrane NHE isoforms, mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos express mRNAs encoding NHE1 (SLC9A1), NHE3 (SLC9A3), and NHE4 (SLC9A4), with higher mRNA levels for each in oocytes through one-cell stage embryos and lower levels after the two-cell stage. NHE2 (SLC9A2) and NHE5 (SLC9A5) are not expressed. Measurements of intracellular pH during recovery from induced acidosis indicated that recovery occurred via NHE activity at all preimplantation stages assessed (one-cell, two-cell, eight-cell and morula). Recovery from acidosis at each stage was entirely inhibited by cariporide, which is very highly selective for NHE1. In contrast, the moderately NHE3-selective inhibitor S3226 did not preferentially block recovery, nor did adding S3226 increase inhibition over cariporide alone, indicating that NHE3 did not play a role. There was no indication of NHE4 activity. Another regulator of intracellular pH against acidosis, the sodium-dependent bicarbonate/chloride exchanger (NDBCE; SLC4A8), had low or absent activity in two-cell embryos. Thus, NHE1 appears to be the only significant regulator of intracellular pH in preimplantation mouse embryos. Culturing embryos from the one-cell or two-cell stages in acidotic medium inhibited their development. Unexpectedly, inhibition of NHE1 with cariporide, NDBCE with DIDS, or both together did not affect embryo development to the blastocyst stage more substantially under conditions of chronic acidosis than at normal pH. Preimplantation mouse embryos thus appear to have limited capacity to resist chronic acidosis using intracellular pH regulatory mechanisms.

  16. Fine mapping of genome activation in bovine embryos by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Schwalb, Björn; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    During maternal-to-embryonic transition control of embryonic development gradually switches from maternal RNAs and proteins stored in the oocyte to gene products generated after embryonic genome activation (EGA). Detailed insight into the onset of embryonic transcription is obscured by the presence of maternal transcripts. Using the bovine model system, we established by RNA sequencing a comprehensive catalogue of transcripts in germinal vesicle and metaphase II oocytes, and in embryos at the four-cell, eight-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages. These were produced by in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus taurus oocytes with sperm from a Bos taurus indicus bull to facilitate parent-specific transcriptome analysis. Transcripts from 12.4 to 13.7 × 103 different genes were detected in the various developmental stages. EGA was analyzed by (i) detection of embryonic transcripts, which are not present in oocytes; (ii) detection of transcripts from the paternal allele; and (iii) detection of primary transcripts with intronic sequences. These strategies revealed (i) 220, (ii) 937, and (iii) 6,848 genes to be activated from the four-cell to the blastocyst stage. The largest proportion of gene activation [i.e., (i) 59%, (ii) 42%, and (iii) 58%] was found in eight-cell embryos, indicating major EGA at this stage. Gene ontology analysis of genes activated at the four-cell stage identified categories related to RNA processing, translation, and transport, consistent with preparation for major EGA. Our study provides the largest transcriptome data set of bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and detailed insight into the timing of embryonic activation of specific genes. PMID:24591639

  17. Effect of inhibitor and activator of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a) on porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Meszarošová, Monika; Grossmann, Roland; Benčo, Andrej; Valenzuela, Francisco

    2011-08-01

    It was previously shown, that ghrelin and its agonistic analogue, ghrelin 1-18, can be a stimulator of ovarian cell functions (promoter of proliferation, inhibitor of apoptosis and stimulator of hormones release). The aim of our studies was to compare the action of two ghrelin analogues - ghrelin 1-18, activator of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1a), and (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6, its inhibitor, on porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions. Effects of (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 added at doses of 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml on the expression of markers of proliferation (PCNA, cyclin B1, MAPK/ERK1,2), apoptosis (bax, p53, caspase 3) and release of steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol) were examined. In addition, some effect of ghrelin 1-8 on some of these parameters (expression of MAPK/ERK1,2, bax, p53) were verified. It was shown, that (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 promotes all markers of granulosa cell proliferation, inhibits all markers of apoptosis and stimulates the release of all three steroid hormones. Similar effects of (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6 (inhibitor of GHS-R1a) and ghrelin 1-18 (its stimulator) suggest that the examined effects of these substances on porcine ovaries are not mediated by GHS-R1a. Both chemical analogues could be potentially useful for stimulation of reproductive processes, at least in in vitro conditions.

  18. Effects of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allograft in the thymus of chicken embryos: thymostimulin localization and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Aita, M; Romano, N

    2006-01-01

    Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis) and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophyseal allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The embryonic thymuses were collected on day 18 and examined with histological methods, tested for the anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction, and for histoenzymatic activities and compared with normal and sham-operated embryos at the same age. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-thymostimulin, succinic dehydrogenase and ATPase enzymatic activities tested, yielded negative reactions. In partially decerebrated hypophyseal allografted embryos, the same thymic compartments improved and anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction and enzymatic activities partially recovered. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus.

  19. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  20. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo.

    PubMed

    Bønsager, Birgit C; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2010-10-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity profiles were observed. No ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was present in mature seeds but activity was detected after 24 h PI and increased 14-fold up to 144 h PI. In contrast, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) activity was present at 4h PI and first decreased by 9-fold until 72 h PI followed by a 5-fold increase at 144 h PI. Glutathione reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were also detected at 4 h PI, and showed modest increases of 1.8- and 2.7-fold, respectively, by 144 h PI. The combination of functional analysis with the proteomics approach enabled correlation of the activity profiles and protein abundance. While gel spots containing APX showed intensity changes consistent with the activity profile from 0 to 72 h PI, DHAR spot intensities indicated that post-translational regulation may be responsible for the observed changes in activity. Transcript profiling, 2D-western blotting and mass spectrometric characterization of multiple APX spots demonstrated the presence of APX1 and minor amounts of APX2.

  1. Active loss of DNA methylation in two-cell stage goat embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung S; Lee, Doosoo; Cho, Sunwha; Shin, Sang-Tae; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2010-01-01

    Early mammalian embryos are thought to gain nuclear totipotency through DNA methylation reprogramming (DMR). By this process, DNA methylation patterns acquired during gametogenesis that are unnecessary for zygotic development are erased. The DMR patterns of various mammalian species have been studied; however, they do not seem to have a conserved pattern. We examined early goat embryos to find conforming rules underlying mammalian DMR patterns. Immunocytochemical results showed that the overall level of DNA methylation was not greatly changed during the pronucleus stage. At the two-cell stage, active demethylation occurred and simultaneously affected both parental DNAs, resulting in a global loss of 5-methylcytosine. The level of DNA methylation was lowest in the four-cell stage, with increased de novo methylation during the eight-cell stage. Histone H3-lysine 9 was gradually trimethylated in the sperm-derived chromatin, continuing from the pronucleus stage through the two-cell stage. This goat DMR pattern is novel and distinct from the DMRs of other mammalian species. The more mammalian species we included for DMR analysis, the more multifarious patterns we obtained, adding an extra diversity each time to the known mammalian DMR patterns. Nevertheless, the evolutionary significance and developmental consequence of such diverse DMR patterns are currently unknown.

  2. Polarized regulatory landscape and Wnt responsiveness underlie Hox activation in embryos

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Shilu; van Rooijen, Carina; Tan, Sander; Creyghton, Menno P.; de Laat, Wouter; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Sequential 3′-to-5′ activation of the Hox gene clusters in early embryos is a most fascinating issue in developmental biology. Neither the trigger nor the regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of the 3′-most Hox genes have been unraveled in any organism. We demonstrate that a series of enhancers, some of which are Wnt-dependent, is located within a HoxA 3′ subtopologically associated domain (subTAD). This subTAD forms the structural basis for multiple layers of 3′-polarized features, including DNA accessibility and enhancer activation. Deletion of the cassette of Wnt-dependent enhancers proves its crucial role in initial transcription of HoxA at the 3′ side of the cluster. PMID:27633012

  3. Polarized regulatory landscape and Wnt responsiveness underlie Hox activation in embryos.

    PubMed

    Neijts, Roel; Amin, Shilu; van Rooijen, Carina; Tan, Sander; Creyghton, Menno P; de Laat, Wouter; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2016-09-01

    Sequential 3'-to-5' activation of the Hox gene clusters in early embryos is a most fascinating issue in developmental biology. Neither the trigger nor the regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of the 3'-most Hox genes have been unraveled in any organism. We demonstrate that a series of enhancers, some of which are Wnt-dependent, is located within a HoxA 3' subtopologically associated domain (subTAD). This subTAD forms the structural basis for multiple layers of 3'-polarized features, including DNA accessibility and enhancer activation. Deletion of the cassette of Wnt-dependent enhancers proves its crucial role in initial transcription of HoxA at the 3' side of the cluster.

  4. Oil refinery effluents: evidence of cocarcinogenic activity in the trout embryo microinjection assay

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Sonstegard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Extracts prepared from oil refinery effluents (soxhlet and XAD-2) were tested for carcinogenic potential by means of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) embryo-injection bioassay. No neoplasms were detected in fish given injections of refinery extracts alone (with and without exogenous rat S-9 activation). Refinery extracts coinjected with aflatoxin B1 induced elevated frequencies of hepatic neoplasms. This cocarcinogenic effect was most pronounced when aflatoxin B1 was preincubated with rat S-9 prior to injection. Effluent extracts coinjected with a direct-acting carcinogen (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (CAS: 56-57-5)) did not increase the incidence of hepatic neoplasms (with and without exogenous S-9 activation).

  5. Spatiotemporal Analysis of a Glycolytic Activity Gradient Linked to Mouse Embryo Mesoderm Development.

    PubMed

    Bulusu, Vinay; Prior, Nicole; Snaebjornsson, Marteinn T; Kuehne, Andreas; Sonnen, Katharina F; Kress, Jana; Stein, Frank; Schultz, Carsten; Sauer, Uwe; Aulehla, Alexander

    2017-02-27

    How metabolism is rewired during embryonic development is still largely unknown, as it remains a major technical challenge to resolve metabolic activities or metabolite levels with spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we investigated metabolic changes during development of organogenesis-stage mouse embryos, focusing on the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). We measured glycolytic labeling kinetics from (13)C-glucose tracing experiments and detected elevated glycolysis in the posterior, more undifferentiated PSM. We found evidence that the spatial metabolic differences are functionally relevant during PSM development. To enable real-time quantification of a glycolytic metabolite with spatiotemporal resolution, we generated a pyruvate FRET-sensor reporter mouse line. We revealed dynamic changes in cytosolic pyruvate levels as cells transit toward a more anterior PSM state. Combined, our approach identifies a gradient of glycolytic activity across the PSM, and we provide evidence that these spatiotemporal metabolic changes are intrinsically linked to PSM development and differentiation.

  6. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Michael; Gao, Guo-Jie; Thomas, Jeffrey; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity.

  7. Fluctuation of the CaS -sequestering activity of permeabilized sea urchin embryos during the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Suprynowicz, F.A.; Mazia, D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors have followed the sequestration of CaS by intracellular compartments in sea urchin embryos through the first cell cycles. To gain biochemical access to these compartments, the embryos were permeabilized by brief exposure to an intense electric field. Sequestration was determined as the retention of tracer, UVCa, after filtration of aliquots on Millipore filters. The permeabilized cells sequester CaS at a constant rate for at least 20 min. The CaS -sequestering activities of embryos that are permeabilized at successive stages of the first cell cycle (one-cell stage) progressively increase to 5 times the initial level. The rate of sequestration is maximal during telophase and, in some populations of zygotes, is nearly as great throughout prophase. Over the course of the second cell cycle (two-cell stage), the activity undergoes a 2-fold oscillation that bears the same temporal relationship to mitosis as the previous fluctuation.

  8. Effect of peroxiredoxin II on the quality and mitochondrial activity of pre-implantation bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Fakruzzaman, Md; Ghanem, Nasser; Bang, Jae-Il; Ha, A-Na; Lee, Kyeong-Lim; Sohn, Sea-Hwan; Wang, Zhongde; Lee, Dong-Seok; Kong, Il-Keun

    2015-08-01

    Endogenous peroxiredoxin II (PRDX II) protein plays a vital role in early embryonic development. This study assessed the beneficial effects of exogenous PRDX II on bovine embryo development at the cellular and molecular levels. To this end, in vitro maturation (IVM) medium was supplemented with various concentrations of PRDX II (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100μg/mL). Of these, 12.5μg/mL PRDX II was the most effective and significantly promoted embryonic development. Therefore, this concentration of PRDX II was used in subsequent experiments. The percentage of embryos that developed into Day 8 blastocysts and the total number of cells per blastocyst (38.2% and 150.6±5.1) was higher in the PRDX II-treated group than in the control (26.4% and 128.9±3.9, respectively). Moreover, the percent of TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.05) in the control than in the PRDX II-treated. Furthermore, PRDX II added to the IVM media increased mitochondria content in blastocysts and decreased the intracellular ROS levels in oocytes and blastocysts compared with the control (P<0.05). The expression of genes associated with blastocyst quality (CDX2 and IFNτ), antioxidant activity (SOD2), and mitochondrial activity (TFAM) was higher, whereas the expression of a gene involved in the apoptotic pathway (c-FOS) was lower, in the PRDX II-treated than in the control group. In conclusion, supplementation of IVM medium with PRDX II promotes development to the blastocyst stage and improves blastocyst quality through reducing ROS, enhancing embryonic mitochondrial activity, and modulating development- related target genes expression.

  9. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  10. Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is essential for early porcine embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zi Li; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Namgoong, Suk; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is a regulator of both transcription and actin filament assembly. JMY is a critical nucleation-promoting factor (NPF); however, its role in the development of mammalian embryos is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the functional roles of the NPF JMY in porcine embryos. Porcine embryos expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and JMY protein moved from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at later embryonic developmental stages. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference markedly decreased the rate of blastocyst development, validating its role in the development of porcine embryos. Furthermore, injection of JMY dsRNA also impaired actin and Arp2 expression, and co-injection of actin and Arp2 mRNA partially rescued blastocyst development. Taken together, our results show that the NPF JMY is involved in the development of porcine embryos by regulating the NPF-Arp2-actin pathway.

  11. Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is essential for early porcine embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Zi Li; CUI, Xiang-Shun; NAMGOONG, Suk; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) is a regulator of both transcription and actin filament assembly. JMY is a critical nucleation-promoting factor (NPF); however, its role in the development of mammalian embryos is poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the functional roles of the NPF JMY in porcine embryos. Porcine embryos expressed JMY mRNA and protein, and JMY protein moved from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at later embryonic developmental stages. Knockdown of JMY by RNA interference markedly decreased the rate of blastocyst development, validating its role in the development of porcine embryos. Furthermore, injection of JMY dsRNA also impaired actin and Arp2 expression, and co-injection of actin and Arp2 mRNA partially rescued blastocyst development. Taken together, our results show that the NPF JMY is involved in the development of porcine embryos by regulating the NPF-Arp2-actin pathway. PMID:26052154

  12. Kaempferol enhances endothelium-dependent relaxation in the porcine coronary artery through activation of large-conductance a2+-activated K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y C; Leung, S W S; Leung, G P H; Man, R Y K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Kaempferol, a plant flavonoid present in normal human diet, can modulate vasomotor tone. The present study aimed to elucidate the signalling pathway through which this flavonoid enhanced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Experimental Approach The effect of kaempferol on the relaxation of porcine coronary arteries to endothelium-dependent (bradykinin) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxing agents was studied in an in vitro organ chamber setup. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to determine the effect of kaempferol on potassium channels in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMCs). Key Results At a concentration without direct effect on vascular tone, kaempferol (3 × 10−6 M) enhanced relaxations produced by bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside. The potentiation by kaempferol of the bradykinin-induced relaxation was not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthase (10−4 M) or TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684, inhibitors of intermediate- and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, respectively (10−6 M each), but was abolished by tetraethylammonium chloride, a non-selective inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels (10−3 M), and iberiotoxin, a selective inhibitor of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa1.1; 10−7 M). Iberiotoxin also inhibited the potentiation by kaempferol of sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. Kaempferol stimulated an outward-rectifying current in PCASMCs, which was abolished by iberiotoxin. Conclusions and Implications The present results suggest that, in smooth muscle cells of the porcine coronary artery, kaempferol enhanced relaxations caused by endothelium-derived and exogenous NO as well as those due to endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. This vascular effect of kaempferol involved the activation of KCa1.1 channels. PMID:25652142

  13. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Kwang, Jimmy; Wang Jin; Shi Lei; Yang Bing; Li Yongqing; Liu Jue

    2008-08-15

    The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstrated PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.

  14. A single amino acid deletion in the matrix protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus confers resistance to a polyclonal swine antibody with broadly neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Trible, Benjamin R; Popescu, Luca N; Monday, Nicholas; Calvert, Jay G; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of virus neutralization (VN) activity in 176 pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) identified one pig with broadly neutralizing activity. A Tyr-10 deletion in the matrix protein provided escape from broad neutralization without affecting homologous neutralizing activity. The role of the Tyr-10 deletion was confirmed through an infectious clone with a Tyr-10 deletion. The results demonstrate differences in the properties and specificities of VN responses elicited during PRRSV infection.

  15. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo. PMID:27239348

  16. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. PMID:23822503

  17. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-06-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets.

  18. Unraveling the association between genetic integrity and metabolic activity in pre-implantation stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Fiona; Pudakalakatti, Shivanand M.; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Honguntikar, Sachin; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Pasricha, Renu; Appajigowda, Divya; Atreya, Hanudatta S.; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Early development of certain mammalian embryos is protected by complex checkpoint systems to maintain the genomic integrity. Several metabolic pathways are modulated in response to genetic insults in mammalian cells. The present study investigated the relationship between the genetic integrity, embryo metabolites and developmental competence in preimplantation stage mouse embryos with the aim to identify early biomarkers which can predict embryonic genetic integrity using spent medium profiling by NMR spectroscopy. Embryos carrying induced DNA lesions (IDL) developed normally for the first 2.5 days, but began to exhibit a developmental delay at embryonic day 3.5(E3.5) though they were morphologically indistinguishable from control embryos. Analysis of metabolites in the spent medium on E3.5 revealed a significant association between pyruvate, lactate, glucose, proline, lysine, alanine, valine, isoleucine and thymine and the extent of genetic instability observed in the embryos on E4.5. Further analysis revealed an association of apoptosis and micronuclei frequency with P53 and Bax transcripts in IDL embryos on the E4.5 owing to delayed induction of chromosome instability. We conclude that estimation of metabolites on E3.5 in spent medium may serve as a biomarker to predict the genetic integrity in pre-implantation stage embryos which opens up new avenues to improve outcomes in clinical IVF programs. PMID:27853269

  19. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Jie Jason; Holcomb, Michael C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena.

  20. Changes in the activities of protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A in sea urchin embryos during early development.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, M; Fujiwara, A; Yasumasu, I

    2000-08-01

    In the eggs and embryos of sea urchins, the activity of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) increased during the developmental period between fertilization and the morula stage, decreased after the prehatching blastula stage and increased again after hatching. The PP2A activity changed keeping pace with alteration to the activities of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) and casein kinase. Probably, PP2A contributes to the quick turning off of cellular signals because of protein phosphorylation. The activity of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) was not detectable up to the morula stage and appreciably increased thereafter. In the isolated nucleus fraction, specific activities of PP1 and PP2A were higher than in whole embryos at all stages in early development. Exponential increase in the number of nuclei because of egg cleavage probably makes PP1 activity detectable in whole embryos after the morula stage. In isolated nuclei, the activities of PP1 and PP2A appreciably decreased after hatching, whereas the activities of A kinase, Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (C kinase) and CaM kinase, as well as casein kinase, became higher. In nuclei, cellular signals caused by protein phosphorylation after hatching do not seem to be turned off by these protein kinases so quickly as before hatching. The PP1 and PP2A in nuclei also seem to contribute to the elimination of signal noise.

  1. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Development and Physiology of Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jaou-Chen

    2008-01-01

    In several species, a family of nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) composed of three isotypes, is expressed in somatic cells and germ cells of the ovary as well as the testis. Invalidation of these receptors in mice or stimulation of these receptors in vivo or in vitro showed that each receptor has physiological roles in the gamete maturation or the embryo development. In addition, synthetic PPAR γ ligands are recently used to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary disease. These results reveal the positive actions of PPAR in reproduction. On the other hand, xenobiotics molecules (in herbicides, plasticizers, or components of personal care products), capable of activating PPAR, may disrupt normal PPAR functions in the ovary or the testis and have consequences on the quality of the gametes and the embryos. Despite the recent data obtained on the biological actions of PPARs in reproduction, relatively little is known about PPARs in gametes and embryos. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the expression and the function of PPARs as well as their partners, retinoid X receptors (RXRs), in germ cells and preimplantation embryos. The effects of natural and synthetic PPAR ligands will also be discussed from the perspectives of reproductive toxicology and assisted reproductive technology. PMID:18354728

  2. Construction and evaluation of a maize (Zea mays) chimaeric promoter with activity in kernel endosperm and embryo.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Colin T; Scott, M Paul

    2009-03-01

    Chimaeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimaeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, to precisely control transgene activity or to combat homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimaeric promoters, each containing different lengths of DNA from maize (Zea mays) 27zn (27 kDa gamma-zein) endosperm-specific promoter and the Glb1 (Globulin-1) embryo-specific promoter were created and tested in a transient expression assay of GFP (green fluorescent protein). Promoter fragments with the highest activity were combined to create the chimaeric promoter A27znGlb1. In the context of the chimaeric promoter, the selected Glb1 promoter fragment was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in embryo tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native Glb1 promoter. Similarly, the selected 27zn promoter fragment in the chimaeric promoter was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in endosperm tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native 27zn promoter. Maize transgenic plants containing the A27znGlb1 chimaeric promoter fused to GFP were produced to characterize this promoter in vivo. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to determine that the promoter was active in the embryo, endosperm, pericarp and immature leaf tissues. GFP activity in plants containing the chimaeric promoter was not significantly different in endosperm than the activity of GFP fused to the full-length 27zn promoter, nor was it different in embryo from the activity of GFP fused to the full-length Glb1 promoter. Transgene copy numbers were shown to be between 4 and 12 copies in different events.

  3. OTX2 impedes self–renewal of porcine iPS cells through downregulation of NANOG expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Yaxian; Xie, Youlong; Wang, Huayan

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Otx2 acts as a negative switch in the regulation of transition from naive to primed pluripotency in mouse pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular features and function of porcine OTX2 have not been well elucidated in porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs). By studying high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and interfering endogenous OTX2 expression, we demonstrate that OTX2 is able to downgrade the self-renewal of piPSCs. OTX2 is highly expressed in porcine brain, reproductive tissues, and preimplantation embryos, but is undetectable in fibroblasts and most somatic tissues. However, the known piPSC lines reported previously produced different levels of OTX2 depending on the induction procedures and culture conditions. Overexpression of porcine OTX2 can reduce the percentage of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies and downregulate NANOG and OCT4 expression. In contrast, knockdown of OTX2 can significantly increase endogenous expressions of NANOG, OCT4, and ESRRB, and stabilize the pluripotent state of piPSCs. On the other hand, NANOG can directly bind to the OTX2 promoter as shown in ChIP-seq data and repress OTX2 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These observations indicate that OTX2 and NANOG can form a negative feedback circuitry to regulate the pluripotency of porcine iPS cells. PMID:27924227

  4. Spontaneous locomotor activity in late-stage chicken embryos is modified by stretch of leg muscles

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Nina S.; Ryu, Young U.; Yeseta, Marie C.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks initiate bilateral alternating steps several days before hatching and adaptively walk within hours of hatching, but emergence of precocious walking skills is not well understood. One of our aims was to determine whether interactions between environment and movement experience prior to hatching are instrumental in establishing precocious motor skills. However, physiological evidence of proprioceptor development in the chick has yet to be established; thus, one goal of this study was to determine when in embryogenesis proprioception circuits can code changes in muscle length. A second goal was to determine whether proprioception circuits can modulate leg muscle activity during repetitive limb movements for stepping (RLMs). We hypothesized that proprioception circuits code changes in muscle length and/or tension, and modulate locomotor circuits producing RLMs in anticipation of adaptive locomotion at hatching. To this end, leg muscle activity and kinematics were recorded in embryos during normal posture and after fitting one ankle with a restraint that supported the limb in an atypical posture. We tested the hypotheses by comparing leg muscle activity during spontaneous RLMs in control posture and ankle extension restraint. The results indicated that proprioceptors detect changes in muscle length and/or muscle tension 3 days before hatching. Ankle extension restraint produced autogenic excitation of the ankle flexor and reciprocal inhibition of the ankle extensor. Restraint also modified knee extensor activity during RLMs 1 day before hatching. We consider the strengths and limitations of these results and propose that proprioception contributes to precocious locomotor development during the final 3 days before hatching. PMID:24265423

  5. Core promoter analysis of porcine Six1 gene and its regulation of the promoter activity by CpG methylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wangjun; Ren, Zhuqing; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Linjie; Huang, Ruihua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Xiong, Yuanzhu

    2013-10-25

    Six1, an evolutionary conserved transcription factor, has been shown to play an important role in organogenesis and diseases. However, no reports were shown to investigate its transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we first identified porcine Six1 gene core promoter region (+170/-360) using luciferase reporter assay system and found that promoter activities were significantly higher in the mouse myoblast C2C12 cells than that in the mouse fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells, implying that Six1 promoter could possess muscle-specific characteristics. Moreover, our results showed that promoter activities of Six1 were decreased as induction of differentiation of C2C12 cells, which was accompanied by the down-regulation of mRNA expression of Six1 gene. In addition, we found that the DNA methylation of Six1 promoters in vitro obviously influences the promoter activities and the DNA methylation level of Six1 promoter core region was negatively correlated to Six1 gene expression in vivo. Taken together, we preliminarily clarified transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of Six1 gene, which should be useful for investigating its subtle transcriptional regulatory mechanisms in the future. On the other hand, based on Six1 involved in tumorigenesis, our data also provide a genetic foundation to control the generation of diseases via pursuing Six1 as therapeutic target gene.

  6. Dietary aluminosilicate supplement enhances immune activity in mice and reinforces clearance of porcine circovirus type 2 in experimentally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Toan, Nguyen Tat; Cho, Sun-Ju; Ko, Jae-hyung; Jung, Yeon-Kwon; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2010-07-14

    Aluminosilicate is the major component of clay minerals such as zeolite, bentonite and clinoptilolite. The minerals possess a number of beneficial activities, especially in regulating the immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate immune enhancing effects of dietary aluminosilicate supplement (DAS) in mice, and to demonstrate clearance effects of DAS against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in experimentally infected pigs as an initial step towards the development of an antibiotic substitute for use in pigs. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, phagocytic activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, serum antibody production level and spleen B cell ratio were significantly increased in the DAS groups of mice compared with the control group (each feeding group had three replications with 5 mice each). The results indicated that general immune activity including cellular and humoral immunity could be enhanced by DAS in mice. In experimentally PCV2-infected pigs, the load of viral genome in nasal swab, serum and lung of the DAS group of pigs was significantly decreased compared with the control group at 28 days post-infection (each group three pigs). Corresponding histopathological analyses demonstrated that pigs in the DAS group displayed mild and less severe abnormal changes compared with the control group, indicating that DAS reinforces clearance of PCV2 in experimentally infected pigs. This may relate to general immune enhancing effects of DAS in mice. Therefore DAS will help the health of animal, especially in swine.

  7. Effect of limited proteolysis in the 8th loop of the barrel and of antibodies on porcine pancreas amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Desseaux, V; Payan, F; Ajandouz, E H; Svensson, B; Haser, R; Marchis-Mouren, G

    1991-11-15

    The porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase is a (beta/alpha)8-barrel protein, containing domains A and B (peptide sequence 1-403) and a distinct C-domain (peptide sequence 404-496). Separation of the terminal C-domain from the A and B domains has been attempted by limited proteolysis in the hinge region. Subtilisin was found to hydrolyse amylase between residues 369 and 370 situated in the loop between the eighth beta-strand and alpha-helix. The cleaved amylase was isolated by chromatofocusing and found to retain about 60% of the activity of the native enzyme, while the isolated fragments were inactive. Antigen binding fragments prepared from polyclonal antibodies to native amylase and the CNBr-fragment P1 (peptide sequence 395-496) respectively, were tested for influence on the enzyme activity. Antibodies directed against P1 had no effect whereas antibodies against the peptide sequence 1-394 and amylase respectively inhibited hydrolysis of substrates having four or more glucose residues but not of shorter oligomaltosides. Crystallographic analysis revealed that changes in the region of residue 369 might affect the conformation of the active site as well as of a second binding site. This site, located on the enzyme surface, is proposed to be required for the hydrolysis of larger substrates.

  8. Defense of zebrafish embryos against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is dependent on the phagocytic activity of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Rounioja, Samuli; Saralahti, Anni; Rantala, Lilli; Parikka, Mataleena; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Silvennoinen, Olli; Rämet, Mika

    2012-02-01

    Severe community acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of death from infection in developing countries. Serotype specific conjugate vaccines have decreased the incidence of invasive infections, but at the same time, disease due to non-vaccine serotypes have increased. New insights into host immune mechanisms against pneumococcus may provide better treatment and prevention strategies. Zebrafish is an attractive vertebrate model for studying host immune responses and infection biology. Here we show that an intravenous challenge with pneumococcus infects zebrafish embryos leading to death in a dose dependent manner. Survival rates correlate with the bacterial burden in the embryos. The production of proinflammatory cytokines is induced in zebrafish after pneumococcal exposure. Importantly, morpholino treated embryos lacking either myeloid cells or the ability to phagocytose bacteria have lowered survival rates compared to wild type embryos after pneumococcal challenge. These data suggest that the survival of zebrafish embryos upon intravenous infection with S. pneumoniae is dependent on the clearance of the bacteria by phagocytosing cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that mutant pneumococci lacking known virulence factors are attenuated in the zebrafish model. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish embryos can be used for study innate immune responses as well as virulence determinants in pneumococcal infections.

  9. Embryo production by parthenogenetic activation and fertilization of in vitro matured oocytes from Cebus apella.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julianne S; Leão, Danuza L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Miranda, Moysés S; Ohashi, Otávio M; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2013-05-01

    The efficiency of in vitro fertilization (IVF) depends on the viability of spermatozoa. For capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), in vitro capacitation of spermatozoa is challenging because of their unique seminal coagulum. Motile spermatozoa can be obtained after liquefaction of the semen coagulum in coconut water-based solution. The objective of the present study was to establish an optimal in vitro maturation (IVM) protocol for capuchin monkeys and to observe the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) on IVF and parthenogenetic activation (PA) of oocytes collected from unstimulated females. We assessed spermatozoa quality after recovery from seminal coagulum using the solution ACP-118® as an extender. Oocytes were matured in vitro for 36 or 40 h and subjected to IVF or PA by applying ionomycin combined either with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) or roscovitine. In total, 87% of oocytes reached metaphase II (MII) after 40 IVM and 4-cell embryo production was obtained after IVF and parthenogenesis using ionomycin/6-DMAP. ACP-118® was used successfully to harvest viable spermatozoa from semen coagulum and in the preservation of spermatozoa, which were able to fertilize oocytes in vitro.

  10. Activation of cellular oncogenes by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, R.; Reiss, E.; Roellich, G.; Schiffmann, D. ); Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.W. ); Pechan, R.

    1990-08-01

    Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.

  11. Cell-free extract from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells can affect porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming.

    PubMed

    No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Dae-Jin; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Dong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatment of somatic cells with undifferentiated cell extracts, such as embryonic stem cells and mammalian oocytes, is an attractive alternative method for reprogramming control. The properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are similar to those of embryonic stem cells; however, no studies have reported somatic cell nuclear reprogramming using iPSC extracts. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of porcine iPSC extracts treatment on porcine ear fibroblasts and early development of porcine cloned embryos produced from porcine ear skin fibroblasts pretreated with the porcine iPSC extracts. The Chariot(TM) reagent system was used to deliver the iPSC extracts into cultured porcine ear skin fibroblasts. The iPSC extracts-treated cells (iPSC-treated cells) were cultured for 3 days and used for analyzing histone modification and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Compared to the results for nontreated cells, the trimethylation status of histone H3 lysine residue 9 (H3K9) in the iPSC-treated cells significantly decreased. The expression of Jmjd2b, the H3K9 trimethylation-specific demethylase gene, significantly increased in the iPSC-treated cells; conversely, the expression of the proapoptotic genes, Bax and p53, significantly decreased. When the iPSC-treated cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes, no differences were observed in blastocyst development and total cell number in blastocysts compared with the results for control cells. However, H3K9 trimethylation of pronuclear-stage-cloned embryos significantly decreased in the iPSC-treated cells. Additionally, Bax and p53 gene expression in the blastocysts was significantly lower in iPSC-treated cells than in control cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that an extracts of porcine iPSCs can affect histone modification and gene expression in porcine ear skin fibroblasts and cloned embryos.

  12. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments.

  13. In vitro activity of five tetracyclines and some other antimicrobial agents against four porcine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pijpers, A; Van Klingeren, B; Schoevers, E J; Verheijden, J H; Van Miert, A S

    1989-09-01

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of five tetracyclines and ten other antimicrobial agents were determined for four porcine bacterial respiratory tract pathogens by the agar dilution method. For the following oxytetracycline-susceptible strains, the MIC50 ranges of the tetracyclines were: P. multocida (n = 17) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; B. bronchiseptica (n = 20) 0.25-1.0 micrograms/ml; H. pleuropneumoniae (n = 20) 0.25-0.5 micrograms/ml; S. suis Type 2 (n = 20) 0.06-0.25 micrograms/ml. For 19 oxytetracycline-resistant P. multocida strains the MIC50 of the tetracyclines varied from 64 micrograms/ml for oxytetracycline to 0.5 micrograms/ml for minocycline. Strikingly, minocycline showed no cross-resistance with oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline in P. multocida and in H. pleuropneumoniae. Moreover, in susceptible strains minocycline showed the highest in vitro activity followed by doxycycline. Low MIC50 values were observed for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, flumequine, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin against P. multocida and H. pleuropneumoniae. B. bronchiseptica was moderately susceptible or resistant to these compounds. As expected tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin and spiramycin were not active against H. pleuropneumoniae. Except for flumequine, the MIC50 values of nine antimicrobial agents were low for S. suis Type 2. Six strains of this species showed resistance to the macrolides and lincomycin.

  14. Physical properties, lipid composition and enzyme activities of hepatic subcellular membranes from chick embryo after ethanol treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Amate, M.C.; Marco, C.; Segovia, J.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of chick embryos to ethanol resulted in significant alterations to the lipid composition of various different hepatic subcellular membranes. A marked decrease in cholesterol levels and an increase in the phospholipid content of microsomes and mitochondria was observed. Ethanol also affected the fatty acid profiles, mainly by decreasing the percentage of oleic acid in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the mitochondria and phosphatidylethanolamine in the microsomes. In spite of these changes ethanol only induced alterations in the fluidity of the mitochondrial membranes, which showed a more rigid core, in contrast to the phospholipid-head region, which was not affected. In accordance with the changes observed in the physical state of the membrane, the enzymes involved in the microsomal electron-transport systems were not modified by ethanol, while cytochrome oxidase activity decreased by 50% compared to the activity in the mitochondria from control chick embryos.

  15. Morphological features of lipid droplet transition during porcine oocyte fertilisation and early embryonic development to blastocyst in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Ekwall, Hans; Tienthai, Paisan; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2002-11-01

    Lipid content in mammalian oocytes or embryos differs among species, with bovine and porcine oocytes and embryos showing large cytoplasmic droplets. These droplets are considered to play important roles in energy metabolism during oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryonic development, and also in the freezing ability of oocytes or embryos; however, their detailed distribution or function is not well understood. In the present study, changes in the distribution and morphology of porcine lipid droplets during in vivo and in vitro fertilisation, in contrast to parthenogenetic oocyte activation, as well as during their development to blastocyst stage, were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis of semi-thin and ultra-thin sections by TEM showed conspicuous, large, electron-dense lipid droplets, sometimes associated with mitochondrial aggregates in the oocytes, irrespective of whether the oocytes had been matured in vivo or in vitro. Immediately after sperm penetration, the electron density of the lipid droplets was lost in both the in vivo and in vitro oocytes, the reduction being most evident in the oocytes developed in vitro. Density was restored in the pronculear oocytes, fully in the in vivo specimens but only partially in the in vitro ones. The number and size of the droplets seemed, however, to have decreased. At 2- to 4-cell and blastocyst stages, the features of the lipid droplets were almost the same as those of pronuclear oocytes, showing a homogeneous or saturated density in the in vivo embryos but a marbled or partially saturated appearance in the in vitro embryos. In vitro matured oocytes undergoing parthenogenesis had lipid droplets that resembled those of fertilised oocytes until the pronuclear stage. Overall, results indicate variations in both the morphology and amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets during porcine oocyte maturation, fertilisation and early embryo development as well as differences between in vivo

  16. Proteomic identification of an embryo-specific 1Cys-Prx promoter and analysis of its activity in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Je Hein; Jung, In Jung; Kim, Dool Yi; Fanata, Wahyu Indra; Son, Bo Hwa; Yoo, Jae Yong; Harmoko, Rikno; Ko, Ki Seong; Moon, Jeong Chan; Jang, Ho Hee; Kim, Woe Yeon; Kim, Jae-Yean; Lim, Chae Oh; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyun Oh

    2011-04-29

    Proteomic analysis of a rice callus led to the identification of 10 abscisic acid (ABA)-induced proteins as putative products of the embryo-specific promoter candidates. 5'-flanking sequence of 1 Cys-Prx, a highly-induced protein gene, was cloned and analyzed. The transcription initiation site of 1 Cys-Prx maps 96 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon and a TATA-box and putative seed-specific cis-acting elements, RYE and ABRE, are located 26, 115 and 124 bp upstream of the transcription site, respectively. β-glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the 1 Cys-Prx promoters was strong in the embryo and aleurone layer and the activity reached up to 24.9 ± 3.3 and 40.5 ± 2.1 pmol (4 MU/min/μg protein) in transgenic rice seeds and calluses, respectively. The activity of the 1 Cys-Prx promoters is much higher than that of the previously-identified embryo-specific promoters, and comparable to that of strong endosperm-specific promoters in rice. GUS expression driven by the 1 Cys-Prx promoters has been increased by ABA treatment and rapidly induced by wounding in callus and at the leaf of the transgenic plants, respectively. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the GUS construct in Arabidopsis suggested that the 1 Cys-Prx promoter also has strong activity in seeds of dicot plants.

  17. Parallel determination of enzyme activities and in vivo fluxes in Brassica napus embryos grown on organic or inorganic nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Junker, Björn H; Lonien, Joachim; Heady, Lindsey E; Rogers, Alistair; Schwender, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    After the completion of the genomic sequencing of model organisms, numerous post-genomic studies, integrating transcriptome and metabolome data, are aimed at developing a more complete understanding of cell physiology. Here, we measure in vivo metabolic fluxes by steady state labeling, and in parallel, the activity of enzymes in central metabolism in cultured developing embryos of Brassica napus. Embryos were grown on either the amino acids glutamine and alanine as an organic nitrogen source, or on ammonium nitrate as an inorganic nitrogen source. The type of nitrogen made available to developing embryos caused substantial differences in fluxes associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including flux reversion. The changes observed in enzyme activity were not consistent with our estimates of metabolic flux. Furthermore, most extractable enzyme activities are in large surplus relative to the requirements for the observed in vivo fluxes. The results demonstrate that in this model system the metabolic response of central metabolism to changes in environmental conditions can be achieved largely without regulatory reprogramming of the enzyme machinery.

  18. N-Acetylgalactosamine 4,6-O-sulfate residues mediate binding and activation of heparin cofactor II by porcine mucosal dermatan sulfate.

    PubMed

    Halldórsdóttir, Anna Margrét; Zhang, Lijuan; Tollefsen, Douglas M

    2006-08-01

    Dermatan sulfate (DS) accelerates the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII). A hexasaccharide consisting of three l-iduronic acid 2-O-sulfate (IdoA2SO3)-->N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-O-sulfate (GalNAc4SO3) subunits was previously isolated from porcine skin DS and shown to bind HCII with high affinity. DS from porcine intestinal mucosa has a much lower content of this disaccharide but activates HCII with potency similar to that of porcine skin DS. Therefore, we sought to characterize oligosaccharides from porcine mucosal DS that interact with HCII. DS was partially depolymerized with chondroitinase ABC, and oligosaccharides containing 2-12 monosaccharide units were isolated. The oligosaccharides were then fractionated by anion-exchange and affinity chromatography on HCII-Sepharose, and the disaccharide compositions of selected fractions were determined. We found that the smallest oligosaccharides able to bind HCII were hexasaccharides. Oligosaccharides 6-12 units long that lacked uronic acid (UA)2SO3 but contained one or two GalNAc4,6SO3 residues bound, and binding was proportional to both oligosaccharide size and number of GalNAc4,6SO3 residues. Intact DS and bound dodecasaccharides contained predominantly IdoA but little D-glucuronic acid. Decasaccharides and dodecasaccharides containing one or two GalNAc4,6SO3 residues stimulated thrombin inhibition by HCII and prolonged the clotting time of normal but not HCII-depleted human plasma. These data support the hypothesis that modification of IdoA-->GalNAc4SO3 subunits in the DS polymer by either 2-O-sulfation of IdoA or 6-O-sulfation of GalNAc can generate molecules with HCII-binding sites and anticoagulant activity.

  19. Excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    High intake of dietary cysteine is extremely toxic to animals and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that excessive L-cysteine induces cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Jejunal enterocytes were cultured in the presence of 0-10 mmol/L L-cysteine. Cell viability, morphologic alterations, mRNA levels for genes involved in ER stress, protein abundances for glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) were determined. The results showed that L-cysteine (5-10 mmol/L) reduced cell viability (P < 0.05) and led to vacuole-like cell death in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. These adverse effects of L-cysteine were not affected by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The protein abundances for CHOP, phosphorylated (p)-eIF2α, p-JNK1/2, p-p38 MAPK, and the spliced form of XBP-1 mRNA were enhanced (P < 0.05), whereas those for p-ERK1/2 were reduced (P < 0.05). Collectively, excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death via the activation of ER stress and MAPK signaling in small intestinal epithelial cells. These signaling pathways may be potential targets for developing effective strategies to prevent the toxicity of dietary cysteine.

  20. Restoration of Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Mouse 1R Cells After Fusion with Chick-Embryo Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Bakay, Bohdan; Croce, Carlo M.; Koprowski, Hilary; Nyhan, William L.

    1973-01-01

    Fusion of the 1R mouse cell, which lacks activity of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (EC 2.4.2.8), with chick-embryo fibroblasts yielded progeny cells that survived in hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine selective medium. This property and the failure of the progeny to survive in 8-azaguanine indicated that hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase activity was present. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that the enzyme was of mouse, not chick, origin. These observations are consistent with the operation of a regulator gene responsible for the absence of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase activity in the 1R cell and its presence in the progeny. Images PMID:4516198

  1. DNA double-strand breaks disrupted the spindle assembly in porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, HaiYang; Luo, YiBo; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Lin, ZiLi; Kwon, Jeongwoo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    We used etoposide (25-100 µg/mL) to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage to determine how such damage affects oocyte maturation. We observed that DNA damage did not delay the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), but did inhibit the final stages of maturation, as indicated by the failure to extrude the first polar body. Oocytes with low levels of DSBs failed to effectively activate ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, while those with severe DNA DSBs failed to activate checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1)--the two regulators of the DNA damage response pathway--indicating that porcine oocytes lack an efficient G2/M phase checkpoint. DSBs induced spindle defects and chromosomal misalignments, leading to the arrest of these oocytes at meiotic metaphase I. The activity of maturation-promoting factor also did not increase appropriately in oocytes with DNA DSBs, although its abundance was sufficient to promote GVBD and chromosomal condensation. Following parthenogenetic activation, embryos from etoposide-treated oocytes formed numerous micronuclei. Thus, our results indicate that DNA DSBs do not efficiently activate the ATM/CHK1-dependent DNA-damage checkpoint in porcine oocytes, allowing these DNA-impaired oocytes to enter M phase. Oocytes with DNA damage did, however, arrest at metaphase I in response to spindle defects and chromosomal misalignments, which limited the ability of these oocytes to reach meiotic metaphase II.

  2. Metabolite fingerprinting of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) embryos to assess active pathways during oil synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Cocuron, Jean -Christophe; Sonera, Marcos Corchado; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2015-02-22

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), a plant naturalized to North America, accumulates high levels of erucic acid in its seeds, which makes it a promising biodiesel and industrial crop. The main carbon sinks in pennycress embryos were found to be proteins, fatty acids, and cell wall, which respectively represented 38.5, 33.2, and 27.0% of the biomass at 21 days after pollination. Erucic acid reached a maximum of 36% of the total fatty acids. Together these results indicate that total oil and erucic acid contents could be increased to boost the economic competitiveness of this crop. Understanding the biochemical basis of oil synthesis in pennycress embryos is therefore timely and relevant to guide future breeding and/or metabolic engineering efforts. For this purpose, a combination of metabolomics approaches was conducted to assess the active biochemical pathways during oil synthesis. First, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites highlighted three main families of compounds: organic acids, amino acids, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Secondly, these intermediates were quantified in developing pennycress embryos by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Finally, partitional clustering analysis grouped the intracellular metabolites that shared a similar pattern of accumulation over time into eight clusters. In conclusion, this study underlined that: (i) sucrose might be stored rather than cleaved into hexoses; (ii) glucose and glutamine would be the main sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; and (iii) glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin cycle were active in developing pennycress embryos.

  3. Impacts of oxidative stress on acetylcholinesterase transcription, and activity in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following Chlorpyrifos exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Rubio-Escalante, Fernando J; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides cause irreversible inhibition of AChE which leads to neuronal overstimulation and death. Thus, dogma indicates that the target of OP pesticides is AChE, but many authors postulate that these compounds also disturb cellular redox processes, and change the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, it has also been reported that oxidative stress plays also a role in the regulation and activity of AChE. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the antioxidant, vitamin C (VC), the oxidant, t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) and the organophosphate Chlorpyrifos (CPF), on AChE gene transcription and activity in zebrafish embryos after 72h exposure. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring antioxidant enzymes activities and transcription, and quantification of total glutathione. Apical effects on the development of zebrafish embryos were also measured. With the exception of AChE inhibition and enhanced gene expression, limited effects of CPF on oxidative stress and apical endpoints were found at this developmental stage. Addition of VC had little effect on oxidative stress or AChE, but increased pericardial area and heartbeat rate through an unknown mechanism. TBOOH diminished AChE gene expression and activity, and caused oxidative stress when administered alone. However, in combination with CPF, only reductions in AChE activity were observed with no significant changes in oxidative stress suggesting the adverse apical endpoints in the embryos may have been due to AChE inhibition by CPF rather than oxidative stress. These results give additional evidence to support the role of prooxidants in AChE activity and expression.

  4. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from rhythmically active motoneurons in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Sernagor, E; O'Donovan, M J

    1991-07-22

    Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained during motor activity from electrically identified motoneurons within the spinal cord of the chick embryo maintained in vitro. Most recordings were performed on E11-E13 motoneurons although it was also possible to record from younger cells (E7-E9). Voltage clamp recordings were used to characterize the synaptic currents expressed in femoro-tibialis (extensor) motoneurons during motor activity. These motoneurons exhibited rhythmic excitatory currents with reversal potentials near 0 mV. This powerful technique enables high resolution recordings from identified motoneurons in situ and allows investigation of the membrane and synaptic mechanisms involved in the development of embryonic motility.

  5. Effects of addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator in in vitro fertilization medium on bovine embryo development and quality.

    PubMed

    Krania, F; Dovolou, E; Rekkas, C A; Theodosiadou, E K; Pappas, I; Amiridis, G S

    2015-02-01

    Plasminogen activators/Plasmin system plays pivotal role in regulating reproductive functions of mammals. Here, we examined the effects of modification of in vitro fertilization medium (IVF medium) with the addition of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), on bovine embryo development and quality, assessed by quantification of expression of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, implantation and apoptosis. In addition, plasminogen activator activity (PAA) and plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) were measured in the spent media. After conventional IVM, 2016 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were divided into four groups with modified composition of the IVF medium containing t-PA and/or its inhibitor epsilon-aminocaproic acid (control, t-PA, t-PA+ε-ACA, ε-ACA). Presumptive zygotes were cultured for 8 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) medium; gene expression studies were carried out on morulae and blastocysts. t-PA alone significantly suppressed cleavage and blastocyst formation rates, but this effect was neutralized by the addition of ε-ACA. PAA in the treated group was significantly reduced by ε-ACA, but without total elimination. Significant differences were detected in the expression of genes related to apoptosis and/or cell cycle arrest (BAX, BCL2L1, KAT2B) between embryos produced in t-PA-modified media and controls, giving an overall notion that the inferior developmental competence of treated embryos may be attributed to apoptotic phenomena induced by t-PA. In conclusion, it appears that excessive t-PA content in the IVF media, suppresses blastocyst formation rate, possibly due to induction of apoptotic phenomena.

  6. Maternal Inheritance of Twist and Analysis of MAPK Activation in Embryos of the Polychaete Annelid Platynereis dumerilii

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Kathrin; Schaub, Christoph; Domsch, Katrin; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Wolfstetter, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the specification of the 4d (mesentoblast) lineage in Platynereis dumerilii. We employ RT-PCR and in situ hybridization against the Platynereis dumerilii twist homolog (Pdu-twist) to reveal mesodermal specification within this lineage. We show that Pdu-twist mRNA is already maternally distributed. After fertilization, ooplasmatic segregation leads to relocation of Pdu-twist transcripts into the somatoblast (2d) lineage and 4d, indicating that the maternal component of Pdu-twist might be an important prerequisite for further mesoderm specification but does not represent a defining characteristic of the mesentoblast. However, after the primordial germ cells have separated from the 4d lineage, zygotic transcription of Pdu-twist is exclusively observed in the myogenic progenitors, suggesting that mesodermal specification occurs after the 4d stage. Previous studies on spiral cleaving embryos revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the 4d lineage and the activity of an embryonic organizer that is capable to induce the developmental fates of certain micromeres. This has raised the question if specification of the 4d lineage could be connected to the organizer activity. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the existence of such a proposed conserved organizer in Platynereis employing antibody staining against dpERK. In contrast to former observations in other spiralian embryos, activation of MAPK signaling during 2d and 4d formation cannot be detected which questions the existence of a conserved connection between organizer function and specification of the 4d lineage. However, our experiments unveil robust MAPK activation in the prospective nephroblasts as well as in the macromeres and some micromeres at the blastopore in gastrulating embryos. Inhibition of MAPK activation leads to larvae with a shortened body axis, defects in trunk muscle spreading and improper nervous system condensation, indicating a

  7. A cell cycle-associated change in Ca2+ releasing activity leads to the generation of Ca2+ transients in mouse embryos during the first mitotic division

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have used Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dyes to monitor intracellular Ca2+ during mitosis in one-cell mouse embryos. We find that fertilized embryos generate Ca2+ transients at nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and during mitosis. In addition, fertilized embryos arrested in metaphase using colcemid continue to generate Ca2+ transients. In contrast, parthenogenetic embryos produced by a 2-h exposure to strontium containing medium do not generate detectable Ca2+ transients at NEBD or in mitosis. However, when parthenogenetic embryos are cultured continuously in strontium containing medium Ca2+ transients are detected in mitosis but not in interphase. This suggests that mitotic Ca2+ transients are detected in the presence of an appropriate stimulus such as fertilization or strontium. The Ca2+ transient detected in fertilized embryos is not necessary for inducing NEBD since parthenogenetic embryos undergo nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). Also the first sign that NEBD is imminent occurs several minutes before the Ca2+ transient. The Ca2+ transient at NEBD appears to be associated with the nucleus since nuclear transfer experiments show that the presence of a karyoplast from a fertilized embryo is essential. Finally, we show that the intracellular Ca2+ chelator Bapta inhibits NEBD in fertilized and parthenogenetic embryos in a dose-dependent manner. These studies show that during mitosis there is an endogenous increase in Ca2+ releasing activity that leads to the generation of Ca2+ transients specifically during mitosis. The ability of Ca2+ buffers to inhibit NEBD regardless of the presence of global Ca2+ transients suggests that the underlying cell cycle-associated Ca2+ releasing activity may take the form of localized Ca2+ transients. PMID:8603922

  8. Effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos in ide (Leuciscus idus), an externally fertilizing fish.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Król, Jarosław; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2016-03-15

    Standardization of fertilization protocols is crucial for improving reproductive techniques for externally fertilizing fish in captive breeding. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos for ide (Leuciscus idus). Pooled eggs from five females were preincubated in three different activating media for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds and then fertilized by pooled sperm from five males. At the eyed-egg stage, the percentage of viable embryos was later calculated. Results showed that preincubation time was significant for the freshwater activation medium (P < 0.001), such that the percentage of eyed embryos declined across the preincubation time gradient. Additionally, there was an effect on the percentage of eyed embryos when eggs were incubated with Woynarovich solution (P < 0.001), such that a decline was detected at 90 seconds, whereas no effect was detected for the saline water medium. Activating medium had a significant effect on the percentage of eyed embryos for each preincubation time (P < 0.05). More precisely, freshwater produced the lowest percentage of eyed embryos at all preincubation times (ranged from 1.9% at 120 seconds to 43.6% at 0 seconds), whereas saline water and Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 0 seconds and 30 seconds before incubation. Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 60 seconds (65.26%), whereas saline water produced the highest percentage at 90 seconds (68.37%). No difference was detected between saline water and Woynarovich solution at 120 seconds. Examination of sperm traits showed no impact of activating medium on computer assisted sperm analysis parameters. Together, these results suggest that saline water or Woynarovich solution improve fertilization rate in ide during IVF; thus, these media are useful for standardizing fertilization protocols and

  9. Bovine embryo survival under oxidative-stress conditions is associated with activity of the NRF2-mediated oxidative-stress-response pathway.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmed; Gad, Ahmed; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Prastowo, Sigit; Held, Eva; Hoelker, Michael; Rings, Franca; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-06-01

    In present study, we sought to examine the ability of preimplantation bovine embryos to activate the NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative-stress response under an oxidative stress environment. In vitro 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-cell-, and blastocyst-stage embryos were cultured under low (5%) or high (20%) oxygen levels. The expression of NRF2, KEAP1 (NRF2 inhibitor), antioxidants downstream of NRF2, and genes associated with embryo metabolism were analyzed between the embryo groups using real-time quantitative PCR. NRF2 and KEAP1 protein abundance, mitochondrial activity, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also investigated in blastocysts of varying competence that were derived from high- or low-oxygen levels. The expression levels of NRF2 and its downstream antioxidant genes were higher in 8-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages under high oxygen tension, whereas KEAP1 expression was down-regulated under the same conditions. Higher expression of NRF2 and lower ROS levels were detected in early (competent) blastocysts compared to their late (noncompetent) counterparts in both oxygen-tension groups. Similarly, higher levels of active nuclear NRF2 protein were detected in competent blastocysts compared to their noncompetent counterparts. Thus, the survival and developmental competence of embryos cultured under oxidative stress are associated with activity of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway during bovine pre-implantation embryo development.

  10. Overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) in Xenopus embryos activates maternal program of apoptosis as a "fail-safe" mechanism of early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kai, Masatake; Kaito, Chikara; Fukamachi, Hiroshi; Higo, Takayasu; Takayama, Eiji; Hara, Hiroshi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Kazuei; Shiokawa, Koichiro

    2003-06-01

    In Xenopus, injection of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) mRNA into fertilized eggs or 2-cell stage embryos induces massive cell dissociation and embryo-lysis at the early gastrula stage due to activation of the maternal program of apoptosis. We injected SAMDC mRNA into only one of the animal side blastomeres of embryos at different stages of cleavage, and examined the timing of the onset of the apoptotic reaction. In the injection at 4- and 8-cell stages, a considerable number of embryos developed into tadpoles and in the injection at 16- and 32-cell stages, all the embryos became tadpoles, although tadpoles obtained were sometimes abnormal. However, using GFP as a lineage tracer, we found that descendant cells of the blastomere injected with SAMDC mRNA at 8- to 32-cell stages are confined within the blastocoel at the early gastrula stage and undergo apoptotic cell death within the blastocoel, in spite of the continued development of the injected embryos. These results indicate that cells overexpressed with SAMDC undergo apoptotic cell death consistently at the early gastrula stage, irrespective of the timing of the mRNA injection. We assume that apoptosis is executed in Xenopus early gastrulae as a "fail-safe" mechanism to eliminate physiologically-severely damaged cells to save the rest of the embryo.

  11. TRPV4 in porcine lens epithelium regulates hemichannel-mediated ATP release and Na-K-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; Mandal, Amritlal; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2012-06-15

    In several tissues, transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels are involved in the response to hyposmotic challenge. Here we report TRPV4 protein in porcine lens epithelium and show that TRPV4 activation is an important step in the response of the lens to hyposmotic stress. Hyposmotic solution (200 mosM) elicited ATP release from intact lenses and TRPV4 antagonists HC 067047 and RN 1734 prevented the release. In isosmotic solution, the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A (GSK) elicited ATP release. When propidium iodide (PI) (MW 668) was present in the bathing medium, GSK and hyposmotic solution both increased PI entry into the epithelium of intact lenses. Increased PI uptake and ATP release in response to GSK and hyposmotic solution were abolished by a mixture of agents that block connexin and pannexin hemichannels, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid and probenecid. Increased Na-K-ATPase activity occurred in the epithelium of lenses exposed to GSK and 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid + probenecid prevented the response. Hyposmotic solution caused activation of Src family kinase and increased Na-K-ATPase activity in the lens epithelium and TRPV4 antagonists prevented the response. Ionomycin, which is known to increase cytoplasmic calcium, elicited ATP release, the magnitude of which was no greater when lenses were exposed simultaneously to ionomycin and hyposmotic solution. Ionomycin-induced ATP release was significantly reduced in calcium-free medium. TRPV4-mediated calcium entry was examined in Fura-2-loaded cultured lens epithelium. Hyposmotic solution and GSK both increased cytoplasmic calcium that was prevented by TRPV4 antagonists. The cytoplasmic calcium rise in response to hyposmotic solution or GSK was abolished when calcium was removed from the bathing solution. The findings are consistent with hyposmotic shock-induced TRPV4 channel activation which triggers hemichannel-mediated ATP release. The results point to TRPV4-mediated calcium entry that causes a cytoplasmic

  12. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation.

    PubMed

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi; Fukuda, Norio

    2010-10-01

    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament "on-off" switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca(2+)-dependent on-off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on-off switching, but not the Ca(2+)-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation.

  13. Regulatory mechanism of length-dependent activation in skinned porcine ventricular muscle: role of thin filament cooperative activation in the Frank-Starling relation

    PubMed Central

    Terui, Takako; Shimamoto, Yuta; Yamane, Mitsunori; Kobirumaki, Fuyu; Ohtsuki, Iwao; Ishiwata, Shin’ichi; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sarcomeres produce greater active force in response to stretch, forming the basis of the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. The purpose of this study was to provide the systematic understanding of length-dependent activation by investigating experimentally and mathematically how the thin filament “on–off” switching mechanism is involved in its regulation. Porcine left ventricular muscles were skinned, and force measurements were performed at short (1.9 µm) and long (2.3 µm) sarcomere lengths. We found that 3 mM MgADP increased Ca2+ sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the increase in thin filament cooperative activation. MgADP attenuated length-dependent activation with and without thin filament reconstitution with the fast skeletal troponin complex (sTn). Conversely, 20 mM of inorganic phosphate (Pi) decreased Ca2+ sensitivity of force and the rate of rise of active force, consistent with the decrease in thin filament cooperative activation. Pi enhanced length-dependent activation with and without sTn reconstitution. Linear regression analysis revealed that the magnitude of length-dependent activation was inversely correlated with the rate of rise of active force. These results were quantitatively simulated by a model that incorporates the Ca2+-dependent on–off switching of the thin filament state and interfilament lattice spacing modulation. Our model analysis revealed that the cooperativity of the thin filament on–off switching, but not the Ca2+-binding ability, determines the magnitude of the Frank-Starling effect. These findings demonstrate that the Frank-Starling relation is strongly influenced by thin filament cooperative activation. PMID:20876361

  14. Putative phage-display epitopes of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus S1 protein and their anti-viral activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pathogen of swine that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality in newborn piglets. Phage display is a technique with wide application, in particular, the identification of key antigen epitopes for the develop...

  15. Cellulosic fraction of rice bran fibre alters the conformation and inhibits the activity of porcine pancreatic lipase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-lipase properties of insoluble dietary fiber obtained from rice bran treated with H2SO4 followed by 1.25% KOH were investigated and compared. Porcine pancreatic lipase (PL) adsorbed with higher velocity and saturated at a higher level on the rice bran fibers prepared with higher concentrat...

  16. Carbon-activated gas filtration during in vitro culture increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Vermeulen, Z L; Otter, T; Mullaart, E; de Ruigh, L; Hasler, J F

    2007-04-15

    Many environmental conditions for in vitro embryo production (IVP) systems for cattle have been relatively standardised, e.g. media composition, temperature, pH, water quality, and atmospheric composition. However, little attention has been paid to the quality of ambient laboratory air and the gas environment in incubators. Although a few studies have examined the effects of chemical air contamination on IVP of human embryos, there are no published accounts for domestic animal embryos. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of an intra-incubator carbon-activated air filtration system (CODA) during in vitro culture (IVC) on embryonic development and subsequent pregnancy rate of bovine embryos. Immature cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COCs) were obtained twice-weekly by ultrasonic-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. The COCs were matured in TCM199/FCS/LH/FSH, fertilized with frozen-thawed Percoll-separated semen, and subsequently cultured for 7 day in SOFaaBSA. Day 7 embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen/thawed. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 factorial; presumptive zygotes were placed either in a conventional CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator (Control group) or in an identical CO(2)-O(2)-N(2) incubator with a CODA intra-incubator air purification unit (CODA group) for IVC. The embryo production rate at Day 7 was not affected by the CODA air purification unit (23.4 and 24.7% morulae and blastocysts per oocyte for control and CODA, respectively) nor was there any significant effect on embryo stage or quality. However, the pregnancy rate was improved (P=0.043) for both fresh (46.3% versus 41.0%) and frozen/thawed embryos (40.8% versus 35.6%). In conclusion, atmospheric purification by the CODA intra-incubator air purification unit significantly increased pregnancy rate following transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos.

  17. Development and de novo protein synthetic activity of bovine embryos produced in vitro in different culture systems.

    PubMed

    Kuran, M; Robinson, J J; Staines, M E; McEvoy, T G

    2001-01-15

    In vitro matured (IVM) and fertilized (IVF) putative Day 1 zygotes (Day 0 = IVF) were allocated randomly to culture in formulations based on Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (SOF) medium and identified on the basis of their contrasting principal supplements, which were 10% v/v steer serum (SS; n = 558) or 4 mg/mL crystalline BSA (SBSA; n = 531) or 3 mg/mL polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA; n = 607) in 9 replicates. SBSA and SPVA also contained 10 microg/mL non-essential amino acids, while the former was further supplemented with 20 microL/mL essential amino acids and the latter with 0.5 mmol/L sodium citrate and 5 ng/mL epidermal growth factor. Zygotes were cultured in 20 microL drops (4 zygotes per drop) until Day 8 in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, 5% O2 and 90% N2 at 39 degrees C and droplets were renewed every 48 hours. The incidence of zygote cleavage was lower (P < 0.05) in SS (mean +/- SEM = 61 +/- 3%) than in SBSA (76 +/- 3%) but not in SPVA (72 +/- 4%) up to Day 3. The SPVA generated a lower yield of blastocysts on Day 7 (12 +/- 2%; P < 0.001) and by Day 8 (21 +/- 4%; P < 0.01) than did SS (33 +/- 3%; 40 +/- 3%) and SBSA (30 +/- 3%; 37 +/- 4%). Cell numbers (n) and diameters (d) of blastocysts on Day 8 were greater (P < 0.001; Replicates 1 to 5) in embryos from SBSA (n, 156 +/- 9; d, 203 +/- 4 microm) than in those from SS (n, 81 +/- 4; d, 177 +/- 3 microm) and SPVA (n, 76 +/- 5; d, 167 +/- 3 microm). Embryos produced in SS incorporated less 3H-phenylalanine into PCA-precipitable protein (replicates 6 to 9; log10 dpm = 3.03 +/- 0.04) than did embryos cultured in SBSA (3.21 +/- 0.03; P < 0.001) or in SPVA (3.14 +/- 0.03; NS). In conclusion, blastocyst yield was poor in SPVA, but the embryos had metabolic activities similar to those of embryos produced in SBSA. Blastocyst yields from SS were not compromised but their capacity for de novo protein synthesis was reduced significantly.

  18. Ribavirin efficiently suppresses porcine nidovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngnam; Lee, Changhee

    2013-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are porcine nidoviruses that represent emerging viral pathogens causing heavy economic impacts on the swine industry. Although ribavirin is a well-known antiviral drug against a broad range of both DNA and RNA viruses in vitro, its inhibitory effect and mechanism of action on porcine nidovirus replication remains to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine whether ribavirin suppresses porcine nidovirus infection. Our results demonstrated that ribavirin treatment dose-dependently inhibited the replication of both nidoviruses. The antiviral activity of ribavirin on porcine nidovirus replication was found to be primarily exerted at early times post-infection. Treatment with ribavirin resulted in marked reduction of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and progeny virus production in a dose-dependent manner. Investigations into the mechanism of action of ribavirin against PRRSV and PEDV revealed that the addition of guanosine to the ribavirin treatment significantly reversed the antiviral effects, suggesting that depletion of the intracellular GTP pool by inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase may be essential for ribavirin activity. Further sequencing analysis showed that the mutation frequency in ribavirin-treated cells was similar to that in untreated cells, indicating that ribavirin did not induce error-prone replication. Taken together, our data indicate that ribavirin might not only be a good therapeutic agent against porcine nidovirus, but also a potential candidate to be evaluated against other human and animal coronaviruses.

  19. Measuring embryo metabolism to predict embryo quality.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jeremy G; Brown, Hannah M; Sutton-McDowall, Melanie L

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the metabolism of early embryos has the potential to be used as a prospective marker for post-transfer development, either alone or in conjunction with other embryo quality assessment tools. This is necessary to maximise the opportunity of couples to have a healthy child from assisted reproduction technology (ART) and for livestock breeders to efficiently improve the genetics of their animals. Nevertheless, although many promising candidate substrates (e.g. glucose uptake) and methods (e.g. metabolomics using different spectroscopic techniques) have been promoted as viability markers, none has yet been widely used clinically or in livestock production. Herein we review the major techniques that have been reported; these are divided into indirect techniques, where measurements are made from the embryo's immediate microenvironment, or direct techniques that measure intracellular metabolic activity. Both have strengths and weaknesses, the latter ruling out some from contention for use in human ART, but not necessarily for use in livestock embryo assessment. We also introduce a new method, namely multi- (or hyper-) spectral analysis, which measures naturally occurring autofluorescence. Several metabolically important molecules have fluorescent properties, which we are pursuing in conjunction with improved image analysis as a viable embryo quality assessment methodology.

  20. Teratogen-induced distortions in the classical NF-{kappa}B activation pathway: Correlation with the ability of embryos to survive teratogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Molotski, Natali; Savion, Shoshana; Gerchikov, Natalie; Fein, Amos; Toder, Vladimir; Torchinsky, Arkady

    2008-06-01

    Studies with diverse teratogens implicated the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B in mechanisms determining teratological susceptibility of embryos. Here, a teratogen such as cyclophosphamide (CP) was used to test whether teratogenic insult alters the classical NF-{kappa}B activation pathway, and how these alterations correlate with the ability of mouse embryos to resist the teratogen-induced process of maldevelopment. We observed that embryos tested 24 h after the exposure of females to 40 mg/kg CP exhibited a dramatic decrease in the level of NF-{kappa}B (p65 subunit)-DNA binding, I{kappa}B kinase beta (IKK{beta}) activity, expression of p65 and IKK{beta} proteins, as well as NF-{kappa}B inhibitory proteins (I{kappa}Bs) such as I{kappa}B{alpha}, I{kappa}B{beta}, and I{kappa}B{epsilon}, and died within the next 24 h. Embryos of females exposed to 15 mg/kg CP exhibited only a decrease in NF-{kappa}B-DNA binding and IKK{beta} activity at 24 h. However, at 48 h, a more prominent decrease in NF-{kappa}B activity was observed, accompanied by a decreased expression of p65 and IKK{beta} proteins. These embryos died within the next 24 h. After treatment with 10 mg/kg CP, embryos survived until the end of the antenatal period of development, demonstrating a transient decrease in NF-{kappa}B-DNA binding activity and no alterations in NF-{kappa}B signaling. These results suggest that the classical NF-{kappa}B activation pathway may be among targets that teratogens engage to initiate abnormal development. Besides, the observation that embryos destined to be dead exhibited a dramatically decreased rate of cell proliferation suggests a pathway, whereby teratogen-induced alterations in NF-{kappa}B signaling may culminate in such a final effect as embryonic death.

  1. Ventrolateral Origin of Each Cycle of Rhythmic Activity Generated by the Spinal Cord of the Chick Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Yoshiyasu; Mentis, George Z.; Wu, Jiang-young; O'Donovan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The mechanisms responsible for generating rhythmic motor activity in the developing spinal cord of the chick embryo are poorly understood. Here we investigate whether the activity of motoneurons occurs before other neuronal populations at the beginning of each cycle of rhythmic discharge. Methodology/Principal Findings The spatiotemporal organization of neural activity in transverse slices of the lumbosacral cord of the chick embryo (E8-E11) was investigated using intrinsic and voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging. VSD signals accompanying episodes of activity comprised a rhythmic decrease in light transmission that corresponded to each cycle of electrical activity recorded from the ipsilateral ventral root. The rhythmic signals were widely synchronized across the cord face, and the largest signal amplitude was in the ventrolateral region where motoneurons are located. In unstained slices we recorded two classes of intrinsic signal. In the first, an episode of rhythmic activity was accompanied by a slow decrease in light transmission that peaked in the dorsal horn and decayed dorsoventrally. Superimposed on this signal was a much smaller rhythmic increase in transmission that was coincident with each cycle of discharge and whose amplitude and spatial distribution was similar to that of the VSD signals. At the onset of a spontaneously occurring episode and each subsequent cycle, both the intrinsic and VSD signals originated within the lateral motor column and spread medially and then dorsally. By contrast, following a dorsal root stimulus, the optical signals originated within the dorsal horn and traveled ventrally to reach the lateral motor column. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that motoneuron activity contributes to the initiation of each cycle of rhythmic activity, and that motoneuron and/or R-interneuron synapses are a plausible site for the activity-dependent synaptic depression that modeling studies have identified as a critical

  2. Accessory Cell Mediated Activation of Porcine NK Cells by TLR7 and TLR8 Agonists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The induction of innate immune responses by toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists is the subject of intense investigation in many different species. In large part, this reflects the potential of such compounds to be effective vaccine adjuvants. For that reason, we analyzed the activation of innate cells...

  3. Transcriptional response of zebrafish embryos exposed to neurotoxic compounds reveals a muscle activity dependent hspb11 expression.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Yang, Lixin; Busch, Wibke; Scheffler, Katja; Renner, Patrick; Strähle, Uwe; Scholz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM), in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sop(fixe) mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds.

  4. Porcine circovirus type 2 detection in in vitro produced porcine blastocysts after virus sperm exposure.

    PubMed

    Galeati, Giovanna; Zannoni, Augusta; Spinaci, Marcella; Bucci, Diego; Ostanello, Fabio; Panarese, Serena; Tamanini, Carlo; Sarli, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the capability of semen experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) to produce porcine blastocysts PCR positive for PCV2. Embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of porcine oocytes or by parthenogenesis. Sperm suspension was exposed to PCV2b and utilized for IVF. PCV2 spiked semen did not reveal any reduction in sperm viability or motility but its ability to produce infected blastocysts was irrelevant as only one out of 15 blastocysts obtained by IVF were PCV2b; however two blastocysts were PCV2a positive. Furthermore, the presence of PCV2 was demonstrated also in embryos obtained by parthenogenesis (one out of 17 was PCV2b and one PCV2a positive). Even if PCV2 firmly attaches to the surface of spermatozoa, experimentally spiked sperm were not effective in infecting oocytes during IVF and in producing PCR positive embryos. The infected blastocysts we obtained derived most probably from infected oocytes recovered at the abattoir.

  5. Isolation and characterization of two peptides with prolactin release-inhibiting activity from porcine hypothalami.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Guoth, J G; Redding, T W; Groot, K; Rodriguez, H; Szonyi, E; Stults, J; Nikolics, K

    1991-01-01

    Two peptides with in vitro prolactin release-inhibiting activity were purified from stalk median eminence (SME) fragments of 20,000 pig hypothalami. Monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells were incubated with aliquots of chromatographic fractions and the inhibition of release of prolactin in vitro was measured by RIA in order to monitor the purification. The hypothalamic tissue extract was separated into 11 fractions by high-performance aqueous size-exclusion chromatography with one fraction showing a 4-fold increase in prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) activity. This material was further purified by semipreparative reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. This process resulted in the separation of two distinct fractions that showed high PIF activity. These were further purified by semipreparative and analytical RP-HPLC to apparent homogeneity as judged by the UV absorbance profiles. Neither of the two peptides showed cross-reactivity with gonadotropin releasing hormone-associated peptide or with somatostatin-14 antibodies. Protein sequence analysis revealed that one of the PIF peptides was Trp-Cys-Leu-Glu-Ser-Ser-Gln-Cys-Gln-Asp-Leu-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Asn-Leu-Leu- Ala-Cys - Ile-Arg-Ala-Cys-Lys-Pro, identical to residues 27-52 of the N-terminal region of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor (corresponding to amino acids 1-26 of the 16-kDa fragment). The sequence of the other PIF was Ala-Ser-Asp-Arg-Ser-Asn-Ala-Thr-Leu-Leu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Ser-Gly-Ala-Leu-Leu- Leu-Arg - Leu-Val-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gly-Ala-Pro-Glu-Pro-Ala-Glu-Pro-Ala-Gln-Pro-Gly-Val- Tyr, representing residues 109-147 of the vasopressin-neurophysin precursor. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the N-terminal region of POMC had significant PIF activity in vitro. PMID:2023899

  6. Photochemotherapy of intimal hyperplasia using psoralen activated by uv light in porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Lisa A.; Gregory, Kenton W.; Bahlman, Deborah T.; Shangguan, HanQun; Fahrenbach, Henner; Rosenthal, Eli; Block, Peter C.

    1996-05-01

    Psoralen activated by UVA light (PUVA) was investigated as a means of inhibiting smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting from balloon injury. Twenty kilogram domestic swine were anesthetized and underwent balloon angioplasty to create a 133% overstretch injury. Assignments of treatment and control were randomized between the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (LCX) coronaries arteries. The animals were given with 5 mg/kg of 8- methoxypsoralen eternally. Treatment vessels received 600 mJ/cm2 of 364 nm light during balloon inflation to activate the psoralen. Control vessels received drug and balloon injury only. Serum was obtained during the light delivery to assess psoralen levels. At 30 days, animals were sacrificed and the coronary arteries perfusion fixed. Five sections per vessel were analyzed morphometrically to determine percent intimal area and extent of injury. The restenosis injury index was 0.21 plus or minus .02 in treatment vessels and 0.14 plus or minus .01 in the controls with a p-value less than .02. In this large animal model of balloon angioplasty injury, psoralen activated by ultraviolet light increased intimal hyperplasia.

  7. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  8. Effects of pseudorabies virus infection upon cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, G; Pijoan, C; Molitor, T

    1992-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) infected with Pseudorabies virus (PRV) were compared to noninfected AM for cytotoxicity against foreign or transformed cells and production of interferon (IFN). Five PRV strains were used to infect AM including strains that are known to be highly virulent for pigs, i.e. strain 4892 and strain S-62 as well as strains that are regarded as mild or nonvirulent, i.e. BUK and Bartha. The multiplicity of infection ranged from 0.005 to 0.05 TCID50/cell. The target cells in the cytotoxicity assays were either chicken red blood cells, PRV-infected vero cells, or human myeloblastoma cells (K562 cell line). For the production of IFN, AM cultures were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) diluted in tissue culture media at a concentration of 5 micrograms/10(6) cells. Culture supernatants were collected at various times poststimulation and tested for antiviral activity using the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus replication inhibition test. Swine AM were able to lyse chicken red blood cells in an antibody-independent way but not in an antibody-dependent way, whereas lysis of PRV-infected vero cells was accomplished both ways. The cytotoxicity against chicken red blood cells was reduced in the PRV-infected AM as compared to noninfected cells, particularly in AM infected with virulent PRV strains. Specific 51Cr release values for AM infected with S-62 and 4892 strains were 14 and 19, while the noninfected AM had values of 36. Similarly, in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay against PRV-infected vero cells there was no activity of AM against K562 cells. The production of IFN was readily stimulated with Poly I:C. The optimal time for supernatant collection was between 12 and 16 h poststimulation. The antiviral activity was abrogated by treatment of the supernatant with antiserum against human leukocyte IFN; it was therefore considered to be due to interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) released from the macrophages. The antiviral activity present in

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta expression and regulation in mouse uterus during embryo implantation and decidualization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nai-Zheng; Teng, Chun-Bo; Ma, Hong; Ni, Hua; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) PPARdelta gene in mouse uterus during early pregnancy by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. PPARdelta expression under pseudopregnancy, delayed implantation, hormonal treatment, and artificial decidualization was also investigated. There was a very low level of PPARdelta expression on days 1-4 of pregnancy. On day 5 when embryo implanted, PPARdelta expression was exclusively observed in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst. No corresponding signals were seen in the uterus on day 5 of pregnancy. There was no detectable PPARdelta signal under delayed implantation. Once delayed implantation was terminated by estrogen treatment and embryo implanted, a strong level of PPARdelta expression was induced in the subluminal stroma surrounding the implanting blastocyst. Estrogen treatment induced a moderate level of PPARdelta expression in the glandular epithelium, while progesterone treatment had no effects in the ovariectomized mice. A strong level of PPARdelta expression was seen in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. PPARdelta expression was also induced under artificial decidualization. These data suggest that PPARdelta expression at implantation sites require the presence of an active blastocyst and may play an essential role for blastocyst implantation.

  10. Identification and antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria occurring in porcine blood from industrial slaughterhouses--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dàvila, Eduard; Zamora, Lucero M; Pla, Maria; Carretero, Carmen; Parés, Dolors

    2006-03-15

    Ninety-seven lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from slaughterhouse porcine blood in order to select autochthonous LAB strains for use as biopreservatives of this by-product. They were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing; and their inhibition capacity was determined against four bacterial species frequently found in contaminated blood, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. The taxonomic study showed an unexpected low diversity of LAB in blood, i.e. only 8 different species were found, from which just 4, i.e. Enterococcus raffinosus, Lactobacillus murinus, Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus garvieae, amounted to more than 90% of all isolates. Inhibition tests in solid culture media proved that S. aureus and Bacillus spp. were inhibited by most LAB strains obtained from porcine blood. E. coli was the indicator less affected by the isolated LAB species. Several isolates efficiently inhibited the growth of all tested indicators.

  11. Advanced application of porcine intramuscular adipocytes for evaluating anti-adipogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of immunobiotics.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masahiko; Tada, Asuka; Kanmani, Paulraj; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Nochi, Tomonori; Miyazawa, Kenji; Yoda, Kazutoyo; He, Fang; Hosoda, Masataka; Saito, Tadao; Villena, Julio; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2015-01-01

    We previously established a clonal porcine intramuscular preadipocyte (PIP) line and we were able to establish a protocol to obtain functional mature adipocytes from PIP cells. We hypothesized that both PIP cells and mature adipocytes are likely to be useful in vitro tools for increasing our understanding of immunobiology of adipose tissue, and for the selection and study of immunoregulatory probiotics (immunobiotics) able to modulate adipocytes immune responses. In this study, we investigated the immunobiology of PIP cells and mature adipocytes in relation to their response to TNF-α stimulation. In addition, we evaluated the possibility that immunobiotic microorganisms modify adipogenesis and immune functions of porcine adipose tissue through Peyer's patches (PPs) immune-competent cells. We treated the porcine PPs immune cells with different probiotic strains; and we evaluated the effect of conditioned media from probiotic-stimulated immune cells in PIP cells and mature adipocytes. The Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 showed remarkable effects, and were able to significantly reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and negative regulators (A20, Bcl-3, and MKP-1) in adipocytes challenged with TNF-α. The results of this study demonstrated that the evaluation of IL-6, and MCP-1 production, and A20 and Bcl-3 down-regulation in TNF-α-challenged adipocytes could function as biomarkers to screen and select potential immunobiotic strains. Taking into consideration that several in vivo and in vitro studies clearly demonstrated the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus GG and L. gasseri TMC0356 in adipose inflammation, the results presented in this work indicate that the PIP cells and porcine adipocytes could be used for the screening and the selection of new immunobiotic strains with the potential to functionally modulate adipose inflammation when orally administered.

  12. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  13. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  14. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  15. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion.

  16. Dynamic changes of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation in pre-implantational pig embryos derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Naru; Cao, Zubing; Wu, Ronghua; Liu, Xing; Tao, Jia; Chen, Zhen; Song, Dandan; Han, Fei; Li, Yunsheng; Fang, Fugui; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yunhai

    2014-08-01

    Histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) is an active epigenetic modification which has been revealed to be associated with active gene expression. It was hypothesized that H3K27ac might also participate in the porcine somatic reprogramming process during early development of SCNT-derived embryos. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of H3K27ac were investigated at different developmental stages in SCNT embryos compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parthenogenetic activation (PA) counterparts. Specifically, results showed that amounts of H3K27ac gradually decreased from the earliest pronuclear stage to 8-cell stage, corresponding to the major embryonic genome activation (EGA), followed by re-acetylation of H3K27 from the morula stage onwards accompanying the first cell lineage specification in IVF embryos. Similar dynamic patterns of H3K27ac signal was observed at all developmental stages of porcine SCNT and PA embryos except for the hatched stage in which amounts of H3K27ac in SCNT and PA embryos was slightly less than that in IVF counterparts. Moreover, the gradual decrease of H3K27ac before EGA was demonstrated to be an active process independent of DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis. The expression of HDAC1, HDAC2, MBD3 and CBP genes were well correlated with the dynamic changes of H3K27ac mark. Overall, these results indicate that H3K27ac is only defective in late SCNT blastocysts, and that the dynamic changes of this marker might also underlie the EGA and initial cell lineage specification during early embryo development.

  17. The Role of Glucose Metabolism on Porcine Oocyte Cytoplasmic Maturation and Its Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Jin, Yong-Xun; Park, Shun-Ha; Wang, Hai-Yang; Sun, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential role of glucose and pyruvate in the cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes by investigating the effect of glucose and/or pyruvate supplementation, in the presence or absence of 10% porcine follicular fluid (PFF), on meiotic maturation and subsequent embryo development. In the absence of 10% PFF, without exogenous addition of glucose and pyruvate, the medium seemed unable to support maturation. In the presence of 10% PFF, the addition of 5.6 mM glucose and/or 2 mM pyruvate during in vitro maturation of cumulus enclosed oocytes increased MII oocyte and blastocyst rates. In contrast, oocytes denuded of cumulus cells were not able to take full advantage of the glucose in the medium, as only pyruvate was able to increase the MII rate and the subsequent early embryo developmental ability. Treatment of cumulus enclosed oocytes undergoing maturation with 200 μM dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a pentose phosphate pathway inhibitor, or 2 μM iodoacetate (IA), a glycolysis inhibitor, significantly reduced GHS, intra-oocyte ATP, maternal gene expression, and MPF activity levels. DHEA was also able to increase ROS and reduce the levels of NADPH. Moreover, blastocysts of the DHEA- or IA-treated groups presented higher apoptosis rates and markedly lower cell proliferation cell rates than those of the non-treated group. In conclusion, our results suggest that oocytes maturing in the presence of 10% PFF can make full use of energy sources through glucose metabolism only when they are accompanied by cumulus cells, and that pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and glycolysis promote porcine oocyte cytoplasmic maturation by supplying energy, regulating maternal gene expression, and controlling MPF activity. PMID:27997591

  18. Toll-like receptor-2-activating bifidobacteria strains differentially regulate inflammatory cytokines in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell culture system: finding new anti-inflammatory immunobiotics.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Hitomi; Villena, Julio; Tohno, Masanori; Morie, Kyoko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Shimosato, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Saito, Tadao; Numasaki, Muneo; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-10-01

    A total of 23 strains of bifidobacteria taxonomically belonging to five species were tested for their potent immunomodulatory effect using a combination of two methods: the NF-κB-reporter assay using a toll-like receptor 2-expressing transfectant (HEK(pTLR2) system) and the mitogenic assay using porcine Peyer's patches immunocompetent cells. Among the four preselected strains from different immunomodulatory groups, Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 was able to efficiently modulate the inflammatory response triggered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in a porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cell line. Moreover, using PIE cells and swine Peyer's patches immunocompetent cell co-culture system, we demonstrated that the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was related to the capacity of the strain to influence PIE and immune cell interactions, leading to the stimulation of regulatory T cells. The results suggested that bifidobacteria that express high activity in both the HEK(pTLR2) and the mitogenic assays may behave like potential anti-inflammatory strains. The combination of the HEK(pTLR2) system, the evaluation of mitogenic activity and PIE cells will be of value for the development of new immunologically functional foods and feeds that could prevent inflammatory intestinal disorders. Although our findings should be proven in appropriate experiments in vivo, the results of the present work provide a scientific rationale for the use of B. breve MCC-117 to prevent ETEC-induced intestinal inflammation.

  19. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infiltration Downregulates Decidual FAAH Activity in an LPS-Induced Embryo Resorption Model.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Aisemberg, Julieta; Correa, Fernando; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-06-01

    Maternal infections with gram-negative bacteria are associated with miscarriage and are one of the most common complications during pregnancy. Previous studies from our group have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) into decidual tissue plays an important role in the establishment of a local inflammatory process that results in embryo cytotoxicity and early embryo resorption. Moreover, we have also shown that an increased endocannabinoid tone mediates LPS-induced deleterious effects during early pregnancy loss. Here, we sought to investigate whether the infiltrating PBMC modulates the decidual endocannabinoid tone and the molecular mechanisms involved. PBMC isolated from 7-day pregnant mice subjected to different treatments were co-cultured in a transwell system with decidual tissue from control 7-day pregnant mice. Decidual fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity was measured by radioconvertion, total decidual protein nitration by Western blot (WB), and decidual FAAH nitration by immunoprecipitation followed by WB. We found that co-culture of PBMC obtained from LPS-treated mice increased the level of nitration of decidual FAAH, which resulted in a negative modulation of decidual FAAH activity. Interestingly, co-treatment with progesterone or aminoguanidine prevented this effect. We found that LPS-treated PBMC release high amounts of nitric oxide (NO) which causes tyrosine nitration of decidual FAAH, diminishing its enzymatic activity. Inactivation of FAAH, the main degrading enzyme of anandamide and similar endocannabinoids, could lead to an increased decidual endocannabinoid tone with embryotoxic effects. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1441-1447, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success.

  1. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  2. Combined Effects of Cadmium and UVB Radiation on Sea Urchin Embryos: Skeleton Impairment Parallels p38 MAPK Activation and Stress Genes Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-05-18

    Human and natural activities release many pollutants in the marine environment. The mixture of pollutants can affect many organisms concurrently. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on signal transduction pathways and stress gene expression in embryos exposed continuously to double stress, i.e., cadmium (Cd) from fertilization and UVB at cleavage (Cd/UVB-embryos). By microscopical inspection, we evaluated embryonic morphology after 72 h of development. Tissue-specific markers were used to assess mesoderm differentiation by immunofluorescence. We analyzed p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK activation by Western blot and mRNA profiles of Pl-MT, Pl-14-3-3epsilon, and Pl-jun genes by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the localization of their transcripts by whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). We found that the Cd/UVB combined exposure induced morphological malformations in 76% of pluteus embryos, mainly affecting the development of the skeleton, including the normal branching of skeletal roads. In Cd/UVB-embryos, p38MAPK was activated 1 h after UVB exposure and a remarkable overexpression of the Pl-MT, Pl-14.3.3epsilon, and Pl-jun genes 24 h after UVB exposure. Pl-MT and Pl-14.3.3epsilon mRNAs were misexpressed as they were localized in a position different from that observed in wild-type embryos, i.e., the intestine. On the contrary, Pl-jun mRNA has remained localized in the skeletogenic cells despite their displacement in exposed embryos. In conclusion, Cd/UVB exposure affected skeletal patterning producing alternative morphologies in which p38MAPK activation and Pl-MT, Pl-14.3.3epsilon, and Pl-jun gene overexpression seem linked to a protective role against the stress response induced by Cd/UVB.

  3. Stress-induced changes in glutamate dehydrogenase activity imply its role in adaptation to C and N metabolism in lupine embryos.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Skrok, Albert; Dabert, Mirosława

    2010-01-01

    The modifying effect of sucrose on glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity and isoenzyme pattern was investigated in isolated embryos of lupine (Lupinus luteus L.), cultured in vitro in a medium with sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S) and exposed to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) stress. Sucrose starvation of lupine embryos led to a rapid increase in the specific activity of GDH, immunoreactive beta-polypeptide and it was accompanied by appearance of new cathodal isoforms of enzyme. This suggests that isoenzymes induced in lupine embryos by sucrose starvation combine into GDH hexamers with the predominance of beta-GDH subunits synthetized under GDH1 gene control. The addition of sucrose to the medium caused an opposite effect. Along with upregulation of catabolic activity of GDH by sucrose starvation, activity of proteolytic enzymes was also induced. These data can point to regulatory mechanism implying a sucrose dependent repression of the GDH1 gene according to the mechanism of catabolic repression. Treatment of embryos with Cd(2+) or Pb(2+) resulted in ammonium accumulation in the tissues, accompanied by an increase in anabolic activity of GDH and activity of anodal isoenzymes, in both (+S) and (-S) embryos without new de novo synthesis of alpha subunit proteins. Thus, GDH isoenzyme profiles may reflect the physiological function of GDH, which appears to be an important link of metabolic adaptation in cells, aimed at using carbon sources other than sugar during carbohydrate starvation (catabolic activity of GDH) and protecting plant tissues against ammonium accumulated because of heavy metal stress (anabolic activity of GDH).

  4. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Tumor Suppressor Protein Has Signaling Activity in Xenopus laevis Embryos Resulting in the Induction of an Ectopic Dorsoanterior Axis

    PubMed Central

    Vleminckx, Kris; Wong, Ellen; Guger, Kathy; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Polakis, Paul; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene are linked to both familial and sporadic human colon cancer. So far, a clear biological function for the APC gene product has not been determined. We assayed the activity of APC in the early Xenopus embryo, which has been established as a good model for the analysis of the signaling activity of the APC-associated protein β-catenin. When expressed in the future ventral side of a four-cell embryo, full-length APC induced a secondary dorsoanterior axis and the induction of the homeobox gene Siamois. This is similar to the phenotype previously observed for ectopic β-catenin expression. In fact, axis induction by APC required the availability of cytosolic β-catenin. These results indicate that APC has signaling activity in the early Xenopus embryo. Signaling activity resides in the central domain of the protein, a part of the molecule that is missing in most of the truncating APC mutations in colon cancer. Signaling by APC in Xenopus embryos is not accompanied by detectable changes in expression levels of β-catenin, indicating that it has direct positive signaling activity in addition to its role in β-catenin turnover. From these results we propose a model in which APC acts as part of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, either upstream of, or in conjunction with, β-catenin. PMID:9015311

  5. Birth of piglets from in vitro-produced porcine blastocysts vitrified and warmed in a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Mito, Tomomi; Yoshioka, Koji; Noguchi, Michiko; Yamashita, Shoko; Misumi, Koji; Hoshi, Tsubasa; Hoshi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    We examined the effect of different embryo developmental stages, culture periods, and media on the cryotolerance of in vitro-produced porcine blastocysts. All media used for in vitro production, vitrification, and warming were chemically defined. When in vitro-produced embryos at the blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages were vitrified using the Cryotop method on Day 5 or 6 (Day 0 = the day of IVF), the survival rate and hatching rate of expanded blastocysts after warming were higher than those of blastocysts. The viability after vitrification and warming of Day-6 embryos cultured in porcine blastocyst medium from Day 5 were higher than that of embryos cultured in porcine zygote medium 5. On the other hand, there were no significant differences on the cryotolerance between Day-5 embryos cultured in porcine zygote medium 5 and those replaced with porcine blastocyst medium on Day 4. There were no significant differences in viability between the embryonic ages of 5 and 6 days after vitrification and warming. When expanded blastocysts vitrified on Day 5 or 6 were surgically transferred to recipient gilts, all three recipients became pregnant in the Day-5 group, whereas only one out of three recipients became pregnant in the Day-6 group. These results indicate that the cryotolerance of porcine in vitro-produced blastocysts after vitrification appears to depend on the embryonic stage, culture period, and medium.

  6. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  7. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  8. Is the zona pellucida an intrinsic source of signals activating maternal recognition of the developing mammalian embryo?

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Toshimori, Kiyotaka

    2009-07-01

    Mammalian mothers undergoing embryo implantation must specifically recognize the developing embryo in a species-restricted manner. We previously observed that immune cells derived from early pregnant mice could promote endometrial differentiation and embryo implantation in blastocyst-transferred pseudopregnant mice. Although the precise mechanism remains unknown, it is suggested that the maternal immune system undergoes functional changes after recognizing developing embryos from the very early stages of pregnancy. Since it is physically impossible for immune cells to directly interact with the developing embryo while it is surrounded by the zona pellucida (ZP), it is speculated that the embryo produces certain embryo- and species-specific soluble factor(s) in the oviduct before hatching. As a candidate for this factor, we have paid attention to the ZP that is normally protected from immunological attack during oogenesis in the ovarian follicle. ZP-specific glycoproteins are known to play important roles in the species- and oocyte-specific binding of sperm, and the ZP can also be considered an abundant store of oocyte- and species-specific glycoproteins. In contrast to unfertilized oocytes, developing embryos may degrade the ZP starting just after fertilization and proceeding until hatching using enzymes that are released from cortical granules or produced by the developing embryo. Accordingly, the developing embryo might provide ZP-degradation products including oligosaccharide chains to the immune system from the very early stages. Taken together, we propose here a novel hypothesis that these ZP-derivatives can act as an intrinsic signal from the developing embryo for maternal recognition by the immune system.

  9. Increased basal cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity inhibits the formation of mesoderm-derived structures in the developing mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Amieux, Paul S; Howe, Douglas G; Knickerbocker, Heidi; Lee, David C; Su, Thomas; Laszlo, George S; Idzerda, Rejean L; McKnight, G Stanley

    2002-07-26

    A targeted disruption of the RIalpha isoform of protein kinase A (PKA) was created by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Unlike the other regulatory and catalytic subunits of PKA, RIalpha is the only isoform that is essential for early embryonic development. RIalpha homozygous mutant embryos fail to develop a functional heart tube at E8.5 and are resorbed at approximately E10.5. Mutant embryos show significant growth retardation and developmental delay compared with wild type littermates from E7.5 to E10.5. The anterior-posterior axis of RIalpha mutants is well developed, with a prominent head structure but a reduced trunk. PKA activity measurements reveal an increased basal PKA activity in these embryos. Brachyury mRNA expression in the primitive streak of RIalpha mutants is significantly reduced, consistent with later deficits in axial, paraxial, and lateral plate mesodermal derivatives. This defect in the production and migration of mesoderm can be completely rescued by crossing RIalpha mutants to mice carrying a targeted disruption in the Calpha catalytic subunit, demonstrating that unregulated PKA activity rather than a specific loss of RIalpha is responsible for the phenotype. Primary embryonic fibroblasts from RIalpha mutant embryos display an abnormal cytoskeleton and an altered ability to migrate in cell culture. Our results demonstrate that unregulated PKA activity negatively affects growth factor-mediated mesoderm formation during early mouse development.

  10. Attenuation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphatase activity in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Belandia, B; Brautigan, D; Martín-Pérez, J

    1994-01-01

    In chicken embryo fibroblasts, phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 increases during G1 but returns to basal level by mitosis. In contrast, in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts, S6 remains highly phosphorylated throughout mitosis. This study investigated the mechanism by which RSV alters the pattern of S6 phosphorylation. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that phosphate turnover in S6 is rapid in normal cells and in cells infected with an RSV transformation-defective virus. In contrast, phosphate turnover in S6 is severely reduced in cells infected with temperature-sensitive RSV at a temperature permissive for transformation, indicating a diminished S6 phosphatase activity. Fractionation of cell lysates by DEAE chromatography showed an almost threefold lower S6 phosphatase activity in RSV-transformed versus normal cells. The S6 phosphatase was sensitive to inhibitor 2 and specifically recognized by an antibody to type 1 phosphatase (PP1). The S6 phosphatase activity recovered by immunoprecipitation of PP1 was threefold lower in transformed cells, but the steady-state level of expression and the rate of synthesis of PP1 were not altered by oncogenic transformation. Together, the results show that transformation by RSV reduced the S6-PP1 activity. Images PMID:8264587

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK mediate Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxin ApxI-induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Ming; Chen, Zeng-Weng; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Cheng-Chung; Chien, Maw-Sheng; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Hsuan, Shih-Ling

    2011-08-05

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (Apx) are major virulence factors that play important roles in the pathogenesis of pleuropneumonia in swine. A previous study has demonstrated that native ApxI at low concentrations induces apoptosis in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via a caspase-3-dependent pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ApxI-induced apoptosis remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that ApxI treatment in PAMs rapidly induced phosphorylation of both p38 and JNK, members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Application of a selective p38 or JNK inhibitor significantly reduced ApxI-induced apoptosis, indicating the involvement of p38 and JNK pathways in this event. Furthermore, activation of both caspase-8 and -9 were observed in ApxI-stimulated PAMs. Inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-9 activity significantly protected PAMs from ApxI-induced apoptosis. In addition, Bid activation was also noted in ApxI-treated PAMs, and inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed the activation of Bid and caspase-9, suggesting that ApxI was able to activate the caspases-8-Bid-caspase-9 pathway. Notably, inhibition of p38 or JNK pathway greatly attenuated the activation of caspases-3, -8, and -9. This study is the first to demonstrate that ApxI-induced apoptosis of PAMs involves the activation of p38 and JNK, and engages the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  12. Restriction of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus by Porcine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dörrschuck, Eva; Fischer, Nicole; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Kuiper, Heidi; Spötter, Andreas; Möller, Ronny; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2011-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs shows promise to surmount the shortage of human donor materials. Among the barriers to pig-to-human xenotransplantation are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) since functional representatives of the two polytropic classes, PERV-A and PERV-B, are able to infect human embryonic kidney cells in vitro, suggesting that a xenozoonosis in vivo could occur. To assess the capacity of human and porcine cells to counteract PERV infections, we analyzed human and porcine APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. This multigene family of cytidine deaminases contributes to the cellular intrinsic immunity and act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Our data show that the porcine A3 gene locus on chromosome 5 consists of the two single-domain genes A3Z2 and A3Z3. The evolutionary relationships of the A3Z3 genes reflect the evolutionary history of mammals. The two A3 genes encode at least four different mRNAs: A3Z2, A3Z3, A3Z2-Z3, and A3Z2-Z3 splice variant A (SVA). Porcine and human A3s have been tested toward their antiretroviral activity against PERV and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) using novel single-round reporter viruses. The porcine A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 were packaged into PERV particles and inhibited PERV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiretroviral effect correlated with editing by the porcine A3s with a trinucleotide preference for 5′ TGC for A3Z2 and A3Z2-Z3 and 5′ CAC for A3Z3. These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. PMID:21307203

  13. Porcine B-cell activating factor promotes anti-FMDV antibodies in vitro but not in vivo after DNA vaccination of pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, Fabio; Saurer, Leslie; Neuhaus, Viviane; McCullough, Kenneth C; Summerfield, Artur

    2007-12-15

    'B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family' (BAFF) represents a cytokine produced by antigen presenting cells promoting B-cell maturation, activation and immunoglobulin class switching. In the present study, we demonstrate expression of BAFF on cultured monocyte-derived dendritic cells, which is further enhanced by interferon-alpha or interferon-gamma treatment. From these cells, porcine BAFF was cloned and the recombinant protein was expressed in mammalian cells with and without a FLAG tag at the carboxyl terminus. Only the protein without the FLAG tag was bioactive in vitro, and promoted B-cell survival and the differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-specific memory B cells into antibody producing cells. Based on this result it was tested whether BAFF can enhance FMDV antibody responses in the context of a DNA vaccination. To this end, pigs were immunised with the anti-FMDV DNA vaccine plasmid pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D and a pCI plasmid expressing porcine BAFF. Using a needle-free transdermal application method, also referred to as 'jet injection', pigs were vaccinated three times and their humoral response quantified by ELISA and a virus neutralisation test. After the third vaccination, three out of six animals vaccinated with the pcDNA3.1/P1-2A3C3D alone but none of the animals that also received the BAFF expressing plasmid had seroconverted. These data suggest that BAFF is not appropriate as a genetic adjuvant when applied as a simple co-injection with the antigen-encoding plasmid.

  14. Activation of hypodermal differentiation in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo by GATA transcription factors ELT-1 and ELT-3.

    PubMed

    Gilleard, J S; McGhee, J D

    2001-04-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans GATA transcription factor genes elt-1 and elt-3 are expressed in the embryonic hypodermis (also called the epidermis). elt-1 is expressed in precursor cells and is essential for the production of most hypodermal cells (22). elt-3 is expressed in all of the major hypodermal cells except the lateral seam cells, and expression is initiated immediately after the terminal division of precursor lineages (13). Although this expression pattern suggests a role for ELT-3 in hypodermal development, no functional studies have yet been performed. In the present paper, we show that either elt-3 or elt-1 is sufficient, when force expressed in early embryonic blastomeres, to activate a program of hypodermal differentiation even in blastomeres that are not hypodermal precursors in wild-type embryos. We have deleted the elt-3 gene and shown that ELT-3 is not essential for either hypodermal cell differentiation or the viability of the organism. We showed that ELT-3 can activate hypodermal gene expression in the absence of ELT-1 and that, conversely, ELT-1 can activate hypodermal gene expression in the absence of ELT-3. Overall, the combined results of the mutant phenotypes, initial expression times, and our forced-expression experiments suggest that ELT-3 acts downstream of ELT-1 in a redundant pathway controlling hypodermal cell differentiation.

  15. Replication of porcine circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Faurez, Florence; Dory, Daniel; Grasland, Béatrice; Jestin, André

    2009-05-18

    Porcine circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that infect swine and wild boars. Two species of porcine circoviruses exist. Porcine circovirus type 1 is non pathogenic contrary to porcine circovirus type 2 which is associated with the disease known as Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome. Porcine circovirus DNA has been shown to replicate by a rolling circle mechanism. Other studies have revealed similar mechanisms of rolling-circle replication in plasmids and single-stranded viruses such as Geminivirus. Three elements are important in rolling-circle replication: i) a gene encoding initiator protein, ii) a double strand origin, and iii) a single strand origin. However, differences exist between viruses and plasmids and between viruses. Porcine circovirus replication probably involves a "melting pot" rather than "cruciform" rolling-circle mechanism.This review provides a summary of current knowledge of replication in porcine circoviruses as models of the Circovirus genus. Based on various studies, the factors affecting replication are defined and the mechanisms involved in the different phases of replication are described or proposed.

  16. Piglets born after intrauterine laparoscopic embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, J; Koseniuk, J; Mandryk, I; Poniedziałek-Kempny, K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the preliminary development of laparoscopic transfer of embryos to the uterus in the pig, which can become the alternative for more invasive surgical methods. We proposed the original method of embryo transfer. Donors (n = 40) and recipients (n = 15) of embryos were sows of age of 6-8 months. The estrus cycle of both recipients and donors was routinely synchronized. The experimental animals were divided into two groups. In the first group (10 donors and 3 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to the method described earlier and in the second group (30 donors and 12 recipients) embryos were transplanted according to our own proposed method. As the control group, we used 16 sows after insemination (AI). In animals from both experimental groups pregnancy was diagnosed between 28-31 day after transplantation and in the control group between 28-31 day after insemination. All animals were observed during pregnancy and weaning period in pig farm. Embryos at the development stage of 2-4 cell were obtained surgically and cultured in vitro for 4 days. Obtained blastocysts were transferred to donors. The original set of catheters for blastocysts transfer to pig uterus was constructed. Three trocars were placed in abdominal cavity for inserting endoscope and 2 grasps for uterus stabilization. After uterus stabilization, the slide was inserted into abdomen which was used for putting the needle to puncture uterus. Through this needle catheter with embryos was inserted into the uterus cavity. Embryos were placed by injection into lumen of the one uterine horn. From 12 recipients pregnancy was diagnosed in 6 recipients. From 6 litters, 57 piglets were born. We weaned 41 piglets (71.9%). In our study we obtained 50% efficacy, with the mean number of 9.5 alive piglets in litter and 6.8 weaned piglets. The efficacy of developed method of laparoscopic transfer of porcine embryos allows it to be used in routine practice.

  17. Phenylthiourea as a weak activator of aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibiting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced CYP1A1 transcription in zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Der; Wang, Yin; Wen, Hui-Ju; Buhler, Donald R; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2004-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a diverse synthetic and naturally-occurring chemicals, such as the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) and the non-halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The liganded AHR modulates the genetic activity of a variety of xenobiotic-responsive genes, including cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1). The tyrosinase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-thiourea (PTU) is widely used in zebrafish research to suppress pigmentation in developing embryos/fry. Here we showed that 0.2 mM PTU induced a basal level of CYP1A1 transcription in zebrafish embryonic integument as early as 24 h postfertilization (hpf) stage. Subsequently, PTU induced CYP1A1 transcription in blood vessels at 36 hpf. During larval stage, the liver and all pharyngeal arch vessels of PTU-treated embryos exhibited CYP1A1 transcription as well. Comparing to TCDD, PTU induces CYP1A1 transcription with much lower efficacy in zebrafish embryos. Coincubating the embryos with PTU and TCDD led to repressing TCDD-induced CYP1A1 transcription. Mechanistic studies indicated that both of PTU- and TCDD-mediated CYP1A1 transcriptions are modulated by the same AHR-ARNT signaling pathway.

  18. Porcine sperm vitrification I: cryoloops method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Péndola, C H; Neild, D M

    2016-09-29

    The aims of this study were to evaluate porcine sperm vitrification in cryoloops, with and without two different cryoprotectants and assess two warming procedures. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) semen was diluted in media without and with cryoprotectants (4% dimethylformamide and 4% glycerol) to a final concentration of 20 × 10(6) spermatozoa ml(-1) and vitrified using the cryoloops method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultra-rapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Total motility (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxifluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated before and after vitrification and analysed using Friedman's test. In all media, the only seminal parameters that were maintained after vitrification were chromatin condensation and integrity. Vitrification of porcine spermatozoon using cryoloops, both in the presence or absence of cryoprotectants and independent of the warming procedure used, permits conservation of sperm chromatin condensation and integrity. It would be interesting to further verify this by producing porcine embryos using vitrified spermatozoon with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  19. Porcine sperm vitrification II: Spheres method.

    PubMed

    Arraztoa, C C; Miragaya, M H; Chaves, M G; Trasorras, V L; Gambarotta, M C; Neild, D M

    2016-11-10

    Owing to current problems in boar sperm cryopreservation, this study proposes to evaluate vitrification in spheres as an alternative cryopreservation procedure, comparing the use or not of permeable cryoprotectants and two warming methods. Extended (n = 3; r = 4) and raw (n = 5; r = 2) porcine spermatozoa were diluted in media, in the absence or presence of either 4% dimethylformamide or 4% glycerol, to a final concentration of 5 × 10(6)  spermatozoa/ml and vitrified using the spheres method. Two warming procedures were evaluated: a rapid method (30 s at 37°C) and an ultrarapid method (7 s at 75°C, followed by 30 s at 37°C). Percentages of total motility (phase contrast), membrane function (hypo-osmotic swelling test), acrosome integrity (phase contrast), sperm viability (6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide stain), chromatin condensation (toluidine blue stain) and chromatin susceptibility to acid denaturation (acridine orange stain) were evaluated in the samples before and after vitrification. Results, analysed using Friedman's test, suggest that rapid warming of raw porcine spermatozoa vitrified without permeable cryoprotectants may preserve DNA condensation and integrity better than the other processing methods studied in this work. Hence, porcine sperm vitrification using spheres could be used to produce embryos with ICSI to further validate this method.

  20. Progesterone improves porcine in vitro fertilisation system.

    PubMed

    Malo, Clara; Gil, Lydia; Cano, Rafael; Martinez, Felisa; Gonzalez, Noelia

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to improve the quality of in vitro produced porcine embryos, the effect of progestagens - progesterone analogues - on the in vitro developmental competence of porcine oocytes was studied. A total of 1421 in vitro matured oocytes, from 4 replicates, were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Progestagens were added to late maturation and embryo cultures (10 IU/ml). Fertilisation success (pre-maturation, penetration, monospermy and efficiency) and nuclear maturation were evaluated. There were no differences among prematuration rates between groups (P = 0.221). Penetration rates were higher (P < 0.001) in the presence of progestagens (75.0%) as compared to the control (51.7%). However, no differences were observed in monospermy percentages (P = 0.246). The results indicated that supplementation with progestagens increased the efficiency of the in vitro fertilisation system (P < 0.001). An additional beneficial effect was observed in nuclear maturation with progestagens (P = 0.035). In summary, progestagen supplementation is an important factor to improve the in vitro fertilisation procedure.

  1. Signal transduction pathways that contribute to CDK1/cyclin B activation during the first mitotic division in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Salaün, Patrick; Le Breton, Magali; Morales, Julia; Bellé, Robert; Boulben, Sandrine; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Cormier, Patrick

    2004-06-10

    In sea urchins, fertilization triggers a rapid rise in protein synthesis necessary for activation of CDK1/cyclin B, the universal cell cycle regulator. It has been shown that FRAP/mTOR is required for eIF4E release from the translational repressor 4E-BP, a process that occurs upstream of de novo cyclin B synthesis. Here, we investigate whether PI 3-kinase acts independently or upstream from FRAP/mTOR in the signal transduction pathway that links fertilization to the activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex in sea urchin egg. We found that wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, partially inhibited the global increase in protein synthesis triggered by fertilization. Furthermore, wortmannin treatment induced partial inhibition of cyclin B translation triggered by fertilization, in correlation with an intermediate effect of the drug on 4E-BP degradation and on the dissociation of the 4E-BP/eIF4E complex induced by fertilization. Our results presented here suggest that PI 3-kinase activity is required for completion of mitotic divisions of the sea urchin embryo. Incubation of eggs with wortmannin or microinjection of wortmannin or LY 294002 affects drastically mitotic divisions induced by fertilization. In addition, we found that wortmannin treatment inhibits dephosphorylation of the tyrosine inhibitory site of CDK1. Taken together, these data suggest that PI 3-kinase acts upstream of at least two independent targets that function in the CDK1/cyclin B activation triggered by fertilization of sea urchin oocytes. We discuss the significance of these results concerning the cascade of reactions that impinge upon the activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex that follows sea urchin oocyte fertilization.

  2. Hollow fiber vitrification: a novel method for vitrifying multiple embryos in a single device.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Hitomi; Maehara, Miki; Nakano, Kazuaki; Ikezawa, Yuka; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Ohta, Hisayoshi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Current embryo vitrification methods with proven efficacy are based on the minimum volume cooling (MVC) concept by which embryos are vitrified and rewarmed ultrarapidly in a very small amount of cryopreserving solution to ensure the high viability of the embryos. However, these methods are not suitable for simultaneously vitrifying a large number of embryos. Here, we describe a novel vitrification method based on use of a hollow fiber device, which can easily hold as many as 40 mouse or 20 porcine embryos in less than 0.1 μl of solution. Survival rates of up to 100% were obtained for mouse embryos vitrified in the presence of 15% DMSO, 15% ethylene glycol and 0.5 M sucrose using the hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method, regardless of the developmental stage of the embryos (1-cell, 2-cell, morula or blastocyst; n = 50/group). The HFV method was also proven to be effective for vitrifying porcine in vitro- and in vivo-derived embryos that are known to be highly cryosensitive. For porcine embryos, the blastocyst formation rate of in vitro maturation (IVM)-derived parthenogenetic morulae after vitrification (48/65, 73.8%) did not decrease significantly compared with non-vitrified embryos (59/65, 90.8%). Transfer of 72 in vivo-derived embryos vitrified at the morula/early blastocyst stages to 3 recipients gave rise to 29 (40.3%) piglets. These data demonstrate that the HFV method enables simultaneous vitrification of multiple embryos while still adhering to the MVC concept, and this new method is very effective for cryopreserving embryos of mice and pigs.

  3. Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers and benzotriazole: Antiandrogenic activity in vitro and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Chew, Geraldine; Li, Jun; Gomez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVs) are applied in materials for protection against UV-irradiation. They are widely used, bioaccumulate and share structural similarities to benzotriazole. Benzotriazole (1HBT) finds application as corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, antifreeze (vehicles) and aircraft de-icing agent. BUVs and 1HBT are persistent and ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but there is little understanding of the ecotoxicological implications. Here, we comparatively analyze the hormonal activity in vitro and effects in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos in vivo. 2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-P), 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-326), UV-327, UV-328, UV-329 and UV-320 showed no estrogenicity (YES assay) and androgenicity (YAS assay). However, UV-P and 1HBT showed significant antiandrogenic activity. We assessed the transcription profiles of up to 26 genes associated with different toxicological pathways in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos to elucidate potential modes of action of UV-P, UV-326 and 1HBT. Embryos were experimentally exposed for 144hpf to three measured concentrations of 15.8, 70.8, and 690μg/L UV-P, 7.5, 31.7, and 84.3μg/L UV-326 and 7.9, 97.3 and 1197.3μg/L 1HBT. Among the 26 transcripts, the induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway by UV-P and UV-326 was the most significant finding. UV-P led to dose-related induction of AHR1, ARNT2 and cyp1a1, as well as of phase II enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (gstp1) and ugt1a. UV-326 led to a significant induction of cyp1a1 and AHR2, but down-regulation of gstp1 at 84μg/L. Only little transcriptional alterations occurred in genes related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, hormone receptors, and steroidogenesis including aromatase. 1HBT led to only a few expressional changes at 1197μg/L. Our data lead to the conclusion that UV-P and UV-326 activate the AHR-pathway, whereas 1HBT shows only little transcriptional alterations. It

  4. Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Firgang, Sergei I; Semenov, Roman V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Fuchs, Fabian; Stielow, Anne; Lantow, Margareta; Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2011-10-27

    A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  5. Toxicity of parathion on embryo and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata l.): effects on survival, cholinesterase, and carboxylesterase activity.

    PubMed

    Arufe, M Isabel; Arellano, Juana M; Albendín, Gemma; Sarasquete, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the acute toxicity of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) parathion on embryos and yolk-sac larvae of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), and to investigate the effects of this compound on cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activity of seabream larvae in the phase of endogenous feeding. The 72-h LC50 for yolk-sac larvae (0.523 mg L⁻¹) was about two-fold lower than the 48-h LC50 for embryos (1.005 mg L⁻¹). Parathion significantly inhibited the activity of ChE and CaE activity in yolk sac larvae but there were not significant differences in the sensitivity of both esterases to parathion as inferred by their 72-h IC50 values. Larvae exposed to parathion for 72 h showed a 70% inhibition of the whole body acetylcholinesterase at approximately the LC50.

  6. An extraovarian protein accumulated in mosquito oocytes is a carboxypeptidase activated in embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Wenlong Cho; Deitsch, K.W.; Raikhel, A.S. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors report a phenomenon previously unknown for oviparous animals; in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes a serine carboxypeptidase is synthesized extraovarially and then internalized by oocytes. The cDNA encoding mosquito vitellogenic carboxypeptidase (VCP) was cloned and sequenced. The VCP cDNA hybridizes to a 1.5-kilobase mRNA present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females. The deduced amino acid sequence of VCP shares significant homology with members of the serine carboxypeptidase family. Binding assays using a serine protease inhibitor, ({sup 3}H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate, showed that VCP is activated in eggs at the onset of embryonic development. Activation of VCP is associated with the reduction in its size from 53 kDa (inactive proenzyme) to 48 kDa (active enzyme). The active, 48-kDa, form of VCP is maximally present at the middle of embryonic development and disappears by the end.

  7. Construction and Evaluation of a Maize Chimeric Promoter with Activity in Kernel Endosperm and Embryo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chimeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, precisely control transgene activity, or to escape homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimeric promoters, each containing different lengt...

  8. Effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) related efflux transporter activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V; Burkhardt-Medicke, K; Wellner, P; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Luckenbach, T; Ferreira, M

    2017-02-01

    Certain ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, such as zebrafish Abcb4, are efflux pumps acting as a cellular defence against a wide range of different, potentially toxic chemical compounds thus mediating so called multixenobiotic resistance (MXR). Certain chemicals target MXR proteins and, as so called chemosensitisers, inhibit the activity of these proteins thus increasing the toxicity of other chemicals that would normally be effluxed. In this study 14 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that are being increasingly detected in aquatic systems, were assessed for interference with the MXR system of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Concentration dependent effects of test compounds were recorded with the dye accumulation assay using zebrafish embryos and in ATPase assays with recombinant zebrafish Abcb4. In the dye accumulation assay embryos at 24h post fertilisation (hpf) were exposed to 8µm rhodamine 123 along with test compounds for 2h. The rhodamine 123 tissue levels upon the exposure served as a measure for MXR transporter efflux activity of the embryo (low rhodamine levels - high activity; high levels - low activity). The known ABC protein inhibitors MK571, vinblastine and verapamil served as positive controls. All tested PPCPs affected rhodamine 123 accumulation in embryos. For seven compounds rhodamine tissue levels were either both decreased and increased depending on the compound concentration indicating both stimulation and inhibition of rhodamine 123 efflux by those compounds, only increased (inhibition, six compounds) or only decreased (stimulation, one compound). Recombinant zebrafish Abcb4 was obtained with the baculovirus expression system and PPCPs were tested for stimulation/inhibition of basal transporter ATPase activity and for inhibition of the transporter ATPase activity stimulated with verapamil. Eight of the tested PPCPs showed effects on Abcb4 ATPase activity indicating that their effects in the dye accumulation assay may

  9. Non-targeted metabolomic evaluation of the uterine milieu during the transitional period of embryo elongation in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alterations in the signaling of critical molecular factors within the uterine milieu lead to deficiencies in embryo elongation. The objective of this study was to identify metabolites within the uterine environment that are present as porcine embryos transition between spherical, ovoid, and tubular ...

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein 1 is expressed in porcine ovarian follicles and promotes oocyte maturation and early embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    LEI, Xiaocan; CUI, Kuiqing; CAI, Xiaoyan; REN, Yanping; LIU, Qingyou; SHI, Deshun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine whether bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) plays a role in ovarian follicular development and early embryo development. We systematically investigated the expression and influence of BMP1 during porcine follicle and early embryonic development. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the BMP1 protein is expressed in granular cells and oocytes during follicular development, from primary to pre-ovulatory follicles, including atretic follicles and the corpus luteum. The mRNA expression of BMP1 significantly increased as the porcine follicles grew. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that BMP1 was expressed in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), oocytes and porcine embryos during early in vitro culture. qPCR and western blot analysis showed that the expression of BMP1 was significantly up-regulated in mature porcine oocytes and COCs compared to immature oocytes and COCs. BMP1 is expressed in early porcine embryos, and its expression reaches a peak at the 8-cell stage. To determine the effect of BMP1 on the maturation of oocytes and the development of early embryos, various concentrations of BMP1 recombinant protein or antibody were added to the in vitro culture media, respectively. BMP1 significantly affected the porcine oocyte maturation rate, the cleavage rate and the blastocyst development rate of embryos cultured in vitro in a positive way, as well as the blastocyst cell number. In conclusion, BMP1 is expressed throughout porcine ovarian follicle development and early embryogenesis, and it promotes oocyte maturation and the developmental ability of embryos during early in vitro culture. PMID:27890905

  11. Maternal dietary zinc supplementation enhances the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability of chick embryos from maternal normal and high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongwen; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Wenxiang; Zhang, Liyang; Ji, Cheng; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2017-02-03

    The role of maternal dietary zinc supplementation in protecting the embryos from maternal hyperthermia-induced negative effects via epigenetic mechanisms was examined using an avian model (Gallus gallus). Broiler breeder hens were exposed to two maternal temperatures (21°C and 32°C) × three maternal dietary zinc treatments (zinc-unsupplemented control diet, the control diet + 110 mg zinc/kg inorganic or organic zinc) for 8 weeks. Maternal hyperthermia increased the embryonic mortality and induced oxidative damage evidenced by the elevated mRNA expressions of heat shock protein genes. Maternal dietary zinc deficiency damaged the embryonic development associated with the global DNA hypomethylation and histone 3 lysine 9 hyperacetylation in the embryonic liver. Supplementation of zinc in maternal diets effectively eliminated the embryonic mortality induced by maternal hyperthermia and enhanced antioxidant ability with the increased mRNA and protein expressions of metallothionein IV in the embryonic liver. The increased metallothionein IV mRNA expression was due to the reduced DNA methylation and increased histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation of the metallothionein IV promoter regardless of zinc source. These data demonstrate that maternal dietary zinc addition as an epigenetic modifier could protect the offspring embryonic development against maternal heat stress via enhancing the epigenetic-activated antioxidant ability.

  12. Cellular Transformation of Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts in the Absence of Activator E2Fs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tushar; Sáenz Robles, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E2F family of transcription factors, broadly divided into activator and repressor E2Fs, regulates cell cycle genes. Current models indicate that activator E2Fs are necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis and are also required to mediate transformation induced by DNA tumor viruses. E2Fs are negatively regulated by the retinoblastoma (RB) family of tumor suppressor proteins, and virus-encoded oncogenes disrupt the RB-E2F repressor complexes. This results in the release of activator E2Fs and induction of E2F-dependent genes. In agreement, expression of large tumor T antigens (TAg) encoded by polyomaviruses in mammalian cells results in increased transcriptional levels of E2F target genes. In addition, tumorigenesis induced by transgenic expression of simian virus 40 (SV40) TAg in choroid plexus or intestinal villi requires at least one activator E2F. In contrast, we show that SV40 TAg-induced transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is independent of activator E2Fs. This work, coupled with recent studies showing that proliferation in stem and progenitor cells is independent of activator E2Fs, suggests the presence of parallel pathways governing cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE The RB-E2F pathway is altered in many cancers and is also targeted by DNA tumor viruses. Viral oncoprotein action on RBs results in the release of activator E2Fs and upregulation of E2F target genes; thus, activator E2Fs are considered essential for normal and tumorigenic cell proliferation. However, we have observed that SV40 large T antigen can induce cell proliferation and transformation in the absence of activator E2Fs. Our results also suggest that TAg action on pRBs regulates both E2F-dependent and -independent pathways that govern proliferation. Thus, specific cell proliferation pathways affected by RB alterations in cancer may be a factor in tumor behavior and response to therapy. PMID:25717106

  13. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  14. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  15. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus jensenii elicits anti-inflammatory activity in porcine intestinal epithelial cells by modulating negative regulators of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Villena, Julio; Tohno, Masanori; Fujie, Hitomi; Hosoya, Shoichi; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Kawai, Yasushi; Saito, Tadao; Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus jensenii TL2937 on the inflammatory immune response triggered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a porcine intestinal epitheliocyte cell line (PIE cells) was evaluated. Challenges with ETEC or LPS elicited Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory responses in cultured PIE cells, indicating that our cell line may be useful for studying inflammation in the guts of weaning piglets. In addition, we demonstrated that L. jensenii TL2937 attenuated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines caused by ETEC or LPS challenge by downregulating TLR4-dependent nuclear factorκB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that L. jensenii TL2937 stimulation of PIE cells upregulated three negative regulators of TLRs: A20, Bcl-3, and MKP-1, deepening the understanding of an immunobiotic mechanism of action. L. jensenii TL2937-mediated induction of negative regulators of TLRs would have a substantial physiological impact on homeostasis in PIE cells, because excessive TLR inflammatory signaling would be downregulated. These results indicated that PIE cells can be used to study the mechanisms involved in the protective activity of immunobiotics against intestinal inflammatory damage and may provide useful information for the development of new immunologically functional feeds that help to prevent inflammatory intestinal disorders, including weaning-associated intestinal inflammation.

  16. Effect of manipulation of incubation temperature on fatty acid profiles and antioxidant enzyme activities in meat-type chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Bağdatlioğlu, N; Yenisey, Ç; Siegel, P B; Özkan, S; Akşit, M

    2012-12-01

    Eggs (n = 1,800) obtained from Ross broiler breeders at 32 and 48 wk of age were incubated at either a constant temperature of 37.6°C throughout (T1), or the temperature was reduced for 6 h to 36.6°C each day during embryonic age (EA) 10 to 18 (T2). Yolk sac, liver, and brain fatty acid profiles and oxidant and antioxidant status of liver and brain were measured at EA 14, 19, and day of hatch (DOH). Fatty acid profiles of yolk sac, liver, and brain were influenced by age of breeder with significant breeder hen age × incubation temperature interactions. At EA 14, higher levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 had been transferred from the yolk sac to T2 embryos from younger than older breeders, whereas for T1 and T2 embryos, yolk sac 20:4n-6 and 22.6n-3 values were similar for older breeders. Accumulation of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids in the liver of T1 and T2 embryos from younger breeders was similar; however, T2 embryos from older breeders had higher liver levels of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 than T1 embryos. At EA 19, liver nitric oxide levels were higher for T2 embryos from younger breeders than those from breeders incubated at T1. Brain catalase levels of T2 embryos from younger breeders were higher than those from older breeders at DOH. Thus, changes in fatty acid profiles and catalase and nitric oxide production of brain and liver tissues resulting from 1°C lower incubation temperature from EA 10 to 18 reflect adaptive changes.

  17. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  18. Purification and identification of a nuclease activity in embryo axes from French bean.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Rocío; Quiles, Francisco Antonio; Cabello-Díaz, Juan Miguel; Piedras, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Plant nucleases are involved in nucleic acid degradation associated to programmed cell death processes as well as in DNA restriction, repair and recombination processes. However, the knowledge about the function of plant nucleases is limited. A major nuclease activity was detected by in-gel assay with whole embryonic axes of common bean by using ssDNA or RNA as substrate, whereas this activity was minimal in cotyledons. The enzyme has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from embryonic axes. The main biochemical properties of the purified enzyme indicate that it belongs to the S1/P1 family of nucleases. This was corroborated when this protein, after SDS-electrophoresis, was excised from the gel and further analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF allowed identification of the gene (PVN1) that codes this protein. The gene that codes the purified protein was identified. The expression of PVN1 gene was induced at the specific moment of radicle protrusion. The inclusion of inorganic phosphate to the imbibition media reduced the level of expression of this gene and the nuclease activity suggesting a relationship with the phosphorous status in French bean seedlings.

  19. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism.

  20. Fertilization Ability of Porcine Oocytes Reconstructed from Ooplasmic Fragments Produced and Characterized after Serial Centrifugations

    PubMed Central

    Viet LINH, Nguyen; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; NAKAI, Michiko; TANIHARA, Fuminori; NOGUCHI, Junko; KANEKO, Hiroyuki; DANG-NGUYEN, Thanh Quang; MEN, Nguyen Thi; VAN HANH, Nguyen; SOMFAI, Tamas; NGUYEN, Bui Xuan; NAGAI, Takashi; MANABE, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria are reported to be critical in in vitro maturation of oocytes and subsequent embryo development after fertilization, but their contribution for fertilization has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we investigate the contribution of mitochondria to fertilization using reconstructed porcine oocytes by fusion of ooplasmic fragments produced by serial centrifugations (centri-fusion). Firstly, we evaluated the characteristics of ooplasmic fragments. Three types of fragments were obtained by centrifugation of porcine oocytes matured in vitro for 46 h: brownish (B), transparent (T) and large (L) fragments containing both B and T parts in a fragment. The production efficiencies of these types of fragments were 71.7, 91.0 and 17.8 fragments/100 oocytes, respectively. In experiments, L fragments were excluded because they contained both brownish and transparent components that were apparently intermediate between B and T fragments. Observations by confocal microscopy after staining with MitoTracker Red CMXRos® and transmission electron microscopy revealed highly condensed active mitochondria in B fragments in contrast to T fragments that contained only sparse organelles. We reconstructed oocytes by fusion of a karyoplast and two cytoplasts from B and T fragments (B and T oocytes, respectively). The B oocytes showed higher sperm penetration (95.8%) and male pronuclear formation rates (94.2%) by in vitro fertilization than T oocytes (66.7% and 50.0%, respectively). These results suggest that the active mitochondria in oocytes may be related to their ability for fertilization. PMID:23965685

  1. Knockdown of Maternal Homeobox Transcription Factor SEBOX Gene Impaired Early Embryonic Development in Porcine Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Zhong; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; JIA, Jia-Lin; HEO, Young-Tae; CUI, Xiang-Shun; OH, Jeong Su; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

  2. Knockdown of maternal homeobox transcription factor SEBOX gene impaired early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Jia-Lin; Heo, Young-Tae; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-12-17

    A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes.

  3. Nuclear responses to MPF activation and inactivation in Xenopus oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Lohka, M J

    1998-11-01

    The cell cycle of most organisms is highlighted by characteristic changes in the appearance and activity of the nucleus. Structural changes in the nucleus are particularly evident when a cell begins to divide. At this time, the nuclear envelope is disassembled, the chromatin condenses into metaphase chromosomes, and the chromosomes associate with a newly formed spindle. Upon completion of cell division the nuclear envelope reassembles around the chromosomes as they form telophase nuclei, and subsequently interphase nuclei, in the daughter cells. The cytoplasmic control of nuclear behavior has been the theme of Yoshio Masui's research for much of his career. His pioneering demonstration that the cytoplasm of maturing amphibian oocytes causes the resumption of the meiotic cell cycle when it is injected into an immature oocyte provided unequivocal evidence that a cytoplasmic factor could initiate the transition from interphase to metaphase (M-phase) in intact cells. As described in several reviews in this and the previous issue of Biology of the Cell (see Beckhelling and Ford; Duesbery and Vande Woude; Maller), Masui initially called this activity maturation promoting factor (MPF), but when it was realized that it was a ubiquitous regulator of both mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, MPF came to stand for M-phase promoting factor. Biochemical evidence indicates that MPF activity is composed of a mitotic B-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The increase in the protein kinase activity of cdk1 initiates the changes in the nucleus associated with oocyte maturation and with the entry into mitosis. This article will attempt to provide a brief summary of the responses of the nucleus to the activation of MPF. In addition, the effect of MPF inactivation on nuclear envelope assembly at the end of mitosis will be discussed. This article is written as a tribute to Yoshio Masui on his retirement from the University of Toronto, and as an expression of gratitude for his

  4. Fear is the mother of invention: anuran embryos exposed to predator cues alter life-history traits, post-hatching behaviour and neuronal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Andrea; Brandalise, Federico; Rubolini, Diego; Rossi, Paola; Galeotti, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Neurophysiological modifications associated to phenotypic plasticity in response to predators are largely unexplored, and there is a gap of knowledge on how the information encoded in predator cues is processed by prey sensory systems. To explore these issues, we exposed Rana dalmatina embryos to dragonfly chemical cues (kairomones) up to hatching. At different times after hatching (up to 40 days), we recorded morphology and anti-predator behaviour of tadpoles from control and kairomone-treated embryo groups as well as their neural olfactory responses, by recording the activity of their mitral neurons before and after exposure to a kairomone solution. Treated embryos hatched later and hatchlings were smaller than control siblings. In addition, the tadpoles from the treated group showed a stronger anti-predator response than controls at 10 days (but not at 30 days) post-hatching, though the intensity of the contextual response to the kairomone stimulus did not differ between the two groups. Baseline neuronal activity at 30 days post-hatching, as assessed by the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic events and by the firing rate of mitral cells, was higher among tadpoles from the treated versus the control embryo groups. At the same time, neuronal activity showed a stronger increase among tadpoles from the treated versus the control group after a local kairomone perfusion. Hence, a different contextual plasticity between treatments at the neuronal level was not mirrored by the anti-predator behavioural response. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate ontogenetic plasticity in tadpole neuronal activity after embryonic exposure to predator cues, corroborating the evidence that early-life experience contributes to shaping the phenotype at later life stages.

  5. Chloride-sensitive MEQ fluorescence in chick embryo motoneurons following manipulations of chloride and during spontaneous network activity.

    PubMed

    Chub, Nikolai; Mentis, George Z; O'donovan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Intracellular Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](in)) homeostasis is thought to be an important regulator of spontaneous activity in the spinal cord of the chick embryo. We investigated this idea by visualizing the variations of [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons retrogradely labeled with the Cl-sensitive dye 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide (MEQ) applied to cut muscle nerves in the isolated E10-E12 spinal cord. This labeling procedure obviated the need for synthesizing the reduced, cell-permeable dihydro-MEQ (DiH-MEQ). The specificity of motoneuron labeling was confirmed using retrograde co-labeling with Texas Red Dextran and immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In MEQ-labeled motoneurons, the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine (100 muM) increased somatic and dendritic fluorescence by 7.4 and 16.7%, respectively. The time course of this fluorescence change mirrored that of the depolarization recorded from the axons of the labeled motoneurons. Blockade of the inward Na(+)/K(-)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) with bumetanide (20 microM) or with a low-Na(+) bath solution (12 mM), increased MEQ fluorescence by 5.3 and 11.4%, respectively, consistent with a decrease of [Cl(-)](in). After spontaneous episodes of activity, MEQ fluorescence increased and then declined to the pre-episode level during the interepisode interval. The largest fluorescence changes occurred over motoneuron dendrites (19.7%) with significantly smaller changes (5.2%) over somata. Collectively, these results show that retrogradely loaded MEQ can be used to detect [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons, that the bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1 co-transporter is at least partially responsible for the elevated [Cl(-)](in) of developing motoneurons, and that dendritic [Cl(-)](in) decreases during spontaneous episodes and recovers during the inter-episode interval, presumably due to the action of NKCC1.

  6. Motor activity in the isolated spinal cord of the chick embryo: synaptic drive and firing pattern of single motoneurons.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, M J

    1989-03-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying embryonic motility were investigated using intracellular recording from motoneurons and electrotonic recording from muscle nerves during motor activity generated by an isolated spinal cord preparation of 12- to 15-d-old chick embryos. DC-coupled recordings from sartorius (a flexor) and femorotibialis (an extensor) muscle nerves revealed that both sets of motoneurons were depolarized at the same time in each cycle even when the motoneurons fired out of phase. Sartorius motoneurons fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing before discharging a second burst of spikes as the depolarization decayed. By contrast, femorotibialis motoneurons fired at the peak of their depolarization, which was coincident with the interruption in sartorius activity. Intracellular recordings from antidromically identified motoneurons confirmed that flexor and extensor motoneurons were depolarized at the same time during each cycle of activity. The discharge of femorotibialis motoneurons, and others presumed to be extensors, followed changes in membrane potential so that maximal firing occurred during peak depolarization. The relationship between discharge and membrane potential was different in sartorius motoneurons (and in others presumed to be flexors) because they fired briefly on the rising phase of the depolarization and then stopped firing during peak depolarization. In some of these cells firing resumed as the membrane potential decayed back to rest. Intracellular injection of depolarizing current into sartorius motoneurons during motor activity reversed the direction of the membrane potential change from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing during the pause in sartorius discharge. In addition, the discharge evoked by the depolarizing current was blocked during the reversed part of the synaptic potential revealing its inhibitory nature. The occurrence of the IPSP was accompanied by a large reduction in motoneuronal

  7. Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Rupinder; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Pushel, Irina; Taylor, Benjamin R; Arnosti, David N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers constitute one of the major components of regulatory machinery of metazoans. Although several genome-wide studies have focused on finding and locating enhancers in the genomes, the fundamental principles governing their internal architecture and cis-regulatory grammar remain elusive. Here, we describe an extensive, quantitative perturbation analysis targeting the dorsal-ventral patterning gene regulatory network (GRN) controlled by Drosophila NF-κB homolog Dorsal. To understand transcription factor interactions on enhancers, we employed an ensemble of mathematical models, testing effects of cooperativity, repression, and factor potency. Models trained on the dataset correctly predict activity of evolutionarily divergent regulatory regions, providing insights into spatial relationships between repressor and activator binding sites. Importantly, the collective predictions of sets of models were effective at novel enhancer identification and characterization. Our study demonstrates how experimental dataset and modeling can be effectively combined to provide quantitative insights into cis-regulatory information on a genome-wide scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08445.001 PMID:27152947

  8. Effects of malathion, diazinon, and parathion on mallard embryo development and cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of external exposure of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs to malathion, diazinon, and parathion were examined using formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Treatment with aqueous emulsion simulated exposure at the rate of 100 gal per acre (153 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound with treatment at 3 and 8 days of embryonic development. Treatment with a nontoxic oil vehicle simulated exposure at the rate of 11 gal per acre (16.8 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound. The order of embryotoxicity on a pounds-per-acre basis was parathion > diazinon > malathion with either vehicle. However, the potential hazard under conditions of up to five times the maximum field level of application was greater for malathion because of the high permissible level of application for malathion on certain crops. Parathion, the most embryotoxic of the three, had the most pronounced effects when an oil vehicle was used, as reflected by an LC50 of about 2 lb of active ingredient per acre, stunted growth, and a high frequency of malformations involving distortion of the axial skeleton, particularly in the cervical region. All three compounds resulted in significant depression of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity, but parathion caused the most depression throughout development, which was still apparent in hatchlings. Treatment with either distilled water or oil vehicle alone did not result in any of these effects seen with organophosphorous insecticides.

  9. Effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone as an antioxidant on in vitro maturation of oocytes and development of parthenogenetic embryos in pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Yei; Kang, Jung-Taek; Park, Sol-Ji; Kim, Su-Jin; Moon, Joon-Ho; Saadeldin, Islam M; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2013-10-01

    One of the factors that impairs in vitro produced porcine embryos is the oxidative stress that is mainly caused by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidants activity, especially that of glutathione (GSH). Here, we examined the effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a kind of flavonoid antioxidant, on porcine oocyte maturation and its developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in media supplemented with 0, 1, 5 and 10 μM 7,8-DHF during both in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) after parthenogenetic activation. Maturation of oocytes was evaluated based on first polar body (PB) extrusion and intracellular GSH level, and developmental competence was assessed through observing cleavage and blastocyst formation. In each step, the levels of intracellular GSH and ROS were assessed by fluorescence intensity, and the apoptosis-related gene expression was examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR. The group treated with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed increased cytoplasmic maturation and reached the blastocysts stage (36.1%) at a higher rate than the other groups (24.7, 16.0 and 10.3% for 0, 5 and 10 μM, P<0.05). In that group, the intracellular GSH level was significantly increased while ROS generation was significantly decreased after IVM and IVC (P<0.05). Moreover, it showed high expression of an anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2L1) and low expression of a pro-apoptotic gene (BAK1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, treatment with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed an anti-apoptotic effect by increasing intracellular GSH synthesis and scavenging ROS and therefore improved the developmental competence of porcine embryos.

  10. Effect of 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone as an Antioxidant on In Vitro Maturation of Oocytes and Development of Parthenogenetic Embryos in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    CHOI, Ji-Yei; KANG, Jung-Taek; PARK, Sol-Ji; KIM, Su-Jin; MOON, Joon-Ho; SAADELDIN, Islam M.; JANG, Goo; LEE, Byeong-Chun

    2013-01-01

    One of the factors that impairs in vitro produced porcine embryos is the oxidative stress that is mainly caused by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidants activity, especially that of glutathione (GSH). Here, we examined the effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a kind of flavonoid antioxidant, on porcine oocyte maturation and its developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in media supplemented with 0, 1, 5 and 10 μM 7,8-DHF during both in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) after parthenogenetic activation. Maturation of oocytes was evaluated based on first polar body (PB) extrusion and intracellular GSH level, and developmental competence was assessed through observing cleavage and blastocyst formation. In each step, the levels of intracellular GSH and ROS were assessed by fluorescence intensity, and the apoptosis-related gene expression was examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR. The group treated with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed increased cytoplasmic maturation and reached the blastocysts stage (36.1%) at a higher rate than the other groups (24.7, 16.0 and 10.3% for 0, 5 and 10 μM, P<0.05). In that group, the intracellular GSH level was significantly increased while ROS generation was significantly decreased after IVM and IVC (P<0.05). Moreover, it showed high expression of an anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2L1) and low expression of a pro-apoptotic gene (BAK1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, treatment with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed an anti-apoptotic effect by increasing intracellular GSH synthesis and scavenging ROS and therefore improved the developmental competence of porcine embryos. PMID:23748647

  11. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus nsp1α Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Targeting the Linear Ubiquitin Chain Assembly Complex.

    PubMed

    Jing, Huiyuan; Fang, Liurong; Ding, Zhen; Wang, Dang; Hao, Wenqi; Gao, Li; Ke, Wenting; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2017-02-01

    Linear ubiquitination, a newly discovered posttranslational modification, is catalyzed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is composed of three subunits: one catalytic subunit HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN. Accumulating evidence suggests that linear ubiquitination plays a crucial role in innate immune signaling and especially in the activation of the NF-κB pathway by conjugating linear polyubiquitin chains to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus that has devastated the swine industry worldwide, is an ideal model to study the host's disordered inflammatory responses after viral infection. Here, we found that LUBAC-induced NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokine expression can be inhibited in the early phase of PRRSV infection. Screening the PRRSV-encoded proteins showed that nonstructural protein 1α (nsp1α) suppresses LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation and its CTE domain is required for the inhibition. Mechanistically, nsp1α binds to HOIP/HOIL-1L and impairs the interaction between HOIP and SHARPIN, thus reducing the LUBAC-dependent linear ubiquitination of NEMO. Moreover, PRRSV infection also blocks LUBAC complex formation and NEMO linear-ubiquitination, the important step for transducing NF-κB signaling. This unexpected finding demonstrates a previously unrecognized role of PRRSV nsp1α in modulating LUBAC signaling and explains an additional mechanism of immune modulation by PRRSV.

  12. Lateral gene expression in Drosophila early embryos is supported by Grainyhead-mediated activation and tiers of dorsally-localized repression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mayra; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2011-01-01

    The general consensus in the field is that limiting amounts of the transcription factor Dorsal establish dorsal boundaries of genes expressed along the dorsal-ventral (DV) axis of early Drosophila embryos, while repressors establish ventral boundaries. Yet recent studies have provided evidence that repressors act to specify the dorsal boundary of intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind), a gene expressed in a stripe along the DV axis in lateral regions of the embryo. Here we show that a short 12 base pair sequence ("the A-box") present twice within the ind CRM is both necessary and sufficient to support transcriptional repression in dorsal regions of embryos. To identify binding factors, we conducted affinity chromatography using the A-box element and found a number of DNA-binding proteins and chromatin-associated factors using mass spectroscopy. Only Grainyhead (Grh), a CP2 transcription factor with a unique DNA-binding domain, was found to bind the A-box sequence. Our results suggest that Grh acts as an activator to support expression of ind, which was surprising as we identified this factor using an element that mediates dorsally-localized repression. Grh and Dorsal both contribute to ind transcriptional activation. However, another recent study found that the repressor Capicua (Cic) also binds to the A-box sequence. While Cic was not identified through our A-box affinity chromatography, utilization of the same site, the A-box, by both factors Grh (activator) and Cic (repressor) may also support a "switch-like" response that helps to sharpen the ind dorsal boundary. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that TGF-β signaling acts to refine ind CRM expression in an A-box independent manner in dorsal-most regions, suggesting that tiers of repression act in dorsal regions of the embryo.

  13. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    PubMed

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo.

  14. Active immunization with a synthetic fragment of pig inhibin alpha-subunit increases ovulation rate and embryo production in superovulated ewes but season affects its efficiency.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Martemucci, G; Iaffaldano, N

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the effects of active immunization against one of two synthetic peptides from humans (inhibin-like peptide) or pigs (inhibin alpha-subunit) on antibody titres, ovulation rate and embryo production in ewes superovulated with 16 U ovine FSH. In Expt 1, during the breeding season, 30 ewes were subdivided into three groups: group I served as the non-immunized control; group II was immunized against inhibin-like peptide (100 micrograms inhibin-like peptide equivalent, followed by three booster injections); group III was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit conjugated to human serum albumin (96 micrograms for the primary administration and 46 micrograms for the booster). In Expt 2, the efficiency of immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit on ovarian response and embryo production was evaluated during the non-breeding season in two groups of ewes (n = 12): group IV was a non-immunized control; Group V was immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit. During the breeding season, the ewes immunized against pig inhibin alpha-subunit showed higher antibody titres compared with the group immunized against inhibin-like peptide (P < 0.01) and a significant increase in ovulation rate (12.1) compared with both the control (5.0; P < 0.05) and the inhibin-like peptide-immunized group (3.1; P < 0.01). Immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit increased transferable embryo yield 4.5-fold (6.7 versus 1.5; P < 0.01) and improved embryo quality (94.6 versus 40.6%; P < 0.01). During the non-breeding season, immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit enhanced ovulation rate from 2.6 in the controls to 9.4 (P < 0.01) but did not affect transferable embryo production (3.9 versus 2.1; P > 0.05) and significantly lowered their quality (54.1 versus 100%; P < 0.01). In conclusion, active immunization against pig inhibin alpha-subunit can improve superovulatory response during the breeding season, while it appears to be unable to

  15. Potential risk of equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) transmission by equine embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Hebia, I; Fiéni, F; Duchamp, G; Destrumelle, S; Pellerin, J-L; Zientara, S; Vautherot, J-F; Bruyas, J-F

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the 10 wash cycles proposed by the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) for bovine embryos efficiently decontaminated equine embryos exposed to equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1) in vitro. Donor mares and stallions were individually screened and shown to be negative for the virus by PCR detection of EHV-1 DNA in blood leukocytes, semen, and uterine lavages in which embryos were recovered. Twenty embryos were recovered and randomly assigned to one of two groups: 10 embryos were exposed for 24h to infectious EHV-1 at 10(6)TCID(50)/ml, and 10 embryos were used as negative controls. Exposed embryos were washed in accordance with IETS recommendations for ruminant and porcine embryos, before being incubated for 24 h with semiconfluent rabbit kidney (RK13) cells to detect any cytopathic effects (CPE), and finally tested for the presence of EHV-1 viral DNA by PCR. The embryo washing media were also assayed for the virus on RK 13 cells and by PCR. Control embryos were neither exposed to the virus nor washed. EHV-1 was not found in the control embryos, or in the last five washes of the exposed embryos. However, the virus was detected in 7/10 of the embryos exposed to EHV-1 for 24h, as well as in the first five washes of the embryos. The gradual disappearance of EHV-1 from the 10 successive wash solutions from the exposed embryos and the detection of viral DNA in 7/10 washed embryos by PCR, demonstrated that the washing procedure was unable to remove EHV-1 and suggested that EHV-1 could be attached to the acellular layer surrounding embryos (zona pellucida or capsule) or had penetrated the embryo.

  16. Leptin serves as an upstream activator of an obligatory signaling cascade in the embryo-implantation process.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M P; Rueda, B R; Leavis, P C; Gonzalez, R R

    2005-02-01

    Leptin is essential for mouse reproduction, but the exact roles it serves are yet to be determined. Treatment of cultured endometrial cells with leptin increases the level of beta3-integrin, IL-1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and their corresponding receptors. These leptin-induced effects are eliminated by inhibitors of leptin receptor (OB-R) signaling. Herein the impact of blocking leptin/OB-R signaling in the mouse endometrium was assessed. Intrauterine injection of either leptin peptide antagonists (LPA-1 or -2) or OB-R antibody on d 3 of pregnancy impaired mouse implantation in comparison to intrauterine injection of scrambled peptides (LPA-Sc) or species-matched IgGs. Significant reduction in the number of implantation sites and uterine horns with implanted embryos was found after intrauterine injection of LPA-1 (1 of 22) vs. LPA-1Sc (11 of 15) and LPA-2 (3 of 17) vs. LPA-2Sc (14 of 16). The impact of disruption of leptin signaling on the endometrial expression of several molecules in pregnant mice was assessed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Disruption of leptin signaling resulted in a significant reduction of IL-1 receptor type I, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and beta3-integrin levels. The levels of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor and OB-R were unaltered after treatment with LPAs compared with controls. Expression of OB-R protein was pregnancy dependent and found only in glandular epithelium after implantation occurred. Our findings support previous observations that leptin signaling is critical to the implantation process and suggest that molecules downstream of leptin-activated receptor may serve obligatory roles in endometrial receptivity and successful implantation.

  17. Calcium utilization by quail embryos during activities preceding space flight and during embryogenesis in microgravity aboard the orbital space station MIR.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Piert, S J; Guryeva, T S; Hester, P Y

    1999-10-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the effect of activities preceding spaceflight and during space-flight on calcium utilization during quail embryonic development. In the pre-space trials, fertile quail eggs were subjected to pre-flight dynamics including forces of centrifugation, vibration, or a combination of vibration and centrifugation prior to incubation for 6 or 16 days. Quail eggs were also tested for survivability in a refrigerator stowage kit for eggs (RSKE) which was subsequently used to transport the eggs to space. Eggs in the RSKE were subjected to shuttle launch dynamics including G force and random vibration profiles. The space-flight trial involved 48 quail eggs launched on space shuttle Flight STS-76 which were subsequently incubated in a Slovakian incubator onboard space station, MIR. Two ground control trials, each with 48 eggs with and without exposure to shuttle launch dynamics were initiated 5 days post-launch. Eggshells from all study trials were retrieved and analyzed for calcium content. Results showed that neither pre-flight activities nor shuttle launch dynamics had an effect on calcium utilization by developing embryos. However, calcium utilization by developing embryos incubated in microgravity was impaired by 12.6% when compared to embryos incubated on earth under laboratory control environment. This impairment was believed to be due to unidentified factors of the microgravity environment.

  18. Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Song Cheng; Krell, Peter; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

  19. Transcription factor p53 can regulate proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of luteinizing porcine ovarian granulosa cell cultured with and without ghrelin and FSH.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, A V; Benco, A; Tandlmajerova, A; Vasícek, D; Kotwica, J; Darlak, K; Valenzuela, F

    2008-11-01

    The aim of our in vitro experiments was to examine the role of transcription factor p53 in controlling the basic functions of ovarian cells and their response to hormonal treatments. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells, transfected and non-transfected with a gene construct encoding p53, were cultured with ghrelin and FSH (all at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml). Accumulation of p53, of apoptosis-related (MAP3K5) and proliferation-related (cyclin B1) substances was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. The secretion of progesterone (P(4)), oxytocin (OT), prostaglandin F (PGF), and E (PGE) was measured by RIA. Transfection with the p53 gene construct promoted accumulation of this transcription factor within cells. It also stimulated the expression of a marker of apoptosis (MAP3K5). Over-expression of p53 resulted in reduced accumulation of a marker of proliferation (cyclin B1), P(4), and PGF secretion and increased OT and PGE secretion. Ghrelin, when added alone, did not affect p53 or P(4), but reduced MAP3K5 and increased PGF and PGE secretion. Over-expression of p53 reversed the effect of ghrelin on OT, caused it to be inhibitory to P(4) secretion, but did not modify its action on MAP3K5, PGF, or PGE. FSH promoted the accumulation of p53, MAP3K5, and cyclin B1; these effects were unaffected by p53 transfection. These multiple effects of the p53 gene construct on luteinizing granulosa cells, cultured with and without hormones 1) demonstrate the effects of ghrelin and FSH on porcine ovarian cell apoptosis and secretory activity, 2) confirm the involvement of p53 in promoting apoptosis and inhibiting P(4) secretion in these cells, 3) provide the first evidence that p53 suppress proliferation of ovarian cells, 4) provide the first evidence that p53 is involved in the control of ovarian peptide hormone (OT) and prostaglandin (PGF and PGE) secretion, and 5) suggest that p53 can modulate, but probably not mediate, the effects of ghrelin and FSH on the ovary.

  20. Ion currents in embryo development.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Boni, Raffaele; Gallo, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Ion channels are proteins expressed in the plasma membrane of electrogenic cells. In the zygote and blastomeres of the developing embryo, electrical modifications result from ion currents that flow through these channels. This phenomenon implies that ion current activity exerts a specific developmental function, and plays a crucial role in signal transduction and the control of embryogenesis, from the early cleavage stages and during growth and development of the embryo. This review describes the involvement of ion currents in early embryo development, from marine invertebrates to human, focusing on the occurrence, modulation, and dynamic role of ion fluxes taking place on the zygote and blastomere plasma membrane, and at the intercellular communication between embryo cell stages.

  1. Developmental abnormalities and changes in cholinesterase activity in sea urchin embryos and larvae from sperm exposed to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Aluigi, Maria G; Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Ramoino, Paola; Gatti, Antonietta M; Rottigni, Marino; Falugi, Carla

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study is to examine the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) that are dispersed in sea water by using an in vivo model. Because many products of nanotechnology contain NPs and are commonly used and well-established in the market, the accidental release of NPs into the air and water is quite possible. Indeed, at the end of their life cycle, some NPs are inevitably released into waste water and can reach marine ecosystem and affect the organisms there. Although there are few data on the presence of NPs in the marine environment, our awareness of their potential impact on environmental and organismal health is growing. Shallow-water benthonic organisms such as sea urchins provide planktonic larvae as a trophic base for finfish juveniles and are exposed to water from estuaries and precipitation. Such organisms can therefore be directly affected by NPs that are dispersed into those media. We evaluated the effects of exposure to different concentrations of nanosilver, titanium oxide and cobalt NPs on the sperm of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by analyzing the functionality and the morphology and biochemistry of the first developmental stages of the sea urchin. Sperm were exposed to sea water containing suspensions of NPs ranging from 0.0001 mg/L to 1 mg/L. Fertilization ability was not affected, but developmental anomalies were identified in embryos from the gastrula to pluteus stages, including morphological alterations of the skeletal rods. In addition, the enzymatic activity (cholinesterase, ChE) of the larvae was measured. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and propionylcholinesterase activity (PrChE) was affected in all of the exposed samples. The results did not vary consistently with the concentration of NP, but controls were significantly different from exposed samples. Exposure of sea urchin to these NPs may cause neurotoxic damage, and the altered ChE activity may be involved in skeletogenic aberrations. In conclusion, the sea urchin

  2. Effect of Ethanol Accumulation on Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris and Activities of Key Enzymes in Carbon Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue

    2015-08-01

    In production of porcine interferon α (pIFN-α) by Pichia pastoris, improper glycerol feeding strategy leads to ethanol accumulation in the last stage of growth phase. In the present study, taking two runs with low ethanol accumulation under 2 g/L as control group, effects of long-term (>4 h) and instantaneous high ethanol concentration (>10 g/L) on pIFN-α production, and activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism were discussed. As a result, compared with control group, pIFN-α expression level was decreased about 4~12 folds under long-term high ethanol concentration, from the level above 3 g/L to the level under 1 g/L; pIFN-α expression level was decreased about 8 folds under instantaneous high ethanol concentration, reaching to the low level of 0.42 g/L. The low production of pIFN-α was caused by the severe inhibitory effect of ethanol on these enzymes.

  3. Chemical manipulation of glucose metabolism in porcine oocytes: effects on nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Jason R; Brad, Amber M; Krisher, Rebecca L

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate metabolism of glucose through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation, and determine the effects of this manipulation on meiotic progression, intracellular glutathione (GSX) concentrations and embryonic development. Cumulus-oocyte complexes isolated from abattoir ovaries were matured (40-44 h) in Purdue Porcine Medium for maturation alone (control) or supplemented with pyrroline-5 carboxylate (PC, 0.1 microM; PPP stimulator), diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 0.1 microM; PPP inhibitor), dinitrophenol (DNP, 10 microM; glycolytic stimulator), hexametaphosphate (HMP, 100 microM; glycolytic inhibitor), PC + HMP or DNP + DPI. At the conclusion of in vitro maturation, cumulus cells were removed and oocytes were randomly allocated for analysis of GSX, metabolism and nuclear maturation, or in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Both DPI and DNP + DPI decreased (P < or = 0.05) the activity of glycolysis and the PPP, increased (P < or = 0.05) the percentage of immature oocytes, and decreased (P < or = 0.05) the proportion of mature oocytes compared with control oocytes and oocytes from the other treatments. Embryonic development (cleavage and blastocyst stage) and the intracellular content of GSX were also decreased (P < or = 0.05) following exposure to DPI or DNP + DPI compared with control oocytes and oocytes from the other treatments. Oocyte metabolism, nuclear maturation, GSX content and embryonic development were unaffected (P > 0.05) following exposure to PC, DNP, HMP or PC + HMP. Our results suggest that metabolism of glucose through the PPP and/or glycolysis plays a key role in the control of nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro.

  4. Interleukin-6 enhances porcine parthenote development in vitro, through the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing-Hui; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) plays a central role in interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated cell proliferation by inhibiting apoptosis in a variety of cell types. The Stat3 pathway is essential for embryonic development. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of recombinant IL-6 on the viability and development of porcine diploid parthenotes cultured in vitro. Four-cell parthenotes, derived in vitro, were cultured to the blastocyst stage, with or without recombinant IL-6. The addition of 10 or 100 ng/ml of recombinant swine IL-6 into PZM3 medium increased the development rate of parthenotes to the blastocyst stage (P<0.05). When supplemented with 10 ng/ml of recombinant swine IL-6, the number of parthenotes at the blastocyst stage increased (P<0.05) and apoptosis decreased (P<0.05). Real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that the addition of recombinant swine IL-6 decreased the mRNA expression of the pro-apoptotic gene Caspase3 (P<0.01) but increased the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic genes Bcl2l1 and Survivin. IL-6 receptors and Stat3 mRNA expression were upregulated after treatment with 10 ng/ml recombinant swine IL-6. Immunoblots and fluorescence labeling experiments showed that the levels of phosphorylated Stat3 were upregulated. These results suggest that recombinant swine IL-6 prevents apoptosis of porcine parthenotes and enhances porcine embryo viability through the IL-6/Stat3 signaling pathway in vitro.

  5. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Silke; Smolders, Sophie M. T.; Swinnen, Nina; Gärtner, Annette; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Morphological brain abnormalities combined with deviations in the inflammatory status of the brain can be observed in patients of both autism and schizophrenia. It was shown that acute infection can induce changes in maternal cytokine levels which in turn are suggested to affect fetal brain development and increase the risk on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Animal models of maternal immune activation reproduce the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In this study the poly (I:C) model was used to mimic viral immune activation in pregnant mice in order to assess the activation status of fetal microglia in these developmental disorders. Because microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain they were expected to be activated due to the inflammatory stimulus. Microglial cell density and activation level in the fetal cortex and hippocampus were determined. Despite the presence of a systemic inflammation in the pregnant mice, there was no significant difference in fetal microglial cell density or immunohistochemically determined activation level between the control and inflammation group. These data indicate that activation of the fetal microglial cells is not likely to be responsible for the inflammation induced deficits in the offspring in this model. PMID:26300736

  6. Navigating the site for embryo implantation: biomechanical and molecular regulation of intrauterine embryo distribution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Ying; Elad, David; Jaffa, Ariel J; Cao, Yujing; Ye, Xiaoqin; Duan, Enkui

    2013-10-01

    The distribution of intrauterine embryo implantation site(s) in most mammalian species shows remarkably constant patterns: in monotocous species such as humans, an embryo tends to implant in the uterine fundus; in polytocous species such as rodents, embryos implant evenly along the uterine horns. These long-time evolved patterns bear great biological significance because disruption of these patterns can have adverse effects on pregnancies. However, lack of suitable models and in vivo monitoring techniques has impeded the progress in understanding the mechanisms of intrauterine embryo distribution. These obstacles are being overcome by genetically engineered mouse models and newly developed high-resolution ultrasound. It has been revealed that intrauterine embryo distribution involves multiple events including uterine sensing of an embryo, fine-tuned uterine peristaltic movements, time-controlled uterine fluid reabsorption and uterine luminal closure, as well as embryo orientation. Diverse molecular factors, such as steroid hormone signaling, lipid signaling, adrenergic signaling, developmental genes, ion/water channels, and potentially embryonic signaling are actively involved in intrauterine embryo distribution. This review covers the biomechanical and molecular aspects of intrauterine embryo distribution (embryo spacing at the longitudinal axis and embryo orientation at the vertical axis), as well as its pathophysiological roles in human reproductive medicine. Future progress requires multi-disciplinary research efforts that will integrate in vivo animal models, clinical cases, physiologically relevant in vitro models, and biomechanical/computational modeling. Understanding the mechanisms for intrauterine embryo distribution could potentially lead to development of therapeutics for treating related conditions in reproductive medicine.

  7. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development.

  8. RhoA/ROCK pathway activity is essential for the correct localization of the germ plasm mRNAs in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Rodríguez, Jerónimo Roberto; Salas-Vidal, Enrique; Lomelí, Hilda; Zurita, Mario; Schnabel, Denhi

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish germ plasm is composed of mRNAs such as vasa and nanos and of proteins such as Bucky ball, all of which localize symmetrically in four aggregates at the distal region of the first two cleavage furrows. The coordination of actin microfilaments, microtubules and kinesin is essential for the correct localization of the germ plasm. Rho-GTPases, through their effectors, coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. We address the participation of RhoA and its effector ROCK in germ plasm localization during the transition from two- to eight-cell embryos. We found that active RhoA is enriched along the cleavage furrow during the first two division cycles, whereas ROCK localizes at the distal region of the cleavage furrows in a similar pattern as the germ plasm mRNAs. Specific inhibition of RhoA and ROCK affected microtubules organization at the cleavage furrow; these caused the incorrect localization of the germ plasm mRNAs. The incorrect localization of the germ plasm led to a dramatic change in the number of germ cells during the blastula and 24hpf embryo stages without affecting any other developmental processes. We demonstrate that the Rho/ROCK pathway is intimately related to the determination of germ cells in zebrafish embryos.

  9. The possible FAT1-mediated apoptotic pathways in porcine cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinhui; Fu, Yao; Sun, Xulei; Liu, Chang; Chai, Menglong; Chen, Chengzhen; Dai, Lisheng; Gao, Yan; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Jiabao

    2017-01-01

    Porcine cumulus cells are localized around oocytes and act as a specific type of granulosa that plays essential roles in the development and maturation of oocytes, the development and atresia of follicles, and the development of embryos. Studies of FAT1 have demonstrated its functions in cell-cell contact, actin dynamics, and cell growth suppression. To understand whether the FAT1 gene affects the apoptosis of porcine cumulus cells and to elucidate the mechanism of this potential action, FAT1 was knocked down using RNA interference. The lack of FAT1 resulted in stable expression of CTNNB, enhanced expression of cleaved CASP3, but decreased the BCL2/BAX ratios at both the mRNA and protein levels. These results indicated that FAT1 inhibited porcine cumulus cell apoptosis via different pathways. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the mechanisms of the association between FAT1 and porcine cumulus cell apoptosis.

  10. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Girbau, M; Bassas, L; Alemany, J; de Pablo, F

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage. Images PMID:2548191

  11. Data for identification of porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, by genomic comparison with human and mouse XIC

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The data included in this article shows homologies of genes in porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, to each orthologue in human and mouse XIC. Open sequences of XIC-linked genes in human and mouse were compared to porcine genome and sequence homology of each orthologue to porcine genome was calculated. Sequence information of porcine genes encoded in the genomic regions having sequence homology with the human XIC-linked genes and their 2 Kb upstream regions were downloaded. Obtained information was used to design primer pairs for expression and methylation pattern analyses of XIC-linked genes in pigs. The data represented in here is related and applied to the research article entitled “Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC,-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts”, published in Mechanisms of Development Hwang et al., 2015 [1]. PMID:26793753

  12. Data for identification of porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, by genomic comparison with human and mouse XIC.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Choi, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    The data included in this article shows homologies of genes in porcine X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC, to each orthologue in human and mouse XIC. Open sequences of XIC-linked genes in human and mouse were compared to porcine genome and sequence homology of each orthologue to porcine genome was calculated. Sequence information of porcine genes encoded in the genomic regions having sequence homology with the human XIC-linked genes and their 2 Kb upstream regions were downloaded. Obtained information was used to design primer pairs for expression and methylation pattern analyses of XIC-linked genes in pigs. The data represented in here is related and applied to the research article entitled "Dosage compensation of X-chromosome inactivation center, XIC,-linked genes in porcine preimplantation embryos: Non-chromosome wide initiation of X-chromosome inactivation in blastocysts", published in Mechanisms of Development Hwang et al., 2015 [1].

  13. Differential Regulation of Disheveled in a Novel Vegetal Cortical Domain in Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos: Implications for the Localized Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg’s vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized “activation” of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Pig In Vivo, In Vitro–Fertilized, and Nuclear Transfer Blastocyst-Stage Embryos Treated with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Postfusion and Activation Reveals Changes in the Lysosomal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Kristin M.; Mao, Jiude; Lee, Kiho; Spollen, William G.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Walters, Eric M.; Spate, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genetically modified pigs are commonly created via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Treatment of reconstructed embryos with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) immediately after activation improves cloning efficiency. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the transcriptome of SCNT embryos treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 4-iodo-SAHA (ISAHA), or Scriptaid as compared to untreated SCNT, in vitro–fertilized (IVF), and in vivo (IVV) blastocyst-stage embryos. SAHA (10 μM) had the highest level of blastocyst development at 43.9%, and all treatments except 10 μM ISAHA had the same percentage of blastocyst development as Scriptaid (p<0.05). Two treatments, 1.0 μM ISAHA and 1.0 μM SAHA, had higher mean cell number than No HDACi treatment (p<0.021). Embryo transfers performed with 10 μM SAHA- and 1 μM ISAHA-treated embryos resulted in the birth of healthy piglets. GenBank accession numbers from up- and downregulated transcripts were loaded into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery to identify enriched biological themes. HDACi treatment yielded the highest enrichment for transcripts within the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway, lysosome. The mean intensity of LysoTracker was lower in IVV embryos compared to IVF and SCNT embryos (p<0.0001). SAHA and ISAHA can successfully be used to create healthy piglets from SCNT. PMID:26731590

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Pig In Vivo, In Vitro-Fertilized, and Nuclear Transfer Blastocyst-Stage Embryos Treated with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Postfusion and Activation Reveals Changes in the Lysosomal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Kristin M; Mao, Jiude; Lee, Kiho; Spollen, William G; Samuel, Melissa S; Walters, Eric M; Spate, Lee D; Prather, Randall S

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modified pigs are commonly created via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Treatment of reconstructed embryos with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) immediately after activation improves cloning efficiency. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the transcriptome of SCNT embryos treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 4-iodo-SAHA (ISAHA), or Scriptaid as compared to untreated SCNT, in vitro-fertilized (IVF), and in vivo (IVV) blastocyst-stage embryos. SAHA (10 μM) had the highest level of blastocyst development at 43.9%, and all treatments except 10 μM ISAHA had the same percentage of blastocyst development as Scriptaid (p<0.05). Two treatments, 1.0 μM ISAHA and 1.0 μM SAHA, had higher mean cell number than No HDACi treatment (p<0.021). Embryo transfers performed with 10 μM SAHA- and 1 μM ISAHA-treated embryos resulted in the birth of healthy piglets. GenBank accession numbers from up- and downregulated transcripts were loaded into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery to identify enriched biological themes. HDACi treatment yielded the highest enrichment for transcripts within the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway, lysosome. The mean intensity of LysoTracker was lower in IVV embryos compared to IVF and SCNT embryos (p<0.0001). SAHA and ISAHA can successfully be used to create healthy piglets from SCNT.

  16. Expression of porcine Mx1 with FMDV IRES enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Fang, Hui; Shen, Chao; Zheng, Congyi

    2015-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. Due to the rapid replication and spread of FMDV, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block FMDV shedding in cases of disease outbreak. Here, we generated an IRES-Mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of FMDV was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (ORF) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (poMx1). This construct provides more powerful protection against FMDV infection than the IRES-IFN construct that was previously generated by our group. The results indicate that this IRES-Mx1 construct was able to express poMx1 12 h after transfection and induce a robust immune response. In contrast to the control, the proliferation of virus in transfected cells was significantly inhibited, as evaluated by morphology monitoring, real-time RT-PCR, virus titration and Western blot. In addition, we also found that the antiviral activity in cells transfected with pc-IRES-Mx1 was abolished when the JAK/STAT pathway was repressed, which indicates that the antiviral mechanism of poMx1 is JAK/STAT pathway dependent. Taken together, our data suggest that the antiviral activity of poMx1 is possibly produced by affecting the host cells themselves, instead of interacting with the virus directly. The new construct reported here could be used as a novel effective therapy against FMDV infection.

  17. Three dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase at 2.9 A resolution. Role of calcium in structure and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Buisson, G; Duée, E; Haser, R; Payan, F

    1987-01-01

    The crystal structure of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) has been solved at 2.9 A resolution by X-ray crystallographic methods. The enzyme contains three domains. The larger, in the N-terminal part, consists of 330 amino acid residues. This central domain has the typical parallel-stranded alpha-beta barrel structure (alpha beta)8, already found in a number of other enzymes like triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase. The C-terminal domain forms a distinct globular unit where the chain folds into an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. The third domain lies between a beta-strand and a alpha-helix of the central domain, in a position similar to those found for domain B in triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase. It is essentially composed of antiparallel beta-sheets. The active site is located in a cleft within the N-terminal central domain, at the carboxy-end of the beta-strands of the (alpha beta)8 barrel. Binding of various substrate analogues to the enzyme suggests that the amino acid residues involved in the catalytic reaction are a pair of aspartic acids. A number of other residues surround the substrate and seem to participate in its binding via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The 'essential' calcium ion has been located near the active site region and between two domains, each of them providing two calcium ligands. On the basis of sequence comparisons this calcium binding site is suggested to be a common structural feature of all alpha-amylases. It represents a new type of calcium-protein interaction pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:3502087

  18. Three dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase at 2.9 A resolution. Role of calcium in structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Buisson, G; Duée, E; Haser, R; Payan, F

    1987-12-20

    The crystal structure of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) has been solved at 2.9 A resolution by X-ray crystallographic methods. The enzyme contains three domains. The larger, in the N-terminal part, consists of 330 amino acid residues. This central domain has the typical parallel-stranded alpha-beta barrel structure (alpha beta)8, already found in a number of other enzymes like triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase. The C-terminal domain forms a distinct globular unit where the chain folds into an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. The third domain lies between a beta-strand and a alpha-helix of the central domain, in a position similar to those found for domain B in triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase. It is essentially composed of antiparallel beta-sheets. The active site is located in a cleft within the N-terminal central domain, at the carboxy-end of the beta-strands of the (alpha beta)8 barrel. Binding of various substrate analogues to the enzyme suggests that the amino acid residues involved in the catalytic reaction are a pair of aspartic acids. A number of other residues surround the substrate and seem to participate in its binding via hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The 'essential' calcium ion has been located near the active site region and between two domains, each of them providing two calcium ligands. On the basis of sequence comparisons this calcium binding site is suggested to be a common structural feature of all alpha-amylases. It represents a new type of calcium-protein interaction pattern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. A porcine model of osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Saalfrank, A; Janssen, K-P; Ravon, M; Flisikowski, K; Eser, S; Steiger, K; Flisikowska, T; Müller-Fliedner, P; Schulze, É; Brönner, C; Gnann, A; Kappe, E; Böhm, B; Schade, B; Certa, U; Saur, D; Esposito, I; Kind, A; Schnieke, A

    2016-01-01

    We previously produced pigs with a latent oncogenic TP53 mutation. Humans with TP53 germline mutations are predisposed to a wide spectrum of early-onset cancers, predominantly breast, brain, adrenal gland cancer, soft tissue sarcomas and osteosarcomas. Loss of p53 function has been observed in >50% of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) convert to a transformed phenotype after activation of latent oncogenic TP53R167H and KRASG12D, and overexpression of MYC promotes tumorigenesis. The process mimics key molecular aspects of human sarcomagenesis. Transformed porcine MSCs exhibit genomic instability, with complex karyotypes, and develop into sarcomas on transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In pigs, heterozygous knockout of TP53 was sufficient for spontaneous osteosarcoma development in older animals, whereas homozygous TP53 knockout resulted in multiple large osteosarcomas in 7–8-month-old animals. This is the first report that engineered mutation of an endogenous tumour-suppressor gene leads to invasive cancer in pigs. Unlike in Trp53 mutant mice, osteosarcoma developed in the long bones and skull, closely recapitulating the human disease. These animals thus promise a model for juvenile osteosarcoma, a relatively uncommon but devastating disease. PMID:26974205

  20. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene in SENCAR and BALB/c mouse embryo cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, W M; Sebti, S M; Reinsvold, L A

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism and DNA binding of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] were compared in early passage mouse embryo cell cultures prepared from SENCAR mice, a strain especially susceptible to two-stage tumorigenesis, and BALB/c mice, a strain relatively resistant to two-stage tumorigenesis. Cultures from both strains metabolized similar amounts of B(a)P; however, the proportion of water-soluble metabolites formed was higher in the BALB/c cultures than in the SENCAR cultures. The major metabolites formed in cultures from both strains were B(a)P-9,10-diol, B(a)P-7,8-diol and the glucuronic acid conjugate of 3-hydroxy-B(a)P. The level of binding of B(a)P to DNA was greater in the SENCAR mouse embryo cell cultures than in the BALB/c cultures after 5, 24, and 48 hr exposure. The major B(a)P-DNA adduct formed in B(a)P-treated cultures from both strains was the adduct formed by reaction of (+)anti-B(a)P-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide [anti-B(a)PDE, the isomer with the epoxide and the benzylic hydroxyl on opposite faces of the molecule] with the exocyclic amino group of deoxyguanosine. Immobilized boronate chromatography followed by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of small amounts of syn-B(a)PDE (the isomer with the epoxide and benzylic hydroxyl on the same face of the molecule)-DNA adducts. The proportions of these amounts were similar in cultures from both strains. The results suggest that SENCAR mouse embryo cell cultures may convert less B(a)P to water-soluble metabolites and more to DNA-binding metabolites than BALB/c mouse embryo cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3780631

  1. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W. . Patuxent Environmental Science Center); Tillitt, D.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-11-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated mono-oxygenates and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r[sup 2] often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the AH receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  2. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black- crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85- fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r super(2) often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah- active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  3. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene effects on glycine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi; Willett, Kristine L.

    2010-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminant that is both a carcinogen and a developmental toxicant. We hypothesize that some of BaP’s developmental toxicity may be mediated by effects on glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). GNMT is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and the homotetrameric form enzymatically transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. SAM homeostasis, as regulated by GNMT, is critically involved in regulation of DNA methylation, and altered GNMT expression is associated with liver pathologies. The homodimeric form of GNMT has been suggested as the 4S PAH-binding protein. To further study BaP-GNMT interactions, Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to waterborne BaP at 10 and 100 μg/L and both GNMT mRNA expression and enzyme activity were determined. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed GNMT mRNA expression was increased by BaP in the liver region of 7, 10 and 14 dpf F. heteroclitus embryos. In contrast to mRNA induction, in vivo BaP exposure decreased GNMT enzyme activity in 4, 10 and 14 dpf embryos. However, in vitro incubations of adult F. heteroclitus liver cytosol with BaP did not cause decreased enzyme activity. In conclusion, BaP exposure altered GNMT expression, which may represent a new target pathway for BaP-mediated embryonic toxicities and DNA methylation changes. PMID:20185185

  5. The effect of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibition on the porcine cumulus-oocyte complex during in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Duk Hyoun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Min Gyeong; Lee, Jun Sung; Jin, Su Jin; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2017-01-29

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) plays important roles in DNA repair, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and cell death, and occurs via the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Previous studies have shown that PARylation affects mouse and porcine pre-implantation development and participates in mechanisms of autophagy. However, there have not yet been reported the role of PARylation during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Thus, we investigated the effect of PARylation inhibition on this process; cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA, PARP inhibitor) during porcine IVM. Full cumulus expansion was significantly reduced (10.34 ± 1.23 [3-ABA] vs. 48.17 ± 2.03% [control]), but nuclear maturation rates were not changed in the 3-ABA treatment group. Especially, we observed that cumulus cells were little expanded after 22 h in 3-ABA treated COCs. The mRNA expression levels of oocyte maturation- and cumulus expansion-related genes were evaluated at 22 and 44 h. GDF9, BMP15, COX-2, and PTX3 expression were upregulated at 44 h, whereas the levels of HAS2 and TNFAIP6 were downregulated in the 3-ABA treated group. Furthermore, 3-ABA treatment significantly decreased the developmental rate (28.24 ± 1.06 vs. 40.24 ± 3.03%) and total cell number (41.12 ± 2.10 vs. 50.38 ± 2.27), but increased the total apoptotic index (6.44 ± 0.81 vs. 3.08 ± 0.51) in parthenogenetically activated embryos. In conclusion, these results showed that PARylation regulates cumulus expansion through the regulation of gene expression and affects developmental competence and quality in parthenogenetic embryos.

  6. Regulation of cell cycle activity in the embryo of barley seeds during germination as related to grain hydration.

    PubMed

    Gendreau, Emmanuel; Romaniello, Sébastien; Barad, Sophie; Leymarie, Juliette; Benech-Arnold, Roberto; Corbineau, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Various studies indicate that cell division is a post-germination phenomenon, with radicle protrusion occurring by cell elongation, while others demonstrate that induction of the cell cycle occurs in osmo-conditioned seeds prior to radicle growth. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to grain hydration, using: (i) a flow cytometry technique to estimate the percentage of cell nuclei in G(1) and G(2) phases of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in order to characterize the expression of the genes encoding cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKA1, CDKB1, and CDKD1) and cyclins (CYCA3, CYCB1, and CYCD4), the main genes involved in the cell cycle and its regulation. Radicle tips of embryos were isolated from seeds placed for various times on water at 30 degrees C and from grains partially hydrated at moisture contents ranging from 11% to 51% fresh weight (FW), which prevent radicle elongation. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents of the embryos during seed germination at 30 degrees C and after 48 h of partial hydration were also measured. In dry embryos, cells are mostly arrested in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle (82%), the remaining cells being in the G(2) phase, and the ABA content of the embryo was 432.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (DW). Seed imbibition was associated with a sharp decrease in ABA content as early as 5 h, while the cell cycle reactivation was a late process taking place approximately 4-6 h prior to radicle protrusion. Hydration of seeds resulted in a decrease in embryo ABA content, but it remained at a high level (207-273 ng g(-1) DW) even after 48 h at 0.41-0.51 g H2O g(-1) FW. The cell population of the radicle tips in the G(2) phase of the cell cycle, i.e. 4C nuclei, increased from 9% up to 34% at a moisture content of 51% FW. In dry seeds, CDKA1 and CDKD1 mRNAs were present at low levels, but transcripts of CDKB1, CYCA3, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Radicle

  7. The phenotype and activation status of T and NK cells in porcine colostrum suggest these are central/effector memory cells.

    PubMed

    Hlavova, Karolina; Stepanova, Hana; Faldyna, Martin

    2014-12-01

    In pigs, the epitheliochorial placenta does not allow transfer of maternally derived antibodies or immune cells to the fetus. Thus, piglets are dependent on intake of colostrum for acquisition of passive immunity during the neonatal period. As well as immunoglobulin G (IgG), cellular components of colostrum, mainly lymphocytes, can enter the systemic circulation and secondary lymphoid organs of the neonate. In order to understand the function and immunological role of these cells, a flow cytometric study was undertaken to characterise the cellular profile and phenotype of T cells and NK cells present in porcine colostrum. The results indicated that the greatest numbers of lymphocytes were found on the first day of lactation. The predominant cell types in colostrum were CD8(+) single positive T cells (53.6%), followed by CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive T cells (21.1%), CD2(+)CD8(+) γδ T cells (15.0%) and NK cells (13.5%). CD4(+) single positive T cells (4.4%) and other γδ T cell subpopulations (1.8% CD2(-)CD8(-) and 0.4% CD2(+)CD8(-)) were present in colostrum at low levels. Although the profile of the T cell subpopulations during the first 3 days of lactation remained constant, the absolute numbers of T and NK cells decreased significantly in the first few hours of lactation. Expression of CCR7, CD11b, CD25, CD45RA and MHC class II was used to assess the activation status of T and NK cells in colostrum. T cell subpopulations expressed markers consistent with an effector memory phenotype, indicating that these were antigen-experienced cells. The phenotype of colostral T and NK cells suggests a role in mucosal immunity and potentially in transfer of passive immunity from sow to piglet.

  8. Genetic manipulation of a transcription-regulating sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals key nucleotides determining its activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

    2014-08-01

    The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.

  9. Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates inflammatory activity by regulating the TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Kim, Hyun Soo; Koo, Jin Mo; Kim, In Ho

    2016-02-28

    A total of forty weaned pigs ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc) were used to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on inflammatory activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Experimental treatments were as follows: (T1) control diet+saline challenge; (T2) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+saline challenge; (T3) control diet+LPS challenge; and (T4) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+LPS challenge. On d-14, piglets were challenged with saline (T1 and T2) or LPS (T3 and T4). Blood samples were obtained at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h after being challenged and analysed for immune cell cytokine production and gene expression pattern. The L. acidophilus treatment increased the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with the control diet. With the control diet, the LPS challenge (T3) increased the number of immune cells and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the saline challenge (T1). Whereas with the saline challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T2) increased the number of leucocytes and CD4 compared with the control diet (T1), with the LPS challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T4) decreased the number of leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the control diet (T3). L. acidophilus treatment decreased the expression of TRL4 and NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after LPS challenge, which leads to inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8 and IL1B1 and to induction of IL-4 and IL-10. We suggested that L. acidophilus improved ADWG and ADFI and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine PBMC.

  10. Histone deacetylase is required for the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling crucial for heart valve formation in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Seop; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Koo, Tae-Hee; Kim, Jun-Dae; Koun, Soonil; Ham, Hyung Jin; Lee, You Mie; Rhee, Myungchull; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Huh, Tae-Lin

    2012-06-22

    During vertebrate heart valve formation, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces BMP signals in atrioventricular canal (AVC) myocardial cells and underlying AVC endocardial cells then undergo endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) by receiving this BMP signals. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in numerous developmental processes by regulating gene expression. However, their specific roles in controlling heart valve development are largely unexplored. To investigate the role of HDACs in vertebrate heart valve formation, we treated zebrafish embryos with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of class I and II HDACs, from 36 to 48 h post-fertilization (hpf) during which heart looping and valve formation occur. Following TSA treatment, abnormal linear heart tube development was observed. In these embryos, expression of AVC myocardial bmp4 and AVC endocardial notch1b genes was markedly reduced with subsequent failure of EMT in the AVC endocardial cells. However, LiCl-mediated activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was able to rescue defective heart tube formation, bmp4 and notch1b expression, and EMT in the AVC region. Taken together, our results demonstrated that HDAC activity plays a pivotal role in vertebrate heart tube formation by activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling which induces bmp4 expression in AVC myocardial cells.

  11. Transcriptomic analysis reveals the potential of highly pathogenic PRRS virus to modulate immune system activation related to host-pathogen and damage associated signaling in infected porcine monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the largest risks to the continued stability of the swine industry is by pathogens like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that can decimate production as it spreads among individuals. These infections can be low or highly pathogenic, and because it infects monocytic ...

  12. ANALYSIS OF PORCINE TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR CHOLERAESUIS SUGGESTS NOVEL TARGETS OF NFKAPPAB ARE ACTIVATED IN THE MESENTERIC LYMPH NODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Affymetrix GeneChip® porcine genome array was used to identify differentially expressed genes in pig mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) responding to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) at acute (8 hours (h), 24h and 48h post-inoculation (pi)) and chronic stages (...

  13. The UV filter benzophenone 3 (BP-3) activates hormonal genes mimicking the action of ecdysone and alters embryo development in the insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the endocrine effects of UV filters in vertebrates, but little attention has been paid to their possible hormonal activity in invertebrates. We examined the effects of benzophenone-3 (BP-3), one of the most common sunscreen agents, in Chironomus riparius (Insecta), a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Salivary glands from larvae were treated with either the hormone ecdysone or BP-3 to compare the response of endocrine genes. It was found that BP-3 elicits the same effects as the natural hormone activating the expression of a set of ecdysone responsive genes. BP-3 also activated the stress gene hsp70. Interestingly, similar effects have been confirmed in vivo in embryos. Moreover, BP-3 also altered embryogenesis delaying hatching. This is the first demonstration of hormonal activity of UV filters in invertebrates, showing a mode of action similar to ecdysteroid hormones. This finding highlights the potential endocrine disruptive effects of these emergent pollutants.

  14. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence.

  15. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  16. Constitutive activation of ectodermal β-catenin induces ectopic outgrowths at various positions in mouse embryo and affects abdominal ventral body wall closure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuming; Huang, Sixia; Zhang, Lingling; Wu, Yumei; Chen, Yingwei; Tao, Yixin; Wang, Yushu; He, Shigang; Shen, Sanbing; Wu, Ji; Li, Baojie; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin; Ma, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate limbs originate from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) and the overlying ectoderm. While normal limb formation in defined regions has been well studied, the question of whether other positions retain limb-forming potential has not been fully investigated in mice. By ectopically activating β-catenin in the ectoderm with Msx2-cre, we observed that local tissue outgrowths were induced, which either progressed into limb-like structure within the inter-limb flank or formed extra tissues in other parts of the mouse embryo. In the presumptive abdominal region of severely affected embryos, ectopic limb formation was coupled with impaired abdominal ventral body wall (AVBW) closure, which indicates the existence of a potential counterbalance of limb formation and AVBW closure. At the molecular level, constitutive β-catenin activation was sufficient to trigger, but insufficient to maintain the ectopic expression of a putative limb-inducing factor, Fgf8, in the ectoderm. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of limb formation and AVBW closure, and the crosstalk between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and Fgf signal.

  17. Diamond Nanoparticles Modify Curcumin Activity: In Vitro Studies on Cancer and Normal Cells and In Ovo Studies on Chicken Embryo Model

    PubMed Central

    Strojny, Barbara; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Winnicka, Anna; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Urbańska, Kaja; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Chwalibog, André

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been studied broadly for its wide range of biological activities, including anticancer properties. The major problem with curcumin is its poor bioavailability, which can be improved by the addition of carriers, such as diamond nanoparticles (DN). They are carbon allotropes, and are therefore biocompatible and easily taken up by cells. DN are non-toxic and have antiangiogenic properties with potential applications in cancer therapy. Their large surface makes them promising compounds in a drug delivery system for bioactive agents, as DN create bio-complexes in a fast and simple process of self-organisation. We investigated the cytotoxicity of such bio-complexes against liver cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, revealing that conjugation of curcumin with DN significantly improves its activity. The experiment performed in a chicken embryo model demonstrated that neither curcumin nor DN nor bio-complexes affect embryo development, even though DN can form deposits in tissues. Preliminary results confirmed the applicability of DN as an efficient carrier of curcumin, which improves its performance against cancer cells in vitro, yet is not toxic to an organism, which makes the bio-complex a promising anticancer agent. PMID:27736939

  18. Bioelectrical activity of porcine oviduct and uterus during spontaneous and induced estrus associated with cyclic hormone changes.

    PubMed

    Pawliński, Bartosz; Domino, Małgorzata; Aniołek, Olga; Ziecik, Adam; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that uterine contraction is initiated by spontaneous generation of electrical activity at a cellular level in the form of action potentials. Such action potential events, when they involve many myometrial cells and occur in immediate succession, are described by their amplitude and duration. In an effort to improve clinical management of uterine contractions, research has focused on determination of the properties of the reproductive tract's electrical activity under hormonal stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the myoelectric activity (amplitude and duration) of the oviduct and the uterus in relation to plasma concentration of LH, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) during spontaneous and induced estrus in gilts. The course of the experiment was divided into eight periods defined by hormone concentrations (LH, P4, and E2) and time intervals before and after the start of the LH surge. Myoelectric signals were recorded, and the hormone levels were measured during proestrus and estrus in natural and hormone-induced estrus cycle. During the natural estrus, the LH surge was longer than after hormonal stimulation (28 vs. 20 hours) and suggested an inverse relationship between the LH concentration and the duration of myoelectric activity (SR = -0.68). Analyses of the records of the amplitudes and durations of the electromyography activity in uterine horns and oviducts showed significant differences between spontaneous and induced estrus (P < 0.05). During induced estrus, the LH surge began earlier (T1 vs. T2) and increased more (7.46 vs. 6.50 ng/mL) than during spontaneous estrus. This observation suggests a direct relationship between the LH concentration and the amplitude of the myoelectric activity (Spearman rank correlation = 0.71). The significantly higher duration and amplitude of the activity in the isthmus of the oviduct and the uterus during induced estrus shortly after the onset of standing heat (4-8 hours after

  19. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  20. GlutaMAX prolongs the shelf life of the culture medium for porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2016-02-01

    In vitro porcine embryo production systems have been established and well characterized. However, the efficiency of embryo development during IVC is still very low. In the present study, we have investigated the development of parthenogenetic porcine embryos in the well-known PZM-5 medium for porcine embryos, which was modified by replacing glutamine with the GlutaMAX supplement. We revealed that blastocyst apoptosis was significantly lower in the presence of GlutaMAX, which reduced the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. Furthermore, the expression of apoptosis genes was significantly lower during GlutaMAX treatment (P < 0.05). The modified medium was also examined for the eventual loss of its efficacy in the presence of GlutaMAX. Three, 6, and 12 months after medium preparation, blastocyst formation in the GlutaMAX-supplemented medium was significantly higher than the number of blastocysts in the medium containing glutamine. After a long period of storage, ammonia concentration was significantly increased in the glutamine medium, whereas it was not statistically different in the GlutaMAX medium. Elevated ammonia concentrations reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of blastocysts in the glutamine medium. These results demonstrate that GlutaMAX can reduce blastocyst apoptosis via inhibition of the cytochrome c pathway and significantly extend the shelf life of the culture medium to at least 1 year.

  1. [Construction and specificity of porcine bmp15 gene reporter vector].

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingming; Wei, Jianghua; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jinglong; Liu, Xiaopeng; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the express specificity of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15) in porcine. The pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector was constructed from the 2.2 kb fragment of porcine bmp15 promoter to trace the differentiation process of stem cells into oocyte-like cells. We used porcine ovary and Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line (CHO), mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) and porcine amniotic fluid stem cell (pAFSC) to investigate the expression and regulation of this gene via RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, cell transfection, and microinjection methods. We also used single layer cell differentiation to detect the application potential of bmp15. The results show that bmp15 gene was specifically expressed in the porcine ovary and CHO rather than in C2C12 and pAFSC. In addition, the characteristic of tissue-specific of Bmp15 was detected on CHO instead of other cell lines by transient transfection. We also detected the expression of Bmp15 in oocyte at different development stages by immunofluorescence of fixed paraffin-embedded ovary sections. Furthermore, microinjection results show that bmp15 expressed in oocytes at 18 h of maturation in vitro, and continued up to 4-cell stage embryos. Most importantly, we found that the expression of Bmp15 started at day 12 after inducing pAFSC into oocyte-like cells by transfection; green fluorescent was visible in round cell masses. It indicated that bmp15 has the expression specificity and the pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector can be used to trace Bmp15 action in the differentiation of stem cells into germ cells.

  2. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (isolate ATCC VR-2385) infection on bactericidal activity of porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs): in vitro comparisons with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1997-11-01

    Porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) were recovered by in situ pulmonary vascular perfusion with 0.025% collagenase in saline from six 8-week old, crossbred pigs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the same pigs for comparisons in each assay. The macrophages were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) in vitro for 24 h and infection was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence test or transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles tended to accumulate in the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. Bactericidal function assays were performed on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the virus on macrophage functions. In vitro PRRSV infection reduced the bactericidal ability of PIMs from 68.3% to 56.4% (P < 0.09), and PAMs from 69.3% to 61.0% (P > 0.1) at 24 h post-infection. The mean percentage of bacteria killed by macrophages after PRRSV infection was not significantly different among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups and non-infected controls based on colorimetric MTT bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) assay. PRRSV did not affect the ability of PIMs or PAMs to internalize opsonized 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled S. aureus (P > 0.05). PRRSV infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (P < 0.01) by 67.0% in PIMs and by 69.4% in PAMs. PRRSV reduced the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide product (P < 0.01) by 36.5% for PIMs and by 48.1% for PAMs. The results suggest: (1) PIMs should be considered as an important replication site of PRRSV; (2) PRRSV may have a detrimental effect on both PIMs and PAMs; (3) loss of bactericidal function in PIMs may facilitate hematogenous bacterial infections.

  3. Expression of bioactive porcine interferon-alpha in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-jie; Li, Kun; Li, Xin-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Peng-Fei; Yang, Ming-Fan; Chen, Hong-Ying

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we constructed an expression cassette containing the inducible lac promoter and the secretion signal from an S-layer protein of Lactobacillus brevis for the expression of porcine interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in Lactobacillus casei (Lb. casei). Reverse-transcriptase PCR verified the presence of porcine IFN-α mRNA in the recombinant Lb. casei. The porcine IFN-α protein expressed in the recombinant Lb. casei was identified by both Western blot analysis and ELISA. We used various pH values and induction times to optimize the yield of IFN-α, and found that induction with 0.8% lactose for 16 h under anaerobic conditions produced the highest concentrations of IFN-α. Furthermore, the activity of porcine IFN-α in the cultural supernatant was evaluated on ST cells infected with pseudorabies virus. The results revealed that porcine IFN-α inhibited virus replication in vitro. The findings of our study indicate that recombinant Lb. casei producing porcine IFN-α has great potential for use as a novel oral antiviral agent in animal healthcare.

  4. Effect of alpha-tomatine and tomatidine on membrane potential of frog embryos and active transport of ions in frog skin.

    PubMed

    Blankemeyer, J T; White, J B; Stringer, B K; Friedman, M

    1997-07-01

    alpha-Tomatine, a glycoside in which four carbohydrate residues are attached to the 3-OH group of the aglycone tomatidine, occurs naturally in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The glycoalkaloid is reported to be involved in host-plant resistance against phytopathogens and to have a variety of pharmacological and toxicological properties in animals and humans. As part of an effort designed to establish the mechanism of action of glycoalkaloids in cells, frog embryos and frog skin were exposed to varying concentrations of alpha-tomatine and tomatidine. alpha-Tomatine increased the fluorescence-measured membrane permeability of frog embryos by about 600% compared with control values; the corresponding value for tomatidine was about 150%. alpha-Tomatine also diminished sodium-active transport in frog skin by about 16% compared with control values, as estimated from the change in the interstitial short-circuit current. Tomatidine had no effect on frog skin. As these findings complement similar results with glycoalkaloids from potatoes and eggplants, the fundamental mechanism governing their action both against fungi, insects and other phytopathogens and in animal and human cells may be disruption of cell membranes and changes in ion fluxes and interstitial currents of the membranes. The described methodologies should make it possible to define the relative potencies of both adverse and beneficial effects of glycoalkaloids and metabolites in cell membranes without the use of animals.

  5. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  6. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  7. Isolation and assessment of signaling proteins from synchronized cultures during egg activation and through the egg-to-embryo transition in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Roux-Osovitz, Michelle M; Foltz, Kathy R

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins are an excellent model system for investigating fertilization mechanisms and fundamental cell biological phenomenon such as release from quiescence, cell division, secretion, and basic signal transduction. The ease of gamete collection, fertilization, and culture is complemented by exquisite developmental synchronicity and the ability to carry out both large-scale biochemical studies and single-cell experiments. In particular, fertilization in echinoderms serves as a paradigm for a digital signaling event-a one-time only switch that launches the egg into the developmental pathway. Sperm-induced egg activation is dependent on the release of calcium from internal stores and subsequent effects on a myriad of cellular events such as exocytosis, cytoskeletal remodeling, and cell cycle reentry. Here we describe methods to investigate individual signaling proteins as well as global proteomic and phosphoproteomic changes involved in the initial steps of egg activation through the egg-to-embryo transition.

  8. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G.; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment. PMID:27378857

  9. Evaluation of a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for tissue repair in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jill N.; Hodges, Diane E.; March, Keith L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.

    2001-05-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for incision repair in a wide range of tissue types. Biodegradable polymer membranes of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate- leaching technique. The porous membranes were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG) dye mixed in deionized water. Tissue incisions were repaired using the surgical adhesive in conjunction with an 805-nm diode laser. Nine organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenetic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student's T-test. Repairs formed on the small intestine were most successful followed by spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle and skin. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. The new surgical adhesive could possibly be used as a simple and effective method to stop bleeding and repair tissue quickly in an emergency situation, or as a substitute to mechanical staples or sutures in many clinical applications.

  10. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin‑10 (rIL‑10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid‑expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL‑transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen.

  11. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  12. Physiological and molecular determinants of embryo implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lin, Haiyan; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Haibin; Armant, D. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation involves the intimate interaction between an implantation-competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus, which occurs in a limited time period known as the window of implantation. Emerging evidence shows that defects originating during embryo implantation induce ripple effects with adverse consequences on later gestation events, highlighting the significance of this event for pregnancy success. Although a multitude of cellular events and molecular pathways involved in embryo-uterine crosstalk during implantation have been identified through gene expression studies and genetically engineered mouse models, a comprehensive understanding of the nature of embryo implantation is still missing. This review focuses on recent progress with particular attention to physiological and molecular determinants of blastocyst activation, uterine receptivity, blastocyst attachment and uterine decidualization. A better understanding of underlying mechanisms governing embryo implantation should generate new strategies to rectify implantation failure and improve pregnancy rates in women. PMID:23290997

  13. Porcine circovirus diseases.

    PubMed

    Segalés, Joaquim; Allan, Gordon M; Domingo, Mariano

    2005-12-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a member of the family Circoviridae, a recently established virus family composed of small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. PCV2, which is found all over the world in the domestic pig and probably the wild boar, has been recently associated with a number of disease syndromes, which have been collectively named porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS) and reproductive disorders are the most relevant ones. Among them, only PMWS is considered to have a severe impact on domestic swine production. PMWS mainly affects nursery and/or fattening pigs; wasting is considered the most representative clinical sign in this disease. Diagnosis of this disease is confirmed by histopathological examination of lymphoid tissues and detection of a moderate to high amount of PCV2 in damaged tissues. Since PMWS is considered a multifactorial disease in which other factors in addition to PCV2 are needed in most cases to trigger the clinical disease, effective control measures have focused on the understanding of the co-factors involved in individual farms and the control or elimination of these triggers. PDNS, an immuno-complex disease characterized by fibrino-necrotizing glomerulonephritis and systemic necrotizing vasculitis, has been linked to PCV2, but a definitive proof of this association is still lacking. PCV2-associated reproductive disease seems to occur very sporadically under field conditions, but it has been characterized by late-term abortions and stillbirths, extensive fibrosing and/or necrotizing myocarditis in fetuses and the presence of moderate to high amounts of PCV2 in these lesions. Taking into account that scientific information on PCV2 and its associated diseases has been markedly expanded in the last 8 years, the objective of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of the most

  14. Turtle embryos move to optimal thermal environments within the egg.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Teng; Shine, Richard; Du, Wei-Guo

    2013-08-23

    A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from dangerously high temperatures as well as towards warm temperatures? and (ii) is such embryonic movement due to active thermoregulation, or (more simply) to passive embryonic repositioning caused by local heat-induced changes in viscosity of fluids within the egg? Our experiments with an emydid turtle (Chinemys reevesii) show that embryos avoid dangerously high temperatures by moving to cooler regions of the egg. The repositioning of embryos is an active rather than passive process: live embryos move towards a heat source, whereas dead ones do not. Overall, our results suggest that behavioural thermoregulation by turtle embryos is genuinely analogous to the thermoregulatory behaviour exhibited by post-hatching ectotherms.

  15. Control of glycolysis in cultured chick embryo hepatocytes. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate content and phosphofructokinase-1 activity are stimulated by insulin and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, M J; Dickson, A J

    1990-01-01

    Chick embryo hepatocytes were maintained in monolayer culture in a serum-free chemically defined medium for periods of up to 2 days. Over this time period, insulin provoked selective increases (up to 5-fold) in factors relevant to the control of glycolysis: the activities of phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) and hexokinase isoenzymes and the content of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP). Half-maximal effects of insulin on pFK-1 activity were in the physiological range (0.1 nM). Changes in enzyme activities and F26BP content in response to insulin were correlated with stimulation of glycolytic flux as estimated by radioisotopic flux. These data are discussed in relation to known changes which occur in hepatic glycolytic activity and PFK-1 activity in the intact chick around hatching. The effects of insulin on F26BP content, PFK-1 activity and glycolytic flux were mimicked by epidermal growth factor (EGF). In contrast, phorbol esters produced minimal actions on any of the above parameters. Our data indicate that protein kinase C is not involved in the actions of insulin or EGF in control of F26BP content or PFK-1 activity. This work indicates that the related tyrosyl kinase receptors of insulin and EGF may provoke identical responses within hepatocytes, but through the utilization of different transduction systems which merge to common control points. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2143894

  16. In vivo and in vitro assessment of porcine neutrophil activation responses to chemoattractants: flow cytometric evidence for the selective absence of formyl peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M P; Stahl, G L; Longhurst, J C

    1990-04-01

    Interest in the role that activated granulocytes play in C5a-induced myocardial ischemia prompted us to investigate and compare activation responses of pig and human neutrophils. The responses of Hypaque-Ficoll purified porcine (P-PMN) and human neutrophils (H-PMN) to stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), C5a, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) were compared by flow cytometrically measured changes in the cells' forward (FWD-SC) (a measure of shape/volume change) and right angle (90 degrees-SC) light scatter (a measure of secretion), and in the distribution of the membrane potential sensitive fluorescent probe di-O-C (3). FMLP, C5a, and Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS stimulated chemotaxis and FMLP vs. PMA-stimulated adherence to plastic were also compared. Unstimulated P-PMN had lower FWD-SC and 90 degrees-SC than H-PMN (39.4 +/- 1.4 vs. 48.4 +/- 2.0 P less than 0.05, and 32.7 +/- 2.7 vs. 52.4 +/- 1.5 units, P less than 0.005, for FWD-SC and 90 degrees-SC of P-PMN vs. H-PMN, respectively). P-PMN selectively failed to increase their FWD-SC upon stimulation with FMLP (0.0 +/- 0.5% vs. 26.1 +/- 6.8%, P-PMN vs. H-PMN), or decrease their 90 degrees-SC when treated with cytochalasin B + FMLP (secretion) (2.4 +/- 0.1% vs. -35.8 +/- 4.6% change in 90 degrees-SC, P-PMN vs. H-PMN), while responding comparably to C5a, PMA, and A23187. P-PMN failed to depolarize in response to FMLP but responded similarly to H-PMN when activated by C5a, A23187, and PMA. P-PMN's chemotactic response to FMLP was selectively absent since the cells responded well to purified pig C5a. FMLP stimulated significant increases in H-PMN adherence to bovine serum albumin-coated plastic (44.1 +/- 6.7% vs. 12.6 +/- 3.7%, FMLP vs. buffer, P less than 0.025), but failed to increase adherence of P-PMN above baseline 0.68 +/- 0.20% vs. 2.12 +/- 1.90%, FMLP vs. buffer, P greater than 0.05. PMA (100 ng/ml) stimulated comparable increases in adherence in

  17. 170 SUPPLEMENT OF GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 8 ON PORCINE OOCYTE DURING IN VITRO MATURATION ACTIVATES SMAD2 AND cAMP RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN SIGNALING.

    PubMed

    Yoon, J D; Lee, E; Hyun, S-H

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family that has been identified as a strong physiological regulator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of GDF8 on porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). We investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, specific gene transcription levels in oocytes and cumulus cells (CC) after IVM, and specific protein expression and activation levels in matured CC by Western blotting. Each concentration (0, 1, 10, and 100ngmL(-1)) of GDF8 was added in maturation medium (TCM199) during process of IVM. Data were analysed by ANOVA followed by Duncan using SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Data are presented as the mean (replicate numbers) and differences were considered significant at P<0.05. After 44h of IVM, oocytes are mechanically denuded from CC with 0.1% hyaluronidase and only metaphase II stage oocytes are counted as nuclear matured oocytes. Each group of matured oocytes are stained by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and the fluorescence was captured as graphic files under an epifluorescence microscope. The fluorescence intensities of oocytes were measured using Image J software (National Institutes for Health, Bethesda, MD). The groups treated with 10 and 100ngmL(-1) of GDF8 showed significantly more than 10% decrease in intracellular ROS levels compared with other groups (5 times). To assess the effect of GDF8 on specific gene transcription level changes as a dose response during IVM, real-time PCR was performed. In matured oocytes, the developmental competence marker POU5F1, antioxidant enzymes regulator NRF2, and antiapoptosis gene BCL-2 mRNA transcription levels were significantly increased in the 10ngmL(-1) treatment group compared with control (4 times). In CC, the 10ngmL(-1) treatment groups showed significantly higher PCNA and NRF2 mRNA levels, and the 1 and 10ngmL(-1) treatment groups observed significantly increased cumulus expansion

  18. Induction of autophagy improves embryo viability in cloned mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shen, XingHui; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhenDong; Bai, GuangYu; Zheng, Zhong; Gu, YanLi; Wu, YanShuang; Liu, Hui; Zhou, DongJie; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes, autophagy is not triggered in SCNT embryos during 6 hours of activation. Mechanistically, the inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation is due to the cytochalasin B (CB) caused depolymerization of actin filaments. In this study, we induced autophagy during SCNT activation by rapamycin and pp242, which could restore the expected level of autophagy and significantly enhance the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when compared with the control (68.5% and 68.7% vs. 41.5%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment of rapamycin and pp242 accelerates active DNA demethylation indicated by the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC, and treatment of rapamycin improves degradation of maternal mRNA as well. Thus, our findings reveal that autophagy is important for development of SCNT embryos and inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation might be one of the serious causes of low efficiency of SCNT. PMID:26643778

  19. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan . E-mail: sunqy1@yahoo.com

    2005-05-15

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, {gamma}-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. {gamma}-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated {gamma}-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, {gamma}-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of {gamma}-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. {gamma}-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the

  20. Potentiality and human embryos.

    PubMed

    Lizza, John P

    2007-09-01

    Consideration of the potentiality of human embryos to develop characteristics of personhood, such as intellect and will, has figured prominently in arguments against abortion and the use of human embryos for research. In particular, such consideration was the basis for the call of the US President's Council on Bioethics for a moratorium on stem cell research on human embryos. In this paper, I critique the concept of potentiality invoked by the Council and offer an alternative account. In contrast to the Council's view that an embryo's potentiality is determined by definition and is not affected by external conditions that may prevent certain possibilities from ever being realized, I propose an empirically grounded account of potentiality that involves an assessment of the physical and decisional conditions that may restrict an embryo's possibilities. In my view, some human embryos lack the potentiality to become a person that other human embryos have. Assuming for the sake of argument that the potential to become a person gives a being special moral status, it follows that some human embryos lack this status. This argument is then used to support Gene Outka's suggestion that it is morally permissible to experiment on 'spare' frozen embryos that are destined to be destroyed.

  1. Depleting gene activities in early Drosophila embryos with the "maternal-Gal4-shRNA" system.

    PubMed

    Staller, Max V; Yan, Dong; Randklev, Sakara; Bragdon, Meghan D; Wunderlich, Zeba B; Tao, Rong; Perkins, Lizabeth A; Depace, Angela H; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    In a developing Drosophila melanogaster embryo, mRNAs have a maternal origin, a zygotic origin, or both. During the maternal-zygotic transition, maternal products are degraded and gene expression comes under the control of the zygotic genome. To interrogate the function of mRNAs that are both maternally and zygotically expressed, it is common to examine the embryonic phenotypes derived from female germline mosaics. Recently, the development of RNAi vectors based on short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) effective during oogenesis has provided an alternative to producing germline clones. Here, we evaluate the efficacies of: (1) maternally loaded shRNAs to knockdown zygotic transcripts and (2) maternally loaded Gal4 protein to drive zygotic shRNA expression. We show that, while Gal4-driven shRNAs in the female germline very effectively generate phenotypes for genes expressed maternally, maternally loaded shRNAs are not very effective at generating phenotypes for early zygotic genes. However, maternally loaded Gal4 protein is very efficient at generating phenotypes for zygotic genes expressed during mid-embryogenesis. We apply this powerful and simple method to unravel the embryonic functions of a number of pleiotropic genes.

  2. Depleting Gene Activities in Early Drosophila Embryos with the “Maternal-Gal4–shRNA” System

    PubMed Central

    Staller, Max V.; Yan, Dong; Randklev, Sakara; Bragdon, Meghan D.; Wunderlich, Zeba B.; Tao, Rong; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; DePace, Angela H.; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    In a developing Drosophila melanogaster embryo, mRNAs have a maternal origin, a zygotic origin, or both. During the maternal–zygotic transition, maternal products are degraded and gene expression comes under the control of the zygotic genome. To interrogate the function of mRNAs that are both maternally and zygotically expressed, it is common to examine the embryonic phenotypes derived from female germline mosaics. Recently, the development of RNAi vectors based on short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) effective during oogenesis has provided an alternative to producing germline clones. Here, we evaluate the efficacies of: (1) maternally loaded shRNAs to knockdown zygotic transcripts and (2) maternally loaded Gal4 protein to drive zygotic shRNA expression. We show that, while Gal4-driven shRNAs in the female germline very effectively generate phenotypes for genes expressed maternally, maternally loaded shRNAs are not very effective at generating phenotypes for early zygotic genes. However, maternally loaded Gal4 protein is very efficient at generating phenotypes for zygotic genes expressed during mid-embryogenesis. We apply this powerful and simple method to unravel the embryonic functions of a number of pleiotropic genes. PMID:23105012

  3. Screening Estrogenic Activities of Chemicals or Mixtures In Vivo Using Transgenic (cyp19a1b-GFP) Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Brion, François; Le Page, Yann; Piccini, Benjamin; Cardoso, Olivier; Tong, Sok-Keng; Chung, Bon-chu; Kah, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) transgenic zebrafish expresses GFP (green fluorescent protein) under the control of the cyp19a1b gene, encoding brain aromatase. This gene has two major characteristics: (i) it is only expressed in radial glial progenitors in the brain of fish and (ii) it is exquisitely sensitive to estrogens. Based on these properties, we demonstrate that natural or synthetic hormones (alone or in binary mixture), including androgens or progestagens, and industrial chemicals induce a concentration-dependent GFP expression in radial glial progenitors. As GFP expression can be quantified by in vivo imaging, this model presents a very powerful tool to screen and characterize compounds potentially acting as estrogen mimics either directly or after metabolization by the zebrafish embryo. This study also shows that radial glial cells that act as stem cells are direct targets for a large panel of endocrine disruptors, calling for more attention regarding the impact of environmental estrogens and/or certain pharmaceuticals on brain development. Altogether these data identify this in vivo bioassay as an interesting alternative to detect estrogen mimics in hazard and risk assessment perspective. PMID:22586461

  4. Screening estrogenic activities of chemicals or mixtures in vivo using transgenic (cyp19a1b-GFP) zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Brion, François; Le Page, Yann; Piccini, Benjamin; Cardoso, Olivier; Tong, Sok-Keng; Chung, Bon-chu; Kah, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) transgenic zebrafish expresses GFP (green fluorescent protein) under the control of the cyp19a1b gene, encoding brain aromatase. This gene has two major characteristics: (i) it is only expressed in radial glial progenitors in the brain of fish and (ii) it is exquisitely sensitive to estrogens. Based on these properties, we demonstrate that natural or synthetic hormones (alone or in binary mixture), including androgens or progestagens, and industrial chemicals induce a concentration-dependent GFP expression in radial glial progenitors. As GFP expression can be quantified by in vivo imaging, this model presents a very powerful tool to screen and characterize compounds potentially acting as estrogen mimics either directly or after metabolization by the zebrafish embryo. This study also shows that radial glial cells that act as stem cells are direct targets for a large panel of endocrine disruptors, calling for more attention regarding the impact of environmental estrogens and/or certain pharmaceuticals on brain development. Altogether these data identify this in vivo bioassay as an interesting alternative to detect estrogen mimics in hazard and risk assessment perspective.

  5. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  6. Loss of DDB1 Leads to Transcriptional p53 Pathway Activation in Proliferating Cells, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhilian; Holzschuh, Jochen; Driever, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a large subunit of the heterodimeric DDB complex that recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also a component of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes by targeted ubiquitination of key regulators. Functions of DDB1 in development have been addressed in several model organisms, however, are not fully understood so far. Here we report an ENU induced mutant ddb1 allele (ddb1m863) identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and analyze its effects on development. Zebrafish ddb1 is expressed broadly, both maternally and zygotically, with enhanced expression in proliferation zones. The (ddb1m863 mutant allele affects the splice acceptor site of exon 20, causing a splicing defect that results in truncation of the 1140 amino acid protein after residue 800, lacking part of the β-propeller domain BPC and the C-terminal helical domain CTD. ddb1m863 zygotic mutant embryos have a pleiotropic phenotype, including smaller and abnormally shaped brain, head skeleton, eyes, jaw, and branchial arches, as well as reduced dopaminergic neuron groups. However, early forming tissues develop normally in zygotic ddb1m863 mutant embryos, which may be due to maternal rescue. In ddb1m863 mutant embryos, pcna-expressing proliferating cell populations were reduced, concurrent with increased apoptosis. We also observed a concomitant strong up-regulation of transcripts of the tumor suppressor p53 (tp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor cdkn1a (p21a/bCIP1/WAF1) in proliferating tissues. In addition, transcription of cyclin genes ccna2 and ccnd1 was deregulated in ddb1m863 mutants. Reduction of p53 activity by anti-sense morpholinos alleviated the apoptotic phenotype in ddb1m863 mutants. These results imply that Ddb1 may be involved in maintaining proper cell cycle progression and viability of dividing cells during development through transcriptional mechanisms regulating genes

  7. Nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos changes in relation to the initiation of S phase

    SciTech Connect

    Morioka, M.; Shimada, H.

    1986-01-01

    The AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos was studied using radioactively labelled diadenosine 5', 5'''-P/sup 1/,P/sup 4/-tetraphosphate (Ap/sub 4/A). Among various subcellular components that can bind (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A, nuclei alone showed the highly specific Ap/sub 4/A-binding activity which was not influenced by the presence of AP/sub 4/A, AP/sub 5/A and GP/sub 4/G. The addition of an excess amount of ATP only slightly reduced the binding of (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A to the nuclei. It was found that AP/sub 4/A binds to the residual proteinaceous structure of nuclei which was resistant to the extraction with 2 M NaCl. The nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity fluctuated cyclically during each cell cycle, with at transient increase at the beginning of S phase followed by an abrupt-decrease within 10 min. When the initiation of S phase was blocked, the increase in the AP/sub 4/A-binding activity was also prevented. It seems that the binding of AP/sub 4/A to the nuclear structural protein is involved in the initiation of S phase.

  8. Putrescine stimulates the mTOR signaling pathway and protein synthesis in porcine trophectoderm cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Yin, Yulong; Li, Xilong; Gao, Haijun; Bazer, Fuller W; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-11-01

    Insufficient placental growth is a major factor contributing to intrauterine growth retardation in mammals. There is growing evidence that putrescine produced from arginine (Arg) and proline via ornithine decarboxylase is a key regulator of angiogenesis, embryogenesis, as well as placental and fetal growth. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that putrescine stimulates protein synthesis by activating the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in porcine trophectoderm cell line 2 cells. The cells were cultured for 2 to 4 days in customized Arg-free Dulbecco modified Eagle Ham medium containing 0, 10, 25, or 50 μM putrescine or 100 μM Arg. Cell proliferation, protein synthesis, and degradation, as well as the abundance of total and phosphorylated mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4EBP1), were determined. Our results indicate that putrescine promotes cell proliferation and protein synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was inhibited by difluoro-methylornithine (an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase). Moreover, supplementation of culture medium with putrescine increased the abundance of phosphorylated mTOR and its downstream targets, 4EBP1 and p70 S6K1 proteins. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel and important role for putrescine in regulating the mTOR signaling pathway in porcine placental cells. We suggest that dietary supplementation with or intravenous administration of putrescine may provide a new and effective strategy to improve survival and growth of embryos/fetuses in mammals.

  9. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    PubMed Central

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  10. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion.

    PubMed

    Delia, Jesse R J; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-06-22

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations.

  11. In vivo studies on angiogenic activity of two designer self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiumei; Horii, Akihiro; Wang, Xiujuan; Qiao, Lin; Zhang, Shuguang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    The rapid promotion of angiogenesis is critical for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The angiogenic activity of tissue-engineered scaffolds has already been the major criterion for choosing and designing ideal biological materials. We here report systematic in vivo studies on the angiogenic activity of two functionalized self-assembling peptides PRG (Ac-(RADA)4GPRGDSGYRGDS-CONH2) and KLT (Ac-(RADA)4G4KLTWQELYQLKYKGI-CONH2) using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. 3D migration/sprouting bead assays showed that the two functional motifs PRGDSGYRGDS and KLTWQELYQLKYKGI improved the bioactivities of the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2) dramatically and provided ideal synthetic microenvironments for endothelial cell migration and cordlike structure sprout formation. A CAM assay was carried out to assess the efficiency of various peptide scaffolds in inducing capillary invasion in vivo. Among these three peptide scaffolds, the functionalized peptide scaffold RAD/KLT presented a significantly better angiogenic activity inducing CAM tissue invasion and new capillary vessel formation within the scaffolds in the absence of VEGF. With the addition of VEGF, more newly formed vessel lumen could be observed in all peptide scaffolds. Our results suggested that the functionalized peptide scaffolds had satisfactory angiogenic properties, and may also have wide potential applications in tissue regeneration.

  12. Involvement of peroxidase activity in developing somatic embryos of Medicago arborea L. Identification of an isozyme peroxidase as biochemical marker of somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Piedad; Martin, Luisa; Blazquez, Antonio; Guerra, Hilario; Villalobos, Nieves

    2014-01-15

    The legume Medicago arborea L. is very interesting as regards the regeneration of marginal arid soils. The problem is that it does not have a good germinative yield. It was therefore decided to regenerate via somatic embryogenesis and find a marker of embryogenic potential. In this study, peroxidase activity was evaluated in non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli from M. arborea L. A decrease in soluble peroxidase activity is observed in its embryonic calli at the time at which the somatic embryos begin to appear. This activity is always lower in embryonic calli than in non-embryonic ones (unlike what happens in the case of wall-bound peroxidases). These results suggest that peroxidases can be considered to be enzymes involved in somatic embryogenesis in M. arborea. In addition, isozyme analyses were carried out on protein extracts using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The band called P5 was detected only in embryogenic cultures at very early stages of development. This band was digested with trypsin and analyzed using linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer. In P5 isoform a peroxidase-L-ascorbate peroxidase was identified. It can be used as a marker that allows the identification of embryological potential.

  13. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Wang, Yan-Kui; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO’s effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2) and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9), however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28) in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO’s effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO’s usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans. PMID:27348312

  14. Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-κB increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3β-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5.

  15. Meanings of the embryo in Japan: narratives of IVF experience and embryo ownership.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masae; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    This article explores the sociocultural meanings of the embryo implied in the narratives of 58 women who have undergone in vitro fertilisation in Japan over a period from 2006 to 2008. We argue that a lack of sufficient analysis of the sociocultural meanings of the embryo result in a situation where the use of reproductive technologies in Japan advances without reflecting upon the voices of women and couples that use them. Additionally, we argue that the often-heard view that pre-implantation genetic diagnosis causes less pain to women and couples than selective abortion in which foetuses are discarded, should be reviewed in the light of the new empirical evidence offered in this article. Furthermore, this article shows that the view often expounded by Japanese scientists that in Japan the cultural meanings attached to the embryo are insignificant, is incorrect. Consequently, the argument that Japan has no need for an active national debate on the status of embryos should be questioned. Though agreeing with some feminist views on the embryo debate, this article is also critical of feminist views that discuss embryo donation in terms of the loss of ownership of the embryo and the alienation of the embryo due to commodification.

  16. Primary structures of the precursor and mature forms of stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase from safflower embryos and requirement of ferredoxin for enzyme activity.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, G A; Scherer, D E; Foxall-Van Aken, S; Kenny, J W; Young, H L; Shintani, D K; Kridl, J C; Knauf, V C

    1991-01-01

    Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (EC 1.14.99.6) catalyzes the principal conversion of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of vegetable oils. Stearoyl-ACP desaturase was purified from developing embryos of safflower seed, and extensive amino acid sequence was determined. The amino acid sequence was used in conjunction with polymerase chain reactions to clone a full-length cDNA. The primary structure of the protein, as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA, includes a 33-amino-acid transit peptide not found in the purified enzyme. Expression in Escherichia coli of a gene encoding the mature form of stearoyl-ACP desaturase did not result in an altered fatty acid composition. However, active enzyme was detected when assayed in vitro with added spinach ferredoxin. The lack of significant activity in vitro without added ferredoxin and the lack of observed change in fatty acid composition indicate that ferredoxin is a required cofactor for the enzyme and that E. coli ferredoxin functions poorly, if at all, as an electron donor for the plant enzyme. Images PMID:2006194

  17. Chicken embryo fibroblasts exposed to weak, time-varying magnetic fields share cell proliferation, adenosine deaminase activity, and membrane characteristics of transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parola, A.H.; Porat, N.; Kiesow, L.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) exposed to a sinusoidally varying magnetic field (SVMF) (100 Hz, 700 microT, for 24 h) showed a remarkable rise of segmental rotational relaxation rate of adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4) as determined by multifrequency phase fluorometry. Pyrene-labeled, small subunit ADA was applied to cultured (normal) CEF, which have available and abundant ADA complexing protein (ADCP) on their plasma membranes. Sine-wave-modulated fluorometry of the pyrene yielded a profile of phase angle vs. modulation frequency. In SVMF-treated cells and in Rous-sarcoma-virus (RSV) transformed cells the differential phase values at low modulation frequencies of the excitation are remarkably reduced. This effect is magnetic rather than thermal, because the temperature was carefully controlled and monitored; nevertheless to further check this matter we studied CEF, infected by the RSV-Ts68 temperature-sensitive mutant (36 degrees C transformed, 41 degrees C revertant). When grown at 36 degrees C in the SVMF, cells did not show the slightest trend towards reversion, as would be expected had there been local heating. Concomitant with the increased segmental rotational relaxation rate of ADA, there was a decrease in fluorescence lifetime and a slight, yet significant, increase in membrane lipid microfluidity. These biophysical observations prompted us to examine the effect of SVMF on cell proliferation and ADA activity (a malignancy marker): higher rates of cell proliferation and reduced specific activity of ADA were observed.

  18. Tritiated porcine dynorphin (1-17): synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.

    1982-10-18

    Tritiated porcine dynorphin (1-17) has been prepared from its corresponding iodinated analog. The iodinated analog (diiodotyrosine at position 1) was synthesized, along with its non-iodinated counterpart, by the solid-phase method. Catalytic exchange of this iodinated analog in the presence of tritium yielded tritiated porcine dynorphin having a specific activity of 42 Ci/mmole. Both the native, iodinated and tritiated dynorphin analogs were shown to be homogenous by chromatography on carboxymethylcellulose, paper chromatography, amino acid analysis, electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography and isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide.

  19. Periodicity in the levels of serum plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a robust prognostic factor for embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy in ongoing IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Bindu N.; Nath, Nirmalendu; Chimote, Natachandra

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been inversely correlated to proteolytic extracellular-matrix degradation exerted by urokinase-type (u-PA) and tissue-type plasminogen activators (t-PA). Any pathological disturbance in PAI-1 levels may lead to several pregnancy complications. AIMS: To assess the influence of periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels on embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study of 120 IVF cycles at private infertility centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Endometrial response (ER) assessment by measuring Endometrial thickness (cm) and echopattern (grade). Serum PAI-1(ng/ml) measurement by ELISA method on day of hCG, day of ET and days 7 and 14 of ET. Main outcome measure was clinical pregnancy. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student “t” test, ANOVA, Post-test for linear trend, Pearson Correlation. RESULTS: PAI-1 levels declined from dhCG to dET (318.8 ± 36.1 to 176.1 ± 28.4) whereas they increased steadily from dET to d7 to d14ET (176.1 ± 28.4 to 285.2 ± 30.4 to 353.5 ± 150.4; P = 0.0004) in pregnant group (n = 31). Conversely, dhCG to dET levels increased in both nonpregnant (n = 75; 173.8 ± 18.3 to 280.8 ± 26.1) and biochemical pregnancy BCP (n = 14; 172.7 ± 31.1 to 216 ± 30.1) groups. The rising pattern from dET to d7 to d14ET was not observed in non-pregnant and BCP groups. ER thickness and grade shared significant correlation with serum PAI-1 on dET (Pearson r: ER = 0.28, Grade = 0.29) and d7ET (Pearson r: ER = 0.40, Grade = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Periodicity in serum PAI-1 levels offers a robust prognostic factor for predicting clinical pregnancy outcome. The dhCG to dET PAI-1 transition is a decisive factor for either transferring embryos in same/ongoing cycle or cryopreserving them and postponing ET to subsequent natural cycle. PMID:25395746

  20. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  1. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  6. Bovine and porcine heparins: different drugs with similar effects on human haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heparins from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa differ in their structure and also in their effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. However, they are used as undistinguishable drugs. Methods We compared bovine and porcine intestinal heparin administered to patients undergoing a particular protocol of haemodialysis. We compared plasma concentrations of these two drugs and also evaluated how they affect patients and the dialyzer used. Results Compared with porcine heparin, bovine heparin achieved only 76% of the maximum plasma concentration as IU mL-1. This observation is consistent with the activities observed in the respective pharmaceutical preparations. When the plasma concentrations were expressed on weight basis, bovine heparin achieved a maximum concentration 1.5 fold higher than porcine heparin. The reduced anticoagulant activity and higher concentration, on weight basis, achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer used. The heparin dose is still in a range, which confers security and safety to the patients. Discussion Despite no apparent difference between bovine and porcine intestinal heparins in the haemodialysis practice, these two types of heparins should be used as distinct drugs due to their differences in structure and biological effects. Conclusions The reduced anticoagulant activity achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer. PMID:23763719

  7. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  8. Heterologous expression of newly identified galectin-8 from sea urchin embryos produces recombinant protein with lactose binding specificity and anti-adhesive activity

    PubMed Central

    Karakostis, Kostantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Galectin family members specifically bind beta-galactoside derivatives and are involved in different cellular events, including cell communication, signalling, apoptosis, and immune responses. Here, we report a tandem-repeat type galectin from the Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryo, referred to as Pl-GAL-8. The 933nt sequence encodes a protein of 34.73 kDa, containing the conserved HFNPRF and WGxExR motifs in the two highly similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). The three-dimensional protein structure model of the N-CRD confirms the high evolutionary conservation of carbohydrate binding sites. The temporal gene expression is regulated during development and transcripts localize at the tip of the archenteron at gastrula stage, in a subset of the secondary mesenchyme cells that differentiate into blastocoelar (immune) cells. Functional studies using a recombinant Pl-GAL-8 expressed in bacteria demonstrate its hemo-agglutinating activity on human red blood cells through the binding to lactose, as well as its ability in inhibiting the adhesion of human Hep-G2 cells to the substrate. The recent implications in autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders make Gal-8 an attractive candidate for therapeutic purposes. Our results offer a solid basis for addressing the use of the new Pl-GAL-8 in functional and applicative studies, respectively in the developmental and biomedical fields. PMID:26640155

  9. Notch activity induces Nodal expression and mediates the establishment of left–right asymmetry in vertebrate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Raya, Ángel; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Rodríguez-Esteban, Concepción; Büscher, Dirk; Koth, Christopher M.; Itoh, Tohru; Morita, Masanobu; Raya, R. Marina; Dubova, Ilir; Bessa, Joaquín Grego; de la Pompa, José Luis; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisúa

    2003-01-01

    Left-sided expression of Nodal in the lateral plate mesoderm is a conserved feature necessary for the establishment of normal left–right asymmetry during vertebrate embryogenesis. By using gain- and loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish and mouse, we show that the activity of the Notch pathway is necessary and sufficient for Nodal expression around the node, and for proper left–right determination. We identify Notch-responsive elements in the Nodal promoter, and unveil a direct relationship between Notch activity and Nodal expression around the node. Our findings provide evidence for a mechanism involving Notch activity that translates an initial symmetry-breaking event into asymmetric gene expression. PMID:12730123

  10. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures.

  11. The Emergence of Embryos from Hard Seeds is Related to the Structure of the Cell Walls of the Micropylar Endosperm, and not to Endo-β-mannanase Activity

    PubMed Central

    GONG, XUEMEI; BASSEL, GEORGE W.; WANG, AOXUE; GREENWOOD, JOHN S.; BEWLEY, J. DEREK

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Seeds of carob, Chinese senna, date and fenugreek are hard due to thickened endosperm cell walls containing mannan polymers. How the radicle is able penetrate these thickened walls to complete seed germination is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine if radicle emergence is related to the production of endo-β-mannanase to weaken the mannan-rich cell walls of the surrounding endosperm region, and/or if the endosperm structure itself is such that it is weaker in the region through which the radicle must penetrate. • Methods Activity of endo-β-mannanase in the endosperm and embryo was measured using a gel assay during and following germination, and the structure of the endosperm in juxtaposition to the radicle, and surrounding the cotyledons was determined using fixation, sectioning and light microscopy. • Key Results The activity of endo-β-mannanase, the major enzyme responsible for galactomannan cell wall weakening increased in activity only after emergence of the radicle from the seed. Thickened cell walls were present in the lateral endosperm in the hard-seeded species studied, but there was little to no thickening in the micropylar endosperm except in date seeds. In this species, a ring of thin cells was visible in the micropylar endosperm and surrounding an operculum which was pushed open by the expanding radicle to complete germination. • Conclusions The micropylar endosperm presents a lower physical constraint to the completion of germination than the lateral endosperm, and hence its structure is predisposed to permit radicle protrusion. PMID:16176942

  12. Media composition: macromolecules and embryo growth.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Most embryo culture media are still supplemented with proteins rather than with nonprotein macromolecules or recombinant protein products. HSA is probably the most common supplement followed by globulin-enriched preparations. Serum supplementation and Co-Culture of embryos belong to the past. Defined nonprotein or recombinant protein supplements are becoming a viable alternative during gamete and embryo manipulation procedures. Biological protein supplements are still preferred for any extended period of embryo culture. Understanding the goals and purpose of supplemented macromolecules in embryo culture media during each step of the laboratory IVF process should assist us in choosing the safest and most consistent macromolecule for each step, but also selecting a product that has the capability of delivering the best clinical outcome. Each batch of biological protein supplement is unique, even if supplied by the same manufacturer. Each lot of protein supplement typically contains many lot-specific, potentially harmful, and unintended hormone and protein contaminants. Macromolecular embryo culture medium supplements should be identified as one of the highest risk factors in an IVF laboratory that may contribute towards clinical compromise. All efforts should be made to use a proven batch of supplement for as long as the expiration date will allow. The beneficial effect of more complex protein supplements is evident after the activation of the embryonic genome and probably due to the presence of growth factors. Lower live-birth rates due to suboptimum protein supplementation may be a direct result of the preferential loss of female embryos. When deciding on a culture system, thought should be given specifically to the interaction between the culture medium and the macromolecular supplement. Ready-to-use pre-supplemented culture media may be advisable over a more complex product if a comprehensive macromolecular quality management program is not feasible. However, the

  13. Blockade and recovery of spontaneous rhythmic activity after application of neurotransmitter antagonists to spinal networks of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Chub, N; O'Donovan, M J

    1998-01-01

    We studied the regulation of spontaneous activity in the embryonic (day 10-11) chick spinal cord. After bath application of either an excitatory amino acid (AP-5 or CNQX) and a nicotinic cholinergic (DHbetaE or mecamylamine) antagonist, or glycine and GABA receptor (bicuculline, 2-hydroxysaclofen, and strychnine) antagonists, spontaneous activity was blocked for a period (30-90 min) but then reappeared in the presence of the drugs. The efficacy of the antagonists was assessed by their continued ability to block spinal reflex pathways during the reappearance of spontaneous activity. Spontaneous activity ceased over the 4-5 hour monitoring period when both sets of antagonists were applied together. After application of glycine and GABA receptor antagonists, the frequency of occurrence of spontaneous episodes slowed and became highly variable. By contrast, during glutamatergic and nicotinic cholinergic blockade, the frequency of occurrence of spontaneous episodes initially slowed and then recovered to stabilize near the predrug level of activity. Whole-cell recordings made from ventral spinal neurons revealed that this recovery was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of spontaneously occurring synaptic events. We also measured changes in the apparent equilibrium potential of the rhythmic, synaptic drive of ventral spinal neurons using voltage or discontinuous current clamp. After excitatory blockade, the apparent equilibrium potential of the rhythmic synaptic drive shifted approximately 10 mV more negative to approximately -30 mV. In the presence of bicuculline, the apparent equilibrium potential of the synaptic drive shifted toward the glutamate equilibrium potential. Considered with other evidence, these findings suggest that spontaneous rhythmic output is a general property of developing spinal networks, and that GABA and glycinergic networks alter their function to compensate for the blockade of excitatory transmission.

  14. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells Promotes Extracellular Matrix Remodelling and Limits Embryo Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Stuart P.; Quiñonero, Alicia; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of the trophoblast into the maternal decidua is regulated by both the trophoectoderm and the endometrial stroma, and entails the action of tissue remodeling enzymes. Trophoblast invasion requires the action of metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and in turn, decidual cells express tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). The balance between these promoting and restraining factors is a key event for the successful outcome of pregnancy. Gene expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that unpacks condensed chromatin activating gene expression. In this study we analyze the effect of histone acetylation on the expression of tissue remodeling enzymes and activity of human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) related to trophoblast invasion control. Treatment of hESCs with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 while decreased MMP-2, MMP-9 and uPA and have an inhibitory effect on trophoblast invasion. Moreover, histone acetylation is detected at the promoters of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 genes in TSA-treated. In addition, in an in vitro decidualized hESCs model, the increase of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 expression is associated with histone acetylation at the promoters of these genes. Our results demonstrate that histone acetylation disrupt the balance of ECM modulators provoking a restrain of trophoblast invasion. These findings are important as an epigenetic mechanism that can be used to control trophoblast invasion. PMID:22291969

  15. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development. PMID:25749301

  16. Production of an enzymatically active and immunogenic form of ectodomain of Porcine rubulavirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cerriteño-Sánchez, José Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Herrera-Camacho, Irma

    2016-04-10

    Blue-eye disease (BED) of swine is a viral disease endemic in Mexico. The etiological agent is a paramyxovirus classified as Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV), which exhibits in its envelope the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, the most immunogenic and a major target for vaccine development. We report in this study the obtaining of ectodomain of PoRV HN (eHN) through the Pichia pastoris expression system. The expression vector (pPICZαB-HN) was integrated by displacement into the yeast chromosome and resulted in a Mut(+) phenotype. Expressed eHN in the P. pastoris X33 strain was recovered from cell-free medium, featuring up to 67 nmol/min/mg after 6 days of expression. eHN was recognized by the serum of infected pigs with strains currently circulating in the Mexican Bajio region. eHN induces antibodies in mice after 28 days of immunization with specific recognition in ELISA test. These antibodies were able to inhibit >80% replication by viral neutralization assays in cell culture. These studies show the obtaining of a protein with similar characteristics to the native HN and which may be a candidate to propose a vaccine or to use the antigen in a serologic diagnostic test.

  17. Concerted transcriptional activation of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene by insulin and luteinizing hormone in cultured porcine granulosa-luteal cells: possible convergence of protein kinase a, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sekar, N; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-07-01

    Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can amplify gonadotropin-stimulated steroidogenesis by augmenting the expression of key sterol regulatory genes in ovarian cells, viz. low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A). The mechanisms underlying the foregoing bihormonal interactions are not known. Accordingly, in relation to the LDL receptor gene, the present study tests the hypothesis that insulin/IGF-I and LH can act via concerted transcriptional control of promoter expression. To this end, we transiently transfected primary monolayer cultures of porcine granulosa-luteal cells with a reporter vector containing the putative 5'-upstream full-length (pLDLR1076/luc) regulatory region (-1076 to +11 bp) of the homologous LDL receptor gene driving firefly luciferase in the presence or absence of insulin (or IGF-I) and/or LH (each 100 ng/ml). Combined exposure to LH and insulin (or IGF-I) stimulated LDL receptor transcriptional activity maximally at 4 h by 8- to 20-fold, as normalized by coexpression of Renilla luciferase. Further analysis of multiple 5'-nested deletional constructs of the LDL receptor gene promoter showed that deletion of -139 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site virtually abolished basal expression and promoter responsiveness to LH and insulin/IGF-I. In contrast, full basal activity and 60-80% of maximal monohormonal and bihormonal drive were retained by the -255 to +11 bp fragment. As LDL receptor gene expression in other tissues is negatively regulated by the abundance of intracellular free cholesterol, we assessed the impact of concomitant pretreatment of granulosa-luteal cells with an exogenous soluble sterol (25-hydroxycholesterol, 1 and 10 microM). Excess sterol markedly (50-70%) attenuated bihormonally and, in lesser measure, LH-stimulated and basal LDL receptor promoter expression, thus affirming a feedback-sensitive sterol

  18. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  19. How couples who have undergone in vitro fertilization decide what to do with surplus frozen embryos.

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Robert D; Mac Dougall, Kirstin; Harrington, Jennifer; Duff, Julia; Lee, Matthew; Becker, Gay

    2009-12-01

    In a qualitative interview study of 77 families with stored frozen embryos, we found that while embryo disposition decision making was influenced by individual life circumstances, embryo quantity/quality, personal values, embryo conceptualization, and clinic information, it was a stepwise process that could be represented as three sequential questions: (1) Will the embryos be used for additional attempts at conception? If not, (2) Will the embryos remain in storage? And if not, (3) Will the embryos be donated to other people or to science, or will they be destroyed? While almost two-thirds (63%) of participants kept their embryos in storage after 5 years, either passively through disagreement or indecision or actively to maintain embryo potential, avert feelings of loss, or as psychological or genetic "insurance," IVF clinic support and detailed information about options motivated families to make disposition decisions.

  20. Detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase in the developing spinal cord of the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Miura, Kenji

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in developing spinal cord. {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs by an improved method. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 were detected in the marginal layer and the dorsal horn. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 might play critical roles in the developing spinal cord. {yields} Constructing phosphoprotein atlases will be possible if expanding this work. -- Abstract: Global understanding of the proteome is a major research topic. The comprehensive visualization of the distribution of proteins in vivo or the construction of in situ protein atlases may be a valuable strategy for proteomic researchers. Information about the distribution of various proteins under physiological and pathological conditions should be extremely valuable for the basic and clinical sciences. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an essential role in intracellular signaling in organisms. This cascade also regulates biological processes involving development, differentiation, and proliferation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are integral reactions in regulating the activity of MAPKs. Changes in the phosphorylation state of MAPKs are rapid and reversible; therefore, the localizations of physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo are difficult to accurately detect. Furthermore, phosphorylated MAPKs are likely to change phosphorylated states through commonly used experimental manipulations. In the present study, as a step toward the construction of in situ phosphoprotein atlases, we attempted to detect physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo in developing spinal cords of mice. We previously reported an improved immunohistochemical method for detecting unstable phosphorylated MAPKs. The distribution patterns of phosphorylated MAPKs in the spinal cords of embryonic mice from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 were observed with an improved immunohistochemical method. Phosphorylated

  1. Reduced polyspermic fertilization of porcine oocytes utilizing elevated bicarbonate and reduced calcium concentrations in a single-medium system.

    PubMed

    Herrick, J R; Conover-Sparman, M L; Krisher, R L

    2003-01-01

    The development of efficient systems for in vitro production of porcine embryos has been hampered by a high incidence of polyspermic fertilization. A recently developed single-medium system for porcine in vitro maturation (IVM), IVF and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) (Purdue Porcine Medium; PPM) was modified with elevated bicarbonate (44 mM) and reduced calcium concentrations (1.7 mM) for IVF (PPMfert.2). Oocyte penetration was evaluated after maturation in PPMmat (0.5 mg mL(-1) hyaluronan, 0.6 mM cysteine, 10 ng mL(-1) epidermal growth factor (EGF), 0.1 U mL(-1) porcine LH and FSH, and 1 x Minimal Essential Medium (MEM) vitamins) and fertilization (5 h with 5 x 10(5) sperm mL(-1)) in either PPMfert.2 or mTBM (20 mM Tris, 0.0 mM bicarbonate, 7.5 mM calcium). Embryonic development (cleavage and blastocyst stages) was assessed after culture in PPM1 and PPM2. Although penetration was lower in PPMfert.2 (69.9%) compared with mTBM (83.9%), 48.8% of penetrated oocytes were fertilized normally in PPMfert.2 compared with only 27.8% normal fertilization in mTBM. More oocytes cleaved in PPMfert.2 (77.9% v. 53.7%), but development to the blastocyst stage was not different between treatments (14.1% v. 14.3%). Further work is needed to improve embryonic development, but reduced polyspermic penetration is an important step in the optimization of the PPM system for in vitro porcine embryo production.

  2. Efficient genome engineering by targeted homologous recombination in mouse embryos using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Daniel; Peters, Annika; Wirtz, Tristan; Mai, Maren; Ackermann, Justus; Thabet, Yasser; Schmidt, Jürgen; Weighardt, Heike; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Degen, Joachim; Schultze, Joachim L; Beyer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Generation of mouse models by introducing transgenes using homologous recombination is critical for understanding fundamental biology and pathology of human diseases. Here we investigate whether artificial transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)-powerful tools that induce DNA double-strand breaks at specific genomic locations-can be combined with a targeting vector to induce homologous recombination for the introduction of a transgene in embryonic stem cells and fertilized murine oocytes. We describe the generation of a conditional mouse model using TALENs, which introduce double-strand breaks at the genomic locus of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein-1 in combination with a large 14.4 kb targeting template vector. We report successful germline transmission of this allele and demonstrate its recombination in primary cells in the presence of Cre-recombinase. These results suggest that TALEN-assisted induction of DNA double-strand breaks can facilitate homologous recombination of complex targeting constructs directly in oocytes.

  3. Regulatory role of NADPH oxidase in glycated LDL-induced upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and heat shock factor-1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruozhi; Le, Khuong; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Shen, Garry X

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the predominant cause of death in diabetic patients. Fibroblasts are one of the major types of cells in the heart or vascular wall. Increased levels of glycated low-density lipoprotein (glyLDL) were detected in diabetic patients. Previous studies in our group demonstrated that oxidized LDL increased the amounts of NADPH oxidase (NOX), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and heat shock factor-1 (HSF1) in fibroblasts. This study examined the expression of NOX, PAI-1, and HSF1 in glyLDL-treated wild-type or HSF1-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and in leptin receptor-knockout (db/db) diabetic mice. Treatment with physiologically relevant levels of glyLDL increased superoxide and H2O2 release and the levels of NOX4 and p22phox (an essential component of multiple NOX complexes) in wild-type or HSF1-deficient MEFs. The levels of HSF1 and PAI-1 were increased by glyLDL in wild-type MEFs, but not in HSF1-deficient MEFs. Diphenyleneiodonium (a nonspecific NOX inhibitor) or small interfering RNA for p22phox prevented glyLDL-induced increases in the levels of NOX4, HSF1, or PAI-1 in MEFs. The amounts of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 were elevated in hearts of db/db diabetic mice compared to wild-type mice. The results suggest that glyLDL increased the abundance of NOX4 or p22phox via an HSF1-independent pathway, but that of PAI-1 via an HSF1-dependent manner. NOX4 plays a crucial role in glyLDL-induced expression of HSF1 and PAI-1 in mouse fibroblasts. Increased expression of NOX4, HSF1, and PAI-1 was detected in cardiovascular tissue of diabetic mice.

  4. Ethics for embryos

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C

    2007-01-01

    This paper responds to DW Brock's technically strong case for the use of human embryonic stem cells in medical research. His main issue in this context is the question of whether it is moral to destroy viable human embryos. He offers a number of reasons to support his view that it is moral to destroy them, but his use of conceptual arguments is not adequate to secure his position. The purpose and scope of this paper is wholly concerned with his arguments rather than with the conclusion that it is justifiable to destroy human embryos. The author proceeds through his variety of arguments and offers reasons for rejecting them. The author concludes that Brock has not shown that it is moral to destroy viable human embryos. PMID:17906062

  5. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    PubMed

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoat