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Sample records for activated porcine embryos

  1. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time. In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos against ambient light during in vitro handling in the laboratory.

  2. Inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity affects porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Si-Jing; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Jia, Ru-Xia; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocyte asymmetric division relies on the eccentric positioning of the spindle, resulting in the polar body formation. Small signaling G protein Rac1 is a member of GTPases, which regulates a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. However, effects of Rac1 on the porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development are not fully understood. In present study we investigated the role of Rac1 in oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage. We first found that Rac1 localized at the cortex of the porcine oocytes, and disrupting the Rac1 activities by treating with NSC 23766 led to the failure of polar body emission. In addition, a majority of treated oocytes exhibited abnormal spindle morphology, indicating that Rac1 may involve into porcine oocyte spindle formation. This might be due to the regulation of Rac1 on MAPK, since p-MAPK expression decreased after NSC 23766 treatments. Moreover, we found that the position of most meiotic spindles in treated oocytes were away from the cortex, indicating the roles of Rac1 on meiotic spindle positioning. Our results also showed that inhibition of Rac1 activity caused the failure of early embryo development. Therefore, our study showed the critical roles of Rac1 GTPase on porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo cleavage. PMID:27694954

  3. Effects of chemically defined medium on early development of porcine embryos derived from parthenogenetic activation and cloning.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zubing; Sui, Liucai; Li, Yunsheng; Ji, Suofei; Zhang, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yunhai

    2012-08-01

    The present study was to investigate if a completely chemically defined medium (PZM-4) could support the early development of porcine embryos derived from parthenogenetic activation (PA) and cloning (somatic cell nuclear transfer, SCNT), and to lay the foundation for determining the physiological roles of certain supplements in this medium. Porcine embryos derived from PA and SCNT were cultured in media: PZM-3 (a chemically semi-defined medium), PZM-4 (a fully defined medium), and PZM-5 (an undefined medium). Early embryo development was observed. We found that the three medium groups (PZM-3, PZM-4 and PZM-5) exhibited no significant differences in cleavage rates of PA embryos (p > 0.05), while the blastocyst rate in PZM-3 was significantly higher than in PZM-4 and PZM-5 (78.9% vs. 36.0% and 52.3%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, total cell number per blastocyst in PZM-3 was clearly higher than in PZM-5 but similar to that in PZM-4. As for SCNT embryos, no significant differences were observed for the cleavage rates or the blastocyst rates among the three groups (p > 0.05). However, total cell number per blastocyst in PZM-3 was notably higher than in PZM-5, but was similar to that in PZM-4. In conclusion, our results suggested that the completely chemically defined medium PZM-4 can be used to efficiently support the early development of porcine PA and SCNT embryos.

  4. ROCK activity regulates functional tight junction assembly during blastocyst formation in porcine parthenogenetic embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein serine/threonine kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are Rho subfamily GTPase downstream effectors that regulate cell migration, intercellular adhesion, cell polarity, and cell proliferation by stimulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Inhibition of ROCK proteins affects specification of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages, compaction, and blastocyst cavitation. However, the molecules involved in blastocyst formation are not known. Here, we examined developmental competence and levels of adherens/tight junction (AJ/TJ) constituent proteins, such as CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1, as well as expression of their respective mRNAs, after treating porcine parthenogenetic four-cell embryos with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 100 µM for 24 h. Following this treatment, the blastocyst development rates were 39.1, 20.7, 10.0, and 0% respectively. In embryos treated with 20 µM treatment, expression levels of CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1 mRNA and protein molecules were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). FITC-dextran uptake assay revealed that the treatment caused an increase in TE TJ permeability. Interestingly, the majority of the four-cell and morula embryos treated with 20 µM Y-27643 for 24 h showed defective compaction and cavitation. Taken together, our results indicate that ROCK activity may differentially affect assembly of AJ/TJs as well as regulate expression of genes encoding junctional proteins. PMID:27077008

  5. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bingkun; Qin, Zhaoxian; Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  6. Cloning of Porcine Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 and Its Expression in Porcine Oocytes and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuai; Nong, Suqun; Ma, Qingyan; Chen, Baojian; Liu, Mingjun; Pan, Tianbiao; Liao, D. Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The maternal-to-embryonic transition (MET) is a complex process that occurs during early mammalian embryogenesis and is characterized by activation of the zygotic genome, initiation of embryonic transcription, and replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. The objective of this study was to reveal the temporal expression and localization patterns of PTTG1 during early porcine embryonic development and to establish a relationship between PTTG1 and the MET. To achieve this goal, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to clone porcine PTTG1. Subsequently, germinal vesicle (GV)- and metaphase II (MII)-stage oocytes, zygotes, 2-, 4-, and 8-cell-stage embryos, morulas, and blastocysts were produced in vitro and their gene expression was analyzed. The results revealed that the coding sequence of porcine PTTG1 is 609-bp in length and that it encodes a 202-aa polypeptide. Using qRT-PCR, PTTG1 mRNA expression was observed to be maintained at high levels in GV- and MII-stage oocytes. The transcript levels in oocytes were also significantly higher than those in embryos from the zygote to blastocyst stages. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that porcine PTTG1 was primarily localized to the cytoplasm and partially localized to the nucleus. Furthermore, the PTTG1 protein levels in MII-stage oocytes and zygotes were significantly higher than those in embryos from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. After fertilization, the level of this protein began to decrease gradually until the blastocyst stage. The results of our study suggest that porcine PTTG1 is a new candidate maternal effect gene (MEG) that may participate in the processes of oocyte maturation and zygotic genome activation during porcine embryogenesis. PMID:27058238

  7. MLL2 is essential for porcine embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liang, Shuang; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Several germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, their function during early embryo development has been poorly explored. In this study, we investigated the role of mixed-lineage leukemia protein 2 (MLL2) in the development of porcine preimplantation embryos. To explore the function of MLL2 in porcine embryo development, expression and localization of MLL2 were assessed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays. Results showed that expression of MLL2 was significantly reduced after the four-cell stage. However, immunofluorescence results showed that MLL2 only localized in the nucleus of blastocysts, revealing a potential role of MLL2 in regulating the gene expression in the blastocyst stage. Knockdown of Mll2 by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) caused a reduction in MLL2 signal in porcine blastocyst cells and in blastocyst formation. No significant differences in the cleavage and morula stages were observed. The mechanism of MLL2 regulation in blastocysts was assessed by assaying the trimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4m3). MLL2 knockdown significantly reduced H3K4m3 in the nucleus and further reduced expression of Sox2 and Magoh genes. In conclusion, MLL2 is essential for porcine embryo development by the regulation of methylation of H3K4 in vitro. PMID:27059328

  8. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  9. Small GTPase RhoA regulates cytoskeleton dynamics during porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Xing; Cao, Rui; Liu, Hong-Lin; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Rui, Rong; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian oocyte maturation is distinguished by asymmetric division that is regulated primarily by cytoskeleton, including microtubules and microfilaments. Small Rho GTPase RhoA is a key regulator of cytoskeletal organization which regulates cell polarity, migration, and division. In this study, we investigated the roles of RhoA in mammalian oocyte meiosis and early embryo cleavage. (1) Disrupting RhoA activity or knock down the expression of RhoA caused the failure of polar body emission. This may have been due to decreased actin assembly and subsequent spindle migration defects. The involvement of RhoA in this process may have been though its regulation of actin nucleators ROCK, p-Cofilin, and ARP2 expression. (2) In addition, spindle morphology was also disrupted and p-MAPK expression decreased in RhoA inhibited or RhoA KD oocytes, which indicated that RhoA also regulated MAPK phosphorylation for spindle formation. (3) Porcine embryo development was also suppressed by inhibiting RhoA activity. Two nuclei were observed in one blastomere, and actin expression was reduced, which indicated that RhoA regulated actin-based cytokinesis of porcine embryo. Thus, our results demonstrated indispensable roles for RhoA in regulating porcine oocyte meiosis and cleavage during early embryo development.

  10. Oxamflatin Treatment Enhances Cloned Porcine Embryo Development and Nuclear Reprogramming*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jiude; Zhao, Ming-Tao; Whitworth, Kristin M.; Spate, Lee D.; Walters, Eric M.; O'Gorman, Chad; Lee, Kiho; Samuel, Melissa S.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Wells, Kevin; Rivera, Rocio M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faulty epigenetic reprogramming of somatic nuclei is thought to be the main reason for low cloning efficiency by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as Scriptaid, improve developmental competence of SCNT embryos in several species. Another HDACi, Oxamflatin, is about 100 times more potent than Scriptaid in the ability to inhibit nuclear-specific HDACs. The present study determined the effects of Oxamflatin treatment on embryo development, DNA methylation, and gene expression. Oxamflatin treatment enhanced blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos in vitro. Embryo transfer produced more pigs born and fewer mummies from the Oxamflatin-treated group compared to the Scriptaid-treated positive control. Oxamflatin also decreased DNA methylation of POU5F1 regulatory elements and centromeric repeat elements in day-7 blastocysts. When compared to in vitro–fertilized (IVF) embryos, the methylation status of POU5F1, NANOG, and centromeric repeat was similar in the cloned embryos, indicating these genes were successfully reprogrammed. However, compared to the lack of methylation of XIST in day-7 IVF embryos, a higher methylation level in day-7 cloned embryos was observed, implying that X chromosomes were activated in day-7 IVF blastocysts, but were not fully activated in cloned embryos, i.e., reprogramming of XIST was delayed. A time-course analysis of XIST DNA methylation on day-13, -15, -17, and -19 in vivo embryos revealed that XIST methylation initiated at about day 13 and was not completed by day 19. The methylation of the XIST gene in day-19 control cloned embryos was delayed again when compared to in vivo embryos. However, methylation of XIST in Oxamflatin-treated embryos was comparable with in vivo embryos, which further demonstrated that Oxamflatin could accelerate the delayed reprogramming of XIST gene and thus might improve cloning efficiency. PMID:25548976

  11. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation. PMID:27064112

  12. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  13. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure

    PubMed Central

    JEON, Yubyeol; NAM, Yeong-Hee; CHEONG, Seung-A; KWAK, Seong-Sung; LEE, Eunsong; HYUN, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation. PMID:27064112

  14. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  15. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Ouyang, Hongsheng

    2011-07-29

    The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50μg/mL vitamin C 15h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. PMID:21749856

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haichao; Wang, Huaizhong; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Chang; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12-30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25) by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation). This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy. PMID:26703736

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Porcine Endometrium during Embryo Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Haichao; Wang, Huaizhong; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Chang; Wang, Cheng; Guo, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    In pigs, successful embryo implantation is an important guarantee for producing litter size, and early embryonic loss occurring on day 12–30 of gestation critically affects the potential litter size. The implantation process is regulated by the expression of numerous genes, so comprehensive analysis of the endometrium is necessary. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology is used to analyze endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. We investigated the changes of gene expression between three stages (day 12, 18, and 25) by multiple comparisons. There were 1557, 8951, and 2345 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed between the different periods of implantation. We selected several genes for validation by the use of quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endometrium revealed a number of biological processes and pathways potentially involved in embryo implantation in the pig, most noticeably cell proliferation, regulation of immune response, interaction of cytokine-cytokine receptors, and cell adhesion. These results showed that specific gene expression patterns reflect the different functions of the endometrium in three stages (maternal recognition, conceptus attachment, and embryo implantation). This study identified comprehensive transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium and thus could be a foundation for targeted studies of genes and pathways potentially involved in abnormal endometrial receptivity and embryo loss in early pregnancy. PMID:26703736

  18. Susceptibility of porcine preimplantation embryos to viruses associated with reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haijing; Zhao, Guangyuan; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-10-15

    In the modern biological area, the applications of pig as a laboratory model have extensive prospects, such as gene transfer, IVF, SCNT, and xenotransplantation. However, the risk of pathogen transmission by porcine embryos is always a topic to be investigated, especially the viruses related to reproductive failure, for instance, pseudorabies virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine parvovirus, and porcine circovirus type 2. It should be mentioned that the zona pellucida (ZP) of porcine embryos can be a barrier against the viruses, but certain pathogens may stick to or even pass through the ZP. With intact, free, and damaged ZP, porcine preimplantation embryos are susceptible to these viruses in varying degrees, which may be associated with the virus-specific receptor on embryonic cell membrane. These topics are discussed in the present review. PMID:27423729

  19. Treating Cloned Embryos, But Not Donor Cells, with 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine Enhances the Developmental Competence of Porcine Cloned Embryos

    PubMed Central

    HUAN, Yan Jun; ZHU, Jiang; XIE, Bing Teng; WANG, Jian Yu; LIU, Shi Chao; ZHOU, Yang; KONG, Qing Ran; HE, Hong Bin; LIU, Zhong Hua

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has remained low. In most cloned embryos, epigenetic reprogramming is incomplete, and usually the genome is hypermethylated. The DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) could improve the developmental competence of cow, pig, cat and human SCNT embryos in previous studies. However, the parameters of 5-aza-dC treatment among species are different, and whether 5-aza-dC could enhance the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos has still not been well studied. Therefore, in this study, we treated porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFF) that then were used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer or fibroblast-derived reconstructed embryos with 5-aza-dC, and the concentration- and time-dependent effects of 5-aza-dC on porcine cloned embryos were investigated by assessing pseudo-pronucleus formation, developmental potential and pluripotent gene expression of these reconstructed embryos. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC significantly reduced the DNA methylation level in PFF (0 nM vs. 10 nM vs. 25 nM vs. 50 nM, 58.70% vs. 37.37% vs. 45.43% vs. 39.53%, P<0.05), but did not improve the blastocyst rate of cloned embryos derived from these cells. Treating cloned embryos with 25 nM 5-aza-dC for 24 h significantly enhanced the blastocyst rate compared with that of the untreated group. Furthermore, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, significantly promoted pseudo-pronucleus formation at 4 h post activation (51% for cloned embryos treated, 34% for donor cells treated and 36% for control, respectively, P<0.05) and enhanced the expression levels of pluripotent genes (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) up to those of in vitro fertilized embryos during embryo development. In conclusion, treating cloned embryos, but not donor cells, with 5-aza-dC enhanced the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos by promotion of pseudo-pronucleus formation and improvement of pluripotent gene expression. PMID

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  1. Effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal-stem-cell bioactive materials on porcine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Young; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Seung-Eun; Choi, Hyun-Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min-Jee; Son, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Jun-Beom; Jeong, Chang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sun; Riu, Key-Jung; Park, Se-Pill

    2013-12-01

    Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) secrete bioactive materials that are beneficial for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we characterized human hAT-MSC bioactive material (hAT-MSC-BM), and examined the effect of hAT-MSC-BM on porcine embryo development. hAT-MSC-BM was enriched with several growth factors and cytokines, including fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and interleukin 6 (IL6). Among the various concentrations and days of treatment tested, 10% hAT-MSC-BM treatment beginning on culture Day 4 provided the best environment for the in vitro growth of parthenogenetic porcine embryos. While the addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the hatching rate and the total cell number of parthenogenetic porcine embryos compared with the control and hAT-MSC culture medium group, the best results were from the group cultured with 10% hAT-MSC-BM. Mitochondrial activity was also higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group. Moreover, the relative mRNA expression levels of development and anti-apoptosis genes were significantly higher in the 10% hAT-MSC-BM-treated group than in control, hAT-MSC culture medium, or 10% FBS groups, whereas the transcript abundance of an apoptosis gene was slightly lower. Treatment with 10% hAT-MSC-BM starting on Day 4 also improved the development rate and the total cell number of in vitro-fertilized embryos. This is the first report on the benefits of hAT-MSC-BM in a porcine embryo in vitro culture system. We conclude that hAT-MSC-BM is a new, alternative supplement that can improve the development of porcine embryos during both parthenogenesis and fertilization in vitro.

  2. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  3. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  4. Cryopreservation of In Vitro-Produced Early-Stage Porcine Embryos in a Closed System

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hongsheng; Spate, Lee D.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cryostorage of porcine embryos in a closed pathogen-free system is essential for the maintenance and safeguard of swine models. Previously, we reported a protocol for the successful cryopreservation of porcine embryos at the blastocyst stage in 0.25 mL ministraws. In this experiment, we aimed at developing a protocol to apply the same concept for the cryopreservation of early-stage porcine embryos. Porcine embryos from day 2 through day 4 were delipidated by using a modified two-step centrifugation method and were then cryopreserved in sealed 0.25 mL straws by using a slow cooling method. Control groups included open pulled straw (OPS) vitrified embryos after delipidation and noncryopreserved embryos without delipidation. There were no significant differences in cryosurvival between embryos frozen in 0.25 mL straws and OPS vitrified embryos across all the stages (two cell to morula) examined (p>0.05). Similarly, in all groups examined, the blastocyst rates were not different between the two cryopreserved groups. However, the blastocyst rates from the cryopreserved groups were significantly lower than the noncryopreserved controls (p<0.05). This experiment demonstrated that early-stage porcine embryos can survive cryopreservation in a closed system by using a slow cooling method at a comparable rate to those vitrified by using an ultrarapid cooling method (p>0.05). However, the developmental competence was significantly reduced after cryopreservation compared to noncryopreserved embryos. Further research is needed to optimize the protocol to improve the developmental potential of cryopreserved early-stage porcine embryos in sealed straws. PMID:26309801

  5. Effective vitrification and warming of porcine embryos using a pH-stable, chemically defined medium

    PubMed Central

    Cuello, Cristina; Martinez, Cristina A.; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A.; Martinez, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pH-stable media would simplify embryo vitrification and the warming of porcine embryos and might facilitate the application of embryo transfer in practice. In this work, we investigated whether a pH-stable basal medium constituted of Tyrode’s lactate medium, polyvinyl alcohol, and HEPES for buffering was suitable for porcine embryo vitrification warming in place of the conventional gas-equilibrated media. A high percentage (>90%) of embryos survived vitrification and warming in this medium, achieving in vitro survival rates similar to embryos vitrified-warmed using the conventional protocol and their fresh counterparts. The pH-stable medium did not affect the in vivo developmental competence of the vitrified-warmed embryos. A farrowing rate of 71.4% (5/7) with 10.4 ± 3.1 piglets born was obtained for the embryos vitrified and warmed in this medium and transferred to selected recipients. This medium will enable the use of simple, safe and standardized protocols for the vitrification and warming of porcine embryos for optimal embryo survival and quality when applied under field conditions. This study opens new possibilities for the widespread use of embryo transfer in pigs. PMID:27666294

  6. Transcriptional profiling by RNA-Seq of peri-attachment porcine embryos generated by a variety of assisted reproductive technologies

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, John R.; Li, Rongfeng; Spollen, William G.; Cox, Lindsay; Spate, Lee D.; Murphy, Clifton N.; Prather, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial mortality of in vitro manipulated porcine embryos is observed during peri-attachment development. Herein we describe our efforts to characterize the transcriptomes of embryonic disc (ED) and trophectoderm (TE) cells from porcine embryos derived from in vivo fertilization, in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic oocyte activation (PA), and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) on days 10, 12, and 14 of gestation. The IVF, PA, and SCNT embryos were generated with in vitro matured oocytes and were cultured overnight in vitro before being transferred to recipient females. Sequencing of cDNA from the resulting embryonic samples was accomplished with the Genome Analyzer IIx platform from Illumina. Reads were aligned to a custom-built swine transcriptome. A generalized linear model was fit for ED and TE samples separately, accounting for embryo type, gestation day, and their interaction. Those genes with significant differences between embryo types were characterized in terms of gene ontologies and KEGG pathways. Transforming growth factor-β signaling was downregulated in the EDs of IVF embryos. In TE cells from IVF embryos, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and ErbB signaling were aberrantly regulated. Expression of genes involved in chromatin modification, gene silencing by RNA, and apoptosis was significantly disrupted in ED cells from SCNT embryos. In summary, we have used high-throughput sequencing technologies to compare gene expression profiles of various embryo types during peri-attachment development. We expect that these data will provide important insight into the root causes of (and possible opportunities for mitigation of) suboptimal development of embryos derived from assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:23695885

  7. Telomere elongation during morula-to-blastocyst transition in cloned porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Haraguchi, Seiki; Akagi, Satoshi; Somfai, Tamas; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Tajima, Atsushi; Nagai, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Although telomeres are elongated during morula-to-blastocyst transition in cloned embryos, it is still unknown whether donor cell types have any effect on this elongation. In the present study, we examined the changes of telomere length during morula-to-blastocyst transition in cloned porcine embryos using different types of donor cells. Porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs), porcine cumulus cells (PCs), and porcine embryonic fibroblasts at passages 7 and 10 (PEF7s and PEF10s, respectively) were used as donor cells. Telomere lengths of pESLCs (35.8±1.5 kb), PCs (24.4±0.5 kb), PEF7s (18.7±0.6 kb), and PEF10s (17.2±0.1 kb) were significantly different. In contrast, telomere length in morulae derived from pESLCs (18.2±0.3 kb), PC (17.8±0.7 kb), PEF7 (18.5±0.3 kb), and PEF10 (18.4±0.4 kb) did not differ significantly. Likewise, telomeres in blastocysts derived from pESLCs (22.3±1.5 kb), PCs (23.5±2.6 kb), PEF7s (20.2±1.0 kb), and PEF10s (20.9±1.0 kb) had similar lengths. However, telomeres in blastocysts were significant longer (p<0.05) compared with morulae in each group. Relative telomerase activities of morulae derived from pESLCs (4.2±0.4), PCs (4.0±0.5), PEF7s (5.1±0.4), and PEF10s (4.9±0.4) were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those of blastocysts derived from pESLCs (8.2±1.1), PCs (8.6±0.6), PEF7s (12.5±2.9), and PEF10s (8.3±1.1). In conclusion, the telomere elongation in cloned pig embryos that occurred during morula-to-blastocyst transition may be related to the rise of telomerase activity. The telomere elongation may also be independent of the type and telomere length of the donor cell.

  8. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  9. Effect of zinc on in vitro development of porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Yoon, Junchul David; Cai, Lian; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Eunsong; Jeung, Eui Bae; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of zinc on in vitro development of porcine embryos. We evaluated the effects of zinc on blastocysts formation and investigated gene expression at zinc-deficient and supplemented conditions. Zinc-deficient in vitro condition was induced by 10-μM N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylendiamine (TPEN) (zinc chelator) treatment during IVC. On parthenogenetic activated embryos, this treatment significantly decreased cleavage rate and blastocyst formation compared with the control (0.0% and 0.0% vs. 69.0% and 36.0%, respectively). And time effect of the zinc deficiency exposure is observed. Blastocyst formation rate was significantly decreased as zinc-deficient time increases (54.1%, 31.0%, 9.0%, and 1.2% for zinc deficiency during 0, 3, 5, and 7 hours). However, zinc supplementation during IVC supported in vitro embryonic development. On parthenogenetic activated embryos, supplementation of 0.8 μg/mL of zinc during IVC significantly increased blastocyst formation compared with other groups (43.9%, 57.8%, 67.1%, 51.4%, and 52.6% for zinc supplementation of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 μg/mL). In vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos showed similar results. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher in the 0.8 μg/mL of zinc-supplemented group than in the other groups (21.3%, 24.1%, 36.1%, 25.9%, and 25.2% for zinc supplementation of 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 μg/mL). PCNA, POU5F1, and Bcl2 messenger RNA expressions were unregulated in IVF-derived blastocysts in the 0.8 μg/mL of zinc-supplemented group compared with the control. These results suggest that zinc is required for embryonic development, and supplementation with adequate zinc concentrations during IVC improved the viability of porcine embryos, possibly by increasing PCNA, POU5F1, and Bcl2 gene expression of embryos.

  10. Treatment of porcine donor cells and reconstructed embryos with the antioxidant melatonin enhances cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yun-Wei; An, Lei; Wang, Peng; Yu, Yong; Yin, Qiu-Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Xin-Zhang; Qian-Zhang; Yang, Mei-Ling; Min-Guo; Wu, Zhong-Hong; Tian, Jian-Hui

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of melatonin during the culture of donor cells and cloned embryos on the in vitro developmental competence and quality of cloned porcine embryos. At concentrations of 10(-6 )M or 10(-8) M, melatonin significantly enhanced the proliferation of porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs), and the blastocyst rate was significantly increased in the 10(-10) M melatonin-treated donor cell group. Cloned embryo development was also improved in embryo culture medium that was supplemented with 10(-9) M or 10(-12) M melatonin. When both donor cells and cloned embryos were treated with melatonin, the cleavage rate and total cell number of blastocysts were not significantly affected; however, the blastocyst rate was increased significantly (20.0% versus 11.7%). TUNEL assays showed that combined melatonin treatment reduced the rate of apoptotic nuclei (3.6% versus 6.1%). Gene expression analysis of the apoptosis-related genes BAX, BCL2L1, and p53 showed that the expression of BCL2L1 was significantly elevated 2.7-fold relative to the control group, while the expression of BAX and p53 was significantly decreased by 3.7-fold and 23.2-fold, respectively. In addition, we detected the expression of two melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) in PFFs but not in porcine cloned embryos. We conclude that exogenous melatonin enhances the development of porcine cloned embryos and improves embryo quality by inhibiting p53-mediated apoptotic pathway. The proliferation of PFFs may be mediated by receptor binding, but the beneficial effects of melatonin on embryonic development may be receptor-independent, possibly through melatonin's ability to directly scavenge free radicals.

  11. Oct4 overexpression facilitates proliferation of porcine fibroblasts and development of cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Koo, Ok Jae; Park, Hee Jung; Moon, Joon Ho; da Torre, Bego Roibas; Javaregowda, Palaksha Kanive; Kang, Jung Taek; Park, Sol Ji; Saadeldin, Islam M; Choi, Ji Yei; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Jang, Goo

    2015-10-01

    Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) is a critical molecule for the self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. Recent reports have shown that Oct4 also controls cell-cycle progression and enhances the proliferation of various types of cells. As the high proliferation of donor fibroblasts is critical to the production of transgenic pigs, using the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique, we analysed the effect of Oct4 overexpression on the proliferation of porcine fibroblasts and embryos. Porcine endogenous Oct4 cDNA was cloned, sequenced and inserted into an expression vector. The vector was transfected into porcine fibroblasts, and a stable Oct4-overexpressed cell line was established by antibiotic selection. Oct4 expression was validated by the immunostaining of Oct4. Cell morphology was changed to sharp, and both proliferation and migration abilities were enhanced in Oct4-overexpressed cells. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that p16, Bcl2 and Myc were upregulated in Oct4-overexpressed cells. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was performed using Oct4-overexpressed cells, and the development of Oct4 embryos was compared with that of wild-type cloned embryos. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates were improved in the Oct4 embryos. Interestingly, blastocyst formation of the Oct4 embryos was observed as early as day 5 in culture, while blastocysts were observed from day 6 in wild-type cloned embryos. In conclusion, the overexpression of Oct4 enhanced the proliferation of both porcine fibroblasts and embryos.

  12. OCT-4 expression is essential for the segregation of trophectoderm lineages in porcine preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    EMURA, Natsuko; SAKURAI, Nobuyuki; TAKAHASHI, Kazuki; HASHIZUME, Tsutomu; SAWAI, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Oct-4, a member of the POU family of transcription factors, is a key factor that regulates the segregation of the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE) during the transition from morula to blastocyst in mice. However, little is known about its role in porcine early embryogenesis. To determine the function of OCT-4 in the ICM and TE segregation of porcine embryos, we studied the developmental morphology of porcine embryos using RNA interference technology. Our experiments demonstrated that when 1-cell stage embryos were co-injected with the small interfering RNA (siRNA)for targeted knockdown of OCT-4 (OCT-4-siRNA) and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-dextran conjugate (Dx), they failed to form blastocysts. Therefore, in this study, we constructed chimeric embryos comprising blastomeres that either expressed OCT-4 normally or showed downregulated OCT-4 expression by co-injection of OCT-4-siRNA and Dx into one blastomere in 2- to 4-cell stage embryos. In control embryos, which were co-injected with control siRNA and Dx, Dx-positive cells contributed to the TE lineage in almost all the blastocysts examined. In contrast, Dx-positive cells derived from a blastomere co-injected with OCT-4-siRNA and Dx were degenerated in almost half the blastocysts. This was probably due to the inability of these cells to differentiate into the TE lineage. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed no difference in the levels of SOX2, TEAD4, FGF4 and FGFR1-IIIc, all of which are known to be regulated by OCT-4, between the OCT-4-siRNA-injected morulae and the control ones. However, the level of CDX2, a molecule specifically expressed in the TE lineage, was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. Our results indicate that continuous expression of OCT-4 in blastomeres is essential for TE formation of porcine embryos. PMID:27210587

  13. Development of a porcine (Sus scofa) embryo-specific microarray: array annotation and validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic pig is an important livestock species and there is strong interest in the factors that affect the development of viable embryos and offspring in this species. A limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in early embryonic development has inhibited our ability to fully elucidate these factors. Next generation deep sequencing and microarray technologies are powerful tools for delineation of molecular pathways involved in the developing embryo. Results Here we present the development of a porcine-embryo-specific microarray platform created from a large expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis generated by Roche/454 next-generation sequencing of cDNAs constructed from critical stages of in vivo or in vitro porcine preimplantation embryos. Two cDNA libraries constructed from in vitro and in vivo produced preimplantation porcine embryos were normalized and sequenced using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing technology. Over one million high-quality EST sequences were obtained and used to develop the EMbryogene Porcine Version 1 (EMPV1) microarray composed of 43,795 probes. Based on an initial probe sequence annotation, the EMPV1 features 17,409 protein-coding, 473 pseudogenes, 46 retrotransposed, 2,359 non-coding RNA, 4,121 splice variants in 2,862 genes and a total of 12,324 Novel Transcript Regions (NTR). After re-annotation, the total unique genes increased from 11,961 to 16,281 and 1.9% of them belonged to a large olfactory receptor (OR) gene family. Quality control on the EMPV1 was performed and revealed an even distribution of ten clusters of spiked-in control spots and array to array (dye-swap) correlation was 0.97. Conclusions Using next-generation deep sequencing we have produced a large EST dataset to allow for the selection of probe sequences for the development of the EMPV1 microarray platform. The quality of this embryo-specific array was confirmed with a high-level of reproducibility using current Agilent microarray technology

  14. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    PubMed

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P < 0.05) attachment, outgrowth formation and primary colonization in both 2× and 3× aggregated cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P < 0.05) in those derived from TSA-treated 3× blastocysts (36.7 and 26.7%) than from the non-treated aggregated group (23.1 and 11.5%). These cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in

  15. Generating Porcine Chimeras Using Inner Cell Mass Cells and Parthenogenetic Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masahito; Matsunari, Hitomi; Matsuda, Taisuke; Honda, Kasumi; Maehara, Miki; Kanai, Takahiro; Hayashida, Gota; Kobayashi, Mirina; Kuramoto, Momoko; Arai, Yoshikazu; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Fujishiro, Shuh-hei; Mizukami, Yoshihisa; Nagaya, Masaki; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and validation of stem cell therapies using induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be optimized through translational research using pigs as large animal models, because pigs have the closest characteristics to humans among non-primate animals. As the recent investigations have been heading for establishment of the human iPS cells with naïve type characteristics, it is an indispensable challenge to develop naïve type porcine iPS cells. The pluripotency of the porcine iPS cells can be evaluated using their abilities to form chimeras. Here, we describe a simple aggregation method using parthenogenetic host embryos that offers a reliable and effective means of determining the chimera formation ability of pluripotent porcine cells. Methodology/Significant Principal Findings In this study, we show that a high yield of chimeric blastocysts can be achieved by aggregating the inner cell mass (ICM) from porcine blastocysts with parthenogenetic porcine embryos. ICMs cultured with morulae or 4–8 cell-stage parthenogenetic embryos derived from in vitro-matured (IVM) oocytes can aggregate to form chimeric blastocysts that can develop into chimeric fetuses after transfer. The rate of production of chimeric blastocysts after aggregation with host morulae (20/24, 83.3%) was similar to that after the injection of ICMs into morulae (24/29, 82.8%). We also found that 4–8 cell-stage embryos could be used; chimeric blastocysts were produced with a similar efficiency (17/26, 65.4%). After transfer into recipients, these blastocysts yielded chimeric fetuses at frequencies of 36.0% and 13.6%, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Our findings indicate that the aggregation method using parthenogenetic morulae or 4–8 cell-stage embryos offers a highly reproducible approach for producing chimeric fetuses from porcine pluripotent cells. This method provides a practical and highly accurate system for evaluating pluripotency of undifferentiated cells, such

  16. Analysis of Imprinted Gene Expression in Normal Fertilized and Uniparental Preimplantation Porcine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chi-Hun; Uh, Kyung-Jun; Mulligan, Brendan P.; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Ka, Hakhyun; Lee, Chang-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    In the present study quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the expression status of eight imprinted genes (GRB10, H19, IGF2R, XIST, IGF2, NNAT, PEG1 and PEG10) during preimplantation development, in normal fertilized and uniparental porcine embryos. The results demonstrated that, in all observed embryo samples, a non imprinted gene expression pattern up to the 16-cell stage of development was common for most genes. This was true for all classes of embryo, regardless of parental-origins and the direction of imprint. However, several differentially expressed genes (H19, IGF2, XIST and PEG10) were detected amongst the classes at the blastocyst stage of development. Most interestingly and despite the fact that maternally and paternally expressed genes should not be expressed in androgenones and parthenogenones, respectively, both uniparental embryos expressed these genes when tested for in this study. In order to account for this phenomenon, we compared the expression patterns of eight imprinted genes along with the methylation status of the IGF2/H19 DMR3 in haploid and diploid parthenogenetic embryos. Our findings revealed that IGF2, NNAT and PEG10 were silenced in haploid but not diploid parthenogenetic blastocysts and differential methylation of the IGF2/H19 DMR3 was consistently observed between haploid and diploid parthenogenetic blastocysts. These results appear to suggest that there exists a process to adjust the expression status of imprinted genes in diploid parthenogenetic embryos and that this phenomenon may be associated with altered methylation at an imprinting control region. In addition we believe that imprinted expression occurs in at least four genes, namely H19, IGF2, XIST and PEG10 in porcine blastocyst stage embryos. PMID:21804912

  17. Trichostatin A affects histone acetylation and gene expression in porcine somatic cell nucleus transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Cervera, R P; Martí-Gutiérrez, N; Escorihuela, E; Moreno, R; Stojkovic, M

    2009-11-01

    Epigenetic aberrancies likely preclude correct and complete nuclear reprogramming after somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) and may underlie the observed reduced viability of cloned embryos. In the current study, we tested the effects of the histone deacetylase-inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on preimplantation development and on histone acetylation and the gene expression of nucleus transfer (NT) porcine (Sus scrofa) embryos. Our results showed that 5 nM TSA for 26 h after reconstitution resulted in embryos (NTTSA) that reached the blastocyst stage at a higher level (48.1% vs. 20.2%) and increased number of cells (105.0 vs. 75.3) than that of the control (NTC) embryos. In addition, and unlike the NTC embryos, the treated embryos displayed a global acetylated histone H4 at lysine 8 profile similar to the in vitro-fertilized (IVF) and cultured embryos during the preimplantation development. Finally, we determined that several transcription factors exert a dramatic amount of genetic control over pluripotency, including Oct4, Nanog, Cdx2, and Rex01, the imprinting genes Igf2 and Igf2r, and the histone deacetyltransferase gene Hdac2. The NT blastocysts showed similar levels of Oct4, Cdx2, and Hdac2 but lower levels of Nanog than those of the IVF blastocyst. However, the NTTSA blastocysts showed similar levels of Rex01, Igf2, and Igf2r as those of IVF blastocysts, whereas the NTC blastocysts showed significantly lower levels for those genes. Our results suggest that TSA improves porcine SCNT preimplantation development and affects the acetylated status of the H4K8, rendering acetylation levels similar to those of the IVF counterparts.

  18. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  19. ADAM10 Is Involved in Cell Junction Assembly in Early Porcine Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo; Jeong, Sung-min; Choi, Inchul; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain-containing protein 10) is a cell surface protein with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. However, the role of ADAM10 in preimplantation stage embryos is not clear. In this study, we examined the expression patterns and functional roles of ADAM10 in porcine parthenotes during preimplantation development. The transcription level of ADAM10 dramatically increased from the morula stage onward. Immunostaining revealed that ADAM10 was present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in early cleavage stage embryos, and localized to the apical region of the outer cells in morula and blastocyst embryos. Knockdown (KD) of ADAM10 using double strand RNA did not alter preimplantation embryo development until morula stage, but resulted in significantly reduced development to blastocyst stage. Moreover, the KD blastocyst showed a decrease in gene expression of adherens and tight junction (AJ/TJ), and an increase in trophectoderm TJ permeability by disrupting TJ assembly. Treatment with an ADAM10 specific chemical inhibitor, GI254023X, at the morula stage also inhibited blastocyst development and led to disruption of TJ assembly. An in situ proximity ligation assay demonstrated direct interaction of ADAM10 with coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), supporting the involvement of ADAM10 in TJ assembly. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that ADADM10 is important for blastocyst formation rather than compaction, particularly for TJ assembly and stabilization in preimplantation porcine parthenogenetic development. PMID:27043020

  20. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  1. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  2. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  3. Improvement of porcine cloning efficiency by trichostain A through early-stage induction of embryo apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qianqian; Zhu, Kongju; Liu, Zhiguo; Song, Zhenwei; Huang, Yuankai; Zhao, Haijing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong; Mo, Delin; Cong, Peiqing

    2013-03-15

    Trichostain A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, improved developmental competence of SCNT embryos in many species, apparently by improved epigenetic reprogramming. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of TSA-induced apoptosis in cloned porcine embryos. At various developmental stages, a comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling staining were used to detect apoptosis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression of genes related to apoptosis and pluripotency. In this study, TSA significantly induced apoptosis (in a dose-dependent manner) at the one-, two-, and four-cell stages. However, in blastocyst stage embryos, TSA decreased the apoptotic index (P < 0.05). Expression levels of Caspase 3 were higher in TSA-treated versus control embryos at the two-cell stage (not statistically significant). The expression ratio of antiapoptotic Bcl-xl gene to proapoptotic Bax gene, an indicator of antiapoptotic potential, was higher in TSA-treated groups at the one-, two-, and four-cell and blastocyst stages. Furthermore, expression levels of pluripotency-related genes, namely, Oct4 and Nanog, were elevated at the morula stage (P < 0.05) in TSA treatment groups. We concluded that inducing apoptosis might be a mechanism by which TSA promotes development of reconstructed embryos. At the initial stage of apoptosis induction, abnormal cells were removed, thereby enhancing proliferation of healthy cells and improving embryo quality.

  4. Production of Mutated Porcine Embryos Using Zinc Finger Nucleases and a Reporter-based Cell Enrichment System

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ok Jae; Park, Sol Ji; Lee, Choongil; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Sujin; Moon, Joon Ho; Choi, Ji Yei; Kim, Hyojin; Jang, Goo; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Seokjoong; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the construction of genetically-modified pigs, we produced cloned embryos derived from porcine fibroblasts transfected with a pair of engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) plasmids to create targeted mutations and enriched using a reporter plasmid system. The reporter expresses RFP and eGFP simultaneously when ZFN-mediated site-specific mutations occur. Thus, double positive cells (RFP+/eGFP+) were selected and used for somatic cell nuclear transfer. Two types of reporter based enrichment systems were used in this study; the cloned embryos derived from cells enriched using a magnetic sorting-based system showed better developmental competence than did those derived from cells enriched by flow cytometry. Mutated sequences, such as insertions, deletions, or substitutions, together with the wild-type sequence, were found in the cloned porcine blastocysts. Therefore, genetic mutations can be achieved in cloned porcine embryos reconstructed with ZFN-treated cells that were enriched by a reporter-based system. PMID:25049958

  5. In vitro development of porcine transgenic nuclear-transferred embryos derived from newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig kidney fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Lv, Peiru; Zhu, Xiangxing; Wang, Xianwei; Yang, Xiaogan; Zuo, Erwei; Lu, Yangqing; Lu, Shengsheng; Lu, Kehuan

    2014-10-01

    Porcine transgenic cloning has potential applications for improving production traits and for biomedical research purposes. To produce a transgenic clone, kidney fibroblasts from a newborn Guangxi Bama mini-pig were isolated, cultured, and then transfected with red and green fluorescent protein genes using lipofectamine for nuclear transfer. The results of the present study show that the kidney fibroblasts exhibited excellent proliferative capacity and clone-like morphology, and were adequate for generation of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)-derived embryos, which was confirmed by their cleavage activity and blastocyst formation rate of 70.3% and 7.9%, respectively. Cells transfected with red fluorescent protein genes could be passed more than 35 times. Transgenic embryos cloned with fluorescent or blind enucleation methods were not significantly different with respect to cleavage rates (92.5% vs. 86.8%, p > 0.05) and blastocyst-morula rates (26.9% vs. 34.0%, p > 0.05), but were significantly different with respect to blastocyst rates (3.0% vs. 13.2%, p < 0.05). Cleavage (75.3%, 78.5% vs. 78.0%, p > 0.05), blastocyst (14.1%, 16.1% vs. 23.1%, p > 0.05) and morula/blastocyst rates (43.5%, 47.0% vs. 57.6%, p > 0.05) were not significantly different between the groups of transgenic cloned embryos, cloned embryos, and parthenogenetic embryos. This indicates that long-time screening by G418 caused no significant damage to kidney fibroblasts. Thus, kidney fibroblasts represent a promising new source for transgenic SCNT, and this work lays the foundation for the production of genetically transformed cloned Guangxi Bama mini-pigs. PMID:24879084

  6. Development of porcine embryos and offspring after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with liposome transfected or non-transfected sperm into in vitro matured oocytes.

    PubMed

    Lai, L; Sun, Q; Wu, G; Murphy, C N; Kühholzer, B; Park, K W; Bonk, A J; Day, B N; Prather, R S

    2001-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo development of porcine in vitro matured (IVM) porcine oocytes fertilised by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and the possibility of producing transgenic embryos and offspring with this procedure. Activated ICSI oocytes had a higher pronuclear formation than non-activated ICSI oocytes (mean 64.8+/-17.3% vs 28.5+/-3.4%, p<0.05). When the zygotes with two pronuclei were cultured to day 2, there was no difference (p<0.05) in the cleavage rate (mean 60.0+/-7.0% vs 63.3+/-12.7%) between the two groups. The blastocyst rate in the activation group was significantly higher than that in the non-activation group (mean 30.0+/-11.6% vs 4.6+/-4.2%, p<0.05). After injection of the sperm transfected with DNA/liposome complex, destabilised enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP) expression was not observed on day 2 in either cleaved or uncleaved embryos. But from day 3, some of the embryos at the 2-cell to 4-cell stage started to express d2EGFP. On day 7, about 30% of cleaved embryos, which were in the range of 2-cell to blastocyst stage, expressed d2EGFP. However, for the IVF oocytes inseminated with sperm transfected with DNA/liposome complex, and for oocytes injected with sperm transfected with DNA/liposome complex, and for oocytes injected with DNA/liposome complex following insemination with sperm not treated with DNA/liposome complex, none of the embryos expressed d2EGFP. Sixteen day 4 ICSI embryos derived from sperm not treated with DNA/liposome complex were transferred into a day 3 recipient. One recipient delivered a female piglet with normal birthweight. After transfer of the ICSI embryos derived from sperm transfected with DNA/liposome complex, none of the four recipients maintained pregnancy. PMID:11771901

  7. Effect of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes evaluated by the subsequent in vitro development of embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or parthenogenetic activation.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, M A; Alfonso, J; García-Mengual, E; Salvador, I; Duque, C C; Molina, I

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant human (rh) FSH and LH on in vitro maturation of pig oocytes compared with a conventional hormonal supplement based on equine (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG), as evaluated by the developmental ability of 3 types of pig embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or artificial activation (ATA). In Exp. 1, one cumulus-oocyte complex group (A group) was supplemented with rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.1 IU/mL each), and the other group (B group) was supplemented with PMSG and hCG (10 IU/mL each). No differences in nuclear maturation between the A and B groups were observed (68.5 vs. 71.4%, respectively). No differences were detected between hormonal treatments in the rates of cleavage or blastocyst formation of ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos. Total cell number of the embryos was not significantly different in any experimental group (A: 31.1, 28.5, and 19.8 vs. B: 25.2, 25.5, and 20.6 for ATA, IVF, and ICSI embryos, respectively). In Exp. 2, the effects of different concentrations of rh-FSH and rh-LH (0.5, 0.1, or 0.05 IU/mL) in maturation medium on nuclear maturation and in vitro development of embryos obtained by IVF were studied. No effect of different hormonal concentrations on blastocyst formation rates was observed (8.5, 13.0, and 5.7%, respectively). Blastocyst cell number was not different in any experimental group. In conclusion, the results obtained here permit us to substitute PMSG and hCG with rh-FSH and rh-LH and to produce pig embryos obtained by IVF, ICSI, or ATA.

  8. Scriptaid Treatment Decreases DNA Methyltransferase 1 Expression by Induction of MicroRNA-152 Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Choi, Jeong-woo; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to be the main cause of low cloning efficiencies. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a positive role of Scriptaid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that belongs to an existing class of hydroxamic acid-containing HDACis, on the development competence of cloned embryos in many species. The present study investigated the effects of Scriptaid on the development of porcine SCNT embryos in vitro and its mechanism. Treatment with 300 or 500 nM Scriptaid for 20 h after activation significantly increased the percentage of SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and the total number of cells per blastocyst and significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Scriptaid treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 acetylated at K9 and the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and significantly decreased the level of histone H3 trimethylated at K9 at the pronuclear stage. As a potential mechanism for the DNA methylation changes, our results showed that the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 was frequently down-regulated in Scriptaid-treated embryos in comparison with untreated embryos and was inversely correlated to endogenous microRNA-152 (miR-152). Taken together, these findings illustrated a crucial functional crosstalk between miR-152 and DNMT1. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein levels of POU5F1 and CDX2 were increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. mRNA levels of Caspase3, and Bax were significantly decreased and that of Bcl-xL was significantly increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. In conclusion, these observations would contribute to uncover the nuclear reprogramming mechanisms underlying the effects of Scriptaid on the improvement of porcine SCNT embryos.

  9. Scriptaid Treatment Decreases DNA Methyltransferase 1 Expression by Induction of MicroRNA-152 Expression in Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Choi, Jeong-woo; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Cui, Xiang-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei after somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is thought to be the main cause of low cloning efficiencies. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated a positive role of Scriptaid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that belongs to an existing class of hydroxamic acid-containing HDACis, on the development competence of cloned embryos in many species. The present study investigated the effects of Scriptaid on the development of porcine SCNT embryos in vitro and its mechanism. Treatment with 300 or 500 nM Scriptaid for 20 h after activation significantly increased the percentage of SCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage and the total number of cells per blastocyst and significantly decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Scriptaid treatment significantly increased the level of histone H3 acetylated at K9 and the conversion of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and significantly decreased the level of histone H3 trimethylated at K9 at the pronuclear stage. As a potential mechanism for the DNA methylation changes, our results showed that the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 was frequently down-regulated in Scriptaid-treated embryos in comparison with untreated embryos and was inversely correlated to endogenous microRNA-152 (miR-152). Taken together, these findings illustrated a crucial functional crosstalk between miR-152 and DNMT1. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein levels of POU5F1 and CDX2 were increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. mRNA levels of Caspase3, and Bax were significantly decreased and that of Bcl-xL was significantly increased in Scriptaid-treated embryos. In conclusion, these observations would contribute to uncover the nuclear reprogramming mechanisms underlying the effects of Scriptaid on the improvement of porcine SCNT embryos. PMID:26261994

  10. Development of porcine tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos is influenced by oocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Liu, Di; Ma, Hong; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Liang; Li, Zhong-Qiu; Peng, Fu-Gang; Bai, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Cloning efficiency in mammalian systems remains low because reprogramming of donor cells is frequently incomplete. Nuclear factors in the oocyte are removed by enucleation, and this removal may adversely affect reprogramming efficiency. Here, we investigated the role of porcine oocyte nuclear factors during reprogramming. We introduced somatic cell nuclei into intact MII oocytes to establish tetraploid somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos containing both somatic nuclei and oocyte nuclei. We then examined the influence of the oocyte nucleus on tetraploid SCNT embryo development by assessing characteristics including pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and blastocyst formation. Overall, tetraploid SCNT embryos have a higher developmental competence than do standard diploid SCNT embryos. Therefore, we have established an embryonic model in which a fetal fibroblast nucleus and an oocyte metaphase II plate coexist. Tetraploid SCNT represents a new research platform that is potentially useful for examining interactions between donor nuclei and oocyte nuclei. This platform should facilitate further understanding of the roles played by nuclear factors during reprogramming.

  11. An Improved System for Generation of Diploid Cloned Porcine Embryos Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Synchronized to Metaphase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Zheng, Zhong; Jeon, Yubyeol; Jin, Yong-Xun; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Cai, Lian; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which were synchronized to the G2/M stage using a double blocking method with aphidicolin and nocodazole. The efficiency of this synchronization method on our piPSC lines was first tested. Then, we modified our traditional SCNT protocol to find a workable protocol. In particular, the removal of a 6DMAP treatment post-activation enhanced the extrusion rate of pseudo-second-polar bodies (p2PB) (81.3% vs. 15.8%, based on peak time, 4hpa). Moreover, an immediate activation method yielded significantly more blastocysts than delayed activation (31.3% vs. 16.0%, based on fused embryos). The immunofluorescent results confirmed the effect of the 6DMAP treatment removal, showing remarkable p2PB extrusion during a series of nuclear transfer procedures. The reconstructed embryos from metaphase piPSCs with our modified protocol demonstrated normal morphology at 2-cell, 4-cell and blastocyst stages and a high rate of normal karyotype. This study demonstrated a new and efficient way to produce viable cloned embryos from piPSCs when synchronized to the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, which may lead to opportunities to produce cloned pigs from piPSCs more efficiently. PMID:27472781

  12. An Improved System for Generation of Diploid Cloned Porcine Embryos Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Synchronized to Metaphase

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Jin, Yong-Xun; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Cai, Lian; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which were synchronized to the G2/M stage using a double blocking method with aphidicolin and nocodazole. The efficiency of this synchronization method on our piPSC lines was first tested. Then, we modified our traditional SCNT protocol to find a workable protocol. In particular, the removal of a 6DMAP treatment post-activation enhanced the extrusion rate of pseudo-second-polar bodies (p2PB) (81.3% vs. 15.8%, based on peak time, 4hpa). Moreover, an immediate activation method yielded significantly more blastocysts than delayed activation (31.3% vs. 16.0%, based on fused embryos). The immunofluorescent results confirmed the effect of the 6DMAP treatment removal, showing remarkable p2PB extrusion during a series of nuclear transfer procedures. The reconstructed embryos from metaphase piPSCs with our modified protocol demonstrated normal morphology at 2-cell, 4-cell and blastocyst stages and a high rate of normal karyotype. This study demonstrated a new and efficient way to produce viable cloned embryos from piPSCs when synchronized to the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, which may lead to opportunities to produce cloned pigs from piPSCs more efficiently. PMID:27472781

  13. Forskolin improves the cryosurvival of in vivo-derived porcine embryos at very early stages using two vitrification methods.

    PubMed

    Gomis, J; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Parrilla, I; Angel, M A; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of forskolin on the viability of in vivo-derived porcine embryos vitrified by the superfine open pulled straw (SOPS) or solid surface vitrification (SSV) methods at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and blastocyst stages. Zygotes, 2- to 4-cell embryos, and morulae were obtained from superovulated sows. After collection, embryos were cultured for 24h with 0 or 10 μM forskolin and then vitrified using the SOPS and SSV method, or not vitrified (fresh controls). Fresh and vitrified-warmed 2-cells, 4-cells, and blastocysts were cultured for additional 96 h, 72 h and 24 h, respectively. At the end of the culture, embryos were evaluated for progression to the blastocyst stage and total cell number. The vitrification method did not affect any of the parameters evaluated for any embryo stage. Forskolin increased (P<0.01) the blastocyst formation and the final developmental stage of vitrified 2- and 4-cell embryos. However, these embryos exhibited lower (P<0.003) blastocyst formation rates than their fresh counterparts. The total cell number and hatching rate were similar in both groups (vitrified and fresh) of 2- and 4-cell embryos. Vitrified blastocysts exhibited viabilities, final developmental stages, hatching rates, and total cell numbers that were similar to those of their fresh counterparts, regardless of the addition of forskolin. In conclusion, the SOPS and SSV methods are suitable for the cryopreservation of in vivo-derived 2- to 4-cell porcine embryos. Pre-treatment with forskolin for 24h before vitrification improves the cryotolerance of 2- and 4-cell porcine embryos.

  14. Stem Cell–Derived Bioactive Materials Accelerate Development of Porcine In Vitro–Fertilized Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Moon, Jeremiah Ji-Man; Kim, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stem cells show the capability to proliferate in an undifferentiated state with long-term self-renewal, which gives the cells advantages for use as bioactive material (BM) for embryo culture in vitro. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of two BMs—human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cell BM (hAT-MSC-BM) and human embryonic stem cell–derived BM (hESC-BM)—on porcine embryo development compared to commonly used bovine serum albumin (BSA) or serum treatment groups. In vitro–fertilized (IVF) embryos were cultured in PZM-5 with 4 mg/mL BSA until day 4 and equally divided into four groups. Starting from day 4 (until day 6), each group was treated with the following protein additives: 4 mg/mL BSA (control), 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% hAT-MSC-BM, or 10% hESC-BM. Our results show FBS- and two other BM-treated groups showed significant increases in blastocyst formation rate, hatching rate, and total cell number compared with the control group (p<0.05). The hAT-MSC-BM and hESC-BM treatment groups presented better-quality embryo development, especially from the middle expanding stage to hatching. In particular, the hAT-MSC-BM–treated group showed the highest developmental potential of all groups and formed the most expanding-stage blastocysts. The relative expression of reprogramming-related transcription factor (POU5F1, SOX2, DPPA5, and CDH1), antioxidant (PRDX5), and apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5) genes also increased in two types of BMs compared to the control. In addition, we investigated the protein synthesis of the tight junction– and gap junction–related genes, connexin 43 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); these increased more than in the control. These results demonstrate that stem cell–derived BMs accelerate porcine preimplantation embryo development and that the BMs would be helpful in the development of preimplantation embryos. PMID:26053518

  15. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Between day 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in estrogen production for maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to ~20% of embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongati...

  16. Porcine gonadogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five images submitted for teaching purposes related to porcine gonadogenesis (2), porcine fetal testicular development (2), and porcine fetal ovarian development. Key words include: Egg cell nests, Embryo, GATA4, Genital ridge, Gonad, Leydig cell, Mesonephros, MIS, Ovary, P450c17, Porcine, Sertoli ...

  17. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sargus-Patino, Catherine N; Wright, Elane C; Plautz, Sarah A; Miles, Jeremy R; Vallet, Jeff L; Pannier, Angela K

    2014-08-01

    Between Days 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in oestrogen production that triggers maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood due to the lack of an effective in vitro culture system. Our objective was to use alginate hydrogels as three-dimensional scaffolds that can mechanically support the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos. White cross-bred gilts were bred at oestrus (Day 0) to Duroc boars and embryos were recovered on Days 9, 10 or 11 of gestation. Spherical embryos were randomly assigned to be encapsulated within double-layered 0.7% alginate beads or remain as non-encapsulated controls (ENC and CONT treatment groups, respectively) and were cultured for 96h. Every 24h, half the medium was replaced with fresh medium and an image of each embryo was recorded. At the termination of culture, embryo images were used to assess morphological changes and cell survival. 17β-Oestradiol levels were measured in the removed media by radioimmunoassay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse steroidogenic transcript expression at 96h in ENC and CONT embryos, as well as in vivo-developed control embryos (i.e. spherical, ovoid and tubular). Although no differences in cell survival were observed, 32% (P<0.001) of the surviving ENC embryos underwent morphological changes characterised by tubal formation with subsequent flattening, whereas none of the CONT embryos exhibited morphological changes. Expression of steroidogenic transcripts STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 was greater (P<0.07) in ENC embryos with morphological changes (ENC+) compared with CONT embryos and ENC embryos with no morphological changes (ENC-), and was more similar to expression of later-stage in vivo-developed controls. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase (P<0.001) in 17

  18. In vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos using alginate hydrogels as a three-dimensional extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Sargus-Patino, Catherine N; Wright, Elane C; Plautz, Sarah A; Miles, Jeremy R; Vallet, Jeff L; Pannier, Angela K

    2014-08-01

    Between Days 10 and 12 of gestation, porcine embryos undergo a dramatic morphological change, known as elongation, with a corresponding increase in oestrogen production that triggers maternal recognition of pregnancy. Elongation deficiencies contribute to embryonic loss, but exact mechanisms of elongation are poorly understood due to the lack of an effective in vitro culture system. Our objective was to use alginate hydrogels as three-dimensional scaffolds that can mechanically support the in vitro development of preimplantation porcine embryos. White cross-bred gilts were bred at oestrus (Day 0) to Duroc boars and embryos were recovered on Days 9, 10 or 11 of gestation. Spherical embryos were randomly assigned to be encapsulated within double-layered 0.7% alginate beads or remain as non-encapsulated controls (ENC and CONT treatment groups, respectively) and were cultured for 96h. Every 24h, half the medium was replaced with fresh medium and an image of each embryo was recorded. At the termination of culture, embryo images were used to assess morphological changes and cell survival. 17β-Oestradiol levels were measured in the removed media by radioimmunoassay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse steroidogenic transcript expression at 96h in ENC and CONT embryos, as well as in vivo-developed control embryos (i.e. spherical, ovoid and tubular). Although no differences in cell survival were observed, 32% (P<0.001) of the surviving ENC embryos underwent morphological changes characterised by tubal formation with subsequent flattening, whereas none of the CONT embryos exhibited morphological changes. Expression of steroidogenic transcripts STAR, CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 was greater (P<0.07) in ENC embryos with morphological changes (ENC+) compared with CONT embryos and ENC embryos with no morphological changes (ENC-), and was more similar to expression of later-stage in vivo-developed controls. Furthermore, a time-dependent increase (P<0.001) in 17

  19. Exogenous expression of OCT4 facilitates oocyte-mediated reprogramming in cloned porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qianqian; Cong, Peiqing; Zhao, Haijing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhao, Guangyin; Gao, Jintao; Nie, Yu; Chen, Yaosheng

    2014-09-01

    OCT4 is a well-established regulator of pluripotency and nuclear reprogramming. To determine if improving OCT4 abundance can facilitate oocyte-mediated reprogramming in cloned porcine embryos, we artificially increased OCT4 levels by co-incubating donor cells with 50 ng/µl OCT4 plasmid. We observed higher rates of blastocyst formation (P < 0.05) and lower levels of blastocyst apoptosis in nuclear-transfer-derived embryos carrying OCT4-incubated donor nuclei (OCT4-SCNT). The beneficial effect caused by exogenous expression of OCT4 involves epigenetic changes, wherein increased histone acetylation (AcH3K9) appeared in OCT4-SCNT embryos at the one-cell and blastocyst stages and reduced histone methylation (H3K9me2) was observed at the one-cell stage (P < 0.05). There was a transient increase in exogenous OCT4 and an up-regulation of endogenous OCT4 level in OCT4-SCNT embryos (P < 0.05), while the expression pattern of epigenetic enzymes was changed. These modifications were accompanied by an up-regulation of CDX2, whose interaction with OCT4 is instrumental for implantation, and a down-regulation of XIST, a negative indicator of reprogramming (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results support a role for exogenous expression of OCT4 in improving the efficiency of nuclear reprogramming while establishing a convenient and timesaving method to improve nuclear-transfer outcomes.

  20. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Bethany K.; Spate, Lee D.; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most in vitro culture conditions are less‐than‐optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional‐profiling database to identify culture‐induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo‐produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria‐related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro‐produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246–258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. PMID:26824641

  1. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births.

    PubMed

    Redel, Bethany K; Spate, Lee D; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M; Prather, Randall S

    2016-03-01

    Most in vitro culture conditions are less-than-optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional-profiling database to identify culture-induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo-produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria-related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro-produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246-258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. PMID:26824641

  2. Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Require LIF and Maintain Their Developmental Potential in Early Stage of Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, De; Guo, Yanjie; Li, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yajun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Yi; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Junhe; Wang, Huayan

    2012-01-01

    Porcine induced pluripotent stem (piPS) cell lines have been generated recently by using a cocktail of defined transcription factors, however, the features of authentic piPS cells have not been agreed upon and most of published iPS clones did not meet the stringent requirements of pluripotency. Here, we report the generation of piPS cells from fibroblasts using retrovirus carrying four mouse transcription factors (mOct4, mSox2, mKlf4 and mc-Myc, 4F). Multiple LIF-dependent piPS cell lines were generated and these cells showed the morphology similar to mouse embryonic stem cells and other pluripotent stem cells. In addition to the routine characterization, piPS cells were injected into porcine pre-compacted embryos to generate chimera embryos and nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. The results showed that piPS cells retain the ability to integrate into inner and outer layers of the blastocysts, and support the NT embryos development to blastocysts. The generations of chimera embryos and NT embryos derived from piPS clones are a practical means to determine the quality of iPS cells ex vivo. PMID:23251622

  3. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, Akihiro; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  4. Aberrant expression of Xist in aborted porcine fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  5. Hollow fiber vitrification provides a novel method for cryopreserving in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Miki; Matsunari, Hitomi; Honda, Kasumi; Nakano, Kazuaki; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Kanai, Takahiro; Matsuda, Taisuke; Matsumura, Yukina; Hagiwara, Yui; Sasayama, Norihisa; Shirasu, Akio; Takahashi, Masashi; Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In vitro matured (IVM) oocytes have been used to create genetically modified pigs for various biomedical purposes. However, porcine embryos derived from IVM oocytes are very cryosensitive. Developing improved cryopreservation methods would facilitate the production of genetically modified pigs and also accelerate the conservation of genetic resources. We recently developed a novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method; the present study was initiated to determine whether this new method permits the cryopreservation of IVM oocyte-derived porcine embryos. Embryos were created from the in vitro fertilization of IVM oocytes with frozen-thawed sperm derived from a transgenic pig carrying a humanized Kusabira-Orange (huKO) gene. Morula-stage embryos were assigned to vitrification and nonvitrification groups to compare their in vitro and in vivo developmental abilities. Vitrified morulae developed to the blastocyst stage at a rate similar to that of nonvitrified embryos (66/85, 77.6% vs. 67/84, 79.8%). Eighty-eight blastocysts that developed from vitrified morulae were transferred into the uteri of three recipient gilts. All three became pregnant and produced a total of 17 piglets (19.3%). This piglet production was slightly lower, albeit not significantly, than that of the nonvitrification group (27/88, 30.7%). Approximately half of the piglets in the vitrification (10/17, 58.8%) and nonvitrification (15/27, 55.6%) groups were transgenic. There was no significant difference in the growth rates among the piglets in the two groups. These results indicate that the HFV method is an extremely effective method for preserving cryosensitive embryos such as porcine in vitro maturation/fertilization-derived morulae.

  6. Alteration of the DNA methylation status of donor cells impairs the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos

    PubMed Central

    HUAN, Yan Jun; WU, Zhan Feng; ZHANG, Ji Guang; ZHU, Jiang; XIE, Bing Teng; WANG, Jian Yu; LI, Jing Yu; XUE, Bing Hua; KONG, Qing Ran; LIU, Zhong Hua

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reprogramming induced by somatic cell nuclear transfer is an inefficient process, and donor cell DNA methylation status is thought to be a major factor affecting cloning efficiency. Here, the role of donor cell DNA methylation status regulated by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) or 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine-5'-triphosphate (5-methyl-dCTP) in the early development of porcine cloned embryos was investigated. Our results showed that 5-aza-dC or 5-methyl-dCTP significantly reduced or increased the global methylation levels and altered the methylation and expression levels of key genes in donor cells. However, the development of cloned embryos derived from these cells was reduced. Furthermore, disrupted pseudo-pronucleus formation and transcripts of early embryo development-related genes were observed in cloned embryos derived from these cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that alteration of the DNA methylation status of donor cells by 5-aza-dC or 5-methyl-dCTP disrupted nuclear reprogramming and impaired the developmental competence of porcine cloned embryos. PMID:26537205

  7. Pretreating porcine sperm with lipase enhances developmental competence of embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yinghui; Fan, Junhua; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Kui

    2016-08-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been widely applied in humans, mice, and some domestic animals to cure human infertility, or produce genetically superior or genetically engineered animals. However, the production efficiency of ICSI in pigs remains quite low. In this study, we developed a new sperm pretreatment method to improve production efficiency of ICSI in pigs. Experiment 1 revealed that pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation, not only can reduce the adhesion between sperm and the injection pipette without adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the operating medium, but also significantly improve male pronuclei (MPN) formation rate (55.56% vs. 40.00% (0 mg/ml), 42.59% (5.0 mg/ml), 40.00% (10.0 mg/ml), P < 0.05) and enhance developmental competence of ICSI embryos (26.03% vs. 10.87% (0 mg/ml), 10.00% (5.0 mg/ml), 10.13% (10.0 mg/ml), P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that this method has a higher MPN formation rate (50.47% vs. 30.78%, P < 0.05) and blastocyst rate (18.81% vs. 7.41%, P < 0.05) than the PVP method, and was better than the Triton X-100 treatment method (50.47% vs. 46.23%, 18.81% vs. 12.75%). Therefore, pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation is highly recommended, instead of adding PVP in the operating medium.

  8. Effect of ATM and HDAC Inhibition on Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Porcine Early Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wang, HaiYang; Luo, YiBo; Lin, ZiLi; Lee, In-Won; Kwon, Jeongwoo; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Oocyte maturation and embryonic development are sensitive to DNA damage. Compared with somatic cells or oocytes, little is known about the response to DNA damage in early preimplantation embryos. In this study, we examined DNA damage checkpoints and DNA repair mechanisms in parthenogenetic preimplantation porcine embryos. We found that most of the etoposide-treated embryos showed delay in cleavage and ceased development before the blastocyst stage. In DNA-damaged embryos, the earliest positive TUNEL signals were detected on Day 5 of in vitro culture. Caffeine, which is an ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein) kinase inhibitor, and KU55933, which is an ATM kinase inhibitor, were equally effective in rescuing the etoposide-induced cell-cycle blocks. This indicates that ATM plays a central role in the regulation of the checkpoint mechanisms. Treating the embryos with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) increased embryonic development and reduced etoposide-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). The mRNA expression of genes involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathways for DSB repair was reduced upon HDACi treatment in 5-day-old embryos. Furthermore, HDACi treatment increased the expression levels of pluripotency-related genes (OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG) and decreased the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (CASP3 and BAX). These results indicate that early embryonic cleavage and development are disturbed by etoposide-induced DNA damage. ATMi (caffeine or KU55933) treatment bypasses the checkpoint while HDACi treatment improves the efficiency of DSB repair to increase the cleavage and blastocyst rate in porcine early preimplantation embryos. PMID:26556501

  9. Development and validation of a highly efficient protocol of porcine somatic cloning using preovulatory embryo transfer in peripubertal gilts.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Björn; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Oropeza, Marianne; Hornen, Nadine; Lemme, Erika; Hassel, Petra; Queisser, Anna-Lisa; Niemann, Heiner

    2008-09-01

    The efficiency of porcine somatic nuclear transfer (born piglets/transferred embryos) is low. Here, we report a highly efficient protocol using peripubertal gilts as recipients synchronized to ovulate approximately 24 h after transfer of cloned embryos. Retrospectively, we compared the efficiency of two different synchronization protocols: In group 1, recipient animals were synchronized to ovulate approximately 6 h prior to surgical embryo transfer while in group 2 the animals were treated to ovulate 24 h after embryo transfer. In total, 1562 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 recipients in group 1; two of them became pregnant (16.7%). One pregnancy was lost on day 32, the second pregnancy went to term, and led to the birth of one healthy piglet after Cesarean section. In group 2, 1531 cloned embryos were transferred to 12 recipients. Nine recipients (75.0%) became pregnant as determined by ultrasound scanning on day 25. All pregnancies went to term and delivered a total of 47 live-born piglets. The cloning efficiency of both groups differed significantly (group 1: 0.1%, group 2: 3.1%, p < 0.05). This modified protocol was then applied in subsequent experiments using different types of transgenic and nontransgenic donor cells with similar success rates. Results show that this protocol is robust and highly reproducible, and can thus be employed for routine production of cloned pigs.

  10. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs)?

    PubMed Central

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) technology. PMID:27527207

  11. Siberian Sturgeon Oocyte Extract Induces Epigenetic Modifications of Porcine Somatic Cells and Improves Developmental Competence of SCNT Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk; Park, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Ran; Eun, Hye-Ju; Baek, Sang-Ki; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Woo; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Campbell, Keith H.S.; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has generally demonstrated that a differentiated cell can convert into a undifferentiated or pluripotent state. In the SCNT experiment, nuclear reprogramming is induced by exposure of introduced donor nuclei to the recipient cytoplasm of matured oocytes. However, because the efficiency of SCNT still remains low, a combination of SCNT technique with the ex-ovo method may improve the normal development of SCNT embryos. Here we hypothesized that treatment of somatic cells with extracts prepared from the germinal vesicle (GV) stage Siberian sturgeon oocytes prior to their use as nuclear donor for SCNT would improve in vitro development. A reversible permeability protocol with 4 μg/mL of digitonin for 2 min at 4°C in order to deliver Siberian sturgeon oocyte extract (SOE) to porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) was carried out. As results, the intensity of H3K9ac staining in PFFs following treatment of SOE for 7 h at 18°C was significantly increased but the intensity of H3K9me3 staining in PFFs was significantly decreased as compared with the control (p<0.05). Additionally, the level of histone acetylation in SCNT embryos at the zygote stage was significantly increased when reconstructed using SOE-treated cells (p<0.05), similar to that of IVF embryos at the zygote stage. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly decreased and pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2) were highly expressed in the blastocyst stage of SCNT embryos reconstructed using SOE-treated cells as nuclear donor (p<0.05). And there was observed a better development to the blastocyst stage in the SOE-treated group (p<0.05). Our results suggested that pre-treatment of cells with SOE could improve epigenetic reprogramming and the quality of porcine SCNT embryos. PMID:25049951

  12. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. PMID:24659575

  13. Transcriptional regulators TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are aberrantly expressed in porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization in comparison to in vivo- and somatic-cell nuclear transfer-derived embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jennifer; Tessanne, Kim; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro embryo production is important for research in animal reproduction, embryo transfer, transgenics, and cloning. Yet, in vitro-fertilized (IVF) embryos are generally developmentally delayed and are inferior to in vivo-derived (IVV) embryos; this discrepancy is likely a result of aberrant gene expression. Transcription of three genes implicated to be important in normal preimplantation embryo development, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53, was determined by quanitative PCR in IVF, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), parthenogenetic, and IVV porcine oocytes and embryos. There was no difference in TRIM28 or SETDB1 abundance between oocytes matured in vitro versus in vivo (P > 0.05), whereas TP53 levels were higher in in vitro-matured oocytes. TRIM28 increased from metaphase-II oocytes to the 4-cell and blastocyst stages in IVF embryos, whereas IVV embryos showed a reduction in TRIM28 abundance from maturation throughout development. The relative abundance of TP53 increased by the blastocyst stage in all treatment groups, but was higher in IVF embryos compared to IVV and SCNT embryos. In contrast, SETDB1 transcript levels decreased from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage in all treatments. For each gene analyzed, SCNT embryos of both hard-to-clone and easy-to-clone cell lines were more comparable to IVV than IVF embryos. Knockdown of TRIM28 also had no effect on blastocyst development or expression of SETDB1 or TP53. Thus, TRIM28, SETDB1, and TP53 are dynamically expressed in porcine oocytes and embryos. Furthermore, TRIM28 and TP53 abundances in IVV and SCNT embryos are similar, but different from quantities in IVF embryos. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 81: 552–556, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24659575

  14. Inhibition and activation of porcine squalene epoxidase.

    PubMed

    Bai, M; Prestwich, G D

    1992-03-01

    Pig liver squalene epoxidase (SE) has been partially purified from solubilized microsomes by DEAE-Sephacel and Blue Sepharose 4B chromatography. This stable and reproducible preparation was used to investigate the mechanism of several substrate-like inhibitors of SE and to study the effects of pH, metals, detergents, and cofactors on enzyme activity. Most divalent (1 mM) and trivalent (0.1 mM) metal cations had little effect on SE at pH 7.4; only ferrous and cupric ions showed ca. 50% reduction in SE activity. Interestingly, at pH 8.8, EDTA (10 mM) shows 1.8-fold enhancement of enzyme activity. Among the detergents, Triton X-100 was clearly superior for solubilization and purification of porcine SE; Tween 80, Lubrol-PX, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]propanesulfonic acid, octyl beta-glucoside, and three different Zwittergents were much less effective for SE solubilization. Partially purified pig liver SE showed maximal activity at pH 8.8-9.0. Trisnorsqualene alcohol and trisnorsqualene cyclopropylamine were noncompetitive inhibitors at pH 8.8, with Ki values of 4 microM and 180 nM, respectively; these two inhibitors were not substrates for SE. In contrast, 26-hydroxysqualene was both a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4 microM at pH 8.8 and a substrate for SE. An unexpected enhancement (up to 350%) of SE activity was observed at pH 7.4 following preincubation with selected nonpolar derivatives of farnesol and farnesoic acid. At pH 8.8, this effect was less dramatic but still evident.

  15. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems.

  16. Application of hollow fiber vitrification for cryopreservation of bovine early cleavage stage embryos and porcine morula-blastomeres

    PubMed Central

    UCHIKURA, Ayuko; MATSUNARI, Hitomi; NAKANO, Kazuaki; HATAE, Shota; NAGASHIMA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A novel hollow fiber vitrification (HFV) method was applied to materials that have previously been difficult to cryopreserve, thereby expanding the potential application of this method. The results showed that zona-free porcine morulae and their isolated blastomeres remained viable even after vitrification. The rate of development to blastocysts after vitrification was similar for zona-free and zona-intact morulae (21/23, 91.3% for both). Vitrified blastomeres had a developmental potential equal to that of non-vitrified blastomeres (blastocyst formation rate after reaggregation: 16/17, 94.1% for both). The HFV method was also effective for the cryopreservation of in vitro matured/fertilized bovine embryos at the 2- to 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell and morula stages. The blastocyst formation rates of vitrified embryos (66.1–82.5%) were similar to those of non-vitrified embryos (74.5–82.5%). These results indicate that this novel HFV method is an effective tool for embryo cryopreservation that can enhance current practices in reproductive biology. PMID:26875691

  17. Estrus synchronization affects WNT signaling in the porcine reproductive tract and embryos.

    PubMed

    Kiewisz, Jolanta; Kaczmarek, Monika M; Morawska, Ewa; Blitek, Agnieszka; Kapelanski, Wojciech; Ziecik, Adam J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate an effect of estrus synchronization with prostaglandin (PG) F(2α) and PMSG/hCG on WNT4, WNT5A, WNT7A, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1) gene expression. The weight of the uterus, morphometrical parameters of the endometrium and the number of CL were recorded. The analysis of estradiol (E(2)), prostaglandin (PG) F(2α) and E(2) content in the uterine luminal flushings (ULFs) and progesterone (P(4)) level in the blood serum were conducted. RNA was isolated from endometrial, luteal and embryonic tissue of pregnant non-synchronized (Control; n = 15) and pregnant synchronized (PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG; n = 15) pigs. Whereas there was no change in uterine weight, differences in height of endometrial surface and glandular epithelium were found. However, height of the endometrium, number of the glands and capillaries were unaffected. The total number of the CLs was higher (P < 0.05) in animals treated with PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG. The amount of E(2) and P(4) was lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, respectively) in pregnant gilts administrated with PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG. The concentration of PGF(2α) in ULFs was not affected by hormonal management, while PGE(2) was higher (P < 0.01) in hormonally in comparison to non-hormonally treated pigs. The content of WNT4 mRNA in conceptuses increased on particular Days studied in Control and PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG administered animals. WNT7A and CTNNB1 were affected by PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG treatment in both conceptuses (P < 0.001, P < 0.05) and endometrial tissue (P < 0.001, P < 0.01). The PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG treatment resulted in elevated expression of WNT4 (P < 0.001) and CTNNB1 (P < 0.05) in luteal tissue in comparison to the Control gilts. Moreover, luteal amount of WNT5A mRNA was higher in PGF(2α)/PMSG/hCG animals in comparison to the Control group (P < 0.05). Presented data show that exogenous hormones administration can affect gene expression in the porcine reproductive tract and embryo.

  18. Efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer - a retrospective study of factors related to embryo recipient and embryos transferred.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Yu, Hao; Lai, Liangxue; Pang, Daxin; Li, Zhanjun

    2013-01-01

    The successful generation of pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer depends on reducing risk factors in several aspects. To provide an overview of some influencing factors related to embryo transfer, the follow-up data related to cloned pig production collected in our laboratory was examined. (i) Spring showed a higher full-term pregnancy rate compared with winter (33.6% vs 18.6%, P = 0.006). Furthermore, a regression equation can be drawn between full-term pregnancy numbers and pregnancy numbers in different months (y = 0.692x-3.326). (ii) There were no significant differences detected in the number of transferred embryos between surrogate sows exhibiting full-term development compared to those that did not. (iii) Non-ovulating surrogate sows presented a higher percentage of full-term pregnancies compared with ovulating sows (32.0% vs 17.5%, P = 0.004; respectively). (iv) Abortion was most likely to take place between Day 27 to Day 34. (v) Based on Life Table Survival Analysis, delivery in normally fertilized and surrogate sows is expected to be completed before Day 117 or Day 125, respectively. Additionally, the length of pregnancy in surrogate sows was negatively correlated with the average litter size, which was not found for normally fertilized sows. In conclusion, performing embryo transfer in appropriate seasons, improving the quality of embryos transferred, optimizing the timing of embryo transfer, limiting the occurrence of abortion, combined with ameliorating the management of delivery, is expected to result in the harvest of a great number of surviving cloned piglets. PMID:24244859

  19. Subcellular Characterization of Porcine Oocytes with Different Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bo; Ren, Liang; Liu, Di; Ma, Jian-Zhang; An, Tie-Zhu; Yang, Xiu-Qin; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Guo, Yun-Yun; Zhu, Meng; Bai, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro maturation (IVM) efficiency of porcine embryos is still low because of poor oocyte quality. Although brilliant cresyl blue positive (BCB+) oocytes with low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity have shown superior quality than BCB negative (−) oocytes with high G6PDH activity, the use of a BCB staining test before IVM is still controversial. This study aimed to shed more light on the subcellular characteristics of porcine oocytes after selection using BCB staining. We assessed germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, cortical granule (CG) migration, mitochondrial distribution, the levels of acetylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (AcH3K9) and nuclear apoptosis features to investigate the correlation between G6PDH activity and these developmentally related features. A pattern of chromatin surrounding the nucleoli was seen in 53.0% of BCB+ oocytes and 77.6% of BCB+ oocytes showed peripherally distributed CGs. After IVM, 48.7% of BCB+ oocytes had a diffused mitochondrial distribution pattern. However, there were no significant differences in the levels of AcH3K9 in the nuclei of blastocysts derived from BCB+ and BCB− oocytes; at the same time, we observed a similar incidence of apoptosis in the BCB+ and control groups. Although this study indicated that G6PDH activity in porcine oocytes was correlated with several subcellular characteristics such as germinal vesicle chromatin configuration, CG migration and mitochondrial distribution, other features such as AcH3K9 level and nuclear apoptotic features were not associated with G6PDH activity and did not validate the BCB staining test. In using this test for selecting porcine oocytes, subcellular characteristics such as the AcH3K9 level and apoptotic nuclear features should also be considered. Adding histone deacetylase inhibitors or apoptosis inhibitors into the culture medium used might improve the efficiency of IVM of BCB+ oocytes. PMID:26580437

  20. Accurate and Phenol Free DNA Sexing of Day 30 Porcine Embryos by PCR.

    PubMed

    Blanes, Milena S; Tsoi, Stephen C M; Dyck, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Research into prenatal programming in the pig has shown that the sex of the developing embryo or fetus can influence the developmental outcome. Therefore, the ability to determine an embryo's sex is necessary in many experiments particularly regarding early development. The present protocol demonstrates an inexpensive, rapid and non-toxic preparation of pig genomic DNA for use with PCR. Day 30 embryos must be humanely collected according to the guidelines established by Institutional Animal Policy and Welfare Committees for the present protocol. The preparation of the whole embryo for this PCR based sexing technique simply involves grinding the frozen embryo to a fine powder using a pre-chilled mortar and pestle. PCR-quality DNA is released from a small amount of embryo powder by applying a hot incubation in an alkaline lysis reagent. Next, the DNA solution is mixed with neutralization buffer and used directly for PCR. Two primer pairs are generated to detect specific sex determining region of the Y- chromosome (SRY) and ZFX region of the X- chromosome with high accuracy and specificity. The same protocol can be applied to other elongated embryos (Day 10 to Day 14) earlier than Day 30. Also, this protocol can be carried with 96-welled plates when screening a large number of embryos, making it feasible for automation and high-throughput sex typing. PMID:26966900

  1. Isolation and characterization of trophoblast-derived stem-like cells from peri-implantation porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Suasnavas, Edison A; Heywood, Sierra; Ward, Anika; Cox, Lindsay; O'Grady, Merecedes; Zhao, Yuanfeng; Gilbert, Lacey; Isom, S Clay

    2015-03-01

    In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before attachment/implantation to become the fetal portion of the placenta. Trophoblast-derived cells were isolated and cultured from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos and were grown in vitro in a defined, serum-free culture medium for over 2 years without showing any signs of senescence. However, trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Semiquantitative and quantitative gene expression analyses of cells in culture from 0 to 30 days confirmed the presence (and relative abundance) of mRNA transcripts from genes involved in trophoblast function (CDX2, TEAD4, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, FGFR2, PLET, HAND1) as well as some genes known to mediate pluripotency (POU5F1, KLF4, CMYC). Protein immunolocalization demonstrated expression of both trophoblast and mesenchymal cell markers. DNA methylation patterns in promoters of three critical developmental genes (HAND1, KLF4, TEAD4) did not change appreciably over 4 months of culture in vitro. It was demonstrated that these trophoblast-derived cells are easily stably transfected with an exogenous transgene (eGFP) by a variety of methods, and show the ability to survive and to be passaged repeatedly after transfection. In summary, early embryonic porcine trophoblast-derived cells have demonstrated unique characteristics, which means they could be used as valuable tools for laboratory work. Anticipated applications include the study of trophoblast physiology as well as possible solutions for improving efficiency of transgenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for pluripotency reprogramming of cells. PMID:25660622

  2. Isolation and characterization of trophoblast-derived stem-like cells from peri-implantation porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Suasnavas, Edison A; Heywood, Sierra; Ward, Anika; Cox, Lindsay; O'Grady, Merecedes; Zhao, Yuanfeng; Gilbert, Lacey; Isom, S Clay

    2015-03-01

    In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before attachment/implantation to become the fetal portion of the placenta. Trophoblast-derived cells were isolated and cultured from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos and were grown in vitro in a defined, serum-free culture medium for over 2 years without showing any signs of senescence. However, trophoblast-derived cells placed into serum-containing medium rapidly senesce and fail to proliferate. Semiquantitative and quantitative gene expression analyses of cells in culture from 0 to 30 days confirmed the presence (and relative abundance) of mRNA transcripts from genes involved in trophoblast function (CDX2, TEAD4, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, FGFR2, PLET, HAND1) as well as some genes known to mediate pluripotency (POU5F1, KLF4, CMYC). Protein immunolocalization demonstrated expression of both trophoblast and mesenchymal cell markers. DNA methylation patterns in promoters of three critical developmental genes (HAND1, KLF4, TEAD4) did not change appreciably over 4 months of culture in vitro. It was demonstrated that these trophoblast-derived cells are easily stably transfected with an exogenous transgene (eGFP) by a variety of methods, and show the ability to survive and to be passaged repeatedly after transfection. In summary, early embryonic porcine trophoblast-derived cells have demonstrated unique characteristics, which means they could be used as valuable tools for laboratory work. Anticipated applications include the study of trophoblast physiology as well as possible solutions for improving efficiency of transgenesis by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for pluripotency reprogramming of cells.

  3. Factors Determining the Efficiency of Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: Data Analysis with Over 200,000 Reconstructed Embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianbin; Dou, Hongwei; Xiang, Xi; Li, Lin; Li, Yong; Lin, Lin; Pang, Xinzhi; Zhang, Yijie; Chen, Yu; Luan, Jing; Xu, Ying; Yang, Zhenzhen; Yang, Wenxian; Liu, Huan; Li, Feida; Wang, Hui; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Vajta, Gabor; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research is usually limited to several hundreds or thousands of reconstructed embryos. Here, we report mass results obtained with an established and consistent porcine SCNT system (handmade cloning [HMC]). During the experimental period, 228,230 reconstructed embryos and 82,969 blastocysts were produced. After being transferred into 656 recipients, 1070 piglets were obtained. First, the effects of different types of donor cells, including fetal fibroblasts (FFs), adult fibroblasts (AFs), adult preadipocytes (APs), and adult blood mesenchymal (BM) cells, were investigated on the further in vitro and in vivo development. Compared to adult donor cells (AFs, APs, BM cells, respectively), FF cells resulted in a lower blastocyst/reconstructed embryo rate (30.38% vs. 37.94%, 34.65%, and 34.87%, respectively), but a higher overall efficiency on the number of piglets born alive per total blastocysts transferred (1.50% vs. 0.86%, 1.03%, and 0.91%, respectively) and a lower rate of developmental abnormalities (10.87% vs. 56.57%, 24.39%, and 51.85%, respectively). Second, recloning was performed with cloned adult fibroblasts (CAFs) and cloned fetal fibroblasts (CFFs). When CAFs were used as the nuclear donor, fewer developmental abnormalities and higher overall efficiency were observed compared to AFs (56.57% vs. 28.13% and 0.86% vs. 1.59%, respectively). However, CFFs had an opposite effect on these parameters when compared with CAFs (94.12% vs. 10.87% and 0.31% vs. 1.50%, respectively). Third, effects of genetic modification on the efficiency of SCNT were investigated with transgenic fetal fibroblasts (TFFs) and gene knockout fetal fibroblasts (KOFFs). Genetic modification of FFs increased developmental abnormalities (38.96% and 25.24% vs. 10.87% for KOFFs, TFFs, and FFs, respectively). KOFFs resulted in lower overall efficiency compared to TFFs and FFs (0.68% vs. 1.62% and 1.50%, respectively). In conclusion, this is the

  4. Extensive complement activation in hereditary porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (porcine dense deposit disease).

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J. H.; Høgåsen, K.; Mollnes, T. E.

    1993-01-01

    Massive glomerular deposits of C3 and the terminal C5b-9 complement complex (TCC), but no immune complex deposits were detected by immunofluorescence in porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II. TCC deposits were always observed with concomitant deposits of vitronectin (S-protein) in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, in contrast to a piglet with mesangial glomerulopathy where TCC was present without vitronectin co-deposition. Enzyme immunoassays revealed extensive systemic complement activation in 1-week-old affected piglets, observed by low plasma C3 (about 5% of normal) and high plasma TCC (about 10 x normal). Affected piglets revealed some plasma complement activation already at birth, 3 to 4 weeks before recognizable clinical disease. It is concluded that porcine membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis represents a nonimmune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis caused by unrestricted systemic complement activation with C3 consumption, TCC formation, and glomerular trapping of complement activation products. A pathogenetic mechanism of a defective or missing complement regulation protein is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8238252

  5. Aberrant gene expression patterns in extraembryonic tissue from cloned porcine embryos.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Ryung; Im, Gi-Sun; Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seongsoo; Park, Jae-Hong; Kim, Hyun; Do, Yoon Jung; Park, Soo Bon; Yang, Bo-Suck; Song, Young Min; Cho, Jae-Hyeon; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

    2013-06-01

    The abnormal development of embryos reconstructed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is considered to be associated with consequent changes in gene expression following errors in epigenetic reprogramming. In this study, we carried out SCNT using donor fibroblast cells derived from 3-way hybrids (Landrace×Duroc×Yorkshire). A total of 655 SCNT embryos were transferred, and 6.97±2.3 cloned fetuses were successfully recovered from three surrogates at gestational day 30. An analysis of the 6.97±2.3 cloned embryos revealed that most had severe extraembryonic defects. The extraembryonic tissue from the SCNT embryos was abnormally small compared with that of the control. To investigate the differentially expressed genes between the SCNT and control extraembryonic tissues, we compared the gene expression profiles of the extraembryonic tissues from gestational day 30 cloned pig embryos with those from the control using an annealing control primer-based GeneFishing polymerase chain reaction. As a result, we found that a total of 50 genes were differentially expressed by utilizing 120 ACPs, 38 genes of which were known. Among them, 26 genes were up-regulated, whereas 12 genes were down-regulated. Real-time RT-PCR showed that apoptosis-related genes were expressed significantly higher in SCNT extraembryonic tissue than in the control, whereas metabolism-related genes were expressed at significantly lower levels in the SCNT extraembryonic tissue. These observations strongly indicate that early gestational death of SCNT embryo is caused, at least in part, by the disruption of developing extraembryonic tissues as a result of aberrant gene expression, which results in abnormal apoptosis and metabolism.

  6. In Vitro Elongation of Porcine Embryos Using Alginate Hydrogels as a Three-Dimensional Extracellular Matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the pig, the pre-implantation period of pregnancy is highly influential on sow productivity and therefore the profitability of swine production. Between Day 11 and 12 of gestation, the embryo undergoes a significant morphological change, during which it transforms from an ovoid structure of about...

  7. Porcine embryo production following in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection from vitrified immature oocytes matured with a granulosa cell co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Casillas, Fahiel; Ducolomb, Yvonne; Lemus, Ana E; Cuello, Cristina; Betancourt, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the capacity of vitrified-warmed porcine immature oocytes to mature and to be fertilized using in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and to determine the subsequent embryo development. Immature oocytes were vitrified using ethylene glycol and dimethylsulphoxide as cryoprotectants and the Cryolock method. After warming oocytes were cultured 44 h for maturation. Oocytes were randomly distributed in three treatment groups and subjected to in vitro fertilization (Experiment 1) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Experiment 2) procedures. The results indicate that the embryo development was higher in denuded oocytes co-cultured with granulosa cells (NkO-CC group) fertilized by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection compared to cumulus-cell oocyte complexes (COCs group), showing no significant differences with control. Vitrified denuded oocytes matured with a co-culture system NkO-CC group, displayed higher cleavage rate and blastocyst production than vitrified COCs group. Blastocysts were successfully obtained after IVF and ICSI procedures; however, the development to the blastocyst stage was better after IVF. These results show that the vitrification-warming media, the employment of a granulosa cell co-culture system and the Cryolock method during vitrification, increased the nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of vitrified porcine immature oocytes. Further experiments are required to enhance porcine embryo production after vitrification.

  8. Vesicles Cytoplasmic Injection: An Efficient Technique to Produce Porcine Transgene-Expressing Embryos.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, C G; Bevacqua, R J; Lorenzo, M S; Tello, M F; Willis, M; Buemo, C P; Lombardo, D M; Salamone, D F

    2016-08-01

    The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids showed to improve the efficiency of cytoplasmic injection of transgenes in cattle. Here, this technique was tested as a simplified alternative for transgenes delivery in porcine zygotes. To this aim, cytoplasmic injection of the plasmid alone was compared to the injection with plasmids co-incubated with vesicles both in diploid parthenogenic and IVF zygotes. The plasmid pcx-egfp was injected circular (CP) at 3, 30 and 300 ng/μl and linear (LP) at 30 ng/μl. The experimental groups using parthenogenetic zygotes were as follows: CP naked at 3 ng/μl (N = 105), 30 ng/μl (N = 95) and 300 ng/μl (N = 65); Sham (N = 105); control not injected (N = 223); LP naked at 30 ng/μl (N = 78); LP vesicles (N = 115) and Sham vesicles (N = 59). For IVF zygotes: LP naked (N = 44) LP vesicles (N = 94), Sham (N = 59) and control (N = 79). Cleavage, blastocyst and GFP+ rates were analysed by Fisher's test (p < 0.05). The parthenogenic CP naked group showed lower cleavage respect to control (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of plasmids to allow development to blastocyst stage was 30 ng/μl. There were no differences in DNA fragmentation between groups. The parthenogenic LP naked group resulted in high GFP rates (46%) and also allowed the production of GFP blastocysts (33%). The cytoplasmic injection with LP vesicles into parthenogenic zygotes allowed 100% GFP blastocysts. Injected IVF showed higher cleavage rates than control (p < 0.05). In IVF zygotes, only the use of vesicles produced GFP blastocysts. The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids improves the transgene expression efficiency for cytoplasmic injection in porcine zygotes and constitutes a simple technique for easy delivery of plasmids.

  9. Vesicles Cytoplasmic Injection: An Efficient Technique to Produce Porcine Transgene-Expressing Embryos.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, C G; Bevacqua, R J; Lorenzo, M S; Tello, M F; Willis, M; Buemo, C P; Lombardo, D M; Salamone, D F

    2016-08-01

    The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids showed to improve the efficiency of cytoplasmic injection of transgenes in cattle. Here, this technique was tested as a simplified alternative for transgenes delivery in porcine zygotes. To this aim, cytoplasmic injection of the plasmid alone was compared to the injection with plasmids co-incubated with vesicles both in diploid parthenogenic and IVF zygotes. The plasmid pcx-egfp was injected circular (CP) at 3, 30 and 300 ng/μl and linear (LP) at 30 ng/μl. The experimental groups using parthenogenetic zygotes were as follows: CP naked at 3 ng/μl (N = 105), 30 ng/μl (N = 95) and 300 ng/μl (N = 65); Sham (N = 105); control not injected (N = 223); LP naked at 30 ng/μl (N = 78); LP vesicles (N = 115) and Sham vesicles (N = 59). For IVF zygotes: LP naked (N = 44) LP vesicles (N = 94), Sham (N = 59) and control (N = 79). Cleavage, blastocyst and GFP+ rates were analysed by Fisher's test (p < 0.05). The parthenogenic CP naked group showed lower cleavage respect to control (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of plasmids to allow development to blastocyst stage was 30 ng/μl. There were no differences in DNA fragmentation between groups. The parthenogenic LP naked group resulted in high GFP rates (46%) and also allowed the production of GFP blastocysts (33%). The cytoplasmic injection with LP vesicles into parthenogenic zygotes allowed 100% GFP blastocysts. Injected IVF showed higher cleavage rates than control (p < 0.05). In IVF zygotes, only the use of vesicles produced GFP blastocysts. The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids improves the transgene expression efficiency for cytoplasmic injection in porcine zygotes and constitutes a simple technique for easy delivery of plasmids. PMID:27260090

  10. Effects of sperm pretreatment and embryo activation methods on the development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jai-Wei; Chang, Hsun-Chung; Wu, Hung-Yi; Liu, Shyh-Shyan; Wang, Chih-Hua; Chu, Chun-Yen; Shen, Perng-Chih

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of different embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments on the activation and development of bovine embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Four activation agents, i.e., calcium ionophore (A23187), ionomycin (Ion), electric pulse (EP) and ethanol (Eth) were used in various combinations to activate bovine ICSI embryos. The normal fertilization rate was similar in bovine ICSI embryos activated by A23187+Eth, Ion+Eth, Ion+EP+Eth, and 2-Ion (Ion administered two times)+Eth. Increasing the frequency of ionomycin stimulation from two (2-Ion+Eth) to three times (3-Ion+Eth) significantly (p<0.05) increased the cell number per embryo at the blastocyst stage. In addition, spermatozoa were pretreated with dithiothreitol (DTT), glutathione (GSH) or GSH+lysolecithin (LL) and used for producing bovine ICSI embryos. The blastocyst rate of bovine ICSI embryos produced from sperm pretreated with GSH was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of embryos produced from sperm pretreated with DTT and GSH+LL. In conclusion, the embryo activation methods and sperm pretreatments examined in the present study did not affect the normal fertilization rate of bovine ICSI embryos. However, activation with 3-Ion+Eth and sperm pretreatment with GSH increased the cell number per embryo at blastocyst stage and the blastocyst rate, respectively, in bovine ICSI embryos.

  11. Development and Gene Expression of Porcine Cloned Embryos Derived from Bone Marrow Stem Cells with Overexpressing Oct4 and Sox2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Lee, Yeon-Mi; Jang, Si-Jung; Lee, Sung-Lim; Jeon, Byung-Geun; Ock, Sun-A; King, W. Allen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study compared the potential of porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (pBMSCs) at different passages as nuclear transfer (NT) donors and the developmental efficiency of NT embryos from donor cells transfected with/without Oct4 and Sox2. Early-passage pBMSCs showed higher proliferation and expression of Oct4 and Sox2 and differentiation potential into mesenchymal lineages than middle- and late-passage pBMSCs. Cleavage rate did not differ among pBMSCs at different passages, but NT embryos with early-passage pBMSCs and middle-passage pBMSCs transfected with Oct4 (Oct4-pBMSCs) had significantly (p<0.05) higher blastocyst development than those with middle-passage pBMSCs. The incidence of apoptotic bodies in NT blastocysts from late-passage pBMSCs and Sox2-transfected middle-passage pBMSCs (Sox2-pBMSCs) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than others. The transcriptional levels of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Cdx2, Dnmt3a, and Igf2r genes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Oct4- and Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. Middle-passage pBMSCs NT embryos revealed lower transcriptional levels of Bcl2 than others, except Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. The transcriptional level of Bax increased gradually in NT embryos derived from pBMSCs following extended passages and was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Sox2-pBMSCs NT embryos. Our results demonstrated that early-passage pBMSCs are more potent in expressing transcription factors and displayed higher differentiation ability, and middle-passage pBMSCs transfected with Oct4 improved the developmental efficiency of NT embryos, suggesting that high Oct4 expression cells are more efficient as NT donors. PMID:25437870

  12. Porcine spleen cathepsin H hydrolyzes oligopeptides solely by aminopeptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Dehdarani, A H; Tang, J

    1988-08-01

    Cathepsin H purified from porcine spleens was studied for its specificity against various peptide and denatured protein substrates. The enzyme degraded all peptide substrates exclusively by an aminopeptidase activity. The enzyme preferentially released NH2-terminal amino acid residues with large hydrophobic (Phe, Trp, Leu, and Tyr) or basic (Arg and Lys) side chains. Amino acids containing small or polar side chains were not released. Peptides with a proline in the NH2-terminal or penultimate positions were not hydrolyzed either. Large polypeptides such as reduced and carboxymethylated soybean trypsin inhibitor and aldolase were not degraded. These results indicate that cathepsin H is an exopeptidase but not an endopeptidase. We propose that the biological role of this enzyme is the degradation of tissue proteins in lysosomes by its aminopeptidase activity.

  13. Human cytokines activate JAK–STAT signaling pathway in porcine ocular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Barteneva, Natasha S; Ketterer, Sylvia; Wunderlich, Kerstin; Reschner, Anca; Nurzhanova, Asil; Flammer, Josef; Huwyler, Jörg; Meyer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The JAK/STAT (Janus Tyrosine Kinase, Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway is associated with cytokine or growth factor receptors and it is critical for growth control, developmental regulation and homeostasis. The use of porcine ocular cells as putative xenotransplants appears theoretically possible. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of various porcine ocular cells in vitro to human cytokines in regard to the activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathways. Methods Porcine lens epithelial cells, pigmented iris epithelial cells and pigmented ciliary body cells were used in this study. These cells were isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes by enzymatic digestion. Cultured cells between passages 3–8 were used in all experiments. Electromobility shift assay (EMSA), proliferation assay, immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in these cells. Results JAK/STAT signaling pathways could be activated in porcine pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells, in pigmented iris epithelial cells and in lens epithelial cells in response to porcine and human interferons and cytokines. All cells showed very strong STAT1 activation upon stimulation with porcine interferon-gamma. Porcine ocular cells also respond to human cytokines; IFN-alpha induced strong activation of STAT1 in EMSA, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence experiments whereas activation of STAT3 was less strong in EMSA, but strong in flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Human recombinant IL-6 activated STAT3 and human IL-4 activated STAT6. With the help of immunofluorescence assay and flow cytometry we observed nuclear localization of STAT proteins after activation of porcine ocular cells with cytokines and interferons. Human IFN-α had an inhibitory effect on porcine ocular cells in proliferation assays. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that some types of human cytokines and interferon activate

  14. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  15. Non-surgical deep intrauterine transfer of superfine open pulled straw (SOPS)-vitrified porcine embryos: evaluation of critical steps of the procedure.

    PubMed

    Gomis, J; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gil, M A; Parrilla, I; Angel, M A; Maside, C; del Olmo, D; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2012-10-01

    transferred to each of 10 gilts. Five recipients farrowed an average of 10.4 ± 0.9 piglets. In conclusion, the method of one-step warming in a syringe has a negative effect on the in vitro and in vivo viability of SOPS-vitrified porcine embryos. In addition, NET of SOPS-vitrified embryos warmed by the one-step method in a dish showed promising reproductive performance of recipients. However, despite the great potential of this technology, further developments are required for large-scale commercial applications.

  16. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  17. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-04-15

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings.

  18. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  19. Porcine pancreatic lipase related protein 2 has high triglyceride lipase activity in the absence of colipase.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xunjun; Ross, Leah E; Sevilla, Wednesday A; Wang, Yan; Lowe, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    Efficient dietary fat digestion is essential for newborns who consume more dietary fat per body weight than at any other time of life. In many mammalian newborns, pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2) is the predominant duodenal lipase. Pigs may be an exception since PLRP2 expression has been documented in the intestine but not in the pancreas. Because of the differences in tissue-specific expression, we hypothesized that the kinetic properties of porcine PLRP2 would differ from those of other mammals. To characterize its properties, recombinant porcine PLRP2 was expressed in HEK293T cells and purified to homogeneity. Porcine PLRP2 had activity against tributyrin, trioctanoin and triolein. The activity was not inhibited by bile salts and colipase, which is required for the activity of pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL), minimally stimulated PLRP2 activity. Similar to PLRP2 from other species, PLRP2 from pigs had activity against galactolipids and phospholipids. Importantly, porcine PLRP2 hydrolyzed a variety of dietary substrates including pasteurized human mother's milk and infant formula and its activity was comparable to that of PTL. In conclusion, porcine PLRP2 has broad substrate specificity and has high triglyceride lipase activity even in the absence of colipase. The data suggest that porcine PLRP2 would be a suitable lipase for inclusion in recombinant preparations for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

  20. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  1. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  2. Induction of photolyase activity in wood frog (Rana sylvatica) embryos.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Kapron, C M; Berrill, M

    2000-10-01

    Rising ultraviolet-B (UVB, 280-320 nm) radiation has been proposed as a factor which may explain nonnormal amphibian population declines. Accordingly research has been directed toward estimating the photolyase activity of several amphibian species in order to predict a species' resilience to UV damage. Unfortunately, in spite of published research which demonstrated that the activity of one of the principal photorepair enzymes, photolyase, can be induced, these estimates did not address the potential for in vivo induction by environmental factors present in situ. We show here that wood frog (Rana sylvatica) embryos exposed to periods of ambient solar radiation (1) displayed significantly different photolyase activities from embryos exposed to equivalent periods of dark; and (2) were positively correlated with the UVB fluence received in vivo. Such results suggest that previous conclusions regarding the relationship between photorepair and population decline must be reevaluated. Estimating amphibian photorepair is a complicated process, and caution must be exercised when interpreting such data. PMID:11045732

  3. Distribution of esterase activity in porcine ear skin, and the effects of freezing and heat separation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wing Man; Ng, Keng Wooi; Sakenyte, Kristina; Heard, Charles M

    2012-08-20

    Porcine ear skin is widely used to study skin permeation and absorption of ester compounds, whose permeation and absorption profiles may be directly influenced by in situ skin esterase activity. Importantly, esterase distribution and activity in porcine ear skin following common protocols of skin handling and storage have not been characterised. Thus, we have compared the distribution and hydrolytic activity of esterases in freshly excised, frozen, heated and explanted porcine ear skin. Using an esterase staining kit, esterase activity was found to be localised in the stratum corneum and viable epidermis. Under frozen storage and a common heating protocol of epidermal sheet separation, esterase staining in the skin visibly diminished. This was confirmed by a quantitative assay using HPLC to monitor the hydrolysis of aspirin, in freshly excised, frozen or heated porcine ear skin. Compared to vehicle-only control, the rate of aspirin hydrolysis was approximately three-fold higher in the presence of freshly excised skin, but no different in the presence of frozen or heated skin. Therefore, frozen and heat-separated porcine ear skin should not be used to study the permeation of ester-containing permeants, in particular co-drugs and pro-drugs, whose hydrolysis or degradation can be modulated by skin esterases.

  4. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  5. Early Aberrations in Chromatin Dynamics in Embryos Produced Under In Vitro Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Rahul S.; Strejcek, Frantisek; Vejlsted, Morten; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Bjorn; Li, Juan; Callesen, Henrik; Niemann, Heiner; Hyttel, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In vitro production of porcine embryos by means of in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is limited by great inefficienciy. The present study investigated chromatin and nucleolar dynamics in porcine embryos developed in vivo (IV) and compared this physiological standard to that of embryos produced by IVF, parthenogenetic activation (PA), or SCNT. In contrast to IV embryos, chromatin spatial and temporal dynamics in PA, IVF, and SCNT embryos were altered; starting with aberrant chromatin–nuclear envelope interactions at the two-cell stage, delayed chromatin decondensation and nucleolar development at the four-cell stage, and ultimately culminating in failure of proper first lineage segregation at the blastocyst stage, demonstrated by poorly defined inner cell mass. Interestingly, in vitro produced (IVP) embryos also lacked a heterochromatin halo around nucleolar precursors, indicating imperfections in global chromatin remodeling after fertilization/activation. Porcine IV-produced zygotes and embryos display a well-synchronized pattern of chromatin dynamics compatible with genome activation and regular nucleolar formation at the four-cell stage. Production of porcine embryos under in vitro conditions by IVF, PA, or SCNT is associated with altered chromatin remodeling, delayed nucleolar formation, and poorly defined lineage segregation at the blastocyst stage, which in turn may impair their developmental capacity. PMID:22468997

  6. Evaluation of a quali embryo model for the detection of botulism toxin type A activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Japanese quail embryo (Coturnix japonica) was evaluated for use as a bioassay to detect biologically active botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). Day 15 of incubation embryos were injected with decreasing dosages of BoNT/A from 250 to 0.5 ng of toxin. At 1 day post-injection, embryos receiving ...

  7. Influence of embryo handling and transfer method on pig cloning efficiency.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Luo, Lvhua; Mai, Ranbiao; Zeng, Haiyu; He, Xiaoyan; Liu, Dewu; Zeng, Fang; Cai, Gengyuan; Ji, Hongmei; Tang, Fei; Wang, Qinglai; Wu, Zhenfang; Li, Zicong

    2015-03-01

    The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique could be used to produce genetically superior or genetically engineered cloned pigs that have wide application in agriculture and bioscience research. However, the efficiency of porcine SCNT currently is very low. Embryo transfer (ET) is a key step for the success of SCNT. In this study, the effects of several ET-related factors, including cloned embryo culture time, recipient's ovulation status, co-transferred helper embryos and ET position, on the success rate of pig cloning were investigated. The results indicated that transfer of cloned embryos cultured for a longer time (22-24h vs. 4-6h) into pre-ovulatory sows decreased recipient's pregnancy rate and farrowing rate, and use of pre-ovulatory and post-ovulatory sows as recipients for SCNT embryos cultured for 22-24h resulted in a similar porcine SCNT efficiency. Use of insemination-produced in vivo fertilized, parthenogenetically activated and in vitro fertilized embryos as helper embryos to establish and/or maintain pregnancy of SCNT embryos recipients could not improve the success rate of porcine SCNT. Transfer of cloned embryos into double oviducts of surrogates significantly increased pregnancy rate as well as farrowing rate of recipients, and the developmental rate of transferred cloned embryos, as compared to unilateral oviduct transfer. This study provided useful information for optimization of the embryo handling and transfer protocol, which will help to improve the ability to generate cloned pigs.

  8. Supplementation with spermine during in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes improves early embryonic development after parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Jin, J X; Lee, S; Khoirinaya, C; Oh, A; Kim, G A; Lee, B C

    2016-03-01

    Spermine plays an important role in protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells, but there are few studies on the effects of spermine on porcine oocyte maturation and subsequent embryo development. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spermine on in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes and their developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We evaluated nuclear maturation, intracellular glutathione (GSH), and ROS levels in oocytes, and their subsequent embryonic development, as well as gene expression in mature oocytes, cumulus cells, and PA blastocysts. After treatment with various concentrations of spermine in IVM culture medium, there was no significant difference in nuclear maturation rate. However, spermine treatment groups (10- 500 µM) showed significantly increased intracellular GSH levels and decreased ROS levels compared to the control ( < 0.05). Furthermore, 10 µM spermine supported significantly higher blastocyst formation rates after PA than the control group ( < 0.05). According to the optimal condition from the PA results, we investigated the effects of 10 µM spermine on SCNT, and it also significantly improved blastocyst formation rates compared with the control group ( < 0.05). In evaluating the effects of 10 µM spermine on gene expression, there was significantly lower expression of a proapoptotic gene () and higher expression of an antiapoptotic gene () in cumulus cells ( < 0.05). was increased in spermine-treated oocytes. Levels of transcription for and were significantly increased in PA blastocysts. In conclusion, 10 µM spermine supplementation during IVM improved the development of porcine PA and SCNT embryos by increasing intracellular GSH, scavenging ROS levels, and regulating gene expression. PMID:27065258

  9. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Khoa, D. V. A.; Wimmers, K.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future. PMID:26194222

  10. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kito, Seiji; Minami, Naojiro; Kubota, Toshiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2014-03-01

    Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic materials sequestered by autophagosomes are degraded in lysosomes. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is highly activated after fertilization and is essential for further embryonic development. Here, we developed a simple fluorescence-based method for visualizing autophagic activity in live mouse embryos. Our method is based on imaging of the fluorescence intensity of GFP-LC3, a versatile marker for autophagy, which is microinjected into the embryos. Using this method, we show that embryonic autophagic activity declines with advancing maternal age, probably due to a decline in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also demonstrate that embryonic autophagic activity is associated with the developmental viability of the embryo. Our results suggest that embryonic autophagic activity can be utilized as a novel indicator of embryo quality.

  11. Evaluation of quail and chicken embryos for the detection of botulism toxin serotypes A, B E and F activity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of quail (Coturnix japonica) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos for the detection of BoNT/A activity was conducted using equal dosages of toxin/g of embryo (quail at 7 g and chickens at 48 g). Quail embryos were injected at 0, 0.5 to 50 ng and chicken embryos at 0, 3.4 to 342 ng and...

  12. Determination of pentose phosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathway activities in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Javed, M H; Wright, R W

    1991-05-01

    Quantitative determination was made of the activity of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and Embden-Meyerhof pathway (EMP) in individual bovine embryos from the six-cell to the hatched blastocyst stage. Embryos were collected from superovulated cross-bred heifers and classified into good and poor categories. A single embryo in 1 microl of medium was mixed with 2 microl of medium containing 3 to 30 nCi radiolabeled glucose previously placed on a detached lid of the 1.5-ml polypropylene microcentrifugé vial. The lid was then fitted to its vial which had been loaded in advance with 1.5 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. Vials were then incubated at 37 degrees C for 3 h. At the end of the incubation period, a 1.5-ml NaOH trap was inverted and placed into a 20-ml scintillation vial containing 10 ml of aqueous counting solution and counted in a liquid scintillation spectrophotometer. The PPP activity in good-quality embryos was greatest at the six-cell stage and decreased with increasing embryo development. The EMP activity showed the reverse trend. Poor- quality embryos had a lower glucose metabolism and higher PPP activity. Similar measurements were made on embryos following 24 h of culture, and total glucose metabolism and percentage of PPP activity were increased. In conclusion, these data suggest that in good quality bovine embryos total glucose utilization is low until 16-cell stage, with PPP being the predominant pathway. Total glucose utilization increases significantly at the morula stage; EMP activity increases with increasing embryo development; and PPP activity increases significantly in poor quality embryos and in embryos 24 h in culture.

  13. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  14. Effect of platelet-activating factor on porcine pulmonary blood vessels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pritze, S; Simmet, T; Peskar, B A

    1991-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips in a concentration-dependent manner, while porcine pulmonary artery strips were unresponsive. Exposure to the specific PAF-antagonists WEB 2086 or BN 52021 antagonized the contractile responses of pulmonary vein strips. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (LT) and thromboxane (TX) B2 were not detected in the bath fluid after stimulation with PAF suggesting that these eicosanoids as well as their precursors are not mediators of PAF-induced contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips. Furthermore, PAF had no significant effect on 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG) F1a release and flurbiprofen did not affect the PAF response, while it inhibited the release of 6-keto-PGF1a. This indicates that PGI2 or any other cyclooxygenase product is unlikely to modulate or mediate the PAF response. Incubation experiments with fragments of pulmonary vascular tissues demonstrated spontaneous release of small amounts of cysteinyl-LT, TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1a, which was significantly increased during incubation in the presence of ionophore A23187. While these results demonstrate the synthesizing capacity of the porcine pulmonary vascular tissues for various eicosanoids, PAF failed to stimulate eicosanoid release under these experimental conditions. We conclude that PAF causes contractions of porcine pulmonary vein strips, which are not mediated by cysteinyl-LT or cyclooxygenase products of arachidonate metabolism. The specific contractile effect of PAF on pulmonary veins, but not arteries, could contribute to the disturbances of the pulmonary circulation observed after injection of PAF or release of endogenous PAF, e.g. after administration of endotoxin.

  15. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development.

  16. Phosphorylated H2AX in parthenogenetically activated, in vitro fertilized and cloned bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A F; Melo, L M; Freitas, V J F; Salamone, D F

    2015-08-01

    In vitro embryo production methods induce DNA damage in the embryos. In response to these injuries, histone H2AX is phosphorylated (γH2AX) and forms foci at the sites of DNA breaks to recruit repair proteins. In this work, we quantified the DNA damage in bovine embryos undergoing parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) by measuring γH2AX accumulation at different developmental stages: 1-cell, 2-cell and blastocyst. At the 1-cell stage, IVF embryos exhibited a greater number of γH2AX foci (606.1 ± 103.2) and greater area of γH2AX staining (12923.6 ± 3214.1) than did PA and SCNT embryos. No differences at the 2-cell stage were observed among embryo types. Although PA, IVF and SCNT were associated with different blastocyst formation rates (31.1%, 19.7% and 8.3%, P < 0.05), no differences in the number of γH2AX foci or area were detected among the treatments. γH2AX is detected in bovine preimplantation embryos produced by PA, IVF and SCNT; the amount of DNA damage was comparable among those embryos developing to the blastocyst stage among different methods for in vitro embryo production. While IVF resulted in increased damage at the 1-cell embryo stage, no difference was observed between PA and SCNT embryos at any developmental stage. The decrease in the number of double-stranded breaks at the blastocyst stage seems to indicate that DNA repair mechanisms are functional during embryo development. PMID:24735637

  17. Effects of fluoridation of porcine hydroxyapatite on osteoblastic activity of human MG63 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Baoxin; Mai, Sui; Wu, Xiayi; Zhang, Hanqing; Qiao, Wei; Luo, Xin; Chen, Zhuofan

    2015-06-01

    Biological hydroxyapatite, derived from animal bones, is the most widely used bone substitute in orthopedic and dental treatments. Fluorine is the trace element involved in bone remodeling and has been confirmed to promote osteogenesis when administered at the appropriate dose. To take advantage of this knowledge, fluorinated porcine hydroxyapatite (FPHA) incorporating increasing levels of fluoride was derived from cancellous porcine bone through straightforward chemical and thermal treatments. Physiochemical characteristics, including crystalline phases, functional groups and dissolution behavior, were investigated on this novel FPHA. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the FPHA to examine cell attachment, cytoskeleton, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation for in vitro cellular evaluation. Results suggest that fluoride ions released from the FPHA play a significant role in stimulating osteoblastic activity in vitro, and appropriate level of fluoridation (1.5 to 3.1 atomic percents of fluorine) for the FPHA could be selected with high potential for use as a bone substitute.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of Antiviral Signature Genes in Porcine Macrophages at Different Activation Statuses

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Brichalli, Wyatt; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Blecha, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages (MФs) can be polarized to various activation statuses, including classical (M1), alternative (M2), and antiviral states. To study the antiviral activation status of porcine MФs during porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) for transcriptomic analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that our RNA-Seq data met the criteria for genome-wide transcriptomic analysis. Comparisons of any two activation statuses revealed more than 20,000 DEGs that were normalized to filter out 153–5,303 significant DEGs [false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001, fold change ≥2] in each comparison. The highest 5,303 significant DEGs were found between lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) and interferon (IFN)γ-stimulated M1 cells, whereas only 153 significant DEGs were detected between interleukin (IL)-10-polarized M2 cells and control mock-activated cells. To identify signature genes for antiviral regulation pertaining to each activation status, we identified a set of DEGs that showed significant up-regulation in only one activation state. In addition, pathway analyses defined the top 20–50 significantly regulated pathways at each activation status, and we further analyzed DEGs pertinent to pathways mediated by AMP kinase (AMPK) and epigenetic mechanisms. For the first time in porcine macrophages, our transcriptomic analyses not only compared family-wide differential expression of most known immune genes at different activation statuses, but also revealed transcription evidence of multiple gene families. These findings show that using RNA-Seq transcriptomic analyses in virus-infected and status-synchronized macrophages effectively profiled signature genes and gene response pathways for antiviral regulation, which may provide a framework for optimizing antiviral immunity and immune homeostasis. PMID:24505295

  19. Characterization of the effects of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis and on AMP-activated protein kinase activation in oocytes and cumulus cells.

    PubMed

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie; Magyara, Nora; Collignon, Coralie

    2014-05-01

    The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) and metformin (MET) inhibit resumption of meiosis in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes. The objective of this study was to characterize the inhibitory effect of MET on porcine oocyte meiosis by: (1) determining the effects of an AMPK inhibitor and of inhibitors of signalling pathways involved in MET-induced AMPK activation in other cell types on MET-mediated meiotic arrest in porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes; (2) determining whether MET and AICAR treatments lead to increased activation of porcine oocyte and/or cumulus cell AMPK as measured by phosphorylation of its substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase; and (3) determining the effects of inhibition of the AMPK kinase, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK), and Ca2+ chelation on oocyte meiotic maturation and AMPK activation in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells. The AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC; 1 μM) did not reverse the inhibitory effect of AICAR (1 mM) and MET (2 mM) on porcine oocyte meiosis. Additionally, CC had a significant inhibitory effect on its own. eNOS, c-Src and PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitors did not reverse the effect of metformin on porcine oocyte meiosis. The level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation in oocytes and cumulus cells did not change in response to culture in the presence of MET, AICAR, CC, the CaMKK inhibitor STO-609 or the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM for 3 h, but STO-609 increased the percentage of porcine cumulus-enclosed oocytes (CEO) that remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of culture. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of MET and AICAR on porcine oocyte meiosis was probably not mediated through activation of AMPK.

  20. Effects of two types of cobra venom factor on porcine complement activation and pulmonary artery pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, A K; Parker, C J; Wilcox, L

    1989-01-01

    Autologous porcine plasma that has been incubated with cuprophan haemodialysis membranes causes pulmonary hypertension and peripheral leucopenia following reinfusion into swine. These effects appear to be mediated by biologically active fragments of C3 and C5 that are generated as a consequence of ex vivo activation of complement. Putatively, C5a induces the leucopenia; however, the specific contributions of products of C3 and C5 activation to the pulmonary vasoconstriction have not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of in vivo infusion of two different types of cobra venom factor (CVF) on peripheral leucocyte count and pulmonary artery pressure in the swine are reported. The CVF from Naja n. naja (CVF(TN)) was shown to activate both porcine C3 and C5, whereas the CVF from Naja h. haje (CVF(NH)) activated only C3. Both types of CVF produced pulmonary hypertension. Significant peripheral leucopenia, however, was observed only with CVF(TN). These results suggest that activation products of C3 contribute to the pulmonary hypertension but not to the peripheral leucopenia observed during haemodialysis using dialysis membranes that activate complement. PMID:12412765

  1. [Comparison of expression and antibacterial activities of recombinant porcine lactoferrin expressed in four Lactobacillus species].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Jiang, Yanping; Cui, Wen; Wu, Xiao; He, Jia; Qiao, Xinyuan; Li, Yijing; Tang, Lijie

    2014-09-01

    The coding sequence for the mature peptide of porcine lactoferrin (Plf) was synthesized according to the codon usage of lactobacillus, to establish optimized porcine lactoferrin Lactobacillus expression system. The gene was ligated into the Xho I/BamH I site of Lactobacillus expression vector pPG612.1 and the recombinant plasmid pPG612.1-plf was transformed individually into Lactobacillus casei ATCC393, Lactobacillus pentosus KLDS1.0413, Lactobacillus plantarum KLDS1.0344 or Lactobacillus paracasei KLDS1.0652 by electroporation. After induction with xylose, expression of the recombinant proteins was detected by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Secretion of recombinant Plf proteins from four recombinant species was determined quantitatively by ELISA. The antibacterial activities of recombinant proteins were measured by agar diffusion method. The result shows that Plf was correctly expressed in four species of recombinant lactobacillus, with molecular weight of about 73 kDa. The expression levels in recombinant Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei were 9.6 μg/mL, 10.8 μg/mL, 12.5 μg/mL and 9.9 μg/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial activity experiment shows that the recombinant proteins were active against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria, Pasteurella. The recombinant Plf expressed by recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum showed the best antibacterial activity among all recombinant lactobacillus species. These data represent a basis for the development and application of porcine lactoferrin from recombinant lactobacillus.

  2. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Possesses an Antiviral Activity against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Labrie, Josée; Hernandez Reyes, Yenney; Burciaga Nava, Jorge A.; Gagnon, Carl A.; Jacques, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are often colonized by more than one bacterial and/or viral species during respiratory tract infections. This phenomenon is known as the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are pathogens that are frequently involved in PRDC. The main objective of this project was to study the in vitro interactions between these two pathogens and the host cells in the context of mixed infections. To fulfill this objective, PRRSV permissive cell lines such as MARC-145, SJPL, and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) were used. A pre-infection with PRRSV was performed at 0.5 multiplicity of infection (MOI) followed by an infection with App at 10 MOI. Bacterial adherence and cell death were compared. Results showed that PRRSV pre-infection did not affect bacterial adherence to the cells. PRRSV and App co-infection produced an additive cytotoxicity effect. Interestingly, a pre-infection of SJPL and PAM cells with App blocked completely PRRSV infection. Incubation of SJPL and PAM cells with an App cell-free culture supernatant is also sufficient to significantly block PRRSV infection. This antiviral activity is not due to LPS but rather by small molecular weight, heat-resistant App metabolites (<1 kDa). The antiviral activity was also observed in SJPL cells infected with swine influenza virus but to a much lower extent compared to PRRSV. More importantly, the PRRSV antiviral activity of App was also seen with PAM, the cells targeted by the virus in vivo during infection in pigs. The antiviral activity might be due, at least in part, to the production of interferon γ. The use of in vitro experimental models to study viral and bacterial co-infections will lead to a better understanding of the interactions between pathogens and their host cells, and could allow the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24878741

  3. Metabolism of Preimplantation Embryo Development: A Bystander or an Active Participant?

    PubMed

    Kaneko, K J

    2016-01-01

    Unicellular organisms are exquisitely sensitive to nutrient availability in the environment and have evolved elaborate mechanisms to sense the levels and types of nutrients, altering gene expression patterns accordingly to adjust the metabolic activities required to survive. Thus, environmental cues induce adaptive metabolic differentiation through transcriptional and posttranscriptional changes. Similarly, preimplantation embryos are exposed to various environmental cues within the maternal reproductive tract prior to implantation. Because only "simple" culture conditions are required, it is assumed that these embryos are genetically preprogrammed to develop with little influence from the environment, with the exception of few "necessities" provided by the environment. However, a wealth of literature now suggests that the developing embryos are greatly influenced by the maternal environment. Even though the developing embryos have the capacity and plasticity to deal with nutritional imbalance posed by an altered maternal environment, there is often a trade-off to the overall fitness of those embryos later in life. Despite these studies that underline the general importance of the reproductive environment during development, it is thought that the primary driver of mammalian development is strictly genetic and that metabolic adaptation by the preimplantation embryo is secondary to genetic control. In this review, I propose that not only does the maternal environment of developing preimplantation embryos influence developmental potential, pregnancy outcomes, and postnatal disease states, but that it has an active role in induction and potentiation of the first differentiation event, the production of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages. PMID:27475855

  4. Porcine Splenic Hydrolysate has Antioxidant Activity in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Taek Joon

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of porcine splenic hydrolysate (PSH) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Peptide hydrolysates were prepared, using the proteolytic enzyme Alcalase®. The molecular weights of PSH were 37,666, 10,673, 6,029, and 2,918 g/mol. Rats were fed a 5% (w/v) PSH diet, instead of a casein diet, for 4 wk. The food intake, body weight gain, and liver weight of rats in the PSH group were similar to those in the control (CONT) group. There were no differences in the serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, or albumin levels between PSH and CONT groups. However, the level of in vivo hepatic lipid peroxidation in PSH group was significantly lower than that in CONT. In vivo hepatic catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the PSH group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The in vitro protein digestibility of PSH was lower than that of casein. The in vitro trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of PSH was significantly higher than that of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The in vitro radical scavenging activities of PSH were significantly higher than those of the peptide hydrolysate from casein. The present findings suggest that porcine splenic peptides improve the antioxidant status in rats by enhancing hepatic catalase and GSH-Px activities, and indicate a potential mechanism of radical scavenging activity during gastrointestinal passage. PMID:26761173

  5. Differential type I interferon activation and susceptibility of dendritic cell populations to porcine arterivirus

    PubMed Central

    Loving, Crystal L; Brockmeier, Susan L; Sacco, Randy E

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a role in anti-viral immunity by providing early innate protection against viral replication and by presenting antigen to T cells for initiation of the adaptive immune response. Studies show the adaptive response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is ineffective for complete viral elimination. Other studies describe the kinetics of the adaptive response to PRRSV, but have not investigated the early response by DCs. We hypothesize that there is an aberrant activation of DCs early in PRRSV infection; consequently, the adaptive response is triggered inadequately. The current study characterized a subtype of porcine lung DCs (L-DCs) and investigated the ability of PRRSV to infect and replicate in L-DCs and monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs). Furthermore, the type I interferon anti-viral response to PRRSV with and without the addition of recombinant porcine IFN-α (rpIFN-α), an important cytokine that signals for anti-viral mediator activation, was analysed. Results show that PRRSV replicated in MDDCs but not L-DCs, providing evidence that these cells have followed distinct differentiation pathways. Although both cell types responded to PRRSV with an induction of IFN-β mRNA, the magnitude and duration of the response differed between cell types. The addition of rpIFN-α was protective in MDDCs, and mRNA synthesis of Mx (myxovirus resistant) and PKR (double-stranded RNA dependent protein kinase) was observed in both cell types after rpIFN-α addition. Overall, PRRSV replicated in MDDCs but not L-DCs, and rpIFN-α was required for the transcription of protective anti-viral mediators. DC response to PRRSV was limited to IFN-β transcription, which may be inadequate in triggering the adaptive immune response. PMID:17116172

  6. Influence of Delipation on the Energy Metabolism in Pig Parthenogenetically Activated Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Niu, Y; Chi, D; Zeng, Y; Liu, H; Dai, Y; Li, J

    2015-10-01

    This study was designed not only to measure the effect of delipation on the developmental viability of pig parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, but also to evaluate the changes of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and gene (Acsl3, Acadsb, Acaa2, Glut1) expression level at different stages after delipation. Results showed that no effect was observed on the cleavage ability, but significant lower blastocyst rate was obtained in delipated embryos. Copy number of mtDNA decreased gradually from MII to four-cell stages and subsequently kept consistent with blastocyst stage both in delipated and control embryos, but the copy number of mtDNA in delipated embryos was similar to that in the control groups no matter at which developmental stage was observed. Both in delipated and control embryos, ATP content progressive decreased from one-cell to blastocyst stages, while just at one-cell stage, a significant decrease of ATP level was observed in delipated embryos compared with that of control. The level of ROS increased obviously after delipation at cleavage stage, but no difference was seen at blastocyst stage. Finally, the expression level of genes related to fatty acids beta-oxidation (Acadsb and Acaa2) was decreased, while the expression level of genes related to glucose metabolism (Glut 1) was upregulated after delipation. In conclusion, the reduction of lipids in pig oocytes will affect the developmental competence of pig PA embryos by disturbed energy metabolism and ROS stress. PMID:26303295

  7. Antiviral Activity of Porcine Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 against Swine Viruses in Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Chang, Hongtao; Yang, Xia; Zhao, Yongxiang; Chen, Lu; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Chuanqing; Zhao, Jun

    2015-11-17

    Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), as an important transcription factor, is abundantly induced upon virus infections and participates in host antiviral immune responses. However, the roles of porcine IRF1 (poIRF1) in host antiviral defense remain poorly understood. In this study, we determined that poIRF1 was upregulated upon infection with viruses and distributed in nucleus in porcine PK-15 cells. Subsequently, we tested the antiviral activities of poIRF1 against several swine viruses in cells. Overexpression of poIRF1 can efficiently suppress the replication of viruses, and knockdown of poIRF1 promotes moderately viral replication. Interestingly, overexpression of poIRF1 enhances dsRNA-induced IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activation, whereas knockdown of poIRF1 cannot significantly affect the activation of IFN-β promoter induced by RNA viruses. This study suggests that poIRF1 plays a significant role in cellular antiviral response against swine viruses, but might be dispensable for IFN-β induction triggered by RNA viruses in PK-15 cells. Given these results, poIRF1 plays potential roles in cellular antiviral responses against swine viruses.

  8. Developmental kinetics of pig embryos by parthenogenetic activation or by handmade cloning.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, R; Liu, Y; Villemoes, K; Purup, S; Callesen, H

    2013-10-01

    The developmental kinetics of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation without (PAZF) or with (PAZI) zona pellucida or by handmade cloning (HMC) was compared by time-lapse videography. After cumulus cell removal, the matured oocytes were either left zona intact (PAZI) or were made zona free by pronase digestion (PAZF) before they were activated (PA). Other matured oocytes were used for HMC based on foetal fibroblast cells. On Day 0 (day of PA or reconstruction), the embryos were cultured for 7 days in vitro in our time-lapse system. Pictures were taken every 30 min, and afterwards, each cell cycle was identified for each embryo to be analysed. Results showed that the PA embryos (both PAZF and PAZI) had shorter first cell cycle compared with HMC (17.4. 17.8 vs 23.6 h), but had a longer time length from four cell to morula stages (57.9, 53.8 vs 44.9 h). However, at the second cell cycle, PAZF embryos needed shorter time, while PAZI embryos had similar time length as HMC embryos, and both were longer than PAZF (23.4, 24.8 vs 14.6 h). Both PAZF and PAZI embryos used similar time to reach the blastocyst stage, and this was later than HMC embryos. In addition, when all of these embryos were grouped into viable (developed to blastocysts) and non-viable (not developed to blastocysts), the only difference in the time length was observed on the first cell cycle (18.6 vs 24.5 h), but not on the later cell cycles. In conclusion, our results not only give detailed information regarding the time schedule of in vitro-handled pig embryos, but also indicate that the first cell cycle could be used as a selecting marker for embryo viability. However, to evaluate the effect of the produced techniques, the whole time schedule of the pre-implantation developmental kinetics should be observed.

  9. The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

    2006-03-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  10. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  11. Effect of hyaluronan to inhibit caspase activation in porcine granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Tunjung, Woro Anindito Sri; Yokoo, Masaki; Hoshino, Yumi; Miyake, Yuko; Kadowaki, Akane; Sato, Eimei

    2009-04-24

    We studied the ability of hyaluronan (HA) to inhibit apoptosis in porcine granulosa cells. The granulosa layer with cumulus-oocyte complex is cultured in media supplemented with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and 4-MU an inhibitor of hyaluronan synthases. The concentration of HA significantly increased after supplemented with FSH, but significantly decreased with 4-MU. CD44, receptor of HA, expressed after cultured with FSH, decreased in addition low concentration of 4-MU, whereas not detected in high concentration of 4-MU, indicating parallel relation between the amount of HA and CD44 expression. The 4-MU treatment also decreased the expression of procaspase-3, -8, -9 suggesting that inhibition of HA synthesis leads to activation of these caspases. Moreover, addition of anti-CD44 antibody decreased the expression of procaspases suggesting that perturbation of HA-CD44 binding leads activation of caspases. Hence, HA has ability to inhibit apoptosis and HA-CD44 binding is important on apoptosis inhibitory mechanism in porcine granulosa cells.

  12. CFTR mediates bicarbonate-dependent activation of miR-125b in preimplantation embryo development

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong Chao; Chen, Hui; Fok, Kin Lam; Tsang, Lai Ling; Yu, Mei Kuen; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Chung, Yiu Wa; Ma, Alvin Chun Hang; Leung, Anskar Yu Hung; Huang, He Feng; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    Although HCO3− is known to be required for early embryo development, its exact role remains elusive. Here we report that HCO3− acts as an environmental cue in regulating miR-125b expression through CFTR-mediated influx during preimplantation embryo development. The results show that the effect of HCO3− on preimplantation embryo development can be suppressed by interfering the function of a HCO3−-conducting channel, CFTR, by a specific inhibitor or gene knockout. Removal of extracellular HCO3− or inhibition of CFTR reduces miR-125b expression in 2 cell-stage mouse embryos. Knockdown of miR-125b mimics the effect of HCO3− removal and CFTR inhibition, while injection of miR-125b precursor reverses it. Downregulation of miR-125b upregulates p53 cascade in both human and mouse embryos. The activation of miR-125b is shown to be mediated by sAC/PKA-dependent nuclear shuttling of NF-κB. These results have revealed a critical role of CFTR in signal transduction linking the environmental HCO3− to activation of miR-125b during preimplantation embryo development and indicated the importance of ion channels in regulation of miRNAs. PMID:22664907

  13. Complement receptor activity of recombinant porcine CR1-like protein expressed in a eukaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Wei, Xiaoming; Jiang, Junbing; Fan, Kuohai; Zhao, Junxing; Sun, Na; Wang, Zhiwei; Sun, Yaogui; Ma, Haili; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hongquan

    2016-08-01

    Primate complement receptor type 1 (CR1) protein, a single-chain transmembrane glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune adherence and clearing complement-opsonized immune complexes. Here, the mRNA of the porcine primate-like complement receptor (CR1-like) gene was analyzed, and two domain sequences with potential functions were cloned into the pwPICZalpha vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were purified with both Protein Pure Ni-NTA resin and strong anion exchange resin. The activities of the purified recombinant proteins were evaluated by SDS-PAGE, western blotting, and complement receptor assays. The results indicated that two domains of the CR1-like protein, CCP36 and CCP811 with molecular weights of 29.8 kDa and 30 kDa, respectively, were successfully expressed in P. pastoris. These two recombinant proteins possess some of the functions of the primate CR1 protein. Using these two proteins coupled with an antibody blocking technique, we also showed that CR1-like is expressed on natural porcine erythrocytes. PMID:26903010

  14. Technique of Porcine Liver Procurement and Orthotopic Transplantation using an Active Porto-Caval Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Spetzler, Vinzent N.; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Knaak, Jan M.; Louis, Kristine S.; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The success of liver transplantation has resulted in a dramatic organ shortage. Each year, a considerable number of patients on the liver transplantation waiting list die without receiving an organ transplant or are delisted due to disease progression. Even after a successful transplantation, rejection and side effects of immunosuppression remain major concerns for graft survival and patient morbidity. Experimental animal research has been essential to the success of liver transplantation and still plays a pivotal role in the development of clinical transplantation practice. In particular, the porcine orthotopic liver transplantation model (OLTx) is optimal for clinically oriented research for its close resemblance to human size, anatomy, and physiology. Decompression of intestinal congestion during the anhepatic phase of porcine OLTx is important to guarantee reliable animal survival. The use of an active porto-caval-jugular shunt achieves excellent intestinal decompression. The system can be used for short-term as well as long-term survival experiments. The following protocol contains all technical information for a stable and reproducible liver transplantation model in pigs including post-operative animal care. PMID:25992583

  15. Simultaneous determination of cytochrome P450 1A, 2A and 3A activities in porcine liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Monika; Tomankova, Jana; Li, Shengjie; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robust method for the simultaneous determination of the activities of three porcine CYP450 enzymes in hepatic microsomes. A cocktail consisting of three selective CYP450 probe substrates, 7-ethoxyresorufin (CYP1A), coumarin (CYP2A) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC; CYP3A), was incubated with porcine liver microsomes. The presence of 7-ethoxyresorufin appears to significantly influence the kinetics of coumarin hydroxylation and BFC O-debenzylation. These results indicate that the use of 7-ethoxyresorufin in substrate cocktails together with coumarin and BFC should be avoided.

  16. The effect of electrical field strength on activation and development of cloned caprine embryos.

    PubMed

    Shen, P C; Lee, S N; Wu, J S; Huang, J C; Chu, F H; Chang, C C; Kung, J C; Lin, H H; Chen, L R; Shiau, J W; Yen, N T; Cheng, W T K

    2006-05-01

    The activation procedure used in nuclear transfer (NT) is one of the critical factors affecting the efficiency of animal cloning. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two electrical field strengths (EFS) for activation on the developmental competence of caprine NT embryos reconstructed from ear skin fibroblasts of adult Alpine does. The NT embryos were obtained by transfer of the quiescent fibroblasts at the fourth passage into the enucleated metaphase II (M II) oocytes. Four to five hours after electrical fusion, the NT-embryos were activated by EFS either at 1.67 or at 2.33 kV/cm and immediately incubated in 6-DMAP (2 mM) for 4 h. The cleavage rate of the NT-embryos activated with 2.33 kV/cm was greater than that activated with 1.67 kV/cm after in vitro culture for 18 h (65.6% versus 19.6%, p < 0.001). No pregnancy was found in 14 recipient does after transferring 51 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated with 1.67 kV/cm. In contrast, two of the seven recipients were pregnant and gave birth to three kids after transferring 61 NT embryos at 1-2 cell stages activated by 2.33 kV/cm. The birth weights of three cloned kids were within the normal range of Alpine goats. However, one kid died 1h after birth while the remaining two are still healthy. DNA analysis by polymerase chain reaction (single-strand conformation polymorphism, SSCP) confirmed that the three kids were genetically identical to the nuclear donor.

  17. Hyperpolarization-activated cation and T-type calcium ion channel expression in porcine and human renal pacemaker tissues.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Romulo; Smith, Carl S

    2016-05-01

    Renal pacemaker activity triggers peristaltic upper urinary tract contractions that propel waste from the kidney to the bladder, a process prone to congenital defects that are the leading cause of pediatric kidney failure. Recently, studies have discovered that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) and T-type calcium (TTC) channel conductances underlie murine renal pacemaker activity, setting the origin and frequency and coordinating upper urinary tract peristalsis. Here, we determined whether this ion channel expression is conserved in the porcine and human urinary tracts, which share a distinct multicalyceal anatomy with multiple pacemaker sites. Double chromagenic immunohistochemistry revealed that HCN isoform 3 is highly expressed at the porcine minor calyces, the renal pacemaker tissues, whereas the kidney and urinary tract smooth muscle lacked this HCN expression. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that HCN(+) cells are integrated within the porcine calyx smooth muscle, and that they co-express TTC channel isoform Cav3.2. In humans, the anatomic structure of the minor calyx pacemaker was assayed via hematoxylin and eosin analyses, and enabled the visualization of the calyx smooth muscle surrounding adjacent papillae. Strikingly, immunofluorescence revealed that HCN3(+) /Cav3.2(+) cells are also localized to the human minor calyx smooth muscle. Collectively, these data have elucidated a conserved molecular signature of HCN and TTC channel expression in porcine and human calyx pacemaker tissues. These findings provide evidence for the mechanisms that can drive renal pacemaker activity in the multi-calyceal urinary tract, and potential causes of obstructive uropathies. PMID:26805464

  18. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  19. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    PubMed

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  20. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming. PMID:26894831

  1. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    PubMed

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming. PMID:26894831

  2. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles. PMID:26282894

  3. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles.

  4. Lactobacillus isolates from weaned piglets' mucosa with inhibitory activity against common porcine pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hacin, B; Rogelj, I; Matijasić, B B

    2008-01-01

    Twelve lactobacilli isolates from mucosa of 3-5-week-old weaned pigs were found to exert good antimicrobial activity against common porcine pathogens (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, C. perfringens). Two of them produced in addition to lactic acid also considerable amounts of acetic acid, and 6 of them produced hydrogen peroxide and metabolites other than organic acids. Isolates 4/26 and 2/25 (identified as L. crispatus or L. amylovorus) were inhibitory against most strains of S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli, and especially the strain 4/26 survived well in simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Diarrhea-causing E. coli O8K88H9 Ent(+) was successfully inhibited by the growing culture as well as by the catalase-treated and neutralized supernatant of L. reuteri 12/26. Mucin degradation and multiple resistance to antibiotics were not observed.

  5. The first structure at 1.8 A resolution of an active autolysate form of porcine alpha-trysoin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Sundaram, P V; Pattabhi, V

    1997-05-01

    The first crystal structure of an active autolysate form of porcine alpha-trypsin (APT), a two-chain molecule obtained from the limited autolysis of porcine beta-trypsin at position Lys145-Ser146, has been determined. APT crystallizes in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with one protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure was solved by molecular replacement followed by refinement using X-PLOR to an R factor of 0.200 and an R(free) of 0.285 for 8.0-1.8 A data with r.m.s deviations from ideal values of 0.01 A and 1.7 degrees for bond lengths and bond angles, respectively. Comparison with inactive autolysate porcine epsilon-trypsin (EPT) and porcine beta-trypsin in complex with bittergourd trypsin inhibitor (MCT) revealed a small but systematic directional chain shift around the active-site residues from APT to EPT to MCT. PMID:15299934

  6. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  7. In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved.

  8. Antiviral activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Matrine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Cai-Hong; Li, E; He, Jun-Ping; Wang, Shao-Yu; Hu, Yuan-Liang; Lei, Hai-Min; Li, Hong-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is an acute infectious disease. The prevalence of PRRS has made swine industry suffered huge financial losses. Matrine, a natural compound, has been demonstrated to possess anti-PRRSV activity in Marc-145 cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms were still unknown. The main objective of our study was to discuss the effect of Matrine on PRRSV N protein expression and PRRSV induced apoptosis. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot were used to assess the effect of Matrine on N protein expression. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence staining. In addition, the effect of Matrine on caspase-3 activation was investigated by Western blot. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Matrine could inhibit N protein expression in Marc-145 cells. And Matrine was found to be able to impair PRRSV-induced apoptosis by inhibiting caspase-3 activation.

  9. Effect of High Pressure on the Porcine Placenral Hydrolyzing Activity of Pepsin, Trypsin and Chymotrypsin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of protease treatments (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and pepsin) under various pressure levels (0.1-300 MPa) for the characteristics of porcine placenta hydrolysates. According to gel electrophoretic patterns, the trypsin showed the best placental hydrolyzing activity followed by chymotrypsin, regardless of the pressure levels. In particular, the peptide bands of tryptic-digested hydrolysate were not shown regardless of applied pressure levels. The peptide bands of hydrolysate treated chymotrypsin showed gradual decreases in molecular weights (Mw) with increasing pressure levels. However, the pepsin did not show any evidences of placental hydrolysis even though the pressure levels were increased to 300 MPa. The gel permeation chromatography (GPC) profiles showed that the trypsin and pepsin had better placental hydrolyzing activities under high pressure (particularly at 200 MPa), with lower Mw distributions of the hydrolysates. Pepsin also tend to lower the Mw of peptides, while the major bands of hydrolysates being treated at 300 MPa were observed at more than 7,000 Da. There were some differences in amino acid compositions of the hydrolysates, nevertheless, the peptides were mainly composed of glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro). Consequently, the results indicate that high pressure could enhance the placental hydrolyzing activities of the selected proteases and the optimum pressure levels at which the maximum protease activity is around 200 MPa. PMID:26760740

  10. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-{kappa}B pathway through I{kappa}B degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Myeong; Kleiboeker, Steven B. . E-mail: KleiboekerS@Missouri.edu

    2005-11-10

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-{kappa}B in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B activation was characterized by translocation of NF-{kappa}B from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-{kappa}B-regulated gene expression. NF-{kappa}B activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-{kappa}B activation. Degradation of I{kappa}B protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of I{kappa}B{alpha} (I{kappa}B{alpha}DN) significantly suppressed NF-{kappa}B activation induced by PRRSV. However, I{kappa}B{alpha}DN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-{kappa}B was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-{kappa}B-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-{kappa}B activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV.

  11. Bioluminescence imaging to track real-time armadillo promoter activity in live Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Kaneuch, Taro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2014-09-01

    We established a method for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track real-time gene expression in live Drosophila embryos. We constructed a transgenesis vector containing multiple cloning sites and enhanced green-emitting luciferase (ELuc; Emerald Luc), a brighter and pH-insensitive luciferase for promoter analysis. To evaluate the utility of BLI using an ELuc reporter together with an optimized microscope system, we visualized the expression pattern of armadillo (arm), a member of the Wnt pathway in Drosophila, throughout embryogenesis. We generated transgenic flies carrying the arm:: ELuc fusion gene, and successfully performed BLI continuously for 22 h in the same embryos. Our study showed, for the first time, that arm::Eluc expression was dramatically increased in the anterior midgut rudiment, myoblasts of the dorsal/lateral musculature, and the posterior spiracle after stage 13, and the cephalic region at stage 17. To further demonstrate the application of our BLI system, we revealed that arm transcriptional activity in embryos was modulated inversely by treatment with ionomycin or 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), an inhibitor and activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. Therefore, our microscopic BLI system is useful for monitoring gene expression in live Drosophila embryos, and for investigating regulatory mechanisms by using chemicals and mutations that might affect expression. PMID:25023969

  12. Evaluation of biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. using the chicken embryo model.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Radosław; Bednarczyk, Marek; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (cat's claw) was evaluated by application of the chicken embryo model. Among three groups of eggs (n = 360) with twelve-day old embryos, two were injected with different doses of cat's claw extracts (0.0492 and 0.492 mg/200 lambda). To the third control group 200 lambda of physiological salt was applied. All eggs were incubated in conventional forced-air apparatus until hatched. Hatchability, chicken weight and wholesomeness were analyzed. Selected parameters of blood including number of erythrocytes (RBC), number of leukocytes (WBC), mean red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit (HCT), hemoglobin concentration (HGB), mean amount of cell hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and embryo weight (MAS) were assayed and compared. Significant differences with ANOVA were observed for MCV (P = 0.002), MCHC (P = 0.00001) and MCH (P = 0.02). Applying the chicken embryo model brought new information about the biological activity of U. tomentosa showing an unfavourable effect on some morphological blood parameters.

  13. Antiviral activity of quercetin 7-rhamnoside against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa-Jung; Kim, Jin-Hee; Lee, Choong-Hwan; Ahn, Young-Joon; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Baek, Seung-Hwa; Kwon, Dur-Han

    2009-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the predominant cause of severe entero-pathogenic diarrhea in swine. The lack of effective therapeutical treatment underlines the importance of research for new antivirals. In this study, we identified Q7R, which actively inhibited PEDV replication with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 0.014 microg/mL. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC(50)) of Q7R was over 100 microg/mL and the derived therapeutic index was 7142. Several structural analogues of Q7R, quercetin, apigenin, luteolin and catechin, also showed moderate anti-PEDV activity. Antiviral drugs and natural compounds revealed ribavirin, interferon-alpha, coumarin and tannic acid have relative weaker efficacy compared to Q7R. Q7R did not directly interact with or inactivate PEDV particles and affect the initial stage of PEDV infection by interfering of PEDV replication. Also, the effectiveness of Q7R against the other two viruses (TGEV, PRCV) was lower compared to PEDV. Q7R could be considered as a lead compound for development of anti-PEDV drugs to may be used to during the early stage of PEDV replication and the structure-activity data of Q7R may usefully guideline to design other related antiviral agents.

  14. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in buffalos: effect of the fusion and activation protocols and embryo culture system on preimplantation embryo development.

    PubMed

    Simon, Liz; Veerapandian, C; Balasubramanian, S; Subramanian, A

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted primarily to evaluate several factors that affect the nuclear transfer programme in water buffalos, in which relatively few studies have been performed. Embryos reconstructed with quiescent fetal fibroblasts and metaphase II cytoplasts were matured for 24 h, and activation was found to be comparatively better than in those matured for 30 h. A significantly higher proportion of embryos fused (52.0 +/- 1.9) and cleaved (51.2 +/- 1.7) when the couplets were fused 4-6 h before activation than when fused and activated simultaneously (46.5 +/- 1.6 and 44.5 +/- 2.0, respectively). Development of nuclear transfer embryos to the blastocyst stage (4.8 +/- 2.2) was supported by a commercially available sequential medium, and cleavage (76.5 +/- 2.8) was significantly higher in this medium compared with cleavage in TCM-199 with oviduct epithelial cell coculture (45.6 +/- 1.5) and synthetic oviduct fluid (21.8 +/- 6.6). Of the 16 cloned embryos transferred, none resulted in pregnancy. The present study demonstrates that optimal numbers of cloned buffalo blastocysts can be obtained from oocytes matured for 24 h, fused 3-4 h before activation and cultured in a commercially available sequential media (G1/G2), thus providing further information to enable successful nuclear transfer in buffalos.

  15. Effects of interval between fusion and activation, cytochalasin B treatment, and number of transferred embryos, on cloning efficiency in goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Li, L L; Du, S; Bai, X Y; Zhang, H D; Tang, S; Zhao, M T; Ma, B H; Quan, F S; Zhao, X E; Zhang, Y

    2011-10-01

    To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in goats, we evaluated the effects of the interval between fusion and activation (1 to 5 h), cytochalasin B (CB) treatment after electrofusion, and the number of transferred embryos on the in vivo and in vitro development of cloned caprine embryos. The majority of the reconstructed embryos had condensed chromosomes and metaphase-like chromosomes at 2 and 3 h after fusion; cleavage and blastocyst rates from those two groups were higher (P < 0.05) than those of embryos activated 1, 4, or 5 h after fusion. Treatment with CB between fusion and activation improved in vitro and in vivo development of nuclear transfer (NT) goat embryos by reducing the fragmentation rate (P < 0.05). Although there were no significant differences in NT efficiency, pregnancy rate and kids born per recipient were increased by transfer of 20 or 30 embryos per recipient compared with 10 embryos. We concluded that CB treatment for 2 to 3 h between fusion and activation was an efficient method for generating cloned goats by somatic cell NT. In addition, increasing the number of embryos transferred to each recipient resulted in more live offspring from fewer recipients.

  16. Ethanol has thyrotropin-like activity in cultured porcine thyroid follicles.

    PubMed

    Nasu, M; Sugawara, M

    1993-01-01

    We describe TSH-like activity of ethanol for thyroid hormone formation in the physiological culture system. Porcine thyroid follicles were preincubated with 0-100 mM (0-0.58%) ethanol in the presence of 0-1280 microU/ml bovine TSH for 24 h; these follicles were then incubated with the mixture of Na125I and NaI to measure iodide uptake, iodine organification, and de novo thyroid hormone formation. Ethanol stimulated iodide uptake in a dose-response manner in TSH-free medium. Ethanol augmented the effect of TSH on iodide uptake, iodide organification, and thyroid hormone formation in the presence of 20-80 microU/ml TSH. When TSH concentration was 320 microU/ml or greater, ethanol no longer stimulated iodide uptake and thyroid hormone formation. Ethanol mediated iodide uptake and iodine organification were inhibited by potassium perchlorate and propylthiouracil respectively. The effect of ethanol on the thyroid follicle was reversible 24 h after removal of ethanol from the medium. The mechanism of TSH-like activity of ethanol was studied by measuring cAMP generation and Na+K+ATPase activity, a sodium pump necessary for iodide transport, in the presence of 0-1280 microU/ml TSH. Ethanol increased cAMP production in TSH-free medium; the increment of cAMP by ethanol was more prominent when 20-80 microU/ml TSH were present. Ethanol also augmented (Bu)2cAMP-mediated iodide uptake and TSH-mediated thyroid Na+K+ATPase activity. Thus, TSH-like activity of ethanol for thyroid hormone formation can be explained by activation of the cAMP system and Na+K+ATPase activity. Our results indicate that ethanol concentrations equivalent to the blood level of moderate to heavy alcohol drinkers exert TSH-like activity in the thyroid follicle. PMID:8380371

  17. Inhibition of Porcine Pancreatic Amylase Activity by Sulfamethoxazole: Structural and Functional Aspect.

    PubMed

    Maity, Sujan; Mukherjee, Koel; Banerjee, Amrita; Mukherjee, Suman; Dasgupta, Dipak; Gupta, Suvroma

    2016-06-01

    Combating Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a pivotal challenge in front of the present world. Several lines of therapy are in practice for resisting this deadly disease which often culminates with cardiovascular complexities, neuropathy and retinopathy. Among various therapies, administration of alpha glucosidase inhibitors is common and widely practiced. Sulfonylurea category of anti diabetic drug often suffers from cross reactivity with sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a common drug in use to treat a handful of microbial infections. However the specific cellular target generating postprandial hypoglycemia on SMX administration is till date unraveled. The present work has been initiated to elucidate the effects of a group of sulfonamide drugs inclusive of SMX for their amylase inhibitory role. SMX inhibits porcine pancreatic amylase (PPA) in a noncompetitive mode with an average IC50 value 0.94 mM respectively. Interaction of SMX with PPA is manifested with gradual quenching of tryptophan fluorescence with concomitant shift in lambda max value (λmax). Binding is governed by entropy driven factor (24.8 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) with unfavorable contribution from enthalpy change. SMX interferes with the activity of acarbose in a synergistic mode to reduce the effective dose of acarbose as evident from the in vitro PPA inhibition study. In summary, loss of PPA activity in presence of SMX is indicative of structural changes of PPA which is further augmented in the presence of acarbose as explained in the schematic model and docking study. PMID:27272220

  18. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J.; Wubbolts, Richard W.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate (wtPEDV) using a reverse genetics system based on the trypsin-independent cell culture-adapted strain DR13 (caPEDV). We demonstrate that trypsin acts on the wtPEDV spike protein after receptor binding. We mapped the genetic determinant for trypsin-dependent cell entry to the N-terminal region of the fusion subunit of this class I fusion protein, revealing a conserved arginine just upstream of the putative fusion peptide as the potential cleavage site. Whereas coronaviruses are typically processed by endogenous proteases of the producer or target cell, PEDV S protein activation strictly required supplementation of a protease, enabling us to study mechanistic details of proteolytic processing. IMPORTANCE Recurring PEDV epidemics constitute a serious animal health threat and an economic burden, particularly in Asia but, as of recently, also on the North-American subcontinent. Understanding the biology of PEDV is critical for combatting the infection. Here, we provide new insight into the protease-dependent cell entry of PEDV. PMID:24807723

  19. Proteolytic activation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus spike fusion protein by trypsin in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-07-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infection by investigating the spike protein of a PEDV isolate (wtPEDV) using a reverse genetics system based on the trypsin-independent cell culture-adapted strain DR13 (caPEDV). We demonstrate that trypsin acts on the wtPEDV spike protein after receptor binding. We mapped the genetic determinant for trypsin-dependent cell entry to the N-terminal region of the fusion subunit of this class I fusion protein, revealing a conserved arginine just upstream of the putative fusion peptide as the potential cleavage site. Whereas coronaviruses are typically processed by endogenous proteases of the producer or target cell, PEDV S protein activation strictly required supplementation of a protease, enabling us to study mechanistic details of proteolytic processing. Importance: Recurring PEDV epidemics constitute a serious animal health threat and an economic burden, particularly in Asia but, as of recently, also on the North-American subcontinent. Understanding the biology of PEDV is critical for combatting the infection. Here, we provide new insight into the protease-dependent cell entry of PEDV. PMID:24807723

  20. Integrin beta 8 (ITGB8) regulates embryo implantation potentially via controlling the activity of TGF-B1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Maurya, Vineet Kumar; Joshi, Anubha; Meeran, Syed Musthapa; Jha, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Integrins (ITGs) are mediators of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, which are also associated with embryo implantation processes by controlling the interaction of blastocyst with endometrium. During early pregnancy, ITGbeta8 (ITGB8) has been shown to interact with latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 (TGFB1) at the fetomaternal interface. However, the precise role of ITGB8 in the uterus and its association with embryo implantation has not been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to ascertain the role of ITGB8 during the window of embryo implantation process by inhibiting its function or protein expression. Uterine plasma membrane-anchored ITGB8 was augmented at peri-implantation and postimplantation stages. A similar pattern of mRNA expression was also found during the embryo implantation period. An immunolocalization study revealed the presence of ITGB8 on luminal epithelial cells along with mild expression on the stromal cells throughout the implantation period studied; however, an intense fluorescence was noted only during the peri- and postimplantation stages. Bioneutralization and mRNA silencing of the uterine Itgb8 at preimplantation stage reduced the rate/frequency of embryo implantation and subsequent pregnancy, suggesting its indispensable role during the embryo implantation period. ITGB8 can also regulate the liberation of active TGFB1 from its latent complex, which, in turn, acts on SMAD2/3 phosphorylation (activation) in the uterus during embryo implantation. This indicates involvement of ITGB8 in the embryo implantation process through regulation of activation of TGFB1. PMID:25788663

  1. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development.

    PubMed

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G' value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese.

  2. High Pressure Homogenization of Porcine Pepsin Protease: Effects on Enzyme Activity, Stability, Milk Coagulation Profile and Gel Development

    PubMed Central

    Leite Júnior, Bruno Ricardo de Castro; Tribst, Alline Artigiani Lima; Cristianini, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) (up to 190 MPa) on porcine pepsin (proteolytic and milk-clotting activities), and the consequences of using the processed enzyme in milk coagulation and gel formation (rheological profile, proteolysis, syneresis, and microstructure). Although the proteolytic activity (PA) was not altered immediately after the HPH process, it reduced during enzyme storage, with a 5% decrease after 60 days of storage for samples obtained with the enzyme processed at 50, 100 and 150 MPa. HPH increased the milk-clotting activity (MCA) of the enzyme processed at 150 MPa, being 15% higher than the MCA of non-processed samples after 60 days of storage. The enzyme processed at 150 MPa produced faster aggregation and a more consistent milk gel (G’ value 92% higher after 90 minutes) when compared with the non-processed enzyme. In addition, the gels produced with the enzyme processed at 150 MPa showed greater syneresis after 40 minutes of coagulation (forming a more compact protein network) and lower porosity (evidenced by confocal microscopy). These effects on the milk gel can be associated with the increment in MCA and reduction in PA caused by the effects of HPH on pepsin during storage. According to the results, HPH stands out as a process capable of changing the proteolytic characteristics of porcine pepsin, with improvements on the milk coagulation step and gel characteristics. Therefore, the porcine pepsin submitted to HPH process can be a suitable alternative for the production of cheese. PMID:25938823

  3. Activity-based labeling of matrix metalloproteinases in living vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Keow, Jonathan Y; Pond, Eric D; Cisar, Justin S; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Crawford, Bryan D

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a physiologically and developmentally essential process mediated by a family of zinc-dependent extracellular proteases called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In addition to complex transcriptional control, MMPs are subject to extensive post-translational regulation. Because of this, classical biochemical, molecular and histological techniques that detect the expression of specific gene products provide useful but limited data regarding the biologically relevant activity of MMPs. Using benzophenone-bearing hydroxamate-based probes that interact with the catalytic zinc ion in MMPs, active proteases can be covalently 'tagged' by UV cross-linking. This approach has been successfully used to tag MMP-2 in vitro in tissue culture supernatants, and we show here that this probe tags proteins with mobilities consistent with known MMPs and detectable gelatinolytic activity in homogenates of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, because of the transparency of the zebrafish embryo, UV-photocroslinking can be accomplished in vivo, and rhodamated benzophenone probe is detected in striking spatial patterns consistent with known distributions of active matrix remodeling in embryos. Finally, in metamorphosing Xenopus tadpoles, this probe can be used to biotinylate active MMP-2 by injecting it and cross-linking it in vivo, allowing the protein to be subsequently extracted and biochemically identified. PMID:22952682

  4. Effect of ionomycin on oocyte activation and embryo development in mouse.

    PubMed

    Heytens, Elke; Soleimani, Reza; Lierman, Sylvie; De Meester, Simon; Gerris, Jan; Dhont, Marc; Van der Elst, Josiane; De Sutter, Petra

    2008-12-01

    Artificial oocyte activation using the calcium ionophore ionomycin is applied successfully in assisted reproduction but some concern exists on the clinical use. The aims of the present study were to optimize the oocyte activation scheme and to address embryo toxicity in a mouse model. Efficiency of oocyte activation and subsequent development was evaluated and ionomycin was found to be an efficient activator at 10 micromol/l. An improved effect of a second exposure to 5 micromol/l ionomycin on blastocyst development was observed. Toxicity of ionomycin on embryos was then investigated by evaluating pre- and post-implantation development of in-vivo fertilized oocytes following exposure to ionomycin. Blastocyst development, blastocyst cell numbers in trophectoderm and inner cell mass were not different between treated and non-treated zygotes. Also implantation rates and fetal parameters such as length, weight and morphological parameters were similar between the fetuses originating from zygotes treated with ionomycin and non-treated zygotes. Furthermore, healthy offspring originating from ionomycin-treated zygotes was born. In conclusion, no adverse effects of ionomycin on in-vitro or in-vivo mouse embryo development were noticed, giving arguments in favour of the use of ionomycin, although negative long-term effects of this compound cannot be excluded at present.

  5. CDK2 Is Required for the DNA Damage Response During Porcine Early Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, HaiYang; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 inhibition plays a central role in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. However, whether CDK2 also influences early porcine embryo development is unknown. In this study, we examined whether CDK2 is involved in the regulation of oocyte meiosis and early embryonic development of porcine embryos. We found that disrupting CDK2 activity with RNAi or an inhibitor did not affect meiotic resumption or meiosis II arrest. However, CDK2 inhibitor-treated embryos showed delayed cleavage and ceased development before the blastocyst stage. Disrupting CDK2 activity is able to induce sustained DNA damage, as demonstrated by the formation of distinct gammaH2AX foci in nuclei of Day-3 and Day-5 embryos. Inhibiting CDK2 triggers a DNA damage checkpoint by activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-P53-P21 pathway. However, the mRNA expression of genes involved in nonhomologous end joining or homologous recombination pathways for double-strand break repair were reduced after administering CDK2 inhibitor to 5-day-old embryos. Furthermore, CDK2 inhibition caused apoptosis in Day-7 blastocysts. Thus, our results indicate that an ATM-P53-P21 DNA damage checkpoint is intact in the absence of CDK2; however, CDK2 is important for proper repair of the damaged DNA by either directly or indirectly influencing DNA repair-related gene expression. PMID:27307074

  6. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2.

  7. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. PMID:27234554

  8. Wnt-Signaling-Mediated Antiosteoporotic Activity of Porcine Placenta Hydrolysates in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Lee, Na Ra; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2012-01-01

    Anti-osteoporotic effects of two types of porcine placenta hydrolysates (PPH) were evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats orally administered PPH without (WPPH) or with (NPPH) ovarian hormones (1 g/kg bw/day). PPH groups were compared with OVX rats with estrogen replacement (0.1 mg/kg bw conjugated estrogen; EST), or dextrose (placebo; OVX-control) All rats received high-fat/calcium-deficient diets for 12 weeks. NPPH contained less estrogen and progesterone, but more essential amino acids, whereas the opposite was true for WPPH. NPPH decreased body weight and peri-uterine fat pads, and maintained uterus weight. NPPH rats had higher femur and lumbar spine bone mass density compared to controls; but less than those of EST rats. Serum phosphorus and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels were reduced in NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. Serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone turnover marker levels were reduced NPPH rats compared to OVX-controls. WPPH produced results similar to those of NPPH, but less significant. Both NPPH and estrogen upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, while the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1 was suppressed. In conclusion, NPPH exerted anti-osteoporotic effects by activating osteogenesis and stimulating Wnt signaling, possibly mediated by the various amino acids and not ovarian hormones. PMID:23258987

  9. The Use of Chick Embryos to Study Wnt Activity Gradients.

    PubMed

    Galli, Lisa M; Barnes, Tiffany; Burrus, Laura W

    2016-01-01

    The chick spinal cord provides a valuable model for assessing Wnt signaling activity. Loss or gain of function constructs that are transfected by electroporation can be directed to a single side of the spinal cord, thus leaving the contralateral side as an internal control. Here, we describe a method for measuring Wnt signaling via the use of BAT-Gal, a β-catenin dependent Wnt reporter. PMID:27590153

  10. Effectiveness of noise in blocking electromagnetic effects on enzyme activity in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Martin, A H; Moses, G C

    1995-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure of the chick embryo to a 60 Hz, 4 microT split sine wave for the first 72 hours of development causes a significant reduction in the activity of the ectoenzyme 5'-nucleotidase. This reduced activity persisted, throughout the embryonic period, despite further incubation in a field free environment. We also showed that the reduction in 5'NT activity can be localized in the developing brain to the Cerebellum. The present study reveals that superimposition of an electromagnetic noise, of similar amplitude and frequency, can mitigate the effect of the field on 5'NT activity.

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  13. Stage-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in vivo activity in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

    PubMed

    González-Doncel, Miguel; Carbonell, Gregoria; San Segundo, Laura; Sastre, Salvador; Beltrán, Eulalia M; Fernández-Torija, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Using medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos, this study aimed to quantitatively characterize the stage-dependent in vivo ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) as indicator of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity. Embryos were challenged for 24-h to an agonist (β-naphthoflavone [BNF], 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μg L(-1)) or to its combination (2.5 μg L(-1)) with an antagonist (α-naphthoflavone [ANF], 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg L(-1)), initiated at four different developmental time points (1, 3, 6, and 9 d post-fertilization [dpf]). Respective induction and competitive inhibition were evaluated over fluorescent images of whole embryo (nonorgan-specific [NOS] EROD activity) and gallbladder (organ-specific [OS] EROD activity). Both flavonoids showed signs of stability in solution. Generally speaking, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for NOS EROD increased with BNF concentration and exposure challenge. BNF co-exposure with ⩾50 μg ANF L(-1) during the 1-2 and 3-4 dpf challenges lowered NOS EROD to undetectably induced levels. Significant increments in MFIs for OS-EROD were seen from exposures to ⩾2.5 μg BNF L(-1), peaking during the 6-7 dpf challenge regardless of BNF concentration. The simultaneous BNF/ANF incubation showed competitive inhibition for OS EROD activity, although levels were generally detectably induced during all challenges and at all ANF concentrations. The morphometric in vivo gallbladder analysis indicated significant dilation in the 10 dpf-old embryos co-exposed to BNF and 200 μg ANF L(-1). This quantitative approach can be used successfully at 4 dpf at the NOS-EROD or OS-EROD levels, although the NOS-EROD response was sensitive enough to induction or inhibition, even at 2 dpf.

  14. Mdivi-1, mitochondrial fission inhibitor, impairs developmental competence and mitochondrial function of embryos and cells in pigs

    PubMed Central

    YEON, Ji-Yeong; MIN, Sung-Hun; PARK, Hyo-Jin; KIM, Jin-Woo; LEE, Yong-Hee; PARK, Soo-Yong; JEONG, Pil-Soo; PARK, Humdai; LEE, Dong-Seok; KIM, Sun-Uk; CHANG, Kyu-Tae; KOO, Deog-Bon

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that undergo constant fusion/fission as well as activities orchestrated by large dynamin-related GTPases. These dynamic mitochondrial processes influence mitochondrial morphology, size and function. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mitochondrial fission inhibitor, mdivi-1, on developmental competence and mitochondrial function of porcine embryos and primary cells. Presumptive porcine embryos were cultured in PZM-3 medium supplemented with mdivi-1 (0, 10 and 50 μM) for 6 days. Porcine fibroblast cells were cultured in growth medium with mdivi-1 (0 and 50 μM) for 2 days. Our results showed that the rate of blastocyst production and cell growth in the mdivi-1 (50 μM) treated group was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the mdivi-1 (50 μM) treated group was increased relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Subsequent evaluation revealed that the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the apoptotic index were increased by mdivi-1 (50 μM) treatment (P < 0.05). Finally, the expression of mitochondrial fission-related protein (Drp 1) was lower in the embryos and cells in the mdivi-1-treated group than the control group. Taken together, these results indicate that mdivi-1 treatment may inhibit developmental competence and mitochondrial function in porcine embryos and primary cells. PMID:25501014

  15. Autoimmune activation toward embryo implantation is rare in immune-privileged human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Haller-Kikkatalo, Kadri; Altmäe, Signe; Tagoma, Aili; Uibo, Raivo; Salumets, Andres

    2014-09-01

    Human embryo implantation represents embryo apposition, adhesion to the endometrial epithelium, and invasion into the stromal extracellular matrix within 1 to 2 days during days 6 to 9 after ovulation. The major molecular mechanisms mediating implantation include adhesion molecules, including mucins, selectins, integrins, and cadherins; extracellular matrix components, such as laminins and collagens and their degrading enzymes; phospholipids and immune regulatory molecules, including prostaglandins, cytokines; and immunosuppressive molecules expressed by invasive trophoblasts and endometrial cells. Many of these molecules are the targets for autoimmune reactions in autoimmune diseases and cancer; however, the relevance of those in immune-mediated implantation failure has not been defined. In this review, we will describe the molecules involved in 2-day event of human embryo implantation, which may also be involved in immune system activation and subsequently cause immune-mediated implantation failure. We speculate that the data in the literature are limited concerning antiendometrial antibodies because the endometrium might be taken as an immune-privileged site that avoids autoimmune activation that might harm the implantation process. Antibodies affecting human fertility in ways other than impairing implantation are outside the scope of the current article and will not be discussed. PMID:24959819

  16. [Use of colchicine in studying the proliferative activity of chicken embryos].

    PubMed

    Efremov, V I; El Zajat, M

    1977-07-01

    Manifestation of mitotic activity of colchicin in 4- and 5-day-old chick embryos was studied under different modes of colchicin injection into the eggs. Three methods were tested: colchicin solution was injected into the serous-amniotic cavity (1) and into the yolk sac (2) and also by dripping on the serous membrane over the enbryo (3). Perfect metastatic effect was observed only when colchicin was used in concentration of 1 X 10(-4) g/ml and injected by the third mehtod. Increase in the solution volume over 0.1 ml resulted in a greater percentage of embryo death. Lack of a definite inhibitory action after colchicin injection into the serous-amniotic cavity might be explained by decrease of the substance concentration as a result of its dilution by the cavity fluid. A complete lack of blocked mitoses in the embryo tissues after colchicin injection into the yolk sac can be explained, according to the authors, by the presence, in the yolk, of a great number of ovoflavins capable to inhibit mitotic activity of colchicin.

  17. Telomere elongation facilitated by trichostatin a in cloned embryos and pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingran; Ji, Guangzhen; Xie, Bingteng; Li, Jingyu; Mao, Jian; Wang, Juan; Liu, Shichao; Liu, Lin; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-06-01

    Telomere attrition and genomic instability are associated with organism aging. Concerns still exist regarding telomere length resetting in cloned embryos and ntES cells, and possibilities of premature aging of cloned animals achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, effectively improves the developmental competence of cloned embryos and animals, and recently contributes to successful generation of human ntES cells by SCNT. To test the function of TSA on resetting telomere length, we analyzed telomeres in cloned blastocysts and pigs following treatment of SCNT embryos with TSA. Here, we show that telomeres of cloned pigs generated by standard SCNT methods are not effectively restored, compared with those of donor cells, however TSA significantly increases telomere lengths in cloned pigs. Telomeres elongate in cloned porcine embryos during early cleavage from one-cell to four-cell stages. Notably, TSA facilitates telomere lengthening of cloned embryos mainly at morula-blastocyst stages. Knockdown of pTert by shRNA in donor cells reduces telomerase activity in cloned blastocysts but does not abrogate telomere elongation in the TSA-treated embryos (p > 0.05). However, genes associated with recombination or telomerase-independent mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) Rad50 and BLM show increased expression in TSA-treated embryos. These data suggest that TSA may promote telomere elongation of cloned porcine embryos by ALT. Together, TSA can elongate telomeres in cloned embryos and piglets, and this could be one of the mechanisms underlying improved development of cloned embryos and animals treated with TSA. PMID:24510582

  18. Metabolite fingerprinting of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) embryos to assess active pathways during oil synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsogtbaatar, Enkhtuul; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Sonera, Marcos Corchado; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), a plant naturalized to North America, accumulates high levels of erucic acid in its seeds, which makes it a promising biodiesel and industrial crop. The main carbon sinks in pennycress embryos were found to be proteins, fatty acids, and cell wall, which respectively represented 38.5, 33.2, and 27.0% of the biomass at 21 days after pollination. Erucic acid reached a maximum of 36% of the total fatty acids. Together these results indicate that total oil and erucic acid contents could be increased to boost the economic competitiveness of this crop. Understanding the biochemical basis of oil synthesis in pennycress embryos is therefore timely and relevant to guide future breeding and/or metabolic engineering efforts. For this purpose, a combination of metabolomics approaches was conducted to assess the active biochemical pathways during oil synthesis. First, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiling of intracellular metabolites highlighted three main families of compounds: organic acids, amino acids, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Secondly, these intermediates were quantified in developing pennycress embryos by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Finally, partitional clustering analysis grouped the intracellular metabolites that shared a similar pattern of accumulation over time into eight clusters. This study underlined that: (i) sucrose might be stored rather than cleaved into hexoses; (ii) glucose and glutamine would be the main sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively; and (iii) glycolysis, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the Calvin cycle were active in developing pennycress embryos. PMID:25711705

  19. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  20. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity marks the visceral endoderm of mouse embryos but is not indicative of senescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tingting; Rivera-Pérez, Jaime A

    2014-04-01

    Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity is widely used as a marker of cellular senescence and as an indicator of organismal aging. Here, we report that SA-β-gal activity is present in the visceral endoderm layer of early postimplantation mouse embryos in predictable patterns that vary as the embryo progresses in development. However, determination of the mitotic index and analysis of the expression of Cdkn1a (p21), a marker of senescent cells, do not indicate cellular senescence. Instead, analysis of embryos in culture revealed the presence of SA-β-gal activity in apical vacuoles of visceral endoderm cells likely a reflection of acidic β-galactosidase function in these organelles. SA-β-gal serves as a practical marker of the dynamics of the visceral endoderm that can be applied to developmental as well as functional studies of early mammalian embryos.

  1. Effects of caffeine treatment on aged porcine oocytes: parthenogenetic activation ability, chromosome condensation and development to the blastocyst stage after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaki; Onishi, Akira; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Somfai, Tamas; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Yazaki, Satoko; Hashimoto, Michiko; Takeda, Kumiko; Tagami, Takahiro; Hanada, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2005-11-01

    The possibility of using aged porcine oocytes treated with caffeine, which inhibits the decrease in M-phase promoting factor activity, for pig cloning was evaluated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured initially for 36 h and subsequently with or without 5 mM caffeine for 24 h (in total for 60 h: 60CA+ or 60CA- group, respectively). As a control group, COCs were cultured for 48 h without caffeine (48CA-). The pronuclear formation rates at 10 h after electrical stimulation in the 60CA+ and 60CA- groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the 48CA- group. However, the fragmentation rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 60CA- group than in the 60CA+ and 48CA- groups. When the stimulated oocytes were cultured for 6 days, the 60CA+ group showed significantly lower blastocyst formation and higher fragmentation or degeneration rates (p < 0.05) than the 48CA- group. However, the number of total cells in blastocysts was not affected by maturation period or caffeine treatment. When somatic cell nuclei were injected into the non-enucleated oocytes and exposed to cytoplasm for a certain duration (1-11 h) before the completion of maturation (48 or 60 h), the rate of nuclear membrane breakdown after exposure to cytoplasm for 1-2 h in the 60CA- oocytes was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the other experimental groups. The rate of scattered chromosome formation in the same 60CA- group tended to be lower (p = 0.08) than in the other groups. After the enucleation and transfer of nuclei, blastocyst formation rates in the 60CA+ and 60CA- groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the 48CA- group. Blastocyst quality did not differ among all the groups. These results suggest that chromosome decondensation of the transplanted somatic nucleus is affected by both the duration of exposure to cytoplasm and the age of the recipient porcine oocytes, and that caffeine treatment promotes nuclear remodelling but does not prevent the decrease in the

  2. The activation of DNA damage detection and repair responses in cleavage-stage rat embryos by a damaged paternal genome.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Lisanne; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Male germ cell DNA damage, after exposure to radiation, exogenous chemicals, or chemotherapeutic agents, is a major cause of male infertility. DNA-damaged spermatozoa can fertilize oocytes; this is of concern because there is limited information on the capacity of early embryos to repair a damaged male genome or on the fate of these embryos if repair is inadequate. We hypothesized that the early activation of DNA damage response in the early embryo is a critical determinant of its fate. The objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage response and mitochondrial function as a measure of the energy supply for DNA repair and general health in cleavage-stage embryos sired by males chronically exposed to an anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide. Male rats were treated with saline or cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and mated to naturally cycling females. Pronuclear two- and eight-cell embryos were collected for immunofluorescence analysis of mitochondrial function and biomarkers of the DNA damage response: γH2AX foci, 53BP1 reactivity, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymer formation. Mitochondrial activities did not differ between embryos sired by control- and cyclophosphamide-exposed males. At the two-cell stage, there was no treatment-related increase in DNA double-strand breaks; by the eight-cell stage, a significant increase was noted, as indicated by increased medium and large γH2AX foci. This was accompanied by a dampened DNA repair response, detected as a decrease in the nuclear intensity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. The micronuclei formed in cyclophosphamide-sired embryos contained large γH2AX foci and enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymer and 53BP1 reactivity compared with their nuclear counterparts. Thus, paternal cyclophosphamide exposure activated a DNA damage response in cleavage-stage embryos. Furthermore, this damage response may be useful in assessing embryo quality and developmental competence. PMID:22454429

  3. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals.

    PubMed

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2-sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2-sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2-sensing A1/C1 neurons.

  4. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-10-01

    Mortality rates associated with off‑pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase‑myocardial band (CK‑MB), interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), and caspase‑3 were detected using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF‑α, cTnI, CK‑MB, IL‑6, IL‑10 and caspase‑3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti‑apoptotic protein, Bcl‑2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF‑α, cTnI, CK‑MB, IL‑6, IL‑10 and caspase‑3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl‑2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious

  5. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  6. Measuring the electric activity of chick embryos heart through 16 bit audio card monitored by the Goldwavetm software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we used a high-resolution, low-cost apparatus capable of detecting waves fit inside the sound bandwidth, and the software package GoldwaveTM for graphical display, processing and monitoring the signals, to study aspects of the electric heart activity of early avian embryos, specifically at the 18th Hamburger & Hamilton stage of the embryo development. The species used was the domestic chick (Gallus gallus), and we carried out 23 experiments in which cardiographic spectra of QRS complex waves representing the propagation of depolarization waves through ventricles was recorded using microprobes and reference electrodes directly on the embryos. The results show that technique using 16 bit audio card monitored by the GoldwaveTM software was efficient to study signal aspects of heart electric activity of early avian embryos.

  7. An ideal oocyte activation protocol and embryo culture conditions for somatic cell nuclear transfer using sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hiren; Chougule, Shruti; Chohan, Parul; Shah, Naval; Bhartiya, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are possibly the best candidates for regenerative medicine, and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is one of the viable options to make patient-specific embryonic stem cells. Till date efficacy of SCNT embryos is very low and requires further improvement like ideal oocyte activation and in vitro culture system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate ideal oocyte activation using different stimulation protocols and to study the effect of cumulus co-culture conditions on embryo development. Results demonstrate that between electric stimulation and chemical stimulation using calcium ionomycin and ionophore, best oocyte activation was obtained using calcium ionomycin (5 microM for 5 min) which resulted in 83% cleavage followed by 7% of early blastocyst which further increased to 15% when a cumulus bed was also introduced during embryo culture. Sequential modified Charles Rosenkrans 2 (mCR2) medium was used for embryo culture in which glucose levels were increased from 1 mM to 5 mM from Day 3 onwards. SCNT using cumulus cells as donor somatic cell, calcium ionomycin to activate the reconstructed oocyte and embryo culture on a cumulus bed in sequential mCR2 medium, resulted in the development of 6% embryos to early blastocyst stage. Such technological advances will make SCNT a viable option to make patient-specific pluripotent stem cell lines in near future.

  8. Rosiglitazone stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and directly affects in vitro steroidogenesis in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Karpeta, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) synthetic activator from the group of thiazolidinediones often used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other forms of insulin resistance. The present in vitro study assessed the direct effects of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50 μM doses on PPARγ gene expression, steroid secretion (progesterone [P4], androstenedione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol), and protein expression of PPARγ, 3βHSD, CYP17, 17βHSD, CYP19 by porcine ovarian follicles from prepubertal and cycling animals. We analyzed also steroid enzymatic activity by conversion of pregnen-3β-ol-20-one to P4, P4 to A4, and A4 to T. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone increased significantly PPARγ expression, P4 secretion, 3βHSD activity, and protein expression. Rosiglitazone decreased A4 and T secretion by reducing the expression and activity of CYP17 and 17βHSD and did not change estradiol secretion and CYP19. Similarly results was observed both in prepubertal and cycling pigs. Our results indicate that these direct effects of rosiglitazone on ovarian steroidogenesis provide a framework for testing several potential new mechanisms of PPAR-γ actions on porcine ovarian function. PMID:24681211

  9. Unmasking Activation of the Zygotic Genome Using Chromosomal Deletions in the Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    De Renzis, Stefano; Elemento, Olivier; Tavazoie, Saeed; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2007-01-01

    During the maternal-to-zygotic transition, a developing embryo integrates post-transcriptional regulation of maternal mRNAs with transcriptional activation of its own genome. By combining chromosomal ablation in Drosophila with microarray analysis, we characterized the basis of this integration. We show that the expression profile for at least one third of zygotically active genes is coupled to the concomitant degradation of the corresponding maternal mRNAs. The embryo uses transcription and degradation to generate localized patterns of expression, and zygotic transcription to degrade distinct classes of maternal transcripts. Although degradation does not appear to involve a simple regulatory code, the activation of the zygotic genome starts from intronless genes sharing a common cis-element. This cis-element interacts with a single protein, the Bicoid stability factor, and acts as a potent enhancer capable of timing the activity of an exogenous transactivator. We propose that this regulatory mode links morphogen gradients with temporal regulation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition. PMID:17456005

  10. ORF2 protein of porcine circovirus type 2 promotes phagocytic activity of porcine macrophages by inhibiting proteasomal degradation of complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) through physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hae-Na; Lee, Suk Jun; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-11-01

    Defining how each ORF of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) manipulates the host immune system may be helpful to understand the disease progression of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. In this study, we demonstrated a direct interaction between the PCV2 ORF2 and complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) within the cytoplasm of host macrophages. The physical interaction between PCV2 ORF2 and C1QBP inhibited ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of C1QBP in macrophages. Increased stability of C1QBP by the interaction with PCV2 ORF2 further enhanced the phagocytic activity of porcine macrophages through the phosphoinositol 3-kinase signalling pathway. This may explain the molecular basis of how PCV2 ORF2 enhances the phagocytic activity of host macrophages. PMID:26361775

  11. ORF2 protein of porcine circovirus type 2 promotes phagocytic activity of porcine macrophages by inhibiting proteasomal degradation of complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) through physical interaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hae-Na; Lee, Suk Jun; Chun, Taehoon

    2015-11-01

    Defining how each ORF of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) manipulates the host immune system may be helpful to understand the disease progression of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. In this study, we demonstrated a direct interaction between the PCV2 ORF2 and complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) within the cytoplasm of host macrophages. The physical interaction between PCV2 ORF2 and C1QBP inhibited ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of C1QBP in macrophages. Increased stability of C1QBP by the interaction with PCV2 ORF2 further enhanced the phagocytic activity of porcine macrophages through the phosphoinositol 3-kinase signalling pathway. This may explain the molecular basis of how PCV2 ORF2 enhances the phagocytic activity of host macrophages.

  12. Modulation of in vitro porcine natural killer cell activity by recombinant interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblock, K F; Canning, P C

    1992-01-01

    In order to understand better how cytokines modulate porcine lymphocyte-mediated natural cytotoxicity and to develop a rapid and reliable colorimetric assay to study that activity in young pigs, we studied inherent and cytokine induced in vitro natural killer (NK) activity. The cytokines we studied were human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-2, IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Natural killer activity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), reported as per cent specific lysis (%SL), was determined by the colorimetric measurement of lactate dehydrogenase released from tumour cell targets, YAC-1 and K562. Inherent NK activity was low and remained relatively unchanged by alterations of assay length or effector cell concentration. Low NK activity was also observed in response to IL-4 and IFN-gamma. IL-2 and, to a lesser extent, IL-1 alpha induced significant NK activity with trends towards increasing %SL with increasing cytokine dose. Optimal IL-1 alpha- and IL-2-induced NK activity could be observed at 18 hr, with significant activity stimulated by IL-2 as early as 4 hr. IL-2-induced NK activity was sensitive to effector cell concentration; %SL decreased as the effector to target ratio decreased. IL-1 alpha- and IL-2-induced NK activities were decreased in the presence of IL-4. These results indicate porcine PBMC are sensitive to in vitro modulation by human recombinant IL-1 alpha, IL-2 and IL-4. The ability of IL-1 alpha and IL-2 to induce swine NK activity and the ability of IL-4 to inhibit that activity are similar to the actions of those cytokines in human NK systems. PMID:1634252

  13. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  14. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events.

  15. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    PubMed

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events. PMID:27554859

  16. Detecting cardiac contractile activity in the early mouse embryo using multiple modalities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chiann-Mun; Miranda, António M. A.; Bub, Gil; Srinivas, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    The heart is one of the first organs to develop during mammalian embryogenesis. In the mouse, it starts to form shortly after gastrulation, and is derived primarily from embryonic mesoderm. The embryonic heart is unique in having to perform a mechanical contractile function while undergoing complex morphogenetic remodeling. Approaches to imaging the morphogenesis and contractile activity of the developing heart are important in understanding not only how this remodeling is controlled but also the origin of congenital heart defects (CHDs). Here, we describe approaches for visualizing contractile activity in the developing mouse embryo, using brightfield time lapse microscopy and confocal microscopy of calcium transients. We describe an algorithm for enhancing this image data and quantifying contractile activity from it. Finally we describe how atomic force microscopy can be used to record contractile activity prior to it being microscopically visible. PMID:25610399

  17. In vivo glucocorticoid effects on porcine natural killer cell activity and circulating leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Salak-Johnson, J L; McGlone, J J; Norman, R L

    1996-03-01

    Porcine natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, plasma cortisol, total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio (N:L), and circulating blood leukocytes were examined from pigs injected i.v. with either saline, ACTH, cortisol, or treated with metyrapone. Plasma cortisol increased (P < .05) after ACTH and cortisol treatments and decreased (P < .05) after metyrapone treatment; thus, treatments had the intended effects on in vivo cortisol concentrations. In Exp. 1, pigs were injected with either saline or ACTH at 0600 after the initial blood samples were taken (time 0). The ACTH had no effect (P > .10) on NK cytotoxicity. Pigs injected i.v. with ACTH had fewer lymphocytes and more neutrophils (P < .05) than control pigs. The N:L ratio was greater (P < .05) among ACTH-injected than among control pigs. In Exp. 2, pigs were injected i.v. with either saline or 40 or 400 micrograms of cortisol at 0600 after the initial blood samples were obtained (time 0). Cortisol at 40 micrograms had no effect (P > .10) on NK cytotoxicity. However, a 400-micrograms bolus of cortisol reduced (P < .05) NK cytotoxicity (control = 39.5, cortisol = 28.3% cytotoxicity, SEM = 3.7). Each dose of cortisol reduced (P < .05) circulating blood lymphocyte numbers. In Exp. 3, pigs were fed 1 g of metyrapone or no metyrapone the night before sampling. Blood samples were obtained at 0600, 0700, and 0800. Metyrapone reduced (P < .05) NK cytotoxicity (control = 28.6, metyrapone = 11.8%, SEM = 1.9). Pigs treated with metyrapone had greater (P < .05) numbers of neutrophils than control pigs. Numbers of lymphocytes were greater (P < .05) among control than among treated pigs. Pigs treated with metyrapone had a greater (P < .05) N:L ratio than control pigs. In conclusion, normal physiological concentrations or moderately increased blood cortisol concentrations did not influence NK activity, although leukocyte distributions were changed. We conclude that greatly increased or greatly decreased

  18. Effects of procaine on pharmaco-mechanical coupling mechanisms activated by acetylcholine in smooth muscle cells of porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Sumimoto, K; Hashimoto, T; Hirata, M; Kuriyama, H

    1987-03-01

    The action of procaine on pharmaco-mechanical coupling activated by application of acetylcholine (ACh) was investigated using collagenase-treated dispersed intact and skinned smooth muscle cells and intact muscle tissues of the porcine coronary artery. ACh reduced stored 45Ca2+, and this action was prevented by procaine in intact dispersed cells. The maximum reduction in the level of stored 45Ca induced by caffeine (25 mM) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3; 3 microM) was also prevented by procaine in the skinned muscle cells in the presence or absence of ATP. However, inhibitions of the latter required higher concentrations of procaine than the former. Release by 10 microM ACh of Ca2+ from its store site in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+ was also inhibited by procaine and was detected using the quin2 fluorescence method. In these smooth muscle tissues, ACh (above 10 nM) reduced the amount of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI-P2) and dose dependently increased the amount of phosphatidic acid. Procaine inhibited the hydrolysis of PI-P2 activated by ACh, thus reducing the amount of InsP3 and the release of Ca2+ from the store site. It is concluded that procaine has multiple actions on the porcine coronary artery, and one of the actions related with pharmacomechanical coupling appears through inhibition of hydrolysis of PI-P2 induced by ACh.

  19. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents.

  20. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:26042548

  1. Developmental competence of parthenogenetic mouse and human embryos after chemical or electrical activation.

    PubMed

    Versieren, Karen; Heindryckx, Björn; Lierman, Sylvie; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Parthenogenetic reconstruction is one major strategy to create patient-specific stem cells. The aim of this study was to find the best artificial activation protocol for parthenogenetic activation of mouse and human oocytes comparing different methods. In a first set of experiments, in-vivo matured mouse oocytes and human failed-fertilized, in-vitro and in-vivo matured oocytes were artificially activated by a chemical (ionomycin) or electrical stimulus. In a second set of experiments, a combination of activating agents (electrical pulses followed by ionomycin or SrCl(2)) was applied in an aim to improve developmental competence. All embryos were evaluated daily until day 6 after activation. Mouse blastocysts were differentially stained to evaluate blastocyst quality. For mouse oocytes and human failed-fertilized oocytes, blastocyst development was significantly higher after electrical activation (P<0.05). For human in-vitro and in-vivo matured oocytes, blastocyst formation was only obtained after electrical activation of in-vitro matured oocytes. After combining activating agents, no differences in development could be observed. In conclusion, this study revealed that for both mouse and human oocytes development to the blastocyst stage was significantly better after electrical activation compared with chemical activation. Combining activating agents had no further positive effect on developmental potential.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation During Zygotic Genome Activation in Zebrafish and Other Anamniote Embryos.

    PubMed

    Wragg, J; Müller, F

    2016-01-01

    Embryo development commences with the fusion of two terminally differentiated haploid gametes into the totipotent fertilized egg, which through a series of major cellular and molecular transitions generate a pluripotent cell mass. The activation of the zygotic genome occurs during the so-called maternal to zygotic transition and prepares the embryo for zygotic takeover from maternal factors, in the control of the development of cellular lineages during differentiation. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have allowed the dissection of the genomic and epigenomic processes mediating this transition. These processes include reorganization of the chromatin structure to a transcriptionally permissive state, changes in composition and function of structural and regulatory DNA-binding proteins, and changeover of the transcriptome as it is overhauled from that deposited by the mother in the oocyte to a zygotically transcribed complement. Zygotic genome activation in zebrafish occurs 10 cell cycles after fertilization and provides an ideal experimental platform for elucidating the temporal sequence and dynamics of establishment of a transcriptionally active chromatin state and helps in identifying the determinants of transcription activation at polymerase II transcribed gene promoters. The relatively large number of pluripotent cells generated by the fast cell divisions before zygotic transcription provides sufficient biomass for next generation sequencing technology approaches to establish the temporal dynamics of events and suggest causative relationship between them. However, genomic and genetic technologies need to be improved further to capture the earliest events in development, where cell number is a limiting factor. These technologies need to be complemented with precise, inducible genetic interference studies using the latest genome editing tools to reveal the function of candidate determinants and to confirm the predictions made by classic

  3. Fine mapping of genome activation in bovine embryos by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Schwalb, Björn; Blum, Helmut; Wolf, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    During maternal-to-embryonic transition control of embryonic development gradually switches from maternal RNAs and proteins stored in the oocyte to gene products generated after embryonic genome activation (EGA). Detailed insight into the onset of embryonic transcription is obscured by the presence of maternal transcripts. Using the bovine model system, we established by RNA sequencing a comprehensive catalogue of transcripts in germinal vesicle and metaphase II oocytes, and in embryos at the four-cell, eight-cell, 16-cell, and blastocyst stages. These were produced by in vitro fertilization of Bos taurus taurus oocytes with sperm from a Bos taurus indicus bull to facilitate parent-specific transcriptome analysis. Transcripts from 12.4 to 13.7 × 103 different genes were detected in the various developmental stages. EGA was analyzed by (i) detection of embryonic transcripts, which are not present in oocytes; (ii) detection of transcripts from the paternal allele; and (iii) detection of primary transcripts with intronic sequences. These strategies revealed (i) 220, (ii) 937, and (iii) 6,848 genes to be activated from the four-cell to the blastocyst stage. The largest proportion of gene activation [i.e., (i) 59%, (ii) 42%, and (iii) 58%] was found in eight-cell embryos, indicating major EGA at this stage. Gene ontology analysis of genes activated at the four-cell stage identified categories related to RNA processing, translation, and transport, consistent with preparation for major EGA. Our study provides the largest transcriptome data set of bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development and detailed insight into the timing of embryonic activation of specific genes. PMID:24591639

  4. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  5. Porcine E. coli: Virulence-Associated Genes, Resistance Genes and Adhesion and Probiotic Activity Tested by a New Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K.; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H.; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars. PMID:23658605

  6. Effects of partial decerebration and hypophyseal allograft in the thymus of chicken embryos: thymostimulin localization and enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Aita, M; Romano, N

    2006-01-01

    Changes in chicken embryo thymus after partial decerebration (including the hypophysis) and hypophyseal allograft were investigated. Chicken embryos were partially decerebrated at 36-40 hr of incubation and on day 12 received a hypophyseal allograft from 18-day-old donor embryos. The embryonic thymuses were collected on day 18 and examined with histological methods, tested for the anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction, and for histoenzymatic activities and compared with normal and sham-operated embryos at the same age. After partial decerebration, the thymic cortical and medullary compartments diminished markedly in size. Anti-thymostimulin, succinic dehydrogenase and ATPase enzymatic activities tested, yielded negative reactions. In partially decerebrated hypophyseal allografted embryos, the same thymic compartments improved and anti-thymostimulin-like immune-reaction and enzymatic activities partially recovered. These findings confirmed the key role of hypophysis in thymic ontogenic development and provided new information in metabolic enzymatic pathways and synthesis of a thymostimulin-like substance in the thymus.

  7. Improved photodynamic activity of porphyrin loaded into nanoparticles: an in vivo evaluation using chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Angelica; Pegaz, Bernadette; Debefve, Elodie; Konan-Kouakou, Yvette; Lange, Norbert; Ballini, Jean-Pierre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Gurny, Robert; Delie, Florence

    2004-11-22

    Hydrophobic porphyrins are potentially interesting molecules for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of solid cancers or ocular vascularization diseases. Their pharmaceutical development is, however, hampered by their lipophilicity, which renders formulation difficult especially when intravenous administration is needed. Encapsulation of a lipophilic derivative of porphyrin, the meso-tetra(p-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (p-THPP), into polymeric biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles proved to enhance its photodynamic activity against mammary tumour cells when compared to free drug. In order to further investigate these carriers, the efficacy of the encapsulated drug was assessed on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. First, we identified a suitable solvent for the drug in terms of p-THPP solubility and tolerability by chick embryos. This solution was used as a reference. Then, the fluorescence pharmacokinetics and the photodynamic effects of the porphyrin on CAM vessels were evaluated after intravenous administration of either a p-THPP solution (free drug) or the drug loaded into nanoparticles. The results showed that: (i) the drug remained longer in the vascular compartment when incorporated into nanoparticles and (ii) vascular effects of p-THPP after light irradiation were enhanced with nanoparticle carriers. These results are discussed taking into account the extravasation of intravascular circulating photosensitizers and its influence on PDT performance. PMID:15501010

  8. GAGA mediates the enhancer blocking activity of the eve promoter in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuki, Sumio; Levine, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insulator DNAs and promoter competition regulate enhancer–promoter interactions within complex genetic loci. A transgenic embryo assay was used to obtain evidence that the Drosophila eve promoter possesses an insulator activity that can be uncoupled from the core elements that mediate competition. The eve promoter contains an optimal TATA element and a GAGA sequence. The analysis of various chimeric promoters provides evidence that TATA is essential for promoter competition, whereas GAGA mediates enhancer blocking. The Trithorax-like (Trl) protein interacts with GAGA, and mutations in trl attenuate eve promoter insulator activity. We suggest that Trl–GAGA increases the stability of enhancer–promoter interactions by creating an open chromatin configuration at the core promoter. PMID:9808619

  9. Polarized regulatory landscape and Wnt responsiveness underlie Hox activation in embryos.

    PubMed

    Neijts, Roel; Amin, Shilu; van Rooijen, Carina; Tan, Sander; Creyghton, Menno P; de Laat, Wouter; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2016-09-01

    Sequential 3'-to-5' activation of the Hox gene clusters in early embryos is a most fascinating issue in developmental biology. Neither the trigger nor the regulatory elements involved in the transcriptional initiation of the 3'-most Hox genes have been unraveled in any organism. We demonstrate that a series of enhancers, some of which are Wnt-dependent, is located within a HoxA 3' subtopologically associated domain (subTAD). This subTAD forms the structural basis for multiple layers of 3'-polarized features, including DNA accessibility and enhancer activation. Deletion of the cassette of Wnt-dependent enhancers proves its crucial role in initial transcription of HoxA at the 3' side of the cluster.

  10. MAP kinase activity increases during mitosis in early sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Philipova, R; Whitaker, M

    1998-09-01

    A MBP kinase activity increases at mitosis during the first two embryonic cell cycles of the sea urchin embryo. The activity profile of the MBP kinase is the same both in whole cell extracts and after immunoprecipitation with an anti-MAP kinase antibody (2199). An in-gel assay of MBP activity also shows the same activity profile. The activity is associated with the 44 kDa protein that cross-reacts with anti-MAP kinase antibodies. The 44 kDa protein shows cross-reactivity to anti-phosphotyrosine and MAP kinase-directed anti-phosphotyrosine/phosphothreonine antibodies at the times that MBP kinase activity is high. The 2199 antibody co-precipitates some histone H1 kinase activity, but the MBP kinase activity cannot be accounted for by histone H1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MBP. The MAP kinase 2199 antibody was used to purify the MBP kinase activity. Peptide sequencing after partial digestion shows the protein to be homologous to MAP kinases from other species. These data demonstrate that MAP kinase activation during nuclear division is not confined to meiosis, but also occurs during mitotic cell cycles. MAP kinase activity in immunoprecipitates also increases immediately after fertilization, which in the sea urchin egg occurs at interphase of the cell cycle. Treating unfertilized eggs with the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates the increase in MAP kinase activity, demonstrating that a calcium signal can activate MAP kinase and suggesting that the activation of MAP kinase at fertilization is due to the fertilization-induced increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration. This signalling pathway must differ from the pathway responsible for calcium-induced inactivation of MAP kinase activity that is found in eggs that are fertilized in meiotic metaphase. PMID:9701549

  11. Fluctuation of the CaS -sequestering activity of permeabilized sea urchin embryos during the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Suprynowicz, F.A.; Mazia, D.

    1985-04-01

    The authors have followed the sequestration of CaS by intracellular compartments in sea urchin embryos through the first cell cycles. To gain biochemical access to these compartments, the embryos were permeabilized by brief exposure to an intense electric field. Sequestration was determined as the retention of tracer, UVCa, after filtration of aliquots on Millipore filters. The permeabilized cells sequester CaS at a constant rate for at least 20 min. The CaS -sequestering activities of embryos that are permeabilized at successive stages of the first cell cycle (one-cell stage) progressively increase to 5 times the initial level. The rate of sequestration is maximal during telophase and, in some populations of zygotes, is nearly as great throughout prophase. Over the course of the second cell cycle (two-cell stage), the activity undergoes a 2-fold oscillation that bears the same temporal relationship to mitosis as the previous fluctuation.

  12. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo

    PubMed Central

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L.; Dawid, Igor B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. PMID:19793890

  13. Inorganic Polyphosphates Regulate Hexokinase Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Mitochondria of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, Amanda; Moraes, Jorge; da Silva, José Roberto; Costa, Evenilton P.; Menezes, Jackson; da Silva Vaz Jr, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Campos, Eldo

    2013-01-01

    The physiological roles of polyphosphates (poly P) recently found in arthropod mitochondria remain obscure. Here, the possible involvement of poly P with reactive oxygen species generation in mitochondria of Rhipicephalus microplus embryos was investigated. Mitochondrial hexokinase and scavenger antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase were assayed during embryogenesis of R. microplus. The influence of poly P3 and poly P15 were analyzed during the period of higher enzymatic activity during embryogenesis. Both poly Ps inhibited hexokinase activity by up to 90% and, interestingly, the mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase activity was stimulated by the hexokinase reaction product, glucose-6-phosphate. Poly P increased hydrogen peroxide generation in mitochondria in a situation where mitochondrial hexokinase is also active. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities were higher during embryo cellularization, at the end of embryogenesis and during embryo segmentation, respectively. All of the enzymes were stimulated by poly P3. However, superoxide dismutase was not affected by poly P15, catalase activity was stimulated only at high concentrations and glutathione reductase was the only enzyme that was stimulated in the same way by both poly Ps. Altogether, our results indicate that inorganic polyphosphate and mitochondrial membrane exopolyphosphatase regulation can be correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria of R. microplus embryos. PMID:23983617

  14. MyoD Is a Novel Activator of Porcine FIT1 Gene by Interacting with the Canonical E-Box Element during Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chi; Xia, Xiaoliang; He, Junxian; Ren, Zhuqing; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Fat-induced transcript 1 (FIT1/FITM1) gene is a member of the conserved gene family important for triglyceride-rich lipid droplet accumulation. FIT1 gene displays a similar muscle-specific expression across pigs, mice, and humans. Thus pigs can act as a useful model of many human diseases resulting from misexpression of FIT1 gene. Triglyceride content in skeletal muscle plays a key role in pork meat quality and flavors. An insertion/deletion mutation in porcine FIT1 coding region shows a high correlation with a series of fat traits. To gain better knowledge of the potential role of FIT1 gene in human diseases and the correlations with pork meat quality, our attention is given to the region upstream of the porcine FIT1 coding sequence. We cloned ~1 kb of the 5'-flanking region of porcine FIT1 gene to define the role of this sequence in modulating the myogenic expression. A canonical E-box element that activated porcine FIT1 promoter activity during myogenesis was identified. Further analysis demonstrated that promoter activity was induced by overexpression of MyoD1, which bound to this canonical E-box during C2C12 differentiation. This is the first evidence that FIT1 as the direct novel target of MyoD is involved in muscle development.

  15. MyoD Is a Novel Activator of Porcine FIT1 Gene by Interacting with the Canonical E-Box Element during Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chi; Xia, Xiaoliang; He, Junxian; Ren, Zhuqing; Xu, Dequan; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Fat-induced transcript 1 (FIT1/FITM1) gene is a member of the conserved gene family important for triglyceride-rich lipid droplet accumulation. FIT1 gene displays a similar muscle-specific expression across pigs, mice, and humans. Thus pigs can act as a useful model of many human diseases resulting from misexpression of FIT1 gene. Triglyceride content in skeletal muscle plays a key role in pork meat quality and flavors. An insertion/deletion mutation in porcine FIT1 coding region shows a high correlation with a series of fat traits. To gain better knowledge of the potential role of FIT1 gene in human diseases and the correlations with pork meat quality, our attention is given to the region upstream of the porcine FIT1 coding sequence. We cloned ~1 kb of the 5′-flanking region of porcine FIT1 gene to define the role of this sequence in modulating the myogenic expression. A canonical E-box element that activated porcine FIT1 promoter activity during myogenesis was identified. Further analysis demonstrated that promoter activity was induced by overexpression of MyoD1, which bound to this canonical E-box during C2C12 differentiation. This is the first evidence that FIT1 as the direct novel target of MyoD is involved in muscle development. PMID:26492245

  16. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  17. NOTCH activation interferes with cell fate specification in the gastrulating mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Perea-Gomez, Aitana; Camus, Anne; Beck-Cormier, Sarah; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Escande, Marie; Collignon, Jérôme; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2015-11-01

    NOTCH signalling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in intercellular communication essential for cell fate choices during development. Although dispensable for early aspects of mouse development, canonical RBPJ-dependent NOTCH signalling has been shown to influence lineage commitment during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation. NOTCH activation in ESCs promotes the acquisition of a neural fate, whereas its suppression favours their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. This suggests that NOTCH signalling is implicated in the acquisition of distinct embryonic fates at early stages of mammalian development. In order to investigate in vivo such a role for NOTCH signalling in shaping cell fate specification, we use genetic approaches to constitutively activate the NOTCH pathway in the mouse embryo. Early embryonic development, including the establishment of anterior-posterior polarity, is not perturbed by forced NOTCH activation. By contrast, widespread NOTCH activity in the epiblast triggers dramatic gastrulation defects. These are fully rescued in a RBPJ-deficient background. Epiblast-specific NOTCH activation induces acquisition of neurectoderm identity and disrupts the formation of specific mesodermal precursors including the derivatives of the anterior primitive streak, the mouse organiser. In addition, we show that forced NOTCH activation results in misregulation of NODAL signalling, a major determinant of early embryonic patterning. Our study reveals a previously unidentified role for canonical NOTCH signalling during mammalian gastrulation. It also exemplifies how in vivo studies can shed light on the mechanisms underlying cell fate specification during in vitro directed differentiation.

  18. Porcine circovirus type 2 induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B by I{kappa}B{alpha} degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Kwang, Jimmy; Wang Jin; Shi Lei; Yang Bing; Li Yongqing; Liu Jue

    2008-08-15

    The transcription factor NF-{kappa}B is commonly activated upon virus infection and a key player in the induction and regulation of the host immune response. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate NF-{kappa}B in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. In PCV2-infected cells, NF-{kappa}B was activated concomitantly with viral replication, which was characterized by increased DNA binding activity, translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as degradation and phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} protein. We further demonstrated PCV2-induced activation of NF-{kappa}B and colocalization of p65 nuclear translocation with virus replication in cultured cells. Treatment of cells with CAPE, a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activation, reduced virus protein expression and progeny production followed by decreasing PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase activity, indicating the involvement of this transcription factor in induction of cell death. Taken together, these data suggest that NF-{kappa}B activation is important for PCV2 replication and contributes to virus-mediated changes in host cells. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular mechanism of PCV2 infection.

  19. Multiple regulatory elements with spatially and temporally distinct activities control neurogenin1 expression in primary neurons of the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Blader, Patrick; Plessy, Charles; Strähle, Uwe

    2003-02-01

    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix gene neurogenin1 (ngn1) is expressed in a complex pattern in the neural plate of zebrafish embryos, demarcating the sites of primary neurogenesis. We have dissected the ngn1 locus to identify cis-regulatory regions that control this expression. We have isolated two upstream elements that drive expression in precursors of Rohon-Beard sensory neurons and hindbrain interneurons and in clusters of neuronal precursors in the anterior neural plate, respectively. A third regulatory region mediates later expression. Thus, regulatory sequences with temporally and spatially distinct activities control ngn1 expression in primary neurons of the zebrafish embryo. These regions are highly similar to 5' sequences in the mouse and human ngn1 gene, suggesting that amniote embryos, despite lacking primary neurons, utilize related mechanism to control ngn1 expression. PMID:12559493

  20. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications. PMID:25816598

  1. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-06-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets.

  2. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo. PMID:27239348

  3. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  4. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. PMID:23822503

  5. Effects of Teratogenic Drugs on CYP1A1 Activity in Differentiating Rat Embryo Cells.

    PubMed

    Tayeboon, Gh S; Ostad, S N; Nasri, S; Nili-Ahmadabadi, A; Tavakoli, F; Sabzevari, O

    2015-05-01

    CYP1A1, a P450 isoenzyme, is involved in the phase I xenobiotic metabolism including teratogen drugs. In the present study, the ability of teratogens to elevate the embryonic expression of CYP1A1 was examined. Micromass cell cultures prepared from day 13 rat embryo limb buds (LB). LB cells were cultivated and exposed for 5 days to retinoic acid (RA), hydrocortisone (HC), caffeine (CA) and quinine (QN). CYP1A1 protein expression and activity were measured using immunofluorescence staining and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) assay, respectively. The EROD activity increased significantly following LB cells exposure to RA and HC (p<0.05) but the expression of CYP1A1 protein was reduced by these drugs, whereas the expression of CYP1A1 protein and EROD activity decreased significantly following the addition of CA and QN (p<0.05, p<0.01). Our findings show that studied teratogens have potency to increase CYP1A1 activity.

  6. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guo-Jie Jason; Holcomb, Michael C.; Thomas, Jeffrey H.; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena.

  7. Quantitative imaging of transcription in living Drosophila embryos links polymerase activity to patterning.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hernan G; Tikhonov, Mikhail; Lin, Albert; Gregor, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression are fundamental to every developmental program. The resulting macroscopic domains have been mainly characterized by their levels of gene products. However, the establishment of such patterns results from differences in the dynamics of microscopic events in individual cells such as transcription. It is unclear how these microscopic decisions lead to macroscopic patterns, as measurements in fixed tissue cannot access the underlying transcriptional dynamics. In vivo transcriptional dynamics have long been approached in single-celled organisms, but never in a multicellular developmental context. Here, we directly address how boundaries of gene expression emerge in the Drosophila embryo by measuring the absolute number of actively transcribing polymerases in real time in individual nuclei. Specifically, we show that the formation of a boundary cannot be quantitatively explained by the rate of mRNA production in each cell, but instead requires amplification of the dynamic range of the expression boundary. This amplification is accomplished by nuclei randomly adopting active or inactive states of transcription, leading to a collective effect where the fraction of active nuclei is modulated in space. Thus, developmental patterns are not just the consequence of reproducible transcriptional dynamics in individual nuclei, but are the result of averaging expression over space and time.

  8. Control of the segmentation process by graded MAPK/ERK activation in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Delfini, Marie-Claire; Dubrulle, Julien; Malapert, Pascale; Chal, Jérome; Pourquié, Olivier

    2005-08-01

    The regular spacing of somites during vertebrate embryogenesis involves a dynamic gradient of FGF signaling that controls the timing of maturation of cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). How the FGF signal is transduced by PSM cells is unclear. Here, we first show that the FGF gradient is translated into graded activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway along the PSM in the chicken embryo. Using in ovo electroporation of PSM cells, we demonstrate that constitutive activation of ERK signaling in the PSM blocks segmentation by preventing maturation of PSM cells, thus phenocopying the overexpression of FGF8. Conversely, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation mimics a loss of function of FGF signaling in the PSM. Interestingly, video microscopy analysis of cell movements shows that ERK regulates the motility of PSM cells, suggesting that the decrease of cell movements along the PSM enables mesenchymal PSM cells to undergo proper segmentation. Together, our data demonstrate that ERK is the effector of the gradient of FGF in the PSM that controls the segmentation process.

  9. Embryo as an active granular fluid: stress-coordinated cellular constriction chains.

    PubMed

    Jason Gao, Guo-Jie; Holcomb, Michael C; Thomas, Jeffrey H; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2016-10-19

    Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. Our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena. PMID:27545101

  10. The Role and Regulation of Gdf11 in Smad2 Activation During Tailbud Formation in The Xenopus Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Diana M.; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Whitman, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    A key role for phosphorylation of Smad2 by TGFß superfamily ligands in the axial patterning of early embryos is well established. The regulation and role of Smad2 signaling in post-neurula embryonic patterning, however, is less well understood. While a variety of TGFß superfamily ligands are implicated in various stages of anterior-posterior patterning, the ligand GDF11 has been shown to have a particular role in post-gastrula patterning in the mouse. Mouse GDF11 is specifically localized to the developing tail and is essential for normal posterior axial patterning. Mature GDF11 ligand is inhibited by its own prodomain, and extracellular proteolysis of this prodomain is thought to be necessary for GDF11 activity. The contribution of this proteolytic regulatory mechanism to Smad activation during embryogenesis in vivo, and to the development of posterior pattern, has not been characterized. We investigate here the role of Xenopus GDF11 in the activation of Smad2 during the development of tailbud stage embryos, and the role of this activation in larval development. We also demonstrate that the activity of BMP-1/Tolloid -like proteases is necessary for the normal GDF11-dependent activation of Smad2 phosphorylation during post-gastrula development. These data demonstrate that GDF11 has a central role in the activation of Smad2 phosphorylation in tailbud stage Xenopus embryos, and provide the first evidence that BMP-1/Tolloid-mediated prodomain cleavage is important for activation of GDF11 in vivo. PMID:20807570

  11. XSmad2 directly activates the activin-inducible, dorsal mesoderm gene XFKH1 in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, M; Hill, C S

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family members play a central role in mesoderm induction during early embryogenesis in Xenopus. Although a number of target genes induced as an immediate-early response to activin-like members of the family have been described, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Our systematic analysis of the activin induction of the target gene XFKH1 reveals two regions that mediate activin-responsive transcription: one, in the first intron, is targeted directly by the activin-signalling pathway; the other, in the 5' flanking sequences, responds to activin indirectly, possibly being required for maintenance of gene expression. We demonstrate that a 107 bp region of the XFKH1 first intron acts as an enhancer and confers activin inducibility onto a minimal uninducible promoter in the absence of new protein synthesis. It bears little sequence similarity to other activin responsive sequences. We further demonstrate that overexpression of a constitutively active derivative of Xenopus Smad2 (XSmad2), which has been implicated as a component of the activin signalling pathway, is sufficient for direct activation of transcription via this enhancer. Moreover, we show that XSmad2 acts indirectly on the proximal promoter element induced by activin via an indirect mechanism. These results establish the XFKH1 intron enhancer as a direct nuclear target of the activin signalling pathway in Xenopus embryos, and provide strong new evidence that XSmad2 is a transducer of activin signals. PMID:9405370

  12. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuanxing; Qi, Baozhu; Zhou, Yingshan; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Xian; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) induces autophagy via the 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi), we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ) by increasing cytosolic Ca2+ via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) did not seem to involve inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ). CaMKKβ then activated both AMPK and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI). PCV2 employed CaMKI and Trp-Asp (WD) repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI1) as another pathway additional to AMPK signaling in autophagy initiation. Our findings could help better understanding of the signaling pathways of autophagy induction as part of PCV2 pathogenesis. Further research is warranted to study if PCV2 interacts directly with IP3R or indirectly with the molecules that antagonize IP3R activity responsible for increased cytosolic Ca2+ both in PK-15 cells and PCV2-targeted primary cells from pigs. PMID:27213427

  13. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuanxing; Qi, Baozhu; Zhou, Yingshan; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Xian; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) induces autophagy via the 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi), we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ) by increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion (Ca(2+)) did not seem to involve inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ). CaMKKβ then activated both AMPK and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI). PCV2 employed CaMKI and Trp-Asp (WD) repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI1) as another pathway additional to AMPK signaling in autophagy initiation. Our findings could help better understanding of the signaling pathways of autophagy induction as part of PCV2 pathogenesis. Further research is warranted to study if PCV2 interacts directly with IP3R or indirectly with the molecules that antagonize IP3R activity responsible for increased cytosolic Ca(2+) both in PK-15 cells and PCV2-targeted primary cells from pigs. PMID:27213427

  14. Synthesis and anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and nanowires in ex vivo porcine skin model.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Namrata; Anjusree, G S; Madhavan, Asha Anish; Priyanka, P; Sankar, Deepthi; Nisha, N; Lakshmi, S V; Jayakumar, R; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Biswas, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of skin and soft tissue infections. In this study we compared the antimicrobial activity of two different TiO2 nanoformulations against Staphylococcus aureus. We synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles of approximately 80 nm diameter and TiO2 nanowires of approximately 100 nm diameter. Both nanoformulations possess anti-microbial activity; were non-hemolytic and cytocompatible. However, the anti-staphylococcal activity of TiO2 nanowires was better than the nanoparticles. In broth culture, growth of S. aureus was only partially inhibited by 2% and 4 wt% TiO2 nanoparticles and completely inhibited by TiO2 nanowires till 24 h. TiO2 nanowires treated S. aureus cells exhibits diminished membrane potential than nanoparticle treated cells. The anti-microbial properties of both TiO2 nanoformulations were validated using ex vivo porcine skin model which supplements the in vitro assays. Anti-bacterial activity of the TiO2 nanowires were also validated against multi drug resistant pathogenic strains of S. aureus, showing the clinical potency of the TiO2 nanowires compared to its nanoparticles.

  15. Construction and evaluation of a maize (Zea mays) chimaeric promoter with activity in kernel endosperm and embryo.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Colin T; Scott, M Paul

    2009-03-01

    Chimaeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimaeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, to precisely control transgene activity or to combat homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimaeric promoters, each containing different lengths of DNA from maize (Zea mays) 27zn (27 kDa gamma-zein) endosperm-specific promoter and the Glb1 (Globulin-1) embryo-specific promoter were created and tested in a transient expression assay of GFP (green fluorescent protein). Promoter fragments with the highest activity were combined to create the chimaeric promoter A27znGlb1. In the context of the chimaeric promoter, the selected Glb1 promoter fragment was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in embryo tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native Glb1 promoter. Similarly, the selected 27zn promoter fragment in the chimaeric promoter was necessary and sufficient to activate expression in endosperm tissue and was functionally equivalent to the native 27zn promoter. Maize transgenic plants containing the A27znGlb1 chimaeric promoter fused to GFP were produced to characterize this promoter in vivo. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to determine that the promoter was active in the embryo, endosperm, pericarp and immature leaf tissues. GFP activity in plants containing the chimaeric promoter was not significantly different in endosperm than the activity of GFP fused to the full-length 27zn promoter, nor was it different in embryo from the activity of GFP fused to the full-length Glb1 promoter. Transgene copy numbers were shown to be between 4 and 12 copies in different events.

  16. CGEF-1 and CHIN-1 regulate CDC-42 activity during asymmetric division in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Kumfer, Kraig T; Cook, Steven J; Squirrell, Jayne M; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Peel, Nina; O'Connell, Kevin F; White, John G

    2010-01-15

    The anterior-posterior axis of the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo is elaborated at the one-cell stage by the polarization of the partitioning (PAR) proteins at the cell cortex. Polarization is established under the control of the Rho GTPase RHO-1 and is maintained by the Rho GTPase CDC-42. To understand more clearly the role of the Rho family GTPases in polarization and division of the early embryo, we constructed a fluorescent biosensor to determine the localization of CDC-42 activity in the living embryo. A genetic screen using this biosensor identified one positive (putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor [GEF]) and one negative (putative GTPase activating protein [GAP]) regulator of CDC-42 activity: CGEF-1 and CHIN-1. CGEF-1 was required for robust activation, whereas CHIN-1 restricted the spatial extent of CDC-42 activity. Genetic studies placed CHIN-1 in a novel regulatory loop, parallel to loop described previously, that maintains cortical PAR polarity. We found that polarized distributions of the nonmuscle myosin NMY-2 at the cell cortex are independently produced by the actions of RHO-1, and its effector kinase LET-502, during establishment phase and CDC-42, and its effector kinase MRCK-1, during maintenance phase. CHIN-1 restricted NMY-2 recruitment to the anterior during maintenance phase, consistent with its role in polarizing CDC-42 activity during this phase.

  17. Paternal Diet-Induced Obesity Retards Early Mouse Embryo Development, Mitochondrial Activity and Pregnancy Health

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Natalie K.; Hannan, Natalie J.; Gardner, David K.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, 48% of adult males are overweight or obese. An association between infertility and excessive body weight is now accepted, although focus remains primarily on females. It has been shown that parental obesity results in compromised embryo development, disproportionate changes in embryo metabolism and reduced blastocyst cell number. The aim of this study was to determine whether paternal obesity has negative effects on the resultant embryo. Specifically, using in vitro fertilisation (IVF), we wanted to isolate the functional effects of obesity on sperm by examining the subsequent embryo both pre- and post-implantation. Epididymal sperm was collected from age matched normal and obese C57BL/6 mice and cryopreserved for subsequent IVF with oocytes collected from Swiss females (normal diet/weight). Obesity was induced in male mice by feeding a high fat diet of 22% fat for 10 weeks. Resultant embryos were cultured individually and development monitored using time-lapse microscopy. Paternal obesity resulted in a significant delay in preimplantation embryo development as early as syngamy (P<0.05). Metabolic parameters were measured across key developmental stages, demonstrating significant reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01). Blastocysts were stained to determine trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers, revealing significant differences in the ratio of cell allocation to TE and ICM lineages (P<0.01). Functional studies examining blastocyst attachment, growth and implantation demonstrated that blastocysts derived from sperm of obese males displayed significantly reduced outgrowth on fibronectin in vitro (P<0.05) and retarded fetal development in vivo following embryo transfer (P<0.05). Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that paternal obesity has significant negative effects on the embryo at a variety of key early developmental stages, resulting in delayed development, reduced placental size and smaller offspring

  18. Methods to monitor distribution and metabolic activity of mesenchymal stem cells following in vivo injection into nucleotomized porcine intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Omlor, G W; Bertram, H; Kleinschmidt, K; Fischer, J; Brohm, K; Guehring, T; Anton, M; Richter, Wiltrud

    2010-04-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration involves a series of biochemical and morphological changes leading to loss of spinal stability and flexibility. Cell therapy is promising to reconstitute IVDs with new cells, however, sustained metabolic activity seems crucial for an active contribution to regeneration. The aim of the present study was to establish methods for separate follow up of persistence and activity of autologous porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSC) after implantation into IVDs of Goettingen minipigs in vivo in order to conclude about the potential of such an intervention strategy. For quantitative follow up, the transfer matrix was supplemented with Al(2)O(3) particles and pMSC which were retrovirally labeled with firefly luciferase (pMSC-Luc). Six mature Goettingen minipigs underwent matrix based cell transfer after partial nucleotomy of lumbar IVDs (n = 24). Day 0 and day 3 segments were analyzed for retained volume of Al(2)O(3) particles by micro-computed-tomography (muCT) and for cell activity by luciferase enzyme assessment. Three days after injection a reduction of Al(2)O(3) particles (P = 0.028) to about 9% and of pMSC-Luc activity to about 7% of initial values (P = 0.003) was detected, which suggests loss of 90% of the implant material under in vivo conditions without evidence for reduced pMSC-Luc metabolic activity (P = 0.887). In conclusion, separate follow up of implant material and cell activity was possible and unravels problems with in vivo implant persistence after annular puncture rather than quick loss of cell activity. Therefore, IVD-regeneration-strategies should increasingly focus on annulus reconstruction in order to reduce implant loss due to annular failure.

  19. Disruption of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status in porcine parthenogenetic fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Chen, Xianju; Song, Yuning; Lv, Qinyan; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Zhanjun

    2014-09-01

    Parthenogenetically activated oocytes cannot develop to term in mammals due to the lack of paternal gene expression and failed X chromosome inactivation (XCI). To further characterize porcine parthenogenesis, the expression of 18 imprinted genes was compared between parthenogenetic (PA) and normally fertilized embryos (Con) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that maternally expressed genes were over-expressed, whereas paternally expressed genes were significantly reduced in PA fetuses and placentas. The results of bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) demonstrated that PRE-1 and Satellite were hypermethylated in both Con and PA fetuses and placentas, while XIST DMRs were hypomethylated only in PA samples. Taken together, these results suggest that the aberrant methylation profile of XIST DMRs and abnormal imprinted gene expression may be responsible for developmental failure and impaired growth in porcine parthenogenesis.

  20. A DNA primase activity associated with DNA polymerase alpha from Drosophila melanogaster embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Conaway, R C; Lehman, I R

    1982-01-01

    Preparations of DNA polymerase alpha from early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of DNA with single-stranded M13 DNA or poly(dT) templates. In the case of M13 DNA, GTP, but not UTP or CTP, can replace ATP. The reaction is completely dependent on added template and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Alkaline hydrolysis of the product synthesized in the presence of [alpha-32P]dATP and poly(dT) generates 32P-labeled 3'(2') adenylate, showing that a covalent ribo-deoxynucleotide linkage is formed. Furthermore, incorporation of ribonucleotides occurs at the 5' end of the newly synthesized polynucleotide chain. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a ribo-oligonucleotide primer is synthesized by primase action and subsequently elongated by DNA polymerase. Under the appropriate conditions, DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli can elongate primers formed by primase in the presence of ATP and poly(dT). Primase activity copurifies with DNA polymerase alpha and may be part of the multisubunit polymerase molecule. Images PMID:6806812

  1. Activation of cellular oncogenes by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, R.; Reiss, E.; Roellich, G.; Schiffmann, D. ); Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.W. ); Pechan, R.

    1990-08-01

    Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.

  2. Positive and negative regulation of Gli activity by Kif7 in the zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Ashish Kumar; Ben, Jin; Zhao, Zhonghua; Lee, Raymond Teck Ho; Niah, Weixin; Ng, Ashley Shu Mei; Iyu, Audrey; Yu, Weimiao; Elworthy, Stone; van Eeden, Fredericus J M; Ingham, Philip William

    2013-01-01

    Loss of function mutations of Kif7, the vertebrate orthologue of the Drosophila Hh pathway component Costal2, cause defects in the limbs and neural tubes of mice, attributable to ectopic expression of Hh target genes. While this implies a functional conservation of Cos2 and Kif7 between flies and vertebrates, the association of Kif7 with the primary cilium, an organelle absent from most Drosophila cells, suggests their mechanisms of action may have diverged. Here, using mutant alleles induced by Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated targeted mutagenesis, we show that in zebrafish, Kif7 acts principally to suppress the activity of the Gli1 transcription factor. Notably, we find that endogenous Kif7 protein accumulates not only in the primary cilium, as previously observed in mammalian cells, but also in cytoplasmic puncta that disperse in response to Hh pathway activation. Moreover, we show that Drosophila Costal2 can substitute for Kif7, suggesting a conserved mode of action of the two proteins. We show that Kif7 interacts with both Gli1 and Gli2a and suggest that it functions to sequester Gli proteins in the cytoplasm, in a manner analogous to the regulation of Ci by Cos2 in Drosophila. We also show that zebrafish Kif7 potentiates Gli2a activity by promoting its dissociation from the Suppressor of Fused (Sufu) protein and present evidence that it mediates a Smo dependent modification of the full length form of Gli2a. Surprisingly, the function of Kif7 in the zebrafish embryo appears restricted principally to mesodermal derivatives, its inactivation having little effect on neural tube patterning, even when Sufu protein levels are depleted. Remarkably, zebrafish lacking all Kif7 function are viable, in contrast to the peri-natal lethality of mouse kif7 mutants but similar to some Acrocallosal or Joubert syndrome patients who are homozygous for loss of function KIF7 alleles.

  3. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments.

  4. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  5. Cdk1 phosphorylates SPAT-1/Bora to trigger PLK-1 activation and drive mitotic entry in C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tavernier, Nicolas; Noatynska, Anna; Panbianco, Costanza; Martino, Lisa; Van Hove, Lucie; Schwager, Françoise; Léger, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms governing mitotic entry during animal development are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the mitotic kinase CDK-1 phosphorylates Suppressor of Par-Two 1 (SPAT-1)/Bora to regulate its interaction with PLK-1 and to trigger mitotic entry in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Embryos expressing a SPAT-1 version that is nonphosphorylatable by CDK-1 and that is defective in PLK-1 binding in vitro present delays in mitotic entry, mimicking embryos lacking SPAT-1 or PLK-1 functions. We further show that phospho–SPAT-1 activates PLK-1 by triggering phosphorylation on its activator T loop in vitro by Aurora A. Likewise, we show that phosphorylation of human Bora by Cdk1 promotes phosphorylation of human Plk1 by Aurora A, suggesting that this mechanism is conserved in humans. Our results suggest that CDK-1 activates PLK-1 via SPAT-1 phosphorylation to promote entry into mitosis. We propose the existence of a positive feedback loop that connects Cdk1 and Plk1 activation to ensure a robust control of mitotic entry and cell division timing. PMID:25753036

  6. Cdk1 phosphorylates SPAT-1/Bora to trigger PLK-1 activation and drive mitotic entry in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Nicolas; Noatynska, Anna; Panbianco, Costanza; Martino, Lisa; Van Hove, Lucie; Schwager, Françoise; Léger, Thibaut; Gotta, Monica; Pintard, Lionel

    2015-03-16

    The molecular mechanisms governing mitotic entry during animal development are incompletely understood. Here, we show that the mitotic kinase CDK-1 phosphorylates Suppressor of Par-Two 1 (SPAT-1)/Bora to regulate its interaction with PLK-1 and to trigger mitotic entry in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Embryos expressing a SPAT-1 version that is nonphosphorylatable by CDK-1 and that is defective in PLK-1 binding in vitro present delays in mitotic entry, mimicking embryos lacking SPAT-1 or PLK-1 functions. We further show that phospho-SPAT-1 activates PLK-1 by triggering phosphorylation on its activator T loop in vitro by Aurora A. Likewise, we show that phosphorylation of human Bora by Cdk1 promotes phosphorylation of human Plk1 by Aurora A, suggesting that this mechanism is conserved in humans. Our results suggest that CDK-1 activates PLK-1 via SPAT-1 phosphorylation to promote entry into mitosis. We propose the existence of a positive feedback loop that connects Cdk1 and Plk1 activation to ensure a robust control of mitotic entry and cell division timing.

  7. Excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Sun, Kaiji; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-01-01

    High intake of dietary cysteine is extremely toxic to animals and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that excessive L-cysteine induces cell death by activating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. Jejunal enterocytes were cultured in the presence of 0-10 mmol/L L-cysteine. Cell viability, morphologic alterations, mRNA levels for genes involved in ER stress, protein abundances for glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) were determined. The results showed that L-cysteine (5-10 mmol/L) reduced cell viability (P < 0.05) and led to vacuole-like cell death in intestinal porcine epithelial cells. These adverse effects of L-cysteine were not affected by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The protein abundances for CHOP, phosphorylated (p)-eIF2α, p-JNK1/2, p-p38 MAPK, and the spliced form of XBP-1 mRNA were enhanced (P < 0.05), whereas those for p-ERK1/2 were reduced (P < 0.05). Collectively, excessive L-cysteine induces vacuole-like cell death via the activation of ER stress and MAPK signaling in small intestinal epithelial cells. These signaling pathways may be potential targets for developing effective strategies to prevent the toxicity of dietary cysteine.

  8. Impacts of oxidative stress on acetylcholinesterase transcription, and activity in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following Chlorpyrifos exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Rubio-Escalante, Fernando J; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides cause irreversible inhibition of AChE which leads to neuronal overstimulation and death. Thus, dogma indicates that the target of OP pesticides is AChE, but many authors postulate that these compounds also disturb cellular redox processes, and change the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, it has also been reported that oxidative stress plays also a role in the regulation and activity of AChE. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the antioxidant, vitamin C (VC), the oxidant, t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) and the organophosphate Chlorpyrifos (CPF), on AChE gene transcription and activity in zebrafish embryos after 72h exposure. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring antioxidant enzymes activities and transcription, and quantification of total glutathione. Apical effects on the development of zebrafish embryos were also measured. With the exception of AChE inhibition and enhanced gene expression, limited effects of CPF on oxidative stress and apical endpoints were found at this developmental stage. Addition of VC had little effect on oxidative stress or AChE, but increased pericardial area and heartbeat rate through an unknown mechanism. TBOOH diminished AChE gene expression and activity, and caused oxidative stress when administered alone. However, in combination with CPF, only reductions in AChE activity were observed with no significant changes in oxidative stress suggesting the adverse apical endpoints in the embryos may have been due to AChE inhibition by CPF rather than oxidative stress. These results give additional evidence to support the role of prooxidants in AChE activity and expression.

  9. Endothelium-independent hypoxic contraction of porcine coronary arteries may be mediated by activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huixia; Chen, Zhengju; Liu, Juan; Liu, Limei; Gao, Yuansheng; Dou, Dou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular tone. The present study aimed to determine its role in hypoxic coronary vasoconstriction. Isometric tension of isolated porcine coronary arteries was measured with organ chamber technique; the protein levels of phosphorylated and total MLC were examined by Western blotting; the activities of PI3K and Rho kinase were determined by the phosphorylation of their respective target protein Akt and MTPT1. Acute hypoxia induced a rapid contraction followed by a short-term relaxation and then a sustained contraction in porcine coronary arteries. The rapid but not the sustained contraction was abolished by endothelium removal. The sustained contraction was attenuated by inhibitors of PI3K (LY294002) and Akt (Akt-I). The attenuation effect caused by LY294002 was not affected by nifedipine, but was abolished by Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase. The sustained hypoxic contraction was associated with altered phosphorylation of MLC and Akt, which was inhibited by LY294002. The sustained hypoxic contraction was also accompanied with increased phosphorylation of MYPT1, which was inhibited by LY294002 and Y27632. This study demonstrates that sustained hypoxia causes porcine coronary artery to contract in an endothelium-independent manner. An increased PI3K/Akt/Rho kinase signaling may be involved. PMID:24685819

  10. Maternal Inheritance of Twist and Analysis of MAPK Activation in Embryos of the Polychaete Annelid Platynereis dumerilii

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Kathrin; Schaub, Christoph; Domsch, Katrin; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Wolfstetter, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the specification of the 4d (mesentoblast) lineage in Platynereis dumerilii. We employ RT-PCR and in situ hybridization against the Platynereis dumerilii twist homolog (Pdu-twist) to reveal mesodermal specification within this lineage. We show that Pdu-twist mRNA is already maternally distributed. After fertilization, ooplasmatic segregation leads to relocation of Pdu-twist transcripts into the somatoblast (2d) lineage and 4d, indicating that the maternal component of Pdu-twist might be an important prerequisite for further mesoderm specification but does not represent a defining characteristic of the mesentoblast. However, after the primordial germ cells have separated from the 4d lineage, zygotic transcription of Pdu-twist is exclusively observed in the myogenic progenitors, suggesting that mesodermal specification occurs after the 4d stage. Previous studies on spiral cleaving embryos revealed a spatio-temporal correlation between the 4d lineage and the activity of an embryonic organizer that is capable to induce the developmental fates of certain micromeres. This has raised the question if specification of the 4d lineage could be connected to the organizer activity. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the existence of such a proposed conserved organizer in Platynereis employing antibody staining against dpERK. In contrast to former observations in other spiralian embryos, activation of MAPK signaling during 2d and 4d formation cannot be detected which questions the existence of a conserved connection between organizer function and specification of the 4d lineage. However, our experiments unveil robust MAPK activation in the prospective nephroblasts as well as in the macromeres and some micromeres at the blastopore in gastrulating embryos. Inhibition of MAPK activation leads to larvae with a shortened body axis, defects in trunk muscle spreading and improper nervous system condensation, indicating a

  11. Effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos in ide (Leuciscus idus), an externally fertilizing fish.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Król, Jarosław; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2016-03-15

    Standardization of fertilization protocols is crucial for improving reproductive techniques for externally fertilizing fish in captive breeding. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of preincubation of eggs and activation medium on the percentage of eyed embryos for ide (Leuciscus idus). Pooled eggs from five females were preincubated in three different activating media for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds and then fertilized by pooled sperm from five males. At the eyed-egg stage, the percentage of viable embryos was later calculated. Results showed that preincubation time was significant for the freshwater activation medium (P < 0.001), such that the percentage of eyed embryos declined across the preincubation time gradient. Additionally, there was an effect on the percentage of eyed embryos when eggs were incubated with Woynarovich solution (P < 0.001), such that a decline was detected at 90 seconds, whereas no effect was detected for the saline water medium. Activating medium had a significant effect on the percentage of eyed embryos for each preincubation time (P < 0.05). More precisely, freshwater produced the lowest percentage of eyed embryos at all preincubation times (ranged from 1.9% at 120 seconds to 43.6% at 0 seconds), whereas saline water and Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 0 seconds and 30 seconds before incubation. Woynarovich solution produced the highest percentage of eyed embryos at 60 seconds (65.26%), whereas saline water produced the highest percentage at 90 seconds (68.37%). No difference was detected between saline water and Woynarovich solution at 120 seconds. Examination of sperm traits showed no impact of activating medium on computer assisted sperm analysis parameters. Together, these results suggest that saline water or Woynarovich solution improve fertilization rate in ide during IVF; thus, these media are useful for standardizing fertilization protocols and

  12. Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-26 by HOXA10 promotes embryo adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Yan, Guijun; Zhang, Hui; Shan, Huizhi; Kong, Chengcai; Yan, Qiang; Xue, Bai; Diao, Zhenyu; Hu, Yali; Sun, Haixiang

    2014-03-14

    Successful embryonic implantation requires an effective maternal-embryonic molecular dialogue. However, the detailed mechanisms of epithelial-embryo adhesion remain poorly understood. Here, we report that matrix metalloproteinase-26 (MMP-26) is a novel downstream target gene of homeobox a 10 (HOXA10) in human endometrial cells. HOXA10 binds directly to a conserved TTAT unit (-442 to -439) located within the 5' regulatory region of the MMP-26 gene and regulates the expression and secretion of MMP-26 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of MMP-26 in Ishikawa cells markedly increased BeWo spheroid adhesion. An antibody blocking assay further demonstrated that the promotion of BeWo spheroid adhesion by HOXA10 and MMP-26 was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment with a specific antibody against MMP-26. These results demonstrate that the HOXA10-mediated expression of MMP-26 promotes embryo adhesion during the process of embryonic implantation. PMID:24565841

  13. Cellulosic fraction of rice bran fibre alters the conformation and inhibits the activity of porcine pancreatic lipase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The anti-lipase properties of insoluble dietary fiber obtained from rice bran treated with H2SO4 followed by 1.25% KOH were investigated and compared. Porcine pancreatic lipase (PL) adsorbed with higher velocity and saturated at a higher level on the rice bran fibers prepared with higher concentrat...

  14. Putative phage-display epitopes of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus S1 protein and their anti-viral activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a pathogen of swine that causes severe diarrhea and dehydration resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality in newborn piglets. Phage display is a technique with wide application, in particular, the identification of key antigen epitopes for the develop...

  15. Single cell genomics reveals activation signatures of endogenous SCAR's networks in aneuploid human embryos and clinically intractable malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-10-10

    Somatic mutations and chromosome instability are hallmarks of genomic aberrations in cancer cells. Aneuploidies represent common manifestations of chromosome instability, which is frequently observed in human embryos and malignant solid tumors. Activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-derived loci is documented in preimplantation human embryos, hESC, and multiple types of human malignancies. It remains unknown whether the HERV activation may highlight a common molecular pathway contributing to the frequent occurrence of chromosome instability in the early stages of human embryonic development and the emergence of genomic aberrations in cancer. Single cell RNA sequencing analysis of human preimplantation embryos reveals activation of specific LTR7/HERVH loci during the transition from the oocytes to zygotes and identifies HERVH network signatures associated with the aneuploidy in human embryos. The correlation patterns' analysis links transcriptome signatures of the HERVH network activation of the in vivo matured human oocytes with gene expression profiles of clinical samples of prostate tumors supporting the existence of a cancer progression pathway from putative precursor lesions (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) to localized and metastatic prostate cancers. Tracking signatures of HERVH networks' activation in tumor samples from cancer patients with known long-term therapy outcomes enabled patients' stratification into sub-groups with markedly distinct likelihoods of therapy failure and death from cancer. Genome-wide analyses of human-specific genetic elements of stem cell-associated retroviruses (SCARs)-regulated networks in 12,093 clinical tumor samples across 29 cancer types revealed pan-cancer genomic signatures of clinically-lethal therapy resistant disease defined by the presence of somatic non-silent mutations (SNMs), gene-level copy number changes, and transcripts and proteins' expression of SCARs-regulated host genes. More than 73% of all

  16. Purification and characterization of a calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase from porcine spleen.

    PubMed

    Leibersperger, H; Gschwendt, M; Marks, F

    1990-09-25

    A calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a Triton X-100 extract of an EGTA/EDTA-preextracted particulate fraction of porcine spleen by chromatography on S-Sepharose Fast Flow, phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow, protamine-agarose, and Superdex 200. The enzyme had a Mr of 76,000, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (p76-kinase). A similar value (78,000) was obtained by gel filtration. The purified p76-kinase proved to be much more stable than the enzyme in crude preparations. Storage in a buffer containing 50 mM mercaptoethanol and 20% glycerol at -20 degrees C for at least 4 months caused less than 20% loss in enzyme activity. The enzyme exhibited a pH optimum of 8.3. The affinity of the novel enzyme for substrates and cofactors differed to some extent from that of conventional alpha, beta, gamma protein kinase C (PKC). p76-kinase did not respond to calcium, had a lower requirement for magnesium, and a higher affinity for histone III-S than PKC. Both the p76-kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of histone III-S and the autophosphorylation of the enzyme could be activated by the phorbol ester TPA (or diacylglycerol) plus phosphatidyl serine, but not by calcium plus phosphatidyl serine. The stoichiometry of autophosphorylation suggested that fully phosphorylated p76-kinase contained two phosphoserine residues and one phosphothreonine residue. Like PKC, p76-kinase bound TPA with high affinity (KD = 9.6 nM). In the absence of TPA, various unsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, were more potent as activators of the enzyme than phosphatidyl serine. The p76-kinase was recognized by an antiserum raised against a delta PKC-specific peptide, but not by an alpha, beta, gamma PKC-specific antiserum. The previously described p82-kinase of mouse epidermis and spleen exhibiting the same properties as the p76-kinase did also react with the p76-kinase

  17. Ajoene inhibits the activation of human endothelial cells induced by porcine cells: implications for xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Benatuil, Lorenzo; Apitz-Castro, Rafael; Romano, Egidio

    2003-07-01

    Ajoene, is an organosulfur compound derived from garlic that strongly inhibit platelet aggregation, proliferation of human lymphocytes induced by phytohemagglutinin, and in general, blocks membrane-mediated signaling of cell activation. As a thrombotic microangiopathy frequently complicates procedures designed to induce pig-to-baboon chimerism by infusion of large amounts of pig progenitor cells in baboons, it was thought that ajoene might be useful to prevent such complication. For such purpose, we studied the effects of ajoene on the activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) induced by pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p-PBMC). Co-cultures of p-PBMC with HUVEC results in activation of the HUVEC as shown by over-expression of E-selectin and vascular cells adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Ajoene (25 microm) strongly inhibits HUVEC activation induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or p-PBMC as shown by a down regulation of VCAM-1 and of E-selectin expression. After 5 or 8 h of pre-treatment with Ajoene, HUVEC incubated with TNF and p-PBMC showed an E-selectin or VCAM-1 expression, respectively, at levels similar to the positive control indicating that the inhibitory effect is transient. Ajoene at concentration of 25 microm or lower did not affect HUVEC viability. Based on the finding that Ajoene has a strong, although transient, inhibitory effect on the activation of the endothelium induced by pig cells and its known anti-platelet activity, it is suggested that this garlic compound could be useful to prevent the development of microangiopathy and thrombotic disorders seen in primates infused with pig cells.

  18. Porcine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: increased calcium-sequestering activity of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, P J

    1986-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that calcium-sequestration by isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum was abnormal in skeletal muscle of malignant hyperthermia-susceptible swine. A heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction was isolated from malignant hyperthermia and control muscle using differential and density-gradient centrifugation. Prior to onset of malignant hyperthermia, calcium-sequestering activity (Vmax at 37 degrees C, mumol calcium/mg/min) was twofold increased in malignant hyperthermia sarcoplasmic reticulum compared to control sarcoplasmic reticulum (1.96 +/- 0.50 versus 4.00 +/- 0.87, P less than 0.01), although thermodynamic and kinetic properties of this activity were otherwise indistinguishable between groups. This increased activity of the malignant hyperthermia sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction was associated with twofold increased concentration of Ca-ATPase and calsequestrin protein. When a malignant hyperthermia-reaction developed, calcium-uptake was depressed to less than 5% of control values. These data indicate that malignant hyperthermia is not initiated due to a defect in the calcium-sequestration mechanism, however, loss of calcium-uptake activity occurring after the onset of malignant hyperthermia might result in the propagation and irreversibility of the malignant hyperthermia reaction. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3742368

  19. Porcine circovirus type 2 detection in in vitro produced porcine blastocysts after virus sperm exposure.

    PubMed

    Galeati, Giovanna; Zannoni, Augusta; Spinaci, Marcella; Bucci, Diego; Ostanello, Fabio; Panarese, Serena; Tamanini, Carlo; Sarli, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the capability of semen experimentally infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) to produce porcine blastocysts PCR positive for PCV2. Embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of porcine oocytes or by parthenogenesis. Sperm suspension was exposed to PCV2b and utilized for IVF. PCV2 spiked semen did not reveal any reduction in sperm viability or motility but its ability to produce infected blastocysts was irrelevant as only one out of 15 blastocysts obtained by IVF were PCV2b; however two blastocysts were PCV2a positive. Furthermore, the presence of PCV2 was demonstrated also in embryos obtained by parthenogenesis (one out of 17 was PCV2b and one PCV2a positive). Even if PCV2 firmly attaches to the surface of spermatozoa, experimentally spiked sperm were not effective in infecting oocytes during IVF and in producing PCR positive embryos. The infected blastocysts we obtained derived most probably from infected oocytes recovered at the abattoir. PMID:26434667

  20. Prostaglandin induced changes in the tone of porcine retinal arterioles in vitro involve other factors than calcium activity in perivascular cells.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtseva, Olga; Aalkjær, Christian; Bek, Toke

    2015-09-01

    The cellular basis for the regulation of retinal blood flow is unknown, but recently a new type of perivascular cell (PVC) with pericyte characteristics was identified in the retinal arterial vascular wall located immediately external to the vascular smooth muscle cells. A possible involvement of this cell type in the regulation of retinal vascular tone might be elucidated by studying differences in the response after the addition of compounds stimulating respectively relaxation and contraction. The effects of PGE2 and PGF2α on vascular tone and calcium activity in PVCs in porcine retinal arterioles were studied in a confocal myograph after the addition of the ryanodine receptor blocker ryanodine, the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine, the non-specific cation channel blocker LOE908, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) blocker CPA, and the inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel blocker 2-APB. The Ca(2+) channel blockers nifedipine and LOE908 induced significant relaxation of retinal arterioles. After the addition of both PGE2 and PGF2α calcium activity in the PVCs was significantly reduced by both the SERCA inhibitor CPA and the IP3R antagonist 2-APB, but the changes in calcium activity were unrelated to the changes in tone induced by PGE2 and PGF2α. Changes in the tone of porcine retinal arterioles in vitro induced by PGE2 and PGF2α involve other factors than calcium activity in the perivascular cells.

  1. Isolation and characterization of two peptides with prolactin release-inhibiting activity from porcine hypothalami.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Guoth, J G; Redding, T W; Groot, K; Rodriguez, H; Szonyi, E; Stults, J; Nikolics, K

    1991-01-01

    Two peptides with in vitro prolactin release-inhibiting activity were purified from stalk median eminence (SME) fragments of 20,000 pig hypothalami. Monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells were incubated with aliquots of chromatographic fractions and the inhibition of release of prolactin in vitro was measured by RIA in order to monitor the purification. The hypothalamic tissue extract was separated into 11 fractions by high-performance aqueous size-exclusion chromatography with one fraction showing a 4-fold increase in prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) activity. This material was further purified by semipreparative reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. This process resulted in the separation of two distinct fractions that showed high PIF activity. These were further purified by semipreparative and analytical RP-HPLC to apparent homogeneity as judged by the UV absorbance profiles. Neither of the two peptides showed cross-reactivity with gonadotropin releasing hormone-associated peptide or with somatostatin-14 antibodies. Protein sequence analysis revealed that one of the PIF peptides was Trp-Cys-Leu-Glu-Ser-Ser-Gln-Cys-Gln-Asp-Leu-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Asn-Leu-Leu- Ala-Cys - Ile-Arg-Ala-Cys-Lys-Pro, identical to residues 27-52 of the N-terminal region of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor (corresponding to amino acids 1-26 of the 16-kDa fragment). The sequence of the other PIF was Ala-Ser-Asp-Arg-Ser-Asn-Ala-Thr-Leu-Leu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Ser-Gly-Ala-Leu-Leu- Leu-Arg - Leu-Val-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gly-Ala-Pro-Glu-Pro-Ala-Glu-Pro-Ala-Gln-Pro-Gly-Val- Tyr, representing residues 109-147 of the vasopressin-neurophysin precursor. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the N-terminal region of POMC had significant PIF activity in vitro. PMID:2023899

  2. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar) Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E.; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes. PMID:25123137

  3. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and ACE inhibitory peptides of salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysates obtained by human and porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Darewicz, Małgorzata; Borawska, Justyna; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr; Iwaniak, Anna

    2014-08-13

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes) and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes). Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50%) of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  4. Neferine, an alkaloid from lotus seed embryo, inhibits human lung cancer cell growth by MAPK activation and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Paramasivan; Weng, Ching Feng; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Neferine is the major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the seed embryo of a traditional medicinal plant Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus). Epidemiological studies have revealed the therapeutic potential of lotus seed embryo. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear anticancer action mechanism of neferine on lung cancer cells is still not known. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the world, and the patients with advanced stage of nonsmall lung cancer require adjunct chemotherapy after surgical resection for the eradication of cancer cells. In this study, the effects of neferine were evaluated and characterized in A549 cells. Neferine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with the hypergeneration of reactive oxygen species, activation of MAPKs, lipid peroxidation, depletion of cellular antioxidant pool, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and intracellular calcium accumulation. Furthermore, neferine treatment leads to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappaB and Bcl2, upregulation of Bax and Bad, release of cytochrome C, activation of caspase cascade, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, neferine could induce p53 and its effector protein p21 and downregulation of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 thereby inducing G1 cell cycle arrest. These results suggest a novel function of neferine as an apoptosis inducer in lung cancer cells.

  5. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  6. Porcine prion protein amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions. PMID:26218890

  7. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    PubMed

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  8. Porcine MHC classical class I genes are coordinately expressed in superantigen-activated mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yoshie; Ohshima, Shino; Kita, Yuki F; Shimada, Shin; Kamiguchi, Hiroshi; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Ando, Asako

    2012-08-15

    The expression of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classical class I genes is important for the adaptive immune response to target virus-infected cells and cancer cells. The up-regulation of the MHC is achieved by hormonal/cytokine signals including IFN-γ-inducible elements. The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA), the MHC class I region of pigs, consists of the duplicated classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2 and SLA-3, but the molecular mechanisms involved in their up-regulation after T cell stimulation have not been fully elucidated. In order to better understand some of the putative regulatory mechanisms of SLA class I gene expression in activated T cells, we examined the coordinated expression of the SLA classical class I, IFN-γ and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) genes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLA homozygous Clawn miniature swine stimulated for 72 h with either IFN-γ or an enterotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. This enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome-1 (TSST-1), is known to act as a superantigen (sAG) to activate the T cells in various vertebrate species. We showed by using mAbs and flow cytometry that the CD4(+)CD25(+) cell number of swine PBMCs was also increased by TSST-1 and to a lesser degree by IFN-γ. Time course analyses of the expression of the IFN-γ, IRF-1 and the three classical class I genes, SLA-1, SLA-2, and SLA-3, in PBMCs by quantitative real-time PCR revealed a transitory response to TSST-1 or IFN-γ stimulation. The IFN-γ mRNA levels in the PBMCs were continuously up-regulated over the first 48 h by TSST-1 or IFN-γ. In contrast, SLA class I expression moderately increased at 24h and then decreased to a baseline level or less at 72 h of IFN-γ or TSST-1 stimulation. The three classical SLA class I genes showed similar expression kinetics, although SLA-3 mRNA level was consistently lower than those of SLA-1 and -2. The expression of IRF-1, a modulator of SLA expression, showed similar

  9. In vitro and in vivo association of porcine hepatic cytochrome P450 3A and 2C activities with testicular steroids.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Zlabek, V; Ropstad, E; Andresen, Ø

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the inhibitory potential of several testicular steroids on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) and 2C (CYP2C) activities in porcine liver microsomes. The microsomes used in this study were obtained from pubertal male pigs of two breeds, Landrace and Duroc. For the in vitro inhibition study, porcine microsomes were incubated in the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, androstenone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Both reversible and mechanism-based inhibitions were examined. 7-benzyloxyresorufin (BR) and 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC) were used as substrates for CYP3A, and diclofenac and tolbutamide (TB) as substrates for CYP2C. 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activity was inhibited by all tested steroids in the microsomes from Landrace pigs via mechanism-based mode, but in the microsomes from Duroc pigs, BROD activities were inhibited only in the presence of 17β-oestradiol. Mechanism-based inhibition of BFC metabolism by the tested steroids was observed in the microsomes from both breeds, but this inhibition was weak and did not exceed 20%. TB hydroxylase (TBOH) activity in the microsomes from Duroc pigs was inhibited by 17α-oestradiol through the mechanism-based mode of inhibition. None of the investigated steroids inhibited TBOH activity in Landrace pigs. For the in vivo study, male pigs were injected with a single dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate testicular steroid production by the Leydig cells. In vivo stimulation with hGC did not alter BROD activity either in Landrace or in Duroc pigs. BFC metabolism was significantly induced by hCG stimulation in both breeds and TBOH activity only in Duroc pigs. Activity of diclofenac hydroxylase was not detected in either Landrace or Duroc pigs. Breed significantly affected BROD and TBOH activity with BROD being higher in Landrace and TBOH in Duroc pigs. This study improved our understanding of the role of testicular steroids in

  10. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  11. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion.

  12. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion. PMID:23221697

  13. Nuclear extracts of chicken embryos promote an active demethylation of DNA by excision repair of 5-methyldeoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Jost, J P

    1993-01-01

    Here I show that nuclear extracts of chicken embryos can promote the active demethylation of DNA. The evidence shows that in hemimethylated DNA (i.e., methylated on one strand only) demethylation of 5mCpG occurs through nucleotide excision repair. The first step of demethylation is the formation of specific nicks 5' from 5-methyldeoxycytidine. Nicks are also observed in vitro on symmetrically methylated CpGs (i.e., methylated on both strands) but they result in breakage of the oligonucleotide with no repair. No specific nicks are observed on the nonmethylated CpG. Nicks are strictly 5mCpG specific and do not occur on 5mCpC, 5mCpT, 5mCpA, or 6mApT. The effect of nonspecific nuclease(s) has been ruled out. The nicking of mCpG takes place in the presence of 20 mM EDTA irrespective of the nature of the sequence surrounding the 5mCpG. No methylcytosine glycosylase activity could be detected. The repair is aphidicolin and N-ethylmaleimide resistant, suggesting a repair action by DNA polymerase beta. In extracts of chicken embryos, the excision repair of mCpG is highest between the 6th and the 12th day of development, whereas it is barely detectable in nuclear extracts from different organs of adults. The possible implications of 5mCpG endonuclease activity in active demethylation of DNA during differentiation is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:8506318

  14. Aerobic heat shock activates trehalose synthesis in embryos of Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Clegg, J S; Jackson, S A

    1992-05-25

    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, contain large amounts of trehalose which they use as a major substrate for energy metabolism and biosynthesis for development under aerobic conditions at 25 degrees C. When cysts are placed at 42 degrees C (heat shock) these pathways stop, and the cysts re-synthesize the trehalose that was utilized during the previous incubation at 25 degrees C. Glycogen and glycerol, produced from trehalose at 25 degrees C, appear to be substrates for trehalose synthesis during heat shock. Anoxia prevents trehalose synthesis in cysts undergoing heat shock. These results are consistent with the view that trehalose may play a protective role in cells exposed to heat shock, and other environmental insults, in addition to being a storage form of energy and organic carbon for development. PMID:1592115

  15. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success.

  16. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success. PMID:24621922

  17. Development of a new screening assay to identify proteratogenic substances using zebrafish danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (mDarT).

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Nagel, Roland; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Mueller, Stefan O; Huebler, Nicole; Broschard, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    The assessment of teratogenic effects of chemicals is generally performed using in vivo teratogenicity assays, for example, in rats or rabbits. We have developed an in vitro teratogenicity assay using the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (MAS), able to biotransform proteratogenic compounds. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and ethanol were used as proteratogens to test the efficiency of this assay. Briefly, the zebrafish embryos were cocultured at 2 hpf (hours postfertilization) with the test material at varying concentrations, induced male rat liver microsomes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) for 60 min at 32 degrees C under moderate agitation in Tris-buffer. The negative control (test material alone) and the MAS control (MAS alone) were incubated in parallel. For each test group, 20 eggs were used for statistical robustness. Afterward fish embryos were transferred individually into 24-well plates filled with fish medium for 48 h at 26 degrees C with a 12-h light cycle. Teratogenicity was scored after 24 and 48 hpf using morphological endpoints. No teratogenic effects were observed in fish embryos exposed to the proteratogens alone, that is, without metabolic activation. In contrast, CPA and ethanol induced abnormalities in fish embryos when coincubated with microsomes. The severity of malformations increased with increasing concentrations of the proteratogens. We conclude that the application of microsomes will improve and refine the D. rerio teratogenicity assay as a predictive and valuable alternative method to screen teratogenic substances.

  18. The Porcine Chloride Channel Calcium-Activated Family Member pCLCA4a Mirrors Lung Expression of the Human hCLCA4

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Stephanie; Grötzsch, Tanja; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Kobalz, Ursula; Gruber, Achim D.

    2012-01-01

    Pig models of cystic fibrosis (CF) have recently been established that are expected to mimic the human disease closer than mouse models do. The human CLCA (originally named chloride channels, calcium-activated) member hCLCA4 is considered a potential modifier of disease severity in CF, but its murine ortholog, mCLCA6, is not expressed in the mouse lung. Here, we have characterized the genomic structure, protein processing, and tissue expression patterns of the porcine ortholog to hCLCA4, pCLCA4a. The genomic structure and cellular protein processing of pCLCA4a were found to closely mirror those of hCLCA4 and mCLCA6. Similar to human lung, pCLCA4a mRNA was strongly expressed in porcine lungs, and the pCLCA4a protein was immunohistochemically detected on the apical membranes of tracheal and bronchial epithelial cells. This stands in sharp contrast to mouse mCLCA6, which has been detected exclusively in intestinal epithelia but not the murine lung. The results may add to the understanding of species-specific differences in the CF phenotype and support the notion that the CF pig model may be more suitable than murine models to study the role of hCLCA4. PMID:22205680

  19. Production of monoclonal antibodies to porcine interleukin-18 and their use for immunoaffinity purification of recombinant porcine interleukin-18.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Shimoji, Y; Yokomizo, Y; Mori, Y

    2000-03-01

    We have recently reported the cloning and expression of porcine interleukin-18 (IL-18). In this study, we describe the production of anti-porcine IL-18 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and their use in the purification of a large amount of recombinant porcine IL-18 by immunoaffinity column chromatography. Five monoclonal antibodies (2-2-B, 2-5-B, 2-13-C, 3-1-C and 5-3-B) were established and characterized. Three (2-2-B, 3-1-C and 5-3-B) of them were of IgG1 subclass, and the other two were IgMs. Epitope analysis of the three IgG1 mAbs showed that they recognized the same epitope. All five mAbs demonstrated reactivity with baculovirus generated porcine IL-18 by immunoblot analysis. Biologically active porcine IL-18 was obtained by immunoaffinity chromatography using anti-porcine IL-18 mAb at more than 85% purity from culture supernatants of Trichoplusia ni (Tn5) derived cells infected with recombinant baculovirus containing the coding sequence of porcine mature IL-18. These results suggest that the anti-porcine IL-18 mAbs established in this study are useful for one-step purification of porcine mature IL-18 as well as the detection of porcine IL-18 by immunoblotting. PMID:10699583

  20. Combined Effects of Cadmium and UVB Radiation on Sea Urchin Embryos: Skeleton Impairment Parallels p38 MAPK Activation and Stress Genes Overexpression.

    PubMed

    Bonaventura, Rosa; Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-05-18

    Human and natural activities release many pollutants in the marine environment. The mixture of pollutants can affect many organisms concurrently. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on signal transduction pathways and stress gene expression in embryos exposed continuously to double stress, i.e., cadmium (Cd) from fertilization and UVB at cleavage (Cd/UVB-embryos). By microscopical inspection, we evaluated embryonic morphology after 72 h of development. Tissue-specific markers were used to assess mesoderm differentiation by immunofluorescence. We analyzed p38MAPK, ERK1/2, and JNK activation by Western blot and mRNA profiles of Pl-MT, Pl-14-3-3epsilon, and Pl-jun genes by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and the localization of their transcripts by whole mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). We found that the Cd/UVB combined exposure induced morphological malformations in 76% of pluteus embryos, mainly affecting the development of the skeleton, including the normal branching of skeletal roads. In Cd/UVB-embryos, p38MAPK was activated 1 h after UVB exposure and a remarkable overexpression of the Pl-MT, Pl-14.3.3epsilon, and Pl-jun genes 24 h after UVB exposure. Pl-MT and Pl-14.3.3epsilon mRNAs were misexpressed as they were localized in a position different from that observed in wild-type embryos, i.e., the intestine. On the contrary, Pl-jun mRNA has remained localized in the skeletogenic cells despite their displacement in exposed embryos. In conclusion, Cd/UVB exposure affected skeletal patterning producing alternative morphologies in which p38MAPK activation and Pl-MT, Pl-14.3.3epsilon, and Pl-jun gene overexpression seem linked to a protective role against the stress response induced by Cd/UVB.

  1. The Rho GTPase-activating proteins RGA-3 and RGA-4 are required to set the initial size of PAR domains in Caenorhabditis elegans one-cell embryos.

    PubMed

    Schonegg, Stephanie; Constantinescu, Alexandru T; Hoege, Carsten; Hyman, Anthony A

    2007-09-18

    Caenorhabditis elegans embryos establish cortical domains of PAR proteins of reproducible size before asymmetric cell division. The ways in which the size of these domains is set remain unknown. Here we identify the GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) RGA-3 and RGA-4, which regulate the activity of the small GTPase RHO-1. rga-3/4(RNAi) embryos have a hypercontractile cortex, and the initial relative size of their anterior and posterior PAR domains is altered. Thus, RHO-1 activity appears to control the level of cortical contractility and concomitantly the size of cortical domains. These data support the idea that in C. elegans embryos the initial size of the PAR domains is set by regulating the contractile activity of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton through the activity of RHO-1. RGA-3/4 have functions different from CYK-4, the other known GAP required for the first cell division, showing that different GAPs cooperate to control the activity of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton in the first cell division of C. elegans embryos.

  2. Contour extraction of Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Kambhamettu, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Contour extraction of Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos is an important step to build a computational system for matching expression pattern of embryonic images to assist the discovery of the nature of genes. Automatic contour extraction of embryos is challenging due to severe image variations, including 1) the size, orientation, shape, and appearance of an embryo of interest; 2) the neighboring context of an embryo of interest (such as nontouching and touching neighboring embryos); and 3) illumination circumstance. In this paper, we propose an automatic framework for contour extraction of the embryo of interest in an embryonic image. The proposed framework contains three components. Its first component applies a mixture model of quadratic curves, with statistical features, to initialize the contour of the embryo of interest. An efficient method based on imbalanced image points is proposed to compute model parameters. The second component applies active contour model to refine embryo contours. The third component applies eigen-shape modeling to smooth jaggy contours caused by blurred embryo boundaries. We test the proposed framework on a data set of 8,000 embryonic images, and achieve promising accuracy (88 percent), that is, substantially higher than the-state-of-the-art results.

  3. The role of porcine cytochrome b5A and cytochrome b5B in the regulation of cytochrome P45017A1 activities.

    PubMed

    Billen, M J; Squires, E J

    2009-01-01

    Male pigs are routinely castrated to prevent the accumulation of testicular 16-androstene steroids, in particular 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one (5alpha-androstenone), which contribute to an off-odour and off-flavour known as boar taint. Cytochrome P450C17 (CYP17A1) catalyses the key regulatory step in the formation of the 16-androstene steroids from pregnenolone by the andien-beta synthase reaction or the synthesis of the glucocorticoid and sex steroids via 17alpha-hydroxylase and C17,20 lyase pathways respectively. We have expressed CYP17A1, along with cytochrome P450 reductase (POR), cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R3) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5) in HEK-293FT cells to investigate the importance of the two forms of porcine CYB5, CYB5A and CYB5B, in both the andien-beta synthase as well as the 17alpha-hydroxylase and C17,20 lyase reactions. Increasing the ratio of CYB5A to CYP17A1 caused a decrease in 17alpha-hydroxylase (p<0.013), a transient increase in C17,20 lyase, and an increase in andien-beta synthase activity (p<0.0001). Increasing the ratio of CYB5B to CYP17A1 also decreased 17alpha-hydroxylase, but did not affect the andien-beta synthase activity; however, the C17,20 lyase, was significantly increased. These results demonstrate the differential effects of two forms of CYB5 on the three activities of porcine CYP17A1 and show that CYB5B does not stimulate the andien-beta synthase activity of CYP17A1. PMID:19101629

  4. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  5. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  6. Attenuation of ribosomal protein S6 phosphatase activity in chicken embryo fibroblasts transformed by Rous sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Belandia, B; Brautigan, D; Martín-Pérez, J

    1994-01-01

    In chicken embryo fibroblasts, phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 increases during G1 but returns to basal level by mitosis. In contrast, in Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-transformed fibroblasts, S6 remains highly phosphorylated throughout mitosis. This study investigated the mechanism by which RSV alters the pattern of S6 phosphorylation. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrate that phosphate turnover in S6 is rapid in normal cells and in cells infected with an RSV transformation-defective virus. In contrast, phosphate turnover in S6 is severely reduced in cells infected with temperature-sensitive RSV at a temperature permissive for transformation, indicating a diminished S6 phosphatase activity. Fractionation of cell lysates by DEAE chromatography showed an almost threefold lower S6 phosphatase activity in RSV-transformed versus normal cells. The S6 phosphatase was sensitive to inhibitor 2 and specifically recognized by an antibody to type 1 phosphatase (PP1). The S6 phosphatase activity recovered by immunoprecipitation of PP1 was threefold lower in transformed cells, but the steady-state level of expression and the rate of synthesis of PP1 were not altered by oncogenic transformation. Together, the results show that transformation by RSV reduced the S6-PP1 activity. Images PMID:8264587

  7. Restriction of Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus by Porcine APOBEC3 Cytidine Deaminases ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dörrschuck, Eva; Fischer, Nicole; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Hanschmann, Kay-Martin; Kuiper, Heidi; Spötter, Andreas; Möller, Ronny; Cichutek, Klaus; Münk, Carsten; Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2011-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs shows promise to surmount the shortage of human donor materials. Among the barriers to pig-to-human xenotransplantation are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) since functional representatives of the two polytropic classes, PERV-A and PERV-B, are able to infect human embryonic kidney cells in vitro, suggesting that a xenozoonosis in vivo could occur. To assess the capacity of human and porcine cells to counteract PERV infections, we analyzed human and porcine APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. This multigene family of cytidine deaminases contributes to the cellular intrinsic immunity and act as potent inhibitors of retroviruses and retrotransposons. Our data show that the porcine A3 gene locus on chromosome 5 consists of the two single-domain genes A3Z2 and A3Z3. The evolutionary relationships of the A3Z3 genes reflect the evolutionary history of mammals. The two A3 genes encode at least four different mRNAs: A3Z2, A3Z3, A3Z2-Z3, and A3Z2-Z3 splice variant A (SVA). Porcine and human A3s have been tested toward their antiretroviral activity against PERV and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) using novel single-round reporter viruses. The porcine A3Z2, A3Z3 and A3Z2-Z3 were packaged into PERV particles and inhibited PERV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The antiretroviral effect correlated with editing by the porcine A3s with a trinucleotide preference for 5′ TGC for A3Z2 and A3Z2-Z3 and 5′ CAC for A3Z3. These results strongly imply that human and porcine A3s could inhibit PERV replication in vivo, thereby reducing the risk of infection of human cells by PERV in the context of pig-to-human xenotransplantation. PMID:21307203

  8. Site-directed mutagenesis of porcine pepsin: Possible role of Asp32, Thr33, Asp215 and Gly217 in maintaining the nuclease activity of pepsin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfang; Liu, Yu; Guo, Hui; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2016-07-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of porcine pepsin was performed to identify its active sites that regulate nucleic acid (NA) digestion activity and to analyze the mechanism pepsin-mediated NA digestion. The mutation sites were distributed at the catalytic center of the enzyme (T33A, G34A, Y75H, T77A, Y189H, V214A, G217A and S219A) and at its active site (D32A and D215A) for protein digestion. Mutation of the active site residues Asp32 and Asp215 led to the inactivation of pepsin (both the NA and protein digestion activity), which demonstrated that the active sites of the pepsin protease activity were also important for its nuclease activity. Analysis of the variants revealed that T33A and G217A mutants showed a complete loss of NA digestion activity. In conclusion, residues Asp32, Thr33, Asp215 and Gly217 were related to the pepsin active sites for NA digestion. Moreover, the Y189H and V214A variants showed a loss of digestion activity on double-strand DNA (dsDNA) but only a decrease in digestion activity on single-strand DNA (ssDNA). On the contrary, the G34A variant showed a loss of digestion activity on ssDNA but only a decrease in digestion activity on dsDNA. Our findings are the first to identify the active sites of pepsin nuclease activity and lay the framework for further study of the mechanism of pepsin nuclease activity. PMID:27233129

  9. Basic calcium phosphate crystals activate human osteoarthritic synovial fibroblasts and induce matrix metalloproteinase-13 (collagenase-3) in adult porcine articular chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, G; Westfall, P; Masuda, I; Christopherson, P; Cheung, H; Mitchell, P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine the ability of basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals to induce (a) mitogenesis, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-13 in human osteoarthritic synovial fibroblasts (HOAS) and (b) MMP-13 in cultured porcine articular chondrocytes.
METHODS—Mitogenesis of HOAS was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation assay and counts of cells in monolayer culture. MMP messenger RNA (mRNA) accumulation was determined either by northern blot analysis or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of RNA from chondrocytes or HOAS treated with BCP crystals. MMP-13 secretion was identified by immunoprecipitation and MMP-1 secretion by western blot of conditioned media.
RESULTS—BCP crystals caused a 4.5-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation by HOAS within 20 hours compared with untreated control cultures (p⩽0.05). BCP crystals induced MMP-13 mRNA accumulation and MMP-13 protein secretion by articular chondrocytes. In contrast, in HOAS, MMP-13 mRNA induced by BCP crystals was detectable only by RT-PCR, and MMP-13 protein was undetectable. BCP crystals induced MMP-1 mRNA accumulation and MMP-1 protein secretion by HOAS. MMP-1 expression was further augmented when HOAS were co-incubated with either BCP and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα; threefold) or BCP and interleukin 1α (IL1α; twofold).
CONCLUSION—These data confirm the ability of BCP crystals to activate HOAS, leading to the induction of mitogenesis and MMP-1 production. MMP-13 production in response to BCP crystals is substantially more detectable in porcine articular chondrocytes than in HOAS. These data support the active role of BCP crystals in osteoarthritis and suggest that BCP crystals act synergistically with IL1α and TNFα to promote MMP production and subsequent joint degeneration.

 PMID:11247873

  10. The study of regulatory effects of Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1 on the activity of porcine insulin promoter and the expression of human islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dan; Ruan, Jin-Xue; Xia, Ji-Han; Yang, Shu-Lin; Fan, Jun-Hua; Li, Kui

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the activation of porcine insulin promoter (PIP) by three transcription factors: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx-1), v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene (MafA) and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) in non-beta islet cells cultured in vitro. In addition, the expression of the exogenous human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) gene driving by PIP in porcine kidney 15 (PK15) cells co-transfected with these transcription factors was also examined. In the present study, a series of vectors for gene overexpression were constructed, including pGL3-Pdx-1, pGL3-MafA, pGL3-NeuroD1, pGL3-PIP-LUC and pcDNA3.1-PIP-hIAPP. The dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the PIP activity was increased in PK15 cells when overexpressing the exogenous transcription factors Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1. Introducing the PIP-hIAPP expression vector into PK15 cells combined with exogenous Pdx-1, MafA and NeuroD1 resulted in the efficient expression of hIAPP at the gene level, but not the protein. The current systematic porcine insulin promoter analysis provided the basic information for future utilization of porcine insulin.

  11. Clinical efficacy of macrophage-activating Chinese mixed herbs (MACH) in improvement of embryo qualities in women with long-term infertility of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Ushiroyama, Takahisa; Yokoyama, Noriko; Hakukawa, Midori; Sakuma, Kou; Ichikawa, Fumio; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), a significant proportion of women still do not become pregnant after long-term infertility, whether it is originally due to older age or other undetermined factors. In the present study, macrophage activating Chinese herbs (MACH) were evaluated for their effects on embryo qualities in women who were undergoing repeated IVF-ET because of long-term infertility. Thirty women, who had significantly low rates of developing good quality cleaved embryos and did not become pregnant after three or more cycles of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) procedure, were included in the study. Oral administration of MACH significantly increased the percentage of good quality early stage blastocysts (the number of grade 1 or grade 2 cleaved embryos/the number of retrieved oocytes) from 18.7 ± 16.2% to 36.1 ± 27.1% (1.9-fold increase, p < 0.01). The rate of good quality early stage blastocysts increased in all patients. In 19 patients who desired embryo transfer using late stage blastocysts, MACH significantly increased the percentage of late stage blastocysts from the initial value of 14.8 ± 11.2% to 21.1 ± 23.1% (1.4-fold increase, p < 0.05). The rate of embryonic progress into late stage blastocyst increased in 52.6% (10/19) of the patients. Furthermore, treatment with MACH significantly decreased the plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration on the day of oocyte retrieval from 14.4 ± 3.2 to 10.5 ± 2.4 mIU/ml (p < 0.05). No adverse events were observed with MACH supplementation, and there was no patient dropout. Administration of MACH resulted in improved embryo quality in the difficult cases. The present study demonstrates a new benefit of this herbal blend in women with refractory infertility of unknown etiology. PMID:22298444

  12. Reproductive technologies and the porcine embryonic transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Dyck, M K; Zhou, C; Tsoi, S; Grant, J; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2014-09-01

    The domestic pig is not only an economically-important livestock species, but also an increasingly recognized biomedical animal model due to its physiological similarities with humans. As a result, there is a strong interest in the factors that affect the efficient production of viable embryos and offspring in the pig using either in vivo or in vitro production methods. The application of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has the potential to increase reproductive efficiency in livestock. These technologies include, but are not limited to: artificial insemination (AI), fixed-time AI, embryo transfer, cryopreservation of sperm/oocytes/embryos, in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning). However, the application of ART is much less efficient in the pig than in many other mammalian species such as cattle. Until recently, the underlying causes of these inefficiencies have been difficult to study, but advances in molecular biology techniques for studying gene expression have resulted in the availability of a variety of options for gene expression profiling such as microarrays, and next generation sequencing technologies. Capitalizing on these technologies the effects of various ARTs on the porcine embryonic transcriptome has been determined and the impact on the related biological pathways and functions been evaluated. The implications of these results on the efficiency of ARTs in swine, as well potential consequences for the developing embryo and resulting offspring, are reviewed.

  13. Progesterone improves porcine in vitro fertilisation system.

    PubMed

    Malo, Clara; Gil, Lydia; Cano, Rafael; Martinez, Felisa; Gonzalez, Noelia

    2014-03-01

    In an effort to improve the quality of in vitro produced porcine embryos, the effect of progestagens - progesterone analogues - on the in vitro developmental competence of porcine oocytes was studied. A total of 1421 in vitro matured oocytes, from 4 replicates, were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Progestagens were added to late maturation and embryo cultures (10 IU/ml). Fertilisation success (pre-maturation, penetration, monospermy and efficiency) and nuclear maturation were evaluated. There were no differences among prematuration rates between groups (P = 0.221). Penetration rates were higher (P < 0.001) in the presence of progestagens (75.0%) as compared to the control (51.7%). However, no differences were observed in monospermy percentages (P = 0.246). The results indicated that supplementation with progestagens increased the efficiency of the in vitro fertilisation system (P < 0.001). An additional beneficial effect was observed in nuclear maturation with progestagens (P = 0.035). In summary, progestagen supplementation is an important factor to improve the in vitro fertilisation procedure.

  14. Identification of a β-galactosidase transgene that provides a live-cell marker of transcriptional activity in growing oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nicole; Farookhi, Riaz; Clarke, Hugh J

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the events and molecular mechanisms that regulate oocyte growth has emerged as a key objective of research in human fertility, fuelled by evidence from human and animal studies indicating that disease and environmental factors can act on oocytes to affect the health of the resulting individual and by efforts to grow oocytes in vitro to enable fertility preservation of cancer survivors. Techniques that monitor the development of growing oocytes would be valuable tools to assess the progression of growth under different conditions. Most methods used to assess oocytes grown in vitro are indirect, however, relying on characteristics of the somatic compartment of the follicle, or compromise the oocyte, preventing its subsequent culture or fertilization. We investigated the utility of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/Lef)-LacZ transgene expression as a predictor of global transcriptional activity in oocytes and early embryos. Using a fluorescent β-galactosidase substrate combined with live-cell imaging, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ transgene expression is detectable in growing oocytes, lost in fully grown oocytes and resumes in late two-cell embryos. Transgene expression is likely regulated by a Wnt-independent mechanism. Using chromatin analysis, LacZ expression and methods to monitor and inhibit transcription, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ expression mirrors transcriptional activity in oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Oocytes and preimplantation embryos that undergo live-cell imaging for TCF/Lef-LacZ expression are able to continue development in vitro. TCF/Lef-LacZ reporter expression in living oocytes and early embryos is thus a sensitive and faithful marker of transcriptional activity that can be used to monitor and optimize conditions for oocyte growth.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor I induces proliferation and migration of porcine trophectoderm cells through multiple cell signaling pathways, including protooncogenic protein kinase 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Song, Gwonhwa; Bazer, Fuller W; Kim, Jinyoung

    2014-03-25

    During early pregnancy, the developing conceptus is dependent upon a wide range of growth factors and nutrients that are secreted by or transported by uterine epithelia into the uterus at the maternal-conceptus interface for successful implantation and placentation. Among these factors, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to play an important role in development of the early embryo and uterine endometrium. However, few studies have been conducted with pigs to determine IGF-I-induced functional effects on peri-implantation embryos such as activation of cell signaling cascades responsible for growth, proliferation and differentiation of cells of the conceptus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression of endometrial IGF-I and its receptor, to examine the functional role of IGF-I on primary porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells and to assess potential signaling pathways responsible for biological activities of IGF-1. In the present study, expression of endometrial type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) mRNA increased significantly from Day 10 to Day 12 of pregnancy and the increase was greater for pregnant than cyclic gilts. Both IGF-I and IGF-IR mRNAs were abundant in endometrial luminal-, glandular epithelia, and stratum compactum stroma on Day 12 of pregnancy. In addition, IGF-I significantly induced phosphorylation of AKT1, ERK1/2 and RPS6 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in pTr cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that IGF-I treated pTr cells exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1 and p-ERK1/2 MAPK proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm, and p-RPS6 proteins in the cytosol as compared to non-treated pTr cells. In the presence of the ERK1/2 MAPK inhibitor (U0126), IGF-I-induced AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected, whereas the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) decreased IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1 proteins, and both the PI3K-AKT1 and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways were blocked by LY294002. Furthermore

  16. Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers and benzotriazole: Antiandrogenic activity in vitro and activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos.

    PubMed

    Fent, Karl; Chew, Geraldine; Li, Jun; Gomez, Elena

    2014-06-01

    Benzotriazole UV-stabilizers (BUVs) are applied in materials for protection against UV-irradiation. They are widely used, bioaccumulate and share structural similarities to benzotriazole. Benzotriazole (1HBT) finds application as corrosion inhibitor in dishwashing detergents, antifreeze (vehicles) and aircraft de-icing agent. BUVs and 1HBT are persistent and ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, but there is little understanding of the ecotoxicological implications. Here, we comparatively analyze the hormonal activity in vitro and effects in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos in vivo. 2-(2-Hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)benzotriazole (UV-P), 2-(3-t-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-5-chlorobenzotriazole (UV-326), UV-327, UV-328, UV-329 and UV-320 showed no estrogenicity (YES assay) and androgenicity (YAS assay). However, UV-P and 1HBT showed significant antiandrogenic activity. We assessed the transcription profiles of up to 26 genes associated with different toxicological pathways in zebrafish eleuthero-embryos to elucidate potential modes of action of UV-P, UV-326 and 1HBT. Embryos were experimentally exposed for 144hpf to three measured concentrations of 15.8, 70.8, and 690μg/L UV-P, 7.5, 31.7, and 84.3μg/L UV-326 and 7.9, 97.3 and 1197.3μg/L 1HBT. Among the 26 transcripts, the induction of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway by UV-P and UV-326 was the most significant finding. UV-P led to dose-related induction of AHR1, ARNT2 and cyp1a1, as well as of phase II enzymes glutathione-S-transferase (gstp1) and ugt1a. UV-326 led to a significant induction of cyp1a1 and AHR2, but down-regulation of gstp1 at 84μg/L. Only little transcriptional alterations occurred in genes related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, hormone receptors, and steroidogenesis including aromatase. 1HBT led to only a few expressional changes at 1197μg/L. Our data lead to the conclusion that UV-P and UV-326 activate the AHR-pathway, whereas 1HBT shows only little transcriptional alterations. It

  17. Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    PubMed

    Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Firgang, Sergei I; Semenov, Roman V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Fuchs, Fabian; Stielow, Anne; Lantow, Margareta; Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2011-10-27

    A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  18. An extraovarian protein accumulated in mosquito oocytes is a carboxypeptidase activated in embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Wenlong Cho; Deitsch, K.W.; Raikhel, A.S. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors report a phenomenon previously unknown for oviparous animals; in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes a serine carboxypeptidase is synthesized extraovarially and then internalized by oocytes. The cDNA encoding mosquito vitellogenic carboxypeptidase (VCP) was cloned and sequenced. The VCP cDNA hybridizes to a 1.5-kilobase mRNA present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females. The deduced amino acid sequence of VCP shares significant homology with members of the serine carboxypeptidase family. Binding assays using a serine protease inhibitor, ({sup 3}H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate, showed that VCP is activated in eggs at the onset of embryonic development. Activation of VCP is associated with the reduction in its size from 53 kDa (inactive proenzyme) to 48 kDa (active enzyme). The active, 48-kDa, form of VCP is maximally present at the middle of embryonic development and disappears by the end.

  19. Non-targeted metabolomic evaluation of the uterine milieu during the transitional period of embryo elongation in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alterations in the signaling of critical molecular factors within the uterine milieu lead to deficiencies in embryo elongation. The objective of this study was to identify metabolites within the uterine environment that are present as porcine embryos transition between spherical, ovoid, and tubular ...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA polymerase, deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease H activities from brain of chick embryo

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, L.; Smith, J.; Croisille, Y.; Dastugue, B.

    1974-01-01

    R-DNA polymerase, D-DNA polymerase, DNase and RNase H activities in mitochondria from chick embryonic brain were studied by ion-exchange chromatography. Two main fractions were separated according to their chromatographic behaviour: a fraction M Ib which is eluted with the washing buffer from two successive DEAE-cellulose columns and a fraction M IV which is eluted at 400 mM KC1 from a phosphocellulose column. Although the two fractions contain both the DNA polymerase and the degrading activities, all the specific activities are higher in fraction M IV than in fraction M Ib. Heat inactivation experiments have shown that R-DNA polymerase is inactivated in both fractions, whereas RNase H and DNase are not affected. Thus, degrading activities and R-DNA polymerase activity seem to be catalyzed by different molecular entities. However the fact that in most cases these activities co-chromatograph suggests that the corresponding molecules form rather stable complexes. PMID:4476911

  1. Cooperative DNA-binding by Bicoid provides a mechanism for threshold-dependent gene activation in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Burz, D S; Rivera-Pomar, R; Jäckle, H; Hanes, S D

    1998-01-01

    The Bicoid morphogen directs pattern formation along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis of the Drosophila embryo. Bicoid is distributed in a concentration gradient that decreases exponentially from the anterior pole, however, it transcribes target genes such as hunchback in a step-function-like pattern; the expression domain is uniform and has a sharply defined posterior boundary. A 'gradient-affinity' model proposed to explain Bicoid action states that (i) cooperative gene activation by Bicoid generates the sharp on/off switch for target gene transcription and (ii) target genes with different affinities for Bicoid are expressed at different positions along the A-P axis. Using an in vivo yeast assay and in vitro methods, we show that Bicoid binds DNA with pairwise cooperativity; Bicoid bound to a strong site helps Bicoid bind to a weak site. These results support the first aspect of the model, providing a mechanism by which Bicoid generates sharp boundaries of gene expression. However, contrary to the second aspect of the model, we find no significant difference between the affinity of Bicoid for the anterior gene hunchback and the posterior gene knirps. We propose, instead, that the arrangement of Bicoids bound to the target gene presents a unique signature to the transcription machinery that, in combination with overall affinity, regulates the extent of gene transcription along the A-P axis. PMID:9774343

  2. Context-dependent regulation of Dicer activity and small RNA production: Implications to oocyte-to-embryo transition

    PubMed Central

    Arur, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms that suppress small RNAs in oocytes while maintaining them in zygotes remain unknown. Signal-mediated regulation of small RNA biogenesis pathway is emerging as a theme for regulating small RNA production. We recently reported that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Dicer, a central player in small RNA biogenesis, induced Dicer to move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Dicer phosphorylation inhibited its function, e.g., the production of 26G endo-siRNAs in the female germline. Moreover, our findings showed that the inhibition of Dicer function was necessary for normal progression of meiosis I and oogenesis, and that Dicer function had to be restored before fertilization for normal progression of embryogenesis. Thus, extracellular signal-dependent inhibition and then reactivation of Dicer is essential for oocyte-to-embryo transition. Strikingly, signal-induced Dicer translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus is evolutionarily conserved from worm, flies, mice to humans thereby suggesting the ERK-mediated control of Dicer activity may be a generalized mechanism for regulating small RNA biogenesis. PMID:27123367

  3. Context-dependent regulation of Dicer activity and small RNA production: Implications to oocyte-to-embryo transition.

    PubMed

    Arur, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mechanisms that suppress small RNAs in oocytes while maintaining them in zygotes remain unknown. Signal-mediated regulation of small RNA biogenesis pathway is emerging as a theme for regulating small RNA production. We recently reported that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Dicer, a central player in small RNA biogenesis, induced Dicer to move from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Dicer phosphorylation inhibited its function, e.g., the production of 26G endo-siRNAs in the female germline. Moreover, our findings showed that the inhibition of Dicer function was necessary for normal progression of meiosis I and oogenesis, and that Dicer function had to be restored before fertilization for normal progression of embryogenesis. Thus, extracellular signal-dependent inhibition and then reactivation of Dicer is essential for oocyte-to-embryo transition. Strikingly, signal-induced Dicer translocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus is evolutionarily conserved from worm, flies, mice to humans thereby suggesting the ERK-mediated control of Dicer activity may be a generalized mechanism for regulating small RNA biogenesis. PMID:27123367

  4. Valproic acid improved in vitro development of pig cloning embryos but did not improve survival of cloned pigs to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Lu, Yue; Wang, Wei; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Xi; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-01-15

    The objective was to examine the effects of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on in vitro and in vivo development of Wuzhishan miniature pig somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Experiment 1 compared in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with various concentrations of VPA for 24 h. Embryos treated with 2 mM VPA for 24 h had a greater rate of blastocyst formation compared with control or embryos treated with 4 or 8 mM VPA (21.5% vs. 10.5%, 12.6%, and 17.2%, P < 0.05). Experiment 2 examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 2 mM VPA for various intervals after chemical activation. Embryos treated for 24 h had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the control or those treated for 4 or 48 h (20.7% vs. 9.2%, 12.1%, and 9.1%, P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, an average of 207 (range, 192-216) nuclear transfer embryos from the VPA-treated group were transferred to surrogate mothers, resulting in three pregnancies. Two of the surrogates delivered a total of 11 live piglets. However, for unknown reasons, nine of 11 piglets in the VPA-treated group died within 1 to 5 d after birth. Untreated control embryos (average, 205; range, 179-225) transferred to four surrogate mothers resulted in three pregnancies, two of which delivered a total of 12 live offspring, although four of 12 piglets in the VPA-untreated group died (cause unknown) within 1 to 3 d, whereas eight of the 12 piglets in the VPA-untreated group survived more than 3 or 4 mo. The average birth weight of the two litters from the VPA-treated group tended (P < 0.05) to be lower than that from the control groups (551.6 g vs. 675.2 g). In conclusion, VPA treatment increased the blastocyst formation rate of SCNT porcine embryos; both VPA-treated and the untreated clones developed to term, but offspring from VPA-treated embryos had a lower survival to adulthood than those from control embryos (18.2% vs. 67.0%; P < 0.05).

  5. Age-related changes in phagocytic activity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by lipopolysaccharide stimulated porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Tholen, Ernst; Tesfaye, Dawit; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the age-related changes of phagocytic capacity and the kinetic production of cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated porcine alveolar macrophages. For this purpose, AMs were isolated from 5 (newborn), 40 (post-weaned) and 120 (young) day old pigs. Results of phagocytosis assay showed that AMs from newborn piglets had less phagocytic capacity than those of young pigs (P<0.05). For the kinetics study, cells and supernatant were collected at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after LPS stimulation for quantification of cytokine mRNA and protein by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. The kinetics results showed that AMs from newborn piglets were significantly less capable of producing IL1β, IL6, IL12β, TNFα and IL8 than post-weaned piglets or young pigs. IL18 mRNA did not show significant differences between ages. MIP2 and MCP1 mRNA was higher in young pigs. Hence, higher production of cytokines by AMs may be the surfactant factors in the pulmonary host defense system. These results indicate that AMs from newborn piglets might be functionally immature, which may lead to increased susceptibility to lung infections. Future studies of cytokine kinetics in more animals are clearly needed to confirm these results across a wider age range.

  6. The N-terminus of porcine circovirus type 2 replication protein is required for nuclear localization and ori binding activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.-L.; Chien, M.-S.; Du, Y.-W.; Wu, P.-C.; Huang Chienjin

    2009-02-20

    Porcine circovirus type 2 possesses a circular, single-stranded DNA genome that requires the replication protein (Rep) for virus replication. To characterize the DNA binding potential and the significant region that confers the nuclear localization of the Rep protein, the defined coding regions of rep gene were cloned and expressed. All of the recombinant proteins except for the N-terminal 110 residues deletion mutant could bind to the double-stranded minimal binding site of replication origin (ori). In addition, the N-terminal deletion mutant lacking 110 residues exhibited mainly cytoplasmic staining in the transfected cells in contrast to the others, which localized dominantly in the nucleus, suggesting that this N-terminal domain is essential for nuclear localization. Furthermore, a series of green fluorescence proteins (GFP) containing potential nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequences were tested for their cellular distribution. The ability of the utmost 20 residues of the N-terminal region to target the GFP to the nucleus confirmed its role as a functional NLS.

  7. Abcb4 acts as multixenobiotic transporter and active barrier against chemical uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mammals, ABCB1 constitutes a cellular “first line of defense” against a wide array of chemicals and drugs conferring cellular multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). We tested the hypothesis that an ABCB1 ortholog serves as protection for the sensitive developmental processes in zebrafish embryos against adverse compounds dissolved in the water. Results Indication for ABCB1-type efflux counteracting the accumulation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos comes from experiments with fluorescent and toxic transporter substrates and inhibitors. With inhibitors present, levels of fluorescent dyes in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos to toxic substrates were generally elevated. We verified two predicted sequences from zebrafish, previously annotated as abcb1, by cloning; our synteny analyses, however, identified them as abcb4 and abcb5, respectively. The abcb1 gene is absent in the zebrafish genome and we explored whether instead Abcb4 and/or Abcb5 show toxicant defense properties. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed the presence of transcripts of both genes throughout the first 48 hours of zebrafish development. Similar to transporter inhibitors, morpholino knock-down of Abcb4 increased accumulation of fluorescent substrates in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos toward toxic compounds. In contrast, morpholino knock-down of Abcb5 did not exert this effect. ATPase assays with recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system confirmed that dye and toxic compounds act as substrates of zebrafish Abcb4 and inhibitors block its function. The compounds tested comprised model substrates of human ABCB1, namely the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B and calcein-am and the toxic compounds vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicin; cyclosporin A, PSC833, MK571 and verapamil were applied as inhibitors. Additionally, tests were performed with ecotoxicologically relevant compounds: phenanthrene (a

  8. Effect of the time interval between fusion and activation on epigenetic reprogramming and development of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Ruizhe; Li, Qian; Wu, Yongyan; Hua, Song; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the time interval between fusion and activation (FA interval) play an important role in nuclear remodeling and in vitro development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, the effects of FA interval on the epigenetic reprogramming and in vivo developmental competence of SCNT embryos remain unknown. In the present study, the effects of different FA intervals (0 h, 2 h, and 4 h) on the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were assessed. The results demonstrated that H3 lysine 9 (H3K9ac) levels decreased rapidly after fusion in all three groups. H3K9ac was practically undetectable 2 h after fusion in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups. However, H3K9ac was still evidently detectable in the 0-h FA interval group. The H3K9ac levels increased 10 h after fusion in all three groups, but were higher in the 2-h and 4-h FA interval groups than that in the 0-h FA interval group. The methylation levels of the satellite I region in day-7 blastocysts derived from the 2-h or 4-h FA interval groups was similar to that of in vitro fertilization blastocysts and is significantly lower than that of the 0-h FA interval group. SCNT embryos derived from 2-h FA interval group showed higher developmental competence than those from the 0-h and 4-h FA interval groups in terms of cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, apoptosis index, and pregnancy and calving rates. Hence, the FA interval is an important factor influencing the epigenetic reprogramming and developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos.

  9. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  10. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  11. Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Sayal, Rupinder; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Pushel, Irina; Taylor, Benjamin R; Arnosti, David N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers constitute one of the major components of regulatory machinery of metazoans. Although several genome-wide studies have focused on finding and locating enhancers in the genomes, the fundamental principles governing their internal architecture and cis-regulatory grammar remain elusive. Here, we describe an extensive, quantitative perturbation analysis targeting the dorsal-ventral patterning gene regulatory network (GRN) controlled by Drosophila NF-κB homolog Dorsal. To understand transcription factor interactions on enhancers, we employed an ensemble of mathematical models, testing effects of cooperativity, repression, and factor potency. Models trained on the dataset correctly predict activity of evolutionarily divergent regulatory regions, providing insights into spatial relationships between repressor and activator binding sites. Importantly, the collective predictions of sets of models were effective at novel enhancer identification and characterization. Our study demonstrates how experimental dataset and modeling can be effectively combined to provide quantitative insights into cis-regulatory information on a genome-wide scale. PMID:27152947

  12. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism.

  13. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  14. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  15. Purification and identification of a nuclease activity in embryo axes from French bean.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Rocío; Quiles, Francisco Antonio; Cabello-Díaz, Juan Miguel; Piedras, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Plant nucleases are involved in nucleic acid degradation associated to programmed cell death processes as well as in DNA restriction, repair and recombination processes. However, the knowledge about the function of plant nucleases is limited. A major nuclease activity was detected by in-gel assay with whole embryonic axes of common bean by using ssDNA or RNA as substrate, whereas this activity was minimal in cotyledons. The enzyme has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from embryonic axes. The main biochemical properties of the purified enzyme indicate that it belongs to the S1/P1 family of nucleases. This was corroborated when this protein, after SDS-electrophoresis, was excised from the gel and further analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF allowed identification of the gene (PVN1) that codes this protein. The gene that codes the purified protein was identified. The expression of PVN1 gene was induced at the specific moment of radicle protrusion. The inclusion of inorganic phosphate to the imbibition media reduced the level of expression of this gene and the nuclease activity suggesting a relationship with the phosphorous status in French bean seedlings. PMID:24908514

  16. Fear is the mother of invention: anuran embryos exposed to predator cues alter life-history traits, post-hatching behaviour and neuronal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Andrea; Brandalise, Federico; Rubolini, Diego; Rossi, Paola; Galeotti, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Neurophysiological modifications associated to phenotypic plasticity in response to predators are largely unexplored, and there is a gap of knowledge on how the information encoded in predator cues is processed by prey sensory systems. To explore these issues, we exposed Rana dalmatina embryos to dragonfly chemical cues (kairomones) up to hatching. At different times after hatching (up to 40 days), we recorded morphology and anti-predator behaviour of tadpoles from control and kairomone-treated embryo groups as well as their neural olfactory responses, by recording the activity of their mitral neurons before and after exposure to a kairomone solution. Treated embryos hatched later and hatchlings were smaller than control siblings. In addition, the tadpoles from the treated group showed a stronger anti-predator response than controls at 10 days (but not at 30 days) post-hatching, though the intensity of the contextual response to the kairomone stimulus did not differ between the two groups. Baseline neuronal activity at 30 days post-hatching, as assessed by the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic events and by the firing rate of mitral cells, was higher among tadpoles from the treated versus the control embryo groups. At the same time, neuronal activity showed a stronger increase among tadpoles from the treated versus the control group after a local kairomone perfusion. Hence, a different contextual plasticity between treatments at the neuronal level was not mirrored by the anti-predator behavioural response. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate ontogenetic plasticity in tadpole neuronal activity after embryonic exposure to predator cues, corroborating the evidence that early-life experience contributes to shaping the phenotype at later life stages. PMID:26567349

  17. Heat sensitivity of porcine IgG.

    PubMed

    Metzger, J J; Bourdieu, C; Rouze, P; Houdayer, M

    1975-09-01

    The sensitivity to heat of porcine IgG was studied. The serum from immunized pigs was heated at 56 degrees C for 30 min as for decomplementation. The elution pattern of the serum proteins on an agarose gel column showed a dramatic change with the appearance of a large peak of the gel-excluded material. This peak contained mainly IgG molecules which still retained its antibody activity. This fact points to misinterpretations which can easily occur in 7S and 19S antibody recognition during the porcine immune response. Correlation is suggested of this property with the large number of interheavy chain disulfide bridges present in porcine IgG.

  18. Chloride-sensitive MEQ fluorescence in chick embryo motoneurons following manipulations of chloride and during spontaneous network activity.

    PubMed

    Chub, Nikolai; Mentis, George Z; O'donovan, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    Intracellular Cl(-) ([Cl(-)](in)) homeostasis is thought to be an important regulator of spontaneous activity in the spinal cord of the chick embryo. We investigated this idea by visualizing the variations of [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons retrogradely labeled with the Cl-sensitive dye 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium iodide (MEQ) applied to cut muscle nerves in the isolated E10-E12 spinal cord. This labeling procedure obviated the need for synthesizing the reduced, cell-permeable dihydro-MEQ (DiH-MEQ). The specificity of motoneuron labeling was confirmed using retrograde co-labeling with Texas Red Dextran and immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). In MEQ-labeled motoneurons, the GABA(A) receptor agonist isoguvacine (100 muM) increased somatic and dendritic fluorescence by 7.4 and 16.7%, respectively. The time course of this fluorescence change mirrored that of the depolarization recorded from the axons of the labeled motoneurons. Blockade of the inward Na(+)/K(-)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) with bumetanide (20 microM) or with a low-Na(+) bath solution (12 mM), increased MEQ fluorescence by 5.3 and 11.4%, respectively, consistent with a decrease of [Cl(-)](in). After spontaneous episodes of activity, MEQ fluorescence increased and then declined to the pre-episode level during the interepisode interval. The largest fluorescence changes occurred over motoneuron dendrites (19.7%) with significantly smaller changes (5.2%) over somata. Collectively, these results show that retrogradely loaded MEQ can be used to detect [Cl(-)](in) in motoneurons, that the bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1 co-transporter is at least partially responsible for the elevated [Cl(-)](in) of developing motoneurons, and that dendritic [Cl(-)](in) decreases during spontaneous episodes and recovers during the inter-episode interval, presumably due to the action of NKCC1. PMID:16192339

  19. Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Rupinder; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Pushel, Irina; Taylor, Benjamin R; Arnosti, David N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers constitute one of the major components of regulatory machinery of metazoans. Although several genome-wide studies have focused on finding and locating enhancers in the genomes, the fundamental principles governing their internal architecture and cis-regulatory grammar remain elusive. Here, we describe an extensive, quantitative perturbation analysis targeting the dorsal-ventral patterning gene regulatory network (GRN) controlled by Drosophila NF-κB homolog Dorsal. To understand transcription factor interactions on enhancers, we employed an ensemble of mathematical models, testing effects of cooperativity, repression, and factor potency. Models trained on the dataset correctly predict activity of evolutionarily divergent regulatory regions, providing insights into spatial relationships between repressor and activator binding sites. Importantly, the collective predictions of sets of models were effective at novel enhancer identification and characterization. Our study demonstrates how experimental dataset and modeling can be effectively combined to provide quantitative insights into cis-regulatory information on a genome-wide scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08445.001 PMID:27152947

  20. Effects of malathion, diazinon, and parathion on mallard embryo development and cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of external exposure of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs to malathion, diazinon, and parathion were examined using formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Treatment with aqueous emulsion simulated exposure at the rate of 100 gal per acre (153 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound with treatment at 3 and 8 days of embryonic development. Treatment with a nontoxic oil vehicle simulated exposure at the rate of 11 gal per acre (16.8 liters/hectare) with three to six different doses per compound. The order of embryotoxicity on a pounds-per-acre basis was parathion > diazinon > malathion with either vehicle. However, the potential hazard under conditions of up to five times the maximum field level of application was greater for malathion because of the high permissible level of application for malathion on certain crops. Parathion, the most embryotoxic of the three, had the most pronounced effects when an oil vehicle was used, as reflected by an LC50 of about 2 lb of active ingredient per acre, stunted growth, and a high frequency of malformations involving distortion of the axial skeleton, particularly in the cervical region. All three compounds resulted in significant depression of plasma and brain cholinesterase activity, but parathion caused the most depression throughout development, which was still apparent in hatchlings. Treatment with either distilled water or oil vehicle alone did not result in any of these effects seen with organophosphorous insecticides.

  1. Analysis of Porcine Transcriptional Response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis suggests novel targets of NFkappaB are activated in the Mesenteric Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanfang; Couture, Oliver P; Qu, Long; Uthe, Jolita J; Bearson, Shawn MD; Kuhar, Daniel; Lunney, Joan K; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack CM; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2008-01-01

    Background Specific knowledge of the molecular pathways controlling host-pathogen interactions can increase our understanding of immune response biology as well as provide targets for drug development and genetic improvement of disease resistance. Toward this end, we have characterized the porcine transcriptional response to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis), a Salmonella serovar that predominately colonizes swine, yet can cause serious infections in human patients. Affymetrix technology was used to screen for differentially expressed genes in pig mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) responding to infection with S. Choleraesuis at acute (8 hours (h), 24 h and 48 h post-inoculation (pi)) and chronic stages (21 days (d) pi). Results Analysis of variance with false discovery rate control identified 1,853 genes with significant changes in expression level (p-value < 0.01, q-value < 0.26, and fold change (FC) > 2) during infection as compared to un-inoculated control pigs. Down-regulation of translation-related genes at 8 hpi and 24 hpi implied that S. Choleraesuis repressed host protein translation. Genes involved in the Th1, innate immune/inflammation response and apoptosis pathways were induced significantly. However, antigen presentation/dendritic cell (DC) function pathways were not affected significantly during infection. A strong NFκB-dependent response was observed, as 58 known NFκB target genes were induced at 8, 24 and/or 48 hpi. Quantitative-PCR analyses confirmed the microarray data for 21 of 22 genes tested. Based on expression patterns, these target genes can be classified as an "Early" group (induced at either 8 or 24 hpi) and a "Late" group (induced only at 48 hpi). Cytokine activity or chemokine activity were enriched within the Early group genes GO annotations, while the Late group was predominantly composed of signal transduction and cell metabolism annotated genes. Regulatory motif analysis of the human orthologous promoters for

  2. Aronia melanocarpa juice, a rich source of polyphenols, induces endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary arteries via the redox-sensitive activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2013-11-30

    This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids.

  3. Direct Injection of CRISPR/Cas9-Related mRNA into Cytoplasm of Parthenogenetically Activated Porcine Oocytes Causes Frequent Mosaicism for Indel Mutations.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masahiro; Koriyama, Miyu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Sakurai, Takayuki; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Nakamura, Shingo; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2015-01-01

    Some reports demonstrated successful genome editing in pigs by one-step zygote microinjection of mRNA of CRISPR/Cas9-related components. Given the relatively long gestation periods and the high cost of housing, the establishment of a single blastocyst-based assay for rapid optimization of the above system is required. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to disrupt a gene (GGTA1) encoding the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase that synthesizes the α-Gal epitope using parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes. The lack of α-Gal epitope expression can be monitored by staining with fluorescently labeled isolectin BS-I-B4 (IB4), which binds specifically to the α-Gal epitope. When oocytes were injected with guide RNA specific to GGTA1 together with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and human Cas9 mRNAs, 65% (24/37) of the developing blastocysts exhibited green fluorescence, although almost all (96%, 23/24) showed a mosaic fluorescent pattern. Staining with IB4 revealed that the green fluorescent area often had a reduced binding activity to IB4. Of the 16 samples tested, six (five fluorescent and one non-fluorescent blastocysts) had indel mutations, suggesting a correlation between EGFP expression and mutation induction. Furthermore, it is suggested that zygote microinjection of mRNAs might lead to the production of piglets with cells harboring various mutation types. PMID:26247938

  4. Effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone as an antioxidant on in vitro maturation of oocytes and development of parthenogenetic embryos in pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Yei; Kang, Jung-Taek; Park, Sol-Ji; Kim, Su-Jin; Moon, Joon-Ho; Saadeldin, Islam M; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2013-10-01

    One of the factors that impairs in vitro produced porcine embryos is the oxidative stress that is mainly caused by the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidants activity, especially that of glutathione (GSH). Here, we examined the effect of 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), a kind of flavonoid antioxidant, on porcine oocyte maturation and its developmental competence. Porcine oocytes were cultured in media supplemented with 0, 1, 5 and 10 μM 7,8-DHF during both in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) after parthenogenetic activation. Maturation of oocytes was evaluated based on first polar body (PB) extrusion and intracellular GSH level, and developmental competence was assessed through observing cleavage and blastocyst formation. In each step, the levels of intracellular GSH and ROS were assessed by fluorescence intensity, and the apoptosis-related gene expression was examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR. The group treated with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed increased cytoplasmic maturation and reached the blastocysts stage (36.1%) at a higher rate than the other groups (24.7, 16.0 and 10.3% for 0, 5 and 10 μM, P<0.05). In that group, the intracellular GSH level was significantly increased while ROS generation was significantly decreased after IVM and IVC (P<0.05). Moreover, it showed high expression of an anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2L1) and low expression of a pro-apoptotic gene (BAK1) (P<0.05). In conclusion, treatment with 1 μM 7,8-DHF during IVM and IVC showed an anti-apoptotic effect by increasing intracellular GSH synthesis and scavenging ROS and therefore improved the developmental competence of porcine embryos. PMID:23748647

  5. Participation of free oxygen radicals in damage of porcine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jozwiak, J.; Helszer, Z.

    1981-10-01

    Gamma radiation causes disturbances in energy metabolism, decreases in (Na/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase, Mg/sup 2 +/-APTase activity, and increase in the degree of hemolysis in porcine erythrocytes. Our results indicated a contribution of exogenous free radicals in radiation damage to porcine erythrocytes. In the presence of biological and chemical radioprotectors a protective effect with respect to ATPase activity and energy metabolism was observed in the presence of catalase, histidine, glucose, and sulfhydryl compounds. It appears that radiation damage to porcine erythrocytes is due to the action of various radicals formed upon irradiation which react at different rates with various cell constituents.

  6. Fertilization stimulates 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine repair and antioxidant activity to prevent mutagenesis in the embryo.

    PubMed

    Lord, Tessa; Aitken, R John

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative DNA damage harbored by both spermatozoa and oocytes at the time of fertilization must be repaired prior to S-phase of the first mitotic division to reduce the risk of transversion mutations occurring in the zygote and subverting the normal patterns of cell differentiation and development. Of the characterised oxidative DNA lesions, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is particularly mutagenic. The current study reveals for the first time a marked acceleration of 8OHdG repair in the mouse oocyte/zygote by the base excision repair (BER) pathway following fertilization. Specifically, fertilization initiates post-translational modification to BER enzymes such as OGG1 and XRCC1, causing nuclear localisation and accelerated 8OHdG excision. Additionally, both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes appear to benefit from increased protection against further 8OHdG formation by a fertilization-associated increase in glutathione peroxidase activity. The major limitation of the characterised 8OHdG repair system is the relatively low level of OGG1 expression in the oocyte, in contrast to the male germ line where it is the only constituent of the BER pathway. The male and female germ lines therefore collaborate in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, and oocytes are vulnerable to high levels of 8OHdG being carried into the zygote by the fertilizing spermatozoon. PMID:26234752

  7. Data on the concentrations of etoposide, PSC833, BAPTA-AM, and cycloheximide that do not compromise the vitality of mature mouse oocytes, parthenogencially activated and fertilized embryos.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jacinta H; Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Aitken, R John; Lord, Tessa; Nixon, Brett

    2016-09-01

    These data document the vitality of mature mouse oocytes (Metaphase II (MII)) and early stage embryos (zygotes) following exposure to the genotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, etoposide, in combination with PSC833, a selective inhibitor of permeability glycoprotein. They also illustrate the vitality of parthenogencially activated and fertilized embryos following incubation with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxymethyl ester)), cycloheximide (an antibiotic that is capable of inhibiting protein synthesis), and hydrogen peroxide (a potent reactive oxygen species). Finally, they present evidence that permeability glycoprotein is not represented in the proteome of mouse spermatozoa. Our interpretation and discussion of these data feature in the article "Identification of a key role for permeability glycoprotein in enhancing the cellular defense mechanisms of fertilized oocytes" (Martin et al., in press) [1].

  8. Calcium utilization by quail embryos during activities preceding space flight and during embryogenesis in microgravity aboard the orbital space station MIR.

    PubMed

    Orban, J I; Piert, S J; Guryeva, T S; Hester, P Y

    1999-10-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the effect of activities preceding spaceflight and during space-flight on calcium utilization during quail embryonic development. In the pre-space trials, fertile quail eggs were subjected to pre-flight dynamics including forces of centrifugation, vibration, or a combination of vibration and centrifugation prior to incubation for 6 or 16 days. Quail eggs were also tested for survivability in a refrigerator stowage kit for eggs (RSKE) which was subsequently used to transport the eggs to space. Eggs in the RSKE were subjected to shuttle launch dynamics including G force and random vibration profiles. The space-flight trial involved 48 quail eggs launched on space shuttle Flight STS-76 which were subsequently incubated in a Slovakian incubator onboard space station, MIR. Two ground control trials, each with 48 eggs with and without exposure to shuttle launch dynamics were initiated 5 days post-launch. Eggshells from all study trials were retrieved and analyzed for calcium content. Results showed that neither pre-flight activities nor shuttle launch dynamics had an effect on calcium utilization by developing embryos. However, calcium utilization by developing embryos incubated in microgravity was impaired by 12.6% when compared to embryos incubated on earth under laboratory control environment. This impairment was believed to be due to unidentified factors of the microgravity environment.

  9. Ion currents in embryo development.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Elisabetta; Boni, Raffaele; Gallo, Alessandra

    2016-03-01

    Ion channels are proteins expressed in the plasma membrane of electrogenic cells. In the zygote and blastomeres of the developing embryo, electrical modifications result from ion currents that flow through these channels. This phenomenon implies that ion current activity exerts a specific developmental function, and plays a crucial role in signal transduction and the control of embryogenesis, from the early cleavage stages and during growth and development of the embryo. This review describes the involvement of ion currents in early embryo development, from marine invertebrates to human, focusing on the occurrence, modulation, and dynamic role of ion fluxes taking place on the zygote and blastomere plasma membrane, and at the intercellular communication between embryo cell stages.

  10. Nonstructural protein 1{alpha} subunit-based inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation and suppression of interferon-{beta} production by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Song Cheng; Krell, Peter; Yoo, Dongwan

    2010-11-25

    Induction of type I interferon (IFN-{alpha}/{beta}) is an early antiviral response of the host, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been reported to downregulate the IFN response during infection in cells and pigs. We report that the PRRSV nonstructural protein 1{alpha} (Nsp1{alpha}) subunit of Nsp1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein distributed to the nucleus and contains a strong suppressive activity for IFN-{beta} production that is mediated through the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling pathway. Nsp1{alpha} suppressed the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B when stimulated with dsRNA or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and NF-{kappa}B suppression was RIG-I-dependent. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B activation was associated with the poor production of IFN-{beta} during PRRSV infection. The C-terminal 14 amino acids of the Nsp1{alpha} subunit were critical in maintaining immunosuppressive activity of Nsp1{alpha} for both IFN-{beta} and NF-{kappa}B, suggesting that the newly identified zinc finger configuration comprising of Met180 may be crucial for inhibitory activities. Nsp1{alpha} inhibited I{kappa}B phosphorylation and as a consequence NF-{kappa}B translocation to the nucleus was blocked, leading to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B stimulated gene expression. Our results suggest that PRRSV Nsp1{alpha} is a multifunctional nuclear protein participating in the modulation of the host IFN system.

  11. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active) and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species.

    PubMed

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela; Montes Rojas, Claudia Marsela; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2015-03-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 3904 microg a.e./L; LC50=2 799 pg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203 microg a.e./L; LC50=1424 microgg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76 kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3

  12. Effect of Ethanol Accumulation on Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris and Activities of Key Enzymes in Carbon Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Gao, Minjie; Hou, Guoli; Liang, Kexue

    2015-08-01

    In production of porcine interferon α (pIFN-α) by Pichia pastoris, improper glycerol feeding strategy leads to ethanol accumulation in the last stage of growth phase. In the present study, taking two runs with low ethanol accumulation under 2 g/L as control group, effects of long-term (>4 h) and instantaneous high ethanol concentration (>10 g/L) on pIFN-α production, and activities of key enzymes in carbon metabolism were discussed. As a result, compared with control group, pIFN-α expression level was decreased about 4~12 folds under long-term high ethanol concentration, from the level above 3 g/L to the level under 1 g/L; pIFN-α expression level was decreased about 8 folds under instantaneous high ethanol concentration, reaching to the low level of 0.42 g/L. The low production of pIFN-α was caused by the severe inhibitory effect of ethanol on these enzymes.

  13. SNW1 is a critical regulator of spatial BMP activity, neural plate border formation, and neural crest specification in vertebrate embryos.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mary Y; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Howell, Michael; Hill, Caroline S

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) gradients provide positional information to direct cell fate specification, such as patterning of the vertebrate ectoderm into neural, neural crest, and epidermal tissues, with precise borders segregating these domains. However, little is known about how BMP activity is regulated spatially and temporally during vertebrate development to contribute to embryonic patterning, and more specifically to neural crest formation. Through a large-scale in vivo functional screen in Xenopus for neural crest fate, we identified an essential regulator of BMP activity, SNW1. SNW1 is a nuclear protein known to regulate gene expression. Using antisense morpholinos to deplete SNW1 protein in both Xenopus and zebrafish embryos, we demonstrate that dorsally expressed SNW1 is required for neural crest specification, and this is independent of mesoderm formation and gastrulation morphogenetic movements. By exploiting a combination of immunostaining for phosphorylated Smad1 in Xenopus embryos and a BMP-dependent reporter transgenic zebrafish line, we show that SNW1 regulates a specific domain of BMP activity in the dorsal ectoderm at the neural plate border at post-gastrula stages. We use double in situ hybridizations and immunofluorescence to show how this domain of BMP activity is spatially positioned relative to the neural crest domain and that of SNW1 expression. Further in vivo and in vitro assays using cell culture and tissue explants allow us to conclude that SNW1 acts upstream of the BMP receptors. Finally, we show that the requirement of SNW1 for neural crest specification is through its ability to regulate BMP activity, as we demonstrate that targeted overexpression of BMP to the neural plate border is sufficient to restore neural crest formation in Xenopus SNW1 morphants. We conclude that through its ability to regulate a specific domain of BMP activity in the vertebrate embryo, SNW1 is a critical regulator of neural plate border formation and

  14. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Silke; Smolders, Sophie M. T.; Swinnen, Nina; Gärtner, Annette; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Legendre, Pascal; Brône, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Morphological brain abnormalities combined with deviations in the inflammatory status of the brain can be observed in patients of both autism and schizophrenia. It was shown that acute infection can induce changes in maternal cytokine levels which in turn are suggested to affect fetal brain development and increase the risk on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Animal models of maternal immune activation reproduce the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In this study the poly (I:C) model was used to mimic viral immune activation in pregnant mice in order to assess the activation status of fetal microglia in these developmental disorders. Because microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain they were expected to be activated due to the inflammatory stimulus. Microglial cell density and activation level in the fetal cortex and hippocampus were determined. Despite the presence of a systemic inflammation in the pregnant mice, there was no significant difference in fetal microglial cell density or immunohistochemically determined activation level between the control and inflammation group. These data indicate that activation of the fetal microglial cells is not likely to be responsible for the inflammation induced deficits in the offspring in this model. PMID:26300736

  15. The FRK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from Solanum chacoense is involved in embryo sac and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Edith; Kapfer, Christelle; Joly, Valentin; Liu, Yang; Tebbji, Faiza; Daigle, Caroline; Gray-Mitsumune, Madoka; Cappadocia, Mario; Nantel, André; Matton, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    The fertilization-related kinase 1 (ScFRK1), a nuclear-localized mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) from the wild potato species Solanum chacoense, belongs to a small group of pMEKKs that do not possess an extended N- or C-terminal regulatory domain. Initially selected based on its highly specific expression profile following fertilization, in situ expression analyses revealed that the ScFRK1 gene is also expressed early on during female gametophyte development in the integument and megaspore mother cell and, later, in the synergid and egg cells of the embryo sac. ScFRK1 mRNAs are also detected in pollen mother cells. Transgenic plants with lower or barely detectable levels of ScFRK1 mRNAs lead to the production of small fruits with severely reduced seed set, resulting from a concomitant decline in the number of normal embryo sacs produced. Megagametogenesis and microgametogenesis were affected, as megaspores did not progress beyond the functional megaspore (FG1) stage and the microspore collapsed around the first pollen mitosis. As for other mutants that affect embryo sac development, pollen tube guidance was severely affected in the ScFRK1 transgenic lines. Gametophyte to sporophyte communication was also affected, as observed from a marked change in the transcriptomic profiles of the sporophytic tissues of the ovule. The ScFRK1 MAPKKK is thus involved in a signalling cascade that regulates both male and female gamete development. PMID:25576576

  16. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  17. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Girbau, M; Bassas, L; Alemany, J; de Pablo, F

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage. Images PMID:2548191

  18. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 and the regulation of porcine coronary artery contractility: a role for distinct tyrosine kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    El-Daly, Mahmoud; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Triggle, Christopher R; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because angiotensin-II-mediated porcine coronary artery (PCA) vasoconstriction is blocked by protein tyrosine kinase (PYK) inhibitors, we hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), known to regulate vascular tension, like angiotensin-II, would also cause PCA contractions via PYK-dependent signalling pathways. Experimental Approach Contractions of intact and endothelium-free isolated PCA rings, stimulated by PAR1/PAR2-activating peptides, angiotensin-II, PGF2α, EGF, PDGF and KCl, were monitored with/without multiple signalling pathway inhibitors, including AG-tyrphostins AG18 (non-specific PYKs), AG1478 (EGF-receptor kinase), AG1296 (PDGF receptor kinase), PP1 (Src kinase), U0126 and PD98059 (MEK/MAPKinase kinase), indomethacin/SC-560/NS-398 (COX-1/2) and L-NAME (NOS). Key Results AG18 inhibited the contractions induced by all the agonists except KCl, whereas U0126 attenuated contractions induced by PAR1/PAR2 agonists, EGF and angiotensin-II, but not by PGF2α, the COX-produced metabolites of arachidonate and KCl. PP1 only affected the responses to PAR1/PAR2-activating peptides and angiotensin-II. The EGF-kinase inhibitor, AG1478, attenuated contractions initiated by the PARs (PAR2 >> PAR1) and EGF itself, but not by angiotensin-II, PGF2α or KCl. COX-1/2 inhibitors blocked the contractions induced by all the agonists, except KCl and PGF2α. Conclusion and Implications PAR1/2-mediated contractions of the PCA are dependent on Src and MAPKinase and, in part, involve EGF-receptor-kinase transactivation and the generation of a COX-derived contractile agonist. However, the PYK signalling pathways used by PARs are distinct from each other and from those triggered by angiotensin-II and EGF. These signalling pathways may be therapeutic targets for managing coagulation-proteinase-induced coronary vasospasm. PMID:24506284

  19. Differential Regulation of Disheveled in a Novel Vegetal Cortical Domain in Sea Urchin Eggs and Embryos: Implications for the Localized Activation of Canonical Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Peng, ChiehFu Jeff; Wikramanayake, Athula H.

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation along the animal-vegetal (AV) axis in sea urchin embryos is initiated when canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling is activated in vegetal blastomeres. The mechanisms that restrict cWnt signaling to vegetal blastomeres are not well understood, but there is increasing evidence that the egg’s vegetal cortex plays a critical role in this process by mediating localized “activation” of Disheveled (Dsh). To investigate how Dsh activity is regulated along the AV axis, sea urchin-specific Dsh antibodies were used to examine expression, subcellular localization, and post-translational modification of Dsh during development. Dsh is broadly expressed during early sea urchin development, but immunolocalization studies revealed that this protein is enriched in a punctate pattern in a novel vegetal cortical domain (VCD) in the egg. Vegetal blastomeres inherit this VCD during embryogenesis, and at the 60-cell stage Dsh puncta are seen in all cells that display nuclear β-catenin. Analysis of Dsh post-translational modification using two-dimensional Western blot analysis revealed that compared to Dsh pools in the bulk cytoplasm, this protein is differentially modified in the VCD and in the 16-cell stage micromeres that partially inherit this domain. Dsh localization to the VCD is not directly affected by disruption of microfilaments and microtubules, but unexpectedly, microfilament disruption led to degradation of all the Dsh pools in unfertilized eggs over a period of incubation suggesting that microfilament integrity is required for maintaining Dsh stability. These results demonstrate that a pool of differentially modified Dsh in the VCD is selectively inherited by the vegetal blastomeres that activate cWnt signaling in early embryos, and suggests that this domain functions as a scaffold for localized Dsh activation. Localized cWnt activation regulates AV axis patterning in many metazoan embryos. Hence, it is possible that the VCD is an evolutionarily conserved

  20. The effects of delayed activation and MG132 treatment on nuclear remodeling and preimplantation development of embryos cloned by electrofusion are correlated with the age of recipient cytoplasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Guang; Zhou, Ping; Lan, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Gang; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2007-01-01

    The electrofusion method, used extensively in livestock cloning, cannot be used in mice, because it is believed that the mouse oocytes are more susceptible to detrimental effects of electrical stimulus than oocytes from other species. Reports on whether a delayed activation after electrofusion and a premature chromosome condensation (PCC) is essential for efficient cloning are inconclusive. To address these issues, effects of pulsing on activation and MPF activity of nonenucleated oocytes and effects of delayed activation and MG132 treatment on donor nuclear PCC and preimplantation development of embryos cloned by electrofusion or nuclear injection were compared between different cytoplast ages in mice and goats. The results indicated that the use of oocytes collected early after donor stimulation would make it possible to conduct somatic cell nuclear transfer in mice by electrofusion. Whether a delayed activation is essential was dependent upon the age, or rather, the level, of MPF activity of the cytoplasts at the time of electrofusion, as was the requirement for MG132 treatment. The competence for blastocyst formation of cloned embryos was highly correlated with the level of donor nuclear PCC in recipient cytoplasts. The nuclear injection technique was more adaptable to older cytoplast ages, and hence less dependent on drugs for inhibition of MPF inactivation, compared to electrofusion.

  1. The effects of delayed activation and MG132 treatment on nuclear remodeling and preimplantation development of embryos cloned by electrofusion are correlated with the age of recipient cytoplasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Guang; Zhou, Ping; Lan, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Gang; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Tan, Jing-He

    2007-01-01

    The electrofusion method, used extensively in livestock cloning, cannot be used in mice, because it is believed that the mouse oocytes are more susceptible to detrimental effects of electrical stimulus than oocytes from other species. Reports on whether a delayed activation after electrofusion and a premature chromosome condensation (PCC) is essential for efficient cloning are inconclusive. To address these issues, effects of pulsing on activation and MPF activity of nonenucleated oocytes and effects of delayed activation and MG132 treatment on donor nuclear PCC and preimplantation development of embryos cloned by electrofusion or nuclear injection were compared between different cytoplast ages in mice and goats. The results indicated that the use of oocytes collected early after donor stimulation would make it possible to conduct somatic cell nuclear transfer in mice by electrofusion. Whether a delayed activation is essential was dependent upon the age, or rather, the level, of MPF activity of the cytoplasts at the time of electrofusion, as was the requirement for MG132 treatment. The competence for blastocyst formation of cloned embryos was highly correlated with the level of donor nuclear PCC in recipient cytoplasts. The nuclear injection technique was more adaptable to older cytoplast ages, and hence less dependent on drugs for inhibition of MPF inactivation, compared to electrofusion. PMID:17907952

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Pig In Vivo, In Vitro–Fertilized, and Nuclear Transfer Blastocyst-Stage Embryos Treated with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Postfusion and Activation Reveals Changes in the Lysosomal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Kristin M.; Mao, Jiude; Lee, Kiho; Spollen, William G.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Walters, Eric M.; Spate, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genetically modified pigs are commonly created via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Treatment of reconstructed embryos with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) immediately after activation improves cloning efficiency. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the transcriptome of SCNT embryos treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), 4-iodo-SAHA (ISAHA), or Scriptaid as compared to untreated SCNT, in vitro–fertilized (IVF), and in vivo (IVV) blastocyst-stage embryos. SAHA (10 μM) had the highest level of blastocyst development at 43.9%, and all treatments except 10 μM ISAHA had the same percentage of blastocyst development as Scriptaid (p<0.05). Two treatments, 1.0 μM ISAHA and 1.0 μM SAHA, had higher mean cell number than No HDACi treatment (p<0.021). Embryo transfers performed with 10 μM SAHA- and 1 μM ISAHA-treated embryos resulted in the birth of healthy piglets. GenBank accession numbers from up- and downregulated transcripts were loaded into the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery to identify enriched biological themes. HDACi treatment yielded the highest enrichment for transcripts within the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway, lysosome. The mean intensity of LysoTracker was lower in IVV embryos compared to IVF and SCNT embryos (p<0.0001). SAHA and ISAHA can successfully be used to create healthy piglets from SCNT. PMID:26731590

  3. Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hua; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:25379465

  4. Tissue Distribution of Porcine FTO and Its Effect on Porcine Intramuscular Preadipocytes Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Zhou, Bo; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene plays an important role in adipogenesis. However, its function during porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation remains poorly understood. In this study, we prepared the antiserum against porcine FTO (pFTO), which was used to determine its subcellular localization and tissue distribution. Our data indicated that pFTO was localized predominantly in the nucleus. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed that pFTO was highly expressed in the lung and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Overexpression of pFTO in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes significantly promoted cell proliferation and lipid deposition. Furthermore, overexpression of pFTO in differentiating porcine intramuscular preadipocytes also significantly increased the mRNA levels of adipocyte differentiation transcription factors peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Our findings provide the first functional evidence to reveal a role of pFTO in porcine intramuscular preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. PMID:26964098

  5. Expression of porcine Mx1 with FMDV IRES enhances the antiviral activity against foot-and-mouth disease virus in PK-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Fang, Hui; Shen, Chao; Zheng, Congyi

    2015-08-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most contagious pathogen in cloven-hoofed (two-toed) animals. Due to the rapid replication and spread of FMDV, novel therapeutic strategies are greatly needed to reduce or block FMDV shedding in cases of disease outbreak. Here, we generated an IRES-Mx1 construct in which the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of FMDV was inserted between the promoter and open reading frame (ORF) of porcine myxovirus resistance protein 1 (poMx1). This construct provides more powerful protection against FMDV infection than the IRES-IFN construct that was previously generated by our group. The results indicate that this IRES-Mx1 construct was able to express poMx1 12 h after transfection and induce a robust immune response. In contrast to the control, the proliferation of virus in transfected cells was significantly inhibited, as evaluated by morphology monitoring, real-time RT-PCR, virus titration and Western blot. In addition, we also found that the antiviral activity in cells transfected with pc-IRES-Mx1 was abolished when the JAK/STAT pathway was repressed, which indicates that the antiviral mechanism of poMx1 is JAK/STAT pathway dependent. Taken together, our data suggest that the antiviral activity of poMx1 is possibly produced by affecting the host cells themselves, instead of interacting with the virus directly. The new construct reported here could be used as a novel effective therapy against FMDV infection.

  6. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3′ mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  7. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-06-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3' mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  8. Altering presenilin gene activity in zebrafish embryos causes changes in expression of genes with potential involvement in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Newman, Morgan; Tucker, Ben; Nornes, Svanhild; Ward, Alister; Lardelli, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant splicing and point mutations in the human presenilin genes, PSEN1 and PSEN2, have been linked to familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. We have previously described that low-level aberrant splicing of exon 8 in zebrafish psen1 transcripts in zebrafish embryos produces potent dominant negative effects that increase psen1 transcription, cause a dramatic hydrocephalus phenotype, decreased pigmentation and other developmental defects. Similar effects are also observed after low-level interference with splicing of exon 8 of psen2. To determine the molecular etiology of these effects, we performed microarray analyses of global gene expression changes. Of the 100 genes that showed greatest dysregulation after either psen1 or psen2 manipulation, 12 genes were common to both treatments. Five of these have known function and showed increased expression: cyclin G1 (ccng1), prosaposin (psap), cathepsin Lb (ctslb), heat shock protein 70kDa (hsp70) and hatching enzyme 1 (he1). We used phylogenetic and conserved synteny analysis to confirm the orthology of zebrafish ccng1 with human CCNG1. We analyzed the expression of zebrafish ccng1 in developing embryos to 24 hours post fertilization (hpf). Decreased ccng1 expression does not rescue the hydrocephalus or pigmentation phenotypes of embryos with aberrant splicing of psen1 exon 8.

  9. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  10. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W. . Patuxent Environmental Science Center); Tillitt, D.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-11-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated mono-oxygenates and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r[sup 2] often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the AH receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  11. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black- crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85- fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r super(2) often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah- active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  12. Benzo[a]pyrene effects on glycine N-methyltransferase mRNA expression and enzyme activity in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiefan; Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi; Willett, Kristine L.

    2010-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminant that is both a carcinogen and a developmental toxicant. We hypothesize that some of BaP’s developmental toxicity may be mediated by effects on glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT). GNMT is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and the homotetrameric form enzymatically transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. SAM homeostasis, as regulated by GNMT, is critically involved in regulation of DNA methylation, and altered GNMT expression is associated with liver pathologies. The homodimeric form of GNMT has been suggested as the 4S PAH-binding protein. To further study BaP-GNMT interactions, Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to waterborne BaP at 10 and 100 μg/L and both GNMT mRNA expression and enzyme activity were determined. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed GNMT mRNA expression was increased by BaP in the liver region of 7, 10 and 14 dpf F. heteroclitus embryos. In contrast to mRNA induction, in vivo BaP exposure decreased GNMT enzyme activity in 4, 10 and 14 dpf embryos. However, in vitro incubations of adult F. heteroclitus liver cytosol with BaP did not cause decreased enzyme activity. In conclusion, BaP exposure altered GNMT expression, which may represent a new target pathway for BaP-mediated embryonic toxicities and DNA methylation changes. PMID:20185185

  13. Stimulatory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on Proliferation and Migration of Porcine Trophectoderm Cells and Their Regulation by the Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-AKT and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cell Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent stimulator for angiogenesis, is likely to regulate implantation by stimulating endometrial angiogenesis and vascular permeability. In addition to known angiogenetic effects, VEGF has been suggested to participate in development of the early embryo as a mediator of fetal-maternal dialogue. Current studies have determined VEGF in terms of its role in endometrial vascular events, but VEGF-induced effects on the peri-implantation conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) remains unknown. In the present study, endometrial VEGF, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) mRNAs increased significantly during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy as compared to the estrous cycle. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 mRNAs was abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, endothelial blood vessels, and scattered cells in the stroma and conceptus trophectoderm. In addition, porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with VEGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2, p-p70RSK, p-RPS6, and p-4EBP1 in a time-dependent manner. The addition of U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, inhibited VEGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but AKT1 phosphorylation was not affected. The addition of LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, decreased VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT1. Furthermore, VEGF significantly stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells, but these effects were blocked by SB203580, U0126, rapamycin, and LY294002, which inhibit p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, mTOR, and PI3K, respectively. These results suggest that VEGF is critical to successful growth and development of pTr during early pregnancy and that VEGF-induced stimulatory effect is coordinately regulated by multiple cell signaling pathways, including PI3K-AKT1 and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:24451985

  14. Genetic manipulation of a transcription-regulating sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals key nucleotides determining its activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haihong; Zhang, Keyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Changlong; Lu, Jiaqi; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hao; Lin, Tao; Li, Liwei; Tong, Guangzhi; Wei, Zuzhang; Yuan, Shishan

    2014-08-01

    The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus modulates inflammatory activity by regulating the TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells after lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang In; Kim, Hyun Soo; Koo, Jin Mo; Kim, In Ho

    2016-02-28

    A total of forty weaned pigs ((Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc) were used to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on inflammatory activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Experimental treatments were as follows: (T1) control diet+saline challenge; (T2) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+saline challenge; (T3) control diet+LPS challenge; and (T4) control diet with 0·1% L. acidophilus+LPS challenge. On d-14, piglets were challenged with saline (T1 and T2) or LPS (T3 and T4). Blood samples were obtained at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h after being challenged and analysed for immune cell cytokine production and gene expression pattern. The L. acidophilus treatment increased the average daily weight gain (ADWG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with the control diet. With the control diet, the LPS challenge (T3) increased the number of immune cells and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the saline challenge (T1). Whereas with the saline challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T2) increased the number of leucocytes and CD4 compared with the control diet (T1), with the LPS challenge L. acidophilus treatment (T4) decreased the number of leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared with the control diet (T3). L. acidophilus treatment decreased the expression of TRL4 and NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after LPS challenge, which leads to inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8 and IL1B1 and to induction of IL-4 and IL-10. We suggested that L. acidophilus improved ADWG and ADFI and protected against LPS-induced inflammatory responses by regulating TLR4 and NF-κB expression in porcine PBMC. PMID:26769562

  16. ANALYSIS OF PORCINE TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR CHOLERAESUIS SUGGESTS NOVEL TARGETS OF NFKAPPAB ARE ACTIVATED IN THE MESENTERIC LYMPH NODE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Affymetrix GeneChip® porcine genome array was used to identify differentially expressed genes in pig mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) responding to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) at acute (8 hours (h), 24h and 48h post-inoculation (pi)) and chronic stages (...

  17. Morphology and metabolic activity of a porcine liver stem cell line (PICM-19) maintained in a multicompartment hollow fiber bioreactor for two weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional hepatocyte cell line that differentiates normally is needed to develop a bioartificial liver (BAL). A porcine hepatic stem cell line, PICM-19H, maintained in a 3D multicompartmental hollow-fiber bioreactor (Hepalife Technologies) was studied. The bioreactor was filled with 400 million...

  18. The UV filter benzophenone 3 (BP-3) activates hormonal genes mimicking the action of ecdysone and alters embryo development in the insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the endocrine effects of UV filters in vertebrates, but little attention has been paid to their possible hormonal activity in invertebrates. We examined the effects of benzophenone-3 (BP-3), one of the most common sunscreen agents, in Chironomus riparius (Insecta), a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Salivary glands from larvae were treated with either the hormone ecdysone or BP-3 to compare the response of endocrine genes. It was found that BP-3 elicits the same effects as the natural hormone activating the expression of a set of ecdysone responsive genes. BP-3 also activated the stress gene hsp70. Interestingly, similar effects have been confirmed in vivo in embryos. Moreover, BP-3 also altered embryogenesis delaying hatching. This is the first demonstration of hormonal activity of UV filters in invertebrates, showing a mode of action similar to ecdysteroid hormones. This finding highlights the potential endocrine disruptive effects of these emergent pollutants.

  19. The UV filter benzophenone 3 (BP-3) activates hormonal genes mimicking the action of ecdysone and alters embryo development in the insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the endocrine effects of UV filters in vertebrates, but little attention has been paid to their possible hormonal activity in invertebrates. We examined the effects of benzophenone-3 (BP-3), one of the most common sunscreen agents, in Chironomus riparius (Insecta), a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. Salivary glands from larvae were treated with either the hormone ecdysone or BP-3 to compare the response of endocrine genes. It was found that BP-3 elicits the same effects as the natural hormone activating the expression of a set of ecdysone responsive genes. BP-3 also activated the stress gene hsp70. Interestingly, similar effects have been confirmed in vivo in embryos. Moreover, BP-3 also altered embryogenesis delaying hatching. This is the first demonstration of hormonal activity of UV filters in invertebrates, showing a mode of action similar to ecdysteroid hormones. This finding highlights the potential endocrine disruptive effects of these emergent pollutants. PMID:24878782

  20. Xenotransplantation and porcine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Denner, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Porcine microorganisms may be transmitted to the human recipient when xenotransplantation with pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Most of such microorganisms can be eliminated from the donor pig by specified or designated pathogen-free production of the animals. As human cytomegalovirus causes severe transplant rejection in allotransplantation, considerable concern is warranted on the potential pathogenicity of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) in the setting of xenotransplantation. On the other hand, despite having a similar name, PCMV is different from HCMV. The impact of PCMV infection on pigs is known; however, the influence of PCMV on the human transplant recipient is unclear. However, first transplantations of pig organs infected with PCMV into non-human primates were associated with a significant reduction of the survival time of the transplants. Sensitive detection methods and strategies for elimination of PCMV from donor herds are required.

  1. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence.

  2. Culture systems: embryo density.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael L

    2012-01-01

    Embryo density is defined as the embryo-to-volume ratio achieved during in vitro culture; in other words, it is the number of embryos in a defined volume of culture medium. The same density can be achieved by manipulating either the number of embryos in a given volume of medium, or manipulating the volume of the medium for a given number of embryos: for example, a microdrop with five embryos in a 50 μl volume under oil has the same embryo-to-volume ratio (1:10 μl) as a microdrop with one embryo in a 10 μl volume under oil (1:10 μl). Increased embryo density can improve mammalian embryo development in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect may be different with respect to which method is used to increase embryo density.Standard, flat sterile plastic petri dishes are the most common, traditional platform for embryo culture. Microdrops under a mineral oil overlay can be prepared to control embryo density, but it is critical that dish preparation is consistent, where appropriate techniques are applied to prevent microdrop dehydration during preparation, and results of any data collection are reliable, and repeatable. There are newer dishes available from several manufacturers that are specifically designed for embryo culture; most are readily available for use with human embryos. The concept behind these newer dishes relies on fabrication of conical and smaller volume wells into the dish design, so that embryos rest at the lowest point in the wells, and where putative embryotrophic factors may concentrate.Embryo density is not usually considered by the embryologist as a technique in and of itself; rather, the decision to culture embryos in groups or individually is protocol-driven, and is based more on convenience or the need to collect data on individual embryos. Embryo density can be controlled, and as such, it can be utilized as a simple, yet effective tool to improve in vitro development of human embryos. PMID:22829380

  3. Amino Acid Supplementation Affects Imprinted Gene Transcription Patterns in Parthenogenetic Porcine Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chi-Hun; Jeong, Young-Hee; Jeong, Yeun-Ik; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Shin, Taeyoung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Seo, Sang-Kyo; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Hwang, Woo-Suk

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether exogenous amino acids affect gene transcription patterns in parthenogenetic porcine embryos, we investigated the effects of amino acid mixtures in culture medium. Parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in PZM3 medium under four experimental conditions: 1) control (no amino acids except L-glutamine and taurine); 2) nonessential amino acids (NEAA); 3) essential amino acids (EAA); and 4) NEAA and EAA. The rate of development of embryos to the four-cell stage was not affected by treatment. However, fewer (P<0.05) embryos cultured with EAA (12.8%) reached the blastocyst stage as compared with the control group (25.6%) and NEAA group (30.3%). Based on these findings, we identified genes with altered expression in parthenogenetic embryos exposed to medium with or without EAAs. The results indicated that EAA influenced gene expression patterns, particularly those of imprinted genes (e.g., H19, IGF2R, PEG1, XIST). However, NEAAs did not affect impaired imprinted gene expressions induced by EAA. The results also showed that mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) mRNA expression was significantly increased by EAA alone as compared with control cultures, and that the combined treatment with NEAA and EAA did not differ significantly from those of control cultures. Our results revealed that gene transcription levels in porcine embryos changed differentially depending on the presence of EAA or NEAA. However, the changes in the H19 mRNA observed in the parthenogenetic blastocysts expression level was not related to the DNA methylation status in the IGF2/H19 domain. The addition of exogenous amino acid mixtures affected not only early embryonic development, but also gene transcription levels, particularly those of imprinted genes. However, this study did not reveal how amino acids affect expression of imprinted genes under the culture conditions used. Further studies are thus required to fully evaluate how amino acids affect transcriptional regulation in porcine

  4. Diamond Nanoparticles Modify Curcumin Activity: In Vitro Studies on Cancer and Normal Cells and In Ovo Studies on Chicken Embryo Model

    PubMed Central

    Strojny, Barbara; Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Winnicka, Anna; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Urbańska, Kaja; Hotowy, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Chwalibog, André

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been studied broadly for its wide range of biological activities, including anticancer properties. The major problem with curcumin is its poor bioavailability, which can be improved by the addition of carriers, such as diamond nanoparticles (DN). They are carbon allotropes, and are therefore biocompatible and easily taken up by cells. DN are non-toxic and have antiangiogenic properties with potential applications in cancer therapy. Their large surface makes them promising compounds in a drug delivery system for bioactive agents, as DN create bio-complexes in a fast and simple process of self-organisation. We investigated the cytotoxicity of such bio-complexes against liver cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, revealing that conjugation of curcumin with DN significantly improves its activity. The experiment performed in a chicken embryo model demonstrated that neither curcumin nor DN nor bio-complexes affect embryo development, even though DN can form deposits in tissues. Preliminary results confirmed the applicability of DN as an efficient carrier of curcumin, which improves its performance against cancer cells in vitro, yet is not toxic to an organism, which makes the bio-complex a promising anticancer agent. PMID:27736939

  5. Discovery of Quinoline-Derived Trifluoromethyl Alcohols, Determination of Their in vivo Toxicity and Anticancer Activity in a Zebrafish Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Sittaramane, Vinoth; Padgett, Jihan; Salter, Philip; Williams, Ashley; Luke, Shauntelle; McCall, Rebecca; Arambula, Jonathan F; Graves, Vincent B; Blocker, Mark; Van Leuven, David; Bowe, Keturah; Heimberger, Julia; Cade, Hannah C; Immaneni, Supriya; Shaikh, Abid

    2015-11-01

    In this study the rational design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of quinoline-derived trifluoromethyl alcohols were evaluated. Members of this novel class of trifluoromethyl alcohols were identified as potent growth inhibitors in a zebrafish embryo model. Synthesis of these compounds was carried out with an sp(3) -C-H functionalization strategy of methyl quinolines with trifluoromethyl ketones. A zebrafish embryo model was also used to explore the toxicity of ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-hydroxy-3-(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)butanoate (1), 2-benzyl-1,1,1-trifluoro-3-(quinolin-2-yl)propan-2-ol (2), and trifluoro-3-(isoquinolin-1-yl)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-2-ol (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were found to be more toxic than compound 1; apoptotic staining assays indicated that compound 3 causes increased cell death. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that compound 2, with an LC50 value of 14.14 μm, has more potent anticancer activity than cisplatin. This novel class of inhibitors provides a new direction in the discovery of effective anticancer agents.

  6. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  7. Isolation of a small molecule with anti-MRSA activity from a mangrove symbiont Streptomyces sp. PVRK-1 and its biomedical studies in Zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Rajaretinam Rajesh; Iniyan, Appadurai Muthamil; Prakash, Vincent Samuel Gnana

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to isolate the anti-MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) molecule from the Mangrove symbiont Streptomyces and its biomedical studies in Zebrafish embryos. Methods MRSA was isolated from the pus samples of Colachal hospitals and confirmed by amplification of mecA gene. Anti-MRSA molecule producing strain was identified by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Anti-MRSA compound production was optimized by Solid State Fermentation (SSF) and the purification of the active molecule was carried out by TLC and RP-HPLC. The inhibitory concentration and LC50 were calculated using Statistical software SPSS. The Biomedical studies including the cardiac assay and organ toxicity assessment were carried out in Zebrafish. Results The bioactive anti-MRSA small molecule A2 was purified by TLC with Rf value of 0.37 with 1.389 retention time at RP-HPLC. The Inhibitory Concentration of the purified molecule A2 was 30 µg/mL but, the inhibitory concentration of the MRSA in the infected embryo was 32-34 µg/mL for TLC purified molecule A2 with LC50 mean value was 61.504 µg/mL. Zebrafish toxicity was assessed in 48-60 µg/mL by observing the physiological deformities and the heart beat rates (HBR) of embryos for anti MRSA molecule showed the mean of 41.33-41.67 HBR/15 seconds for 40 µg/mL and control was 42.33-42.67 for 15 seconds which significantly showed that the anti-MRSA molecule A2 did not affected the HBR. Conclusions Anti-MRSA molecule from Streptomyces sp PVRK-1 was isolated and biomedical studies in Zebrafish model assessed that the molecule was non toxic at the minimal inhibitory concentration of MRSA. PMID:23569790

  8. Targeted mutations in a highly conserved motif of the nsp1β protein impair the interferon antagonizing activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R; Fang, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Non-structural protein 1β (nsp1β) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) contains a papain-like cysteine protease (PLPβ) domain and has been identified as the main viral protein antagonizing the host innate immune response. In this study, nsp1β was determined to suppress the expression of reporter genes as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in transfected cells, and this activity appeared to be associated with its interferon (IFN) antagonist function. To knock down the effect of nsp1β on IFN activity, a panel of site-specific mutations in nsp1β was analysed. Double mutations K130A/R134A (type 1 PRRSV) or K124A/R128A (type 2 PRRSV) targeting a highly conserved motif of nsp1β, GKYLQRRLQ (in bold), impaired the ability of nsp1β to suppress IFN-β and reporter gene expression, as well as to suppress 'self-expression' in vitro. Subsequently, viable recombinant viruses vSD01-08-K130A/R134A and vSD95-21-K124A/R128A, containing double mutations in the GKYLQRRLQ motif were generated using reverse genetics. In comparison with WT viruses, these nsp1β mutants showed impaired growth ability in infected cells, but the PLPβ cleavage function was not directly affected. The expression of selected innate immune genes was determined in vSD95-21-K124A/R128A mutant-infected cells. The results consistently showed that gene expression levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-stimulated gene 15 were upregulated in cells that were infected with the vSD95-21-K124A/R128A compared with that of WT virus. These data suggest that PRRSV nsp1β may selectively suppress cellular gene expression, including expression of genes involved in the host innate immune function. Modifying the key residues in the highly conserved GKYLQRRLQ motif could attenuate virus growth and improve the cellular innate immune responses. PMID:23761406

  9. [Construction and specificity of porcine bmp15 gene reporter vector].

    PubMed

    Qin, Mingming; Wei, Jianghua; Yu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jinglong; Liu, Xiaopeng; Ma, Xiaoling; Wang, Huayan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the express specificity of bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15) in porcine. The pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector was constructed from the 2.2 kb fragment of porcine bmp15 promoter to trace the differentiation process of stem cells into oocyte-like cells. We used porcine ovary and Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line (CHO), mouse myoblast cell line (C2C12) and porcine amniotic fluid stem cell (pAFSC) to investigate the expression and regulation of this gene via RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, cell transfection, and microinjection methods. We also used single layer cell differentiation to detect the application potential of bmp15. The results show that bmp15 gene was specifically expressed in the porcine ovary and CHO rather than in C2C12 and pAFSC. In addition, the characteristic of tissue-specific of Bmp15 was detected on CHO instead of other cell lines by transient transfection. We also detected the expression of Bmp15 in oocyte at different development stages by immunofluorescence of fixed paraffin-embedded ovary sections. Furthermore, microinjection results show that bmp15 expressed in oocytes at 18 h of maturation in vitro, and continued up to 4-cell stage embryos. Most importantly, we found that the expression of Bmp15 started at day 12 after inducing pAFSC into oocyte-like cells by transfection; green fluorescent was visible in round cell masses. It indicated that bmp15 has the expression specificity and the pBMP15-EGFP reporter vector can be used to trace Bmp15 action in the differentiation of stem cells into germ cells.

  10. Structure of the asparagine-linked sugar chains of porcine kidney and human urine cerebroside sulfate activator protein.

    PubMed

    Faull, K F; Johnson, J; Kim, M J; To, T; Whitelegge, J P; Stevens, R L; Fluharty, C B; Fluharty, A L

    2000-12-01

    The specific sugar residues and their linkages in the oligosaccharides from pig kidney and human urine cerebroside sulfate activator proteins (saposin B), although previously hypothesized, have been unambiguously characterized. Exhaustive sequential exoglycosidase digestion of the trimethyl-p-aminophenyl derivatives, followed by either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and/or mass spectrometry, was used to define the residues and their linkages. The oligosaccharides were enzymatically released from the proteins by treatment with peptidyl-N-glycosidase F and separated from the proteins by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing termini were converted to the trimethyl-p-aminophenyl derivative and the samples were further purified by normal-phase HPLC. The derivatized carbohydrates were then treated sequentially with a series of exoglycosidases of defined specificity, and the products of each digestion were examined by mass spectrometry. The pentasaccharides from pig kidney and human urine protein were shown to be of the asparagine-linked complex type composed of mannose-alpha 1-6-mannose-beta 1-4-N-acetylglucosamine-N-acetylglucosamine(alpha 1-6-fucose). This highly degraded structure probably represents the final product of intra-lysosomal exoglycosidase digestion. Oligosaccharide sequencing by specific exoglycosidase degradation coupled with mass spectrometry is more rapid than conventional oligosaccharide sequencing. The procedures developed will be useful for sequencing other oligosaccharides including those from other members of the lipid-binding protein class to which cerebroside sulfate activator belongs. (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A functional comparison of ovine and porcine trypsins.

    PubMed

    Dallas Johnson, Keryn; Clark, Alan; Marshall, Sue

    2002-03-01

    Trypsin was isolated from ovine and porcine pancreas using affinity chromatography on immobilized p-aminobenzamidine. Molecular masses of the two proteins were 23900 and 23435 Da, determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The purified trypsins were compared using the kinetic properties K(m) and k(cat) which were determined at pH 8.0 and between 25 and 55 degrees C. Comparison of the Michaelis constants for ovine and porcine trypsins toward N-alpha-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BapNA) indicated that ovine trypsin had higher affinity for this substrate than the porcine enzyme. The rates of the reactions catalysed by the two enzymes correlated strongly over the range of temperatures and substrate concentrations tested, as did the k(cat) values. The specific activity of ovine trypsin for BapNA was, on average, approximately 10% higher than that of the porcine enzyme over the range of conditions tested. Porcine trypsin was less susceptible to denaturation at low pH or high temperature than was ovine trypsin. Porcine and ovine trypsin produced seven identically sized fragments from auto-catalytic hydrolysis. Proposed regions of identity between ovine and porcine trypsins were I(54)-K(77), L(98)-R(107), S(134)-K(178) and N(209)-K(116). Hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin, egg white lysozyme or casein by ovine or porcine trypsin yielded virtually identical patterns of fragments although the rate at which fragments were produced, in the case of beta-lactoglobulin, differed between the two enzymes. On balance the two enzymes appear to be functionally identical in their action. PMID:11959024

  12. Improvement of maternal vitamin D status with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol positively impacts porcine fetal skeletal muscle development and myoblast activity.

    PubMed

    Hines, E A; Coffey, J D; Starkey, C W; Chung, T K; Starkey, J D

    2013-09-01

    There is little information available regarding the influence of maternal vitamin D status on fetal skeletal muscle development. Therefore, we investigated the effect of improved vitamin D status resulting from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation of dams on fetal skeletal muscle developmental characteristics and myoblast activity using Camborough 22 gilts (n = 40) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) contained 2,500 IU cholecalciferol (D3)/kg diet, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 IU D3/kg diet plus 50 µg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding through d 90 of gestation. On gestational d 90 (± 1), fetal LM and semitendinosus muscle samples were collected for analysis of developmental characteristics and myoblast activity, respectively. No treatment difference was observed in fetal LM cross-sectional area (P = 0.25). Fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts had more LM fibers (P = 0.04) that tended to be smaller in cross-sectional area compared with CTL fetuses (P = 0.11). A numerical increase in the total number of Pax7+ myoblasts was also observed in fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts (P = 0.12). Myoblasts derived from the muscles of fetuses from 25OHD3-fed dams displayed an extended proliferative phase in culture compared with those from fetuses of dams fed only D3 (P < 0.0001). The combination of additional muscle fibers and Pax7+ myoblasts with prolonged proliferative capacity could enhance the postnatal skeletal muscle growth potential of fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts. These data highlight the importance of maternal vitamin D status on the development of fetal skeletal muscle.

  13. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article "Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions" (Grossini et al., in press) [1]. PMID:27583345

  14. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  15. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment. PMID:27378857

  16. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G.; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment. PMID:27378857

  17. Effects of Fluoxetine on Human Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Kaihola, Helena; Yaldir, Fatma G; Hreinsson, Julius; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Åkerud, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-01-01

    The use of antidepressant treatment during pregnancy is increasing, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in pregnant women. Serotonin plays a role in embryogenesis, and serotonin transporters are expressed in two-cell mouse embryos. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fluoxetine, one of the most prescribed SSRI antidepressant world-wide, exposure influences the timing of different embryo developmental stages, and furthermore, to analyze what protein, and protein networks, are affected by fluoxetine in the early embryo development. Human embryos (n = 48) were randomly assigned to treatment with 0.25 or 0.5 μM fluoxetine in culture medium. Embryo development was evaluated by time-lapse monitoring. The fluoxetine-induced human embryo proteome was analyzed by shotgun mass spectrometry. Protein secretion from fluoxetine-exposed human embryos was analyzed by use of high-multiplex immunoassay. The lower dose of fluoxetine had no influence on embryo development. A trend toward reduced time between thawing and start of cavitation was noted in embryos treated with 0.5 μM fluoxetine (p = 0.065). Protein analysis by shotgun mass spectrometry detected 45 proteins that were uniquely expressed in fluoxetine-treated embryos. These proteins are involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, and inflammatory response. Culturing with 0.5 μM, but not 0.25 μM fluoxetine, caused a significant increase in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the culture medium. In conclusion, fluoxetine has marginal effects on the timing of developmental stages in embryos, but induces expression and secretion of several proteins in a manner that depends on dose. For these reasons, and in line with current guidelines, the lowest possible dose of SSRI should be used in pregnant women who need to continue treatment.

  18. Porcine models of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Selsby, Joshua T; Ross, Jason W; Nonneman, Dan; Hollinger, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive, fatal, X-linked disease caused by a failure to accumulate the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. This disease has been studied using a variety of animal models including fish, mice, rats, and dogs. While these models have contributed substantially to our mechanistic understanding of the disease and disease progression, limitations inherent to each model have slowed the clinical advancement of therapies, which necessitates the development of novel large-animal models. Several porcine dystrophin-deficient models have been identified, although disease severity may be so severe as to limit their potential contributions to the field. We have recently identified and completed the initial characterization of a natural porcine model of dystrophin insufficiency. Muscles from these animals display characteristic focal necrosis concomitant with decreased abundance and localization of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex components. These pigs recapitulate many of the cardinal features of muscular dystrophy, have elevated serum creatine kinase activity, and preliminarily appear to display altered locomotion. They also suffer from sudden death preceded by EKG abnormalities. Pig dystrophinopathy models could allow refinement of dosing strategies in human-sized animals in preparation for clinical trials. From an animal handling perspective, these pigs can generally be treated normally, with the understanding that acute stress can lead to sudden death. In summary, the ability to create genetically modified pig models and the serendipitous discovery of genetic disease in the swine industry has resulted in the emergence of new animal tools to facilitate the critical objective of improving the quality and length of life for boys afflicted with such a devastating disease.

  19. Evaluation of a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for tissue repair in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jill N.; Hodges, Diane E.; March, Keith L.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.

    2001-05-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using a new range of light-activated surgical adhesives for incision repair in a wide range of tissue types. Biodegradable polymer membranes of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate- leaching technique. The porous membranes were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5 mg/ml indocyanine green (ICG) dye mixed in deionized water. Tissue incisions were repaired using the surgical adhesive in conjunction with an 805-nm diode laser. Nine organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenetic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student's T-test. Repairs formed on the small intestine were most successful followed by spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle and skin. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. The new surgical adhesive could possibly be used as a simple and effective method to stop bleeding and repair tissue quickly in an emergency situation, or as a substitute to mechanical staples or sutures in many clinical applications.

  20. Hydrodynamics-based transfection of rat interleukin-10 gene attenuates porcine serum-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inhibiting the activation of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Yun-Xin; Zhang, Li-Juan; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the common pathological outcome for the majority of chronic liver diseases. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that downregulates proinflammatory responses and has a modulatory effect on liver fibrogenesis. However, little is known regarding the effect of rat interleukin‑10 (rIL‑10) gene by hydrodynamics-based transfection (HBT) on liver fibrosis in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the rIL-10 gene by HBT on the progression of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and explore its possible mechanism. Plasmid‑expressing rIL-10 was transferred into rats by HBT and immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the major organ expressing rIL-10. Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of PS for 8 weeks. Plasmid pcDNA3-rIL-10 solution was administered weekly by HBT starting at the 5th week. Liver function and hepatic histology were examined. The possible molecular mechanisms of rIL-10 gene therapy were assessed in liver tissue and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) co-cultured with BRL cells (a hepatocyte line) in vitro. The results showed rIL-10 expression occurred mainly in the liver following rIL-10 gene transfer by HBT. Maintaining a stable expression of rIL-10 in serum was assessed by repeated administration. The rIL-10 gene treatment attenuated liver inflammation and fibrosis in PS-induced fibrotic rats, reduced the deposition of collagen and the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in fibrotic rats. The in vitro experiment showed that the expression of a-SMA and procollagen type I in HSCs co-cultured with the BRL‑transfected rIL-10 gene were significantly decreased. These findings indicate that rIL-10 gene therapy by HBT attenuates PS-induced liver fibrosis in rats and that its mechanism is associated with rIL-10 inhibiting the activation of HSCs and promoting the degeneration of collagen.

  1. Proteolytic activity of the 26S proteasome is required for the meiotic resumption, germinal vesicle breakdown, and cumulus expansion of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes matured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Nagyova, Eva; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Procházka, Radek; Sutovsky, Miriam; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The resumption of oocyte meiosis in mammals encompasses the landmark event of oocyte germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown (GVBD), accompanied by the modification of cell-to-cell communication and adhesion between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. The concomitant cumulus expansion relies on microfilament-cytoskeletal remodeling and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. We hypothesized that this multifaceted remodeling event requires substrate-specific proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). We evaluated meiotic progression, cytoskeletal dynamics, and the production of cumulus ECM in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) cultured with or without 10-200 microM MG132, a specific proteasomal inhibitor, for the first 22 h of in vitro maturation, followed by 22 h of culture with or without MG132. Treatment with 10 microM MG132 arrested 28.4% of oocytes in GV stage (vs. 1.3% in control), 43.1% in prometaphase I, and 16.2% in metaphase I, whereas 83.7% of control ova reached metaphase II (0% of MG132 reached metaphase II). The proportion of GV-stage ova increased progressively to >90% with increased concentration of MG132 (20-200 microM). Furthermore, MG132 blocked the extrusion of the first polar body and degradation of F-actin-rich transzonal projections (TZP) interconnecting cumulus cells with the oocyte. The microfilament disruptor cytochalasin E (CE) prevented cumulus expansion but accelerated the breakdown of TZPs. Ova treated with a combination of 10 microM MG132 and 10 microM CE underwent GVBD, despite the inhibition of proteasomal activity. However, 90.0% of cumulus-free ova treated with 10 microM MG132 remained in GV stage, compared with 16.7% GV ova in control. Cumulus expansion, retention of hyaluronic acid, and the deposition of cumulus ECM relying on the covalent transfer of heavy chains of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (IalphaI) were also inhibited by MG132. Cumulus expansion in control COCs was accompanied by the degradation of ubiquitin

  2. Physiological and molecular determinants of embryo implantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lin, Haiyan; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Shumin; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Haibin; Armant, D. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Embryo implantation involves the intimate interaction between an implantation-competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus, which occurs in a limited time period known as the window of implantation. Emerging evidence shows that defects originating during embryo implantation induce ripple effects with adverse consequences on later gestation events, highlighting the significance of this event for pregnancy success. Although a multitude of cellular events and molecular pathways involved in embryo-uterine crosstalk during implantation have been identified through gene expression studies and genetically engineered mouse models, a comprehensive understanding of the nature of embryo implantation is still missing. This review focuses on recent progress with particular attention to physiological and molecular determinants of blastocyst activation, uterine receptivity, blastocyst attachment and uterine decidualization. A better understanding of underlying mechanisms governing embryo implantation should generate new strategies to rectify implantation failure and improve pregnancy rates in women. PMID:23290997

  3. Turtle embryos move to optimal thermal environments within the egg.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Teng; Shine, Richard; Du, Wei-Guo

    2013-08-23

    A recent study demonstrated that the embryos of soft-shelled turtles can reposition themselves within their eggs to exploit locally warm conditions. In this paper, we ask whether turtle embryos actively seek out optimal thermal environments for their development, as do post-hatching individuals. Specifically, (i) do reptile embryos move away from dangerously high temperatures as well as towards warm temperatures? and (ii) is such embryonic movement due to active thermoregulation, or (more simply) to passive embryonic repositioning caused by local heat-induced changes in viscosity of fluids within the egg? Our experiments with an emydid turtle (Chinemys reevesii) show that embryos avoid dangerously high temperatures by moving to cooler regions of the egg. The repositioning of embryos is an active rather than passive process: live embryos move towards a heat source, whereas dead ones do not. Overall, our results suggest that behavioural thermoregulation by turtle embryos is genuinely analogous to the thermoregulatory behaviour exhibited by post-hatching ectotherms.

  4. Inhibition of FGF Signalling Pathway Augments the Expression of Pluripotency and Trophoblast Lineage Marker Genes in Porcine Parthenogenetic Blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Li, L Y; Li, M M; Yang, S F; Zhang, J; Li, Z; Zhang, H; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Verma, V; Liu, Q; Shi, D; Huang, B

    2016-10-01

    The consistent failure to isolate bona fide pluripotent cell lines from livestock indicates that the underlying mechanisms of early lineage specification are poorly defined. Unlike other species, the contrivances of segregation have been comprehensively studied in the mouse. In mouse, FGF/MAPK signalling pathway dictates the segregation of hypoblast (primitive endoderm). However, it is not evident whether this mechanism is also conserved in livestock. Here, in this study, we examined the roles of FGF/MAP kinase signalling pathways in porcine parthenogenetic embryos during the early development. Porcine parthenogenetic embryos were cultured in the medium addition with FGFR inhibitor BGJ398 (10 μm) or DEMOS. Pluripotency- and lineage-related gene expressions in the early porcine embryos were determined. Compared to control, total cell numbers on day 7 were significantly higher (55 ± 5.96 vs 47 ± 1.97, p < 0.05) in embryos cultured in the presence of BGJ398, but had no significant effect on the rate of blastocyst development (47% vs 44%, p > 0.05). Nonetheless, BGJ398 treatment significantly augmented the expression of pluripotency and trophoblast marker genes (SOX2, OCT4, KLF4 and CDX2), but did not significantly change the expression of NANOG and hypoblast marker gene (GATA4). Furthermore, the addition of FGF signalling agonist (FGF2) during the embryo development significantly decreased the expression of pluripotency and trophoblast marker genes (SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and CDX2), but no significant effect on the expression of OCT4 and GATA4 was observed. Here, we exhibit that inhibition of FGF signalling could improve the quality of the porcine embryo and escalate the chance to capture pluripotency. Besides, it also promotes the trophoblast development of porcine parthenogenetic embryo. In addition, the data suggested that FGF signalling pathway is dispensable for the segregation of hypoblast and epiblast lineages in porcine embryo during the early

  5. Induction of autophagy improves embryo viability in cloned mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shen, XingHui; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhenDong; Bai, GuangYu; Zheng, Zhong; Gu, YanLi; Wu, YanShuang; Liu, Hui; Zhou, DongJie; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes, autophagy is not triggered in SCNT embryos during 6 hours of activation. Mechanistically, the inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation is due to the cytochalasin B (CB) caused depolymerization of actin filaments. In this study, we induced autophagy during SCNT activation by rapamycin and pp242, which could restore the expected level of autophagy and significantly enhance the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when compared with the control (68.5% and 68.7% vs. 41.5%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the treatment of rapamycin and pp242 accelerates active DNA demethylation indicated by the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC, and treatment of rapamycin improves degradation of maternal mRNA as well. Thus, our findings reveal that autophagy is important for development of SCNT embryos and inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation might be one of the serious causes of low efficiency of SCNT. PMID:26643778

  6. Functionalized Fullerene Increases NF-κB Activity and Blocks Genotoxic Effect of Oxidative Stress in Serum-Starving Human Embryo Lung Diploid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, E. S.; Sergeeva, V. A.; Tabakov, V. J.; Kameneva, L. A.; Voronov, I. I.; Khakina, E. A.; Troshin, P. A.; Kutsev, S. I.; Veiko, N. N.; Kostyuk, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a water-soluble [60] fullerene derivative containing five residues of 3-phenylpropionic acid and a chlorine addend appended to the carbon cage (F-828) on serum-starving human embryo lung diploid fibroblasts (HELFs) was studied. Serum deprivation evokes oxidative stress in HELFs. Cultivation of serum-starving HELFs in the presence of 0.1–1 µM F-828 significantly decreases the level of free radicals, inhibits autophagy, and represses expression of NOX4 and NRF2 proteins. The activity of NF-κB substantially grows up in contrast to the suppressed NRF2 activity. In the presence of 0.2–0.25 µM F-828, the DSB rate and apoptosis level dramatically decrease. The maximum increase of proliferative activity of the HELFs and maximum activity of NF-κB are observed at these concentration values. Conclusion. Under the conditions of oxidative stress evoked by serum deprivation the water-soluble fullerene derivative F-828 used in concentrations of 0.1 to 1 µM strongly stimulates the NF-κB activity and represses the NRF2 activity in HELFs. PMID:27635190

  7. Functionalized Fullerene Increases NF-κB Activity and Blocks Genotoxic Effect of Oxidative Stress in Serum-Starving Human Embryo Lung Diploid Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, E. S.; Sergeeva, V. A.; Tabakov, V. J.; Kameneva, L. A.; Voronov, I. I.; Khakina, E. A.; Troshin, P. A.; Kutsev, S. I.; Veiko, N. N.; Kostyuk, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a water-soluble [60] fullerene derivative containing five residues of 3-phenylpropionic acid and a chlorine addend appended to the carbon cage (F-828) on serum-starving human embryo lung diploid fibroblasts (HELFs) was studied. Serum deprivation evokes oxidative stress in HELFs. Cultivation of serum-starving HELFs in the presence of 0.1–1 µM F-828 significantly decreases the level of free radicals, inhibits autophagy, and represses expression of NOX4 and NRF2 proteins. The activity of NF-κB substantially grows up in contrast to the suppressed NRF2 activity. In the presence of 0.2–0.25 µM F-828, the DSB rate and apoptosis level dramatically decrease. The maximum increase of proliferative activity of the HELFs and maximum activity of NF-κB are observed at these concentration values. Conclusion. Under the conditions of oxidative stress evoked by serum deprivation the water-soluble fullerene derivative F-828 used in concentrations of 0.1 to 1 µM strongly stimulates the NF-κB activity and represses the NRF2 activity in HELFs.

  8. Functionalized Fullerene Increases NF-κB Activity and Blocks Genotoxic Effect of Oxidative Stress in Serum-Starving Human Embryo Lung Diploid Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ershova, E S; Sergeeva, V A; Tabakov, V J; Kameneva, L A; Porokhovnik, L N; Voronov, I I; Khakina, E A; Troshin, P A; Kutsev, S I; Veiko, N N; Kostyuk, S V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of a water-soluble [60] fullerene derivative containing five residues of 3-phenylpropionic acid and a chlorine addend appended to the carbon cage (F-828) on serum-starving human embryo lung diploid fibroblasts (HELFs) was studied. Serum deprivation evokes oxidative stress in HELFs. Cultivation of serum-starving HELFs in the presence of 0.1-1 µM F-828 significantly decreases the level of free radicals, inhibits autophagy, and represses expression of NOX4 and NRF2 proteins. The activity of NF-κB substantially grows up in contrast to the suppressed NRF2 activity. In the presence of 0.2-0.25 µM F-828, the DSB rate and apoptosis level dramatically decrease. The maximum increase of proliferative activity of the HELFs and maximum activity of NF-κB are observed at these concentration values. Conclusion. Under the conditions of oxidative stress evoked by serum deprivation the water-soluble fullerene derivative F-828 used in concentrations of 0.1 to 1 µM strongly stimulates the NF-κB activity and represses the NRF2 activity in HELFs. PMID:27635190

  9. Porcine circovirus type 2 activates PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways to promote interleukin-10 production in macrophages via Cap interaction of gC1qR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongtong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Yu; Cui, Beibei; Li, Delong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-κB pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-κB1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:26883107

  10. Porcine circovirus type 2 activates PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways to promote interleukin-10 production in macrophages via Cap interaction of gC1qR.

    PubMed

    Du, Qian; Huang, Yong; Wang, Tongtong; Zhang, Xiujuan; Chen, Yu; Cui, Beibei; Li, Delong; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhang, Wenlong; Chang, Lingling; Tong, Dewen

    2016-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection caused PCV2-associated diseases (PCVAD) is one of the major emerging immunosuppression diseases in pig industry. In this study, we investigated how PCV2 inoculation increases interleukin (IL)-10 expression in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). PCV2 inoculation significantly upregulated IL-10 expression compared with PCV1. Upon initial PCV2 inoculation, PI3K/Akt cooperated with NF-κB pathways to promote IL-10 transcription via p50, CREB and Ap1 transcription factors, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt activation blocked Ap1 and CREB binding to the il10 promoter, and decreased the binding level of NF-κB1 p50 with il10 promoter, leading to great reduction in early IL-10 transcription. In the later phase of inoculation, PCV2 further activated p38 MAPK and ERK pathways to enhance IL-10 production by promoting Sp1 binding to the il10 promoter. For PCV2-induced IL-10 production in macrophages, PCV2 capsid protein Cap, but not the replicase Rep or ORF3, was the critical component. Cap activated PI3K/Akt, p38 MAPK, and ERK signaling pathways to enhance IL-10 expression. In the whole process, gC1qR mediated PCV2-induced PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation to enhance IL-10 induction by interaction with Cap. Depletion of gC1qR blocked PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in significant decrease in IL-10 production in PCV2-inoculated cells. Thus, gC1qR might be a critical functional receptor for PCV2-induced IL-10 production. Taken together, these data demonstrated that Cap protein binding with host gC1qR induction of PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signalings activation is a critical process in enhancing PCV2-induced IL-10 production in porcine alveolar macrophages. PMID:26883107

  11. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan . E-mail: sunqy1@yahoo.com

    2005-05-15

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, {gamma}-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. {gamma}-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated {gamma}-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, {gamma}-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of {gamma}-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. {gamma}-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the

  12. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-02-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to "adopt" surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  13. Embryo adoption: Some further considerations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Recent discussions of embryo adoption have sought to make sense of the teaching of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae which appeared to provide a negative judgment on such a practice. This article aims to provide a personalist account of the process of fertilization and implantation that might serve as the basis for the negative judgment of the CDF document. In doing so, it relies upon the idea that a person, including an embryo, is not to be considered in isolation, but always in relation to God and to others. This approach extends the substantialist conceptualizations commonly employed in discussions of this issue. More generally, the article seeks to highlight the value of a personalist re-framing for an understanding of the moral questions surrounding the beginning of life. Lay summary: This article seeks to make sense of what appears to be a clear-cut rejection, set out in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) document Dignitas personae, of the proposal for women to “adopt” surplus frozen embryos. It draws upon more recently developed modes of philosophical/theological reasoning to argue that, in human procreation, both fertilization and implantation represent constitutive dimensions of divine creative activity and so must be protected from manipulative technological intervention. Since embryo adoption requires this kind of technology, it makes sense for the Church document not to approve it. PMID:25698841

  14. Loss of DDB1 Leads to Transcriptional p53 Pathway Activation in Proliferating Cells, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhilian; Holzschuh, Jochen; Driever, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a large subunit of the heterodimeric DDB complex that recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also a component of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes by targeted ubiquitination of key regulators. Functions of DDB1 in development have been addressed in several model organisms, however, are not fully understood so far. Here we report an ENU induced mutant ddb1 allele (ddb1m863) identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and analyze its effects on development. Zebrafish ddb1 is expressed broadly, both maternally and zygotically, with enhanced expression in proliferation zones. The (ddb1m863 mutant allele affects the splice acceptor site of exon 20, causing a splicing defect that results in truncation of the 1140 amino acid protein after residue 800, lacking part of the β-propeller domain BPC and the C-terminal helical domain CTD. ddb1m863 zygotic mutant embryos have a pleiotropic phenotype, including smaller and abnormally shaped brain, head skeleton, eyes, jaw, and branchial arches, as well as reduced dopaminergic neuron groups. However, early forming tissues develop normally in zygotic ddb1m863 mutant embryos, which may be due to maternal rescue. In ddb1m863 mutant embryos, pcna-expressing proliferating cell populations were reduced, concurrent with increased apoptosis. We also observed a concomitant strong up-regulation of transcripts of the tumor suppressor p53 (tp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor cdkn1a (p21a/bCIP1/WAF1) in proliferating tissues. In addition, transcription of cyclin genes ccna2 and ccnd1 was deregulated in ddb1m863 mutants. Reduction of p53 activity by anti-sense morpholinos alleviated the apoptotic phenotype in ddb1m863 mutants. These results imply that Ddb1 may be involved in maintaining proper cell cycle progression and viability of dividing cells during development through transcriptional mechanisms regulating genes

  15. Cycling of intracellular pH during cell division of Xenopus embryos is a cytoplasmic activity depending on protein synthesis and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    In Xenopus embryos, the successive and rapid cell divisions that follow fertilization are accompanied by periodic oscillations of intracellular pH (pHi). Cycling of pHi occurs in phase with several other oscillatory activities, namely nuclear divisions, M phase-promoting factor (MPF) activity, and surface contraction waves (SCWs). We report that treatments that abolish cycling of MPF activity and the SCWs also suppress the pHi oscillations, whereas those that block cell division without affecting neither MPF activity nor the SCWs do not suppress the pHi oscillations. Experiments on enucleated oocytes, matured in vitro and activated, demonstrated that the activity governing the rhythmicity of the pHi oscillations resided in the cytoplasm of the oocyte. In this respect, the activity responsible for the pHi oscillations was different from that which drives the SCWs, which necessitated the presence of the oocyte germinal vesicle (Ohsumi et al., 1986), but more closely resembled MPF activity that did not require the presence of the oocyte germinal vesicle (Dabauvalle et al., 1988). In mature eggs enucleated at the time of egg activation, the pHi oscillations were similar to those in control nucleated eggs, whereas the period between two peaks of SCWs was 35-60 min vs. 20-35 min in nucleated control eggs. Previous studies had shown that the periodicity of SCWs was larger in anucleate egg fragments than in their nucleate counterparts (Sakai and Kubota, 1981), the difference being on the order of 6-15 min (Shinagawa, 1983). However, in these previous studies, enucleation was performed 30-50 min after fertilization. Our results clearly demonstrate that the periodicity of the SCWs is lengthened when the interval between egg activation and enucleation is shortened, thereby providing an easier way to assess the nuclear dependency of the SCWs. Finally, the various possibilities concerning the role of pHi cycling during cell division are discussed. PMID:2116420

  16. Nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos changes in relation to the initiation of S phase

    SciTech Connect

    Morioka, M.; Shimada, H.

    1986-01-01

    The AP/sub 4/A-binding activity of sea urchin embryos was studied using radioactively labelled diadenosine 5', 5'''-P/sup 1/,P/sup 4/-tetraphosphate (Ap/sub 4/A). Among various subcellular components that can bind (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A, nuclei alone showed the highly specific Ap/sub 4/A-binding activity which was not influenced by the presence of AP/sub 4/A, AP/sub 5/A and GP/sub 4/G. The addition of an excess amount of ATP only slightly reduced the binding of (/sup 3/H)AP/sub 4/A to the nuclei. It was found that AP/sub 4/A binds to the residual proteinaceous structure of nuclei which was resistant to the extraction with 2 M NaCl. The nuclear AP/sub 4/A-binding activity fluctuated cyclically during each cell cycle, with at transient increase at the beginning of S phase followed by an abrupt-decrease within 10 min. When the initiation of S phase was blocked, the increase in the AP/sub 4/A-binding activity was also prevented. It seems that the binding of AP/sub 4/A to the nuclear structural protein is involved in the initiation of S phase.

  17. Modulation of cupric ion activity by pH and fulvic acid as determinants of toxicity in Xenopus laevis embryos and larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Buchwalter, D.B. |; Linder, G.; Curtis, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    An ion-specific electrode measured cupric ion activity modulated by fulvic acid (FA) and pH in a series of modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay--Xenopus (FETAX) toxicity assays. Hydrogen ion concentration was the primary determinant of cupric ion activity, while FA played a smaller but significant role. Fulvic acid was a weak copper complexing agent at pH 5.50. At pH 5.50 there was slight reduction of ionic activity and a subsequent attenuation of copper toxicity with 5.0 mg/L FA. At pH 7.50, FA also had a mild attenuating effect on copper toxicity. At pH 6.50, copper was strongly complexed by FA at total copper (TCu) concentrations below its pH-dependent solubility limit. At TCu concentrations above the solubility limit FA enhanced toxicity. There was more cupric ion activity measured in the presence of 0.5 and 5.0 mg/L FA than without it at TCu concentrations above the solubility limit. The proposed mechanism for this behavior was FA action as a nucleation inhibitor. Under the chemical conditions of the pH 6.50 experiments, a stable supersaturation of copper was formed, resulting in a more toxic aqueous matrix.

  18. Metabolic activation of diesel exhaust carcinogens in primary and immortalized human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kucab, Jill E; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 50% of human tumors have a mutation in TP53. The pattern and spectra of TP53 mutations often differ between cancer types, perhaps due to different etiological factors. The Hupki (human TP53 knock-in) mouse embryo fibroblast (HUF) immortalization assay is useful for studying mutagenesis in the human TP53 gene by environmental carcinogens. Prior to initiating an immortalization assay, carcinogen treatment conditions must be optimized, which can require a large number of cells. As primary HUF cultures senesce within 2 weeks, restricting their use, we investigated whether immortalized HUFs retaining wild-type TP53 can be surrogates for primary HUFs in initial treatment optimization. DNA damage by eight compounds found in diesel exhaust, benzo[a]pyrene, 3-nitrobenzanthrone, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,8-dinitropyrene, 6-nitrochrysene, and 3-nitrofluorene, was assessed by (32) P-postlabeling and the alkaline comet assay in primary HUFs and in an immortal HUF cell line J201. For most compounds, higher levels of DNA adducts accumulated in J201 cells than in primary HUFs. This difference was not reflected in the comet assay or by cell viability changes. Experiments in three additional immortal HUF cell lines (AAI49, U56, and E2-143) confirmed strong differences in DNA adduct levels compared with primary HUFs. However, these did not correlate with the protein expression of Nqo1 or Nat1/2, or with gene expression of Cyp1a1 or Cyp1b1. Our results show that using immortal HUFs as surrogates for primary HUFs in genotoxicity screening has limitations and that DNA adduct formation is the best measure of genotoxicity of the nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested in HUFs. PMID:22351035

  19. Recent advances toward the practical application of embryo transfer in pigs.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emilio A; Cuello, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Vazquez, Jose L; Vazquez, Juan M; Roca, Jordi; Gil, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Porcine embryo transfer (ET) technology has been in demand for decades because of its potential to provide considerable improvements in pig production with important sanitary, economic, and animal welfare benefits. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of ET is practically nonexistent. However, the two main obstacles hindering the commercial use of ET in pigs in the past several decades (i.e., surgical transfer and embryo preservation) have recently been overcome. A technique for nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) ET of nonsedated gilts and sows, which was seemingly an impossible challenge just a few years ago, is a reality today. The improvements in embryo preservation that have been achieved in recent years and the excellent reproductive performance of the recipients after the NsDU-ET technique coupled with short-term and long-term-stored embryos represent essential progress for the international trade of porcine embryos and the practical use of ET by the pig industry. This review focuses, with an emphasis on our own findings, on the recent advances in embryo preservation and NsDU-ET technologies, which are starting to show potential for application under field conditions. PMID:26164803

  20. Micromanipulation of mammalian embryos.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, S

    1988-11-01

    Micromanipulation of embryos provide a new and valuable biological tool for animal agriculture and medical fields. Current techniques for embryo manipulation are in practice but some of techniques is still way off for application. The present status in new biotechnology applying to animal science and medicine is reviewed and its future is also discussed. PMID:3072425

  1. Hormone-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme/A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 impacts porcine cumulus cell oocyte complex expansion and meiotic maturation via ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Kawashima, Ikkou; Yanai, Yoshiari; Nishibori, Masahide; Richards, Joanne S; Shimada, Masayuki

    2007-12-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors, amphiregulin (AREG) and epiregulin (EREG), are expressed in murine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) where they impact the function of cumulus cells and oocyte maturation during LH-mediated ovulation. Because TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE)/a disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is essential for ectodomain shedding of AREG and EREG from the surface of other cell types, the expression and function of TACE/ADAM17 was analyzed in a porcine COC culture system in which FSH- and LH-mediated expansion and oocyte meiotic maturation have been well characterized and shown to occur between 20 and 40 h. In this model, Areg, Ereg, and Tace/Adam17 mRNAs increased significantly with maximal levels observed between 5 and 20 h of culture with FSH plus LH. TACE/ADAM17 protein and protease activity were up-regulated markedly at 10 h and maintained to 40 h. Treatment of COCs with the TACE/ADAM17-selective inhibitor TNFalpha-processing inhibitor-2 (TAPI-2) significantly suppressed in a time-dependent manner downstream targets of EGF receptor activation such as ERK1/2 phosphorylation, Ptgs2, Has2, and Tnfaip6 mRNA expression, hormone-induced COC expansion, and meiotic maturation of the oocytes. Addition of EGF to COCs cultured in the presence of FSH/LH reversed the inhibitory effects of TAPI-2 on these ovulation-related processes. Gonadotropin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was also inhibited in rat granulosa cells treated with TAPI-2 or after transfection with Tace/Adam17 small interfering RNA. Induced expression of Tnfaip6 mRNA was also reduced by Tace/Adam17 small interfering RNA. Thus, TACE/ADAM17 is induced and the activity is involved in porcine COC expansion as well as oocyte meiotic maturation through the activation of EGF receptor in cumulus cells.

  2. Study of Toll-like receptor and B-defensins genes expression pattern in porcine reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Marantidis, Apostolos; Laliotis, George P; Michailidis, Georgios; Avdi, Melpomeni

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and b-defensins (BD) molecules are group of molecules that recognize various microbial components and play a crucial role in the activation of the innate immune system in vertebrate species. Although TLRs gene expression has been studied in various pig tissues, little is known about their expression in porcine reproductive tract. Concerning b-defensins genes, only BD1, 2 and 3 counterparts have been well studied in pigs' reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of both gene families in pigs' male and female reproductive organs, and embryos, as potential tool for further association studies in respect to immunity and disease resistance. RT-PCR analysis revealed that all of the examined TLR genes were expressed in the reproductive organs of male and female pigs, with TLR3 and TLR5 showing the higher levels and TLR9 the lowest, in all analyzed tissues. BD genes showed a different expression pattern in respect to the examined tissue. In embryos, TLR1 revealed high expression levels, while only BD3, BD108, and BD123 were found to be expressed. PMID:25800128

  3. Study of Toll-like receptor and B-defensins genes expression pattern in porcine reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Marantidis, Apostolos; Laliotis, George P; Michailidis, Georgios; Avdi, Melpomeni

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and b-defensins (BD) molecules are group of molecules that recognize various microbial components and play a crucial role in the activation of the innate immune system in vertebrate species. Although TLRs gene expression has been studied in various pig tissues, little is known about their expression in porcine reproductive tract. Concerning b-defensins genes, only BD1, 2 and 3 counterparts have been well studied in pigs' reproductive organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern of both gene families in pigs' male and female reproductive organs, and embryos, as potential tool for further association studies in respect to immunity and disease resistance. RT-PCR analysis revealed that all of the examined TLR genes were expressed in the reproductive organs of male and female pigs, with TLR3 and TLR5 showing the higher levels and TLR9 the lowest, in all analyzed tissues. BD genes showed a different expression pattern in respect to the examined tissue. In embryos, TLR1 revealed high expression levels, while only BD3, BD108, and BD123 were found to be expressed.

  4. Epidermal growth factor stimulates proliferation and migration of porcine trophectoderm cells through protooncogenic protein kinase 1 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction cascades during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Wooyoung; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2013-12-01

    For successful implantation and establishment of early epitheliochorial placentation, porcine conceptuses require histotroph, including nutrients and growth factors, secreted by or transported into the lumen of the uterus. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), an essential component of histotroph, is known to have potential growth-promoting activities on the conceptus and uterine endometrium. However, little is known about its effects to transactivate cell signaling cascades responsible for proliferation, growth and differentiation of conceptus trophectoderm. In the present study, therefore, we determined that EGFR mRNA and protein were abundant in endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia, stratum compactum stroma and conceptus trophectoderm on days 13-14 of pregnancy, but not in any other cells of the uterus or conceptus. In addition, primary porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cells treated with EGF exhibited increased abundance of phosphorylated (p)-AKT1, p-ERK1/2 MAPK and p-P90RSK over basal levels within 5min, and effect that was maintained to between 30 and 120min. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed abundant amounts of p-ERK1/2 MAPK and p-AKT1 proteins in the nucleus and, to a lesser extent, in the cytoplasm of pTr cells treated with EGF as compared to control cells. Furthermore, the abundance of p-AKT1 and p-ERK1/2 MAPK proteins was inhibited in control and EGF-treated pTr cells transfected with EGFR siRNA. Compared to the control siRNA transfected pTr cells, pTr cells transfected with EGFR siRNA exhibited an increase in expression of IFND and TGFB1, but there was no effect of expression of IFNG. Further, EGF stimulated proliferation and migration of pTr cells through activation of the PI3K-AKT1 and ERK1/2 MAPK-P90RSK cell signaling pathways. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that EGF coordinately activates multiple cell signaling pathways critical to proliferation, migration and survival of trophectoderm cells that are critical to development of

  5. Glassfrog embryos hatch early after parental desertion

    PubMed Central

    Delia, Jesse R. J.; Ramírez-Bautista, Aurelio; Summers, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Both parental care and hatching plasticity can improve embryo survival. Research has found that parents can alter hatching time owing to a direct effect of care on embryogenesis or via forms of care that cue the hatching process. Because parental care alters conditions critical for offspring development, hatching plasticity could allow embryos to exploit variation in parental behaviour. However, this interaction of parental care and hatching plasticity remains largely unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that embryos hatch early to cope with paternal abandonment in the glassfrog Hyalinobatrachium fleischmanni (Centrolenidae). We conducted male-removal experiments in a wild population, and examined embryos' response to conditions with and without fathers. Embryos hatched early when abandoned, but extended development in the egg stage when fathers continued care. Paternal care had no effect on developmental rate. Rather, hatching plasticity was due to embryos actively hatching at different developmental stages, probably in response to deteriorating conditions without fathers. Our experimental results are supported by a significant correlation between the natural timing of abandonment and hatching in an unmanipulated population. This study demonstrates that embryos can respond to conditions resulting from parental abandonment, and provides insights into how variation in care can affect selection on egg-stage adaptations. PMID:24789892

  6. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    PubMed

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. PMID:27475854

  7. Involvement of peroxidase activity in developing somatic embryos of Medicago arborea L. Identification of an isozyme peroxidase as biochemical marker of somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Piedad; Martin, Luisa; Blazquez, Antonio; Guerra, Hilario; Villalobos, Nieves

    2014-01-15

    The legume Medicago arborea L. is very interesting as regards the regeneration of marginal arid soils. The problem is that it does not have a good germinative yield. It was therefore decided to regenerate via somatic embryogenesis and find a marker of embryogenic potential. In this study, peroxidase activity was evaluated in non-embryogenic and embryogenic calli from M. arborea L. A decrease in soluble peroxidase activity is observed in its embryonic calli at the time at which the somatic embryos begin to appear. This activity is always lower in embryonic calli than in non-embryonic ones (unlike what happens in the case of wall-bound peroxidases). These results suggest that peroxidases can be considered to be enzymes involved in somatic embryogenesis in M. arborea. In addition, isozyme analyses were carried out on protein extracts using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The band called P5 was detected only in embryogenic cultures at very early stages of development. This band was digested with trypsin and analyzed using linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer. In P5 isoform a peroxidase-L-ascorbate peroxidase was identified. It can be used as a marker that allows the identification of embryological potential.

  8. Dimethyl Sulfoxide Perturbs Cell Cycle Progression and Spindle Organization in Porcine Meiotic Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Wang, Yan-Kui; Song, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic maturation of mammalian oocytes is a precisely orchestrated and complex process. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent, drug, and cryoprotectant, is capable of disturbing asymmetric cytokinesis of oocyte meiosis in mice. However, in pigs, DMSO’s effect on oocyte meiosis still remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate if DMSO treatment will affect porcine oocyte meiosis and the underlying molecular changes as well. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of the large first polar body and symmetric division for porcine oocytes treated with DMSO, contrary to findings reported in mice. 3% DMSO treatment could inhibit cumulus expansion, increase nuclear abnormality, disturb spindle organization, decrease reactive oxygen species level, and elevate mitochondrial membrane potential of porcine oocytes. There was no effect on germinal vesicle breakdown rate regardless of DMSO concentration. 3% DMSO treatment did not affect expression of genes involved in spindle organization (Bub1 and Mad2) and apoptosis (NF-κB, Pten, Bcl2, Caspase3 and Caspase9), however, it significantly decreased expression levels of pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2 and Lin28) in mature oocytes. Therefore, we demonstrated that disturbed cumulus expansion, chromosome alignment, spindle organization and pluripotency gene expression could be responsible for DMSO-induced porcine oocyte meiotic arrest and the lower capacity of subsequent embryo development. Our results provide new insights on DMSO’s effect on porcine oocyte meiosis and raise safety concerns over DMSO’s usage on female reproduction in both farm animals and humans. PMID:27348312

  9. Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-κB increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3β-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5. PMID:23160004

  10. Notch1-mediated signaling regulates proliferation of porcine satellite cells (PSCs).

    PubMed

    Qin, Lili; Xu, Jian; Wu, Zhenfang; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Chong; Long, Qiaoming

    2013-02-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and fate decisions of mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the possible requirement for Notch signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of porcine satellite cells. We show that Notch1, 2 and 3 are expressed in cultured porcine satellite cells. Knock-down of NOTCH1, but not NOTCH2 and NOTCH3, decreases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. In contrast, enhancement of NOTCH1 expression via treatment of porcine satellite cells with recombinant NF-κB increases the proliferation of porcine satellite cells. The alteration of porcine satellite cell proliferation is associated with significant changes in the expression of cell cycle related genes (cyclin B1, D1, D2, E1 and p21), myogenic regulatory factors (MyoD and myogenin) and the Notch effector Hes5. In addition, alteration of Notch1 expression in porcine satellite cells causes changes in the expression of GSK3β-3. Taken together, these findings suggest that of the four notch-related genes, Notch1is likely to be required for regulating the proliferation and therefore the maintenance of porcine satellite cells in vivo, and do so through activation of the Notch effector gene Hes5.

  11. Enhancement of lipid metabolism with L-carnitine during in vitro maturation improves nuclear maturation and cleavage ability of follicular porcine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Somfai, Tamás; Kaneda, Masahiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Haraguchi, Seiki; Mizutani, Eiji; Dang-Nguyen, Thanh Quang; Geshi, Masaya; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Nagai, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of L-carnitine, an enhancer of lipid metabolism and mitochondrial activity, during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation and in vitro fertilisation of porcine follicular oocytes and subsequent embryo development. Mitochondrial functions, intracellular lipid content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in oocytes were also investigated. L-carnitine supplementation in 0.6-5mgmL(-1) concentration during IVM significantly improved (P<0.05) the rates of metaphase-II (MII) stage oocytes compared with the control; however, fertilisation rates and monospermy were not improved. Although supplementation of IVM medium with L-carnitine significantly increased oocyte cleavage (P<0.05), further development to the blastocyst stage was not improved. The density of active mitochondria was significantly higher and the density of lipid droplets was significantly lower (P<0.05) in L-carnitine-treated oocytes compared with the control. Furthermore, the ROS levels in L-carnitine-treated oocytes were significantly lower than those in the control. In conclusion, enhancing mitochondrial functions by L-carnitine improved oocyte maturation and cleavage underlining the importance of lipid metabolism for nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes. PMID:21871210

  12. Detection and Isolation of Swine Influenza A Virus in Spiked Oral Fluid and Samples from Individually Housed, Experimentally Infected Pigs: Potential Role of Porcine Oral Fluid in Active Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Decorte, Inge; Steensels, Mieke; Lambrecht, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Background The lack of seasonality of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) in combination with the capacity of swine to harbor a large number of co-circulating IAV lineages, resulting in the risk for the emergence of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, stress the importance of swIAV surveillance. To date, active surveillance of swIAV worldwide is barely done because of the short detection period in nasal swab samples. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods to monitor circulating virus strains are requisite. Methods qRT-PCR and virus isolations were performed on oral fluid and nasal swabs collected from individually housed pigs that were infected sequentially with H1N1 and H3N2 swIAV strains. The same methods were also applied to oral fluid samples spiked with H1N1 to study the influence of conservation time and temperature on swIAV infectivity and detectability in porcine oral fluid. Results All swIAV infected animals were found qRT-PCR positive in both nasal swabs and oral fluid. However, swIAV could be detected for a longer period in oral fluid than in nasal swabs. Despite the high detectability of swIAV in oral fluid, virus isolation from oral fluid collected from infected pigs was rare. These results are supported by laboratory studies showing that the PCR detectability of swIAV remains unaltered during a 24 h incubation period in oral fluid, while swIAV infectivity drops dramatically immediately upon contact with oral fluid (3 log titer reduction) and gets lost after 24 h conservation in oral fluid at ambient temperature. Conclusions Our data indicate that porcine oral fluid has the potential to replace nasal swabs for molecular diagnostic purposes. The difficulty to isolate swIAV from oral fluid could pose a drawback for its use in active surveillance programs. PMID:26431039

  13. Chicken embryo fibroblasts exposed to weak, time-varying magnetic fields share cell proliferation, adenosine deaminase activity, and membrane characteristics of transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Parola, A.H.; Porat, N.; Kiesow, L.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) exposed to a sinusoidally varying magnetic field (SVMF) (100 Hz, 700 microT, for 24 h) showed a remarkable rise of segmental rotational relaxation rate of adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4) as determined by multifrequency phase fluorometry. Pyrene-labeled, small subunit ADA was applied to cultured (normal) CEF, which have available and abundant ADA complexing protein (ADCP) on their plasma membranes. Sine-wave-modulated fluorometry of the pyrene yielded a profile of phase angle vs. modulation frequency. In SVMF-treated cells and in Rous-sarcoma-virus (RSV) transformed cells the differential phase values at low modulation frequencies of the excitation are remarkably reduced. This effect is magnetic rather than thermal, because the temperature was carefully controlled and monitored; nevertheless to further check this matter we studied CEF, infected by the RSV-Ts68 temperature-sensitive mutant (36 degrees C transformed, 41 degrees C revertant). When grown at 36 degrees C in the SVMF, cells did not show the slightest trend towards reversion, as would be expected had there been local heating. Concomitant with the increased segmental rotational relaxation rate of ADA, there was a decrease in fluorescence lifetime and a slight, yet significant, increase in membrane lipid microfluidity. These biophysical observations prompted us to examine the effect of SVMF on cell proliferation and ADA activity (a malignancy marker): higher rates of cell proliferation and reduced specific activity of ADA were observed.

  14. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  15. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  16. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  17. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  18. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  19. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold...

  20. Mechanisms involved in increased sensitivity to adenosine A(2A) receptor activation and hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Nielsen, Berit D; Mogensen, Susie; Rembold, Christopher M; Frøbert, Ole; Simonsen, Ulf

    2014-01-15

    Hypoxia-induced coronary vasorelaxation is a compensatory mechanism increasing blood flow. We hypothesized that hypoxia shares pathways with adenosine and causes vasorelaxation through the adenosine A(2A) receptor and force suppression by increasing cAMP and phosphorylated heat shock protein (HSP)20. Adenosine receptors in porcine left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD) were examined by RT-PCR and isometric tension recording in myographs. Vasorelaxation was induced by adenosine, 1% oxygen, or both in the absence or presence of ZM241385, an adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist. cAMP was determined by ELISA and p-HSP20/HSP20 and p-MLC/MLC were determined by immunoblotting and densitometric analyses. In coronary arteries exposed to 1% oxygen, there was increased sensitivity to adenosine, the adenosine A2 selective agonist NECA, and the adenosine A(2A) selective receptor agonist CGS21680. ZM241385 shifted concentration-response curves for CGS21680 to the right, whereas the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX, the adenosine A2B receptor antagonist MRS1754 and the adenosine A3 receptor antagonist MRS1523 failed to reduce vasodilatation induced by CGS21680. 1% oxygen or adenosine increased cAMP accumulation and HSP20 phosphorylation without changing T850-MYPT1 and MLC phosphorylation. ZM241385 failed to change 1% oxygen-induced vasodilation, cAMP accumulation, HSP20 phosphorylation and MLC phosphorylation. The PKA inhibitor Rp-8-CPT-cAMPS significantly reduced vasorelaxation induced by 1% oxygen or CGS21680. Our findings suggest that the increased sensitivity to adenosine, NECA, and CGS21680 at 1% oxygen involves adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine and 1% oxygen induce vasorelaxation in PGF2α-contracted porcine coronary arteries partly by force suppression caused by increased cAMP and phosphorylation of HSP20.

  1. Developmental kinetics of bovine nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic embryos.

    PubMed

    Holm, P; Booth, P J; Callesen, H

    2003-01-01

    Early developmental kinetics of nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstituted with blastomeres and parthenogenones produced by ionophore activation followed by either dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) or cycloheximide (CHX) treatment was studied. In vitro produced (IVP) embryos served as controls. Embryos were cultured to the hatched blastocyst stage, and images were recorded every 0.5 h throughout the culture period. The longest cell cycle shifted from 4th to 5th cycle (26 +/- 4 and 44 +/- 5 h) in NT-embryos compared to IVP-embryos (41 +/- 2 and 20 +/- 3 h) and showed greater asynchrony between blastomeres than any other embryo category. Compared to DMAP, CHX prolonged the 1(st) (23 +/- 1 vs. 33 +/- 1 h) and shortened the 3(rd) cell cycle (17 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 1 h). Moreover, though cytoskeleton activity was initialised, a larger proportion of CHX embryos was unable to accomplish first cleavage. The parthegenones differed from IVP embryos with respect to the lengths of the 1st, 3rd, and 4th cell cycles and time of hatching. The findings are discussed in relation to known ultrastructural, chromosomal and genomic aberrations found in NT embryos and parthenogenones. We hypothesize that the shift of the longest cell cycle in NT embryos is associated with a shift in the time of major genomic transition.

  2. [Production of porcine blastocysts expressed EGFP by handmade cloning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Dou, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei-Hang; Lv, Bo; Bolund, Lars; DU, Yu-Tao; Tan, Ping-Ping; Ma, Run-Lin

    2011-05-01

    Production of transgenic animals via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been widely used worldwide. However, the application of SCNT is impeded by overall high costs and low efficiency. Here, we reported a modification of the existing technology in order to overcome some of the disadvantages associated with SCNT. Firstly, a marker gene, enhanced green fluorescent gene (EGFP), was transfected into pig fetal fibroblast cells, and was subsequently screened by fluorescent expression to ensure donor cells expressing EGFP. Porcine embryos expressing EGFP were then produced by a method called handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified method for micromanipulation. To demonstrate the concept, we collected a total of 378 fresh swine oocytes, from which 266 with the nucleus removed, obtained a total of 127 viable recombinant oocytes after fusion with EGFP-expressing cells. In vitro incubation of the 127 recombinant oocytes for approximately 144 hours resulted in successful generation of 65 viable embryos, with an average success rate of 52.1±8.3%. Compared with the traditional SCNT, the method of HMC is not only easy to operate, but also increases the rate of recombinant embryo significantly. Furthermore, the modified method no longer relies on expensive instrument like micromanipulator, facilitating the industrialization of transgenic animal production. PMID:21586400

  3. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  4. Comparison of the metabolic activation of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene by a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and low passage hamster embryo cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiGiovanni, J.; Singer, J.M.; Diamond, L.

    1984-07-01

    Under similar conditions of cell-mediated mutagenesis, secondary hamster embryo (HE) cells were much more effective than were cells of the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 , in activating 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to metabolites mutagenic for V79 Chinese hamster cells. At the same dose of DMBA (0.1 microgram/ml), mutation induction (6-thioguanine resistance) with HE cells as activators was about ten times greater than with HepG2 cells as activators. Both cell types rapidly metabolized DMBA. HepG2 cells converted DMBA primarily to water-soluble derivatives that were neither sulfates nor glucuronides, whereas HE cells converted DMBA to a variety of organic solvent-soluble and water-soluble metabolites. The major water-soluble metabolites produced by HE cells were phenol-glucuronides. In HepG2 cells, binding of DMBA to DNA reached a maximum value of 12.1 pmol/mg DNA at 12 hr, whereas in HE cells, binding reached a peak value of 180.7 pmol/mg DNA at 24 hr. Despite this difference in total binding between the two cell types, the pattern of DNA adducts formed was nearly identical. The results indicate that the marked difference in the ability of HepG2 and HE cells to activate DMBA in cell-mediated mutation assays is not due to a lower metabolizing capacity of HepG2 cells for DMBA. Rather, significant differences in the metabolic pathways used by the two cell types lead to a marked reduction in DNA-binding metabolites in one cell type (HepG2) compared to the other (HE).

  5. Bovine and porcine heparins: different drugs with similar effects on human haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heparins from porcine and bovine intestinal mucosa differ in their structure and also in their effects on coagulation, thrombosis and bleeding. However, they are used as undistinguishable drugs. Methods We compared bovine and porcine intestinal heparin administered to patients undergoing a particular protocol of haemodialysis. We compared plasma concentrations of these two drugs and also evaluated how they affect patients and the dialyzer used. Results Compared with porcine heparin, bovine heparin achieved only 76% of the maximum plasma concentration as IU mL-1. This observation is consistent with the activities observed in the respective pharmaceutical preparations. When the plasma concentrations were expressed on weight basis, bovine heparin achieved a maximum concentration 1.5 fold higher than porcine heparin. The reduced anticoagulant activity and higher concentration, on weight basis, achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer used. The heparin dose is still in a range, which confers security and safety to the patients. Discussion Despite no apparent difference between bovine and porcine intestinal heparins in the haemodialysis practice, these two types of heparins should be used as distinct drugs due to their differences in structure and biological effects. Conclusions The reduced anticoagulant activity achieved in the plasma of patients under dialysis using bovine instead of porcine heparin did not affect significantly the patients or the dialyzer. PMID:23763719

  6. Genetic diagnosis of human embryos.

    PubMed

    Bonnicksen, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    For all the worried talk about genetic engineering over the last two decades, it is surprising how quietly plans for the genetic diagnosis of human embryos have developed. The issues raised warrant careful examination: what needs are met through embryo diagnosis? Who bears responsibility for monitoring this technique? Under what overarching ethic should embryo diagnosis and, eventually, embryo therapy, be applied? What are the broader social implications raised by the genetic diagnosis of human embryos?

  7. Heterologous expression of newly identified galectin-8 from sea urchin embryos produces recombinant protein with lactose binding specificity and anti-adhesive activity

    PubMed Central

    Karakostis, Kostantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Galectin family members specifically bind beta-galactoside derivatives and are involved in different cellular events, including cell communication, signalling, apoptosis, and immune responses. Here, we report a tandem-repeat type galectin from the Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryo, referred to as Pl-GAL-8. The 933nt sequence encodes a protein of 34.73 kDa, containing the conserved HFNPRF and WGxExR motifs in the two highly similar carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). The three-dimensional protein structure model of the N-CRD confirms the high evolutionary conservation of carbohydrate binding sites. The temporal gene expression is regulated during development and transcripts localize at the tip of the archenteron at gastrula stage, in a subset of the secondary mesenchyme cells that differentiate into blastocoelar (immune) cells. Functional studies using a recombinant Pl-GAL-8 expressed in bacteria demonstrate its hemo-agglutinating activity on human red blood cells through the binding to lactose, as well as its ability in inhibiting the adhesion of human Hep-G2 cells to the substrate. The recent implications in autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders make Gal-8 an attractive candidate for therapeutic purposes. Our results offer a solid basis for addressing the use of the new Pl-GAL-8 in functional and applicative studies, respectively in the developmental and biomedical fields. PMID:26640155

  8. Fatty acid breakdown in developing embryos of Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Chia, T; Rawsthorne, S

    2000-12-01

    Developing Brassica napus embryos are primarily concerned with the accumulation of storage products, namely oil, starch and protein. The presence of fatty acid catabolic pathways in the background of this biosynthetic activity was investigated. Enzymes involved in the process of lipid mobilization, such as malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, are detectable towards the late stages of embryo development. [(14)C]Acetate feeding experiments also reveal that fatty acid catabolism becomes increasingly functional as the embryo matures.

  9. Preimplantation embryo programming: transcription, epigenetics, and culture environment.

    PubMed

    Duranthon, Veronique; Watson, Andrew J; Lonergan, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Preimplantation development directs the formation of an implantation- or attachment-competent embryo so that metabolic interactions with the uterus can occur, pregnancy can be initiated, and fetal development can be sustained. The preimplantation embryo exhibits a form of autonomous development fueled by products provided by the oocyte and also from activation of the embryo's genome. Despite this autonomy, the preimplantation embryo is highly influenced by factors in the external environment and in extreme situations, such as those presented by embryo culture or nuclear transfer, the ability of the embryo to adapt to the changing environmental conditions or chromatin to become reprogrammed can exceed its own adaptive capacity, resulting in aberrant embryonic development. Nuclear transfer or embryo culture-induced influences not only affect implantation and establishment of pregnancy but also can extend to fetal and postnatal development and affect susceptibility to disease in later life. It is therefore critical to define the basic program controlling preimplantation development, and also to utilize nuclear transfer and embryo culture models so that we may design healthier environments for preimplantation embryos to thrive in and also minimize the potential for negative consequences during pregnancy and post-gestational life. In addition, it is necessary to couple gene expression analysis with the investigation of gene function so that effects on gene expression can be fully understood. The purpose of this short review is to highlight our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling preimplantation development and report how those mechanisms may be influenced by nuclear transfer and embryo culture. PMID:18239045

  10. Implantation: mutual activity of sex steroid hormones and the immune system guarantee the maternal-embryo interaction.

    PubMed

    Gnainsky, Yulia; Dekel, Nava; Granot, Irit

    2014-09-01

    Implantation is strictly dependent on the mutual interaction between a receptive endometrium and the blastocyst. Hence, synchronization between blastocyst development and the acquisition of endometrial receptivity is a prerequisite for the success of this process. This review depicts the cellular and molecular events that coordinate these complex activities. Specifically, the involvement of the sex steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, as well as components of the immune system, such as cytokines and specific blood cells, is elaborated. PMID:24959815

  11. NK-lysin, a novel effector peptide of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Structure and cDNA cloning of the porcine form, induction by interleukin 2, antibacterial and antitumour activity.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M; Gunne, H; Agerberth, B; Boman, A; Bergman, T; Sillard, R; Jörnvall, H; Mutt, V; Olsson, B; Wigzell, H

    1995-01-01

    A 78 residue antimicrobial, basic peptide, NK-lysin, with three intrachain disulfide bonds was purified from pig small intestine and characterized. A corresponding clone was isolated from a porcine bone marrow cDNA library. The 780 bp DNA sequence had a reading frame of 129 amino acids which corresponded to NK-lysin. The clone was used to show that stimulation with human interleukin-2 induced synthesis of NK-lysin-specific mRNA in a lymphocyte fraction enriched for T and NK cells. Lower levels of mRNA were detected in tissues known to contain T and NK cells, such as small intestine, spleen and colon. Interleukin-2 also induced both proliferation of the lymphocyte fraction and cytolytic function in these cells. Immunostaining showed that NK-lysin was present in cells positive for CD8, CD2 and CD4. NK-lysin showed high anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium and moderate activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The peptide showed a marked lytic activity against an NK-sensitive mouse tumour cell line, YAC-1, but it did not lyse red blood cells. The amino acid sequence of NK-lysin exhibits 33% identity with a putative human preproprotein, NKG5, of unknown function but derived from a cDNA clone of activated NK cells. We suggest that NK-lysin is a new effector molecule of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Images PMID:7737114

  12. The effects of superovulation of donor sows on ovarian response and embryo development after nonsurgical deep-uterine embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Angel, M A; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Sanchez-Osorio, J; Gomis, J; Parrilla, I; Vila, J; Colina, I; Diaz, M; Reixach, J; Vazquez, J L; Vazquez, J M; Roca, J; Martinez, E A

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of superovulation protocols in improving the efficiency of embryo donors for porcine nonsurgical deep-uterine (NsDU) embryo transfer (ET) programs. After weaning (24 hours), purebred Duroc sows (2-6 parity) were treated with 1000 IU (n = 27) or 1500 IU (n = 27) of eCG. Only sows with clear signs of estrus 4 to 72 hours after eCG administration were treated with 750 IU hCG at the onset of estrus. Nonhormonally treated postweaning estrus sows (n = 36) were used as a control. Sows were inseminated and subjected to laparotomy on Days 5 to 6 (Day 0 = onset of estrus). Three sows (11.1%) treated with the highest dosage of eCG presented with polycystic ovaries without signs of ovulation. The remaining sows from nonsuperovulated and superovulated groups were all pregnant, with no differences in fertilization rates among groups. The number of CLs and viable embryos was higher (P < 0.05) in the superovulated groups compared with the controls and increased (P < 0.05) with increasing doses of eCG. There were no differences among groups in the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos. The number of transferable embryos (morulae and unhatched blastocysts) obtained in pregnant sows was higher (P < 0.05) in the superovulated groups than in the control group. In all groups, there was a significant correlation between the number of CLs and the number of viable and transferable embryos, but the number of CLs and the number of oocytes and/or degenerated embryos were not correlated. A total of 46 NsDU ETs were performed in nonhormonally treated recipient sows, with embryos (30 embryos per transfer) recovered from the 1000-IU eCG, 1500-IU eCG, and control groups. In total, pregnancy and farrowing rates were 75.1% and 73.2%, respectively, with a litter size of 9.4 ± 0.6 piglets born, of which 8.8 ± 0.5 were born alive. There were no differences for any of the reproductive parameters evaluated among groups. In conclusion, our results

  13. High incubation temperatures enhance mitochondrial energy metabolism in reptile embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bao-Jun; Li, Teng; Gao, Jing; Ma, Liang; Du, Wei-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Developmental rate increases exponentially with increasing temperature in ectothermic animals, but the biochemical basis underlying this thermal dependence is largely unexplored. We measured mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities of turtle embryos (Pelodiscus sinensis) incubated at different temperatures to identify the metabolic basis of the rapid development occurring at high temperatures in reptile embryos. Developmental rate increased with increasing incubation temperatures in the embryos of P. sinensis. Correspondingly, in addition to the thermal dependence of mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities, high-temperature incubation further enhanced mitochondrial respiration and COX activities in the embryos. This suggests that embryos may adjust mitochondrial respiration and metabolic enzyme activities in response to developmental temperature to achieve high developmental rates at high temperatures. Our study highlights the importance of biochemical investigations in understanding the proximate mechanisms by which temperature affects embryonic development. PMID:25749301

  14. Acute toxic effects of the herbicide formulation and the active ingredient used in cycloxydim-tolerant maize cultivation on embryos and larvae of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Lötters, Stefan; Veith, Michael; Viertel, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Most genetically engineered herbicide-tolerant crops are still awaiting approval in Europe. There is, however, a recent trend for the cultivation of cycloxydim-tolerant maize hybrids for use in maize production. We studied the acute toxic effects of the complementary herbicide Focus(®) Ultra and its active ingredient cycloxydim on embryos and early-stage larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). The results indicate that the herbicide formulation is significantly more toxic than the active ingredient alone. Therefore, it is suggested that the added substances either solely or in a synergistic action with the active ingredient are responsible for adverse effects. The formulation was found to be moderately toxic to embryos but highly toxic to early larvae. Based on calculated teratogenic indices, both cycloxydim and Focus(®) Ultra seem to be non-teratogenic and also the minimum Focus(®) Ultra concentration to inhibit growth in embryos and larvae was close to the LC50 values. The data suggest that tests with the rainbow trout are not in all cases appropriate to assess the risk in aquatically developing anurans. This is demonstrated by 96-h LC50 values, which are for rainbow trout more than 50- to 20-fold higher than for early X. laevis larvae. However, based on worst-case predicted environmental concentrations for surface waters, there is apparently a large safety margin in field use of Focus(®) Ultra if buffer strips between the farm land and the amphibian habitats are regarded. PMID:25634323

  15. Production of an enzymatically active and immunogenic form of ectodomain of Porcine rubulavirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cerriteño-Sánchez, José Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora Hilda; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Herrera-Camacho, Irma

    2016-04-10

    Blue-eye disease (BED) of swine is a viral disease endemic in Mexico. The etiological agent is a paramyxovirus classified as Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV), which exhibits in its envelope the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, the most immunogenic and a major target for vaccine development. We report in this study the obtaining of ectodomain of PoRV HN (eHN) through the Pichia pastoris expression system. The expression vector (pPICZαB-HN) was integrated by displacement into the yeast chromosome and resulted in a Mut(+) phenotype. Expressed eHN in the P. pastoris X33 strain was recovered from cell-free medium, featuring up to 67 nmol/min/mg after 6 days of expression. eHN was recognized by the serum of infected pigs with strains currently circulating in the Mexican Bajio region. eHN induces antibodies in mice after 28 days of immunization with specific recognition in ELISA test. These antibodies were able to inhibit >80% replication by viral neutralization assays in cell culture. These studies show the obtaining of a protein with similar characteristics to the native HN and which may be a candidate to propose a vaccine or to use the antigen in a serologic diagnostic test.

  16. Simian virus 40 large T antigen contains two independent activities that cooperate with a ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cavender, J F; Conn, A; Epler, M; Lacko, H; Tevethia, M J

    1995-01-01

    The simian virus 40 large T antigen immortalizes growing primary cells in culture. In addition, this viral oncoprotein cooperates with an activated ras protein to produce dense foci on monolayers of rat embryo fibroblasts (REF). The relationship between independent immortalization and cooperative transformation with ras has not been defined. Previously, two regions of T antigen were shown to contain immortalization activities. An N-terminal fragment consisting of amino acids 1 to 147 immortalizes rodent cells (L. Sompayrac and K. J. Danna, Virology 181:412-415, 1991). Loss-of-function analysis indicated that immortalization depended on integrity of the T-antigen segments containing amino acids 351 to 450 and 533 to 626 (T. D. Kierstead and M. J. Tevethia, J. Virol. 67:1817-1829, 1993). The experiments described here were directed toward determining whether these same T-antigen regions were sufficient for cooperation with ras. Initially, constructs that produce T antigens containing amino acids 176 to 708 (T176-708) or 1 to 147 were tested in a ras cooperation assay. Both polypeptides cooperated with ras to produce dense foci on monolayers of primary REF. These results showed that T antigen contains two separate ras cooperation activities. In order to determine the N-terminal limit of the ras cooperation activity contained within the T176-708 polypeptide, a series of constructs designed to produce fusion proteins containing T-antigen segments beginning at residues 251, 301, 337, 351, 371, 401, 451, 501, 551, 601, and 651 was generated. Each of these constructs was tested for the capacity to cooperate with ras to produce dense foci on REF monolayers. The results indicated that a polypeptide containing T-antigen amino acids 251 to 708 (T251-708) was sufficient to cooperate with ras, whereas the more extensively truncated products were not. The abilities of the N-terminally truncated T antigens to bind p53 were examined in p53-deficient cells infected with a

  17. Cloning and characterization of 5'-untranslated region of porcine beta casein gene (CSN2).

    PubMed

    Lee, Poongyeon; Chung, Hee Kyoung; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Hwi-Cheul; Woo, Jae-Seok; Lee, Seunghoon; Jo, Su-Jin; Chang, Won-Kyong; Lee, Hoon-Taek; Kwon, Moosik; Park, Jin-Ki

    2008-10-01

    beta-Casein (CSN2) is a major milk protein in most mammals. The CSN2 gene is generally induced by lactogenic hormones bound to its promoter. The expression of this gene can be enhanced by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Here, we analyzed the promoter and intron 1 regions of the porcine CSN2 gene. The porcine CSN2 promoter and intron 1 regions (-3098bp to +2446bp) were cloned into the pGL3-Basic vector containing the luciferase reporter gene (pCSN2-PEI). Lactogenic signals induced the transcription of porcine CSN2. By using AG490, a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, we demonstrated that STAT5 positively regulates the transcription of porcine CSN2. Further, seven STAT mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. By performing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), we located a critical element for pCSN2-PEI transcription bound to STAT5 in the -102bp to -84bp region. The construct containing only the promoter region (pCSN2-P), however, did not exert any promotive effects on transcription in two cell types-a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (HC11) and porcine mammary gland epithelial cells (PMECs). Thus, the construct containing intron 1 of porcine CSN2 exerts an elevating effect on transcription. We suggest that the transcription of porcine CSN2 is regulated by lactogenic signals via the STAT5 site (-102bp to -84bp) and intron 1.

  18. Detection of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase in the developing spinal cord of the mouse embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Miura, Kenji

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in developing spinal cord. {yields} We detected physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs by an improved method. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 were detected in the marginal layer and the dorsal horn. {yields} p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK1/2 might play critical roles in the developing spinal cord. {yields} Constructing phosphoprotein atlases will be possible if expanding this work. -- Abstract: Global understanding of the proteome is a major research topic. The comprehensive visualization of the distribution of proteins in vivo or the construction of in situ protein atlases may be a valuable strategy for proteomic researchers. Information about the distribution of various proteins under physiological and pathological conditions should be extremely valuable for the basic and clinical sciences. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays an essential role in intracellular signaling in organisms. This cascade also regulates biological processes involving development, differentiation, and proliferation. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are integral reactions in regulating the activity of MAPKs. Changes in the phosphorylation state of MAPKs are rapid and reversible; therefore, the localizations of physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo are difficult to accurately detect. Furthermore, phosphorylated MAPKs are likely to change phosphorylated states through commonly used experimental manipulations. In the present study, as a step toward the construction of in situ phosphoprotein atlases, we attempted to detect physiologically phosphorylated MAPKs in vivo in developing spinal cords of mice. We previously reported an improved immunohistochemical method for detecting unstable phosphorylated MAPKs. The distribution patterns of phosphorylated MAPKs in the spinal cords of embryonic mice from embryonic day 13 (E13) to E17 were observed with an improved immunohistochemical method. Phosphorylated

  19. Effect of the tripeptide glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine on the proliferation and synthetic activity of chick embryo chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pesáková, V; Novotná, J; Adam, M

    1995-08-01

    Under certain conditions chondrocytes form lattices with cartilage collagens, which may serve as cartilage implants. It is necessary to find the optimal conditions for culturing chondrocytes. Three different supports are compared: (a) plastic; (b) cartilage collagens; and (c) insoluble skin collagen solubilized under denaturing conditions (ISC-40). The effect of culture medium supplementation with the tripeptide (Gly-His-Lys)2.Cu.2H2O.2NaCl (GHK) on chondrocyte proliferation and synthetic activity is studied, with particular attention paid to collagen types I, II and III. The collagen supports stimulated chondrocyte proliferation, but on the ISC-40 support they started to dedifferentiate rather early. In the primary culture, chondrocytes on all three supports synthesized mainly collagen type II, and only small amounts of types I and III. In the first passage the synthesis of these two collagen types increased, relative to collagen type II, at least on the cartilage collagen support. Supplementation of culture medium with GHK stimulated chondrocyte proliferation in the primary structure mostly on the ISC-40 support. On the other two types of supports the stimulatory effect of GHK was expressed mostly in the first passages. The collagen synthetic rate was increased by GHK on both of the collagen supports; on the cartilage collagen support collagen type II was synthesized predominantly and on the ISC-40 support types I and III were mostly formed. It is suggested that supplementation of culture medium with GHK may be useful in the preparation of cartilage implants. PMID:8562779

  20. Ethics for embryos.

    PubMed

    Parker, C

    2007-10-01

    This paper responds to DW Brock's technically strong case for the use of human embryonic stem cells in medical research. His main issue in this context is the question of whether it is moral to destroy viable human embryos. He offers a number of reasons to support his view that it is moral to destroy them, but his use of conceptual arguments is not adequate to secure his position. The purpose and scope of this paper is wholly concerned with his arguments rather than with the conclusion that it is justifiable to destroy human embryos. The author proceeds through his variety of arguments and offers reasons for rejecting them. The author concludes that Brock has not shown that it is moral to destroy viable human embryos.

  1. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    PubMed

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ lay