Science.gov

Sample records for activated ras signaling

  1. Digital signaling and hysteresis characterize Ras activation in lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jayajit; Ho, Mary; Zikherman, Julie; Govern, Christopher; Yang, Ming; Weiss, Arthur; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of Ras proteins underlies functional decisions in diverse cell types. Two molecules, RasGRP and SOS, catalyze Ras activation in lymphocytes. Binding of active Ras to SOS′ allosteric pocket markedly increases SOS′ activity establishing a positive feedback loop for SOS-mediated Ras activation. Integrating in silico and in vitro studies, we demonstrate that digital signaling in lymphocytes (cells are “on” or “off”) is predicated upon feedback regulation of SOS. SOS′ feedback loop leads to hysteresis in the dose-response curve, which can enable a capacity to sustain Ras activation as stimuli are withdrawn and exhibit “memory” of past encounters with antigen. Ras activation via RasGRP alone is analog (graded increase in amplitude with stimulus). We describe how complementary analog (RasGRP) and digital (SOS) pathways act on Ras to efficiently convert analog input to digital output. Numerous predictions regarding the impact of our findings on lymphocyte function and development are noted. PMID:19167334

  2. Dissecting the senescence-like program in tumor cells activated by Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Bihani, Teeru; Chicas, Agustin; Lo, Crystal Pui-Kwan; Lin, Athena W

    2007-01-26

    Activated Ras signaling can induce a permanent growth arrest in osteosarcoma cells. Here, we report that a senescence-like growth inhibition is also achieved in human carcinoma cells upon the transduction of H-Ras(V12). Ras-induced tumor senescence can be recapitulated by the transduction of activated, but not wild-type, MEK. The ability for H-Ras(V12) to suppress tumor cell growth is drastically compromised in cells that harbor endogenous activating ras mutations. Notably, growth inhibition of tumor cells containing ras mutations can be achieved through the introduction of activated MEK. Tumor senescence induced by Ras signaling can occur in the absence of p16 or Rb and is not interrupted by the inactivation of Rb, p107, or p130 via short hairpin RNA or the transduction with HPV16 E7. In contrast, inactivation of p21 via short hairpin RNA disrupts Ras-induced tumor senescence. In summary, this study uncovers a senescence-like program activated by Ras signaling to inhibit cancer cell growth. This program appears to be intact in cancer cells that do not harbor ras mutations. Moreover, cancer cells that carry ras mutations remain susceptible to tumor senescence induced by activated MEK. These novel findings can potentially lead to the development of innovative cancer intervention.

  3. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  4. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine couples Ras to activation of Raf protein kinase during mitogenic signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Cai, H; Erhardt, P; Troppmair, J; Diaz-Meco, M T; Sithanandam, G; Rapp, U R; Moscat, J; Cooper, G M

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and activation of the Raf-1 protein kinase in Ras-mediated transduction of mitogenic signals. As previously reported, cotransfection of a PC-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) expression plasmid bypassed the block to cell proliferation resulting from expression of the dominant inhibitory mutant Ras N-17. In contrast, PC-PLC failed to bypass the inhibitory effect of dominant negative Raf mutants, suggesting that PC-PLC functions downstream of Ras but upstream of Raf. Consistent with this hypothesis, treatment of quiescent cells with exogenous PC-PLC induced Raf activation, even when normal Ras function was blocked by Ras N-17 expression. Further, activation of Raf in response to mitogenic growth factors was blocked by inhibition of endogenous PC-PLC. Taken together, these results indicate that hydrolysis of PC mediates Raf activation in response to mitogenic growth factors. Images PMID:8246981

  5. Plasma membrane regulates Ras signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Tanmay Sanjeev; Muratcioglu, Serena; Marszalek, Richard; Jang, Hyunbum; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ras GTPases activate more than 20 signaling pathways, regulating such essential cellular functions as proliferation, survival, and migration. How Ras proteins control their signaling diversity is still a mystery. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the plasma membrane plays a critical role. Among these are: (1) selective recruitment of Ras and its effectors to particular localities allowing access to Ras regulators and effectors; (2) specific membrane-induced conformational changes promoting Ras functional diversity; and (3) oligomerization of membrane-anchored Ras to recruit and activate Raf. Taken together, the membrane does not only attract and retain Ras but also is a key regulator of Ras signaling. This can already be gleaned from the large variability in the sequences of Ras membrane targeting domains, suggesting that localization, environment and orientation are important factors in optimizing the function of Ras isoforms. PMID:27054048

  6. Plasma membrane regulates Ras signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Tanmay Sanjeev; Muratcioglu, Serena; Marszalek, Richard; Jang, Hyunbum; Keskin, Ozlem; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ras GTPases activate more than 20 signaling pathways, regulating such essential cellular functions as proliferation, survival, and migration. How Ras proteins control their signaling diversity is still a mystery. Several pieces of evidence suggest that the plasma membrane plays a critical role. Among these are: (1) selective recruitment of Ras and its effectors to particular localities allowing access to Ras regulators and effectors; (2) specific membrane-induced conformational changes promoting Ras functional diversity; and (3) oligomerization of membrane-anchored Ras to recruit and activate Raf. Taken together, the membrane does not only attract and retain Ras but also is a key regulator of Ras signaling. This can already be gleaned from the large variability in the sequences of Ras membrane targeting domains, suggesting that localization, environment and orientation are important factors in optimizing the function of Ras isoforms.

  7. Alphavirus production is inhibited in neurofibromin 1-deficient cells through activated RAS signalling.

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsova, Olga A; Domina, Aaron M; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A; Davey, Robert A; Weaver, Scott C; Watowich, Stanley J

    2008-07-20

    Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant cell lines. Subsequent analysis indicated that expression of NF1 was significantly reduced in alphavirus-resistant cells. Importantly, independent down-regulation of NF1 expression in WT HEK 293 cells decreased virus production and increased cell viability during SINV infection, relative to infected WT cells. Additionally, we observed hyperactive RAS signalling in the resistant HEK 293 cells, which was anticipated because NF1 is a negative regulator of RAS. Expression of constitutively active RAS (HRAS-G12V) in a WT HEK 293 cell line resulted in a marked delay in virus production, compared with infected cells transfected with parental plasmid or dominant-negative RAS (HRAS-S17N). This work highlights novel host cell determinants required for alphavirus pathogenesis and suggests that RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to SINV infection.

  8. Alphavirus production is inhibited in neurofibromin 1-deficient cells through activated RAS signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsova, Olga A. Domina, Aaron M. Kolokoltsov, Andrey A. Davey, Robert A. | Weaver, Scott C. || Watowich, Stanley J. ||

    2008-07-20

    Virus-host interactions essential for alphavirus pathogenesis are poorly understood. To address this shortcoming, we coupled retrovirus insertional mutagenesis and a cell survival selection strategy to generate clonal cell lines broadly resistant to Sindbis virus (SINV) and other alphaviruses. Resistant cells had significantly impaired SINV production relative to wild-type (WT) cells, although virus binding and fusion events were similar in both sets of cells. Analysis of the retroviral integration sites identified the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene as disrupted in alphavirus-resistant cell lines. Subsequent analysis indicated that expression of NF1 was significantly reduced in alphavirus-resistant cells. Importantly, independent down-regulation of NF1 expression in WT HEK 293 cells decreased virus production and increased cell viability during SINV infection, relative to infected WT cells. Additionally, we observed hyperactive RAS signalling in the resistant HEK 293 cells, which was anticipated because NF1 is a negative regulator of RAS. Expression of constitutively active RAS (HRAS-G12V) in a WT HEK 293 cell line resulted in a marked delay in virus production, compared with infected cells transfected with parental plasmid or dominant-negative RAS (HRAS-S17N). This work highlights novel host cell determinants required for alphavirus pathogenesis and suggests that RAS signalling may play an important role in neuronal susceptibility to SINV infection.

  9. Aurora kinase A interacts with H-Ras and potentiates Ras-MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Umstead, MaKendra; Xiong, Jinglin; Qi, Qi; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian

    2017-02-03

    In cancer, upregulated Ras promotes cellular transformation and proliferation in part through activation of oncogenic Ras-MAPK signaling. While directly inhibiting Ras has proven challenging, new insights into Ras regulation through protein-protein interactions may offer unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Here we report the identification and validation of Aurora kinase A (Aurora A) as a novel Ras binding protein. We demonstrate that the kinase domain of Aurora A mediates the interaction with the N-terminal domain of H-Ras. Further more, the interaction of Aurora A and H-Ras exists in a protein complex with Raf-1. We show that binding of H-Ras to Raf-1 and subsequent MAPK signaling is enhanced by Aurora A, and requires active H-Ras. Thus, the functional linkage between Aurora A and the H-Ras/Raf-1 protein complex may provide a mechanism for Aurora A's oncogenic activity through direct activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway.

  10. Calcium activation of Ras mediated by neuronal exchange factor Ras-GRF.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, C L; Freshney, N W; Rosen, L B; Ghosh, A; Greenberg, M E; Feig, L A

    1995-08-10

    Tyrosine kinase receptors stimulate the Ras signalling pathway by enhancing the activity of the SOS nucleotide-exchange factor. This occurs, at least in part, by the recruitment of an SOS-GRB2 complex to Ras in the plasma membrane. Here we describe a different signalling pathway to Ras that involves activation of the Ras-GRF exchange factor in response to Ca2+ influx. In particular, we show that the ability of Ras-GRF to activate Ras in vivo is markedly enhanced by raised Ca2+ concentrations. Activation is mediated by calmodulin binding to an IQ motif in Ras-GRF, because substitutions in conserved amino acids in this motif prevent both calmodulin binding to Ras-GRF and Ras-GRF activation in vivo. So far, full-length Ras-GRF has been detected only in brain neurons. Our findings implicate Ras-GRF in the regulation of neuronal functions that are influenced by Ca2+ signals.

  11. Signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase and Rac/Rho does not duplicate the effects of activated Ras on skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ramocki, M B; Johnson, S E; White, M A; Ashendel, C L; Konieczny, S F; Taparowsky, E J

    1997-01-01

    The ability of basic helix-loop-helix muscle regulatory factors (MRFs), such as MyoD, to convert nonmuscle cells to a myogenic lineage is regulated by numerous growth factor and oncoprotein signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown that H-Ras 12V inhibits differentiation to a skeletal muscle lineage by disrupting MRF function via a mechanism that is independent of the dimerization, DNA binding, and inherent transcriptional activation properties of the proteins. To investigate the intracellular signaling pathway(s) that mediates the inhibition of MRF-induced myogenesis by oncogenic Ras, we tested two transformation-defective H-Ras 12V effector domain variants for their ability to alter terminal differentiation. H-Ras 12V,35S retains the ability to activate the Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade, whereas H-Ras 12V,40C is unable to interact directly with Raf-1 yet still influences other signaling intermediates, including Rac and Rho. Expression of each H-Ras 12V variant in C3H10T1/2 cells abrogates MyoD-induced activation of the complete myogenic program, suggesting that MAP kinase-dependent and -independent Ras signaling pathways individually block myogenesis in this model system. However, additional studies with constitutively activated Rac1 and RhoA proteins revealed no negative effects on MyoD-induced myogenesis. Similarly, treatment of Ras-inhibited myoblasts with the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 revealed that elevated MAP kinase activity is not a significant contributor to the H-Ras 12V effect. These data suggest that an additional Ras pathway, distinct from the well-characterized MAP kinase and Rac/Rho pathways known to be important for the transforming function of activated Ras, is primarily responsible for the inhibition of myogenesis by H-Ras 12V. PMID:9199290

  12. Protein Kinase A-independent Ras Protein Activation Cooperates with Rap1 Protein to Mediate Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases (ERK) by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Dillon, Tara J; Takahashi, Maho; Earley, Keith T; Stork, Philip J S

    2016-10-07

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an important mediator of hormonal stimulation of cell growth and differentiation through its activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade. Two small G proteins, Ras and Rap1, have been proposed to mediate this activation, with either Ras or Rap1 acting in distinct cell types. Using Hek293 cells, we show that both Ras and Rap1 are required for cAMP signaling to ERKs. The roles of Ras and Rap1 were distinguished by their mechanism of activation, dependence on the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and the magnitude and kinetics of their effects on ERKs. Ras was required for the early portion of ERK activation by cAMP and was activated independently of PKA. Ras activation required the Ras/Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) PDZ-GEF1. Importantly, this action of PDZ-GEF1 was disrupted by mutation within its putative cyclic nucleotide-binding domain within PDZ-GEF1. Compared with Ras, Rap1 activation of ERKs was of longer duration. Rap1 activation was dependent on PKA and required Src family kinases and the Rap1 exchanger C3G. This is the first report of a mechanism for the cooperative actions of Ras and Rap1 in cAMP activation of ERKs. One physiological role for the sustained activation of ERKs is the transcription and stabilization of a range of transcription factors, including c-FOS. We show that the induction of c-FOS by cAMP required both the early and sustained phases of ERK activation, requiring Ras and Rap1, as well as for each of the Raf isoforms, B-Raf and C-Raf.

  13. YES oncogenic activity is specified by its SH4 domain and regulates RAS/MAPK signaling in colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Fanny; Leroy, Cédric; Simon, Valérie; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SRC family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) display important functions in human cancer, but their specific role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that YES regulates a unique oncogenic signaling important for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression that is not shared with SRC. Here, we addressed the underlying mechanism involved in this process. We show that YES oncogenic signaling relies on palmitoylation of its SH4 domain that controls YES localization in cholesterol-enriched membrane micro-domains. Specifically, deletion of the palmitoylation site compromised YES transforming activity, while addition of a palmitoylation site in the SH4 domain of SRC was sufficient for SRC to restore the transforming properties of cells in which YES had been silenced. Subsequently, SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that micro-domain-associated cell adhesive components and receptor tyrosine kinases are major YES substrates. YES also phosphorylates upstream regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling, including EGFR, SHC and SHP2, which were not targeted by SRC due to the absence of palmitoylation. Accordingly, EGFR-induced MAPK activity was attenuated by YES down-regulation, while increased RAS activity significantly restored cell transformation that was lost upon YES silencing. Collectively, these results uncover a critical role for the SH4 domain in the specification of SFK oncogenic activity and a selective role for YES in the induction of RAS/MAPK signaling in CRC cells. PMID:26269757

  14. YES oncogenic activity is specified by its SH4 domain and regulates RAS/MAPK signaling in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Fanny; Leroy, Cédric; Simon, Valérie; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SRC family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) display important functions in human cancer, but their specific role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that YES regulates a unique oncogenic signaling important for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression that is not shared with SRC. Here, we addressed the underlying mechanism involved in this process. We show that YES oncogenic signaling relies on palmitoylation of its SH4 domain that controls YES localization in cholesterol-enriched membrane micro-domains. Specifically, deletion of the palmitoylation site compromised YES transforming activity, while addition of a palmitoylation site in the SH4 domain of SRC was sufficient for SRC to restore the transforming properties of cells in which YES had been silenced. Subsequently, SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that micro-domain-associated cell adhesive components and receptor tyrosine kinases are major YES substrates. YES also phosphorylates upstream regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling, including EGFR, SHC and SHP2, which were not targeted by SRC due to the absence of palmitoylation. Accordingly, EGFR-induced MAPK activity was attenuated by YES down-regulation, while increased RAS activity significantly restored cell transformation that was lost upon YES silencing. Collectively, these results uncover a critical role for the SH4 domain in the specification of SFK oncogenic activity and a selective role for YES in the induction of RAS/MAPK signaling in CRC cells.

  15. Photochemical Modulation of Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction using Caged Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors: Activation via One- and Two-Photon Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Warmka, Janel K.; Dore, Timothy M.; Blank, David A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates, and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase, Bhc-FTI, is described. The inhibitor was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol functional group with a Bhc moiety; while Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryls. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor (FTI) that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies. PMID:22492666

  16. Photochemical modulation of Ras-mediated signal transduction using caged farnesyltransferase inhibitors: activation by one- and two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Abate-Pella, Daniel; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Ochocki, Joshua D; Warmka, Janel K; Dore, Timothy M; Blank, David A; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Distefano, Mark D

    2012-05-07

    The creation of caged molecules involves the attachment of protecting groups to biologically active compounds such as ligands, substrates and drugs that can be removed under specific conditions. Photoremovable caging groups are the most common due to their ability to be removed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, the synthesis and photochemistry of a caged inhibitor of protein farnesyltransferase is described. The inhibitor, FTI, was caged by alkylation of a critical thiol group with a bromohydroxycoumarin (Bhc) moiety. While Bhc is well established as a protecting group for carboxylates and phosphates, it has not been extensively used to cage sulfhydryl groups. The resulting caged molecule, Bhc-FTI, can be photolyzed with UV light to release the inhibitor that prevents Ras farnesylation, Ras membrane localization and downstream signaling. Finally, it is shown that Bhc-FTI can be uncaged by two-photon excitation to produce FTI at levels sufficient to inhibit Ras localization and alter cell morphology. Given the widespread involvement of Ras proteins in signal transduction pathways, this caged inhibitor should be useful in a plethora of studies.

  17. Spatial segregation of Ras signaling: new evidence from fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eric C; Philips, Mark R

    2006-09-01

    The Ras GTPases act as binary switches for signal transduction pathways that are important for growth regulation and tumorigenesis. Despite the biochemical simplicity of this switch, Ras proteins control multiple pathways, and the functions of the four mammalian Ras proteins are not overlapping. This raises an important question--how does a Ras protein selectively regulate a particular activity? One recently emerging model suggests that a single Ras protein can control different functions by acting in distinct cellular compartments. A critical test of this model is to identify pathways that are selectively controlled by Ras when it is localized to a particular compartment. A recent study has examined Ras signaling in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which expresses only one Ras protein that controls two separate evolutionarily conserved pathways. This study demonstrates that whereas Ras localized to the plasma membrane selectively regulates a MAP kinase pathway to mediate mating pheromone signaling, Ras localized to the endomembrane activates a Cdc42 pathway to mediate cell polarity and protein trafficking. This study has provided unambiguous evidence for compartmentalized signaling of Ras.

  18. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Elina; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-10-15

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner.

  19. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Siljamäki, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner. PMID:27503857

  20. SodC modulates ras and PKB signaling in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Boris; Kim, Seon-Hee; Sharief, Mujataba; Sun, Tong; Kim, Lou W

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that the basal RasG activity is aberrantly high in cells lacking Superoxide dismutase C (SodC). Here we report that other Ras proteins such as RasC and RasD activities are not affected in sodC(-) cells and mutagenesis studies showed that the presence of the Cys(118) in the Ras proteins is essential for the superoxide-mediated activation of Ras proteins in Dictyostelium. In addition to the loss of SodC, lack of extracellular magnesium ions increased the level of intracellular superoxide and active RasG proteins. Aberrantly active Ras proteins in sodC(-) cells persistently localized at the plasma membrane, but those in wild type cells under magnesium deficient medium exhibited intracellular vesicular localization. Interestingly, the aberrantly activated Ras proteins in wild type cells were largely insulated from their normal downstream events such as Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-P3 (PIP3) accumulation, Protein Kinase B (PKB) activation, and PKBs substrates phosphorylation. Intriguingly, however, aberrantly activated Ras proteins in sodC(-) cells were still engaged in signaling to their downstream targets, and thus excessive PKBs substrates phosphorylation persisted. In summary, we suggest that SodC and RasG proteins are essential part of a novel inhibitory mechanism that discourages oxidatively stressed cells from chemotaxis and thus inhibits the delivery of potentially damaged genome to the next generation.

  1. Ras trafficking, localization and compartmentalized signalling.

    PubMed

    Prior, Ian A; Hancock, John F

    2012-04-01

    Ras proteins are proto-oncogenes that are frequently mutated in human cancers. Three closely related isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are expressed in all cells and have overlapping but distinctive functions. Recent work has revealed how differences between the Ras isoforms in their trafficking, localization and protein-membrane orientation enable signalling specificity to be determined. We review the various strategies used to characterize compartmentalized Ras localization and signalling. Localization is an important contextual modifier of signalling networks and insights from the Ras system are of widespread relevance for researchers interested in signalling initiated from membranes.

  2. Constitutively active RAS signaling reduces 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-mediated gene transcription in intestinal epithelial cells by reducing vitamin D receptor expression.

    PubMed

    DeSmet, Marsha L; Fleet, James C

    2017-01-16

    High vitamin D status is associated with reduced colon cancer risk but these studies ignore the diversity in the molecular etiology of colon cancer. RAS activating mutations are common in colon cancer and they activate pro-proliferative signaling pathways. We examined the impact of RAS activating mutations on 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D)-mediated gene expression in cultured colon and intestinal cell lines. Transient transfection of Caco-2 cells with a constitutively active mutant K-RAS (G12 V) significantly reduced 1,25(OH)2D-induced activity of both a human 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 24 hydroxyase (CYP24A1) promoter-luciferase and an artificial 3X vitamin D response element (VDRE) promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Young Adult Mouse Colon (YAMC) and Rat Intestinal Epithelial (RIE) cell lines with stable expression of mutant H-RAS had suppressed 1,25(OH)2D-mediated induction of CYP24A1 mRNA. The RAS effects were associated with lower Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and protein levels in YAMC and RIE cells and they could be partially reversed by VDR overexpression. RAS-mediated suppression of VDR levels was not due to either reduced VDR mRNA stability or increased VDR gene methylation. However, chromatin accessibility to the VDR gene at the proximal promoter (-300bp), an enhancer region at -6kb, and an enhancer region located in exon 3 was significantly reduced in RAS transformed YAMC cells (YAMC-RAS). These data show that constitutively active RAS signaling suppresses 1,25(OH)2D-mediated gene transcription in colon epithelial cells by reducing VDR gene transcription but the mechanism for this suppression is not yet known. These data suggest that cancers with RAS-activating mutations may be less responsive to vitamin D mediated treatment or chemoprevention.

  3. Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-15

    K-ras is one of the most frequently mutated genes in virtually all types of human cancers. Using mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitors as a model system, we studied the role of endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. When oncogenic K-ras is expressed from its endogenous promoter, it hyperactivates cytokine-dependent signaling pathways and results in a partial block in erythroid differentiation. In erythroid progenitors deficient in K-ras, cytokine-dependent Akt activation is greatly reduced, leading to delays in erythroid differentiation. Thus, both loss- and gain-of-Kras functions affect erythroid differentiation through modulation of cytokine signaling. These results support the notion that in human cancer patients oncogenic Ras signaling might be controlled by antagonizing essential cytokines.

  4. Aurora kinase A interacts with H-Ras and potentiates Ras-MAPK signaling | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    In cancer, upregulated Ras promotes cellular transformation and proliferation in part through activation of oncogenic Ras-MAPK signaling. While directly inhibiting Ras has proven challenging, new insights into Ras regulation through protein-protein interactions may offer unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Here we report the identification and validation of Aurora kinase A (Aurora A) as a novel Ras binding protein. We demonstrate that the kinase domain of Aurora A mediates the interaction with the N-terminal domain of H-Ras.

  5. Regulation of Ras Exchange Factors and Cellular Localization of Ras Activation by Lipid Messengers in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jesse E.; Rubio, Ignacio; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    The Ras-MAPK signaling pathway is highly conserved throughout evolution and is activated downstream of a wide range of receptor stimuli. Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RasGEFs) catalyze GTP loading of Ras and play a pivotal role in regulating receptor-ligand induced Ras activity. In T cells, three families of functionally important RasGEFs are expressed: RasGRF, RasGRP, and Son of Sevenless (SOS)-family GEFs. Early on it was recognized that Ras activation is critical for T cell development and that the RasGEFs play an important role herein. More recent work has revealed that nuances in Ras activation appear to significantly impact T cell development and selection. These nuances include distinct biochemical patterns of analog versus digital Ras activation, differences in cellular localization of Ras activation, and intricate interplays between the RasGEFs during distinct T cell developmental stages as revealed by various new mouse models. In many instances, the exact nature of these nuances in Ras activation or how these may result from fine-tuning of the RasGEFs is not understood. One large group of biomolecules critically involved in the control of RasGEFs functions are lipid second messengers. Multiple, yet distinct lipid products are generated following T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and bind to different domains in the RasGRP and SOS RasGEFs to facilitate the activation of the membrane-anchored Ras GTPases. In this review we highlight how different lipid-based elements are generated by various enzymes downstream of the TCR and other receptors and how these dynamic and interrelated lipid products may fine-tune Ras activation by RasGEFs in developing T cells. PMID:24027568

  6. Hepatitis B virus X protein induces RNA polymerase III-dependent gene transcription and increases cellular TATA-binding protein by activating the Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, H D; Trivedi, A; Johnson, D L

    1997-12-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the hepatitis B virus protein, X, activates all three classes of RNA polymerase III (pol III)-dependent promoters by increasing the cellular level of TATA-binding protein (TBP) (H.-D. Wang et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:6720-6728, 1995), a limiting transcription component (A. Trivedi et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:6909-6916, 1996). We have investigated whether these X-mediated events are dependent on the activation of the Ras/Raf-1 signaling pathway. Transient expression of a dominant-negative mutant Ras gene (Ras-ala15) in a Drosophila S-2 stable cell line expressing X (X-S2), or incubation of the cells with a Ras farnesylation inhibitor, specifically blocked both the X-dependent activation of a cotransfected tRNA gene and the increase in cellular TBP levels. Transient expression of a constitutively activated form of Ras (Ras-val12) in control S2 cells produced both an increase in tRNA gene transcription and an increase in cellular TBP levels. These events are not cell type specific since X-mediated gene induction was also shown to be dependent on Ras activation in a stable rat 1A cell line expressing X. Furthermore, increases in RNA pol III-dependent gene activity and TBP levels could be restored in X-S2 cells expressing Ras-ala15 by coexpressing a constitutively activated form of Raf-1. These events are serum dependent, and when the cells are serum deprived, the X-mediated effects are augmented. Together, these results demonstrate that the X-mediated induction of RNA pol III-dependent genes and increase in TBP are both dependent on the activation of the Ras/Raf-1 signaling cascade. In addition, these studies define two new and important consequences mediated by the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway: an increase in the central transcription factor, TBP, and the induction of RNA pol III-dependent gene activity.

  7. Ras and Rap signaling in synaptic plasticity and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Stornetta, Ruth L; Zhu, J Julius

    2011-02-01

    The Ras family GTPases (Ras, Rap1, and Rap2) and their downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK, JNK, and p38MAPK) and PI3K signaling cascades control various physiological processes. In neuronal cells, recent studies have shown that these parallel cascades signal distinct forms of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor trafficking during experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and adaptive behavior. Interestingly, both hypo- and hyperactivation of Ras/ Rap signaling impair the capacity of synaptic plasticity, underscoring the importance of a "happy-medium" dynamic regulation of the signaling. Moreover, accumulating reports have linked various genetic defects that either up- or down-regulate Ras/Rap signaling with several mental disorders associated with learning disability (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Angelman syndrome, autism, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Coffin-Lowry syndrome, Costello syndrome, Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes, fragile X syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, schizophrenia, tuberous sclerosis, and X-linked mental retardation), highlighting the necessity of happy-medium dynamic regulation of Ras/Rap signaling in learning behavior. Thus, the recent advances in understanding of neuronal Ras/Rap signaling provide a useful guide for developing novel treatments for mental diseases.

  8. Ras-independent activation of ERK signaling via the torso receptor tyrosine kinase is mediated by Rap1.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Snigdha; Smolik, Sarah M; Forte, Michael A; Stork, Philip J S

    2005-02-22

    In Drosophila embryos, the Torso receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activates the small G protein Ras (D-Ras1) and the protein kinase Raf (D-Raf) to activate ERK to direct differentiation of terminal structures . However, genetic studies have demonstrated that Torso, and by extension other RTKs, can activate Raf and ERK independently of Ras . In mammalian cells, the small G protein Rap1 has been proposed to couple RTKs to ERKs. However, the ability of Rap1 to activate ERKs remains controversial, in part because direct genetic evidence supporting this hypothesis is lacking. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that D-Rap1, the Drosophila homolog of Rap1, can activate D-Raf and ERK. We show that D-Rap1 binds D-Raf and activates ERKs in a GTP- and D-Raf-dependent manner. Targeted disruption of D-Rap1 expression decreased both Torso-dependent ERK activation and the ERK-dependent expression of the zygotic genes tailless and huckebein to levels similar to those achieved in D-Ras1 null embryos. Furthermore, combined deficiencies of D-Ras1 and D-Rap1 completely abolished expression of these genes, mimicking the phenotype observed in embryos lacking D-Raf. These studies provide the first direct genetic evidence of Rap1-mediated activation of the MAP kinase cascade in eukaryotic organisms.

  9. Plumbagin inhibits tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth through the Ras signalling pathway following activation of the VEGF receptor-2

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Li; Liu, Junchen; Zhai, Dong; Lin, Qingxiang; He, Lijun; Dong, Yanmin; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Binbin; Chen, Yihua; Yi, Zhengfang; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Angiogenesis-based therapy is an effective anti-tumour strategy and previous reports have shown some beneficial effects of a naturally occurring bioactive compound plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone). Here, we sought to determine the biological effects of plumbagin on signalling mechanisms during tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of plumbagin were evaluated in various in vitro assays which utilised human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) proliferation, migration and tube formation. Plumbagin was also evaluated in vivo using chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and mouse corneal micropocket models., Human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the effects of plumbagin on angiogenesis. Immunofluorescence, GST pull-down and Western blotting were employed to explore the underlying mechanisms of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)2-mediated Ras signalling pathways. KEY RESULTS Plumbagin not only inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation but also suppressed chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularzation and VEGF-induced mouse corneal angiogenesis. Moreover, plumbagin suppressed tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth in human colon carcinoma and prostate cancer xenograft mouse models. At a molecular level, plumbagin blocked the Ras/Rac/cofilin and Ras/MEK signalling pathways mediated by VEGFR2 in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Plumbagin inhibited tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth by interference with the VEGFR2-mediated Ras signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Our findings demonstrate a molecular basis for the effects of plumbagin and suggest that this compound might have therapeutic ant-tumour effects. PMID:21658027

  10. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKC{alpha} linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-03-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC {yields} ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKC{alpha} using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKC{alpha}, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1{sup S338} and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKC{alpha} activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKC{alpha} activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKC{alpha} and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade.

  11. Regulation of Ras signaling and function by plasma membrane microdomains.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, Lawrence E; Michael, James V

    2017-02-07

    Together H-, N- and KRAS mutations are major contributors to ~30% of all human cancers. Thus, Ras inhibition remains an important anti-cancer strategy. The molecular mechanisms of isotypic Ras oncogenesis are still not completely understood. Monopharmacological therapeutics have not been successful in the clinic. These disappointing outcomes have led to attempts to target elements downstream of Ras, mainly targeting either the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) or Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways. While several such approaches are moderately effective, recent efforts have focused on preclinical evaluation of combination therapies to improve efficacies. This review will detail current understanding of the contributions of plasma membrane microdomain targeting of Ras to mitogenic and tumorigenic signaling and tumor progression. Moreover, this review will outline novel approaches to target Ras in cancers, including targeting schemes for new drug development, as well as putative re-purposing of drugs in current use to take advantage of blunting Ras signaling by interfering with Ras plasma membrane microdomain targeting and retention.

  12. Live-cell imaging of endogenous Ras-GTP illustrates predominant Ras activation at the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Augsten, Martin; Pusch, Rico; Biskup, Christoph; Rennert, Knut; Wittig, Ute; Beyer, Katja; Blume, Alfred; Wetzker, Reinhard; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Rubio, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Ras-GTP imaging studies using the Ras-binding domain (RBD) of the Ras effector c-Raf as a reporter for overexpressed Ras have produced discrepant results about the possible activation of Ras at the Golgi apparatus. We report that RBD oligomerization provides probes for visualization of endogenous Ras-GTP, obviating Ras overexpression and the side effects derived thereof. RBD oligomerization results in tenacious binding to Ras-GTP and interruption of Ras signalling. Trimeric RBD probes fused to green fluorescent protein report agonist-induced endogenous Ras activation at the plasma membrane (PM) of COS-7, PC12 and Jurkat cells, but do not accumulate at the Golgi. PM illumination is exacerbated by Ras overexpression and its sensitivity to dominant-negative RasS17N and pharmacological manipulations matches Ras-GTP formation assessed biochemically. Our data illustrate that endogenous Golgi-located Ras is not under the control of growth factors and argue for the PM as the predominant site of agonist-induced Ras activation. PMID:16282985

  13. Spred is a Sprouty-related suppressor of Ras signalling.

    PubMed

    Wakioka, T; Sasaki, A; Kato, R; Shouda, T; Matsumoto, A; Miyoshi, K; Tsuneoka, M; Komiya, S; Baron, R; Yoshimura, A

    2001-08-09

    Cellular proliferation, and differentiation of cells in response to extracellular signals, are controlled by the signal transduction pathway of Ras, Raf and MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase. The mechanisms that regulate this pathway are not well known. Here we describe two structurally similar tyrosine kinase substrates, Spred-1 and Spred-2. These two proteins contain a cysteine-rich domain related to Sprouty (the SPR domain) at the carboxy terminus. In Drosophila, Sprouty inhibits the signalling by receptors of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) by suppressing the MAP kinase pathway. Like Sprouty, Spred inhibited growth-factor-mediated activation of MAP kinase. The Ras-MAP kinase pathway is essential in the differentiation of neuronal cells and myocytes. Expression of a dominant negative form of Spred and Spred-antibody microinjection revealed that endogenous Spred regulates differentiation in these types of cells. Spred constitutively associated with Ras but did not prevent activation of Ras or membrane translocation of Raf. Instead, Spred inhibited the activation of MAP kinase by suppressing phosphorylation and activation of Raf. Spred may represent a class of proteins that modulate Ras-Raf interaction and MAP kinase signalling.

  14. Ras Homolog Enriched in Brain (Rheb) Enhances Apoptotic Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Karassek, Sascha; Berghaus, Carsten; Schwarten, Melanie; Goemans, Christoph G.; Ohse, Nadine; Kock, Gerd; Jockers, Katharina; Neumann, Sebastian; Gottfried, Sebastian; Herrmann, Christian; Heumann, Rolf; Stoll, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Rheb is a homolog of Ras GTPase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and regeneration via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because of the well established potential of activated Ras to promote survival, we sought to investigate the ability of Rheb signaling to phenocopy Ras. We found that overexpression of lipid-anchored Rheb enhanced the apoptotic effects induced by UV light, TNFα, or tunicamycin in an mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent manner. Knocking down endogenous Rheb or applying rapamycin led to partial protection, identifying Rheb as a mediator of cell death. Ras and c-Raf kinase opposed the apoptotic effects induced by UV light or TNFα but did not prevent Rheb-mediated apoptosis. To gain structural insight into the signaling mechanisms, we determined the structure of Rheb-GDP by NMR. The complex adopts the typical canonical fold of RasGTPases and displays the characteristic GDP-dependent picosecond to nanosecond backbone dynamics of the switch I and switch II regions. NMR revealed Ras effector-like binding of activated Rheb to the c-Raf-Ras-binding domain (RBD), but the affinity was 1000-fold lower than the Ras/RBD interaction, suggesting a lack of functional interaction. shRNA-mediated knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) strongly reduced UV or TNFα-induced apoptosis and suppressed enhancement by Rheb overexpression. In conclusion, Rheb-mTOR activation not only promotes normal cell growth but also enhances apoptosis in response to diverse toxic stimuli via an ASK-1-mediated mechanism. Pharmacological regulation of the Rheb/mTORC1 pathway using rapamycin should take the presence of cellular stress into consideration, as this may have clinical implications. PMID:20685651

  15. Chaperone-mediated specificity in Ras and Rap signaling.

    PubMed

    Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Strazza, Marianne; Mor, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Ras and Rap proteins are closely related small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPases) that share similar effector-binding domains but operate in a very different signaling networks; Ras has a dominant role in cell proliferation, while Rap mediates cell adhesion. Ras and Rap proteins are regulated by several shared processes such as post-translational modification, phosphorylation, activation by guanine exchange factors and inhibition by GTPase-activating proteins. Sub-cellular localization and trafficking of these proteins to and from the plasma membrane are additional important regulatory features that impact small GTPases function. Despite its importance, the trafficking mechanisms of Ras and Rap proteins are not completely understood. Chaperone proteins play a critical role in trafficking of GTPases and will be the focus of the discussion in this work. We will review several aspects of chaperone biology focusing on specificity toward particular members of the small GTPase family. Understanding this specificity should provide key insights into drug development targeting individual small GTPases.

  16. Signal Integration by Lipid-Mediated Spatial Cross Talk between Ras Nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Rodkey, Travis; Ariotti, Nicholas; Parton, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-anchored Ras GTPases form transient, spatially segregated nanoclusters on the plasma membrane that are essential for high-fidelity signal transmission. The lipid composition of Ras nanoclusters, however, has not previously been investigated. High-resolution spatial mapping shows that different Ras nanoclusters have distinct lipid compositions, indicating that Ras proteins engage in isoform-selective lipid sorting and accounting for different signal outputs from different Ras isoforms. Phosphatidylserine is a common constituent of all Ras nanoclusters but is only an obligate structural component of K-Ras nanoclusters. Segregation of K-Ras and H-Ras into spatially and compositionally distinct lipid assemblies is exquisitely sensitive to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine levels. Phosphatidylserine spatial organization is also modified by Ras nanocluster formation. In consequence, Ras nanoclusters engage in remote lipid-mediated communication, whereby activated H-Ras disrupts the assembly and operation of spatially segregated K-Ras nanoclusters. Computational modeling and experimentation reveal that complex effects of caveolin and cortical actin on Ras nanoclustering are similarly mediated through regulation of phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics. We conclude that phosphatidylserine maintains the lateral segregation of diverse lipid-based assemblies on the plasma membrane and that lateral connectivity between spatially remote lipid assemblies offers important previously unexplored opportunities for signal integration and signal processing. PMID:24366544

  17. Ras and Nox: linked signaling networks?

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ru Feng; Terada, Lance S.

    2009-01-01

    Both Ras and Nox represent ancient gene families which control a broad range of cellular responses. Both families mediate signals governing motility, differentiation, and proliferation, and both inhabit overlapping subcellular microdomains. Yet little is known of the precise functional relationship between these two ubiquitous families. In this review, we examine the interface where these two large fields meet. PMID:19501154

  18. Activation of Ras-ERK Signaling and GSK-3 by Amyloid Precursor Protein and Amyloid Beta Facilitates Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rajic, Alexander J.; Cribbs, David H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract It is widely accepted that amyloid β (Aβ) generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) oligomerizes and fibrillizes to form neuritic plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet little is known about the contribution of APP to intracellular signaling events preceding AD pathogenesis. The data presented here demonstrate that APP expression and neuronal exposure to oligomeric Aβ42 enhance Ras/ERK signaling cascade and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) activation. We find that RNA interference (RNAi)-directed knockdown of APP in B103 rat neuroblastoma cells expressing APP inhibits Ras-ERK signaling and GSK-3 activation, indicating that APP acts upstream of these signal transduction events. Both ERK and GSK-3 are known to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau and APP at Thr668, and our findings suggest that aberrant signaling by APP facilitates these events. Supporting this notion, analysis of human AD brain samples showed increased expression of Ras, activation of GSK-3, and phosphorylation of APP and tau, which correlated with Aβ levels in the AD brains. Furthermore, treatment of primary rat neurons with Aβ recapitulated these events and showed enhanced Ras-ERK signaling, GSK-3 activation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and phosphorylation of APP and tau. The finding that Aβ induces Thr668 phosphorylation on APP, which enhances APP proteolysis and Aβ generation, denotes a vicious feedforward mechanism by which APP and Aβ promote tau hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration in AD. Based on these results, we hypothesize that aberrant proliferative signaling by APP plays a fundamental role in AD neurodegeneration and that inhibition of this would impede cell cycle deregulation and neurodegeneration observed in AD. PMID:28374012

  19. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E; Zhu, Michael X; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F

    2015-08-21

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits.

  20. Ras2 signals via the Cdc42/Ste20/mitogen-activated protein kinase module to induce filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Mösch, H U; Roberts, R L; Fink, G R

    1996-01-01

    RAS2val19, a dominant activated form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras2, stimulates both filamentous growth and expression of a transcriptional reporter FG(TyA)::lacZ but does not induce the mating pathway reporter FUS1::lacZ. This induction depends upon elements of the conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is required for both filamentous growth and mating, two distinct morphogenetic events. Full induction requires Ste20 (homolog of mammalian p65PAK protein kinases), Ste11 [an MEK kinase (MEKK) or MAPK kinase (MEK) kinase], Ste7 (MEK or MAPK kinase), and the transcription factor Ste12. Moreover, the Rho family protein Cdc42, a conserved morphogenetic G protein, is also a potent regulator of filamentous growth and FG(TyA)::lacZ expression in S. cerevisiae. Stimulation of both filamentous growth and FG(TyA)::lacZ by Cdc42 depends upon Ste20. In addition, dominant negative CDC42Ala118 blocks RAS2val19 activation, placing Cdc42 downstream of Ras2. Our results suggest that filamentous growth in budding yeast is regulated by an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls cell morphology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8643578

  1. A Model for Direction Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum: Ras Activity and Symmetry Breaking Driven by a Gβγ-Mediated, Gα2-Ric8 -- Dependent Signal Transduction Network

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yougan; Othmer, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a dynamic cellular process, comprised of direction sensing, polarization and locomotion, that leads to the directed movement of eukaryotic cells along extracellular gradients. As a primary step in the response of an individual cell to a spatial stimulus, direction sensing has attracted numerous theoretical treatments aimed at explaining experimental observations in a variety of cell types. Here we propose a new model of direction sensing based on experiments using Dictyostelium discoideum (Dicty). The model is built around a reaction-diffusion-translocation system that involves three main component processes: a signal detection step based on G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) for cyclic AMP (cAMP), a transduction step based on a heterotrimetic G protein Gα2βγ, and an activation step of a monomeric G-protein Ras. The model can predict the experimentally-observed response of cells treated with latrunculin A, which removes feedback from downstream processes, under a variety of stimulus protocols. We show that Gα2βγ cycling modulated by Ric8, a nonreceptor guanine exchange factor for Gα2 in Dicty, drives multiple phases of Ras activation and leads to direction sensing and signal amplification in cAMP gradients. The model predicts that both Gα2 and Gβγ are essential for direction sensing, in that membrane-localized Gα2*, the activated GTP-bearing form of Gα2, leads to asymmetrical recruitment of RasGEF and Ric8, while globally-diffusing Gβγ mediates their activation. We show that the predicted response at the level of Ras activation encodes sufficient ‘memory’ to eliminate the ‘back-of-the wave’ problem, and the effects of diffusion and cell shape on direction sensing are also investigated. In contrast with existing LEGI models of chemotaxis, the results do not require a disparity between the diffusion coefficients of the Ras activator GEF and the Ras inhibitor GAP. Since the signal pathways we study are highly conserved between Dicty

  2. TRPC6 channel-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K, and CAMKIV signaling.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Jeanine H; Schuwald, Anita M; Sillani, Giacomo; Ye, Lian; Müller, Walter E; Leuner, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    The non-selective cationic transient receptor canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are involved in synaptic plasticity changes ranging from dendritic growth, spine morphology changes and increase in excitatory synapses. We previously showed that the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the active antidepressant component of St. John's wort, induces neuritic outgrowth and spine morphology changes in PC12 cells and hippocampal CA1 neurons. However, the signaling cascade that transmits the hyperforin-induced transient rise in intracellular calcium into neuritic outgrowth is not yet fully understood. Several signaling pathways are involved in calcium transient-mediated changes in synaptic plasticity, ranging from calmodulin-mediated Ras-induced signaling cascades comprising the mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K signal transduction pathways as well as Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) and CAMKIV. We show that several mechanisms are involved in TRPC6-mediated synaptic plasticity changes in PC12 cells and primary hippocampal neurons. Influx of calcium via TRPC6 channels activates different pathways including Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and CAMKIV in both cell types, leading to cAMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation. These findings are interesting not only in terms of the downstream targets of TRPC6 channels but also because of their potential to facilitate further understanding of St. John's wort extract-mediated antidepressant activity. Alterations in synaptic plasticity are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Beside several other proteins, TRPC6 channels regulate synaptic plasticity. This study demonstrates that different pathways including Ras/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, and CAMKIV are involved in the improvement of synaptic plasticity by the TRPC6 activator hyperforin, the antidepressant active constituent of St. John

  3. Ras activation and symmetry breaking during Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Kortholt, Arjan; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kataria, Rama; Van Haastert, Peter J M

    2013-10-01

    Central to chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which a shallow spatial gradient of chemoattractant induces symmetry breaking of activated signaling molecules. Previously, we have used Dictyostelium mutants to investigate the minimal requirements for chemotaxis, and identified a basal signaling module providing activation of Ras and F-actin at the leading edge. Here, we show that Ras activation after application of a pipette releasing the chemoattractant cAMP has three phases, each depending on specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs). Initially a transient activation of Ras occurs at the entire cell boundary, which is proportional to the local cAMP concentrations and therefore slightly stronger at the front than in the rear of the cell. This transient Ras activation is present in gα2 (gpbB)-null cells but not in gβ (gpbA)-null cells, suggesting that Gβγ mediates the initial activation of Ras. The second phase is symmetry breaking: Ras is activated only at the side of the cell closest to the pipette. Symmetry breaking absolutely requires Gα2 and Gβγ, but not the cytoskeleton or four cAMP-induced signaling pathways, those dependent on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], cGMP, TorC2 and PLA2. As cells move in the gradient, the crescent of activated Ras in the front half of the cell becomes confined to a small area at the utmost front of the cell. Confinement of Ras activation leads to cell polarization, and depends on cGMP formation, myosin and F-actin. The experiments show that activation, symmetry breaking and confinement of Ras during Dictyostelium chemotaxis uses different G-protein subunits and a multitude of Ras GEFs and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs).

  4. ß-catenin signaling is required for RAS-driven thyroid cancer through PI3K activation

    PubMed Central

    Sastre-Perona, Ana; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Zaballos, Miguel A.; Santisteban, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in ß-catenin are traditionally described as late events in thyroid cancer progression. However, the functional implications of ß-catenin dysregulation in the context of tumor initiating events remain unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the two main oncogenic drivers in thyroid cancer, RAS and BRAF, could activate the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Expression of HRASV12 but not BRAFV600E in thyroid cells induced ß-catenin nuclear localization, increased ß-catenin-dependent transcriptional activity and inhibited GSK3ß. In a panel of human thyroid cancer cell lines representative of the main genetic events in thyroid cancer, ß-catenin activation was highly dependent on PI3K/AKT activity through its phosphorylation at S552, but not on MAPK. Silencing of ß-catenin expression in cell lines led to a dramatic reduction in proliferation due to an induction of senescence, which was concordant with a reduction in tumor size in nude mice. Moreover, ß-catenin silencing suppressed the expression of EMT-related genes and reduced the invasive capacity of the tumor cells. In conclusion, this work demonstrates that RAS-driven tumors induce PI3K/AKT-dependent ß-catenin activation. PMID:27384483

  5. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J

    2007-04-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  6. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  7. The role of Gln61 and Glu63 of Ras GTPases in their activation by NF1 and Ras GAP.

    PubMed Central

    Nur-E-Kamal, M S; Maruta, H

    1992-01-01

    Two distinct GAPs of 120 and 235 kDa called GAP1 and NF1 serve as attenuators of Ras, a member of GTP-dependent signal transducers, by stimulating its intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. The GAP1 (also called Ras GAP) is highly specific for Ras and does not stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of Rap1 or Rho. Using GAP1C, the C-terminal GTPase activating domain (residues 720-1044) of bovine GAP1, we have shown previously that the GAP1 specificity is determined by the Ras domain (residues 61-65) where Gln61 plays the primary role. The corresponding domain (residues 1175-1531) of human NF1 (called NF1C), which shares only 26% sequence identity with the GAP1C, also activates Ras GTPases. In this article, we demonstrate that the NF1C, like the GAP1C, is highly specific for Ras and does not activate either Rap1 or Rho GTPases. Furthermore, using a series of chimeric Ras/Rap1 and mutated Ras GTPases, we show that Gln at position 61 of the GTPases primarily determines that NF1C as well as GAP1C activates Ras GTPases, but not Rap1 GTPases, and Glu at position 63 of the GTPases is required for maximizing the sensitivity of Ras GTPases to both NF1C and GAP1C. Interestingly, replacement of Glu63 of c-HaRas by Lys reduces its intrinsic GTPase activity and abolishes the GTPase activation by both NF1C and GAP1C. Thus, the potentiation of oncogenicity by Lys63 mutation of c-HaRas appears primarily to be due to the loss of its sensitivity to the two major Ras signal attenuators (NF1 and GAP1). PMID:1362901

  8. A misexpression screen identifies genes that can modulate RAS1 pathway signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, A M; Rubin, G M

    2000-01-01

    Differentiation of the R7 photoreceptor cell is dependent on the Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase, which activates the RAS1/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) functions genetically downstream of RAS1 in this signal transduction cascade. Expression of dominant-negative KSR (KDN) in the developing eye blocks RAS pathway signaling, prevents R7 cell differentiation, and causes a rough eye phenotype. To identify genes that modulate RAS signaling, we screened for genes that alter RAS1/KSR signaling efficiency when misexpressed. In this screen, we recovered three known genes, Lk6, misshapen, and Akap200. We also identified seven previously undescribed genes; one encodes a novel rel domain member of the NFAT family, and six encode novel proteins. These genes may represent new components of the RAS pathway or components of other signaling pathways that can modulate signaling by RAS. We discuss the utility of gain-of-function screens in identifying new components of signaling pathways in Drosophila. PMID:11063696

  9. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  10. Rasputin, the Drosophila homologue of the RasGAP SH3 binding protein, functions in ras- and Rho-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Pazman, C; Mayes, C A; Fanto, M; Haynes, S R; Mlodzik, M

    2000-04-01

    The small GTPase Ras plays an important role in many cellular signaling processes. Ras activity is negatively regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). It has been proposed that RasGAP may also function as an effector of Ras activity. We have identified and characterized the Drosophila homologue of the RasGAP-binding protein G3BP encoded by rasputin (rin). rin mutants are viable and display defects in photoreceptor recruitment and ommatidial polarity in the eye. Mutations in rin/G3BP genetically interact with components of the Ras signaling pathway that function at the level of Ras and above, but not with Raf/MAPK pathway components. These interactions suggest that Rin is required as an effector in Ras signaling during eye development, supporting an effector role for RasGAP. The ommatidial polarity phenotypes of rin are similar to those of RhoA and the polarity genes, e.g. fz and dsh. Although rin/G3BP interacts genetically with RhoA, affecting both photoreceptor differentiation and polarity, it does not interact with the gain-of-function genotypes of fz and dsh. These data suggest that Rin is not a general component of polarity generation, but serves a function specific to Ras and RhoA signaling pathways.

  11. A Unique Platform for H-Ras Signaling Involving Clathrin-independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Kloog, Yoel

    2008-01-01

    Trafficking of H-Ras was examined to determine whether it can enter cells through clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). H-Ras colocalized with the CIE cargo protein, class I major histocompatibility complex, and it was sequestered in vacuoles that formed upon expression of an active mutant of Arf6, Q67L. Activation of Ras, either through epidermal growth factor stimulation or the expression of an active mutant of Ras, G12V, induced plasma membrane ruffling and macropinocytosis, a stimulated form of CIE. Live imaging of cells expressing H-RasG12V and fluorescent protein chimeras with pleckstrin homology domains that recognize specific phosphoinositides showed that incoming macropinosomes contained phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatiylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP2 loss from the macropinosome was followed by the recruitment of Rab5, a downstream target of Ras, and then PIP3 loss. Our studies support a model whereby Ras can signal on macropinosomes that pass through three distinct stages: PIP2/PIP3, PIP3/Rab5, and Rab5. Vacuoles that form in cells expressing Arf6Q67L trap Ras signaling in the first stage, recruiting the active form of the Ras effectors extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) but not Rab5. Arf6 stimulation of macropinocytosis also involves passage through the distinct lipid phases, but recruitment of Akt is not observed. PMID:18094044

  12. Spatio-temporal segregation of Ras signals: one ship, three anchors, many harbors.

    PubMed

    Rocks, Oliver; Peyker, Anna; Bastiaens, Philippe I H

    2006-08-01

    Dynamic assembly of spatially separated signaling platforms enables a cell to tune cellular outputs in response to different input stimuli. Understanding how a vast diversity in signaling responses can be generated from a limited protein repertoire requires knowledge of how cells maintain the segregation of proteins and thereby orchestrate their local activities. Ras proteins are subject to this type of precise regulation of localization, and thus activity, in space and time. A model emerges where different lipid anchors dynamically shuttle Ras between specific membrane compartments, where differences in the accessibility of signaling environments and in the residence time of Ras therein account for isoform-specific signaling responses.

  13. The neurotensin gene is a downstream target for Ras activation.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Zhou, Z; Celano, P; Li, J

    1995-01-01

    Ras regulates novel patterns of gene expression and the differentiation of various eukaryotic cell types. Stable transfection of Ha-ras into the human colon cancer line CaCo2 results in the morphologic differentiation to a small bowel phenotype. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the Ras regulatory pathway plays a role in the expression of the neurotensin gene (NT/N), a terminally differentiated endocrine product specifically localized in the gastrointestinal tract to the adult small bowel. We found that CaCo2-ras cells, but not parental CaCo2, express high levels of the human NT/N gene and, moreover, that this increase in gene expression is regulated at the level of transcription. Transfection experiments using NT/N-CAT mutation constructs identify the proximal 200 bp of NT/N flanking sequence as sufficient for maximal Ras-mediated NT/N reporter gene induction. Furthermore, a proximal AP-1/CRE motif is crucial for this Ras-mediated NT/N activation. Wild-type Ha-ras induces NT/N gene expression, albeit at lower levels than activated Ras; a dominant-negative Raf blocks this NT/N induction, suggesting that Raf lies down-stream of Ras in this pathway. In addition, postconfluent cultures of CaCo2 cells, which are differentiated to a small bowel phenotype, express the NT/N gene by 6 d after reaching confluency; this increase of NT/N expression is associated with concomitant increases of cellular p21ras protein. We conclude that Ras (both wild-type and activated) enhances expression of the NT/N gene in the gut-derived CaCo2 cell line, suggesting an important role for the Ras signaling pathway in NT/N gene transcription. Our results underscore the possibility that tissue-specific genes (such as NT/N) expressed in distinct subpopulations of the gut may be subject to Ras regulation. Finally, we speculate that the NT/N gene and the CaCo2 and CaCo2-ras cell systems will provide unique models to further define the cellular mechanisms leading to mammalian

  14. RasG signaling is important for optimal folate chemotaxis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Signaling pathways linking receptor activation to actin reorganization and pseudopod dynamics during chemotaxis are arranged in complex networks. Dictyostelium discoideum has proven to be an excellent model system for studying these networks and a body of evidence has indicated that RasG and RasC, members of the Ras GTPase subfamily function as key chemotaxis regulators. However, recent evidence has been presented indicating that Ras signaling is not important for Dictyostelium chemotaxis. In this study, we have reexamined the role of Ras proteins in folate chemotaxis and then, having re-established the importance of Ras for this process, identified the parts of the RasG protein molecule that are involved. Results A direct comparison of folate chemotaxis methodologies revealed that rasG-C- cells grown in association with a bacterial food source were capable of positive chemotaxis, only when their initial position was comparatively close to the folate source. In contrast, cells grown in axenic medium orientate randomly regardless of their distance to the micropipette. Folate chemotaxis is restored in rasG-C- cells by exogenous expression of protein chimeras containing either N- or C- terminal halves of the RasG protein. Conclusions Conflicting data regarding the importance of Ras to Dictyostelium chemotaxis were the result of differing experimental methodologies. Both axenic and bacterially grown cells require RasG for optimal folate chemotaxis, particularly in weak gradients. In strong gradients, the requirement for RasG is relaxed, but only in bacterially grown cells. Both N- and C- terminal portions of the RasG protein are important for folate chemotaxis, suggesting that there are functionally important amino acids outside the well established switch I and switch II interaction surfaces. PMID:24742374

  15. Genetic analysis of Ras signalling pathways in cell proliferation, migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Drosten, Matthias; Dhawahir, Alma; Sum, Eleanor Y M; Urosevic, Jelena; Lechuga, Carmen G; Esteban, Luis M; Castellano, Esther; Guerra, Carmen; Santos, Eugenio; Barbacid, Mariano

    2010-03-17

    We have used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) devoid of Ras proteins to illustrate that they are essential for proliferation and migration, but not for survival, at least in these cells. These properties are unique to the Ras subfamily of proteins because ectopic expression of other Ras-like small GTPases, even when constitutively active, could not compensate for the absence of Ras proteins. Only constitutive activation of components of the Raf/Mek/Erk pathway was sufficient to sustain normal proliferation and migration of MEFs devoid of Ras proteins. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/Akt and Ral guanine exchange factor (RalGEF)/Ral pathways, either alone or in combination, failed to induce proliferation or migration of Rasless cells, although they cooperated with Raf/Mek/Erk signalling to reproduce the full response mediated by Ras signalling. In contrast to current hypotheses, Ras signalling did not induce proliferation by inducing expression of D-type Cyclins. Rasless MEFs had normal levels of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 and Cyclin E/Cdk2. However, these complexes were inactive. Inactivation of the pocket proteins or knock down of pRb relieved MEFs from their dependence on Ras signalling to proliferate.

  16. Ras Family Small GTPase-mediated Neuroprotective Signaling in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Geng-Xian; Andres, Douglas A.; Cai, Weikang

    2012-01-01

    Selective neuronal cell death is one of the major causes of neuronal damage following stroke, and cerebral cells naturally mobilize diverse survival signaling pathways to protect against ischemia. Importantly, therapeutic strategies designed to improve endogenous anti-apoptotic signaling appear to hold great promise in stroke treatment. While a variety of complex mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke, the overall mechanisms governing the balance between cell survival and death are not well-defined. Ras family small GTPases are activated following ischemic insults, and in turn, serve as intrinsic switches to regulate neuronal survival and regeneration. Their ability to integrate diverse intracellular signal transduction pathways makes them critical regulators and potential therapeutic targets for neuronal recovery after stroke. This article highlights the contribution of Ras family GTPases to neuroprotective signaling cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family protein kinase- and AKT/PKB-dependent signaling pathways as well as the regulation of cAMP response element binding (CREB), Forkhead box O (FoxO) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1(HIF1) transcription factors, in stroke. PMID:21521171

  17. Using optogenetics to interrogate the dynamic control of signal transmission by the Ras/Erk module.

    PubMed

    Toettcher, Jared E; Weiner, Orion D; Lim, Wendell A

    2013-12-05

    The complex, interconnected architecture of cell-signaling networks makes it challenging to disentangle how cells process extracellular information to make decisions. We have developed an optogenetic approach to selectively activate isolated intracellular signaling nodes with light and use this method to follow the flow of information from the signaling protein Ras. By measuring dose and frequency responses in single cells, we characterize the precision, timing, and efficiency with which signals are transmitted from Ras to Erk. Moreover, we elucidate how a single pathway can specify distinct physiological outcomes: by combining distinct temporal patterns of stimulation with proteomic profiling, we identify signaling programs that differentially respond to Ras dynamics, including a paracrine circuit that activates STAT3 only after persistent (>1 hr) Ras activation. Optogenetic stimulation provides a powerful tool for analyzing the intrinsic transmission properties of pathway modules and identifying how they dynamically encode distinct outcomes.

  18. P120-GAP associated with syndecan-2 to function as an active switch signal for Src upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-W.; Chen, C.-L.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-04-15

    BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus were applied to reveal a complex of p120-GAP/syndecan-2 being highly expressed upon transformation. Of interest, most of the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was localized at caveolae, a membrane microdomain enriched with caveolin-1. To confirm the molecular interaction between syndecan-2 and p120-GAP, we further purified p120-GAP protein from mouse brains by using an affinity column of HiTrap-RACK1 and expressed mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein and mouse syndecan-2-encoded fusion protein in bacteria. We report molecular affinities exist between p120-GAP and RACK1, syndecan-2 and RACK1 as well as p120-GAP and syndecan-2. The selective affinity between p120-GAP and syndecan-2 was found to be sufficient to detach RACK1. The p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was demonstrated to keep Src tyrosine kinase in an activated form. On the other hand, the syndecan-2/RACK1 complex was found to have Src in an inactivated form. These data indicate that the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex at caveolae could provide a docking site for Src to transmit tyrosine signaling, implying that syndecan-2/p120-GAP functions as a tumor promoter upon transformation with oncogenic ras of shrimp P. japonicus.

  19. Canonical RTK-Ras-ERK signaling and related alternative pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Meera V.

    2013-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK)-Ras-Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways control many aspects of C. elegans development and behavior. Studies in C. elegans helped elucidate the basic framework of the RTK-Ras-ERK pathway and continue to provide insights into its complex regulation, its biological roles, how it elicits cell-type appropriate responses, and how it interacts with other signaling pathways to do so. C. elegans studies have also revealed biological contexts in which alternative RTK- or Ras-dependent pathways are used instead of the canonical pathway. PMID:23908058

  20. Requirement for Plk2 in orchestrated ras and rap signaling, homeostatic structural plasticity, and memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kea Joo; Lee, Yeunkum; Rozeboom, Aaron; Lee, Ji-Yun; Udagawa, Noriko; Hoe, Hyang-Sook; Pak, Daniel T S

    2011-03-10

    Ras and Rap small GTPases are important for synaptic plasticity and memory. However, their roles in homeostatic plasticity are unknown. Here, we report that polo-like kinase 2 (Plk2), a homeostatic suppressor of overexcitation, governs the activity of Ras and Rap via coordination of their regulatory proteins. Plk2 directs elimination of Ras activator RasGRF1 and Rap inhibitor SPAR via phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. Conversely, Plk2 phosphorylation stimulates Ras inhibitor SynGAP and Rap activator PDZGEF1. These Ras/Rap regulators perform complementary functions to downregulate dendritic spines and AMPA receptors following elevated activity, and their collective regulation by Plk2 profoundly stimulates Rap and suppresses Ras. Furthermore, perturbation of Plk2 disrupts Ras and Rap signaling, prevents homeostatic shrinkage and loss of dendritic spines, and impairs proper memory formation. Our study demonstrates a critical role of Plk2 in the synchronized tuning of Ras and Rap and underscores the functional importance of this regulation in homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

  1. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referredmore » to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.« less

  2. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.

  3. Adaptor protein Nck1 interacts with p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein and regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Ger, Marija; Zitkus, Zigmantas; Valius, Mindaugas

    2011-10-01

    Adaptor protein Nck1 binds a number of intracellular proteins and influences various signaling pathways. Here we show that Nck1 directly binds and activates the GTPase-activating protein of Ras (RasGAP), which is responsible for the down-regulation of Ras. The first and the third SH3 domains of Nck1 and the NH(2)-terminal proline-rich sequence of RasGAP contribute most to the complex formation causing direct molecular interaction between the two proteins. Cell adhesion to the substrate is obligatory for the Nck1 and RasGAP association, as cell detachment makes RasGAP incapable of associating with Nck1. This leads to the complex dissipation, decrease of RasGAP activity and the increase of H-Ras-GTP level in the detached cells. Our findings reveal unexpected feature of adaptor protein Nck1 as the regulator of RasGAP activity.

  4. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  5. Role of Ras and Mapks in TGFbeta signaling.

    PubMed

    Mulder, K M

    2000-01-01

    Normal signaling by TGFbeta, in the absence of serum or exogenous factors, involves a rapid activation of Ras, Erks, and Sapks in proliferating cultures of TGFbeta-sensitive untransformed epithelial cells and human carcinoma cells. Expression of either RasN17 or dominant-negative (DN) MKK4, or addition of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, can block the ability of TGFbeta to induce AP-1 complex formation at the TGFbeta(1) promoter and to autoinduce its own production. The primary components present in this TGFbeta-stimulated AP-1 complex are JunD and Fra-2, although c-Jun, and possibly Fos B, may also be present. While there are two potential Smad binding elements (SBE's) in the TGFbeta(1) promoter, supershift assays suggest that at least one of these does not bind Smad4, and the other is unable to bind factors activated by TGFbeta. In contrast, TGFbeta autoinduction is Smad3-dependent, as DN Smad3 inhibits the ability of TGFbeta to stimulate TGFbeta(1) promoter activity. Our results indicate that TGFbeta can activate both the MKK4/Sapk and MEK/Erk pathways, through Ras and TGFbeta R(I) and R(II), to induce TGFbeta(1) production; Smad4 does not appear to be involved, and Smad3 appears to function independently of this Smad4. We also demonstrate that activation of the Ras/Mapk pathway by TGFbeta positively modulates Smad1-signaling-pathway activation by TGFbeta. In addition, Smad1 could enhance TGFbeta activation of the SBE reporter SBE-luc and this effect could be blocked by co-expression of a DN TGFbeta R(I) receptor or by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. This cross-talk between the MEK/Erk and Smad1 pathways was mediated through the four Erk consensus phosphorylation sites in the linker region of Smad1. Mutation of these sites resulted in a loss of the ligand-dependence of both Smad1-Smad4 interactions and nuclear accumulation of Smad1, as well as a loss of the ability of Smad1 to enhance TGFbeta-mediated SBE activation. Our results provide evidence that Erk

  6. Acquisition of contextual discrimination involves the appearance of a RAS-GRF1/p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-mediated signaling pathway that promotes long term potentiation (LTP).

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan-Xue; Arai, Junko; Tian, Xuejun; Kumar-Singh, Rajendra; Feig, Larry A

    2013-07-26

    RAS-GRF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor with the ability to activate RAS and RAC GTPases in response to elevated calcium levels. We previously showed that beginning at 1 month of age, RAS-GRF1 mediates NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-induction of long term depression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of mice. Here we show that beginning at 2 months of age, when mice first acquire the ability to discriminate between closely related contexts, RAS-GRF1 begins to contribute to the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 hippocampus by mediating the action of calcium-permeable, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (CP-AMPARs). Surprisingly, LTP induction by CP-AMPARs through RAS-GRF1 occurs via activation of p38 MAP kinase rather than ERK MAP kinase, which has more frequently been linked to LTP. Moreover, contextual discrimination is blocked by knockdown of Ras-Grf1 expression specifically in the CA1 hippocampus, infusion of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor into the CA1 hippocampus, or the injection of an inhibitor of CP-AMPARs. These findings implicate the CA1 hippocampus in the developmentally dependent capacity to distinguish closely related contexts through the appearance of a novel LTP-supporting signaling pathway.

  7. The PDZ Protein Canoe/AF-6 Links Ras-MAPK, Notch and Wingless/Wnt Signaling Pathways by Directly Interacting with Ras, Notch and Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Ana; Speicher, Stephan; Baylies, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has become increasingly apparent that signal transduction pathways are not merely linear cascades; they are organized into complex signaling networks that require high levels of regulation to generate precise and unique cell responses. However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms by which signaling pathways cross-communicate remain poorly understood. Here we show that the Ras-binding protein Canoe (Cno)/AF-6, a PDZ protein normally associated with cellular junctions, is a key modulator of Wingless (Wg)/Wnt, Ras-Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Notch (N) signaling pathways cross-communication. Our data show a repressive effect of Cno/AF-6 on these three signaling pathways through physical interactions with Ras, N and the cytoplasmic protein Dishevelled (Dsh), a key Wg effector. We propose a model in which Cno, through those interactions, actively coordinates, at the membrane level, Ras-MAPK, N and Wg signaling pathways during progenitor specification. PMID:17183697

  8. PAQR10 and PAQR11 mediate Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ting; Ding, Qiurong; Huang, Heng; Xu, Daqian; Jiang, Yuhui; Zhou, Ben; Li, Zhenghu; Jiang, Xiaomeng; He, Jing; Liu, Weizhong; Zhang, Yixuan; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Thomas, Walter G; Chen, Yan

    2012-04-01

    Ras plays a pivotal role in many cellular activities, and its subcellular compartmentalization provides spatial and temporal selectivity. Here we report a mode of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by two highly homologous proteins PAQR10 and PAQR11 of the progestin and AdipoQ receptors family. PAQR10 and PAQR11 are exclusively localized in the Golgi apparatus. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 stimulates basal and EGF-induced ERK phosphorylation and increases the expression of ERK target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 markedly elevates Golgi localization of HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. PAQR10 and PAQR11 can also interact with HRas, NRas and KRas4A, but not KRas4B. The increased Ras protein at the Golgi apparatus by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11 is in an active state. Consistently, knockdown of PAQR10 and PAQR11 reduces EGF-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and Ras activation at the Golgi apparatus. Intriguingly, PAQR10 and PAQR11 are able to interact with RasGRP1, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein of Ras, and increase Golgi localization of RasGRP1. The C1 domain of RasGRP1 is both necessary and sufficient for the interaction of RasGRP1 with PAQR10/PAQR11. The simulation of ERK phosphorylation by overexpressed PAQR10/PAQR11 is abrogated by downregulation of RasGRP1. Furthermore, differentiation of PC12 cells is significantly enhanced by overexpression of PAQR10/PAQR11. Collectively, this study uncovers a new paradigm of spatial regulation of Ras signaling in the Golgi apparatus by PAQR10 and PAQR11.

  9. Association of yeast adenylyl cyclase with cyclase-associated protein CAP forms a second Ras-binding site which mediates its Ras-dependent activation.

    PubMed

    Shima, F; Okada, T; Kido, M; Sen, H; Tanaka, Y; Tamada, M; Hu, C D; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Kariya, K; Kataoka, T

    2000-01-01

    Posttranslational modification, in particular farnesylation, of Ras is crucial for activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase (CYR1). Based on the previous observation that association of CYR1 with cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is essential for its activation by posttranslationally modified Ras, we postulated that the associated CAP might contribute to the formation of a Ras-binding site of CYR1, which mediates CYR1 activation, other than the primary Ras-binding site, the leucine-rich repeat domain. Here, we observed a posttranslational modification-dependent association of Ras with a complex between CAP and CYR1 C-terminal region. When CAP mutants defective in Ras signaling but retaining the CYR1-binding activity were isolated by screening of a pool of randomly mutagenized CAP, CYR1 complexed with two of the obtained three mutants failed to be activated efficiently by modified Ras and exhibited a severely impaired ability to bind Ras, providing a genetic evidence for the importance of the physical association with Ras at the second Ras-binding site. On the other hand, CYR1, complexed with the other CAP mutant, failed to be activated by Ras but exhibited a greatly enhanced binding to Ras. Conversely, a Ras mutant E31K, which exhibits a greatly enhanced binding to the CYR1-CAP complex, failed to activate CYR1 efficiently. Thus, the strength of interaction at the second Ras-binding site appears to be a critical determinant of CYR1 regulation by Ras: too-weak and too-strong interactions are both detrimental to CYR1 activation. These results, taken together with those obtained with mammalian Raf, suggest the importance of the second Ras-binding site in effector regulation.

  10. The Tumor Suppressor DiRas3 Forms a Complex with H-Ras and C-RAF Proteins and Regulates Localization, Dimerization, and Kinase Activity of C-RAF*

    PubMed Central

    Baljuls, Angela; Beck, Matthias; Oenel, Ayla; Robubi, Armin; Kroschewski, Ruth; Hekman, Mirko; Rudel, Thomas; Rapp, Ulf R.

    2012-01-01

    The maternally imprinted Ras-related tumor suppressor gene DiRas3 is lost or down-regulated in more than 60% of ovarian and breast cancers. The anti-tumorigenic effect of DiRas3 is achieved through several mechanisms, including inhibition of cell proliferation, motility, and invasion, as well as induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Re-expression of DiRas3 in cancer cells interferes with the signaling through Ras/MAPK and PI3K. Despite intensive research, the mode of interference of DiRas3 with the Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK signal transduction is still a matter of speculation. In this study, we show that DiRas3 associates with the H-Ras oncogene and that activation of H-Ras enforces this interaction. Furthermore, while associated with DiRas3, H-Ras is able to bind to its effector protein C-RAF. The resulting multimeric complex consisting of DiRas3, C-RAF, and active H-Ras is more stable than the two protein complexes H-Ras·C-RAF or H-Ras·DiRas3, respectively. The consequence of this complex formation is a DiRas3-mediated recruitment and anchorage of C-RAF to components of the membrane skeleton, suppression of C-RAF/B-RAF heterodimerization, and inhibition of C-RAF kinase activity. PMID:22605333

  11. Study Illuminates K-Ras4B Activation, Which May Help Predict Drug Resistance | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Until recently, researchers studying RAS, a family of proteins involved in transmitting signals within cells, believed that the exchange of guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP) by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was sufficient to activate the protein. Once activated, RAS can cause unintended and overactive signaling in cells, which can lead to cell division and, ultimately, cancer.

  12. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P.; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Zhu, Michael X.; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras–dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits. PMID:26293964

  13. Pleiotrophin mediates hematopoietic regeneration via activation of RAS.

    PubMed

    Himburg, Heather A; Yan, Xiao; Doan, Phuong L; Quarmyne, Mamle; Micewicz, Eva; McBride, William; Chao, Nelson J; Slamon, Dennis J; Chute, John P

    2014-11-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation-mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner.

  14. Pleiotrophin mediates hematopoietic regeneration via activation of RAS

    PubMed Central

    Himburg, Heather A.; Yan, Xiao; Doan, Phuong L.; Quarmyne, Mamle; Micewicz, Eva; McBride, William; Chao, Nelson J.; Slamon, Dennis J.; Chute, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are highly susceptible to ionizing radiation–mediated death via induction of ROS, DNA double-strand breaks, and apoptotic pathways. The development of therapeutics capable of mitigating ionizing radiation–induced hematopoietic toxicity could benefit both victims of acute radiation sickness and patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Unfortunately, therapies capable of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution following lethal radiation exposure have remained elusive. Here, we found that systemic administration of pleiotrophin (PTN), a protein that is secreted by BM-derived endothelial cells, substantially increased the survival of mice following radiation exposure and after myeloablative BM transplantation. In both models, PTN increased survival by accelerating the recovery of BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo. PTN treatment promoted HSC regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated activation of RAS was dependent upon signaling through PTPRZ. PTN strongly inhibited HSC cycling following irradiation, whereas RAS inhibition abrogated PTN-mediated induction of HSC quiescence, blocked PTN-mediated recovery of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and abolished PTN-mediated survival of irradiated mice. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of PTN to improve survival after myeloablation and suggest that PTN-mediated hematopoietic regeneration occurs in a RAS-dependent manner. PMID:25250571

  15. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García- Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment. PMID:27468687

  16. PGA1-induced apoptosis involves specific activation of H-Ras and N-Ras in cellular endomembranes.

    PubMed

    Anta, B; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Castro, J; García-Domínguez, C A; Ibiza, S; Martínez, N; Durá, L M; Hernández, S; Gragera, T; Peña-Jiménez, D; Yunta, M; Zarich, N; Crespo, P; Serrador, J M; Santos, E; Muñoz, A; Oliva, J L; Rojas-Cabañeros, J M

    2016-07-28

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) is an inducer of cell death in cancer cells. However, the mechanism that initiates this cytotoxic response remains elusive. Here we report that PGA1 triggers apoptosis by a process that entails the specific activation of H- and N-Ras isoforms, leading to caspase activation. Cells without H- and N-Ras did not undergo apoptosis upon PGA1 treatment; in these cells, the cellular demise was rescued by overexpression of either H-Ras or N-Ras. Consistently, the mutant H-Ras-C118S, defective for binding PGA1, did not produce cell death. Molecular analysis revealed a key role for the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway in the apoptotic process through the induction of calpain activity and caspase-12 cleavage. We propose that PGA1 evokes a specific physiological cell death program, through H- and N-Ras, but not K-Ras, activation at endomembranes. Our results highlight a novel mechanism that may be of potential interest for tumor treatment.

  17. Association between GRB2/Sos and insulin receptor substrate 1 is not sufficient for activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by interleukin-4: implications for Ras activation by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pruett, W; Yuan, Y; Rose, E; Batzer, A G; Harada, N; Skolnik, E Y

    1995-03-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) mediates the activation of a variety of signaling pathways by the insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors by serving as a docking protein for signaling molecules with SH2 domains. We and others have shown that in response to insulin stimulation IRS-1 binds GRB2/Sos and have proposed that this interaction is important in mediating Ras activation by the insulin receptor. Recently, it has been shown that the interleukin (IL)-4 receptor also phosphorylates IRS-1 and an IRS-1-related molecule, 4PS. Unlike insulin, however, IL-4 fails to activate Ras, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), or mitogen-activated protein kinases. We have reconstituted the IL-4 receptor into an insulin-responsive L6 myoblast cell line and have shown that IRS-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated to similar degrees in response to insulin and IL-4 stimulation in this cell line. In agreement with previous findings, IL-4 failed to activate the ERKs in this cell line or to stimulate DNA synthesis, whereas the same responses were activated by insulin. Surprisingly, IL-4's failure to activate ERKs was not due to a failure to stimulate the association of tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 with GRB2/Sos; the amounts of GRB2/Sos associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. Moreover, the amounts of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 were similar in insulin- and IL-4-stimulated cells. In contrast to insulin, however, IL-4 failed to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc or association of Shc with GRB2. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Thus, ERK activation correlates with Shc tyrosine phosphorylation and formation of an Shc/GRB2 complex. Previous studies have indicated that activation of ERks in this cell line is dependent upon Ras since a dominant-negative Ras (Asn-17) blocks ERK activation by insulin. Our findings, taken in the context

  18. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduces neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Changhui; Merza, Mohammed; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2015-01-05

    Neutrophil recruitment is known to be a rate-limiting step in mediating tissue injury in severe acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the signalling mechanisms controlling inflammation and organ damage in AP remain elusive. Herein, we examined the role of Ras signalling in AP. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with a Ras inhibitor (farnesylthiosalicylic acid, FTS) before infusion of taurocholate into the pancreatic duct. Pancreatic and lung tissues as well as blood were collected 24 h after pancreatitis induction. Pretreatment with FTS decreased serum amylase levels by 82% and significantly attenuated acinar cell necrosis, tissue haemorrhage and oedema formation in taurocholate-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of Ras signalling reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in the inflamed pancreas by 42%. In addition, administration of FTS decreased pancreatic levels of CXC chemokines as well as circulating levels of interleukin-6 and high-mobility group box 1 in animals exposed to taurocholate. Moreover, treatment with FTS reduced taurocholate-induced MPO levels in the lung. Inhibition of Ras signalling had no effect on neutrophil expression of Mac-1 in mice with pancreatitis. Moreover, FTS had no direct impact on trypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. These results indicate that Ras signalling controls CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and tissue injury in severe AP. Thus, our findings highlight a new signalling mechanism regulating neutrophil recruitment in the pancreas and suggest that inhibition of Ras signalling might be a useful strategy to attenuate local and systemic inflammation in severe AP.

  19. CPI-17 drives oncogenic Ras signaling in human melanomas via Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Riecken, Lars Björn; Zoch, Ansgar; Wiehl, Ulrike; Reichert, Sabine; Scholl, Ingmar; Cui, Yan; Ziemer, Mirjana; Anderegg, Ulf; Hagel, Christian; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactive Ras signaling has strong oncogenic effects causing several different forms of cancer. Hyperactivity is frequently induced by mutations within Ras itself, which account for up to 30% of all human cancers. In addition, hyperactive Ras signaling can also be triggered independent of Ras by either mutation or by misexpression of various upstream regulators and immediate downstream effectors. We have previously reported that C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) can drive Ras activity and promote tumorigenic transformation by inhibition of the tumor suppressor Merlin. We now describe an additional element of this oncogenic mechanism in the form of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein family, which exhibits opposing roles in Ras activity control. Thus, CPI-17 drives Ras activity and tumorigenesis in a two-fold way; inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin and activation of the growth promoting ERM family. The in vivo significance of this oncogenic switch is highlighted by demonstrating CPI-17's involvement in human melanoma pathogenesis. PMID:27793041

  20. Ral-GTPases mediate a distinct downstream signaling pathway from Ras that facilitates cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Urano, T; Emkey, R; Feig, L A

    1996-01-01

    Ral proteins (RalA and RalB) comprise a distinct family of Ras-related GTPases (Feig and Emkey, 1993). Recently, Ral-GDS, the exchange factor that activates Ral proteins, has been shown to bind specifically to the activated forms of RasH, R-Ras and Rap1A, in the yeast two-hybrid system. Here we demonstrate that although all three GTPases have the capacity to bind Ral-GDS in mammalian cells, only RasH activates Ral-GDS. Furthermore, although constitutively activated Ra1A does not induce oncogenic transformation on its own, its expression enhances the transforming activities of both RasH and Raf. Finally, a dominant inhibitory form of RalA suppresses the transforming activities of both RasH and Raf. These results demonstrate that activation of Ral-GDS and thus its target, Ral, constitutes a distinct downstream signaling pathway from RasH that potentiates oncogenic transformation. Images PMID:8631302

  1. Morus alba Leaf Lectin (MLL) Sensitizes MCF-7 Cells to Anoikis by Inhibiting Fibronectin Mediated Integrin-FAK Signaling through Ras and Activation of P38 MAPK

    PubMed Central

    Saranya, Jayaram; Shilpa, Ganesan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil G.; Priya, Sulochana

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a unique class of carbohydrate binding proteins/glycoproteins, and many of them possess anticancer properties. They can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, inhibit protein synthesis, telomerase activity and angiogenesis in cancer cells. In the present study, we have demonstrated the effect of Morus alba leaf lectin (MLL) on anoikis induction in MCF-7 cells. Anoikis induction in cancer cells has a significant role in preventing early stage metastasis. MLL treatment in monolayers of MCF-7 cells caused significant detachment of cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. The detached cells failed to re-adhere and grew even to culture plates coated with different matrix proteins. DNA fragmentation, membrane integrity studies, annexin V staining, caspase 9 activation and upregulation of Bax/Bad confirmed that the detached cells underwent apoptosis. Upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) caused a decrease in fibronectin (FN) production which facilitated the cells to detach by blocking the FN mediated downstream signaling. On treatment with MLL, we have observed downregulation of integrin expression, decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), loss in FAK-integrin interaction and active Ras. MLL treatment downregulated the levels of phosphorylated Akt and PI3K. Also, we have studied the effect of MLL on two stress activated protein kinases p38 MAPK and JNK. p38 MAPK activation was found to be elevated, but there was no change in the level of JNK. Thus our study substantiated the possible antimetastatic effect of MLL by inducing anoikis in MCF-7 cells by activation of caspase 9 and proapoptotic Bax/Bad by blockage of FN mediated integrin/FAK signaling and partly by activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:28223935

  2. Disorders of dysregulated signal traffic through the RAS-MAPK pathway: phenotypic spectrum and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    RAS GTPases control a major signaling network implicated in several cellular functions, including cell fate determination, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and senescence. Within this network, signal flow through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates early and late developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity and growth. Signaling through the RAS-MAPK cascade is tightly controlled, and its enhanced activation represents a well-known event in oncogenesis. Unexpectedly, in the past few years, inherited dysregulation of this pathway has been recognized as the cause underlying a group of clinically related disorders sharing facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, ectodermal anomalies, variable cognitive deficits and susceptibility to certain malignancies as major features. These disorders are caused by heterozygosity for mutations in genes encoding RAS proteins, regulators of RAS function, modulators of RAS interaction with effectors or downstream signal transducers. Here, we provide an overview of the phenotypic spectrum associated with germline mutations perturbing RAS-MAPK signaling, the unpredicted molecular mechanisms converging towards the dysregulation of this signaling cascade, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:20958325

  3. Naringin-induced p21WAF1-mediated G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest via activation of the Ras/Raf/ERK signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo-Jin; Moon, Gi-Seong; Choi, Won-Seok; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2008-12-01

    The flavonoid naringin has been shown to play a role in preventing the development of cardiovascular disease. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying the roles of integrated cell cycle regulation and MAPK signaling pathways in the regulation of naringin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remain to be identified. Naringin treatment resulted in significant growth inhibition and G(1)-phase cell cycle arrest mediated by induction of p53-independent p21WAF1 expression; expression of cyclins and CDKs in VSMCs was also down-regulated. In addition, among the pathways examined, blockade of ERK function inhibited naringin-dependent p21WAF1 expression, reversed naringin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation and decreased cell cycle proteins. Moreover, naringin treatment increased both Ras and Raf activations. Transfection of cells with dominant negative Ras (RasN17) and Raf (RafS621A) mutant genes suppressed naringin-induced ERK activity and p21WAF1 expression. Finally, naringin-induced reduction in cell proliferation and cell cycle protein was abolished in the presence of RasN17 and RafS621A mutant genes. The Ras/Raf/ERK pathway participates in p21WAF1 induction, leading to a decrease in cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin E/CDK2 complexes and in naringin-dependent inhibition of cell growth. These novel and unexpected findings provide a theoretical basis for preventive use of flavonoids to the atherosclerosis disease.

  4. The Spread of Ras Activity Triggered by Activation of a Single Dendritic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Christopher D.; Yasuda, Ryohei; Zhong, Haining; Svoboda, Karel

    2009-01-01

    In neurons, individual dendritic spines isolate NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ accumulations from the dendrite and other spines. However, it is not known to what extent spines compartmentalize signaling events downstream of Ca2+ influx. We combined two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with two-photon glutamate uncaging to image the activity of the small GTPase Ras following NMDA receptor activation at individual spines. Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered robust Ca2+-dependent Ras activation in single spines that decayed in approximately 5 minutes. Ras activity spread over approximately 10 micrometers of dendrite and invaded neighboring spines by diffusion. The spread of Ras-dependent signaling was necessary for the local regulation of the threshold for LTP induction. Thus Ca2+-dependent synaptic signals can spread to couple multiple synapses on short stretches of dendrite. PMID:18556515

  5. RALB provides critical survival signals downstream of Ras in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Eckfeldt, Craig E.; Pomeroy, Emily J.; Lee, Robin D.W.; Hazen, Katherine S.; Lee, Lindsey A.; Moriarity, Branden S.; Largaespada, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations that activate RAS proto-oncogenes and their effectors are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, efforts to therapeutically target Ras or its effectors have been unsuccessful, and have been hampered by an incomplete understanding of which effectors are required for AML proliferation and survival. We investigated the role of Ras effector pathways in AML using murine and human AML models. Whereas genetic disruption of NRAS(V12) expression in an NRAS(V12) and Mll-AF9-driven murine AML induced apoptosis of leukemic cells, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling did not reproduce this effect. Conversely, genetic disruption of RALB signaling induced AML cell death and phenocopied the effects of suppressing oncogenic Ras directly – uncovering a novel role for RALB signaling in AML survival. Knockdown of RALB led to decreased phosphorylation of TBK1 and reduced BCL2 expression, providing mechanistic insight into RALB survival signaling in AML. Notably, we found that patient-derived AML blasts have higher levels of RALB-TBK1 signaling compared to normal blood leukocytes, supporting a pathophysiologic role for RALB signaling for AML patients. Overall, our work provides new insight into the specific roles of Ras effector pathways in AML and has identified RALB signaling as a key survival pathway. PMID:27556501

  6. Ras activation in normal white blood cells and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    von Lintig, F C; Huvar, I; Law, P; Diccianni, M B; Yu, A L; Boss, G R

    2000-05-01

    Ras is an important cellular switch, relaying growth-promoting signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. In cultured cells, Ras is activated by various hematopoietic cytokines and growth factors, but the activation state of Ras in peripheral WBCs and bone marrow cells has not been studied nor has Ras activation been assessed in cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using an enzyme-based method, we assessed Ras activation in peripheral WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells from normal subjects and from children with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) and B-lineage ALL (B-ALL). In normal subjects, we found mean Ras activations of 14.3, 12.5, and 17.2% for peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells, respectively. All three of these values are higher than we have found in other normal human cells, compatible with constitutive activation of Ras by cytokines and growth factors present in serum and bone marrow. In 9 of 18 children with T-ALL, Ras activation exceeded two SDs above the mean of the corresponding cells from normal subjects, whereas in none of 11 patients with B-ALL did Ras show increased activation; activating genetic mutations in ras occur in less than 10% of ALL patients. Thus, Ras is relatively activated in peripheral blood WBCs, lymphocytes, and bone marrow cells compared with other normal human cells, and Ras is activated frequently in T-ALL but not in B-ALL. Increased Ras activation in T-ALL compared with B-ALL may contribute to the more aggressive nature of the former disease.

  7. Reciprocal regulatory interactions between the Notch and Ras signaling pathways in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Carmena, Ana; Buff, Eugene; Halfon, Marc S; Gisselbrecht, Stephen; Jiménez, Fernando; Baylies, Mary K; Michelson, Alan M

    2002-04-15

    Convergent intercellular signals must be precisely integrated in order to elicit specific biological responses. During specification of muscle and cardiac progenitors from clusters of equivalent cells in the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm, the Ras/MAPK pathway--activated by both epidermal and fibroblast growth factor receptors--functions as an inductive cellular determination signal, while lateral inhibition mediated by Notch antagonizes this activity. A critical balance between these signals must be achieved to enable one cell of an equivalence group to segregate as a progenitor while its neighbors assume a nonprogenitor identity. We have investigated whether these opposing signals directly interact with each other, and we have examined how they are integrated by the responding cells to specify their unique fates. Our findings reveal that Ras and Notch do not function independently; rather, we have uncovered several modes of cross-talk between these pathways. Ras induces Notch, its ligand Delta, and the epidermal growth factor receptor antagonist, Argos. We show that Delta and Argos then synergize to nonautonomously block a positive autoregulatory feedback loop that amplifies a fate-inducing Ras signal. This feedback loop is characterized by Ras-mediated upregulation of proximal components of both the epidermal and fibroblast growth factor receptor pathways. In turn, Notch activation in nonprogenitors induces its own expression and simultaneously suppresses both Delta and Argos levels, thereby reinforcing a unidirectional inhibitory response. These reciprocal interactions combine to generate the signal thresholds that are essential for proper specification of progenitors and nonprogenitors from groups of initially equivalent cells.

  8. R-Ras Signals through Specific Integrin α Cytoplasmic Domains to Promote Migration and Invasion of Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Patricia J.; Rusyn, Elena V.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Parise, Leslie V.

    1999-01-01

    Specificity and modulation of integrin function have important consequences for cellular responses to the extracellular matrix, including differentiation and transformation. The Ras-related GTPase, R-Ras, modulates integrin affinity, but little is known of the signaling pathways and biological functions downstream of R-Ras. Here we show that stable expression of activated R-Ras or the closely related TC21 (R-Ras 2) induced integrin-mediated migration and invasion of breast epithelial cells through collagen and disrupted differentiation into tubule structures, whereas dominant negative R-Ras had opposite effects. These results imply novel roles for R-Ras and TC21 in promoting a transformed phenotype and in the basal migration and polarization of these cells. Importantly, R-Ras induced an increase in cellular adhesion and migration on collagen but not fibronectin, suggesting that R-Ras signals to specific integrins. This was further supported by experiments in which R-Ras enhanced the migration of cells expressing integrin chimeras containing the α2, but not the α5, cytoplasmic domain. In addition, a transdominant inhibition previously noted only between integrin β cytoplasmic domains was observed for the α2 cytoplasmic domain; α2β1-mediated migration was inhibited by the expression of excess α2 but not α5 cytoplasmic domain-containing chimeras, suggesting the existence of limiting factors that bind the integrin α subunit. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that R-Ras induced migration on collagen through a combination of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C, but not MAPK, which is distinct from the other Ras family members, Rac, Cdc42, and N- and K-Ras. Thus, R-Ras communicates with specific integrin α cytoplasmic domains through a unique combination of signaling pathways to promote cell migration and invasion. PMID:10352023

  9. Degradation of Activated K-Ras Orthologue via K-Ras-specific Lysine Residues Is Required for Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Mika; Majd, Nazanin; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Takahashi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Koh; Kuroda, Taruho; Lee, Susan; Charest, Pascale G.; Takeda, Kosuke; Asara, John M.; Firtel, Richard A.; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of GTP-loaded K-Ras have not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate RasG, the Dictyostelium orthologue of K-Ras, is targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination. Both ubiquitination and degradation of RasG were strictly associated with RasG activity. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that RasG ubiquitination occurs at C-terminal lysines equivalent to lysines found in human K-Ras but not in H-Ras and N-Ras homologues. Substitution of these lysine residues with arginines (4KR-RasG) diminished RasG ubiquitination and increased RasG protein stability. Cells expressing 4KR-RasG failed to undergo proper cytokinesis and resulted in multinucleated cells. Ectopically expressed human K-Ras undergoes polyubiquitin-mediated degradation in Dictyostelium, whereas human H-Ras and a Dictyostelium H-Ras homologue (RasC) are refractory to ubiquitination. Our results indicate the existence of GTP-loaded K-Ras orthologue-specific degradation system in Dictyostelium, and further identification of the responsible E3-ligase may provide a novel therapeutic approach against K-Ras-mutated cancers. PMID:24338482

  10. RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; East, Philip; Warne, Patricia; Nicol, Alastair; Downward, Julian

    2016-01-01

    RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. PMID:27071537

  11. An Active RFID Accountability System (RAS) for Constrained Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Hanson, Gregory R; Sexton, Angela Kay; Jones Jr, J P; Freer, Eva B; Sjoreen, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an RFID Accountability System (RAS) that allows items with active RFID tags to be tracked in environments where tags may not be able to transmit their location continuously. The system uses activators that transmit a short range signal. Active RFID tags are in a sleep state until they encounter an activator. Then they transmit a signal that is picked up by the antennas installed throughout the building. This paper presents the theory of operation, application areas, lessons learned, and key features developed over the course of seven years of development and use.

  12. Targeting of Ras-mediated FGF signaling suppresses Pten-deficient skin tumor.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Grinu; Hannan, Abdul; Hertzler-Schaefer, Kristina; Wang, Fen; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Zhong, Jian; Zhao, Jean J; Downward, Julian; Zhang, Xin

    2016-11-15

    Deficiency in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is the underlying cause of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome and a wide variety of human cancers. In skin epidermis, we have previously identified an autocrine FGF signaling induced by loss of Pten in keratinocytes. In this study, we demonstrate that skin hyperplasia requires FGF receptor adaptor protein Frs2α and tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, two upstream regulators of Ras signaling. Although the PI3-kinase regulatory subunits p85α and p85β are dispensable, the PI3-kinase catalytic subunit p110α requires interaction with Ras to promote hyperplasia in Pten-deficient skin, thus demonstrating an important cross-talk between Ras and PI3K pathways. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Ras-MAPK pathway impeded epidermal hyperplasia in Pten animals. These results reveal a positive feedback loop connecting Pten and Ras pathways and suggest that FGF-activated Ras-MAPK pathway is an effective therapeutic target for preventing skin tumor induced by aberrant Pten signaling.

  13. The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 binds to and activates H-Ras

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, José Luis; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Castrillo, Antonio; Martínez, Natalia; Cañada, F. Javier; Boscá, Lisardo; Rojas, José M.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces cell proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Here, we describe that these effects are mediated by 15d-PGJ2-elicited H-Ras activation. We demonstrate that this pathway is specific for H-Ras through the formation of a covalent adduct of 15d-PGJ2 with Cys-184 of H-Ras, but not with N-Ras or K-Ras. Mutation of C184 inhibited H-Ras modification and activation by 15d-PGJ2, whereas serum-elicited stimulation was not affected. These results describe a mechanism for the activation of the Ras signaling pathway, which results from the chemical modification of H-Ras by formation of a covalent adduct with cyclopentenone prostaglandins. PMID:12684535

  14. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Neil S.; scopton, Alex P.; Dar, Arvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Ras–mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies1. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes2. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold3–5 that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF6,7. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras–MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers. PMID:27556948

  15. RAS - Screens & Assays

    Cancer.gov

    A primary goal of the RAS Initiative is to develop assays for RAS activity, localization, and signaling and adapt those assays so they can be used for finding new drug candidates. Explore the work leading to highly validated screening protocols.

  16. Transgenic Activation of Ras in Neurons Promotes Hypertrophy and Protects from Lesion-Induced Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Heumann, Rolf; Goemans, Christoph; Bartsch, Daniela; Lingenhöhl, Kurt; Waldmeier, Peter C.; Hengerer, Bastian; Allegrini, Peter R.; Schellander, Karl; Wagner, Erwin F.; Arendt, Thomas; Kamdem, Rigobert H.; Obst-Pernberg, Kirstin; Narz, Frank; Wahle, Petra; Berns, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    Ras is a universal eukaryotic intracellular protein integrating extracellular signals from multiple receptor types. To investigate its role in the adult central nervous system, constitutively activated V12-Ha-Ras was expressed selectively in neurons of transgenic mice via a synapsin promoter. Ras-transgene protein expression increased postnatally, reaching a four- to fivefold elevation at day 40 and persisting at this level, thereafter. Neuronal Ras was constitutively active and a corresponding activating phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinase was observed, but there were no changes in the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, the phosphorylation of its target kinase Akt/PKB, or expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. Neuronal Ras activation did not alter the total number of neurons, but induced cell soma hypertrophy, which resulted in a 14.5% increase of total brain volume. Choline acetyltransferase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities were increased, as well as neuropeptide Y expression. Degeneration of motorneurons was completely prevented after facial nerve lesion in Ras-transgenic mice. Furthermore, neurotoxin-induced degeneration of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons and their striatal projections was greatly attenuated. Thus, the Ras signaling pathway mimics neurotrophic effects and triggers neuroprotective mechanisms in adult mice. Neuronal Ras activation might become a tool to stabilize donor neurons for neural transplantation and to protect neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11134081

  17. RAS and downstream RAF-MEK and PI3K-AKT signaling in neuronal development, function and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In postmitotic neurons, the activation of RAS family small GTPases regulates survival, growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of RAS or its major effector pathway, the cascade of RAF-, mitogen-activated and extracellular-signal regulated kinase kinases (MEK), and extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERK) causes the Rasopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose pathogenic mechanisms are the subject of intense research. I here summarize the functions of RAS – RAF – MEK – ERK signaling in neurons in vivo, and discuss perspectives for harnessing this pathway to enable novel treatments for nervous system injury, the Rasopathies, and possibly other neurological conditions. PMID:26760308

  18. Enhanced MET translation and signaling sustains K-Ras driven proliferation under anchorage-independent growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global down-regulation of mRNA translation during anchorage independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras mediated Met expression drives “K-Ras addiction” in anchorage independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. PMID:25977330

  19. Abnormal Ras signaling in Costello syndrome (CS) negatively regulates enamel formation

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Alice F.; Tidyman, William E.; Jheon, Andrew H.; Sharir, Amnon; Zheng, Xu; Charles, Cyril; Fagin, James A.; McMahon, Martin; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ganss, Bernhard; Rauen, Katherine A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    RASopathies are syndromes caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Ras signaling pathway. One of these conditions, Costello syndrome (CS), is typically caused by an activating de novo germline mutation in HRAS and is characterized by a wide range of cardiac, musculoskeletal, dermatological and developmental abnormalities. We report that a majority of individuals with CS have hypo-mineralization of enamel, the outer covering of teeth, and that similar defects are present in a CS mouse model. Comprehensive analysis of the mouse model revealed that ameloblasts, the cells that generate enamel, lacked polarity, and the ameloblast progenitor cells were hyperproliferative. Ras signals through two main effector cascades, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. To determine through which pathway Ras affects enamel formation, inhibitors targeting either PI3K or MEK 1 and 2 (MEK 1/2), kinases in the MAPK pathway, were utilized. MEK1/2 inhibition rescued the hypo-mineralized enamel, normalized the ameloblast polarity defect and restored normal progenitor cell proliferation. In contrast, PI3K inhibition only corrected the progenitor cell proliferation phenotype. We demonstrate for the first time the central role of Ras signaling in enamel formation in CS individuals and present the mouse incisor as a model system to dissect the roles of the Ras effector pathways in vivo. PMID:24057668

  20. A genetic screen for novel components of the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway that interact with the yan gene of Drosophila identifies split ends, a new RNA recognition motif-containing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Rebay, I; Chen, F; Hsiao, F; Kolodziej, P A; Kuang, B H; Laverty, T; Suh, C; Voas, M; Williams, A; Rubin, G M

    2000-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathway is used reiteratively during the development of all multicellular organisms. While the core RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling cassette has been studied extensively, little is known about the nature of the downstream targets of the pathway or how these effectors regulate the specificity of cellular responses. Drosophila yan is one of a few downstream components identified to date, functioning as an antagonist of the RTK/Ras/MAPK pathway. Previously, we have shown that ectopic expression of a constitutively active protein (yan(ACT)) inhibits the differentiation of multiple cell types. In an effort to identify new genes functioning downstream in the Ras/MAPK/yan pathway, we have performed a genetic screen to isolate dominant modifiers of the rough eye phenotype associated with eye-specific expression of yan(ACT). Approximately 190,000 mutagenized flies were screened, and 260 enhancers and 90 suppressors were obtained. Among the previously known genes we recovered are four RTK pathway components, rolled (MAPK), son-of-sevenless, Star, and pointed, and two genes, eyes absent and string, that have not been implicated previously in RTK signaling events. We also isolated mutations in five previously uncharacterized genes, one of which, split ends, we have characterized molecularly and have shown to encode a member of the RRM family of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:10655223

  1. Protein kinase C alpha-CARMA3 signaling axis links Ras to NF-kappa B for lysophosphatidic acid-induced urokinase plasminogen activator expression in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mahanivong, C; Chen, H M; Yee, S W; Pan, Z K; Dong, Z; Huang, S

    2008-02-21

    We reported previously that a signaling pathway consisting of G(i)-Ras-NF-kappaB mediates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) upregulation in ovarian cancer cells. However, it is not clear what signaling components link Ras to nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB for this LPA-induced event. In the present study, we found that treatment of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors including conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 abolished LPA-induced uPA upregulation in ovarian cancer cell lines tested, indicating the importance of cPKC activity in this LPA-induced event. Indeed, LPA stimulation led to the activation of PKCalpha and Ras-PKCalpha interaction. Although constitutively active mutants of PKCalpha (a cPKC), PKCtheta (a novel PKC (nPKC)) and PKCzeta (an atypical PKC (aPKC)) were all able to activate NF-kappaB and upregulate uPA expression, only dominant-negative PKCalpha mutant attenuated LPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and uPA upregulation. These results suggest that PKCalpha, rather than PKC isoforms in other PKC classes, participates in LPA-induced NF-kappaB activation and uPA upregulation in ovarian cancer cells. To determine the signaling components downstream of PKCalpha mediating LPA-induced uPA upregulation, we showed that forced expression of dominant-negative CARMA3 or silencing CARMA3, Bcl10 and MALT1 with specific siRNAs diminished these LPA-induced events. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PKCalpha/CARMA3 signaling axis is important in LPA-induced ovarian cancer cell in vitro invasion.

  2. Activation of the exchange factor Ras-GRF by calcium requires an intact Dbl homology domain.

    PubMed

    Freshney, N W; Goonesekera, S D; Feig, L A

    1997-04-21

    Ras-GRF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates Ras proteins. Its activity on Ras in cells is enhanced upon calcium influx. Activation follows calcium-induced binding of calmodulin to an IQ motif near the N-terminus of Ras-GRF. Ras-GRF also contains a Dbl homology (DH) domain C-terminal to the IQ motif. In many proteins, DH domains act as exchange factors for Rho-GTPase family members. However, we failed to detect exchange activity of this domain on well characterized Rho family members. Instead, we found that mutations analogous to those that block exchange activity of Dbl prevented Ras-GRF activation by calcium/ calmodulin in vivo. All DH domains are followed immediately by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. We found that a mutation at a conserved site within the PH domain following the DH domain also prevented Ras-GRF activation by calcium in vivo. These results suggest that in addition to playing a role as activators of Rho proteins, DH domains can also contribute to the coupling of cellular signals to Ras activation.

  3. Lymphatic Vessel Abnormalities Arising from Disorders of Ras Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; King, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    A number of genetic diseases in man have been described in which abnormalities in the development and function of the lymphatic vascular (LV) system are prominent features. The genes that are mutated in these diseases are varied and include genes that encode lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) growth factor receptors and their ligands and transcription factors that control LEC fate and function. In addition, an increasing number of genes have been identified that encode components of the Ras signal transduction pathway that conveys signals from cell surface receptors to regulate cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Gene targeting studies performed in mice have confirmed that the LV system is particularly susceptible to perturbations in the Ras pathway. PMID:24183794

  4. The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives.

  5. Peroxiredoxin II promotes hepatic tumorigenesis through cooperation with Ras/Forkhead box M1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Y-H; Kim, S-U; Kwon, T-H; Kim, J-M; Song, I-S; Shin, H-J; Lee, B-K; Bang, D-H; Lee, S-J; Lee, D-S; Chang, K-T; Kim, B-Y; Yu, D-Y

    2016-07-07

    The current study was carried out to define the involvement of Peroxiredoxin (Prx) II in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the underlying molecular mechanism(s). Expression and function of Prx II in HCC was determined using H-ras(G12V)-transformed HCC cells (H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells) and the tumor livers from H-ras(G12V)-transgenic (Tg) mice and HCC patients. Prx II was upregulated in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg mouse tumor livers, the expression pattern of which highly similar to that of forkhead Box M1 (FoxM1). Moreover, either knockdown of FoxM1 or site-directed mutagenesis of FoxM1-binding site of Prx II promoter significantly reduced Prx II levels in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells, indicating FoxM1 as a direct transcription factor of Prx II in HCC. Interestingly, the null mutation of Prx II markedly decreased the number and size of tumors in H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Consistent with this, knockdown of Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells reduced the expression of cyclin D1, cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor formation in athymic nude mice, whereas overexpression of Prx II increased or aggravated the tumor phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of Prx II was correlated with that of FoxM1 in HCC patients. The activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway and the expression of FoxM1 and cyclin D1 were highly dependent on Prx II in H-ras(G12V)-HCC cells and H-ras(G12V)-Tg livers. Prx II is FoxM1-dependently-expressed antioxidant in HCC and function as an enhancer of Ras(G12V) oncogenic potential in hepatic tumorigenesis through activation of ERK/FoxM1/cyclin D1 cascade.

  6. siRNA blocking the RAS signalling pathway and inhibits the growth of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjie; Zheng, Yuling; Fan, Qingxia; Zhang, Xudong; Shi, Yonggang

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to study RAS-siRNA blocking RAS pathway and suppressing cell growth in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in nude mice. The methods in this study was to construct RAS-siRNA expression vector, establish 40 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma xenograft animal models and divided them into five groups: control group, siRNA control group, RAS-siRNA group, paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA and paclitaxel group. We observed tumour growth in nude mice, studied histology by HE staining, tumour growth inhibition by TUNEL assay and detected the RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot. We have obtained the following results: (i) successfully established animal models; (ii) nude mice in each group after treatment inhibited tumour volume was significantly reduced compared with the control group (p < 0.05); (iii) compared with the control group, the number of apoptotic cells were significantly increased in the siRNA control group and the RAS-siRNA group, and the number of apoptosis cells in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group is significantly most than the paclitaxel group and RAS-siRNA group (p < 0.05); and (iv) after treatment, RAS, MAPK and cyclin D1 expression in five groups was decreasing gradually. After adding paclitaxel, the protein expression in the paclitaxel and RAS-siRNA group was significantly lower than that of paclitaxel group, negative control and paclitaxel group (p < 0.05). We therefore conclude that RAS-siRNA can block the RAS signal transduction pathway, reduce the activity of tumour cells, arrest tumour cell cycle, promote apoptosis, inhibit cell proliferation and increase tumour cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs.

  7. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-03-10

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog.

  8. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog. PMID:28281543

  9. Developmental lineage priming in Dictyostelium by heterogeneous Ras activation.

    PubMed

    Chattwood, Alex; Nagayama, Koki; Bolourani, Parvin; Harkin, Lauren; Kamjoo, Marzieh; Weeks, Gerald; Thompson, Christopher R L

    2013-11-26

    In cell culture, genetically identical cells often exhibit heterogeneous behavior, with only 'lineage primed' cells responding to differentiation inducing signals. It has recently been proposed that such heterogeneity exists during normal embryonic development to allow position independent patterning based on 'salt and pepper' differentiation and sorting out. However, the molecular basis of lineage priming and how it leads to reproducible cell type proportioning are poorly understood. To address this, we employed a novel forward genetic approach in the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. These studies reveal that the Ras-GTPase regulator gefE is required for normal lineage priming and salt and pepper differentiation. This is because Ras-GTPase activity sets the intrinsic response threshold to lineage specific differentiation signals. Importantly, we show that although gefE expression is uniform, transcription of its target, rasD, is both heterogeneous and dynamic, thus providing a novel mechanism for heterogeneity generation and position-independent differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01067.001.

  10. Developmental lineage priming in Dictyostelium by heterogeneous Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Chattwood, Alex; Nagayama, Koki; Bolourani, Parvin; Harkin, Lauren; Kamjoo, Marzieh; Weeks, Gerald; Thompson, Christopher RL

    2013-01-01

    In cell culture, genetically identical cells often exhibit heterogeneous behavior, with only ‘lineage primed’ cells responding to differentiation inducing signals. It has recently been proposed that such heterogeneity exists during normal embryonic development to allow position independent patterning based on ‘salt and pepper’ differentiation and sorting out. However, the molecular basis of lineage priming and how it leads to reproducible cell type proportioning are poorly understood. To address this, we employed a novel forward genetic approach in the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. These studies reveal that the Ras-GTPase regulator gefE is required for normal lineage priming and salt and pepper differentiation. This is because Ras-GTPase activity sets the intrinsic response threshold to lineage specific differentiation signals. Importantly, we show that although gefE expression is uniform, transcription of its target, rasD, is both heterogeneous and dynamic, thus providing a novel mechanism for heterogeneity generation and position-independent differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01067.001 PMID:24282234

  11. Activation of Ras in vitro and in intact fibroblasts by the Vav guanine nucleotide exchange protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gulbins, E; Coggeshall, K M; Langlet, C; Baier, G; Bonnefoy-Berard, N; Burn, P; Wittinghofer, A; Katzav, S; Altman, A

    1994-01-01

    We recently identified Vav, the product of the vav proto-oncogene, as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Ras. Vav is enzymatically activated by lymphocyte antigen receptor-coupled protein tyrosine kinases or independently by diglycerides. To further evaluate the physiological role of Vav, we assessed its GDP-GTP exchange activity against several Ras-related proteins in vitro and determined whether Vav activation in transfected NIH 3T3 fibroblasts correlates with the activity status of Ras and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. In vitro translated purified Vav activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or phosphorylation with recombinant p56lck displayed GEF activity against Ras but not against recombinant RacI, RacII, Ral, or RhoA proteins. Expression of vav or proto-vav in stably transfected NIH 3T3 cells led to a approximately 10-fold increase in basal or PMA-stimulated Ras exchange activity, respectively, in total-cell lysates and Vav immunoprecipitates. Elevated GEF activity was paralleled in each case by a significant increase in the proportion of active, GTP-bound Ras. PMA had a minimal effect on the low Ras. GTP level in untransfected control fibroblasts but increased it from 20 to 37% in proto-vav-transfected cells. vav-transfected cells displayed a constitutively elevated Ras. GTP level (35%), which was not increased further by PMA treatment. MAP kinases, known downstream intermediates in Ras-dependent signaling pathways, similarly exhibited increased basal or PMA-stimulated activity in Vav-expressing cells by comparison with normal NIH 3T3 cells. These results demonstrate a physiologic interaction between Vav and its target, Ras, leading to MAP kinase activation. Images PMID:8289830

  12. A Fungus-Specific Protein Domain Is Essential for RasA-Mediated Morphogenetic Signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Norton, Tiffany S.; Hill, Amy M.; LeClaire, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine. For this reason, we have termed the RasA N-terminal domain the invariant arginine domain (IRD). Through mutational analyses, the IRD was found to be essential for polarized morphogenesis and asexual development, with the invariant arginine residue being most essential. Although IRD truncation resulted in a nonfunctional Ras phenotype, IRD mutation was not associated with mislocalization of the RasA protein or significant changes in steady-state RasA activity levels. Mutation of the RasA IRD diminished protein kinase A (PKA) activation and resulted in decreased interaction with the Rho-type GTPase, Cdc42. Taken together, our findings reveal novel, fungus-specific mechanisms for Ras protein function and signal transduction. IMPORTANCE Aspergillus fumigatus is an important fungal pathogen against which limited treatments exist. During invasive disease, A. fumigatus hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion, forming filaments that invade blood vessels and disseminate to distant sites. Once invasion and dissemination occur, mortality rates are high. We have previously shown that the Ras signaling pathway is an important regulator of the hyphal growth machinery supporting virulence in A. fumigatus. Here, we show that functional Ras signaling in A. fumigatus requires a novel, fungus-specific domain within the Ras protein. This domain is highly conserved among fungi, yet absent in higher eukaryotes, suggesting a potentially crucial difference in

  13. A Fungus-Specific Protein Domain Is Essential for RasA-Mediated Morphogenetic Signaling in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Norton, Tiffany S; Hill, Amy M; LeClaire, Lawrence L; Fortwendel, Jarrod R

    2016-01-01

    Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine. For this reason, we have termed the RasA N-terminal domain the invariant arginine domain (IRD). Through mutational analyses, the IRD was found to be essential for polarized morphogenesis and asexual development, with the invariant arginine residue being most essential. Although IRD truncation resulted in a nonfunctional Ras phenotype, IRD mutation was not associated with mislocalization of the RasA protein or significant changes in steady-state RasA activity levels. Mutation of the RasA IRD diminished protein kinase A (PKA) activation and resulted in decreased interaction with the Rho-type GTPase, Cdc42. Taken together, our findings reveal novel, fungus-specific mechanisms for Ras protein function and signal transduction. IMPORTANCEAspergillus fumigatus is an important fungal pathogen against which limited treatments exist. During invasive disease, A. fumigatus hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion, forming filaments that invade blood vessels and disseminate to distant sites. Once invasion and dissemination occur, mortality rates are high. We have previously shown that the Ras signaling pathway is an important regulator of the hyphal growth machinery supporting virulence in A. fumigatus. Here, we show that functional Ras signaling in A. fumigatus requires a novel, fungus-specific domain within the Ras protein. This domain is highly conserved among fungi, yet absent in higher eukaryotes, suggesting a potentially crucial difference in the

  14. Systemic Regulation of RAS/MAPK Signaling by the Serotonin Metabolite 5-HIAA

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Tobias; Snoek, L. Basten; Fröhli, Erika; van der Bent, M. Leontien; Kammenga, Jan; Hajnal, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer is caused by the interplay of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and inherited variations in cancer susceptibility genes. While many of the tumor initiating mutations are well characterized, the effect of genetic background variation on disease onset and progression is less understood. We have used C. elegans genetics to identify genetic modifiers of the oncogenic RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Quantitative trait locus analysis of two highly diverged C. elegans isolates combined with allele swapping experiments identified the polymorphic monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene amx-2 as a negative regulator of RAS/MAPK signaling. We further show that the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), which is a product of MAOA catalysis, systemically inhibits RAS/MAPK signaling in different organs of C. elegans. Thus, MAOA activity sets a global threshold for MAPK activation by controlling 5-HIAA levels. To our knowledge, 5-HIAA is the first endogenous small molecule that acts as a systemic inhibitor of RAS/MAPK signaling. PMID:25978500

  15. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; Casteel, Darren E; Prakash, Priyanka; Tan, Lingxiao; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Salim, Angela A; Kim, Choel; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Cunha, Shane R; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2016-12-15

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 selectively colocalizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras reorganizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune the signal output. Phosphorylation acutely enhances K-Ras plasma membrane affinity, but phosphorylated K-Ras is progressively lost from the plasma membrane via endocytic recycling. Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. The study shows that K-Ras is a target of a metabolic stress-signaling pathway that can be leveraged to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras function.

  16. PUF-8 negatively regulates RAS/MAPK signalling to promote differentiation of C. elegans germ cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaid, Samir; Ariz, Mohd; Chaturbedi, Amaresh; Kumar, Ganga Anil; Subramaniam, Kuppuswamy

    2013-01-01

    Signals that promote germ cell self-renewal by preventing premature meiotic entry are well understood. However, signals that control mitotic proliferation to promote meiotic differentiation have not been well characterized. In Caenorhabditis elegans, GLP-1 Notch signalling promotes the proliferative fate by preventing premature meiotic entry. The germline niche cell, which is the source of the ligand for GLP-1, spatially restricts GLP-1 signalling and thus enables the germ cells that have moved away from the niche to enter meiosis. Here, we show that the suppression of RAS/MAP kinase signalling in the mitotic and meiotic-entry regions is essential for the regulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch by niche signalling. We provide evidence that the conserved PUF family RNA-binding protein PUF-8 and the RAS GAP protein GAP-3 function redundantly to suppress the LET-60 RAS in the mitotic and meiotic entry regions. Germ cells missing both PUF-8 and GAP-3 proliferate in an uncontrolled fashion and fail to undergo meiotic development. MPK-1, the MAP kinase downstream of the LET-60 RAS, is prematurely activated in these cells; downregulation of MPK-1 activation eliminates tumours and restores differentiation. Our results further reveal that PUF-8 negatively regulates LET-60 expression at a post-transcriptional step. LET-60 is misexpressed in the puf-8(-) mutant germlines and PUF-8 physically interacts with the let-60 3′ UTR. Furthermore, PUF-8 suppresses let-60 3′ UTR-mediated expression in the germ cells that are transitioning from the mitotic to meiotic fate. These results reveal that PUF-8-mediated inhibition of the RAS/MAPK pathway is essential for mitotic-to-meiotic fate transition. PMID:23487310

  17. Defined spatiotemporal features of RAS-ERK signals dictate cell fate in MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Ana; Casar, Berta; Colón-Bolea, Paula; Agudo-Ibáñez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero

    2016-06-15

    Signals conveyed through the RAS-ERK pathway are essential for the determination of cell fate. It is well established that signal variability is achieved in the different microenvironments in which signals unfold. It is also known that signal duration is critical for decisions concerning cell commitment. However, it is unclear how RAS-ERK signals integrate time and space in order to elicit a given biological response. To investigate this, we used MCF-7 cells, in which EGF-induced transient ERK activation triggers proliferation, whereas sustained ERK activation in response to heregulin leads to adipocytic differentiation. We found that both proliferative and differentiating signals emanate exclusively from plasma membrane-disordered microdomains. Of interest, the EGF signal can be transformed into a differentiating stimulus by HRAS overexpression, which prolongs ERK activation, but only if HRAS localizes at disordered membrane. On the other hand, HRAS signals emanating from the Golgi complex induce apoptosis and can prevent heregulin-induced differentiation. Our results indicate that within the same cellular context, RAS can exert different, even antagonistic, effects, depending on its sublocalization. Thus cell destiny is defined by the ability of a stimulus to activate RAS at the appropriate sublocalization for an adequate period while avoiding switching on opposing RAS signals.

  18. Defined spatiotemporal features of RAS-ERK signals dictate cell fate in MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Ana; Casar, Berta; Colón-Bolea, Paula; Agudo-Ibáñez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Signals conveyed through the RAS-ERK pathway are essential for the determination of cell fate. It is well established that signal variability is achieved in the different microenvironments in which signals unfold. It is also known that signal duration is critical for decisions concerning cell commitment. However, it is unclear how RAS-ERK signals integrate time and space in order to elicit a given biological response. To investigate this, we used MCF-7 cells, in which EGF-induced transient ERK activation triggers proliferation, whereas sustained ERK activation in response to heregulin leads to adipocytic differentiation. We found that both proliferative and differentiating signals emanate exclusively from plasma membrane–disordered microdomains. Of interest, the EGF signal can be transformed into a differentiating stimulus by HRAS overexpression, which prolongs ERK activation, but only if HRAS localizes at disordered membrane. On the other hand, HRAS signals emanating from the Golgi complex induce apoptosis and can prevent heregulin-induced differentiation. Our results indicate that within the same cellular context, RAS can exert different, even antagonistic, effects, depending on its sublocalization. Thus cell destiny is defined by the ability of a stimulus to activate RAS at the appropriate sublocalization for an adequate period while avoiding switching on opposing RAS signals. PMID:27099370

  19. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  20. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  1. NF1 Is a Direct G Protein Effector Essential for Opioid Signaling to Ras in the Striatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keqiang; Colgan, Lesley A; Dao, Maria T; Muntean, Brian S; Sutton, Laurie P; Orlandi, Cesare; Boye, Sanford L; Boye, Shannon E; Shih, Chien-Cheng; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Baoji; Smith, Roy G; Yasuda, Ryohei; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-11-21

    It is well recognized that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can activate Ras-regulated kinase pathways to produce lasting changes in neuronal function. Mechanisms by which GPCRs transduce these signals and their relevance to brain disorders are not well understood. Here, we identify a major Ras regulator, neurofibromin 1 (NF1), as a direct effector of GPCR signaling via Gβγ subunits in the striatum. We find that binding of Gβγ to NF1 inhibits its ability to inactivate Ras. Deletion of NF1 in striatal neurons prevents the opioid-receptor-induced activation of Ras and eliminates its coupling to Akt-mTOR-signaling pathway. By acting in the striatal medium spiny neurons of the direct pathway, NF1 regulates opioid-induced changes in Ras activity, thereby sensitizing mice to psychomotor and rewarding effects of morphine. These results delineate a novel mechanism of GPCR signaling to Ras pathways and establish a critical role of NF1 in opioid addiction.

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulates N-Ras activation on the Golgi complex of antigen-stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ibiza, Sales; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Ortega, Ángel; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio; Barreiro, Olga; García-Domínguez, Carlota A.; Víctor, Víctor M.; Esplugues, Juan V.; Rojas, José M.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Serrador, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ras/ERK signaling plays an important role in T cell activation and development. We recently reported that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived NO regulates T cell receptor (TCR)-dependent ERK activation by a cGMP-independent mechanism. Here, we explore the mechanisms through which eNOS exerts this regulation. We have found that eNOS-derived NO positively regulates Ras/ERK activation in T cells stimulated with antigen on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Intracellular activation of N-, H-, and K-Ras was monitored with fluorescent probes in T cells stably transfected with eNOS-GFP or its G2A point mutant, which is defective in activity and cellular localization. Using this system, we demonstrate that eNOS selectively activates N-Ras but not K-Ras on the Golgi complex of T cells engaged with APC, even though Ras isoforms are activated in response to NO from donors. We further show that activation of N-Ras involves eNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation on Cys118, suggesting that upon TCR engagement, eNOS-derived NO directly activates N-Ras on the Golgi. Moreover, wild-type but not C118S N-Ras increased TCR-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of Cys118 contributes to activation-induced T cell death. Our data define a signaling mechanism for the regulation of the Ras/ERK pathway based on the eNOS-dependent differential activation of N-Ras and K-Ras at specific cell compartments. PMID:18641128

  3. RAS-MAPK pathway epigenetic activation in cancer: miRNAs in action

    PubMed Central

    Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Garinet, Simon; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Somatic mutations in genes encoding RAS-MAPK components frequently occur in many tumors, making the RAS-MAPK a critical pathway in human cancer. Since the pioneering study reporting that let-7 miRNA acted as tumor suppressor by repressing the RAS oncogene, growing evidence has suggested the importance of miRNAs targeting the RAS-MAPK in oncogenesis. MiRNAs alterations in human cancers may act as a rheostat of the oncogenic RAS signal that is often amplified as cancers progress. However, specific mechanisms leading to miRNAs deregulation and their functional consequences in cancer are far from being fully elucidated. In this review, we provide an experimental-validated map of RAS-MAPK oncomiRs and tumor suppressor miRNAs from transmembrane receptor to downstream ERK proteins. MiRNAs could be further considered as potential genetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic purpose. PMID:26646588

  4. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.

    PubMed

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches.

  5. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways are the key targets for weight loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics, and lipidomics were employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups for 10 weeks: ad lib-fed sedentary control, ad lib-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE), and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics, and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67, and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE, and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including upregulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways are cancer preventive targets that have been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches. PMID:25283328

  6. Manumycin inhibits ras signal transduction pathway and induces apoptosis in COLO320-DM human colon tumourcells

    PubMed Central

    Paolo, A Di; Danesi, R; Nardini, D; Bocci, G; Innocenti, F; Fogli, S; Barachini, S; Marchetti, A; Bevilacqua, G; Tacca, M Del

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the cytotoxicity of manumycin, a specific inhibitor of farnesyl:protein transferase, as well as its effects on protein isoprenylation and kinase-dependent signal transduction in COLO320-DM human colon adenocarcinoma which harbours a wild-type K- ras gene. Immunoblot analysis of isolated cell membranes and total cellular lysates of COLO320-DM cells demonstrated that manumycin dose-dependently reduced p21 ras farnesylation with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.51 ± 0.11 μM and 2.68 ± 0.20 μM, respectively, while the geranylgeranylation of p21 rhoA and p21 rap1 was not affected. Manumycin dose-dependently inhibited (IC50= 2.40 ± 0.67 μM) the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase 2 (p42MAPK/ERK2), the main cytoplasmic effector of p21 ras, as well as COLO320-DM cell growth (IC50= 3.58 ± 0.27 μM) without affecting the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Mevalonic acid (MVA, 100 μM), a substrate of the isoprenoid synthesis, was unable to protect COLO320-DM cells from manumycin cytotoxicity. Finally, manumycin 1–25 μM for 24–72 h induced oligonucleosomal fragmentation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and MVA did not protect COLO320-DM cells from undergoing DNA cleavage. The present findings indicate that the inhibition of p21 ras processing and signal transduction by manumycin is associated with marked inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in colon cancer cells and the effect on cell growth does not require the presence of a mutated ras gene for maximal expression of chemotherapeutic activity. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10732765

  7. K-Ras promotes growth transformation and invasion of immortalized human pancreatic cells by Raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M; Groehler, Angela L; Lee, Kwang M; Ouellette, Michel M; Khazak, Vladimir; Der, Channing J

    2007-03-01

    Mutational activation of the K-Ras oncogene is well established as a key genetic step in the development and growth of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. However, the mechanism by which aberrant Ras signaling promotes uncontrolled pancreatic tumor cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. The recent use of primary human cells to study Ras-mediated oncogenesis provides important model cell systems to dissect this mechanism. We have used a model of telomerase-immortalized human pancreatic duct-derived cells (E6/E7/st) to study mechanisms of Ras growth transformation. First, we found that human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes, which block the function of the p53 and Rb tumor suppressors, respectively, and SV40 small t antigen were required to allow mutant K-Ras(12D) growth transformation. Second, K-Ras(12D) caused growth transformation in vitro, including enhanced growth rate and loss of density dependency for growth, anchorage independence, and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane proteins, and tumorigenic transformation in vivo. Third, we determined that the Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor effector pathways were activated, although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was not up-regulated persistently. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK and PI3K signaling impaired K-Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth and invasion. In summary, our studies established, characterized, and validated E6/E7/st cells for the study of Ras-induced oncogenesis.

  8. The effect of aquaporin 5 overexpression on the Ras signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Janghee; Lee, Juna; Kim, Myoung Sook; Jang, Se Jin; Sidransky, David; Moon, Chulso

    2008-03-07

    Human aquaporin 5 (AQP5) has been shown to be overexpressed in multiple cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. Furthermore, it has been reported that ectopic expression of AQP5 leads to many phenotypic changes characteristic of transformation. However, the biochemical mechanism leading to transformation in AQP5-overexpressing cells has not been clearly elucidated. In this report, the overexpression of AQP5 in NIH3T3 cells demonstrated a significant effect on Ras activity and, thus, cell proliferation. Furthermore, this influence was shown to be mediated by phosphorylation of the PKA consensus site of AQP5. This is the first evidence demonstrating an association between AQP5 and a signaling pathway, namely the Ras signal transduction pathway, which may be the basis of the oncogenic properties seen in AQP-overexpressing cells.

  9. EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING IS ESSENTIAL FOR K-RAS ONCOGENE-DRIVEN PANCREATIC DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Carolina; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Sibilia, Maria; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that mutation/activation of EGF receptors (EGFRs) is mutually exclusive with the presence of K-RAS oncogenes in lung and colon tumors. We have validated these observations using genetically engineered mouse models. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas driven by K-Ras oncogenes are totally dependent on EGFR signaling. Similar results were obtained using human pancreatic tumor cell lines. EGFRs were also essential even in the context of pancreatic injury and absence of p16Ink4a/p19Arf. Only loss of p53 made pancreatic tumors independent of EGFR signaling. Additional inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 effectively prevented proliferation of explants derived from these p53–defective pancreatic tumors. These findings may provide the bases for more rational approaches to treat pancreatic tumors in the clinic. PMID:22975375

  10. ras activation in human tumors and in animal model systems.

    PubMed Central

    Corominas, M; Sloan, S R; Leon, J; Kamino, H; Newcomb, E W; Pellicer, A

    1991-01-01

    Environmental agents such as radiation and chemicals are known to cause genetic damage. Alterations in a limited set of cellular genes called proto-oncogenes lead to unregulated proliferation and differentiation. We have studied the role of the ras gene family in carcinogenesis using two different animal models. In one case, thymic lymphomas were induced in mice by either gamma or neutron radiation, and in the other, keratoacanthomas were induced in rabbit skin with dimethylbezanthracene. Human keratoacanthomas similar to the ones induced in rabbits were also analyzed. We found that different types of radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons, induced different point mutations in ras genes. A novel K-ras mutation in codon 146 has been found in thymic lymphomas induced by neutrons. Keratoacanthomas induced in rabbit skin by dimethylbenzanthracene show a high frequency of H-ras-activated genes carrying a mutation in codon 61. The same is observed in human keratoacanthomas, although mutations are in both the 12th and the 61st codons of the H-ras gene. H-ras activation is less frequent in human squamous cell carcinomas than in keratoacanthomas, suggesting that ras genes could play a role in vivo in differentiation as well as in proliferation. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1773791

  11. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  12. The small GTPases Ras and Rap1 bind to and control TORC2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Ankita; Lotfi, Pouya; Chavan, Anita J.; Montaño, Nieves M.; Bolourani, Parvin; Weeks, Gerald; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P.; Pots, Henderikus; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.; Kortholt, Arjan; Charest, Pascale G.

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (TORC2) has conserved roles in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration and has been linked to cancer metastasis. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating TORC2 activity and function in any system. In Dictyostelium, TORC2 functions at the front of migrating cells downstream of the Ras protein RasC, controlling F-actin dynamics and cAMP production. Here, we report the identification of the small GTPase Rap1 as a conserved binding partner of the TORC2 component RIP3/SIN1, and that Rap1 positively regulates the RasC-mediated activation of TORC2 in Dictyostelium. Moreover, we show that active RasC binds to the catalytic domain of TOR, suggesting a mechanism of TORC2 activation that is similar to Rheb activation of TOR complex 1. Dual Ras/Rap1 regulation of TORC2 may allow for integration of Ras and Rap1 signaling pathways in directed cell migration. PMID:27172998

  13. The Significance of Ras Activity in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Craig D.; Lu, Weiqin

    2016-01-01

    The genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer shows nearly ubiquitous mutations of K-RAS. However, oncogenic K-Rasmt alone is not sufficient to lead to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in either human or in genetically modified adult mouse models. Many stimulants, such as high fat diet, CCK, LPS, PGE2 and others, have physiological effects at low concentrations that are mediated in part through modest increases in K-Ras activity. However, at high concentrations, they induce inflammation that, in the presence of oncogenic K-Ras expression, substantially accelerates PDAC formation. The mechanism involves increased activity of oncogenic K-Rasmt. Unlike what has been proposed in the standard paradigm for the role of Ras in oncogenesis, oncogenic K-Rasmt is now known to not be constitutively active. Rather, it can be activated by standard mechanisms similar to wild-type K-Ras, but its activity is sustained for a prolonged period. Furthermore, if the level of K-Ras activity exceeds a threshold at which it begins to generate its own activators, then a feed-forward loop is formed between K-Ras activity and inflammation and pathological processes including oncogenesis are initiated. Oncogenic K-Rasmt activation, a key event in PDAC initiation and development, is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms. Reagents which inhibit inflammation, such as the Cox2 inhibitor celecoxib, block the feed-forward loop and prevent induction of PDAC in models with endogenous oncogenic K-Rasmt. Increased understanding of the role of activating and inhibitory mechanisms on oncogenic K-Rasmt activity is of paramount importance for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight against this lethal disease. PMID:26929740

  14. Mitochondrial Activity and Cyr1 Are Key Regulators of Ras1 Activation of C. albicans Virulence Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Demers, Elora G.; Lindsay, Allia K.; Harty, Colleen E.; Willger, Sven D.; Piispanen, Amy E.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a major fungal pathogen and a member of the commensal human microflora. The morphological switch from yeast to hyphal growth is associated with disease and many environmental factors are known to influence the yeast-to-hyphae switch. The Ras1-Cyr1-PKA pathway is a major regulator of C. albicans morphogenesis as well as biofilm formation and white-opaque switching. Previous studies have shown that hyphal growth is strongly repressed by mitochondrial inhibitors. Here, we show that mitochondrial inhibitors strongly decreased Ras1 GTP-binding and activity in C. albicans and similar effects were observed in other Candida species. Consistent with there being a connection between respiratory activity and GTP-Ras1 binding, mutants lacking complex I or complex IV grew as yeast in hypha-inducing conditions, had lower levels of GTP-Ras1, and Ras1 GTP-binding was unaffected by respiratory inhibitors. Mitochondria-perturbing agents decreased intracellular ATP concentrations and metabolomics analyses of cells grown with different respiratory inhibitors found consistent perturbation of pyruvate metabolism and the TCA cycle, changes in redox state, increased catabolism of lipids, and decreased sterol content which suggested increased AMP kinase activity. Biochemical and genetic experiments provide strong evidence for a model in which the activation of Ras1 is controlled by ATP levels in an AMP kinase independent manner. The Ras1 GTPase activating protein, Ira2, but not the Ras1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Cdc25, was required for the reduction of Ras1-GTP in response to inhibitor-mediated reduction of ATP levels. Furthermore, Cyr1, a well-characterized Ras1 effector, participated in the control of Ras1-GTP binding in response to decreased mitochondrial activity suggesting a revised model for Ras1 and Cyr1 signaling in which Cyr1 and Ras1 influence each other and, together with Ira2, seem to form a master-regulatory complex necessary to integrate

  15. RAS signaling promotes resistance to JAK inhibitors by suppressing BAD-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Peter S; Sarosiek, Kristopher A; Lin, Kevin H; Meggendorfer, Manja; Schnittger, Susanne; Letai, Anthony; Wood, Kris C

    2014-12-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently have an activating mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Thus, targeting the pathway mediated by JAK and its downstream substrate, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), may yield clinical benefit for patients with MPNs containing the JAK2(V617F) mutation. Although JAK inhibitor therapy reduces splenomegaly and improves systemic symptoms in patients, this treatment does not appreciably reduce the number of neoplastic cells. To identify potential mechanisms underlying this inherent resistance phenomenon, we performed pathway-centric, gain-of-function screens in JAK2(V617F) hematopoietic cells and found that the activation of the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RAS or its effector pathways [mediated by the kinases AKT and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase)] renders cells insensitive to JAK inhibition. Resistant MPN cells became sensitized to JAK inhibitors when also exposed to inhibitors of the AKT or ERK pathways. Mechanistically, in JAK2(V617F) cells, a JAK2-mediated inactivating phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein BAD [B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)-associated death promoter] promoted cell survival. In sensitive cells, exposure to a JAK inhibitor resulted in dephosphorylation of BAD, enabling BAD to bind and sequester the prosurvival protein BCL-XL (BCL-2-like 1), thereby triggering apoptosis. In resistant cells, RAS effector pathways maintained BAD phosphorylation in the presence of JAK inhibitors, yielding a specific dependence on BCL-XL for survival. In patients with MPNs, activating mutations in RAS co-occur with the JAK2(V617F) mutation in the malignant cells, suggesting that RAS effector pathways likely play an important role in clinically observed resistance.

  16. Expression of oncogenic K-ras from its endogenous promoter leads to a partial block of erythroid differentiation and hyperactivation of cytokine-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangang; Beard, Caroline; Tuveson, David A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Jacks, Tyler E; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-15

    When overexpressed in primary erythroid progenitors, oncogenic Ras leads to the constitutive activation of its downstream signaling pathways, severe block of terminal erythroid differentiation, and cytokine-independent growth of primary erythroid progenitors. However, whether high-level expression of oncogenic Ras is required for these phenotypes is unknown. To address this issue, we expressed oncogenic K-ras (K-ras(G12D)) from its endogenous promoter using a tetracycline-inducible system. We show that endogenous K-ras(G12D) leads to a partial block of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. In contrast to results obtained when oncogenic Ras was overexpressed from retroviral vectors, endogenous levels of K-ras(G12D) fail to constitutively activate but rather hyperactivate cytokine-dependent signaling pathways, including Stat5, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK, in primary erythroid progenitors. This explains previous observations that hematopoietic progenitors expressing endogenous K-ras(G12D) display hypersensitivity to cytokine stimulation in various colony assays. Our results support efforts to modulate Ras signaling for treating hematopoietic malignancies.

  17. Effect of Angiotensin II and Small GTPase Ras Signaling Pathway Inhibition on Early Renal Changes in a Murine Model of Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B.; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G.; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T.; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis. PMID:25101263

  18. Gadd45a suppresses Ras-driven mammary tumorigenesis by activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38 stress signaling resulting in apoptosis and senescence.

    PubMed

    Tront, Jennifer S; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-09-01

    The Gadd45 family of proteins is known to play a central role as cellular stress sensors that modulate the response of mammalian cells to stress inflicted by physiologic and environmental stressors. Gadd45a was shown to be a direct target to the p53 and BRCA1 tumor suppressor genes, whose loss of function is known to play a vital role in breast carcinogenesis; however, the role of Gadd45a in the suppression of breast cancer remains unclear. To address this issue, Gadd45a-deficient mice were crossed with breast cancer prone mouse mammary tumor virus-Ras mice to generate mice that express activated Ras and differ in their Gadd45a status. Using this mouse model, we show that the loss of Gadd45a accelerates Ras-driven mammary tumor formation, exhibiting increased growth rates and a more aggressive histologic phenotype. Moreover, it is shown that accelerated Ras-driven tumor formation in the absence of Gadd45a results in both a decrease in apoptosis, which is linked to a decrease in c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, and a decrease in Ras-induced senescence, which is correlated with a decrease in p38 kinase activation. Altogether, these results provide a novel model for the tumor-suppressive function of Gadd45a in the context of Ras-driven breast carcinogenesis, showing that Gadd45a elicits its function through activation of the stress-induced JNK and p38 kinases, which contribute to increase in apoptosis and Ras-induced senescence.

  19. The molecular basis of viral oncolysis: usurpation of the Ras signaling pathway by reovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Strong, J E; Coffey, M C; Tang, D; Sabinin, P; Lee, P W

    1998-01-01

    NIH-3T3 cells, which are resistant to reovirus infection, became susceptible when transformed with activated Sos or Ras. Restriction of reovirus proliferation in untransformed NIH-3T3 cells was not at the level of viral gene transcription, but rather at the level of viral protein synthesis. An analysis of cell lysates revealed that a 65 kDa protein was phosphorylated in untransformed NIH-3T3 cells, but only after infection with reovirus. This protein was not phosphorylated in infected or uninfected transformed cells. The 65 kDa protein was determined to be the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), whose phosphorylation leads to translation inhibition. Inhibition of PKR phosphorylation by 2-aminopurine, or deletion of the Pkr gene, led to drastic enhancement of reovirus protein synthesis in untransformed cells. The emerging picture is one in which early viral transcripts trigger PKR phosphorylation in untransformed cells, which in turn leads to inhibition of translation of viral genes; this phosphorylation event is blocked by an element(s) in the Ras pathway in the transformed cells, allowing viral protein synthesis to ensue. The usurpation of the Ras signaling pathway therefore constitutes the basis of reovirus oncolysis. PMID:9628872

  20. FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes is attenuated by the Ras-GAP neurofibromin during endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Karolak, Matthew R.; Yang, Xiangli; Elefteriou, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling disrupts chondrocyte proliferation and growth plate size and architecture, leading to various chondrodysplasias or bone overgrowth. These observations suggest that the duration, intensity and cellular context of FGFR signaling during growth plate chondrocyte maturation require tight, regulated control for proper bone elongation. However, the machinery fine-tuning FGFR signaling in chondrocytes is incompletely defined. We report here that neurofibromin, a Ras-GAP encoded by Nf1, has an overlapping expression pattern with FGFR1 and FGFR3 in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, and with FGFR1 in hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Based on previous evidence that neurofibromin inhibits Ras-ERK signaling in chondrocytes and phenotypic analogies between mice with constitutive FGFR1 activation and Nf1 deficiency in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes, we asked whether neurofibromin is required to control FGFR1-Ras-ERK signaling in maturing chondrocytes in vivo. Genetic Nf1 ablation in Fgfr1-deficient chondrocytes reactivated Ras-ERK1/2 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes and reversed the expansion of the hypertrophic zone observed in mice lacking Fgfr1 in Col2a1-positive chondrocytes. Histomorphometric and gene expression analyses suggested that neurofibromin, by inhibiting Rankl expression, attenuates pro-osteoclastogenic FGFR1 signaling in hypertrophic chondrocytes. We also provide evidence suggesting that neurofibromin in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, downstream of FGFRs and via an indirect mechanism, is required for normal extension and organization of proliferative columns. Collectively, this study indicates that FGFR signaling provides an important input into the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 signaling axis in chondrocytes, and that this input is differentially regulated during chondrocyte maturation by a complex intracellular machinery, of which neurofibromin is a critical component. PMID:25616962

  1. Ras-ERK Signaling in Behavior: Old Questions and New Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Stefania; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The role of Ras-ERK signaling in behavioral plasticity is well established. Inhibition studies using the blood-brain barrier permeable drug SL327 have conclusively demonstrated that this neuronal cell signaling cascade is a crucial component of the synaptic machinery implicated in the formation of various forms of long-term memory, from spatial learning to fear and operant conditioning. However, abnormal Ras-ERK signaling has also been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mental retardation syndromes ("RASopathies"), drug addiction, and l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). The work recently done on these brain disorders has pointed to previously underappreciated roles of Ras-ERK in specific subsets of neurons, like GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus or the cortex, as well as in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we will highlight the open questions related to Ras-ERK signaling in these behavioral manifestations and propose crucial experiments for the future.

  2. Mapping the functional versatility and fragility of Ras GTPase signaling circuits through in vitro network reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Scott M; Lim, Wendell A

    2016-01-01

    The Ras-superfamily GTPases are central controllers of cell proliferation and morphology. Ras signaling is mediated by a system of interacting molecules: upstream enzymes (GEF/GAP) regulate Ras’s ability to recruit multiple competing downstream effectors. We developed a multiplexed, multi-turnover assay for measuring the dynamic signaling behavior of in vitro reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems. By including both upstream regulators and downstream effectors, we can systematically map how different network configurations shape the dynamic system response. The concentration and identity of both upstream and downstream signaling components strongly impacted the timing, duration, shape, and amplitude of effector outputs. The distorted output of oncogenic alleles of Ras was highly dependent on the balance of positive (GAP) and negative (GEF) regulators in the system. We found that different effectors interpreted the same inputs with distinct output dynamics, enabling a Ras system to encode multiple unique temporal outputs in response to a single input. We also found that different Ras-to-GEF positive feedback mechanisms could reshape output dynamics in distinct ways, such as signal amplification or overshoot minimization. Mapping of the space of output behaviors accessible to Ras provides a design manual for programming Ras circuits, and reveals how these systems are readily adapted to produce an array of dynamic signaling behaviors. Nonetheless, this versatility comes with a trade-off of fragility, as there exist numerous paths to altered signaling behaviors that could cause disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12435.001 PMID:26765565

  3. Wild-Type N-Ras, Overexpressed in Basal-like Breast Cancer, Promotes Tumor Formation by Inducing IL-8 Secretion via JAK2 Activation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze-Yi; Tian, Lin; Bu, Wen; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Xia; Wang, Hai; Liao, Yi-Hua; Li, Yi; Lewis, Michael T; Edwards, Dean; Zwaka, Thomas P; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Medina, Daniel; Perou, Charles M; Creighton, Chad J; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Chang, Eric C

    2015-07-21

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are aggressive, and their drivers are unclear. We have found that wild-type N-RAS is overexpressed in BLBCs but not in other breast cancer subtypes. Repressing N-RAS inhibits transformation and tumor growth, whereas overexpression enhances these processes even in preinvasive BLBC cells. We identified N-Ras-responsive genes, most of which encode chemokines; e.g., IL8. Expression levels of these chemokines and N-RAS in tumors correlate with outcome. N-Ras, but not K-Ras, induces IL-8 by binding and activating the cytoplasmic pool of JAK2; IL-8 then acts on both the cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts. Thus, BLBC progression is promoted by increasing activities of wild-type N-Ras, which mediates autocrine/paracrine signaling that can influence both cancer and stroma cells.

  4. Ras-dva1 small GTPase regulates telencephalon development in Xenopus laevis embryos by controlling Fgf8 and Agr signaling at the anterior border of the neural plate.

    PubMed

    Tereshina, Maria B; Ermakova, Galina V; Ivanova, Anastasiya S; Zaraisky, Andrey G

    2014-03-15

    We previously found that the small GTPase Ras-dva1 is essential for the telencephalic development in Xenopus laevis because Ras-dva1 controls the Fgf8-mediated induction of FoxG1 expression, a key telencephalic regulator. In this report, we show, however, that Ras-dva1 and FoxG1 are expressed in different groups of cells; whereas Ras-dva1 is expressed in the outer layer of the anterior neural fold, FoxG1 and Fgf8 are activated in the inner layer from which the telencephalon is derived. We resolve this paradox by demonstrating that Ras-dva1 is involved in the transduction of Fgf8 signal received by cells in the outer layer, which in turn send a feedback signal that stimulates FoxG1 expression in the inner layer. We show that this feedback signal is transmitted by secreted Agr proteins, the expression of which is activated in the outer layer by mediation of Ras-dva1 and the homeodomain transcription factor Otx2. In turn, Agrs are essential for maintaining Fgf8 and FoxG1 expression in cells at the anterior neural plate border. Our finding reveals a novel feedback loop mechanism based on the exchange of Fgf8 and Agr signaling between neural and non-neural compartments at the anterior margin of the neural plate and demonstrates a key role of Ras-dva1 in this mechanism.

  5. Active Ras Triggers Death in Glioblastoma Cells Through Hyperstimulation of Macropinocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Overmeyer, Jean H.; Kaul, Aparna; Johnson, Erin E.; Maltese, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of activated Ras in glioblastoma cells induces accumulation of large phase-lucent cytoplasmic vacuoles, followed by cell death. This was previously described as autophagic cell death. However, unlike autophagosomes, the Ras-induced vacuoles are not bounded by a double membrane and do not sequester organelles or cytoplasm. Moreover, they are not acidic and do not contain the autophagosomal membrane protein, LC3-II. Here we show that the vacuoles are enlarged macropinosomes. They rapidly incorporate extracellular fluid-phase tracers, but do not sequester transferrin or the endosomal protein, EEA1. Ultimately, the cells expressing activated Ras detach from the substratum and rupture, coincident with the displacement of cytoplasm with huge macropinosome-derived vacuoles. These changes are accompanied by caspase activation, but the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, z-VAD, does not prevent cell death. Moreover, the majority of degenerating cells do not exhibit chromatin condensation typical of apoptosis. These observations provide evidence for a necrosis-like form of cell death initiated by dysregulation of macropinocytosis, which we have dubbed ‘methuosis’. An activated form of the Rac1 GTPase induces a similar form of cell death, suggesting that Ras acts through Rac-dependent signaling pathways to hyperstimulate macropinocytosis in glioblastoma. Further study of these signaling pathways may lead to the identification of other chemical and physiological triggers for this unusual form of cell death. PMID:18567800

  6. One-way membrane trafficking of SOS in receptor-triggered Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sune M.; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Jun, Jesse E.; Alvarez, Steven; Triplet, Meredith G.; Iwig, Jeffrey S.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Roose, Jeroen P.; Groves, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    SOS is a key activator of the small GTPase Ras. In cells, SOS-Ras signaling is thought to be initiated predominantly by membrane-recruitment of SOS via the adaptor Grb2 and balanced by rapidly reversible Grb2:SOS binding kinetics. However, SOS has multiple protein and lipid interactions that provide linkage to the membrane. In reconstituted membrane experiments, these Grb2-independent interactions are sufficient to retain SOS on the membrane for many minutes, during which a single SOS molecule can processively activate thousands of Ras molecules. These observations raise questions concerning how receptors maintain control of SOS in cells and how membrane-recruited SOS is ultimately released. We addressed these questions in quantitative reconstituted SOS-deficient chicken B cell signaling systems combined with single molecule measurements in supported membranes. These studies reveal an essentially one-way trafficking process in which membrane-recruited SOS remains trapped on the membrane and continuously activates Ras until it is actively removed via endocytosis. PMID:27501536

  7. Combined Rational Design and a High Throughput Screening Platform for Identifying Chemical Inhibitors of a Ras-activating Enzyme*

    PubMed Central

    Evelyn, Chris R.; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L.; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions. PMID:25825487

  8. Combined rational design and a high throughput screening platform for identifying chemical inhibitors of a Ras-activating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Evelyn, Chris R; Biesiada, Jacek; Duan, Xin; Tang, Hong; Shang, Xun; Papoian, Ruben; Seibel, William L; Nelson, Sandra; Meller, Jaroslaw; Zheng, Yi

    2015-05-15

    The Ras family small GTPases regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell growth, survival, movement, and gene expression, and are intimately involved in cancer pathogenesis. Activation of these small GTPases is catalyzed by a special class of enzymes, termed guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Herein, we developed a small molecule screening platform for identifying lead hits targeting a Ras GEF enzyme, SOS1. We employed an ensemble structure-based virtual screening approach in combination with a multiple tier high throughput experimental screen utilizing two complementary fluorescent guanine nucleotide exchange assays to identify small molecule inhibitors of GEF catalytic activity toward Ras. From a library of 350,000 compounds, we selected a set of 418 candidate compounds predicted to disrupt the GEF-Ras interaction, of which dual wavelength GDP dissociation and GTP-loading experimental screening identified two chemically distinct small molecule inhibitors. Subsequent biochemical validations indicate that they are capable of dose-dependently inhibiting GEF catalytic activity, binding to SOS1 with micromolar affinity, and disrupting GEF-Ras interaction. Mutagenesis studies in conjunction with structure-activity relationship studies mapped both compounds to different sites in the catalytic pocket, and both inhibited Ras signaling in cells. The unique screening platform established here for targeting Ras GEF enzymes could be broadly useful for identifying lead inhibitors for a variety of small GTPase-activating GEF reactions.

  9. Gamma Band Activity in the RAS-intracellular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Kezunovic, N.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Hyde, J.; Bisagno, V.; Urbano, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma band activity participates in sensory perception, problem solving, and memory. This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the intrinsic membrane properties behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) all fire in the gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms involve high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels or sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. Rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as in the cortex, gamma band activity in the RAS may participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. We address three necessary next steps resulting from these discoveries, an intracellular mechanism responsible for maintaining gamma band activity based on persistent G-protein activation, separate intracellular pathways that differentiate between gamma band activity during waking vs during REM sleep, and an intracellular mechanism responsible for the dysregulation in gamma band activity in schizophrenia. These findings open several promising research avenues that have not been thoroughly explored. What are the effects of sleep or REM sleep deprivation on these RAS mechanisms? Are these mechanisms involved in memory processing during waking and/or during REM sleep? Does gamma band processing differ during waking vs REM sleep after sleep or REM sleep deprivation? PMID:24309750

  10. A p53-inducible microRNA-34a downregulates Ras signaling by targeting IMPDH

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwa-Ryeon; Roe, Jae-Seok; Lee, Ji-Eun; Hwang, In-Young; Cho, Eun-Jung; Youn, Hong-Duk

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 downregulates IMPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53-dependent miR-34a transactivation inhibits IMPDH transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-34a-mediated inhibition of IMPDH downregulates GTP-dependent Ras signal. -- Abstract: p53 is a well-known transcription factor that controls cell cycle arrest and cell death in response to a wide range of stresses. Moreover, p53 regulates glucose metabolism and its mutation results in the metabolic switch to the Warburg effect found in cancer cells. Nucleotide biosynthesis is also critical for cell proliferation and the cell division cycle. Nonetheless, little is known about whether p53 regulates nucleotide biosynthesis. Here we demonstrated that p53-inducible microRNA-34a (miR-34a) repressed inosine 5 Prime -monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a rate-limiting enzyme of de novo GTP biosynthesis. Treatment with anti-miR-34a inhibitor relieved the expression of IMPDH upon DNA damage. Ultimately, miR-34a-mediated inhibition of IMPDH resulted in repressed activation of the GTP-dependent Ras signaling pathway. In summary, we suggest that p53 has a novel function in regulating purine biosynthesis, aided by miR-34a-dependent IMPDH repression.

  11. The Drosophila secreted protein Argos regulates signal transduction in the Ras/MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, K; Okabe, M; Tanimura, T; Mikoshiba, K; Nishida, Y; Okano, H

    1996-08-25

    The Drosophila argos gene encodes a secreted protein with an EGF motif which acts as an inhibitor of cellular differentiation in multiple developmental processes. To investigate the cellular pathways regulated by Argos, we screened for mutations which could modify the phenotype caused by overexpression of argos. We show that the effects of argos overexpression on the eye and wing vein development are suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the MAPKK/D-MEK gene (Dsor1/D-mek) and the MAPK/ERK-A gene (rolled) and were enhanced by loss-of-function mutations of Star. Loss-of-function mutations in components of the Ras/MAPK signaling cascade act as dominant suppressors of the phenotype caused by the argos null mutations. A loss-of-function argos mutation enhanced the overproduction of R7 neurons caused by gain-of-function alleles of Son of sevenless and Dsor1. Conversely, overexpression of argos inhibited formation of the extra R7 cells that was caused by high-level MAPK/ERK-A activity. A phenotype of the sev; argos double mutants revealed that sev is epistatic to argos. These results provide evidence that Argos negatively regulates signal transduction events in the Ras/MAPK cascade.

  12. Plant farnesyltransferase can restore yeast Ras signaling and mating.

    PubMed Central

    Yalovsky, S; Trueblood, C E; Callan, K L; Narita, J O; Jenkins, S M; Rine, J; Gruissem, W

    1997-01-01

    Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is a heterodimeric enzyme that modifies a group of proteins, including Ras, in mammals and yeasts. Plant FTase alpha and beta subunits were cloned from tomato and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assess their functional conservation in farnesylating Ras and a-factor proteins, which are important for cell growth and mating. The tomato FTase beta subunit (LeFTB) alone was unable to complement the growth defect of ram1 delta mutant yeast strains in which the chromosomal FTase beta subunit gene was deleted, but coexpression of LeFTB with the plant alpha subunit gene (LeFTA) restored normal growth, Ras membrane association, and mating. LeFTB contains a novel 66-amino-acid sequence domain whose deletion reduces the efficiency of tomato FTase to restore normal growth to yeast ram1 delta strains. Coexpression of LeFTA and LeFTB in either yeast or insect cells yielded a functional enzyme that correctly farnesylated CaaX-motif-containing peptides. Despite their low degree of sequence homology, yeast and plant FTases shared similar in vivo and in vitro substrate specificities, demonstrating that this enzymatic modification of proteins with intermediates from the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is conserved in evolutionarily divergent eukaryotes. PMID:9121446

  13. Blocking downstream signaling pathways in the context of HDAC inhibition promotes apoptosis preferentially in cells harboring mutant Ras

    PubMed Central

    Luchenko, Victoria; Basseville, Agnes; Chakraborty, Arup R.; Kozlowski, Hanna; Pauly, Gary T.; Patel, Paresma; Schneider, Joel P.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Bates, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in a series of romidepsin-selected T-cell lymphoma cell lines as a mechanism of resistance to the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI), romidepsin. As Ras mutation leads to activation of both the MAPK and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, we examined whether combining romidepsin with small molecule pathway inhibitors would lead to increased apoptosis in cancers harboring Ras mutations. We treated 18 Ras mutant or wild-type cell lines with romidepsin in the presence of a MEK inhibitor (PD-0325901) and/or an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) and examined apoptosis by flow cytometry. A short-term treatment schedule of romidepsin (25 ng/ml for 6 h) was used to more closely model clinical administration. Romidepsin in combination with a MEK and an AKT inhibitor induced apoptosis preferentially in cells harboring mutant versus wild-type Ras (69.1% vs. 21.1%, p < 0.0001). Similar results were found in a subset of cell lines when belinostat was combined with the MEK and AKT inhibitors and when romidepsin was combined with the dual extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK)/PI3K inhibitor, D-87503, which inhibited both the MAPK and PI3K pathways at 5–10 μM. The observed apoptosis was caspase-dependent and required Bak and Bax expression. Cells with wild-type or mutant Ras treated with romidepsin alone or in combination with the MEK inhibitor displayed increased expression of proapoptotic Bim. We thus conclude that cancers bearing Ras mutations, such as pancreatic cancer, can be targeted by the combination of an HDI and a dual inhibitor of the MAPK and PI3K pathways. PMID:27634878

  14. Interplay Between HGF/SF-Met-Ras Signaling, Tumor Metabolism and Blood Flow as a Potential Target for Breast Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Natan, Sari; Tsarfaty, Galia; Horev, Judith; Haklai, Roni; Kloog, Yoel; Tsarfaty, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    High glucose uptake and increase blood flow is a characteristic of most metastatic tumors. Activation of Ras signaling increases glycolytic flux into lactate, de novo nucleic acid synthesis and uncoupling of ATP synthase from the proton gradient. Met tyrosine kinase receptor signaling upon activation by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), increases glycolysis, oxidative phosporylation, oxygen consumption, and tumor blood volume. Ras is a key factor in Met signaling. Using the Ras inhibitor S-trans,trans-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), we investigated interplay between HGF/SF-Met-Ras signaling, metabolism, and tumor blood-flow regulation. In vitro, HGF/SF-activated Met increased Ras activity, Erk phosphorylation, cell motility and glucose uptake, but did not affect ATP. FTS inhibited basal and HGF/SF-induced signaling and cell motility, while further increasing glucose uptake and inhibiting ATP production. In vivo, HGF/SF rapidly increased tumor blood volume. FTS did not affect basal blood-flow but abolished the HGF/SF effect. Our results further demonstrate the complex interplay between growth-factor-receptor signaling and cellular and tumor metabolism, as reflected in blood flow. Inhibition of Ras signaling does not affect glucose consumption or basal tumor blood flow but dramatically decreases ATP synthesis and the HGF/SF induced increase in tumor blood volume. These findings demonstrate that the HGF/SF-Met-Ras pathway critically influences tumor-cell metabolism and tumor blood-flow regulation. This pathway could potentially be used to individualize tumor therapy based on functional molecular imaging, and for combined signaling/anti-metabolic targeted therapy.

  15. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway may control RNA polymerase II elongation via the Spt4p/Spt5p complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Susie C; Hester, Arelis; Herman, Paul K

    2003-01-01

    The Ras signaling pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae controls cell growth via the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. Recent work has indicated that these effects on growth are due, in part, to the regulation of activities associated with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. However, the precise target of these Ras effects has remained unknown. This study suggests that Ras/PKA activity regulates the elongation step of the RNA polymerase II transcription process. Several lines of evidence indicate that Spt5p in the Spt4p/Spt5p elongation factor is the likely target of this control. First, the growth of spt4 and spt5 mutants was found to be very sensitive to changes in Ras/PKA signaling activity. Second, mutants with elevated levels of Ras activity shared a number of specific phenotypes with spt5 mutants and vice versa. Finally, Spt5p was efficiently phosphorylated by PKA in vitro. Altogether, the data suggest that the Ras/PKA pathway might be directly targeting a component of the elongating polymerase complex and that this regulation is important for the normal control of yeast cell growth. These data point out the interesting possibility that signal transduction pathways might directly influence the elongation step of RNA polymerase II transcription. PMID:14668364

  16. Kinase suppressor of Ras1 compartmentalizes hippocampal signal transduction and subserves synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Shalin, Sara C; Hernandez, Caterina M; Dougherty, Michele K; Morrison, Deborah K; Sweatt, J David

    2006-06-01

    The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is important for long-term memory formation and synaptic plasticity, with a myriad of upstream signals converging upon ERK activation. Despite this convergence of signaling, neurons routinely activate appropriate biological responses to different stimuli. Scaffolding proteins represent a mechanism to achieve compartmentalization of signaling and the appropriate targeting of ERK-dependent processes. We report that kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR1) functions biochemically in the hippocampus to scaffold the components of the ERK cascade, specifically regulating the cascade when a membrane fraction of ERK is activated via a PKC-dependent pathway but not via a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. Specificity of KSR1-dependent signaling also extends to specific downstream targets of ERK. Behaviorally and physiologically, we found that the absence of KSR1 leads to deficits in associative learning and theta burst stimulation-induced LTP. Our report provides novel insight into the endogenous scaffolding role of KSR1 in controlling kinase activation within the nervous system.

  17. Ras-GRF1 signaling is required for normal β-cell development and glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Font de Mora, Jaime; Esteban, Luis Miguel; Burks, Deborah J.; Núñez, Alejandro; Garcés, Carmen; García-Barrado, María José; Iglesias-Osma, María Carmen; Moratinos, Julio; Ward, Jerrold M.; Santos, Eugenio

    2003-01-01

    Development of diabetes generally reflects an inadequate mass of insulin-producing β-cells. β-cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated by a variety of growth factors and hormones, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). GRF1 is a Ras-guanine nucleotide exchange factor known previously for its restricted expression in brain and its role in learning and memory. Here we demonstrate that GRF1 is also expressed in pancreatic islets. Interest ingly, our GRF1-deficient mice exhibit reduced body weight, hypoinsulinemia and glucose intolerance owing to a reduction of β-cells. Whereas insulin resistance is not detected in peripheral tissues, GRF1 knockout mice are leaner due to increased lipid catabolism. The reduction in circulating insulin does not reflect defective glucose sensing or insulin production but results from impaired β-cell proliferation and reduced neogenesis. IGF-I treatment of isolated islets from GRF1 knockouts fails to activate critical downstream signals such as Akt and Erk. The observed phenotype is similar to manifestations of preclinical type 2 diabetes. Thus, our observations demonstrate a novel and specific role for Ras-GRF1 pathways in the development and maintenance of normal β-cell number and function. PMID:12805218

  18. Solution phase parallel synthesis and evaluation of MAPK inhibitory activities of close structural analogues of a Ras pathway modulator.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingchun; Sakamuri, Sukumar; Chen, Quin-Zene; Keng, Yen-Fang; Khazak, Vladimir; Illgen, Katrin; Schabbert, Silke; Weber, Lutz; Menon, Sanjay R

    2004-08-02

    A solution phase parallel synthesis approach was undertaken to rapidly explore the structure-activity relationship of an inhibitor of the Ras/Raf protein interaction identified from a small molecule compound library. Evaluation of the MAPK pathway signaling inhibitory activity of the synthesized analogues as well as their antiproliferative activity and ability to inhibit soft agar growth were performed.

  19. Cell Density-Dependent Increase in Tyrosine-Monophosphorylated ERK2 in MDCK Cells Expressing Active Ras or Raf

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the principal hub proteins that transmit growth signals from upstream oncogene products including Ras and BRaf to downstream effector proteins. However, there are both reports supporting and refuting the increase in ERK activity in cancer tissues expressing the active Ras and BRaf proteins. We considered that the cell density might account for this discrepancy. To examine this possibility, we prepared Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that expressed an active HRas, NRas, KRas, or BRaf and an ERK biosensor based on the principle of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). As we anticipated, expression of the active Ras or BRaf increased ERK activity at low cell densities. However, the ERK activity was markedly suppressed at high cell densities irrespective of the expression of the active Ras or BRaf. Western blotting analysis with Phos-tag gel revealed the decrease of tyrosine and threonine-diphosphorylated active ERK and the increase of tyrosine-monophosphorylated inactive ERK at high cell density. In addition, we found that calyculin A, an inhibitor for PPP-subfamily protein serine/threonine phosphatases, decreased the tyrosine-monophosphorylated ERK. Our study suggests that PPP-subfamily phosphatases may be responsible for cell density-dependent ERK dephosphorylation in cancer cells expressing active Ras or BRaf protein. PMID:27936234

  20. Low proliferation and high apoptosis of osteoblastic cells on hydrophobic surface are associated with defective Ras signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hong-Hee; Huh, Jung-Eun; Kim, In-Ae; Seung Ko, Jea; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Kim, Hyun-Man . E-mail: hyunmkim@plaza.snu.ac.kr

    2005-02-01

    The hydrophobic (HPB) nature of most polymeric biomaterials has been a major obstacle in using those materials in vivo due to low compatibility with cells. However, there is little knowledge of the molecular detail to explain how surface hydrophobicity affects cell responses. In this study, we compared the proliferation and apoptosis of human osteoblastic MG63 cells adhered to hydrophilic (HPL) and hydrophobic surfaces. On the hydrophobic surface, less formation of focal contacts and actin stress fibers, a delay in cell cycle progression, and an increase in apoptosis were observed. By using fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) as a model growth factor, we also investigated intracellular signaling pathways on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The activation of Ras, Akt, and ERK by FGF1 was impaired in MG63 cells on the hydrophobic surface. The overexpression of constitutively active form of Ras and Akt rescued those cells from apoptosis and recovered cell cycle progression. Furthermore, their overexpression also restored the actin cytoskeletal organization on the hydrophobic surface. Finally, the proliferative, antiapoptotic, and cytoskeletal effects of constitutively active Ras in MG63 cells on the hydrophobic surface were blocked by wortmannin and PD98059 that inhibit Akt and ERK activation, respectively. Therefore, our results suggest that the activation of Ras and its downstream molecules Akt and ERK to an appropriate level is one of crucial elements in the determination of osteoblast cell responses. The Ras pathway may represent a cell biological target that should be considered for successful surface modification of biomaterials to induce adequate cell responses in the bone tissue.

  1. Cancer stem cell drugs target K-ras signaling in a stemness context

    PubMed Central

    Najumudeen, A K; Jaiswal, A; Lectez, B; Oetken-Lindholm, C; Guzmán, C; Siljamäki, E; Posada, I M D; Lacey, E; Aittokallio, T; Abankwa, D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for treatment relapse and have therefore become a major target in cancer research. Salinomycin is the most established CSC inhibitor. However, its primary mechanistic target is still unclear, impeding the discovery of compounds with similar anti-CSC activity. Here, we show that salinomycin very specifically interferes with the activity of K-ras4B, but not H-ras, by disrupting its nanoscale membrane organization. We found that caveolae negatively regulate the sensitivity to this drug. On the basis of this novel mechanistic insight, we defined a K-ras-associated and stem cell-derived gene expression signature that predicts the drug response of cancer cells to salinomycin. Consistent with therapy resistance of CSC, 8% of tumor samples in the TCGA-database displayed our signature and were associated with a significantly higher mortality. Using our K-ras-specific screening platform, we identified several new candidate CSC drugs. Two of these, ophiobolin A and conglobatin A, possessed a similar or higher potency than salinomycin. Finally, we established that the most potent compound, ophiobolin A, exerts its K-ras4B-specific activity through inactivation of calmodulin. Our data suggest that specific interference with the K-ras4B/calmodulin interaction selectively inhibits CSC. PMID:26973241

  2. Expression of activated Ras during Dictyostelium development alters cell localization and changes cell fate.

    PubMed

    Jaffer, Z M; Khosla, M; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    2001-03-01

    There is now a body of evidence to indicate that Ras proteins play important roles in development. Dictyostelium expresses several ras genes and each appears to perform a distinct function. Previous data had indicated that the overexpression of an activated form of the major developmentally regulated gene, rasD, caused a major aberration in morphogenesis and cell type determination. We now show that the developmental expression of an activated rasG gene under the control of the rasD promoter causes a similar defect. Our results indicate that the expression of activated rasG in prespore cells results in their transdifferentiation into prestalk cells, whereas activated rasG expression in prestalk causes gross mislocalization of the prestalk cell populations.

  3. Novel aspects of Ras proteins biology: regulation and implications.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sala, D; Rebollo, A

    1999-08-01

    The importance of Ras proteins as crucial crossroads in cellular signaling pathways has been well established. In spite of the elucidation of the mechanism of RAS activation by growth factors and the delineation of MAP kinase cascades, the overall framework of Ras interactions is far from being complete. Novel regulators of Ras GDP/GTP exchange have been identified that may mediate the activation of Ras in response to changes in intracellular calcium and diacylglycerol. The direct activation of Ras by free radicals such as nitric oxide also suggests potential regulation of Ras function by the cellular redox state. In addition, the array of Ras effectors continues to expand, uncovering links between Ras and other cellular signaling pathways. Ras is emerging as a dual regulator of cellular functions, playing either positive or negative roles in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis. The signals transmitted by Ras may be modulated by other pathways triggered in parallel, resulting in the final order for proliferation or apoptosis. The diversity of ras-mediated effects may be related in part to differential involvement of Ras homologues in distinct cellular processes. The study of Ras posttranslational modifications has yielded a broad battery of inhibitors that have been envisaged as anti-cancer agents. Although an irreversible modification, Ras isoprenylation appears to be modulated by growth factors and by the activity of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, which may lead to changes in Ras activity.

  4. The N-terminal pleckstrin, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of the exchange factor Ras-GRF act cooperatively to facilitate activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, R; Telliez, J B; Goonesekera, S; Feig, L A

    1996-09-01

    We have recently shown that the neuronal exchange factor p140 Ras-GRF becomes activated in vivo in response to elevated calcium levels [C. L. Farnsworth, N. W. Freshney, L. B. Rosen, A. Ghosh, M. E. Greenberg, and L. A. Feig, Nature (London) 376:524-527, 1995]. Activation is mediated by calcium-induced calmodulin binding to an IQ domain near the N terminus of Ras-GRF. Here we show that the adjacent N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH), coiled-coil, and IQ domains function cooperatively to allow Ras-GRF activation. Deletion of the N-terminal PH domain redistributes a large percentage of Ras-GRF from the particulate to the cytosolic fraction of cells and renders the protein insensitive to calcium stimulation. A similar cellular distribution and biological activity are observed when only the core catalytic domain is expressed. Although the PH domain is necessary for particulate association of Ras-GRF, it is not sufficient for targeting the core catalytic domain to this cellular location. This requires the PH domain and the adjacent coiled-coil and IQ sequences. Remarkably, this form of Ras-GRF is constitutively activated. The PH and coiled-coil domains must also perform an additional function, since targeting to the particulate fraction of cells is not sufficient to allow Ras-GRF activation by calcium. A Ras-GRF mutant containing the PH domain from Ras-GTPase-activating protein in place of its own N-terminal PH domain localizes to the particulate fraction of cells but does not respond to calcium. Similar phenotypes are seen with mutant Ras-GRFs containing point mutations in either the PH or coiled-coil domain. These findings argue that the N-terminal PH, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of Ras-GRF function together to connect Ras-GRF to multiple components in the particulate fractions of cells that are required for responsiveness of the protein to calcium signaling.

  5. Induction of Non-Apoptotic Cell Death by Activated Ras Requires Inverse Regulation of Rac1 and Arf6

    PubMed Central

    Bhanot, Haymanti; Young, Ashley M.; Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Methuosis is a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death triggered by alterations in the trafficking of clathrin-independent endosomes, ultimately leading to extreme vacuolization and rupture of the cell. Methuosis can be induced in glioblastoma cells by expression of constitutively active Ras. This study identifies the small GTPases, Rac1 and Arf6, and the Arf6 GTPase-activating-protein, GIT1, as key downstream components of the signaling pathway underlying Ras-induced methuosis. The extent to which graded expression of active H-Ras(G12V) triggers cytoplasmic vacuolization correlates with the amount of endogenous Rac1 in the active GTP state. Blocking Rac1 activation with the specific Rac inhibitor, EHT 1864, or co-expression of dominant-negative Rac1(T17N), prevents the accumulation of vacuoles induced by H-Ras(G12V). Coincident with Rac1 activation, H-Ras(G12V) causes a decrease in the amount of active Arf6, a GTPase that functions in recycling of clathrin-independent endosomes. The effect of H-Ras(G12V) on Arf6 is blocked by EHT 1864, indicating that the decrease in Arf6-GTP is directly linked to activation of Rac1. Constitutively active Rac1(G12V) interacts with GIT1 in immunoprecipitation assays. Ablation of GIT1 by shRNA prevents the decrease in active Arf6, inhibits vacuolization, and prevents loss of cell viability in cells expressing Rac1(G12V). Together the results suggest that perturbations of endosome morphology associated with Ras-induced methuosis are due to downstream activation of Rac1, combined with reciprocal inactivation of Arf6. The latter appears to be mediated through Rac1 stimulation of GIT1. Further insights into this pathway could suggest opportunities for induction of methuosis in cancers that are resistant to apoptotic cell death. PMID:20713492

  6. Ras GTPase-Activating Protein Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton and Hyphal Polarity in Aspergillus nidulans▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Harispe, Laura; Portela, Cecilia; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Gorfinkiel, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans gapA1, a mutation leading to compact, fluffy colonies and delayed polarity establishment, maps to a gene encoding a Ras GTPase-activating protein. Domain organization and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that GapA regulates one or more “true” Ras proteins. A gapAΔ strain is viable. gapA colonies are more compact than gapA1 colonies and show reduced conidiation. gapAΔ strains have abnormal conidiophores, characterized by the absence of one of the two layers of sterigmata seen in the wild type. gapA transcript levels are very low in conidia but increase during germination and reach their maximum at a time coincident with germ tube emergence. Elevated levels persist in hyphae. In germinating conidiospores, gapAΔ disrupts the normal coupling of isotropic growth, polarity establishment, and mitosis, resulting in a highly heterogeneous cell population, including malformed germlings and a class of giant cells with no germ tubes and a multitude of nuclei. Unlike wild-type conidia, gapAΔ conidia germinate without a carbon source. Giant multinucleated spores and carbon source-independent germination have been reported in strains carrying a rasA dominant active allele, indicating that GapA downregulates RasA. gapAΔ cells show a polarity maintenance defect characterized by apical swelling and subapical branching. The strongly polarized wild-type F-actin distribution is lost in gapAΔ cells. As GapA-green fluorescent protein shows cortical localization with strong predominance at the hyphal tips, we propose that GapA-mediated downregulation of Ras signaling at the plasma membrane of these tips is involved in the polarization of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for hyphal growth and, possibly, for asexual morphogenesis. PMID:18039943

  7. Coherence and frequency in the reticular activating system (RAS).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Urbano, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit (1) electrical coupling mainly in GABAergic cells, and (2) gamma band activity in virtually all of the cells. Specifically, cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) (1) show electrical coupling, and (2) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanism behind electrical coupling is important because the stimulant modafinil was shown to increase electrical coupling. We also provide recent findings demonstrating that all cells in the PPN and Pf have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential to gamma band activity. On the other hand, all SubCD, and some PPN, cells manifested sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. We speculate that continuous sensory input will modulate coupling and induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions.

  8. Effects of acrylonitrile on lymphocyte lipid rafts and RAS/RAF/MAPK/ERK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Li, B; Huang, J S; Shi, J M; Wang, P; Fan, W; Zhou, Y L

    2014-09-26

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used chemical in the production of plastics, resins, nitriles, acrylic fibers, and synthetic rubber. Previous epidemiological investigations and animal studies have confirmed that ACN affects the lymphocytes and spleen. However, the immune toxicity mechanism is unknown. Lipid rafts are cell membrane structures that are rich in cholesterol and involved in cell signal transduction. The B cell lymophoma-10 (Bcl10) protein is a joint protein that is important in lymphocyte development and signal pathways. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro effects of ACN. We separated lipid rafts, and analyzed Bcl10 protein and caveolin. Western blotting was used to detect mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylated MAPK levels. The results indicated that with increasing ACN concentration, the total amount of Bcl10 remained stable, but was concentrated mainly in part 4 to part 11 in electrophoretic band district which is high density in gradient centrifugation. Caveolin-1 was evaluated as a lipid raft marker protein; caveolin-1 content and position were relatively unchanged. Western blotting showed that in a certain range, MAPK protein was secreted at a higher level. At some ACN exposure levels, MAPK protein secretion was significantly decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that ACN can cause immune toxicity by damaging lipid raft structures, causing Bcl10 protein and lipid raft separation and restraining Ras-Raf-MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

  9. NORE1A is a double barreled Ras senescence effector that activates p53 and Rb.

    PubMed

    Donninger, Howard; Barnoud, Thibaut; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-01

    Although Ras is a potent oncogene in human tumors it has the paradoxical ability to promote Oncogene Induced Senescence (OIS). This appears to serve as a major barrier to Ras driven transformation in vivo. The signaling pathways used by Ras to promote senescence remain relatively poorly understood, but appear to invoke both the p53 and the Rb master tumor suppressors. Exactly how Ras communicates with p53 and Rb has remained something of a puzzle. NORE1A is a direct Ras effector that is frequently downregulated in human tumors. We have now found that it serves as a powerful Ras senescence effector. Moreover, we have defined signaling mechanisms that allows Ras to control both p53 and Rb post-translational modifications via the NORE1A scaffolding molecule. Indeed, NORE1A can be detected in complex with both p53 and Rb. Thus, by coupling Ras to both tumor suppressors, NORE1A forms a major component of the Ras senescence machinery and serves as the missing link between Ras and p53/Rb.

  10. Ras-Mek-Erk signaling regulates Nf1 heterozygous neointima formation.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Brian K; Bessler, Waylan K; Mali, Raghuveer; Mund, Julie A; Downing, Brandon D; Kapur, Reuben; Ingram, David A

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) results from mutations in the NF1 tumor-suppressor gene, which encodes neurofibromin, a negative regulator of diverse Ras signaling cascades. Arterial stenosis is a nonneoplastic manifestation of NF1 that predisposes some patients to debilitating morbidity and sudden death. Recent murine studies demonstrate that Nf1 heterozygosity (Nf1(+/-)) in monocytes/macrophages significantly enhances intimal proliferation after arterial injury. However, the downstream Ras effector pathway responsible for this phenotype is unknown. Based on in vitro assays demonstrating enhanced extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) signaling in Nf1(+/-) macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells and in vivo evidence of Erk amplification without alteration of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Nf1(+/-) neointimas, we tested the hypothesis that Ras-Erk signaling regulates intimal proliferation in a murine model of NF1 arterial stenosis. By using a well-established in vivo model of inflammatory cell migration and standard cell culture, neurofibromin-deficient macrophages demonstrate enhanced sensitivity to growth factor stimulation in vivo and in vitro, which is significantly diminished in the presence of PD0325901, a specific inhibitor of Ras-Erk signaling in phase 2 clinical trials for cancer. After carotid artery injury, Nf1(+/-) mice demonstrated increased intimal proliferation compared with wild-type mice. Daily administration of PD0325901 significantly reduced Nf1(+/-) neointima formation to levels of wild-type mice. These studies identify the Ras-Erk pathway in neurofibromin-deficient macrophages as the aberrant pathway responsible for enhanced neointima formation.

  11. RAS/MAPK Activation Drives Resistance to Smo Inhibition, Metastasis, and Tumor Evolution in Shh Pathway-Dependent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuesong; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Ornell, Kimberly J; Zhou, Pengcheng; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pak, Ekaterina; Li, Wei; Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Chang, Anne Lynn S; Li, Jiang; Oro, Anthony E; Chan, Jennifer A; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2015-09-01

    Aberrant Shh signaling promotes tumor growth in diverse cancers. The importance of Shh signaling is particularly evident in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), where inhibitors targeting the Shh pathway component Smoothened (Smo) show great therapeutic promise. However, the emergence of drug resistance limits long-term efficacy, and the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood. Using new medulloblastoma models, we identify two distinct paradigms of resistance to Smo inhibition. Sufu mutations lead to maintenance of the Shh pathway in the presence of Smo inhibitors. Alternatively activation of the RAS-MAPK pathway circumvents Shh pathway dependency, drives tumor growth, and enhances metastatic behavior. Strikingly, in BCC patients treated with Smo inhibitor, squamous cell cancers with RAS/MAPK activation emerged from the antecedent BCC tumors. Together, these findings reveal a critical role of the RAS-MAPK pathway in drug resistance and tumor evolution of Shh pathway-dependent tumors.

  12. RAS/MAPK activation drives resistance to Smo inhibition, metastasis and tumor evolution in Shh pathway-dependent tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuesong; Ponomaryov, Tatyana; Ornell, Kimberly J.; Zhou, Pengcheng; Dabral, Sukriti K.; Pak, Ekaterina; Li, Wei; Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Li, Jiang; Oro, Anthony E.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant Shh signaling promotes tumor growth in diverse cancers. The importance of Shh signaling is particularly evident in medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), where inhibitors targeting the Shh pathway component Smoothened (Smo) show great therapeutic promise. However, the emergence of drug resistance limits long-term efficacy and the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood. Using new medulloblastoma models, we identify two distinct paradigms of resistance to Smo inhibition. Sufu mutations lead to maintenance of the Shh pathway in the presence of Smo inhibitors. Alternatively activation of the RAS/MAPK pathway circumvents Shh pathway-dependency, drives tumor growth and enhances metastatic behavior. Strikingly, in BCC patients treated with Smo inhibitor, squamous cell cancers with RAS/MAPK activation emerged from the antecedent BCC tumors. Together these findings reveal a critical role of RAS/MAPK pathway in drug resistance and tumor evolution of Shh pathway-dependent tumors. PMID:26130651

  13. Ras pathway activation in hepatocellular carcinoma and anti-tumoral effect of combined sorafenib and rapamycin in vivo☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Pippa; Toffanin, Sara; Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Minguez, Beatriz; Cabellos, Laia; Savic, Radoslav; Hoshida, Yujin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Yea, Steven; Peix, Judit; Deniz, Kemal; Fiel, M. Isabel; Thung, Swan; Alsinet, Clara; Tovar, Victoria; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The success of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has focused interest on the role of Ras signaling in this malignancy. We investigated the molecular alterations of the Ras pathway in HCC and the antineoplastic effects of sorafenib in combination with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, in experimental models. Methods Gene expression (qRT-PCR, oligonucleotide microarray), DNA copy number changes (SNP-array), methylation of tumor suppressor genes (methylation-specific PCR) and protein activation (immunohistochemistry) were analysed in 351 samples. Anti-tumoral effects of combined therapy targeting the Ras and mTOR pathways were evaluated in cell lines and HCC xenografts. Results Different mechanisms accounted for Ras pathway activation in HCC. H-ras was up-regulated during different steps of hepatocarcinogenesis. B-raf was overexpressed in advanced tumors and its expression was associated with genomic amplification. Partial methylation of RASSF1A and NORE1A was detected in 89% and 44% of tumors respectively, and complete methylation was found in 11 and 4% of HCCs. Activation of the pathway (pERK immunostaining) was identified in 10.3% of HCC. Blockade of Ras and mTOR pathways with sorafenib and rapamycin reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in cell lines. In vivo, the combination of both compounds enhanced tumor necrosis and ulceration when compared with sorafenib alone. Conclusions Ras activation results from several molecular alterations, such as methylation of tumor suppressors and amplification of oncogenes (B-raf). Sorafenib blocks signaling and synergizes with rapamycin in vivo, preventing tumor progression. These data provide the rationale for testing this combination in clinical studies. PMID:19665249

  14. DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells controls alveolar formation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Takano, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Akemi; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi; Hatano, Masahiko

    2014-06-03

    Alveolar formation is coupled to the spatiotemporally regulated differentiation of alveolar myofibroblasts (AMYFs), which contribute to the morphological changes of interalveolar walls. Although the Ras-ERK signaling pathway is one of the key regulators for alveolar formation in developing lungs, the intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its role remain largely unknown. By analyzing the Ras-ERK signaling pathway during postnatal development of lungs, we have identified a critical role of DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf)-a dominant-negative antagonist for the Ras-ERK signaling pathway-in alveolar formation. DA-Raf-deficient mice displayed alveolar dysgenesis as a result of the blockade of AMYF differentiation. DA-Raf is predominantly expressed in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) in developing lungs, and DA-Raf-dependent MEK1/2 inhibition in AEC2s suppresses expression of tissue inhibitor of matalloprotienase 4 (TIMP4), which prevents a subsequent proteolytic cascade matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)14-MMP2. Furthermore, MMP14-MMP2 proteolytic cascade regulates AMYF differentiation and alveolar formation. Therefore, DA-Raf-dependent inhibition of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in AEC2s is required for alveolar formation via triggering MMP2 activation followed by AMYF differentiation. These findings reveal a pivotal role of the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in the dynamic regulation of alveolar development.

  15. Overactivation of Ras signaling pathway in CD133+ MPNST cells.

    PubMed

    Borrego-Diaz, Emma; Terai, Kaoru; Lialyte, Kristina; Wise, Amanda L; Esfandyari, Tuba; Behbod, Fariba; Mautner, Victor F; Spyra, Melanie; Taylor, Sarah; Parada, Luis F; Upadhyaya, Meena; Farassati, Faris

    2012-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be the regenerative pool of cells responsible for repopulating tumors. Gaining knowledge about the signaling characteristics of CSCs is important for understanding the biology of tumors and developing novel anti-cancer therapies. We have identified a subpopulation of cells positive for CD133 (a CSC marker) from human primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells which were absent in non-malignant Schwann cells. CD133 was also found to be expressed in human tissue samples and mouse MPNST cells. CD133+ cells were capable of forming spheres in non-adherent/serum-free conditions. The activation levels of Ras and its downstream effectors such as ERK, JNK, PI3K, p38K, and RalA were significantly increased in this population. Moreover, the CD133+ cells showed enhanced invasiveness which was linked to the increased expression of β-Catenin and Snail, two important proteins involved in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and Paxilin, a focal adhesion protein. Among other important characteristics of the CD133+ population, endoplasmic reticulum stress marker IRE1α was decreased, implying the potential sensitivity of CD133+ to the accumulation of unfolded proteins. Apoptotic indicators seemed to be unchanged in CD133+ cells when compared to the wild (unsorted) cells. Finally, in order to test the possibility of targeting CD133+ MPNST cells with Ras pathway pharmacological inhibitors, we exposed these cells to an ERK inhibitor. The wild population was more sensitive to inhibition of proliferation by this inhibitor as compared with the CD133+ cells supporting previous studies observing enhanced chemoresistance of these cells.

  16. Centaurin-α1-Ras-Elk-1 signaling at mitochondria mediates β-amyloid-induced synaptic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, Erzsebet M; Oliveira, Ana F; Sumner, Elizabeth J; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2013-03-20

    Alzheimer's disease is thought to be caused by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-dependent synaptic dysfunction. However, the signaling pathways connecting Aβ and synaptic dysfunction remain elusive. Here we report that Aβ transiently increases the expression level of centaurin-α1 (CentA1) in neurons, which induces a Ras-dependent association of Elk-1 with mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction in organotypic hippocampal slices of rats. Downregulation of the CentA1-Ras-Elk-1 pathway restored normal mitochondrial activity, spine structural plasticity, spine density, and the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs in Aβ-treated neurons, whereas upregulation of the pathway was sufficient to decrease spine density. Elevations of CentA1 and association of Elk-1 with mitochondria were also observed in transgenic mice overexpressing a human mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, the CentA1-Ras-Elk-1 signaling pathway acts on mitochondria to regulate dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity in response to Aβ in hippocampal neurons, providing new pharmacological targets for Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Rapid induction of apoptosis by PI3K inhibitors is dependent upon their transient inhibition of RAS-ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Will, Marie; Qin, Alice Can Ran; Toy, Weiyi; Yao, Zhan; Rodrik-Outmezguine, Vanessa; Schneider, Claudia; Huang, Xiaodong; Monian, Prashant; Jiang, Xuejun; de Stanchina, Elisa; Baselga, Jose; Liu, Ningshu; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Rosen, Neal

    2014-01-01

    The effects of selective PI3K and AKT inhibitors were compared in human tumor cell lines in which the pathway is dysregulated. Both caused inhibition of AKT, relief of feedback inhibition of RTKs, and growth arrest. However, only the PI3K inhibitors caused rapid induction of cell death. In seeking a mechanism for this phenomenon, we found that PI3K inhibition, but not AKT inhibition, causes rapid inhibition of wild type RAS and of RAF/MEK/ERK signaling. Inhibition of RAS-ERK signaling is transient, rebounding a few hours after drug addition, and is required for rapid induction of apoptosis. Combined MEK and AKT inhibition also promotes cell death and in murine models of HER2+ cancer, either pulsatile PI3K inhibition or combined MEK and AKT inhibition causes tumor regressions. We conclude that PI3K is upstream of RAS and AKT and that pulsatile inhibition of both pathways is sufficient for effective antitumor activity. PMID:24436048

  18. Rapid induction of apoptosis by PI3K inhibitors is dependent upon their transient inhibition of RAS-ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Will, Marie; Qin, Alice Can Ran; Toy, Weiyi; Yao, Zhan; Rodrik-Outmezguine, Vanessa; Schneider, Claudia; Huang, Xiaodong; Monian, Prashant; Jiang, Xuejun; de Stanchina, Elisa; Baselga, José; Liu, Ningshu; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Rosen, Neal

    2014-03-01

    The effects of selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT inhibitors were compared in human tumor cell lines in which the pathway is dysregulated. Both caused inhibition of AKT, relief of feedback inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases, and growth arrest. However, only the PI3K inhibitors caused rapid induction of cell death. In seeking a mechanism for this phenomenon, we found that PI3K inhibition, but not AKT inhibition, causes rapid inhibition of wild-type RAS and of RAF-MEK-ERK signaling. Inhibition of RAS-ERK signaling is transient, rebounding a few hours after drug addition, and is required for rapid induction of apoptosis. Combined MEK and AKT inhibition also promotes cell death, and in murine models of HER2(+) cancer, either pulsatile PI3K inhibition or combined MEK and AKT inhibition causes tumor regression. We conclude that PI3K is upstream of RAS and AKT and that pulsatile inhibition of both pathways is sufficient for effective antitumor activity.

  19. BRAF vs RAS oncogenes: are mutations of the same pathway equal? differential signalling and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Eftychia; Koustas, Evangelos; Goulielmaki, Maria; Pintzas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As the increased knowledge of tumour heterogeneity and genetic alterations progresses, it exemplifies the need for further personalized medicine in modern cancer management. Here, the similarities but also the differential effects of RAS and BRAF oncogenic signalling are examined and further implications in personalized cancer diagnosis and therapy are discussed. Redundant mechanisms mediated by the two oncogenes as well as differential regulation of signalling pathways and gene expression by RAS as compared to BRAF are addressed. The implications of RAS vs BRAF differential functions, in relevant tumour types including colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer are discussed. Current therapeutic findings and future viewpoints concerning the exploitation of RAS-BRAF-pathway alterations for the development of novel therapeutics and efficient rational combinations, as well as companion tests for relevant markers of response will be evaluated. The concept that drug-resistant cells may also display drug dependency, such that altered dosing may prevent the emergence of lethal drug resistance posed a major therapy hindrance. PMID:25361007

  20. PP2A/B56 and GSK3/Ras suppress PKB activity during Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Castillo, Boris; Kim, Bohye; Kim, Lou W

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that the Dictyostelium protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B56, encoded by psrA, modulates Dictyostelium cell differentiation through negatively affecting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) function. Our follow-up research uncovered that B56 preferentially associated with GDP forms of RasC and RasD, but not with RasG in vitro, and psrA(-) cells displayed inefficient activation of multiple Ras species, decreased random motility, and inefficient chemotaxis toward cAMP and folic acid gradient. Surprisingly, psrA(-) cells displayed aberrantly high basal and poststimulus phosphorylation of Dictyostelium protein kinase B (PKB) kinase family member PKBR1 and PKB substrates. Expression of constitutively active Ras mutants or inhibition of GSK3 in psrA(-) cells increased activities of both PKBR1 and PKBA, but only the PKBR1 activity was increased in wild-type cells under the equivalent conditions, indicating that either B56- or GSK3-mediated suppressive mechanism is sufficient to maintain low PKBA activity, but both mechanisms are necessary for suppressing PKBR1. Finally, cells lacking RasD or RasC displayed normal PKBR1 regulation under GSK3-inhibiting conditions, indicating that RasC or RasD proteins are essential for GSK3-mediated PKBR1 inhibition. In summary, B56 constitutes inhibitory circuits for PKBA and PKBR1 and thus heavily affects Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

  1. PP2A/B56 and GSK3/Ras suppress PKB activity during Dictyostelium chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Castillo, Boris; Kim, Bohye; Kim, Lou W.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that the Dictyostelium protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B56, encoded by psrA, modulates Dictyostelium cell differentiation through negatively affecting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) function. Our follow-up research uncovered that B56 preferentially associated with GDP forms of RasC and RasD, but not with RasG in vitro, and psrA− cells displayed inefficient activation of multiple Ras species, decreased random motility, and inefficient chemotaxis toward cAMP and folic acid gradient. Surprisingly, psrA− cells displayed aberrantly high basal and poststimulus phosphorylation of Dictyostelium protein kinase B (PKB) kinase family member PKBR1 and PKB substrates. Expression of constitutively active Ras mutants or inhibition of GSK3 in psrA− cells increased activities of both PKBR1 and PKBA, but only the PKBR1 activity was increased in wild-type cells under the equivalent conditions, indicating that either B56- or GSK3-mediated suppressive mechanism is sufficient to maintain low PKBA activity, but both mechanisms are necessary for suppressing PKBR1. Finally, cells lacking RasD or RasC displayed normal PKBR1 regulation under GSK3-inhibiting conditions, indicating that RasC or RasD proteins are essential for GSK3-mediated PKBR1 inhibition. In summary, B56 constitutes inhibitory circuits for PKBA and PKBR1 and thus heavily affects Dictyostelium chemotaxis. PMID:26424797

  2. Semaphorin 4D/Plexin-B1-mediated M-Ras GAP activity regulates actin-based dendrite remodeling through Lamellipodin.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Gen-Ichi; Negishi, Manabu; Oinuma, Izumi

    2012-06-13

    Semaphorins have been identified as repulsive guidance molecules in the developing nervous system. We recently reported that the semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) receptor Plexin-B1 induces repulsion in axon and dendrites by functioning as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for R-Ras and M-Ras, respectively. In axons, Sema4D stimulation induces growth cone collapse, and downregulation of R-Ras activity by Plexin-B1-mediated GAP activity is required for the action. Axonal R-Ras GAP activity downregulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, and thereby induces inactivation of a microtubule assembly promoter protein, CRMP-2. However, in contrast to the well studied roles of semaphorins and plexins in axonal guidance, signaling molecules linking M-Ras GAP to dendritic cytoskeleton remain obscure. Here we identified an Ena/VASP ligand, Lamellipodin (Lpd), as a novel effector of M-Ras in dendrites. Lpd was expressed in F-actin-rich distal dendritic processes and was required for both basal and M-Ras-mediated dendrite development. Subcellular fractionation showed M-Ras-dependent membrane translocation of Lpd, which was suppressed by Sema4D. Furthermore, the Ena/VASP-binding region within Lpd was required for dendrite development, and its membrane targeting was sufficient to overcome the Sema4D-mediated reduction of dendritic outgrowth and disappearance of F-actin from distal dendrites. Furthermore, in utero electroporation experiments also indicated that regulation of the M-Ras-Lpd system by the GAP activity of Plexin is involved in the normal development of cortical dendrites in vivo. Overall, our study sheds light on how repulsive guidance molecules regulate actin cytoskeleton in dendrites, revealing a novel mechanism that the M-Ras-Lpd system regulates actin-based dendrite remodeling by Sema/Plexin in rats or mice of either sex.

  3. Noncanonical control of C. elegans germline apoptosis by the insulin/IGF-1 and Ras/MAPK signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, A J; Gunda, M; Yu, B; Yen, K; Ito, S; Forster, S; Tissenbaum, H A; Derry, W B

    2013-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 pathway controls a number of physiological processes in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, including development, aging and stress response. We previously found that the Akt/PKB ortholog AKT-1 dampens the apoptotic response to genotoxic stress in the germline by negatively regulating the p53-like transcription factor CEP-1. Here, we report unexpected rearrangements to the insulin/IGF-1 pathway, whereby the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase PDK-1 oppose AKT-1 to promote DNA damage-induced apoptosis. While DNA damage does not affect phosphorylation at the PDK-1 site Thr350/Thr308 of AKT-1, it increased phosphorylation at Ser517/Ser473. Although ablation of daf-2 or pdk-1 completely suppressed akt-1-dependent apoptosis, the transcriptional activation of CEP-1 was unaffected, suggesting that daf-2 and pdk-1 act independently or downstream of cep-1 and akt-1. Ablation of the akt-1 paralog akt-2 or the downstream target of the insulin/IGF-1 pathway daf-16 (a FOXO transcription factor) restored sensitivity to damage-induced apoptosis in daf-2 and pdk-1 mutants. In addition, daf-2 and pdk-1 mutants have reduced levels of phospho-MPK-1/ERK in their germ cells, indicating that the insulin/IGF-1 pathway promotes Ras signaling in the germline. Ablation of the Ras effector gla-3, a negative regulator of mpk-1, restored sensitivity to apoptosis in daf-2 mutants, suggesting that gla-3 acts downstream of daf-2. In addition, the hypersensitivity of let-60/Ras gain-of-function mutants to damage-induced apoptosis was suppressed to wild-type levels by ablation of daf-2. Thus, insulin/IGF-1 signaling selectively engages AKT-2/DAF-16 to promote DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis downstream of CEP-1 through the Ras pathway. PMID:22935616

  4. Activation of RAS/ERK alone is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete retinoic acid in hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ai-Guo Song, Ya-Nan; Chen, Jun; Li, Hui-Ling; Dong, Jian-Yi; Cui, Hai-Peng; Yao, Liang; Li, Xue-Feng; Gao, Wen-Ting; Qiu, Ze-Wen; Wang, Fu-Jin; Wang, Jing-Yu

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • The activation of RAS/ERK is insufficient to inhibit RXRα function and deplete RA. • The retinoid metabolism-related genes are down-regulated by ras oncogene. • The atRA has no effect on preventing hepatic tumorigenesis or curing the developed hepatic nodules. - Abstract: Activation of RAS/ERK signaling pathway, depletion of retinoid, and phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) are frequent events found in liver tumors and thought to play important roles in hepatic tumorigenesis. However, the relationships among them still remained to be elucidated. By exploring the transgenic mouse model of hepatic tumorigenesis induced by liver-specific expression of H-ras12V oncogene, the activation of RAS/ERK, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes, the contents of retinoid metabolites, and phosphorylation of RXRα were determined. RAS/ERK signaling pathway was gradually and significantly activated in hepatic tumor adjacent normal liver tissues (P) and hepatic tumor tissues (T) of H-ras12V transgenic mice compared with normal liver tissues (Wt) of wild type mice. On the contrary, the mRNA expression levels of retinoid metabolism-related genes were significantly reduced in P and T compared with Wt. Interestingly, the retinoid metabolites 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the well known ligands for nuclear transcription factor RXR and retinoic acid receptor (RAR), were significantly decreased only in T compared with Wt and P, although the oxidized polar metabolite of atRA, 4-keto-all-trans-retinoic-acid (4-keto-RA) was significantly decreased in both P and T compared with Wt. To our surprise, the functions of RXRα were significantly blocked only in T compared with Wt and P. Namely, the total protein levels of RXRα were significantly reduced and the phosphorylation levels of RXRα were significantly increased only in T compared with Wt and P. Treatment of H-ras12V transgenic mice at 5-week

  5. Yeast spore germination: a requirement for Ras protein activity during re-entry into the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, P K; Rine, J

    1997-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae spore germination is a process in which quiescent, non-dividing spores become competent for mitotic cell division. Using a novel assay for spore uncoating, we found that spore germination was a multi-step process whose nutritional requirements differed from those for mitotic division. Although both processes were controlled by nutrient availability, efficient spore germination occurred in conditions that did not support cell division. In addition, germination did not require many key regulators of cell cycle progression including the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc28p. However, two processes essential for cell growth, protein synthesis and signaling through the Ras protein pathway, were required for spore germination. Moreover, increasing Ras protein activity in spores resulted in an accelerated rate of germination and suggested that activation of the Ras pathway was rate-limiting for entry into the germination program. An early step in germination, commitment, was identified as the point at which spores became irreversibly destined to complete the uncoating process even if the original stimulus for germination was removed. Spore commitment to germination required protein synthesis and Ras protein activity; in contrast, post-commitment events did not require ongoing protein synthesis. Altogether, these data suggested a model for Ras function during transitions between periods of quiescence and cell cycle progression. PMID:9321396

  6. Lipid-Sorting Specificity Encoded in K-Ras Membrane Anchor Regulates Signal Output.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Prakash, Priyanka; Liang, Hong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2017-01-12

    K-Ras is targeted to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal membrane anchor that comprises a farnesyl-cysteine-methyl-ester and a polybasic domain. We used quantitative spatial imaging and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine molecular details of K-Ras plasma membrane binding. We found that the K-Ras anchor binds selected plasma membrane anionic lipids with defined head groups and lipid side chains. The precise amino acid sequence and prenyl group define a combinatorial code for lipid binding that extends beyond simple electrostatics; within this code lysine and arginine residues are non-equivalent and prenyl chain length modifies nascent polybasic domain lipid preferences. The code is realized by distinct dynamic tertiary structures of the anchor on the plasma membrane that govern amino acid side-chain-lipid interactions. An important consequence of this specificity is the ability of such anchors when aggregated to sort subsets of phospholipids into nanoclusters with defined lipid compositions that determine K-Ras signaling output.

  7. CrkII signals from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras.

    PubMed Central

    Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H

    1996-01-01

    A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553

  8. Epiregulin expression by Ets-1 and ERK signaling pathway in Ki-ras-transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Chul; Choi, Hee-Sook; Lee, Sojung; Kim, Bo Yeon; Jung, Mira; Park, Sue Nie; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-12-19

    Epiregulin belongs to the epidermal growth factor family, binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, and its expression is upregulated in various cancer cells, but the regulatory mechanism is unclear. We investigated the regulatory mechanism of epiregulin expression in Ki-ras-transformed cancer cells. In 267B1/Ki-ras cells, the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway was constitutively activated, epiregulin was up-regulated, and the expression and phosphorylation of Ets-1 were augmented. The inhibition of ERK by PD98059 decreased epiregulin and Ets-1 expression and suppressed the growth of 267B1/Ki-ras cells. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that Ets-1 was bound to human epiregulin promoter, and this binding was abolished by PD98059. Silencing of Ets-1 by RNA interference decreased cellular epiregulin transcript expression. We suggest that the Ki-ras mutation in 267B1 prostate cells constitutively activates the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and induces the activation of the Ets-1 transcription factor, ultimately leading to the increased expression of epiregulin.

  9. Differential Regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc Synthesis, Degradation, and Transcriptional Activity by the Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kapeli, Katannya; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Myc transcription factors are important regulators of proliferation and can promote oncogenesis when deregulated. Deregulated Myc expression in cancers can result from MYC gene amplification and translocation but also from alterations in mitogenic signaling pathways that affect Myc levels through both transcriptional and post-transcription mechanisms. For example, mutations in Ras family GTPase proteins that cause their constitutive activation can increase cellular levels of c-Myc by interfering with its rapid proteasomal degradation. Although enhanced protein stability is generally thought to be applicable to other Myc family members, here we show that c-Myc and its paralog N-Myc respond to oncogenic H-Ras (H-RasG12V) in very different ways. H-RasG12V promotes accumulation of both c-Myc and N-Myc, but although c-Myc accumulation is achieved by enhanced protein stability, N-Myc accumulation is associated with an accelerated rate of translation that overcomes a surprising H-RasG12V-mediated destabilization of N-Myc. We show that H-RasG12V-mediated degradation of N-Myc functions independently of key phosphorylation sites in the highly conserved Myc homology box I region that controls c-Myc protein stability by oncogenic Ras. Finally, we found that N-Myc and c-Myc transcriptional activity is associated with their proteasomal degradation but that N-Myc may be uniquely dependent on Ras-stimulated proteolysis for target gene expression. Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how oncogenic Ras augments N-Myc levels in cells and suggest that enhanced N-Myc translation and degradation-coupled transactivation may contribute to oncogenesis. PMID:21908617

  10. How to Target Activated Ras Proteins: Direct Inhibition vs. Induced Mislocalization

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Ethan J.; Ji, Kyungmin; Reiners, John J.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras proteins are a driving force in a significant set of human cancers and wild-type, unmutated Ras proteins likely contribute to the malignant phenotype of many more. The overall challenge of targeting activated Ras proteins has great promise to treat cancer, but this goal has yet to be achieved. Significant efforts and resources have been committed to inhibiting Ras, but these energies have so far made little impact in the clinic. Direct attempts to target activated Ras proteins have faced many obstacles, including the fundamental nature of the gain-of-function oncogenic activity being produced by a loss-of-function at the biochemical level. Nevertheless, there has been very promising recent pre-clinical progress. The major strategy that has so far reached the clinic aimed to inhibit activated Ras indirectly through blocking its post-translational modification and inducing its mislocalization. While these efforts to indirectly target Ras through inhibition of farnesyl transferase (FTase) were rationally designed, this strategy suffered from insufficient attention to the distinctions between the isoforms of Ras. This led to subsequent failures in large-scale clinical trials targeting K-Ras driven lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. Despite these setbacks, efforts to indirectly target activated Ras through inducing its mislocalization have persisted. It is plausible that FTase inhibitors may still have some utility in the clinic, perhaps in combination with statins or other agents. Alternative approaches for inducing mislocalization of Ras through disruption of its palmitoylation cycle or interaction with chaperone proteins are in early stages of development. PMID:26423696

  11. Different Requirement for Rnd GTPases of R-Ras GAP Activity of Plexin-C1 and Plexin-D1*

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Kanami; Oinuma, Izumi; Katoh, Hironori; Negishi, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Plexins, comprising Plexin-A, -B, -C, and -D subfamilies, are receptors for semaphorins governing cell adhesion, migration, and axon guidance. Among plexin subfamilies, Plexin-A1 and Plexin-B1 have been shown to function as an R-Ras GAP, inducing repulsive responses, and the expression of R-Ras GAP activity requires the binding of Rnd1, a member of Rnd subfamily of Rho GTPases. However, signaling pathways of Plexin-D1 and Plexin-C1 still remain obscure. Here, we found that Plexin-D1 displayed R-Ras GAP activity and inhibited migration of COS-7 cells, and these actions required Rnd2, another Rnd subfamily GTPase. Rnd2 bound to Plexin-D1 in cortical neurons, and Sema3E/Plexin-D1-induced inhibition of axon outgrowth of cortical neurons required Rnd2 and down-regulation of R-Ras activity. On the other hand, Plexin-C1 displayed R-Ras GAP activity and inhibited cell migration of COS-7 cells without Rnd proteins. Therefore, R-Ras GAP activity is a common function of plexin subfamilies but the regulation of R-Ras GAP activity of plexins by Rnd proteins is different among plexin subfamilies. PMID:19136556

  12. RAS and Hedgehog--partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Lauth, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    Both RAS and Hedgehog (HH) pathway activation can be found in approximately one third of all cancers. In many cases, this activation occurs in the same tumor types, suggesting a positive impact of a simultaneous activation of RAS and HH on tumor development. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about the molecular and functional crosstalk of RAS and HH signaling in the development of hyperproliferative disease.

  13. The effects of expression of an activated rasG mutation on the differentiation of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Thiery, R; Robbins, S; Khosla, M; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    1992-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum contains two ras genes, rasG and rasD, that are expressed during growth and differentiation, respectively. It was shown previously that Dictyostelium transformants expressing an activated rasD gene (a mutation producing a change in amino acid 12 from glycine to threonine) developed abnormally. When developed on filters these transformants formed multitipped aggregates, which did not go on to produce final fruiting bodies, but in a submerged culture assay on a plastic surface they either formed small aggregates or did not aggregate. In this study we transformed cells with the rasG gene, mutated to change amino acid 12 from glycine to threonine. The resulting transformants developed normally on filters, but aggregation under other conditions was impaired. In particular, in submerged culture on a plastic surface they either produced very small aggregates or did not aggregate, one of the phenotypes exhibited by the activated rasD transformants. Molecular analysis of the transformants revealed the presence of high copy numbers of the mutated rasG gene, but the level of expression of the mutant gene never exceeded the level of expression of the endogenous gene. These results indicate a powerful dominant effect of a relatively small amount of the activated RasG protein in Dictyostelium.

  14. Somatic Activation of rasK Gene in a Human Ovarian Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feig, L. A.; Bast, R. C.; Knapp, R. C.; Cooper, G. M.

    1984-02-01

    A tumor isolate from a patient with serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary contained an activated rasK gene detected by transfection of NIH/3T3 cells. In contrast, DNA from normal cells of the same patient lacked transforming activity, indicating that activation of this transforming gene was the consequence of somatic mutation in the neoplastic cells. The transforming gene product displayed an electrophoretic mobility in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels that differed from the mobilities of rasK transforming proteins in other tumors, indicating that a previously undescribed mutation was responsible for activation of rasK in this ovarian carcinoma.

  15. Staurosporines disrupt phosphatidylserine trafficking and mislocalize Ras proteins.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-jin; Park, Jin-Hee; Piggott, Andrew M; Salim, Angela A; Gorfe, Alemaheyu A; Parton, Robert G; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Hancock, John F

    2012-12-21

    Oncogenic mutant Ras is frequently expressed in human cancers, but no anti-Ras drugs have been developed. Since membrane association is essential for Ras biological activity, we developed a high content assay for inhibitors of Ras plasma membrane localization. We discovered that staurosporine and analogs potently inhibit Ras plasma membrane binding by blocking endosomal recycling of phosphatidylserine, resulting in redistribution of phosphatidylserine from plasma membrane to endomembrane. Staurosporines are more active against K-Ras than H-Ras. K-Ras is displaced to endosomes and undergoes proteasomal-independent degradation, whereas H-Ras redistributes to the Golgi and is not degraded. K-Ras nanoclustering on the plasma membrane is also inhibited. Ras mislocalization does not correlate with protein kinase C inhibition or induction of apoptosis. Staurosporines selectively abrogate K-Ras signaling and proliferation of K-Ras-transformed cells. These results identify staurosporines as novel inhibitors of phosphatidylserine trafficking, yield new insights into the role of phosphatidylserine and electrostatics in Ras plasma membrane targeting, and validate a new target for anti-Ras therapeutics.

  16. 14-3-3 antagonizes Ras-mediated Raf-1 recruitment to the plasma membrane to maintain signaling fidelity.

    PubMed

    Light, Yvonne; Paterson, Hugh; Marais, Richard

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the role that S259 phosphorylation, S621 phosphorylation, and 14-3-3 binding play in regulating Raf-1 activity. We show that 14-3-3 binding, rather than Raf-1 phosphorylation, is required for the correct regulation of kinase activity. Phosphorylation of S621 is not required for activity, but 14-3-3 binding is essential. When 14-3-3 binding to conserved region 2 (CR2) was disrupted, Raf-1 basal kinase activity was elevated and it could be further activated by (V12,G37)Ras, (V23)TC21, and (V38)R-Ras. Disruption of 14-3-3 binding at CR2 did not recover binding of Raf-1 to (V12,G37)Ras but allowed more efficient recruitment of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane and stimulated its phosphorylation on S338. Finally, (V12)Ras, but not (V12,G37)Ras, displaced 14-3-3 from full-length Raf-1 and the Raf-1 bound to Ras. GTP was still phosphorylated on S259. Our data suggest that stable association of Raf-1 with the plasma membrane requires Ras-mediated displacement of 14-3-3 from CR2. Small G proteins that cannot displace 14-3-3 fail to recruit Raf-1 to the membrane efficiently and so fail to stimulate kinase activity.

  17. Oog1, an oocyte-specific protein, interacts with Ras and Ras-signaling proteins during early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Ihara, Ryo; Aizawa, Akira; Kishida, Shosei; Kikuchi, Akira; Imai, Hiroshi; Minami, Naojiro . E-mail: naojiro@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-05-19

    We previously identified an oocyte-specific gene, Oogenesin 1 (Oog1), that encodes 326 amino acids containing a leucine zipper structure and a leucine-rich repeat. In the present study, to identify the interacting proteins of Oog1, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using a GV-oocyte cDNA library and found that Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (RalGDS) is the binding partner of Oog1. Coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed the interaction between Oog1 and RalGDS proteins. Colocalization experiments provide the evidence that the nuclear localization of RalGDS depends on the expression of Oog1. Interestingly, RalGDS protein localized in the nucleus rather than the cytoplasm between late 1-cell and early 2-cell stages, the time when Oog1 localizes in the nucleus. We also examined the interaction between Oog1 and Ras by GST pull-down assay and revealed that Oog1 interacts with Ras in a GTP-dependent manner. These findings suggest a role of Oog1 as a Ras-binding protein.

  18. Label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics with novel pairwise abundance normalization reveals synergistic RAS and CIP2A signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kauko, Otto; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Jumppanen, Mikael; Hintsanen, Petteri; Suni, Veronika; Haapaniemi, Pekka; Corthals, Garry; Aittokallio, Tero; Westermarck, Jukka; Imanishi, Susumu Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivated RAS drives progression of many human malignancies. However, oncogenic activity of RAS is dependent on simultaneous inactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Although PP2A is known to regulate some of the RAS effector pathways, it has not been systematically assessed how these proteins functionally interact. Here we have analyzed phosphoproteomes regulated by either RAS or PP2A, by phosphopeptide enrichment followed by mass-spectrometry-based label-free quantification. To allow data normalization in situations where depletion of RAS or PP2A inhibitor CIP2A causes a large uni-directional change in the phosphopeptide abundance, we developed a novel normalization strategy, named pairwise normalization. This normalization is based on adjusting phosphopeptide abundances measured before and after the enrichment. The superior performance of the pairwise normalization was verified by various independent methods. Additionally, we demonstrate how the selected normalization method influences the downstream analyses and interpretation of pathway activities. Consequently, bioinformatics analysis of RAS and CIP2A regulated phosphoproteomes revealed a significant overlap in their functional pathways. This is most likely biologically meaningful as we observed a synergistic survival effect between CIP2A and RAS expression as well as KRAS activating mutations in TCGA pan-cancer data set, and synergistic relationship between CIP2A and KRAS depletion in colony growth assays. PMID:26278961

  19. CREBBP knockdown enhances RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling in Ras pathway mutated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but does not modulate chemotherapeutic response.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Zach A; Nicholson, Lindsay; Zeppetzauer, Martin; Matheson, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Paul; Harrison, Christine J; Irving, Julie A E

    2016-12-15

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common cause of cancer related mortality in young people and new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcome. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous inactivating mutations in the histone acetyl transferase, CREBBP, are particularly frequent in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and associated with a hyperdiploid karyotype and KRAS mutations. To study the functional impact of CREBBP haploinsufficiency in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, RNA interference was used to knock down expression of CREBBP in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines and various primagraft acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. We demonstrate that attenuation of CREBBP results in reduced acetylation of histone 3 lysine 18, but had no significant impact on cAMP-dependent target gene expression. Impaired induction of glucocorticoid receptor targets was only seen in 1 of 4 CREBBP knockdown models, and there was no significant difference in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, sensitivity to other acute lymphoblastic leukaemia chemotherapeutics or histone deacetylase inhibitors. Importantly, we show that CREBBP directly acetylates KRAS and that CREBBP knockdown enhances signalling of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in Ras pathway mutated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells, which are still sensitive to MEK inhibitors. Thus, CREBBP mutations might assist in enhancing oncogenic RAS signalling in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia but do not alter response to MEK inhibitors.

  20. Past, Present, and Future of Targeting Ras for Cancer Therapies.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhi; Zhang, Shuxing

    2016-01-01

    For decades, mutant Ras (mut-Ras) proteins have been identified as drivers of multiple cancers including pancreatic, lung, and colon cancers. However, targeting this oncogene has been challenging and no Ras inhibitors are on the market to date. Lately several candidates targeting the downstream pathways of Ras signaling, including PI3K and Raf, were approved for cancer treatment. However, they do not present promising therapeutic effects on patients harboring Ras mutations. Recently, a variety of compounds have been reported to impair the activity of Ras, and these exciting discoveries reignite the hope for development of novel drugs targeting mut-Ras. In this article, we will review the progress made in this field and the current state-of-the-art technologies to develop Ras inhibitors. Also we will discuss the future direction of targeting Ras.

  1. Ras GTPase-activating protein gap1 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune regulates hyphal growth orientation and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

    2006-04-01

    The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development.

  2. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes regulates activation of a small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Kowluru, Vibhuti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Increased superoxide levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. We have shown that functional activation of a small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, is one of the signaling steps involved in glucose-induced apoptosis of retinal capillary cells. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which oxidative stress could result in the activation of H-Ras in diabetes. Methods Experiments were performed in isolated retinal endothelial cells that were treated with H2O2, or the cells in which glucose-induced superoxide accumulation was inhibited either by superoxide dismutase mimetic (MnTBAP) or by overexpressing mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). The in vitro experiments were complemented with in vivo experiments using the retina from mice overexpressing MnSOD. Results H2O2 activated H-Ras and its downstream signaling pathway, including Raf-1 and phosphorylation of p38 (p-p38) MAP kinase. Inhibition of superoxide significantly attenuated glucose-induced activation of H-Ras, Raf-1 and p-p38 MAP kinase. Overexpression of MnSOD in mice prevented diabetes-induced activation of both H-Ras and p-p38 MAP kinase. Conclusions Our results clearly indicate that the activation of H-Ras and its downstream signaling pathway in the retina and its vasculature could be under the control of superoxide, and H-Ras activation in diabetes can be prevented by inhibiting superoxide accumulation. PMID:17515880

  3. Lupeol, a fruit and vegetable based triterpene, induces apoptotic death of human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells via inhibition of Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mohammad; Kaur, Satwinderjeet; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2005-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an exceptionally aggressive disease, the treatment of which has largely been unsuccessful due to higher resistance offered by pancreatic cancer cells to conventional approaches such as surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy. The aberration of Ras oncoprotein has been linked to the induction of multiple signaling pathways and to the resistance offered by pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis. Therefore, there is a need for development of new and effective chemotherapeutic agents which can target multiple pathways to induce responsiveness of pancreatic cancer cells to death signals. In this study, human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells AsPC-1 were used to investigate the effect of Lupeol on cell growth and its effects on the modulation of multiple Ras-induced signaling pathways. Lupeol caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth as assessed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis as assessed by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and western blotting. Lupeol treatment to cells was found to significantly reduce the expression of Ras oncoprotein and modulate the protein expression of various signaling molecules involved in PKCalpha/ODC, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways along with a significant reduction in the activation of NFkappaB signaling pathway. Our data suggest that Lupeol can adopt a multi-prong strategy to target multiple signaling pathways leading to induction of apoptosis and inhibition of growth of pancreatic cancer cells. Lupeol could be a potential agent against pancreatic cancer, however, further in-depth in vivo studies are warranted.

  4. Renewing the conspiracy theory debate: does Raf function alone to mediate Ras oncogenesis?

    PubMed

    Repasky, Gretchen A; Chenette, Emily J; Der, Channing J

    2004-11-01

    Ras proteins function as signal transducers and are mutationally activated in many human cancers. In 1993, Raf was identified as a key downstream effector of Ras signaling, and it was believed then that the primary function of Ras was simply to facilitate Raf activation. However, the subsequent discovery of other proteins that are effectors of Ras function suggested that oncogenic activities of Ras are mediated by both Raf-dependent and Raf-independent signaling. Further complexity arose with the identification of Ras effectors with putative tumor suppressor, rather than oncogenic, functions. However, the recent identification of B-raf mutations in human cancers has renewed the debate regarding whether Raf activation alone promotes Ras-mediated oncogenesis. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge of the contribution of Ras effectors in Ras-mediated oncogenesis.

  5. Actin-induced hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, C W; Ayscough, K R

    2006-09-01

    Recent research has revealed a conserved role for the actin cytoskeleton in the regulation of aging and apoptosis among eukaryotes. Here we show that the stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton caused by deletion of Sla1p or End3p leads to hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway. The consequent rise in cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels leads to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell death. We have established a mechanistic link between Ras signaling and actin by demonstrating that ROS production in actin-stabilized cells is dependent on the G-actin binding region of the cyclase-associated protein Srv2p/CAP. Furthermore, the artificial elevation of cAMP directly mimics the apoptotic phenotypes displayed by actin-stabilized cells. The effect of cAMP elevation in inducing actin-mediated apoptosis functions primarily through the Tpk3p subunit of protein kinase A. This pathway represents the first defined link between environmental sensing, actin remodeling, and apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. A Small Ras-like protein Ray/Rab1c modulates the p53-regulating activity of PRPK

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Yasuhito . E-mail: yasuhito@m.ehime-u.ac.jp; Takeuchi, Takashi; Imai, Yoshinori; Murase, Ryuichi; Kamei, Yoshiaki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Matsumoto, Suguru; Ueda, Norifumi; Kito, Katsumi; Ogasawara, Masahito; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-05-26

    PRPK phosphorylates serine-15 residue of p53 and enhances transcriptional activity. PRPK possesses a bipartite nuclear localization signal and localizes in nucleus when over-expressed in cells. However, intrinsic PRPK localizes mainly in the cytosol in situ. While studying the mechanisms in the distribution of intrinsic PRPK, we identified a PRPK binding protein, an ubiquitously expressed Small Ras-like GTPase, Rab1c, also named Ray or Rab35. The over-expressed Ray was distributed in the nucleus, cytosol, and cell membrane. Both Ray wild type and GTP-restrictively binding mutant Ray-Q67L, but not guanine nucleotide unstable binding mutant Ray-N120I, partially distributed the over-expressed PRPK to the cytosol and also suppressed the PRPK-induced p53-transcriptional activity profoundly. A Small Ras-like GTPase protein Ray was thus indicated to modulate p53 transcriptional activity of PRPK.

  7. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a novel human GAP (GAP1M), GTPase-activating protein of Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaowei; Nakamura, Shun; Hattori, Seisuke

    1996-08-01

    We have previously isolated a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP), Gapl{sup m}, from rat brain. Gap1{sup m} is considered to be a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathways, like other Ras GAPs, neurofibromin, which is a gene product of the neurofibromatosis type I gene, and p120GAP. In this study we have isolated a human cDNA of this Gap and mapped the gene. The gene encodes a protein of 853 amino acids that shows 89% sequence identity to rat Gapl{sup m}. The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 by PCR analysis on a panel of human-mouse hybrid cells. FISH analysis refined the location of the gene further to 3q22-q23. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Involvement of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathway in the regulation of ERCC-1 mRNA levels by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwon, W; Park, D; Bernier, M

    1998-01-01

    Expression of DNA repair enzymes, which includes ERCC-1, might be under the control of hormonal and growth factor stimulation. In the present study it was observed that insulin increased ERCC-1 mRNA levels both in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human insulin receptors (HIRc cells) and in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the increase in ERCC-1 gene expression in HIRc cells, we used a variety of pharmacological tools known to inhibit distinct signalling pathways. None of these inhibitors affected the amount of ERCC-1 mRNA in unstimulated cells. The pretreatment of cells with two chemically unrelated phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, failed to block the doubling of ERCC-1 mRNA content by insulin. Similarly, inhibition of pp70 S6 kinase by rapamycin had no apparent effects on this insulin response. In contrast, altering the p21(ras)-dependent pathway with either manumycin, an inhibitor of Ras farnesylation, or PD98059, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase, suppressed the induction of ERCC-1 mRNA by insulin (P<0.001). Furthermore inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis negatively regulated the expression of this insulin-regulated gene (P<0.005). These results suggest that insulin enhances ERCC-1 mRNA levels by the activation of the Ras-ERK-dependent pathway without the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/pp70 S6 kinase. PMID:9531502

  9. Classic Ras Proteins Promote Proliferation and Survival Via Distinct Phosphoproteome Alterations in Neurofibromin-Null Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brossier, Nicole M.; Prechtl, Amanda M.; Longo, Jody Fromm; Barnes, Stephen; Wilson, Landon S.; Byer, Stephanie J.; Brosius, Stephanie N.; Carroll, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromin, the tumor suppressor encoded by the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene, potentially suppresses the activation of H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras. However, it is not known whether these classic Ras proteins are hyperactivated in NF1-null nerve sheath tumors, how they contribute to tumorigenesis and what signaling pathways mediate their effects. Here we show that H-Ras, N-Ras and K-Ras are coexpressed with their activators, (guanine nucleotide exchange factors), in neurofibromin-null malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) cells and that all 3 Ras proteins are activated. Dominant negative (DN) H-Ras, a pan-inhibitor of the classic Ras family, inhibited MPNST proliferation and survival, but not migration. However, NF1-null MPNST cells were variably dependent on individual Ras proteins. In some lines, ablation of H-Ras, N-Ras and/or K-Ras inhibited mitogenesis. In others, ablation of a single Ras protein had no effect on proliferation; in these lines, ablation of a single Ras protein resulted in compensatory increases in the activation and/or expression of other Ras proteins. Using mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, we identified 7 signaling networks affecting morphology, proliferation and survival that are regulated by DN H-Ras. Thus, neurofibromin loss activates multiple classic Ras proteins that promote proliferation and survival by regulating several distinct signaling cascades. PMID:25946318

  10. Small G-protein Signaling in Neuronal Plasticity and Memory Formation: the Specific Role of Ras Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaojing; Carew, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Small G-proteins are an extensive family of proteins that bind and hydrolyze GTP. They are ubiquitous inside cells, regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Recently, many studies have examined the role of small G-proteins, particularly the Ras family of G-proteins, in memory formation. Once thought to be primarily involved in the transduction of a variety of extracellular signals during development, it is now clear that Ras family proteins also play critical roles in molecular processing underlying neuronal and behavioral plasticity. We here review a number of recent studies that explore how the signaling of Ras family proteins contributes to memory formation. Understanding these signaling processes is of fundamental importance both from a basic scientific perspective, with the goal of providing mechanistic insights into a critical aspect of cognitive behavior, and from a clinical perspective, with the goal of providing effective therapies for a range of disorders involving cognitive impairments. PMID:21040840

  11. Ocular albinism type 1-induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun; Xie, Xin; Lei, Yun; An, Gaili; He, Li; Lv, Xiaopeng

    2014-07-01

    Malignant melanoma has the highest risk of mortality among all types of skin cancer due to its highly metastatic potential. The ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) protein is a pigment cell‑specific glycoprotein, which shares significant structural and functional features with G protein‑coupled receptors. However, the role of OA1 in melanoma has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration. OA1 was found to stimulate cell migration in a dose‑dependent manner in cultured human melanoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of OA1 using small interfering RNA was observed to significantly inhibit melanoma cell migration. In addition, the mechanism underlying OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration was investigated. Stimulation of the RAS/RAF/mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) pathway using growth factors enhanced OA1 expression and melanoma cell migration, whereas inhibition of this pathway using U0126 was observed to markedly decrease OA1 expression and the number of migrated cells. These findings indicate that OA1 is involved in melanoma cell migration and that OA1‑induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Therefore, OA1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for melanoma.

  12. Regulation of the Notch target gene Hes-1 by TGF{alpha} induced Ras/MAPK signaling in human neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stockhausen, Marie-Therese; Sjoelund, Jonas; Axelson, Hakan . E-mail: hakan.axelson@molmed.mas.lu.se

    2005-10-15

    Ras and Notch signaling have recently been shown to cooperate in the maintenance of neoplastic transformation. Here, we show that TGF{alpha}, a known activator of Ras signaling, can drive cell proliferation and at the same time induce the expression of the Notch target Hes-1 in the neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2)c. The up-regulation of Hes-1 occurred both at the transcriptional and protein levels and by use of EGFR and MEK inhibitors we could show that the Hes-1 response was dependent on activation of the MAP kinase ERK. Blocking Notch activation by {gamma}-secretase inhibition did not profoundly affect the Hes-1 levels, neither in untreated nor in TGF{alpha} treated cells. The up-regulation of Hes-1 was associated with down-regulation of its pro-neuronal target gene Hash-1. Taken together, these results show that TGF{alpha} is a potent mitogen of neuroblastoma cells and suggest a connection between activation of ERK and Hes-1, thus providing a link between the Ras and Notch signaling pathways.

  13. Dissection of Ras-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Aggressive Tumor Growth of Human Fibrosarcoma Cells: Evidence for a Potential Novel Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Plattner, Rina; Der, Channing J.; Stanbridge, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Activation of multiple signaling pathways is required to trigger the full spectrum of in vitro and in vivo phenotypic traits associated with neoplastic transformation by oncogenic Ras. To determine which of these pathways are important for N-ras tumorigenesis in human cancer cells and also to investigate the possibility of cross talk among the pathways, we have utilized a human fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080), which contains an endogenous mutated allele of the N-ras gene, and its derivative (MCH603c8), which lacks the mutant N-ras allele. We have stably transfected MCH603c8 and HT1080 cells with activating or dominant-negative mutant cDNAs, respectively, of various components of the Raf, Rac, and RhoA pathways. In previous studies with these cell lines we showed that loss of mutant Ras function results in dramatic changes in the in vitro phenotypic traits and conversion to a weakly tumorigenic phenotype in vivo. We report here that only overexpression of activated MEK contributed significantly to the conversion of MCH603c8 cells to an aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that blocking the constitutive activation of the Raf-MEK, Rac, or RhoA pathway alone is not sufficient to block the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype of HT1080, despite affecting a number of in vitro-transformed phenotypic traits. We have also demonstrated the possibility of bidirectional cross talk between the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway and the Rac-JNK or RhoA pathway. Finally, overexpression of activated MEK in MCH603c8 cells appears to result in the activation of an as-yet-unidentified target(s) that is critical for the aggressive tumorigenic phenotype. PMID:11094080

  14. ASPP2 Is a Novel Pan-Ras Nanocluster Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Posada, Itziar M. D.; Serulla, Marc; Zhou, Yong; Oetken-Lindholm, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Ras-induced senescence mediated through ASPP2 represents a barrier to tumour formation. It is initiated by ASPP2’s interaction with Ras at the plasma membrane, which stimulates the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Ras to Raf signalling requires Ras to be organized in nanoscale signalling complexes, called nanocluster. We therefore wanted to investigate whether ASPP2 affects Ras nanoclustering. Here we show that ASPP2 increases the nanoscale clustering of all oncogenic Ras isoforms, H-ras, K-ras and N-ras. Structure-function analysis with ASPP2 truncation mutants suggests that the nanocluster scaffolding activity of ASPP2 converges on its α-helical domain. While ASPP2 increased effector recruitment and stimulated ERK and AKT phosphorylation, it did not increase colony formation of RasG12V transformed NIH/3T3 cells. By contrast, ASPP2 was able to suppress the transformation enhancing ability of the nanocluster scaffold Gal-1, by competing with the specific effect of Gal-1 on H-rasG12V- and K-rasG12V-nanoclustering, thus imposing ASPP2’s ERK and AKT signalling signature. Similarly, ASPP2 robustly induced senescence and strongly abrogated mammosphere formation irrespective of whether it was expressed alone or together with Gal-1, which by itself showed the opposite effect in Ras wt or H-ras mutant breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that Gal-1 and ASPP2 functionally compete in nanocluster for active Ras on the plasma membrane. ASPP2 dominates the biological outcome, thus switching from a Gal-1 supported growth-promoting setting to a senescence inducing and stemness suppressive program in cancer cells. Our results support Ras nanocluster as major integrators of tumour fate decision events. PMID:27437940

  15. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  16. Active Erk Regulates Microtubule Stability in H-ras-Transformed Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Rene E; Turley, Eva A

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that activated erk regulates cell functions, at least in part, by mechanisms that do not require gene transcription. Here we show that the map kinase, erk, decorates microtubules (MTs) and mitotic spindles in both parental and mutant active rastransfected 10T1/2 fibroblasts and MCF10A breast epithelial cells. Approximately 20% of total cellular erk decorated MTs in both cell lines. A greater proportion of activated erk was associated with MTs in the presence of mutant active H-ras than in parental cells. Activation of erk by the ras pathway coincided with a decrease in the stability of MT, as detected by a stability marker. The MKK1 inhibitor, PD98059 and transfection of a dominant negative MKK1 blocked ras-induced instability of MTs but did not modify the association of erk with MTs or affect MT stability of the parental cells. These results indicate that the subset of active erk kinase that associates with MTs contributes to their instability in the presence of a mutant active ras. The MT-associated subset of active erk likely contributes to the enhanced invasive and proliferative abilities of cells containing mutant active H-ras. PMID:11687949

  17. G-CSF improves CUMS-induced depressive behaviors through downregulating Ras/ERK/MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Linjuan-Li; Wang, Yaping

    2016-10-28

    Neuronal plasticity in hippocampal neurons is closely related to memory, mood and behavior as well as in the development of depression. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can promote neuronal plasticity and enhance motor skills. However, the function of G-CSF in depression remains poorly understood. In this study, we explored the biological role and potential molecular mechanism of G-CSF on depression-like behaviors. Our results showed that G-CSF was significantly downregulated in the hippocampus of chronic unexpected mild stress (CUMS) rats. Administration of G-CSF significantly reversed CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors in the open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, G-CSF upregulated the expression of synaptic-associated proteins including polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), synaptophysin (SYN), and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus and G-CSF significantly increased cell viability rate of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Further studies indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (Ras)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways was involved in the regulation of G-CSF on depressive-like behaviors and neuronal plasticity in CUMS rats. Taken together, our results showed that G-CSF improves depression-like behaviors via inhibiting Ras/ERK/MAPK signaling pathways. Our study suggests that G-CSF may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of depression.

  18. Farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 inhibits breast cell invasion and migration by blocking H-Ras activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hun; Koh, Minsoo; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactive Ras promotes proliferation and malignant phenotypic conversion of cells in cancer. Ras protein must be associated with cellular membranes for its oncogenic activities through post-translational modifications, including farnesylation. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) is essential for H-Ras membrane targeting, and H-Ras, but not N-Ras, has been demonstrated to cause an invasive phenotype in MCF10A breast epithelial cells. In the present study, it was observed that an FTase inhibitor (FTI), FTI-277, blocked epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced H-Ras activation, but not N-Ras activation in MDA-MB-231 cells, which express wild-type H-Ras and N-Ras. FTI-277 exerted a more potent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of H-Ras-MCF10A cells and Hs578T breast cancer cells expressing an active mutant of H-Ras than that of MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasive/migratory phenotypes of the H-Ras-MCF10A and Hs578T cells were effectively inhibited by FTI-277 treatment. By contrast, FTI-277 did not affect the invasive/migratory phenotypes of MDA-MB-231 cells. However, the EGF-induced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells was decreased by FTI-277, implicating that FTI-277 inhibits breast cell invasion and migration by blocking H-Ras activation. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that FTase inhibition by FTI-277 may be an effective strategy for targeting H-Ras-mediated proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cells. PMID:27602167

  19. Negative regulation of p120GAP GTPase promoting activity by p210bcr/abl: implication for RAS-dependent Philadelphia chromosome positive cell growth

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The p210bcr/abl tyrosine kinase appears to be responsible for initiating and maintaining the leukemic phenotype in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. p21ras-p120GAP interactions play a central role in transducing mitogenic signals. Therefore, we investigated whether p21ras and p120GAP are regulated by p210bcr/abl, and whether this activation is functionally significant for CML cell proliferation. We report that transient expression of p210bcr/abl in fibroblast-like cells induces simultaneous activation of p21ras and inhibition of GTPase-promoting activity of p120GAP, and confirm these data showing that downregulation of p210bcr/abl expression in CML cells with bcr/abl antisense oligodeoxynucleotides induces both inhibition of p21ras activation and stimulation of GTPase-promoting activity of p120GAP. Tyrosine phosphorylation of two p120GAP-associated proteins, p190 and p62, which may affect p120GAP activity, also depends on p210bcr/abl tyrosine kinase expression. Direct dependence of these effects on the kinase activity is proven in experiments in which expression of c-MYB protein in fibroblast-like cells or downregulation of c-MYB expression resulting in analogous inhibition of CML cell proliferation does not result in the same changes. Use of specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to downregulate p21ras expression revealed a requirement for functional p21ras in the proliferation of Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML primary cells. Thus, the p210bcr/abl-dependent regulation of p120GAP activity is responsible, in part, for the maintenance of p21ras in the active GTP-bound form, a crucial requirement for CML cell proliferation. PMID:8195713

  20. Activation of ras oncogene in aflatoxin-induced rat liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, S; Webber, C; Marshall, C J; Knowles, M A; Proctor, A; Barrass, N C; Neal, G E

    1988-01-01

    The presence of activated transforming genes was investigated in four primary aflatoxin-induced rat liver tumors in male Fischer rats, in two cell lines generated from such tumors, in an epithelial liver-derived nontransformed cell line, and in the latter cell line after transformation by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. When DNA extracted from these sources was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells, negative results were obtained from focus assays. Cotransfection of these DNA samples with a gene for resistance to G418, followed by selection for resistance to that antibiotic, and tumorigenicity testing in nude mice demonstrated DNA-mediated transfer of the neoplastic phenotype in all cases except for DNA from the nontransformed cell line. DNA extracted from these primary nude mouse tumors used in a secondary round of transfection with NIH 3T3 cells gave positive results in focus assays, which were conserved through succeeding rounds of transfection. By use of appropriate radiolabeled probes, activated ras oncogenes were detected in all samples. N-ras activation was detected in three of the primary rat liver tumors and both hepatoma cell lines. Ki-ras activation was detected in one primary rat liver tumor, and Ha-ras activation was detected in the cell line transformed in vitro with activated aflatoxin B1. The activated Ki-ras oncogene was further characterized by use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes and was shown to contain a G----A transition at the second nucleotide in codon 12. Images PMID:3287372

  1. Human iPS Cell-Derived Neurons Uncover the Impact of Increased Ras Signaling in Costello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Gemma E.; Goodwin, Alice F.; Depeille, Philippe; Sharir, Amnon; Schofield, Claude M.; Yeh, Erika; Roose, Jeroen P.; Klein, Ophir D.; Rauen, Katherine A.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates abnormal Ras signaling as a major contributor in neurodevelopmental disorders, yet how such signaling causes cortical pathogenesis is unknown. We examined the consequences of aberrant Ras signaling in the developing mouse brain and uncovered several critical phenotypes, including increased production of cortical neurons and morphological deficits. To determine whether these phenotypes are recapitulated in humans, we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines from patients with Costello syndrome (CS), a developmental disorder caused by abnormal Ras signaling and characterized by neurodevelopmental abnormalities, such as cognitive impairment and autism. Directed differentiation toward a neuroectodermal fate revealed an extended progenitor phase and subsequent increased production of cortical neurons. Morphological analysis of mature neurons revealed significantly altered neurite length and soma size in CS patients. This study demonstrates the synergy between mouse and human models and validates the use of iPS cells as a platform to study the underlying cellular pathologies resulting from signaling deficits. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Increasing evidence implicates Ras signaling dysfunction as a major contributor in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as cognitive impairment and autism, but the underlying cortical cellular pathogenesis remains unclear. This study is the first to reveal human neuronal pathogenesis resulting from abnormal Ras signaling and provides insights into how these phenotypic abnormalities likely contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. We also demonstrate the synergy between mouse and human models, thereby validating the use of iPS cells as a platform to study underlying cellular pathologies resulting from signaling deficits. Recapitulating human cellular pathologies in vitro facilitates the future high throughput screening of potential therapeutic agents that may reverse phenotypic and

  2. CD99 triggering induces methuosis of Ewing sarcoma cells through IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Manara, Maria Cristina; Terracciano, Mario; Mancarella, Caterina; Sciandra, Marika; Guerzoni, Clara; Pasello, Michela; Grilli, Andrea; Zini, Nicoletta; Picci, Piero; Colombo, Mario P.; Morrione, Andrea; Scotlandi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    CD99 is a cell surface molecule that has emerged as a novel target for Ewing sarcoma (EWS), an aggressive pediatric bone cancer. This report provides the first evidence of methuosis in EWS, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by an antibody directed against the CD99 molecule. Upon mAb triggering, CD99 induces an IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 complex, which is internalized into RAB5-positive endocytic vacuoles. This complex is then dissociated, with the IGF-1R recycling to the cell membrane while CD99 and RAS/Rac1 are sorted into immature LAMP-1-positive vacuoles, whose excessive accumulation provokes methuosis. This process, which is not detected in CD99-expressing normal mesenchymal cells, is inhibited by disruption of the IGF-1R signaling, whereas enhanced by IGF-1 stimulation. Induction of IGF-1R/RAS/Rac1 was also observed in the EWS xenografts that respond to anti-CD99 mAb, further supporting the role of the IGF/RAS/Rac1 axis in the hyperstimulation of macropinocytosis and selective death of EWS cells. Thus, we describe a vulnerability of EWS cells, including those resistant to standard chemotherapy, to a treatment with anti-CD99 mAb, which requires IGF-1R/RAS signaling but bypasses the need for their direct targeting. Overall, we propose CD99 targeting as new opportunity to treat EWS patients resistant to canonical apoptosis-inducing agents. PMID:27835596

  3. Shengmai Formula suppressed over-activated Ras/MAPK pathway in C. elegans by opening mitochondrial permeability transition pore via regulating cyclophilin D

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Zhi, Dejuan; Li, Menghui; Liu, Dongling; Wang, Xin; Wu, Zhengrong; Zhang, Zhanxin; Fei, Dongqing; Li, Yang; Zhu, Hongmei; Xie, Qingjian; Yang, Hui; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Since about 30% of all human cancers contain mutationally activated Ras, down regulating the over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway represents a viable approach for treating cancers. Over-activation of Ras/MAPK pathway is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One approach for developing anti-cancer drugs is to target ROS production and their accumulation. To test this idea, we have employed C. elegans of let-60 (gf) mutant, which contain over-activated let-60 (the homolog of mammalian ras) and exhibit tumor-like symptom of multivulva phenotype, to determine whether anti-oxidants can affect their tumor-like phenotype. Specifically we studied the effect of Shengmai formula (SM), a traditional Chinese medicine that has strong anti-oxidant activity, on the physiology of let-60 (gf) mutants. Unexpectedly, we found that SM treatment led to the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore by regulating cyclophilin D and then triggered oxidative stress and related signaling pathway activation, including p53, JNK, and p38/MAPK pathways. Finally, SM induced mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis and inhibited the tumor-like symptom of the multivulva phenotype of let-60(gf) mutants. Our results provide evidences to support that SM act as a pro-oxidant agent and could serve as a potential drug candidate for combating over-activated Ras-related cancer. PMID:27982058

  4. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  5. Consequences of RAS and MAPK activation in the ovary: the good, the bad and the ugly.

    PubMed

    Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Mullany, Lisa K; Richards, JoAnne S

    2012-06-05

    This review summarizes studies providing evidence (1) that endogenous RAS activation regulates important physiological events during ovulation and luteinization (2) that expression of the mutant, active KRAS(G12D) in granulosa cells in vivo causes abnormal follicle growth arrest leading to premature ovarian failure and (3) that KRAS(G12D) expression in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells renders them susceptible to the pathological outcome of transformation and tumor formation. These diverse effects of RAS highlight how critical its activation is linked to cell- and stage-specific events in the ovary that control normal processes and that can also lead to altered granulosa cell and OSE cell fates.

  6. Expression of an activated rasD gene changes cell fate decisions during Dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Louis, S A; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    1997-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that the expression of an activated rasD gene in wild-type Dictyostelium cells results in formation of aggregates with multitips, instead of the normal single tips, and a block in further development. In an attempt to better understand the role of activated RasD development, we examined cell-type-specific gene expression in a strain stably expressing high levels of RasD[G12T]. We found that the expression of prestalk cell-specific genes ecmA and tagB was markedly enhanced, whereas the expression of the prespore cell-specific gene cotC was reduced to very low levels. When the fate of cells in the multitipped aggregate was monitored with an ecmA/lacZ fusion, it appeared that most of the cells eventually adopted prestalk gene expression characteristics. When mixtures of the [G12T]rasD cells and Ax3 cells were induced to differentiate, chimeric pseudoplasmodia were not formed. Thus, although the [G12T]rasD transformant had a marked propensity to form prestalk cells, it could not supply the prestalk cell population when mixed with wild-type cells. Both stalk and spore cell formation occurred in low cell density monolayers of the [G12T]rasD strain, suggesting that at least part of the inhibition of stalk and spore formation during multicellular development involved inhibitory cell interactions within the cell mass. Models for the possible role of rasD in development are discussed.

  7. Modification and activation of Ras proteins by electrophilic prostanoids with different structure are site-selective.

    PubMed

    Renedo, Marta; Gayarre, Javier; García-Domínguez, Carlota A; Pérez-Rodríguez, Andrea; Prieto, Alicia; Cañada, F Javier; Rojas, José M; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2007-06-05

    Cyclopentenone prostanoids (cyP) arise as important modulators of inflammation and cell proliferation. Although their physiological significance has not been fully elucidated, their potent biological effects have spurred their study as leads for the development of therapeutic agents. A key determinant of cyP action is their ability to bind to thiol groups in proteins or in glutathione through Michael addition. Even though several protein targets for cyP addition have been identified, little is known about the structural determinants from the protein or the cyP that drive this modification. The results herein presented provide the first evidence that cyP with different structures target distinct thiol sites in a protein molecule, namely, H-Ras. Whereas 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and Delta12-PGJ2 preferentially target the C-terminal region containing cysteines 181 and 184, PGA1 and 8-iso-PGA1 bind mainly to cysteine 118, located in the GTP-binding motif. The biological counterparts of this specificity are the site-selective modification and activation of H-Ras in cells and the differential interaction of cyP with H, N, and K-Ras proteins. Cysteine 184 is unique to H-Ras, whereas cysteine 118 is present in the three Ras homologues. Consistent with this, PGA1 binds to and activates H-, N-, and K-Ras, thus differing from the preferential interaction of 15d-PGJ2 with H-Ras. These results put forward the possibility of influencing the selectivity of cyP-protein addition by modifying cyP structure. Furthermore, they may open new avenues for the development of cyP-based drugs.

  8. Activation of H-ras oncogene in 3-methylcholanthrene-transformed human cell line.

    PubMed

    Rhim, J S; Fujita, J; Park, J B

    1987-08-01

    DNA prepared from the 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)-transformed human 312H cell line induced foci on NIH/3T3 cells, whereas DNAs prepared from 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene-transformed and the dimethylsulfoxide control 312H cell lines failed to induce foci. The transformed gene from the 3MC-transformed 312H cells was identified as an activated form of the human cellular transforming H-ras oncogene. Analysis of the ras oncogene p21 product in this transformant by immunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis suggested that this gene was activated by mutation in the 61st codon. These findings demonstrate that activation of a member of the ras gene family can occur in a chemically transformed human cell line.

  9. ARIA/HRG regulates AChR epsilon subunit gene expression at the neuromuscular synapse via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Ras/MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    AChR-inducing activity (ARIA)/heregulin, a ligand for erbB receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), is likely to be one nerve-supplied signal that induces expression of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) genes at the developing neuromuscular junction. Since some RTKs act through Ras and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), we investigated the role of these pathways in ARIA signaling. Expression of activated Ras or Raf mimicked ARIA-induction of AChR epsilon subunit genes in muscle cells; whereas dominant negative Ras or Raf blocked the effect of ARIA. ARIA rapidly activated erk1 and erk2 and inhibition of both erks also abolished the effect of ARIA. ARIA stimulated association of PI3K with erbB3, expression of an activated PI3K led to ARIA-independent AChR epsilon subunit expression, and inhibition of PI3K abolished the action of ARIA. Thus, synaptic induction of AChR genes requires activation of both Ras/MAPK and PI3K signal transduction pathways. PMID:8707830

  10. Synthesis, biological, and biophysical studies of DAG-indololactones designed as selective activators of RasGRP.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Lia C; Donadío, Lucia Gandolfi; Mann, Ella; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E; Hill, Colin S; Kelsey, Jessica S; Yang, Jing; Esch, Timothy E; Santos, Marina; Peach, Megan L; Kelley, James A; Blumberg, Peter M; Jelinek, Raz; Marquez, Victor E; Comin, Maria J

    2014-06-15

    The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC. Here we present the synthesis, binding studies, cellular assays and biophysical analysis of interactions with model membranes of a family of regioisomers of 1 (compounds 2-5) that differ in the position of the linkage between the indole ring and the lactone moiety. These structural variations were studied to explore the interaction of the active complex (C1 domain-ligand) with cellular membranes, which is believed to be an important factor for selectivity in the activation of DAG-responsive C1 domain containing signaling proteins. All compounds were potent and selective activators of RasGRP when compared to PKCα with selectivities ranging from 6 to 65 fold. However, the parent compound 1 was appreciably more selective than any of the other isomers. In intact cells, modest differences in the patterns of translocation of the C1 domain targets were observed. Biophysical studies using giant vesicles as model membranes did show substantial differences in terms of molecular interactions impacting lipid organization, dynamics and membrane insertion. However, these differences did not yield correspondingly large changes in patterns of biological response, at least for the parameters examined.

  11. Synthesis, Biological, and Biophysical Studies of DAG-indololactones Designed as Selective Activators of RasGRP

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Lia C.; Donadío, Lucia Gandolfi; Mann, Ella; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Kedei, Noemi; Lewin, Nancy E.; Hill, Colin S.; Kelsey, Jessica S.; Yang, Jing; Esch, Timothy E.; Santos, Marina; Peach, Megan L.; Kelley, James A.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Jelinek, Raz; Marquez, Victor E.; Comin, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of selective agents capable of discriminating between protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and other diacylglycerol (DAG)-responsive C1 domain-containing proteins represents an important challenge. Recent studies have highlighted the role that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein (RasGRP) isoforms play both in immune responses as well as in the development of prostate cancer and melanoma, suggesting that the discovery of selective ligands could have potential therapeutic value. Thus far, the N-methyl-substituted indololactone 1 is the agonist with the highest reported potency and selectivity for RasGRP relative to PKC. Here we present the synthesis, binding studies, cellular assays and biophysical analysis of interactions with model membranes of a family of regioisomers of 1 (compounds 2 to 5) that differ in the position of the linkage between the indole ring and the lactone moiety. These structural variations were studied to explore the interaction of the active complex (C1 domain-ligand) with cellular membranes, which is believed to be an important factor for selectivity in the activation of DAG-responsive C1 domain containing signaling proteins. All compounds were potent and selective activators of RasGRP when compared to PKCα with selectivities ranging from 6 to 65 fold. However, the parent compound 1 was appreciably more selective than any of the other isomers. In intact cells, modest differences in the patterns of translocation of the C1 domain targets were observed. Biophysical studies using giant vesicles as model membranes did show substantial differences in terms of molecular interactions impacting lipid organization, dynamics and membrane insertion. However, these differences did not yield correspondingly large changes in patterns of biological response, at least for the parameters examined. PMID:24794745

  12. Severe craniosynostosis with Noonan syndrome phenotype associated with SHOC2 mutation: clinical evidence of crosslink between FGFR and RAS signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Miwa, Tomoru; Torii, Chiharu; Kosaki, Rika; Kishi, Kazuo; Takahashi, Takao; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2014-11-01

    Dysregulation in the RAS signaling cascade results in a family of malformation syndromes called RASopathies. Meanwhile, alterations in FGFR signaling cascade are responsible for various syndromic forms of craniosynostosis. In general, the phenotypic spectra of RASopathies and craniosynostosis syndromes do not overlap. Recently, however, mutations in ERF, a downstream molecule of the RAS signaling cascade, have been identified as a cause of complex craniosynostosis, suggesting that the RAS and FGFR signaling pathways can interact in the pathogenesis of malformation syndromes. Here, we document a boy with short stature, developmental delay, and severe craniosynostosis involving right coronal, bilateral lambdoid, and sagittal sutures with a de novo mutation in exon1 of SHOC2 (c.4A>G p.Ser2Gly). This observation further supports the existence of a crosslink between the RAS signaling cascade and craniosynostosis. In retrospect, the propositus had physical features suggestive of a dysregulated RAS signaling cascade, such as fetal pleural effusion, fetal hydrops, and atrial tachycardia. In addition to an abnormal cranial shape, which has been reported for this specific mutation, craniosynostosis might be a novel associated phenotype. In conclusion, the phenotypic combination of severe craniosynostosis and RASopathy features observed in the propositus suggests an interaction between the RAS and FGFR signaling cascades. Patients with craniosynostosis in combination with any RASopathy feature may require mutation screening for molecules in the FGFR-RAS signaling cascade.

  13. Identification of guanine exchange factor key residues involved in exchange activity and Ras interaction.

    PubMed

    Camus, C; Hermann-Le Denmat, S; Jacquet, M

    1995-09-07

    We have carried out a functional analysis of the human HGRF55 exchange factor in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Twelve residues conserved among most of all known guanine exchange factors (GEFs) have been independently changed to alanine. Taking advantage of the ability of Hgrf55p to replace the yeast Cdc25p exchange factor, and using the two-hybrid system with RAS2ala22 allele, we have identified key residues for the interaction with Ras and/or its activation. Substitution of arginine 392 to alanine leads to a complete loss of interaction with Ras, though the protein remains stable. Substitution of Asp266 or Arg359 to alanine results in inactive proteins at 39 degrees C, still able however to interact with Ras. The other charged-to-alanine substitutions led to no detectable phenotype when present alone but most of them dramatically increased the temperature sensitive phenotype observed with [Asp266Ala] substitution. Surprisingly, the cysteine to alanine substitution in the highly conserved PCVPF/Y motif proved to be without effect, suggesting that the sulfhydryl group is not essential for stability or interaction with Ras.

  14. Effects of RAF inhibitors on PI3K/AKT signalling depend on mutational status of the RAS/RAF signalling axis

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche-Guenther, Raphaela; Witzel, Franziska; Kempa, Stefan; Brummer, Tilman; Sers, Christine; Blüthgen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies within the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signalling axis become increasingly popular, yet cross-talk and feedbacks in the signalling network lead to unexpected effects. Here we look systematically into how inhibiting RAF and MEK with clinically relevant inhibitors result in changes in PI3K/AKT activation. We measure the signalling response using a bead-based ELISA, and use a panel of three cell lines, and isogenic cell lines that express mutant forms of the oncogenes KRAS and BRAF to interrogate the effects of the MEK and RAF inhibitors on signalling. We find that treatment with the RAF inhibitors have opposing effects on AKT phosphorylation depending on the mutational status of two important oncogenes, KRAS and BRAF. If these two genes are in wildtype configuration, RAF inhibitors reduce AKT phosphorylation. In contrast, if BRAF or KRAS are mutant, RAF inhibitors will leave AKT phosphorylation unaffected or lead to an increase of AKT phosphorylation. Down-regulation of phospho-AKT by RAF inhibitors also extends to downstream transcription factors, and correlates with apoptosis induction. Our results show that oncogenes rewire signalling such that targeted therapies can have opposing effects on parallel pathways, which depend on the mutational status of the cell. PMID:26799289

  15. Differential Role of gp130-Dependent STAT and Ras Signalling for Haematopoiesis Following Bone-Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kroy, Daniela C.; Hebing, Lisa; Sander, Leif E.; Gassler, Nikolaus; Erschfeld, Stephanie; Sackett, Sara; Galm, Oliver; Trautwein, Christian; Streetz, Konrad L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a complex process regulated by different cytokines and growth factors. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 (Interleukin-6) and related cytokines of the same family acting on the common signal transducer gp130 are known to play a key role in bone marrow (BM) engraftment. In contrast, the exact signalling events that control IL-6/gp130-driven haematopoietic stem cell development during BMT remain unresolved. Methods Conditional gp130 knockout and knockin mice were used to delete gp130 expression (gp130ΔMx), or to selectively disrupt gp130-dependent Ras (gp130ΔMxRas) or STAT signalling (gp130ΔMxSTAT) in BM cells. BM derived from the respective strains was transplanted into irradiated wildtype hosts and repopulation of various haematopoietic lineages was monitored by flow cytometry. Results BM derived from gp130 deficient donor mice (gp130ΔMx) displayed a delayed engraftment, as evidenced by reduced total white blood cells (WBC), marked thrombocytopenia and anaemia in the early phase after BMT. Lineage analysis unravelled a restricted development of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, CD19(+) B-cells and CD11b(+) myeloid cells after transplantation of gp130-deficient BM grafts. To further delineate the two major gp130-induced signalling cascades, Ras-MAPK and STAT1/3-signalling respectively, we used gp130ΔMxRas and gp130ΔMxSTAT donor BM. BMT of gp130ΔMxSTAT cells significantly impaired engraftment of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+) and CD11b(+) cells, whereas gp130ΔMxRas BM displayed a selective impairment in early thrombopoiesis. Importantly, gp130-STAT1/3 signalling deficiency in BM grafts severely impaired survival of transplanted mice, thus demonstrating a pivotal role for this pathway in BM graft survival and function. Conclusion Our data unravel a vital function of IL-6/gp130-STAT1/3 signals for BM engraftment and haematopoiesis, as well as for host survival after transplantation. STAT1/3 and ras-dependent pathways thereby exert

  16. p27kip1 controls H-Ras/MAPK activation and cell cycle entry via modulation of MT stability

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Linda; Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Segatto, Ilenia; D’Andrea, Sara; Armenia, Joshua; Bomben, Riccardo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Gattei, Valter; Philips, Mark R.; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27kip1 is a critical regulator of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle and also regulates microtubule (MT) stability. This latter function is exerted by modulating the activity of stathmin, an MT-destabilizing protein, and by direct binding to MTs. We recently demonstrated that increased proliferation in p27kip1-null mice is reverted by concomitant deletion of stathmin in p27kip1/stathmin double-KO mice, suggesting that a CDK-independent function of p27kip1 contributes to the control of cell proliferation. Whether the regulation of MT stability by p27kip1 impinges on signaling pathway activation and contributes to the decision to enter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that faster cell cycle entry of p27kip1-null cells was impaired by the concomitant deletion of stathmin. Using gene expression profiling coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we show that p27kip1 and stathmin conjunctly control activation of the MAPK pathway. From a molecular point of view, we observed that p27kip1, by controlling MT stability, impinges on H-Ras trafficking and ubiquitination levels, eventually restraining its full activation. Our study identifies a regulatory axis controlling the G1/S-phase transition, relying on the regulation of MT stability by p27kip1 and finely controlling the spatiotemporal activation of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:26512117

  17. p27kip1 controls H-Ras/MAPK activation and cell cycle entry via modulation of MT stability.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Linda; Berton, Stefania; Pellizzari, Ilenia; Segatto, Ilenia; D'Andrea, Sara; Armenia, Joshua; Bomben, Riccardo; Schiappacassi, Monica; Gattei, Valter; Philips, Mark R; Vecchione, Andrea; Belletti, Barbara; Baldassarre, Gustavo

    2015-11-10

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27(kip1) is a critical regulator of the G1/S-phase transition of the cell cycle and also regulates microtubule (MT) stability. This latter function is exerted by modulating the activity of stathmin, an MT-destabilizing protein, and by direct binding to MTs. We recently demonstrated that increased proliferation in p27(kip1)-null mice is reverted by concomitant deletion of stathmin in p27(kip1)/stathmin double-KO mice, suggesting that a CDK-independent function of p27(kip1) contributes to the control of cell proliferation. Whether the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) impinges on signaling pathway activation and contributes to the decision to enter the cell cycle is largely unknown. Here, we report that faster cell cycle entry of p27(kip1)-null cells was impaired by the concomitant deletion of stathmin. Using gene expression profiling coupled with bioinformatic analyses, we show that p27(kip1) and stathmin conjunctly control activation of the MAPK pathway. From a molecular point of view, we observed that p27(kip1), by controlling MT stability, impinges on H-Ras trafficking and ubiquitination levels, eventually restraining its full activation. Our study identifies a regulatory axis controlling the G1/S-phase transition, relying on the regulation of MT stability by p27(kip1) and finely controlling the spatiotemporal activation of the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway.

  18. Ras-induced and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 phosphorylation-dependent isomerization of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST by PIN1 promotes FAK dephosphorylation by PTP-PEST.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhua; Yang, Weiwei; Xia, Yan; Hawke, David; Liu, David X; Lu, Zhimin

    2011-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. However, the mechanism by which PTP-PEST is regulated in response to oncogenic signaling to dephosphorylate its substrates remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that activated Ras induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2-dependent phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at S571, which recruits PIN1 to bind to PTP-PEST. Isomerization of the phosphorylated PTP-PEST by PIN1 increases the interaction between PTP-PEST and FAK, which leads to the dephosphorylation of FAK Y397 and the promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis of v-H-Ras-transformed cells. These findings uncover an important mechanism for the regulation of PTP-PEST in activated Ras-induced tumor progression.

  19. Evolutionary expansion of the Ras switch regulatory module in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Diego; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Ranea, Juan A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Ras proteins control many aspects of eukaryotic cell homeostasis by switching between active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) conformations, a reaction catalyzed by GTPase exchange factors (GEF) and GTPase activating proteins (GAP) regulators, respectively. Here, we show that the complexity, measured as number of genes, of the canonical Ras switch genetic system (including Ras, RasGEF, RasGAP and RapGAP families) from 24 eukaryotic organisms is correlated with their genome size and is inversely correlated to their evolutionary distances from humans. Moreover, different gene subfamilies within the Ras switch have contributed unevenly to the module’s expansion and speciation processes during eukaryote evolution. The Ras system remarkably reduced its genetic expansion after the split of the Euteleostomi clade and presently looks practically crystallized in mammals. Supporting evidence points to gene duplication as the predominant mechanism generating functional diversity in the Ras system, stressing the leading role of gene duplication in the Ras family expansion. Domain fusion and alternative splicing are significant sources of functional diversity in the GAP and GEF families but their contribution is limited in the Ras family. An evolutionary model of the Ras system expansion is proposed suggesting an inherent ‘decision making’ topology with the GEF input signal integrated by a homologous molecular mechanism and bifurcation in GAP signaling propagation. PMID:21447561

  20. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Makdissy, Nehman; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM

  1. Nuclear Ras2-GTP Controls Invasive Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Broggi, Serena; Martegani, Enzo; Colombo, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Using an eGFP-RBD3 probe, which specifically binds Ras-GTP, we recently showed that the fluorescent probe was localized to the plasma membrane and to the nucleus in wild type cells growing exponentially on glucose medium, indicating the presence of active Ras in these cellular compartments. To investigate the nuclear function of Ras-GTP, we generated a strain where Ras2 is fused to the nuclear export signal (NES) from the HIV virus, in order to exclude this protein from the nucleus. Our results show that nuclear active Ras2 is required for invasive growth development in haploid yeast, while the expression of the NES-Ras2 protein does not cause growth defects either on fermentable or non-fermentable carbon sources and does not influence protein kinase A (PKA) activity related phenotypes analysed. Moreover, we show that the cAMP/PKA pathway controls invasive growth influencing the localization of active Ras. In particular, we show that PKA activity plays a role in the localization of active Ras and influences the ability of the cells to invade the agar: high PKA activity leads to a predominant nuclear accumulation of active Ras and induces invasive growth, while low PKA activity leads to plasma membrane localization of active Ras and to a defective invasive growth phenotype. PMID:24244466

  2. Oncogenic Ras pushes (and pulls) cell cycle progression through ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling cascade is capable of channeling a wide variety of extracellular signals into control of cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death. Because aberrant regulation at all steps of this signaling axis is observed in cancer, it remains an area of great interest in the field of tumor biology. Here we present evidence of the intricate and delicate levels of control of this pathway as it pertains to cell cycle regulation and illustrate how this control is not simply a rheostat.

  3. A WXW Motif Is Required for the Anticancer Activity of the TAT-RasGAP317–326 Peptide*

    PubMed Central

    Barras, David; Chevalier, Nadja; Zoete, Vincent; Dempsey, Rosemary; Lapouge, Karine; Olayioye, Monilola A.; Michielin, Olivier; Widmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    TAT-RasGAP317–326, a cell-permeable 10-amino acid-long peptide derived from the N2 fragment of p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis induced by various anticancer therapies. This RasGAP-derived peptide, by targeting the deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1) tumor suppressor, also hampers cell migration and invasion by promoting cell adherence and by inhibiting cell movement. Here, we systematically investigated the role of each amino acid within the RasGAP317–326 sequence for the anticancer activities of TAT-RasGAP317–326. We report here that the first three amino acids of this sequence, tryptophan, methionine, and tryptophan (WMW), are necessary and sufficient to sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and to reduce cell migration. The WMW motif was found to be critical for the binding of fragment N2 to DLC1. These results define the interaction mode between the active anticancer sequence of RasGAP and DLC1. This knowledge will facilitate the design of small molecules bearing the tumor-sensitizing and antimetastatic activities of TAT-RasGAP317–326. PMID:25008324

  4. A WXW motif is required for the anticancer activity of the TAT-RasGAP317-326 peptide.

    PubMed

    Barras, David; Chevalier, Nadja; Zoete, Vincent; Dempsey, Rosemary; Lapouge, Karine; Olayioye, Monilola A; Michielin, Olivier; Widmann, Christian

    2014-08-22

    TAT-RasGAP317-326, a cell-permeable 10-amino acid-long peptide derived from the N2 fragment of p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis induced by various anticancer therapies. This RasGAP-derived peptide, by targeting the deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1) tumor suppressor, also hampers cell migration and invasion by promoting cell adherence and by inhibiting cell movement. Here, we systematically investigated the role of each amino acid within the RasGAP317-326 sequence for the anticancer activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326. We report here that the first three amino acids of this sequence, tryptophan, methionine, and tryptophan (WMW), are necessary and sufficient to sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and to reduce cell migration. The WMW motif was found to be critical for the binding of fragment N2 to DLC1. These results define the interaction mode between the active anticancer sequence of RasGAP and DLC1. This knowledge will facilitate the design of small molecules bearing the tumor-sensitizing and antimetastatic activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326.

  5. Effects of butyltins on mitogen-activated-protein kinase kinase kinase and Ras activity in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-09-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 min of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after 1 h exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT affect the regulation of c-Raf.

  6. NF1 regulation of RAS/ERK signaling is required for appropriate granule neuron progenitor expansion and migration in cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Cho, Woosung; Nazarenko, Inga; Mo, Wei; Chen, Jian; Parada, Luis F

    2014-11-01

    Cerebellar development is regulated by a coordinated spatiotemporal interplay between granule neuron progenitors (GNPs), Purkinje neurons, and glia. Abnormal development can trigger motor deficits, and more recent data indicate important roles in aspects of memory, behavior, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Germline mutation in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene underlies Neurofibromatosis type 1, a complex disease that enhances susceptibility to certain cancers and neurological disorders, including intellectual deficits and ASD. The NF1 gene encodes for neurofibromin, a RAS GTPase-activating protein, and thus negatively regulates the RAS signaling pathway. Here, using mouse models to direct conditional NF1 ablation in either embryonic cerebellar progenitors or neonatal GNPs, we show that neurofibromin is required for appropriate development of cerebellar folia layering and structure. Remarkably, neonatal administration of inhibitors of the ERK pathway reversed the morphological defects. Thus, our findings establish a critical cell-autonomous role for the NF1-RAS-ERK pathway in the appropriate regulation of cerebellar development and provide a basis for using neonatal ERK inhibitor-based therapies to treat NF1-induced cerebellar disorders.

  7. Signal Activation and Inactivation by the Gα Helical Domain: A Long-Neglected Partner in G Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dohlman, Henrik G.; Jones, Janice C.

    2013-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding proteins (G proteins) are positioned at the top of many signal transduction pathways. The G protein α subunit is composed of two domains, one that resembles Ras and another that is composed entirely of α helices. Historically, most attention has focused on the Ras-like domain, but emerging evidence reveals that the helical domain is an active participant in G protein signaling. PMID:22649098

  8. Novel Gbeta Mimic Kelch Proteins (Gpb1 and Gpb2 Connect G-Protein Signaling to Ras via Yeast Neurofibromin Homologs Ira1 and Ira2: A Model for Human NF1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    the level of pigmentation produced following 2 or 4 days incubation compared to the isogenic wild type strains and mutants with defects in the enzyme...coupling, Gpb1/2 serve as potent molecular brakes to constrain signaling via the PKA signaling pathway during both vegetative growth and dimorphic...In ad- dition to regulating Ras activity, neurofibromin also gov- erns G protein-mediated adenylyl cyclase activity in the fruit fly Drosophila

  9. Metastatic potential of cloned murine melanoma cells transfected with activated c-Ha-ras.

    PubMed

    Price, J E; Aukerman, S L; Ananthaswamy, H N; McIntyre, B W; Schackert, G; Schackert, H K; Fidler, I J

    1989-08-01

    We sought to determine whether the transfection of tumorigenic but not metastatic cells with the activated c-Ha-ras oncogene was invariably associated with acquisition of the metastatic phenotype. Three clonally derived lines of the K-1735 murine melanoma, characterized as nonmetastatic or poorly metastatic, were transfected with plasmids containing the 6.6-kilobase BamHI fragment of the mutant human c-Ha-ras gene and the neo gene, that confers resistance to neomycin (pSV2neoEJ). Cells transfected with pSV2neo, a plasmid containing the neo gene, served as controls for the procedure of Polybrene-mediated transfection. All cell lines were injected into syngeneic C3H/HeN and into athymic mice, and the results were compared with those produced by highly metastatic K-1735 M-2 cells. Although the pSV2neoEJ-transfected cells produced more rapidly growing s.c. tumors than the control cell lines did, the incidence of spontaneous metastasis was not increased. Following i.v. inoculation, the c-Ha-ras transfectants were retained in lung vasculature in greater proportions than pSV2neo counterpart transfectants were. The c-Ha-ras transfectants also produced significantly more lung tumor colonies, which grew faster than the few lung tumor colonies in mice given injections of control melanoma cells. We concluded that transfection of the activated c-Ha-ras oncogene into nonmetastatic K-1735 melanoma cells leads to accelerated tumor growth in vivo and can confer the ability to form lung colonies after i.v. injection but not the ability to metastasize from a primary s.c. tumor.

  10. The RAS-Effector Interaction as a Drug Target.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Adam B; Salter, E Alan; Piazza, Gary A

    2017-01-15

    About a third of all human cancers harbor mutations in one of the K-, N-, or HRAS genes that encode an abnormal RAS protein locked in a constitutively activated state to drive malignant transformation and tumor growth. Despite more than three decades of intensive research aimed at the discovery of RAS-directed therapeutics, there are no FDA-approved drugs that are broadly effective against RAS-driven cancers. Although RAS proteins are often said to be "undruggable," there is mounting evidence suggesting it may be feasible to develop direct inhibitors of RAS proteins. Here, we review this evidence with a focus on compounds capable of inhibiting the interaction of RAS proteins with their effectors that transduce the signals of RAS and that drive and sustain malignant transformation and tumor growth. These reports of direct-acting RAS inhibitors provide valuable insight for further discovery and development of clinical candidates for RAS-driven cancers involving mutations in RAS genes or otherwise activated RAS proteins. Cancer Res; 77(2); 221-6. ©2017 AACR.

  11. Membrane-associated Ras dimers are isoform-specific: K-Ras dimers differ from H-Ras dimers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunbum; Muratcioglu, Serena; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-06-15

    Are the dimer structures of active Ras isoforms similar? This question is significant since Ras can activate its effectors as a monomer; however, as a dimer, it promotes Raf's activation and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cell signalling. In the present study, we model possible catalytic domain dimer interfaces of membrane-anchored GTP-bound K-Ras4B and H-Ras, and compare their conformations. The active helical dimers formed by the allosteric lobe are isoform-specific: K-Ras4B-GTP favours the α3 and α4 interface; H-Ras-GTP favours α4 and α5. Both isoforms also populate a stable β-sheet dimer interface formed by the effector lobe; a less stable β-sandwich interface is sustained by salt bridges of the β-sheet side chains. Raf's high-affinity β-sheet interaction is promoted by the active helical interface. Collectively, Ras isoforms' dimer conformations are not uniform; instead, the isoform-specific dimers reflect the favoured interactions of the HVRs (hypervariable regions) with cell membrane microdomains, biasing the effector-binding site orientations, thus isoform binding selectivity.

  12. Sprouty-related Ena/Vasodilator-stimulated Phosphoprotein Homology 1-Domain-containing Protein (SPRED1), a Tyrosine-Protein Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 11 (SHP2) Substrate in the Ras/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Quintanar-Audelo, Martina; Yusoff, Permeen; Sinniah, Saravanan; Chandramouli, Sumana; Guy, Graeme R.

    2011-01-01

    SHP2 is a tyrosine phosphatase involved in the activation of the Ras/ERK signaling pathway downstream of a number of receptor tyrosine kinases. One of the proposed mechanisms involving SHP2 in this context is to dephosphorylate and inactivate inhibitors of the Ras/ERK pathway. Two protein families bearing a unique, common domain, Sprouty and SPRED proteins, are possible candidates because they have been reported to inhibit the Ras/ERK pathway upon FGF activation. We tested whether any of these proteins are likely substrates of SHP2. Our findings indicate that Sprouty2 binds to the C-terminal tail of SHP2, which is an unlikely substrate binding site, whereas SPRED proteins bind to the tyrosine phosphatase domain that is known to be the binding site for its substrates. Overexpressed SHP2 was able to dephosphorylate SPREDs but not Sprouty2. Finally, we found two tyrosine residues on SPRED1 that are required, when phosphorylated, to inhibit Ras/ERK activation and identified Tyr-420 as a specific dephosphorylation target of SHP2. The evidence obtained indicates that SPRED1 is a likely substrate of SHP2, whose tyrosine dephosphorylation is required to attenuate the inhibitory action of SPRED1 in the Ras/ERK pathway. PMID:21531714

  13. Sodium phenylacetate inhibits the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway to induce reduction of the c-Raf-1 protein in human and canine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Manabu; Miyajima, Nozomi; Igarashi, Maki; Endo, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Natsuko; Sugano, Sumio

    2009-11-01

    An aromatic fatty acid, phenylacetate (PA), has been shown to have cytostatic, antitumor and cell differentiation-inducing effects on various kinds of tumors. Previously, we have demonstrated cell growth inhibition, malignant phenotype reduction and cell differentiation effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) treatment in a canine mammary tumor cell line. To clarify the molecular mechanism of these effects, we examined the expression of Ras/MAPK signaling pathway-related molecules in human and canine breast cancer cell lines, and found that the level of c-Raf-1 protein was reduced by 5, 10 and 20 mM of NaPA treatments, though Ras activation was maintained. Dephosphorylation of c-Raf-1 at Serine (Ser) 259, Ser 338, and Ser 621 were also seen in NaPA-treated cells. Downstream factors in the pathway, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)1/2 and ERK1/2, showed decreased activity, and accordingly, expressions of cyclinD1, c-myc, and inactivation of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK), which are MAPK targets, were reduced. We also observed the reduction of cell-cycle-promoted molecules, such as cdc1/cdk2, cdk4, PCNA cyclin A, and cyclin B, and the increased expression of p27kip1. Furthermore, expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, was increased by NaPA treatment. These results suggest that one of the molecular targets of NaPA treatment was the reduction of c-Raf-1 protein, and that its reduction results in the decrease of malignant characteristics of tumor cells through blockage of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway.

  14. Ras modulation of superoxide activates ERK-dependent fibronectin expression in diabetes-induced renal injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-L; Wang, F-S; Kuo, Y-R; Huang, Y-T; Huang, H-C; Sun, Y-C; Kuo, Y-H

    2006-05-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that diabetic nephropathy is attributable to early extracellular matrix accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells, the molecular mechanism by which high glucose induces matrix protein deposition remains not fully elucidated. Rat mesangial cells pretreated with or without inhibitors were cultured in high-glucose or advanced glycation end product (AGE) conditions. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were given superoxide dismutase (SOD)-conjugated propylene glycol to scavenge superoxide. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, fibronectin expression, Ras, ERK, p38, and c-Jun activation of glomerular mesangial cells or urinary albumin secretion were assessed. Superoxide, not nitric oxide or hydrogen peroxide, mediated high glucose- and AGE-induced TGF-beta1 and fibronectin expression. Pretreatment with diphenyliodonium, not allopurinol or rotenone, reduced high-glucose and AGE augmentation of superoxide synthesis and fibronection expression. High glucose and AGEs rapidly enhanced Ras activation and progressively increased cytosolic ERK and nuclear c-Jun activation. Inhibiting Ras by manumycin A reduced the stimulatory effects of high glucose and AGEs on superoxide and fibronectin expression. SOD or PD98059 pretreatment reduced high-glucose and AGE promotion of ERK and c-Jun activation. Exogenous SOD treatment in diabetic rats significantly attenuated diabetes induction of superoxide, urinary albumin excretion, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, TGF-beta1, and fibronectin immunoreactivities in renal glomerular mesangial cells. Ras induction of superoxide activated ERK-dependent fibrosis-stimulatory factor and extracellular matrix gene transcription of mesangial cells. Reduction of oxidative stress by scavenging superoxide may provide an alternative strategy for controlling diabetes-induced early renal injury.

  15. Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-{beta}1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos . E-mail: carloms@usal.es; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Garcia-Cenador, Begona; Santos, Eugenio; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2006-07-01

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) has a relevant role in the origin and maintenance of glomerulosclerosis and tubule-interstitial fibrosis. TGF-{beta} and Ras signaling pathways are closely related: TGF-{beta}1 overcomes Ras mitogenic effects and Ras counteracts TGF-{beta} signaling. Tubule-interstitial fibrosis is associated to increases in Ras, Erk, and Akt activation in a renal fibrosis model. We study the role of N- and H-Ras isoforms, and the involvement of the Ras effectors Erk and Akt, in TGF-{beta}1-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and proliferation, using embrionary fibroblasts from double knockout (KO) mice for H- and N-Ras (H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-}) isoforms and from heterozygote mice (H-ras {sup +/-}/N-ras {sup +/-}). ECM synthesis is increased in basal conditions in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} fibroblasts, this increase being higher after stimulation with TGF-{beta}1. TGF-{beta}1-induced fibroblast proliferation is smaller in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} than in H-ras {sup +/-}/N-ras {sup +/-} fibroblasts. Erk activation is decreased in H-ras {sup -/-}/N-ras {sup -/-} fibroblasts; inhibition of Erk activation reduces fibroblast proliferation. Akt activation is higher in double KO fibroblasts than in heterozygotes; inhibition of Akt activation also inhibits ECM synthesis. We suggest that H- and N-Ras isoforms downregulate ECM synthesis, and mediate proliferation, in part through MEK/Erk activation. PI3K-Akt pathway activation may be involved in the increase in ECM synthesis observed in the absence of H- and N-Ras.

  16. Activation of c-myc and c-K-ras oncogenes in primary rat tumors induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sawey, M J; Hood, A T; Burns, F J; Garte, S J

    1987-01-01

    An activated K-ras oncogene was detected by transfection in NIH 3T3 cells and by Southern blot analysis in 6 of 12 rat skin tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The DNA from 10 of the 12 tumors also showed c-myc gene amplification and restriction polymorphisms. Evidence for tissue specificity was observed in patterns of oncogene activation, with each of three clear cell carcinomas exhibiting activation of both c-myc and K-ras oncogenes. Images PMID:3547086

  17. Phosphotyrosine-mediated LAT assembly on membranes drives kinetic bifurcation in recruitment dynamics of the Ras activator SOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William Y. C.; Yan, Qingrong; Lin, Wan-Chen; Chung, Jean K.; Hansen, Scott D.; Christensen, Sune M.; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Kuriyan, John; Groves, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    The assembly of cell surface receptors with downstream signaling molecules is a commonly occurring theme in multiple signaling systems. However, little is known about how these assemblies modulate reaction kinetics and the ultimate propagation of signals. Here, we reconstitute phosphotyrosine-mediated assembly of extended linker for the activation of T cells (LAT):growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2):Son of Sevenless (SOS) networks, derived from the T-cell receptor signaling system, on supported membranes. Single-molecule dwell time distributions reveal two, well-differentiated kinetic species for both Grb2 and SOS on the LAT assemblies. The majority fraction of membrane-recruited Grb2 and SOS both exhibit fast kinetics and single exponential dwell time distributions, with average dwell times of hundreds of milliseconds. The minor fraction exhibits much slower kinetics, extending the dwell times to tens of seconds. Considering this result in the context of the multistep process by which the Ras GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) activity of SOS is activated indicates that kinetic stabilization from the LAT assembly may be important. This kinetic proofreading effect would additionally serve as a stochastic noise filter by reducing the relative probability of spontaneous SOS activation in the absence of receptor triggering. The generality of receptor-mediated assembly suggests that such effects may play a role in multiple receptor proximal signaling processes. PMID:27370798

  18. Rap1 overexpression reveals that activated RasD induces separable defects during Dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Louis, S A; Weeks, G; Spiegelman, G B

    1997-10-15

    One of the Dictyostelium ras genes, rasD, is expressed preferentially in prestalk cells at the slug stage of development and overexpression of this gene containing a G12T activating mutation causes the formation of aberrant multitipped aggregates that are blocked from further development (Reymond et al., 1986, Nature, 323, 340-343). The ability of the Dictyostelium rap1 gene to suppress this abnormal developmental phenotype was investigated. The rap1 gene and G12V activated and G10V negative mutant forms of the rap1 gene were independently linked to the rasD promoter and each construct used to transform M1, a Dictyostelium cell line expressing RasD[G12T]. Transformants of M1 that expressed Rap1 or Rap1[G12V] protein still formed multitipped aggregates, but most tips were able to complete development and form fruiting bodies. Cell lines showing this modified phenotype were designated ME (multitipped escape). The rap1[G10V] construct did not modify the M1 phenotype. These data suggest that overexpression of RasD[G12T] has two effects, the formation of a multitipped aggregate and a block in subsequent differentiation and that the expression of Rap1 or Rap1[G12V] reverses only the latter. Differentiation of ME cells in low density monolayers showed the identical low level of stalk and spore cell formation seen for M1 cells under the same conditions. Thus the cell autonomous defect in monolayer differentiation induced in the M1 strain was not corrected in the ME strain. Cell type-specific gene expression during the development of M1 cells is dramatically altered: prestalk cell-specific gene expression is greatly enhanced, whereas prespore-specific gene expression is almost suppressed (Louis et al., 1997, Mol. Biol. Cell, 8, 303-312). During the development of ME cells, ecmA mRNA levels were restored to those seen for Ax3, and tagB mRNA levels were also markedly reduced, although not to Ax3 levels. cotC expression in ME cells was enhanced severalfold relative to M1

  19. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  20. Review: Ras GTPases and myosin: Qualitative conservation and quantitative diversification in signal and energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias P; Goody, Roger S

    2016-08-01

    Most GTPases and many ATPases belong to the P-loop class of proteins with significant structural and mechanistic similarities. Here we compare and contrast the basic properties of the Ras family GTPases and myosin, and conclude that there are fundamental similarities but also distinct differences related to their specific roles. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 422-430, 2016.

  1. A Central Role for Ras1 in Morphogenesis of the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune

    PubMed Central

    Knabe, Nicole; Jung, Elke-Martina; Freihorst, Daniela; Hennicke, Florian; Horton, J. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Fungi have been used as model systems to define general processes in eukaryotes, for example, the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, as well as to study polar growth or pathogenesis. Here, we show a central role for the regulator protein Ras in a mushroom-forming, filamentous basidiomycete linking growth, pheromone signaling, sexual development, and meiosis to different signal transduction pathways. ras1 and Ras-specific gap1 mutants were generated and used to modify the intracellular activation state of the Ras module. Transformants containing constitutive ras1 alleles (ras1G12V and ras1Q61L), as well as their compatible mating interactions, did show strong phenotypes for growth (associated with Cdc42 signaling) and mating (associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling). Normal fruiting bodies with abnormal spores exhibiting a reduced germination rate were produced by outcrossing of these mutant strains. Homozygous Δgap1 primordia, expected to experience increased Ras signaling, showed overlapping phenotypes with a block in basidium development and meiosis. Investigation of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A indicated that constitutively active ras1, as well as Δgap1 mutant strains, exhibit a strong increase in Tpk activity. Ras1-dependent, cAMP-mediated signal transduction is, in addition to the known signaling pathways, involved in fruiting body formation in Schizophyllum commune. To integrate these analyses of Ras signaling, microarray studies were performed. Mutant strains containing constitutively active Ras1, deletion of RasGap1, or constitutively active Cdc42 were characterized and compared. At the transcriptome level, specific regulation highlighting the phenotypic differences of the mutants is clearly visible. PMID:23606288

  2. VPS35 binds farnesylated N-Ras in the cytosol to regulate N-Ras trafficking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Wiener, Heidi; Su, Wenjuan; Zhou, Yong; Liot, Caroline; Ahearn, Ian; Hancock, John F; Philips, Mark R

    2016-08-15

    Ras guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate signaling pathways only when associated with cellular membranes through their C-terminal prenylated regions. Ras proteins move between membrane compartments in part via diffusion-limited, fluid phase transfer through the cytosol, suggesting that chaperones sequester the polyisoprene lipid from the aqueous environment. In this study, we analyze the nature of the pool of endogenous Ras proteins found in the cytosol. The majority of the pool consists of farnesylated, but not palmitoylated, N-Ras that is associated with a high molecular weight (HMW) complex. Affinity purification and mass spectrographic identification revealed that among the proteins found in the HMW fraction is VPS35, a latent cytosolic component of the retromer coat. VPS35 bound to N-Ras in a farnesyl-dependent, but neither palmitoyl- nor guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-dependent, fashion. Silencing VPS35 increased N-Ras's association with cytoplasmic vesicles, diminished GTP loading of Ras, and inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and growth of N-Ras-dependent melanoma cells.

  3. Galectin-1 dimers can scaffold Raf-effectors to increase H-ras nanoclustering

    PubMed Central

    Blaževitš, Olga; Mideksa, Yonatan G.; Šolman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Ariotti, Nicholas; Nakhaeizadeh, Hossein; Fansa, Eyad K.; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C.; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) dimers crosslink carbohydrates on cell surface receptors. Carbohydrate-derived inhibitors have been developed for cancer treatment. Intracellularly, Gal-1 was suggested to interact with the farnesylated C-terminus of Ras thus specifically stabilizing GTP-H-ras nanoscale signalling hubs in the membrane, termed nanoclusters. The latter activity may present an alternative mechanism for how overexpressed Gal-1 stimulates tumourigenesis. Here we revise the current model for the interaction of Gal-1 with H-ras. We show that it indirectly forms a complex with GTP-H-ras via a high-affinity interaction with the Ras binding domain (RBD) of Ras effectors. A computationally generated model of the Gal-1/C-Raf-RBD complex is validated by mutational analysis. Both cellular FRET as well as proximity ligation assay experiments confirm interaction of Gal-1 with Raf proteins in mammalian cells. Consistently, interference with H-rasG12V-effector interactions basically abolishes H-ras nanoclustering. In addition, an intact dimer interface of Gal-1 is required for it to positively regulate H-rasG12V nanoclustering, but negatively K-rasG12V nanoclustering. Our findings suggest stacked dimers of H-ras, Raf and Gal-1 as building blocks of GTP-H-ras-nanocluster at high Gal-1 levels. Based on our results the Gal-1/effector interface represents a potential drug target site in diseases with aberrant Ras signalling. PMID:27087647

  4. Effects of mutant human Ki-ras{sup G12C} gene dosage on murine lung tumorigenesis and signaling to its downstream effectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dance-Barnes, Stephanie T.; Kock, Nancy D.; Floyd, Heather S.; Moore, Joseph E.; Mosley, Libyadda J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Miller, Mark Steven

    2008-08-15

    Studies in cell culture have suggested that the level of RAS expression can influence the transformation of cells and the signaling pathways stimulated by mutant RAS expression. However, the levels of RAS expression in vivo appear to be subject to feedback regulation, limiting the total amount of RAS protein that can be expressed. We utilized a bitransgenic mouse lung tumor model that expressed the human Ki-ras{sup G12C} allele in a tetracycline-inducible, lung-specific manner. Treatment for 12 months with 500 {mu}g/ml of doxycycline (DOX) allowed for maximal expression of the human Ki-ras{sup G12C} allele in the lung, and resulted in the development of focal hyperplasia and adenomas. We determined if different levels of mutant RAS expression would influence the phenotype of the lung lesions. Treatment with 25, 100 and 500 {mu}g/ml of DOX resulted in dose-dependent increases in transgene expression and tumor multiplicity. Microscopic analysis of the lungs of mice treated with the 25 {mu}g/ml dose of DOX revealed infrequent foci of hyperplasia, whereas mice treated with the 100 and 500 {mu}g/ml doses exhibited numerous hyperplastic foci and also adenomas. Immunohistochemical and RNA analysis of the downstream effector pathways demonstrated that different levels of mutant RAS transgene expression resulted in differences in the expression and/or phosphorylation of specific signaling molecules. Our results suggest that the molecular alterations driving tumorigenesis may differ at different levels of mutant Ki-ras{sup G12C} expression, and this should be taken into consideration when inducible transgene systems are utilized to promote tumorigenesis in mouse models.

  5. dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb to antagonize Ras signaling in C. elegans vulval development.

    PubMed

    Ceol, C J; Horvitz, H R

    2001-03-01

    The synthetic multivulva (synMuv) genes define two functionally redundant pathways that antagonize RTK/Ras signaling during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction. The synMuv gene lin-35 encodes a protein similar to the mammalian tumor suppressor pRB and has been proposed to act as a transcriptional repressor. Studies using mammalian cells have shown that pRB can prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting DP/E2F-mediated transcriptional activation. We identified C. elegans genes that encode proteins similar to DP or E2F. Loss-of-function mutations in two of these genes, dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F, caused the same vulval abnormalities as do lin-35 Rb loss-of-function mutations. We propose that rather than being inhibited by lin-35 Rb, dpl-1 DP and efl-1 E2F act with lin-35 Rb in transcriptional repression to antagonize RTK/Ras signaling during vulval development.

  6. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  7. Ras proteins have multiple functions in vegetative cells of Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George; Weeks, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG⁻ cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells are totally incapable of chemotaxis. In this study we have examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasC in vegetative cells by comparing the vegetative cell properties of rasG⁻, rasC⁻, and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells. In addition, since RasD, a protein not normally found in vegetative cells, is expressed in vegetative rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells and appears to partially compensate for the absence of RasG, we have also examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasD by comparing the properties of rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells with those of the mutant cells expressing higher levels of RasD. The results of these two lines of investigation show that RasD is capable of totally substituting for RasG for cytokinesis and growth in suspension, whereas RasC is without effect. In contrast, for chemotaxis to folate, RasC is capable of partially substituting for RasG, but RasD is totally without effect. Finally, neither RasC nor RasD is able to substitute for the role that RasG plays in regulating actin distribution and random motility. These specificity studies therefore delineate three distinct and none-overlapping functions for RasG in vegetative cells.

  8. A ras-dependent pathway abolishes activity of a muscle-specific enhancer upstream from the muscle creatine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, E A; Spizz, G; Perry, M E; Olson, E N

    1989-01-01

    Differentiation of skeletal myoblasts is accompanied by induction of a series of tissue-specific genes whose products are required for the specialized functions of the mature muscle fiber. The program for myogenic differentiation is subject to negative control by several peptide growth factors and by the products of mutationally activated ras oncogenes, which persistently activate intracellular cascades normally triggered by specific growth factors. Previously, we reported that induction of the muscle creatine kinase (mck) gene during myogenesis was dependent on a distal upstream enhancer that cooperated with a proximal promoter to direct high levels of expression in developing muscle cells (E. A. Sternberg, G. Spizz, W. M. Perry, D. Vizard, T. Weil, and E. N. Olson, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:2896-2909). To investigate the mechanisms whereby ras blocks the induction of muscle-specific genes, we have examined the ability of mck 5' regulatory elements to direct expression of the linked reporter gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) in C2 myoblasts bearing mutant N-ras and H-ras oncogenes. In this paper we report that expression of activated ras alleles abolishes activity of the mck upstream enhancer but does not affect the activity of the mck promoter. The ability of ras to repress the expression of mck-cat fusion genes that have been transfected either transiently or stably into myoblasts suggests that ras may exert its effects on muscle-specific genes through mechanisms independent of chromatin configurations or DNA methylation. These results also suggest that ras blocks establishment of the myogenic phenotype by preventing the accumulation of regulatory factors required for transcriptional induction of muscle-specific genes. Images PMID:2651901

  9. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of Suppressors of Ras Mutations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    mediated signal transduction pathway during C. elegans vulval development. Mutations in sur-8 were identified as suppressors of an activated let-60...positively regulates an RTK-Ras-MAP kinase signaling cascade during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction. Although reduction of sur-6 PP2A-B function...Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and also positively regulates an RTK-Ras-MAP kinase signaling cascade during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval induction

  10. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors as H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers.

    PubMed

    Najumudeen, Arafath K; Posada, Itziar M D; Lectez, Benoit; Zhou, Yong; Landor, Sebastian K-J; Fallarero, Adyary; Vuorela, Pia; Hancock, John; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types.

  11. RAS Insight

    Cancer.gov

    David Heimbrook, now CEO of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, played a major role in a large pharma as it tried to develop an anti-RAS drug. Lessons from that failure inform the RAS Initiative today.

  12. Azoxymethane induces KI-ras activation in the tumor resistant AKR/J mouse colon.

    PubMed

    Bolt, A B; Papanikolaou, A; Delker, D A; Wang, Q S; Rosenberg, D W

    2000-03-01

    A differential susceptibility phenotype to the organotropic colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) has been described in mice. The following studies were undertaken to test the hypothesis that intraspecific susceptibility can be accounted for by the specific complement of genetic alterations acquired by precancerous colon lesions referred to as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). As an initial approach to this question, mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the Ki-ras proto-oncogene were assessed in ACF, normal-appearing AOM-treated colonic epithelium, and tumors from A/J and SWR/J (susceptible) as well as AKR/J (resistant) mice. Four-week-old male mice were injected intraperitonealy, with AOM once a week for a total of 6 wk and killed 4 and 24 wk after the last injection. DNA was isolated from microdissected tissue, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified products of Ki-ras exon 1 (codons 12 and 13) were directly sequenced from microdissected tissues. At 4 wk after AOM exposure, there was no significant difference in the frequency of Ki-ras activation (20-33%) between the three strains. Ki-ras mRNA expression was also evaluated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis and was comparably reduced (40-50%) in all three strains at the 4 wk time point. However, Ki-ras expression returned to normal by 24 wk after treatment. Finally, to gain further insight into the molecular pathogenesis underlying this experimental tumor model, analysis of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein within the colonic epithelium was undertaken by using an immunohistochemical approach. Although the APC protein was lost to a varying extent in tumors from A/J and SWR/J mice, the full-length form of the protein was still present in precancerous ACF isolated from each of the three strains, regardless of the degree of dysplasia of the lesion. A further molecular genetic analyses of ACF will be required to gain a more complete understanding of the molecular basis of tumor susceptibility phenotype in

  13. Oncogenic ras-induced expression of cytokines: a new target of anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ancrile, Brooke B; O'Hayer, Kevin M; Counter, Christopher M

    2008-02-01

    The Ras family of small guanosine triphosphatases normally transmit signals from cell surface receptors to the interior of the cell. Stimulation of cell surface receptors leads to the activation of guanine exchange factors, which, in turn, convert Ras from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. However, in one third of human cancers, RAS is mutated and remains in the constitutively active GTP-bound state. In this oncogenic state, RAS activates a constellation of signaling that is known to promote tumorigenesis. One consequence of this oncogenic RAS signal in cancer cells is the upregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (GRO-1). We review the evidence supporting a role for these cytokines in oncogenic RAS-driven solid tumors.

  14. p62(dok), a negative regulator of Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, opposes leukemogenesis by p210(bcr-abl).

    PubMed

    Di Cristofano, A; Niki, M; Zhao, M; Karnell, F G; Clarkson, B; Pear, W S; Van Aelst, L; Pandolfi, P P

    2001-08-06

    p62(dok) has been identified as a substrate of many oncogenic tyrosine kinases such as the chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) chimeric p210(bcr-abl) oncoprotein. It is also phosphorylated upon activation of many receptors and cytoplamic tyrosine kinases. However, the biological functions of p62(dok) in normal cell signaling as well as in p210(bcr-abl) leukemogenesis are as yet not fully understood. Here we show, in hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells derived from p62(dok)-(/)- mice, that the loss of p62(dok) results in increased cell proliferation upon growth factor treatment. Moreover, Ras and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is markedly sustained in p62(dok)-(/)- cells after the removal of growth factor. However, p62(dok) inactivation does not affect DNA damage and growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, p62(dok) inactivation causes a significant shortening in the latency of the fatal myeloproliferative disease induced by retroviral-mediated transduction of p210(bcr-abl) in bone marrow cells. These data indicate that p62(dok) acts as a negative regulator of growth factor-induced cell proliferation, at least in part through downregulating Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, and that p62(dok) can oppose leukemogenesis by p210(bcr-abl).

  15. Inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Restores Cultured Spinal Cord-Injured Neuronal Migration, Adhesion, and Dendritic Spine Development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongdong; Cao, Fujiang; Sun, Shiwei; Liu, Tao; Feng, Shiqing

    2016-08-01

    The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway plays an important role in central and peripheral neurons in functions such as dendritic arborization, neuronal polarity, and axon assembly. However, emerging evidence also shows that up-regulation of this signaling pathway may lead to the development of spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibition on properties of spinal cord-injured neurons. First, neurons from spinal cord-injured C57BL/6 J mouse pups and sham-operated C57BL/6 J mouse pups were harvested. Then, immunofluorescence, western blotting, cell adhesion and cell migration assays, and DiI labeling were employed to investigate the effect of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibition on spinal cord-injured neurons. Immunofluorescence results of synapse formation indicated that the experimental spinal cord injury model was successfully established. Western blot results identified upregulated Erk phosphorylation in the spinal cord-injured neurons, and also showed that U0126 inhibited phosphorylation of Erk, which is a downstream kinase in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Additionally, cell migration and adhesion was significantly increased in the spinal cord-injured neurons. DiI labeling results also showed an increased formation of mature spines after inhibition of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling. Taken together, these results suggested that the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway could serve as an effective treatment target for spinal cord injury.

  16. HMGB1 promotes the secretion of multiple cytokines and potentiates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells through the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Xue, Deting; Chen, Erman; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Yu, Jiawei; Feng, Yadong; Pan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has been previously been detected in the inflammatory microenvironment of bone fractures. It is well known that HMGB1 acts as a chemoattractant to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, the effects of HMGB1 on cytokine secretion from MSCs were determined, and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects of HMGB1 on osteogenic differentiation were elucidated. To detect cytokine secretion, antibody array assays were performed, which demonstrated that HGMB1 induced the differential secretion of cytokines that are predominantly associated with cell development, regulation of growth and cell migration, stress responses, and immune system functions. Moreover, the secretion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was significantly upregulated by HMGB1. The EGFR-activated Ras/MAPK pathway regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results suggested that HMGB1 enhances the secretion of various cytokines by MSCs and promotes osteogenic differentiation via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. The present study may provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel techniques for the treatment of bone fractures in the future. PMID:28105126

  17. Exploring the interactions of the RAS family in the human protein network and their potential implications in RAS-directed therapies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Anibal; Morilla, Ian; Diez, Diego; Moya-Garcia, Aurelio A.; Lozano, José; Ranea, Juan A.G.

    2016-01-01

    RAS proteins are the founding members of the RAS superfamily of GTPases. They are involved in key signaling pathways regulating essential cellular functions such as cell growth and differentiation. As a result, their deregulation by inactivating mutations often results in aberrant cell proliferation and cancer. With the exception of the relatively well-known KRAS, HRAS and NRAS proteins, little is known about how the interactions of the other RAS human paralogs affect cancer evolution and response to treatment. In this study we performed a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the phylogeny of RAS proteins and their location in the protein interaction network. This analysis was integrated with the structural analysis of conserved positions in available 3D structures of RAS complexes. Our results show that many RAS proteins with divergent sequences are found close together in the human interactome. We found specific conserved amino acid positions in this group that map to the binding sites of RAS with many of their signaling effectors, suggesting that these pairs could share interacting partners. These results underscore the potential relevance of cross-talking in the RAS signaling network, which should be taken into account when considering the inhibitory activity of drugs targeting specific RAS oncoproteins. This study broadens our understanding of the human RAS signaling network and stresses the importance of considering its potential cross-talk in future therapies. PMID:27713118

  18. NF2 loss promotes oncogenic RAS-induced thyroid cancers via YAP-dependent transactivation of RAS proteins and sensitizes them to MEK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rendueles, Maria E.R.; Ricarte-Filho, Julio C.; Untch, Brian R.; Landa, Iňigo; Knauf, Jeffrey A.; Voza, Francesca; Smith, Vicki E.; Ganly, Ian; Taylor, Barry S.; Persaud, Yogindra; Oler, Gisele; Fang, Yuqiang; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Viale, Agnes; Heguy, Adriana; Huberman, Kety H.; Giancotti, Filippo; Ghossein, Ronald; Fagin, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Ch22q LOH is preferentially associated with RAS mutations in papillary and in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC). The 22q tumor suppressor NF2, encoding merlin, is implicated in this interaction because of its frequent loss of function in human thyroid cancer cell lines. Nf2 deletion or Hras mutation are insufficient for transformation, whereas their combined disruption leads to murine PDTC with increased MAPK signaling. Merlin loss induces RAS signaling in part through inactivation of Hippo, which activates a YAP-TEAD transcriptional program. We find that the three RAS genes are themselves YAP-TEAD1 transcriptional targets, providing a novel mechanism of promotion of RAS-induced tumorigenesis. Moreover, pharmacological disruption of YAP-TEAD with verteporfin blocks RAS transcription and signaling, and inhibits cell growth. The increased MAPK output generated by NF2 loss in RAS-mutant cancers may inform therapeutic strategies, as it generates greater dependency on the MAPK pathway for viability. PMID:26359368

  19. The pore-forming α-toxin from clostridium septicum activates the MAPK pathway in a Ras-c-Raf-dependent and independent manner.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Anjana; Awad, Milena M; Cheung, Jackie K; Hiscox, Thomas J; Lyras, Dena; Rood, Julian I

    2015-02-10

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of atraumatic gas gangrene, with α-toxin, an extracellular pore-forming toxin, essential for disease. How C. septicum modulates the host's innate immune response is poorly defined, although α-toxin-intoxicated muscle cells undergo cellular oncosis, characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and release of reactive oxygen species. Nonetheless, the signalling events that occur prior to the initiation of oncosis are poorly characterised. Our aims were to characterise the ability of α-toxin to activate the host mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Vero cells with purified α-toxin activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 arms of the MAPK pathway and stimulated the release of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Studies using inhibitors of all three MAPK components suggested that activation of ERK occurred in a Ras-c-Raf dependent manner, whereas activation of JNK and p38 occurred by a Ras-independent mechanism. Toxin-mediated activation was dependent on efficient receptor binding and pore formation and on an influx of extracellular calcium ions. In the mouse myonecrosis model we showed that the MAPK pathway was activated in tissues of infected mice, implying that it has an important role in the disease process.

  20. Aplasia Ras homolog member I expression induces apoptosis in renal cancer cells via the β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Kong, Chui-Ze; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Bo; Jiang, Zhen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In numerous types of cancer, the Ras-associated tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI), is downregulated. However, the function of ARHI in renal cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated whether the suppressor gene ARHI influenced the growth of renal cancer cell lines and aimed to elucidate its mechanism of action, using the techniques of cell biology and molecular pathology. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to determine the effects of ARHI on human renal cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. It was demonstrated that ARHI exhibited a tumor suppressor function in OS-RC-2 cells and acted via the β-catenin signaling pathway. It was additionally confirmed that the levels of ARHI messenger RNA and protein in renal cancer tissues were lower than those in matched normal tissues. These results provided a novel insight into the possible therapeutic applications of ARHI in renal cancer.

  1. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  2. RCP is a human breast cancer-promoting gene with Ras-activating function.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinqiu; Liu, Xuejing; Datta, Arpita; Govindarajan, Kunde; Tam, Wai Leong; Han, Jianyong; George, Joshy; Wong, Christopher; Ramnarayanan, Kalpana; Phua, Tze Yoong; Leong, Wan Yee; Chan, Yang Sun; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Liu, Edison Tak-Bun; Karuturi, Krishna Murthy; Lim, Bing; Miller, Lance David

    2009-08-01

    Aggressive forms of cancer are often defined by recurrent chromosomal alterations, yet in most cases, the causal or contributing genetic components remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized microarray informatics to identify candidate oncogenes potentially contributing to aggressive breast cancer behavior. We identified the Rab-coupling protein RCP (also known as RAB11FIP1), which is located at a chromosomal region frequently amplified in breast cancer (8p11-12) as a potential candidate. Overexpression of RCP in MCF10A normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in acquisition of tumorigenic properties such as loss of contact inhibition, growth-factor independence, and anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, knockdown of RCP in human breast cancer cell lines inhibited colony formation, invasion, and migration in vitro and markedly reduced tumor formation and metastasis in mouse xenograft models. Overexpression of RCP enhanced ERK phosphorylation and increased Ras activation in vitro. As these results indicate that RCP is a multifunctional gene frequently amplified in breast cancer that encodes a protein with Ras-activating function, we suggest it has potential importance as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, these studies provide new insight into the emerging role of the Rab family of small G proteins and their interacting partners in carcinogenesis.

  3. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  4. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-11-16

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization.

  5. Unbiased RNAi screen for hepcidin regulators links hepcidin suppression to proliferative Ras/RAF and nutrient-dependent mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Roche, Franziska; da Silva, Ana Rita; Call, Debora; D'Alessio, Flavia; Ragab, Anan; Lapinski, Philip E; Ummanni, Ramesh; Korf, Ulrike; Oakes, Christopher; Damm, Georg; D'Alessandro, Lorenza A; Klingmüller, Ursula; King, Philip D; Boutros, Michael; Hentze, Matthias W; Muckenthaler, Martina U

    2014-03-06

    The hepatic hormone hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Its expression is largely regulated by 2 signaling pathways: the "iron-regulated" bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the inflammatory JAK-STAT pathways. To obtain broader insights into cellular processes that modulate hepcidin transcription and to provide a resource to identify novel genetic modifiers of systemic iron homeostasis, we designed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen that monitors hepcidin promoter activity after the knockdown of 19 599 genes in hepatocarcinoma cells. Interestingly, many of the putative hepcidin activators play roles in signal transduction, inflammation, or transcription, and affect hepcidin transcription through BMP-responsive elements. Furthermore, our work sheds light on new components of the transcriptional machinery that maintain steady-state levels of hepcidin expression and its responses to the BMP- and interleukin-6-triggered signals. Notably, we discover hepcidin suppression mediated via components of Ras/RAF MAPK and mTOR signaling, linking hepcidin transcriptional control to the pathways that respond to mitogen stimulation and nutrient status. Thus using a combination of RNAi screening, reverse phase protein arrays, and small molecules testing, we identify links between the control of systemic iron homeostasis and critical liver processes such as regeneration, response to injury, carcinogenesis, and nutrient metabolism.

  6. Unbiased RNAi screen for hepcidin regulators links hepcidin suppression to proliferative Ras/RAF and nutrient-dependent mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mleczko-Sanecka, Katarzyna; Roche, Franziska; Rita da Silva, Ana; Call, Debora; D’Alessio, Flavia; Ragab, Anan; Lapinski, Philip E.; Ummanni, Ramesh; Korf, Ulrike; Oakes, Christopher; Damm, Georg; D’Alessandro, Lorenza A.; Klingmüller, Ursula; King, Philip D.; Boutros, Michael; Hentze, Matthias W.

    2014-01-01

    The hepatic hormone hepcidin is a key regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Its expression is largely regulated by 2 signaling pathways: the “iron-regulated” bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the inflammatory JAK-STAT pathways. To obtain broader insights into cellular processes that modulate hepcidin transcription and to provide a resource to identify novel genetic modifiers of systemic iron homeostasis, we designed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen that monitors hepcidin promoter activity after the knockdown of 19 599 genes in hepatocarcinoma cells. Interestingly, many of the putative hepcidin activators play roles in signal transduction, inflammation, or transcription, and affect hepcidin transcription through BMP-responsive elements. Furthermore, our work sheds light on new components of the transcriptional machinery that maintain steady-state levels of hepcidin expression and its responses to the BMP- and interleukin-6–triggered signals. Notably, we discover hepcidin suppression mediated via components of Ras/RAF MAPK and mTOR signaling, linking hepcidin transcriptional control to the pathways that respond to mitogen stimulation and nutrient status. Thus using a combination of RNAi screening, reverse phase protein arrays, and small molecules testing, we identify links between the control of systemic iron homeostasis and critical liver processes such as regeneration, response to injury, carcinogenesis, and nutrient metabolism. PMID:24385536

  7. Attenuation of TGF-β signaling suppresses premature senescence in a p21-dependent manner and promotes oncogenic Ras-mediated metastatic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu; Yang, Junhua; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Long; Cornell, John E; Yeh, I-Tien; Agyin, Joseph; Tomlinson, Gail; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2012-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms that drive triple-negative, basal-like breast cancer progression are elusive. Few molecular targets have been identified for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Here we developed a series of isogenic basal-like human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) with altered transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) sensitivity and different malignancy, resembling a full spectrum of basal-like breast carcinogenesis, and determined the molecular mechanisms that contribute to oncogene-induced transformation of basal-like HMECs when TGF-β signaling is attenuated. We found that expression of a dominant-negative type II receptor (DNRII) of TGF-β abrogated autocrine TGF-β signaling in telomerase-immortalized HMECs and suppressed H-Ras-V12-induced senescence-like growth arrest (SLGA). Furthermore, coexpression of DNRII and H-Ras-V12 rendered HMECs highly tumorigenic and metastatic in vivo in comparison with H-Ras-V12-transformed HMECs that spontaneously escaped H-Ras-V12-induced SLGA. Microarray analysis revealed that p21 was the major player mediating Ras-induced SLGA, and attenuated or loss of p21 expression contributed to the escape from SLGA when autocrine TGF-β signaling was blocked in HMECs. Furthermore, knockdown of p21 also suppressed H-Ras-V12-induced SLGA. Our results identify that autocrine TGF-β signaling is an integral part of the cellular anti-transformation network by suppressing the expression of a host of genes, including p21-regulated genes, that mediate oncogene-induced transformation in basal-like breast cancer.

  8. Advances in the development of cancer therapeutics directed against the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S

    2008-06-15

    Among mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway has received the most attention in the oncology drug discovery arena. By virtue of its central role in promoting proliferation, survival, and metastasis, this pathway directly affects both the formation and progression of human tumors. The identification of non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of the MAPK kinase MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) resulted in the first demonstration that the ERK pathway could be effectively shut down in a highly selective fashion. Subsequent discovery of the oncogenic nature of B-raf kinase led to the escalation of drug discovery efforts revolving around MEK and RAF. The emergence of multiple drug candidates targeting these downstream kinases provides us with the means for validating the importance of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade in human tumors. This article highlights the lessons learned in the clinical evaluation of MAPK pathway inhibitors as anticancer agents and the complexities surrounding optimization of their therapeutic potential in light of the challenges posed by genetic heterogeneity within patient populations.

  9. Analysis of Ras/ERK Compartmentalization by Subcellular Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Ibañez, Lorena; Crespo, Piero; Casar, Berta

    2017-01-01

    A vast number of stimuli use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their cognate receptors, in order to regulate multiple cellular functions, including key processes such as proliferation, cell cycle progression, differentiation, and survival. The duration, intensity and specificity of the responses are, in part, controlled by the compartmentalization/subcellular localization of the signaling intermediaries. Ras proteins are found in different plasma membrane microdomains and endomembranes. At these localizations, Ras is subject to site-specific regulatory mechanisms, distinctively engaging effector pathways and switching-on diverse genetic programs to generate a multitude of biological responses. The Ras effector pathway leading to ERKs activation is also subject to space-related regulatory processes. About half of ERK1/2 substrates are found in the nucleus and function mainly as transcription factors. The other half resides in the cytosol and other cellular organelles. Such subcellular distribution enhances the complexity of the Ras/ERK cascade and constitutes an essential mechanism to endow variability to its signals, which enables their participation in the regulation of a broad variety of functions. Thus, analyzing the subcellular compartmentalization of the members of the Ras/ERK cascade constitutes an important factor to be taken into account when studying specific biological responses evoked by Ras/ERK signals. Herein, we describe methods for such purpose.

  10. Dysregulated RasGRP1 Responds to Cytokine Receptor Input in T Cell Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, Catherine; Ksionda, Olga; Lemmens, Ed; Coakley, Kristen; Yang, Ming; Dail, Monique; Harvey, Richard C.; Govern, Christopher; Bakker, Jeroen; Lenstra, Tineke L.; Ammon, Kristin; Boeter, Anne; Winter, Stuart S.; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Wabl, Matthias; Roose, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced signaling by the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras is common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 (Rasgrp1 in mice) as a Ras activator that contributes to leukemogenesis. We found increased RasGRP1 expression in many pediatric T-ALL patients, which we did not observe in rare early T cell precursor (ETP) T-ALL patients with KRAS and NRAS mutations, such as K-RasG12D. Leukemia screens in wild-type mice, but not in mice expressing the mutant K-RasG12D that encodes a constitutively active Ras, yielded frequent retroviral insertions that led to increased Rasgrp1 expression. Rasgrp1 and oncogenic K-RasG12D promoted T-ALL through distinct mechanisms. In K-RasG12D T-ALLs, we found that enhanced Ras activation did not lead to cell cycle arrest. In mouse T-ALL cells with increased Rasgrp1 expression, we found that Rasgrp1 contributed to a previously uncharacterized cytokine receptor–activated Ras pathway that stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells in vivo, which was accompanied by dynamic patterns of activation of effector kinases downstream of Ras in individual T-ALLs. Reduction of Rasgrp1 abundance reduced cytokine-stimulated Ras signaling and decreased the proliferation of T-ALL in vivo, suggesting that patients with this cancer should be screened for increased abundance of RasGRP1 to customize treatment. PMID:23532335

  11. Mechanism of Activation of the Caenorhabditis Elegans Ras Homologue Let-60 by a Novel, Temperature-Sensitive, Gain-of-Function Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, D. M.; Kim, S. K.

    1997-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans let-60 gene encodes a Ras protein that mediates induction of the hermaphrodite vulva. To better understand how mutations constitutively activate Ras and cause unregulated cell division, we have characterized ga89, a temperature-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation in let-60 ras. At 25°, ga89 increases let-60 activity resulting in a multivulva phenotype. At 15°, ga89 decreases let-60 activity resulting in a vulvaless phenotype in let-60(ga89)/Df animals. The ga89 mutation causes a leucine (L) to phenylalanine (F) substitution at amino acid 19, a residue conserved in all Ras proteins. We introduced the L19F change into human H-Ras protein and found that the in vitro GTPase activity of H-Ras became temperature-dependent. Genetic experiments suggest that LET-60(L19F) interacts with GAP and GNEF, since mutations that decrease GAP and GNEF activity affect the multivulva phenotype of let-60(ga89) animals. These results suggest that the L19F mutation primarily affects the intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis by Ras, and that this effect may be sufficient to account for the activated-Ras phenotype caused by let-60(ga89). Our results suggest that a mutation in a human ras gene analogous to ga89 might contribute to oncogenic transformation. PMID:9178006

  12. Regulated proteolysis of Candida albicans Ras1 is involved in morphogenesis and quorum sensing regulation

    PubMed Central

    Piispanen, Amy; Grahl, Nora; Hollomon, Jeffrey M.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary In Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen, the small G-protein Ras1 regulates many important behaviors including white-opaque switching, biofilm formation, and the induction and maintenance of hyphal growth. Like other Ras proteins, Ras1 is activated upon guanine triphosphate binding, and its activity is further modulated by post-translational lipid modifications. Here, we report that the levels of membrane-associated, full-length Ras1 were higher in hyphae than in yeast, and that yeast contained a shorter, soluble Ras1 species that resulted from cleavage. Deletion of the putative cleavage site led to more rapid induction of hyphal growth and delayed hypha-to-yeast transitions. The cleaved Ras1 species was less able to activate its effector, adenylate cyclase (Cyr1), unless tethered to the membrane by a heterologous membrane-targeting domain. Ras1 cleavage was repressed by cAMP-signaling, indicating the presence of a positive feedback loop in which Cyr1 and cAMP influence Ras1. The C. albicans quorum sensing molecule farnesol, which inhibits Cyr1 and represses filamentation, caused an increase in the fraction of Ras1 in the cleaved form, particularly in nascent yeast formed from hyphae. This newly recognized mode of Ras regulation may control C. albicans Ras1 activity in important ways. PMID:23692372

  13. RasGRP1 Transgenic Mice Develop Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Response to Skin Wounding

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Federico R.; Garrido, Ann A.; Sharma, Amrish; Luke, Courtney T.; Stone, James C.; Dower, Nancy A.; Cline, J. Mark; Lorenzo, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Models of epidermal carcinogenesis have demonstrated that Ras is a critical molecule involved in tumor initiation and progression. Previously, we have shown that RasGRP1 increases the susceptibility of mice to skin tumorigenesis when overexpressed in the epidermis by a transgenic approach, related to its ability to activate Ras. Moreover, RasGRP1 transgenic mice develop spontaneous papillomas and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, some of which appear to originate in sites of injury, suggesting that RasGRP1 may be responding to signals generated during the wound-healing process. In this study, we examined the response of the RasGRP1 transgenic animals to full-thickness incision wounding of the skin, and demonstrated that they respond by developing tumors along the wounded site. The tumors did not present mutations in the H-ras gene, but Rasgrp1 transgene dosage correlated with tumor susceptibility and size. Analysis of serum cytokines showed increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in transgenic animals after wounding. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with primary keratinocytes showed that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor stimulated Ras activation, although RasGRP1 was dispensable for this effect. Since granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has been recently associated with proliferation of skin cancer cells, our results may help in the elucidation of pathways that activate Ras in the epidermis during tumorigenesis in the absence of oncogenic ras mutations. PMID:19497993

  14. Propiconazole-enhanced hepatic cell proliferation is associated with dysregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway leading to activation of Erk1/2 through Ras farnesylation

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Lynea A.; Moore, Tanya; Nesnow, Stephen

    2012-04-15

    Propiconazole is a mouse hepatotumorigenic fungicide designed to inhibit CYP51, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi and is widely used in agriculture to prevent fungal growth. Metabolomic studies in mice revealed that propiconazole increased levels of hepatic cholesterol metabolites and bile acids, and transcriptomic studies revealed that genes within the cholesterol biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism and bile acid biosyntheses pathways were up-regulated. Hepatic cell proliferation was also increased by propiconazole. AML12 immortalized hepatocytes were used to study propiconazole's effects on cell proliferation focusing on the dysregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis and resulting effects on Ras farnesylation and Erk1/2 activation as a primary pathway. Mevalonate, a key intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, increases cell proliferation in several cancer cell lines and tumors in vivo and serves as the precursor for isoprenoids (e.g. farnesyl pyrophosphate) which are crucial in the farnesylation of the Ras protein by farnesyl transferase. Farnesylation targets Ras to the cell membrane where it is involved in signal transduction, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. In our studies, mevalonic acid lactone (MVAL), a source of mevalonic acid, increased cell proliferation in AML12 cells which was reduced by farnesyl transferase inhibitors (L-744,832 or manumycin) or simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, indicating that this cell system responded to alterations in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Cell proliferation in AML12 cells was increased by propiconazole which was reversed by co-incubation with L-744,832 or simvastatin. Increasing concentrations of exogenous cholesterol muted the proliferative effects of propiconazole and the inhibitory effects of L-733,832, results ascribed to reduced stimulation of the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Western blot analysis of subcellular

  15. C. elegans EOR-1/PLZF and EOR-2 positively regulate Ras and Wnt signaling and function redundantly with LIN-25 and the SUR-2 Mediator component.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robyn M; Sundaram, Meera V

    2002-07-15

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, Ras/ERK and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathways cooperate to induce P12 and vulval cell fates in a Hox-dependent manner. Here we describe eor-1 and eor-2, two new positively acting nuclear components of the Ras and Wnt pathways. eor-1 and eor-2 act downstream or in parallel to ERK and function redundantly with the Mediator complex gene sur-2 and the functionally related gene lin-25, such that removal of both eor-1/eor-2 and sur-2/lin-25 mimics the removal of a main Ras pathway component. Furthermore, the eor-1 and eor-2 mutant backgrounds reveal an essential role for the Elk1-related gene lin-1. eor-1 and eor-2 also act downstream or in parallel to pry-1 Axin and therefore act at the convergence of the Ras and Wnt pathways. eor-1 encodes the ortholog of human PLZF, a BTB/zinc-finger transcription factor that is fused to RARalpha in acute promyelocytic leukemia. eor-2 encodes a novel protein. EOR-1/PLZF and EOR-2 appear to function closely together and cooperate with Hox genes to promote the expression of Ras- and Wnt-responsive genes. Further studies of eor-1 and eor-2 may provide insight into the roles of PLZF in normal development and leukemogenesis.

  16. K-ras activation occurs frequently in mucinous adenocarcinomas and rarely in other common epithelial tumors of the human ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, T.; Weghorst, C. M.; Inoue, M.; Tanizawa, O.; Rice, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the role of mutational activation of members of the ras family of cellular protooncogenes in the development of human ovarian neoplasms, a series of 37 ovarian tumors from Japanese patients was studied. These included 30 common epithelial tumors (1 mucinous tumor of borderline malignancy, 7 mucinous adenocarcinomas, and 22 nonmucinous carcinomas: 10 serous, 3 clear cell, 8 endometrioid, and 1 undifferentiated), 5 tumors of germ cell origin, and 2 sex cord/stromal cell tumors. Polymerase chain reaction was performed from selected areas of deparaffinized sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and the presence of activating point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the H-, N-, and K-ras genes was probed by dot-blot hybridization analysis with mutation specific oligonucleotides. Mutations in K-ras were also looked for by direct genomic sequencing. The overall frequency of ras gene mutations was 10/37 (27%). Mutations were detected only in K-ras, and were found in most of the mucinous tumors, including the one such tumor of borderline malignancy (6/8; 75%). In one mucinous adenocarcinoma, two mutations were detected in paraffin-embedded material that had not previously been found in high molecular weight DNA isolated from frozen tissue from the same case. K-ras mutations occurred significantly more frequently in mucinous tumors (6/8, 75%) than in serous carcinomas (2/10, 20%; P = 0.031) or in all nonmucinous types of epithelial ovarian tumors combined (3/22, 14%; P = 0.0031). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1656759

  17. Kinetic Mechanisms of Mutation-dependent Harvey Ras Activation and Their Relevance for Development of Costello Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Michael; Lee, Jungwoon; Jeong, Soon Seog; Kim, Jungho; Heo, Jongyun

    2013-01-01

    Costello syndrome is linked to activating mutations of a residue in the p-loop or the NKCD/SAK motifs of Harvey Ras (HRas). More than 10 HRas mutants that induce Costello syndrome have been identified; G12S HRas is the most prevalent of these. However, certain HRas p-loop mutations also are linked to cancer formation that are exemplified with G12V HRas. Despite these relations, specific links between types of HRas mutations and diseases evade definition because some Costello syndrome HRas p-loop mutations, such as G12S HRas, also often cause cancer. This study established novel kinetic parameter-based equations that estimate the value of the cellular fractions of the GTP-bound active form of HRas mutant proteins. Such calculations differentiate between two basic kinetic mechanisms that populate the GTP-bound form of Ras in cells. (i) The increase in GTP-bound Ras by the HRas mutation-mediated perturbation of the intrinsic kinetic characteristics of Ras. This generates a broad spectrum of the population of the GTP-bound form of HRas that typically causes Costello syndrome. The upper end of this spectrum of HRas mutants, as exemplified by G12S HRas, can also cause cancer. (ii) The increase in GTP-bound Ras because the HRas mutations perturb the p120GAP action on Ras. This causes production of a significantly high population of the only GTP-bound form of HRas linked merely to cancer formation. The HRas mutant G12V belongs to this category. PMID:24224811

  18. H-Ras Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor on the Epithelial Na+ Channel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-Ha; Song, Sung-Hee; Cook, David I.; Dinudom, Anuwat

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the role of small G-proteins of the Ras family in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-activated cellular signalling pathway that downregulates activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). We found that H-Ras is a key component of this EGF-activated cellular signalling mechanism in M1 mouse collecting duct cells. Expression of a constitutively active H-Ras mutant inhibited the amiloride-sensitive current. The H-Ras-mediated signalling pathway that inhibits activity of ENaC involves c-Raf, and that the inhibitory effect of H-Ras on ENaC is abolished by the MEK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059. The inhibitory effect of H-Ras is not mediated by Nedd4-2, a ubiquitin protein ligase that regulates the abundance of ENaC at the cell surface membrane, or by a negative effect of H-Ras on proteolytic activation of the channel. The inhibitory effects of EGF and H-Ras on ENaC, however, were not observed in cells in which expression of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) had been knocked down by siRNA. These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of EGF on ENaC-dependent Na+ absorption is mediated via the H-Ras/c-Raf, MEK/ERK signalling pathway, and that Cav-1 is an essential component of this EGF-activated signalling mechanism. Taken together with reports that mice expressing a constitutive mutant of H-Ras develop renal cysts, our findings suggest that H-Ras may play a key role in the regulation of renal ion transport and renal development. PMID:25774517

  19. VPS35 binds farnesylated N-Ras in the cytosol to regulate N-Ras trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Heidi; Su, Wenjuan; Liot, Caroline; Hancock, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Ras guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulate signaling pathways only when associated with cellular membranes through their C-terminal prenylated regions. Ras proteins move between membrane compartments in part via diffusion-limited, fluid phase transfer through the cytosol, suggesting that chaperones sequester the polyisoprene lipid from the aqueous environment. In this study, we analyze the nature of the pool of endogenous Ras proteins found in the cytosol. The majority of the pool consists of farnesylated, but not palmitoylated, N-Ras that is associated with a high molecular weight (HMW) complex. Affinity purification and mass spectrographic identification revealed that among the proteins found in the HMW fraction is VPS35, a latent cytosolic component of the retromer coat. VPS35 bound to N-Ras in a farnesyl-dependent, but neither palmitoyl- nor guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–dependent, fashion. Silencing VPS35 increased N-Ras’s association with cytoplasmic vesicles, diminished GTP loading of Ras, and inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and growth of N-Ras–dependent melanoma cells. PMID:27502489

  20. CONTRIBUTION OF INSPIRATORY FLOW TO ACTIVATION OF EGFR, RAS, MAPK, ATF-2 AND C-JUN DURING LUNG STRETCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contribution of Inspiratory Flow to Activation of EGFR, Ras, MAPK, ATF-2 and c-Jun during Lung Stretch

    R. Silbajoris 1, Z. Li 2, J. M. Samet 1 and Y. C. Huang 1. 1 NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, NC .

    Mechanical ventilation with larg...

  1. Activation and amplification of c-Ki-ras in a chemically induced transplantable human pancreas carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, I.; Maheshwari, K.K.

    1986-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that carcinogenesis is associated with the stepwise activation of oncogenes. The c-Ki-ras oncogene has been demonstrated in several human solid tumors and is shown to be amplified in tumor cell lines. The authors have probed endonuclease cleaved human pancreas (HP) DNAs and DNAs from an in vitro induced transplantable human pancreas carcinoma (HP-T1) for the presence and/or amplification of c-Ki-ras oncogene. The DNAs were cleaved with BamHI, BgIII, EcoRI, HhaI, HinfI, KpnI, PSTI, PvuII, SaII, SstI, TaqI or XbaI and were subjected to Southern blot analysis using /sup 32/P-labelled EcoRI fragments from HiHi3 clone. The hybridization profiles were similar in both DNAs when digested with BamHI, BgIII, HinfI, KpnI, SaII, SstI, or TaqI. The EcoRI cleaved DNAs from HP and HP-T1 revealed two hybridizing fragments of 6.8 and 3.0 kbp. The 3.0 kbp fragments in DNA from HP-T1 showed more than a 100 folds enhancement as compared to that of HP. The 6.8 hybridizing fragments also appeared 10 fold greater in HP-T1 DNA. Similar enhancements were also present in HP-T1 DNA cleaved with PstI and PvuII. Preliminary results from comparison of poly(A)/sup +/RNAs, prepared from total HP and HP-T1 RNAs, by Northern blot analysis using the same probe reflect similar enhancement in RNA from transplantable pancreas carcinoma.

  2. Ras GTPases Modulate Morphogenesis, Sporulation and Cellulase Gene Expression in the Cellulolytic Fungus Trichoderma reesei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanmei; Zhong, Yaohua; Qu, Yinbo; Wang, Tianhong

    2012-01-01

    Background The model cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina) is capable of responding to environmental cues to compete for nutrients in its natural saprophytic habitat despite its genome encodes fewer degradative enzymes. Efficient signalling pathways in perception and interpretation of environmental signals are indispensable in this process. Ras GTPases represent a kind of critical signal proteins involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene expression. In T. reesei the genome contains two Ras subfamily small GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 homologous to Ras1 and Ras2 from S. cerevisiae, but their functions remain unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have investigated the roles of GTPases TrRas1 and TrRas2 during fungal morphogenesis and cellulase gene expression. We show that both TrRas1 and TrRas2 play important roles in some cellular processes such as polarized apical growth, hyphal branch formation, sporulation and cAMP level adjustment, while TrRas1 is more dominant in these processes. Strikingly, we find that TrRas2 is involved in modulation of cellulase gene expression. Deletion of TrRas2 results in considerably decreased transcription of cellulolytic genes upon growth on cellulose. Although the strain carrying a constitutively activated TrRas2G16V allele exhibits increased cellulase gene transcription, the cbh1 and cbh2 expression in this mutant still strictly depends on cellulose, indicating TrRas2 does not directly mediate the transmission of the cellulose signal. In addition, our data suggest that the effect of TrRas2 on cellulase gene is exerted through regulation of transcript abundance of cellulase transcription factors such as Xyr1, but the influence is independent of cAMP signalling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these findings elucidate the functions for Ras signalling of T. reesei in cellular morphogenesis, especially in cellulase gene expression, which contribute to deciphering the

  3. The cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT survival signalling and induces BAD-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Greenhough, Alexander; Patsos, Helena A; Williams, Ann C; Paraskeva, Christos

    2007-11-15

    Deregulation of cell survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis are widely accepted to be fundamental aspects of tumorigenesis. As in many tumours, the aberrant growth and survival of colorectal tumour cells is dependent upon a small number of highly activated signalling pathways, the inhibition of which elicits potent growth inhibitory or apoptotic responses in tumour cells. Accordingly, there is considerable interest in therapeutics that can modulate survival signalling pathways and target cancer cells for death. There is emerging evidence that cannabinoids, especially Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), may represent novel anticancer agents, due to their ability to regulate signalling pathways critical for cell growth and survival. Here, we report that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells, and show for the first time that THC induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. THC-induced apoptosis was rescued by pharmacological blockade of the CB1, but not CB2, cannabinoid receptor. Importantly, THC treatment resulted in CB1-mediated inhibition of both RAS-MAPK/ERK and PI3K-AKT survival signalling cascades; two key cell survival pathways frequently deregulated in colorectal tumours. The inhibition of ERK and AKT activity by THC was accompanied by activation of the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAD. Reduction of BAD protein expression by RNA interference rescued colorectal cancer cells from THC-induced apoptosis. These data suggest an important role for CB1 receptors and BAD in the regulation of apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. The use of THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent a novel strategy for colorectal cancer therapy.

  4. Control of Mammary Differentiation by Ras-Dependent Signal Transduction Pathways

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    differentiation and apoptosis during pregnancy and lactation. These processes are initiated by a complex series of signals that include mammotrophic hormones...differentiation and apoptosis during pregnancy and lactation. These processes are initiated by a complex series of signals which include mammotrophic...differentiation will provide critical insight into control of this process in HCI I cells. Because inhibition of differentiation in HCI 1 cells

  5. Assessment of the Chemosensitizing Activity of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in Childhood Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Nadja; Gross, Nicole; Widmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although current anti-cancer protocols are reasonably effective, treatment-associated long-term side effects, induced by lack of specificity of the anti-cancer procedures, remain a challenging problem in pediatric oncology. TAT-RasGAP317-326 is a RasGAP-derived cell-permeable peptide that acts as a sensitizer to various anti-cancer treatments in adult tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in several childhood cancer cell lines. The RasGAP-derived peptide-induced cell death was analyzed in several neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (as well as in normal lymphocytes). Cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry methods in the absence or in the presence of the peptide in combination with various genotoxins used in the clinics (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin). All tested pediatric tumors, in response to at least one genotoxin, were sensitized by TAT-RasGAP317-326. The RasGAP-derived peptide did not increase cell death of normal lymphocytes, alone or in combination with the majority of the tested chemotherapies. Consequently, TAT-RasGAP317-326 may benefit children with tumors by increasing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies notably by allowing reductions in anti-cancer drug dosage and the associated drug-induced side effects. PMID:25826368

  6. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bunda, Severa; Burrell, Kelly; Heir, Pardeep; Zeng, Lifan; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Kano, Yoshihito; Raught, Brian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ohh, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ras is phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine at position 32 within the switch I region via Src kinase. This phosphorylation inhibits the binding of effector Raf while promoting the engagement of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GTP hydrolysis. Here we identify SHP2 as the ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase that preferentially binds to and dephosphorylates Ras to increase its association with Raf and activate downstream proliferative Ras/ERK/MAPK signalling. In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. Pharmacologic inhibition of SHP2 activity attenuates cell proliferation, soft-agar colony formation and orthotopic GBM growth in NOD/SCID mice and decelerates the progression of low-grade astrocytoma to GBM in a spontaneous transgenic glioma mouse model. These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously ‘undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras. PMID:26617336

  8. Inhibition of SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of Ras suppresses oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bunda, Severa; Burrell, Kelly; Heir, Pardeep; Zeng, Lifan; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Kano, Yoshihito; Raught, Brian; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ohh, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Ras is phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine at position 32 within the switch I region via Src kinase. This phosphorylation inhibits the binding of effector Raf while promoting the engagement of GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and GTP hydrolysis. Here we identify SHP2 as the ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase that preferentially binds to and dephosphorylates Ras to increase its association with Raf and activate downstream proliferative Ras/ERK/MAPK signalling. In comparison to normal astrocytes, SHP2 activity is elevated in astrocytes isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-prone H-Ras(12V) knock-in mice as well as in glioma cell lines and patient-derived GBM specimens exhibiting hyperactive Ras. Pharmacologic inhibition of SHP2 activity attenuates cell proliferation, soft-agar colony formation and orthotopic GBM growth in NOD/SCID mice and decelerates the progression of low-grade astrocytoma to GBM in a spontaneous transgenic glioma mouse model. These results identify SHP2 as a direct activator of Ras and a potential therapeutic target for cancers driven by a previously 'undruggable' oncogenic or hyperactive Ras.

  9. Differential expression of the ras gene family in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Leon, J; Guerrero, I; Pellicer, A

    1987-01-01

    We compared the expression of the ras gene family (H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras) in adult mouse tissues and during development. We found substantial variations in expression among different organs and in the amounts of the different transcripts originating from each gene, especially for the N-ras gene. The expression patterns were consistent with the reported preferential tissue activation of ras genes and suggested different cellular functions for each of the ras genes. Images PMID:3600635

  10. Single cell analysis of low-power laser irradiation-induced activation of signaling pathway in cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Da; Gao, Xuejuan

    2007-02-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been shown to promote cell proliferation in various cell types, yet the mechanism of which has not been fully clarified. Investigating the signaling pathways involved in the laser irradiation is important for understanding these processes. The small G protein Ras works as a binary switch in many important intracellular signaling pathways and, therefore, has been one of the focal targets of signal-transduction investigations and drug development. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling pathway is a network that governs proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Recent studies suggest that Ras/Raf signaling pathway is involved in the LPLI-induced cell proliferation. On the other hand, Protein kinase Cs (PKCs), the Ca 2+ activated, phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine protein kinases, have been recently presumed to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation induced by LPLI. In this report, to monitor the direct activations of Ras and PKCs after LPLI treatment in living cells in real time, Raichu-Ras reporter and C kinase activity reporter (CKAR) were utilized, both of which were constructed based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. The direct activation of Ras is predominantly initiated from the different microdomains of the plasma membrane. The results are monitored during cell proliferation induced by LPLI (0.8 J/cm2) in serum-starved COS-7 cells expressing Raichu-Ras reporter using FRET imaging on laser scanning confocal microscope. Furthermore, the increasing activation of PKCs is also monitored during cell proliferation induced by LPLI (0.8 J/cm2) in serum-starved human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1) expressing CKAR reporter using the similar way. Taken together, the dynamic increases of H-Ras and PKCs activities are observed during the processes of cell proliferation induced by LPLI.

  11. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK-2) mediated phosphorylation regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling and cell growth control of Ras-associated tumor suppressor protein, RASSF2

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Gita; Mahalingam, S.

    2009-10-01

    Ras GTPase controls the normal cell growth through binding with an array of effector molecules, such as Raf and PI3-kinase in a GTP-dependent manner. RASSF2, a member of the Ras association domain family, is known to be involved in the suppression of cell growth and is frequently down-regulated in various tumor tissues by promoter hypermethylation. In the present study, we demonstrate that RASSF2 shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm by a signal-mediated process and its export from the nucleus is sensitive to leptomycin B. Amino acids between 240 to 260 in the C-terminus of RASSF2 harbor a functional nuclear export signal (NES), which is necessary and sufficient for efficient export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. Substitution of conserved Ile254, Val257 and Leu259 within the minimal NES impaired RASSF2 export from the nucleus. In addition, wild type but not the nuclear export defective RASSF2 mutant interacts with export receptor, CRM-1 and exported from the nucleus. Surprisingly, we observed nucleolar localization for the nuclear export defective mutant suggesting the possibility that RASSF2 may localize in different cellular compartments transiently in a cell cycle dependent manner and the observed nuclear localization for wild type protein may be due to faster export kinetics from the nucleolus. Furthermore, our data suggest that RASSF2 is specifically phosphorylated by MAPK/ERK-2 and the inhibitors of MAPK pathway impair the phosphorylation and subsequently block the export of RASSF2 from the nucleus. These data clearly suggest that ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of RASSF2. Interestingly, nuclear import defective mutant of RASSF2 failed to induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase and apoptosis suggesting that RASSF2 regulates cell growth in a nuclear localization dependent manner. Collectively, these data provided evidence for the first time that MAPK/ERK-2 mediated phosphorylation regulates

  12. KSR: a MAPK scaffold of the Ras pathway?

    PubMed

    Morrison, D K

    2001-05-01

    Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) is an intriguing component of the Ras pathway that was first identified by genetic studies performed in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In both organisms, inactivating mutations in KSR suppress the phenotypic effects induced by activated Ras. These findings together with the fact that KSR contains many structural features characteristic of a protein kinase led to early speculation that KSR is a kinase functioning upstream of the Ras pathway component Raf-1 or in a parallel Ras-dependent pathway. However, in the six years since its discovery, KSR has been found to lack several key properties of known protein kinases, which has cast doubt on whether KSR is indeed a functional enzyme. A major breakthrough in our understanding of the role of KSR in signal transduction has come from recent findings that KSR interacts with several components of the MAP kinase cascade, including Raf-1, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. The model now emerging is that KSR acts as a scaffolding protein that coordinates the assembly of a membrane-localized, multiprotein MAP kinase complex, a vital step in Ras-mediated signal transduction. Thus, while Kinase Suppressor of Ras may be its name, phosphorylation may not be its game.

  13. Novel Gbeta Mimic Kelch Proteins Gpb1 and Gpb2 Connect G-Protein Signaling to Ras Via Yeast Neurofibromin Homologs Ira 1 and Ira 2: A Model for Human NF1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    in a decrease of the RasGAP Iral/2 proteins and consequently to an increase in the GTP bound form of Ras, which is the active form of Ras and...essential for membrane localization and function fusion protein exhibited a decreased level of myristoylation and required for palmitoylation, and...or when Gpbl /2 were overexpressed. As a!., 2000). Ethanol and glycerol are structurally unrelated F3 shown in Figure 3, A and B, Gpa2 membrane

  14. Modulation of Ras/ERK and Phosphoinositide Signaling by Long-Chain n-3 PUFA in Breast Cancer and Their Potential Complementary Role in Combination with Targeted Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Serini, Simona; Calviello, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    A potential complementary role of the dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA) in combination with innovative mono-targeted therapies has recently been proposed. These compounds are thought to act pleiotropically to prevent the development and progression of a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. We hereinafter critically analyze the reports investigating the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to modulate the Ras/ERK and the phosphoinositide survival signaling pathways often aberrantly activated in breast cancer and representing the main targets of innovative therapies. The in vitro or in vivo animal and human interventional studies published up to January 2017 investigating the effects of LCn-3 PUFA on these pathways in normal and cancerous breast cells or tissues were identified through a systematic search of literature in the PubMed database. We found that, in most cases, both the in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the ability of LCn-3 PUFA to inhibit the activation of these pro-survival pathways. Altogether, the analyzed results strongly suggest a potential role of LCn-3 PUFA as complementary agents in combination with mono-targeted therapies. Moreover, the results indicate the need for further in vitro and human interventional studies designed to unequivocally prove the potential adjuvant role of these fatty acids. PMID:28241486

  15. RLIP76 regulates Arf6-dependent cell spreading and migration by linking ARNO with activated R-Ras at recycling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wurtzel, Jeremy G.T.; Lee, Seunghyung; Singhal, Sharad S.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Goldfinger, Lawrence E.

    2015-01-01

    R-Ras small GTPase enhances cell spreading and motility via RalBP1/RLIP76, an R-Ras effector that links GTP-R-Ras to activation of Arf6 and Rac1 GTPases. Here, we report that RLIP76 performs these functions by binding cytohesin-2/ARNO, an Arf GTPase guanine exchange factor, and connecting it to R-Ras at recycling endosomes. RLIP76 formed a complex with R-Ras and ARNO by binding ARNO via its N-terminus (residues 1-180) and R-Ras via residues 180-192. This complex was present in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes and the presence of ARNO in recycling endosomes required RLIP76, and was not supported by RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192). Spreading and migration required RLIP76(1-180), and RLIP76(Δ1-180) blocked ARNO recruitment to recycling endosomes, and spreading. Arf6 activation with an ArfGAP inhibitor overcame the spreading defects in RLIP76-depleted cells or cells expressing RLIP76(Δ1-180). Similarly, RLIP76(Δ1-180) or RLIP76(Δ180-192) suppressed Arf6 activation. Together these results demonstrate that RLIP76 acts as a scaffold at recycling endosomes by binding activated R-Ras, recruiting ARNO to activate Arf6, thereby contributing to cell spreading and migration. PMID:26498519

  16. The Ras/PKA signaling pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a functional interaction with the Sin4p complex of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, S C; Chang, Y W; Budovskaya, Y V; Herman, P K

    2001-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells enter into the G(0)-like resting state, stationary phase, in response to specific types of nutrient limitation. We have initiated a genetic analysis of this resting state and have identified a collection of rye mutants that exhibit a defective transcriptional response to nutrient deprivation. These transcriptional defects appear to disrupt the control of normal growth because the rye mutants are unable to enter into a normal stationary phase upon nutrient deprivation. In this study, we examined the mutants in the rye1 complementation group and found that rye1 mutants were also defective for stationary phase entry. Interestingly, the RYE1 gene was found to be identical to SIN4, a gene that encodes a component of the yeast Mediator complex within the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Moreover, mutations that affected proteins within the Sin4p module of the Mediator exhibited specific genetic interactions with the Ras protein signaling pathway. For example, mutations that elevated the levels of Ras signaling, like RAS2(val19), were synthetic lethal with sin4. In all, our data suggest that specific proteins within the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme might be targets of signal transduction pathways that are responsible for coordinating gene expression with cell growth. PMID:11560888

  17. Ras Proteins Have Multiple Functions in Vegetative Cells of Dictyostelium ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George; Weeks, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG− cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas rasC−/rasG− cells are totally incapable of chemotaxis. In this study we have examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasC in vegetative cells by comparing the vegetative cell properties of rasG−, rasC−, and rasC−/rasG− cells. In addition, since RasD, a protein not normally found in vegetative cells, is expressed in vegetative rasG− and rasC−/rasG− cells and appears to partially compensate for the absence of RasG, we have also examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasD by comparing the properties of rasG− and rasC−/rasG− cells with those of the mutant cells expressing higher levels of RasD. The results of these two lines of investigation show that RasD is capable of totally substituting for RasG for cytokinesis and growth in suspension, whereas RasC is without effect. In contrast, for chemotaxis to folate, RasC is capable of partially substituting for RasG, but RasD is totally without effect. Finally, neither RasC nor RasD is able to substitute for the role that RasG plays in regulating actin distribution and random motility. These specificity studies therefore delineate three distinct and none-overlapping functions for RasG in vegetative cells. PMID:20833893

  18. XRP44X, an Inhibitor of Ras/Erk Activation of the Transcription Factor Elk3, Inhibits Tumour Growth and Metastasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Henry; Tourrette, Yves; Maas, Peter; Schalken, Jack A; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors have an important role in cancer but are difficult targets for the development of tumour therapies. These factors include the Ets family, and in this study Elk3 that is activated by Ras oncogene /Erk signalling, and is involved in angiogenesis, malignant progression and epithelial-mesenchymal type processes. We previously described the identification and in-vitro characterisation of an inhibitor of Ras / Erk activation of Elk3 that also affects microtubules, XRP44X. We now report an initial characterisation of the effects of XRP44X in-vivo on tumour growth and metastasis in three preclinical models mouse models, subcutaneous xenografts, intra-cardiac injection-bone metastasis and the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer progression. XRP44X inhibits tumour growth and metastasis, with limited toxicity. Tumours from XRP44X-treated animals have decreased expression of genes containing Elk3-like binding motifs in their promoters, Elk3 protein and phosphorylated Elk3, suggesting that perhaps XRP44X acts in part by inhibiting the activity of Elk3. Further studies are now warranted to develop XRP44X for tumour therapy. PMID:27427904

  19. Increased Apoptosis in the Paraventricular Nucleus Mediated by AT1R/Ras/ERK1/2 Signaling Results in Sympathetic Hyperactivity and Renovascular Hypertension in Rats after Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongguo; Tan, Lishan; Li, Yumin; Li, Jiawen; Qiu, Minzi; Li, Lanying; Zhang, Mengbi; Liang, Min; Li, Aiqing

    2017-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, but the molecular regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore signaling in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which might contribute to renal hypertension. Methods: Renal hypertension model was established by five-sixth nephrectomy operation (5/6Nx) in male Sprague Dawley rats. Ten weeks afterwards, they were random assigned to no treatment, or intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, losartan [angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) antagonist], farnesylthiosalicylic acid (Ras inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and Z-DEVD-FMK (caspase-3 inhibitor). Before and after treatment, physiological and biochemical indices were measured. Immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-PCR were applied to quantify key components of renin-angiotensin system, apoptosis-related proteins, Ras-GTP, and MAPKs in the PVN samples. TUNEL assay was used to measure the situ apoptosis in PVN. Results: The 5/6Nx rats showed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine, and plasma norepinephrine (p < 0.05) compared to sham rats. The expression of angiotensinogen, Ang II, AT1R, p-ERK1/2, or apoptosis-promoting protein Bax were 1.08-, 2.10-, 0.74-, 0.82-, 0.83-fold higher in the PVN of 5/6Nx rats, than that of sham rats, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. Western blot confirmed the increased levels of AT1R, p-ERK1/2 and Bax; meanwhile, Ras-GTP and p-p38 were also found higher in the PVN of 5/6Nx rats, as well as the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. In 5/6Nx rats, ICV infusion of AT1R antagonist, Ras inhibitor, MEK inhibitor or caspase-3 inhibitor could lower systolic blood pressure (20.8-, 20.8-, 18.9-, 14.3%-fold) together with plasma norepinephrine (53.9-, 57.8-,63.3-, 52.3%-fold). Western blot revealed that blocking the signaling of AT1R

  20. Importance of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in HER2, FGFR2 and MET-unamplified gastric cancer with and without Ras pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Saisana, Marina; Griffin, S. Michael; May, Felicity E.B.

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of seven oncogenes: HER2, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR2, MET, KRAS and IGF1R has been identified in gastric cancer. The first five are targeted therapeutically in patients with HER2-positivity, FGFR2- or MET-amplification but the majority of patients are triple-negative and require alternative strategies. Our aim was to evaluate the importance of the IGF1R tyrosine kinase in triple-negative gastric cancer with and without oncogenic KRAS, BRAF or PI3K3CA mutations. Cell lines and metastatic tumor cells isolated from patients expressed IGF1R, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activated the PI3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathways. IGF-1 protected triple-negative cells from caspase-dependent apoptosis and anoikis. Protection was mediated via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Remarkably, IGF-1-dependent cell survival was greater in patient samples. IGF-1 stimulated triple-negative gastric cancer cell growth was prevented by IGF1R knockdown and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway inhibition. The importance of the receptor in cell line and metastatic tumor cell growth in serum-containing medium was demonstrated by knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with figitumumab. The proportions of cells in S-phase and mitotic-phase, and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway activity, were reduced concomitantly. KRAS-addicted and BRAF-impaired gastric cancer cells were particularly susceptible. In conclusion, IGF1R and the IGF signal transduction pathway merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets in patients with triple-negative gastric cancer. PMID:27437872

  1. A new chemical inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis that targets the VEGF signaling pathway upstream of Ras

    PubMed Central

    Desroches-Castan, Agnès; Quélard, Delphine; Demeunynck, Martine; Constant, Jean-François; Dong, Chongling; Keramidas, Michelle; Coll, Jean-Luc; Barette, Caroline; Lafanechère, Laurence; Feige, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies on cancer patients is limited by the emergence of drug resistance, urging the search for second-generation drugs. In this study, we screened an academic chemical library (DCM, University of Grenoble-Alpes) and identified a leader molecule, COB223, that inhibits endothelial cell migration and proliferation. It inhibits also Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC/2) cell proliferation whereas it does not affect fibroblast proliferation. The anti-angiogenic activity of COB223 was confirmed using several in vitro and in vivo assays. In a mouse LLC/2 tumor model, ip administration of doses as low as 4 mg/kg COB223 efficiently reduced the tumor growth rate. We observed that COB223 inhibits endothelial cell ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by VEGF, FGF-2 or serum and that it acts downstream of PKC and upstream of Ras. This molecule represents a novel anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic agent with an original mechanism of action that deserves further development as an anti-cancer drug. PMID:25742784

  2. Di2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis through activating the Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and inducing hepatic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hanfeng; Ha, Mei; Yang, Min; Yue, Ping; Xie, Zhengyuan; Liu, Changjiang

    2017-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were reduced. DEHP caused ROS production, oxidative stress and k-Ras upregulation, thereby activating the ERK and Akt pathways in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was elevated after the activation of the Akt pathway and was downregulated after the inhibition of the Akt pathway. However, TRHr was not modulated by the ERK pathway. Additionally, hepatic enzymes, including Ugt1a1, CYP2b1, Sult1e1, and Sult2b1, were significantly induced after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP can perturb TH homeostasis and reduce TH levels. The activated Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and induced hepatic enzymes play vital roles in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP. PMID:28065941

  3. Di2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts thyroid hormone homeostasis through activating the Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and inducing hepatic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hanfeng; Ha, Mei; Yang, Min; Yue, Ping; Xie, Zhengyuan; Liu, Changjiang

    2017-01-09

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), as a widespread environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor, can disturb the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs). In order to elucidate roles of the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and hepatic enzymes in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP, Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage for 30 consecutive days; Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP with NAC, k-Ras siRNA or inhibitors (U0126 and wortmannin). Results showed that DEHP led to histopathologic changes in rat thyroid and liver, such as the decrease in thyroid follicular cavity diameter, hepatocyte edema. Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) were reduced. DEHP caused ROS production, oxidative stress and k-Ras upregulation, thereby activating the ERK and Akt pathways in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, TRH receptor (TRHr) level was elevated after the activation of the Akt pathway and was downregulated after the inhibition of the Akt pathway. However, TRHr was not modulated by the ERK pathway. Additionally, hepatic enzymes, including Ugt1a1, CYP2b1, Sult1e1, and Sult2b1, were significantly induced after DEHP exposure. Taken together, DEHP can perturb TH homeostasis and reduce TH levels. The activated Ras/Akt/TRHr pathway and induced hepatic enzymes play vital roles in thyroid-disrupting effects of DEHP.

  4. Diacylglycerol generated by exogenous phospholipase C activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway independent of Ras- and phorbol ester-sensitive protein kinase C: dependence on protein kinase C-zeta.

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, M; Muriana, F J; van Der Hoeven, P C; de Widt, J; Schaap, D; Moolenaar, W H; van Blitterswijk, W J

    1997-01-01

    The role of diacylglycerol (DG) formation from phosphatidylcholine in mitogenic signal transduction is poorly understood. We have generated this lipid at the plasma membrane by treating Rat-1 fibroblasts with bacterial phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC). This treatment leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). However, unlike platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) or epidermal growth factor (EGF), PC-PLC fails to activate Ras and to induce DNA synthesis, and activates MAPK only transiently (<45 min). Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) -alpha, -delta and -epsilon isotypes has little or no effect on MAPK activation by either PC-PLC or growth factors. However, Ro 31-8220, a highly selective inhibitor of all PKC isotypes, including atypical PKC-zeta but not Raf-1, blocks MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC, but not that by EGF, suggesting that atypical PKC mediates the PDGF and PC-PLC signal. In line with this, PKC-zeta is activated by PC-PLC and PDGF, but not by EGF, as shown by a kinase assay in vitro, using biotinylated epsilon-peptide as a substrate. Furthermore, dominant-negative PKC-zeta inhibits, while (wild-type) PKC-zeta overexpression enhances MAPK activation by PDGF and PC-PLC. The results suggest that DG generated by PC-PLC can activate the MAPK pathway independent of Ras and phorbol-ester-sensitive PKC but, instead, via PKC-zeta. PMID:9169602

  5. Aberrant microRNA Expression Likely Controls RAS Oncogene Activation During Malignant Transformation of Human Prostate Epithelial and Stem Cells by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Ngalame, Ntube N. O.; Tokar, Erik J.; Person, Rachel J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a human carcinogen, potentially targets the prostate. iAs malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to CAsE-PE cells, and a derivative normal stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem, to As-Cancer SC (As-CSC) line. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding but exert negative control on expression by degradation or translational repression of target mRNAs. Aberrant miRNA expression is important in carcinogenesis. A miRNA array of CAsE-PE and As-CSC revealed common altered expression in both for pathways concerning oncogenesis, miRNA biogenesis, cell signaling, proliferation, and tumor metastasis and invasion. The KRAS oncogene is overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells but not by mutation or promoter hypomethylation, and is intensely overexpressed in As-CSC cells. In both transformants, decreased miRNAs targeting KRAS and RAS superfamily members occurred. Reduced miR-134, miR-373, miR-155, miR-138, miR-205, miR-181d, miR-181c, and let-7 in CAsE-PE cells correlated with increased target RAS oncogenes, RAN, RAB27A, RAB22A mRNAs, and KRAS protein. Reduced miR-143, miR-34c-5p, and miR-205 in As-CSC correlated with increased target RAN mRNA, and KRAS, NRAS, and RRAS proteins. The RAS/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathways control cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and when dysregulated promote a cancer phenotype. iAs transformation increased expression of activated ERK kinase in both transformants and altered components of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway including decreased PTEN and increases in BCL2, BCL-XL, and VEGF in the absence of AKT activation. Thus, dysregulated miRNA expression may be linked to RAS activation in both transformants. PMID:24431212

  6. Loss of platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated phospholipase activity in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the EJ-ras oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C.W.; Tarpley, W.G.; Gorman, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Data indicating that the 21-kDa protein (p21) Harvey-ras gene product shares sequence homology with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) has stimulated research on the influence(s) of p21 on G-protein-regulated systems in vertebrate cells. Previous work demonstrated that NIH-3T3 mouse cells expressing high levels of the cellular ras oncogene isolated from the EJ human bladder carcinoma (EJ-ras) exhibited reduced hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The authors now report that in these cells another enzyme system thought to be regulated by G proteins is inhibited, namely phospholipases A/sub 2/ and C. NIH-3T3 cells incubated in plasma-derived serum release significant levels of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) as determined by radioimmunoassay when exposed to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 2 units/ml. The lack of PDGF-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ release from EJ-ras-transfected cells is not due to a defect in the prostaglandin cyclooxygenase enzyme, since incubation of control cells and EJ-ras-transfected cells in 0.33, 3.3, or 33 ..mu..M arachidonate resulted in identical levels of PGE/sub 2/ release. The lack of PDGF-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ release from EJ-ras-transfected cells also does not result from the loss of functional PDGF receptors. EJ-ras-transformed cells bind 70% as much /sup 125/I-labeled PDGF as control cells and are stimulated to incorporate (/sup 3/H)thymidine and to proliferate after exposure to PDGF. Determination of total water-soluble inositolphospholipids and changes in the specific activities of phosphatidylcholine in control and EJ-ras-transfected cells demonstrated that PDGF-stimulated phospholipase C and A/sub 2/ activities are inhibited in the EJ-ras-transfected cells.

  7. Differential Role of β1C and β1A Integrin Cytoplasmic Variants in Modulating Focal Adhesion Kinase, Protein Kinase B/AKT, and Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Mara; Steger, Craig A.; Bennett, Anton M.; Wu, J. Julie; Languino, Lucia R.

    2000-01-01

    The integrin cytoplasmic domain modulates cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and intracellular signaling. The β1 integrin subunits, β1C and β1A, that contain variant cytoplasmic domains differentially affect cell proliferation; β1C inhibits proliferation, whereas β1A promotes it. We investigated the ability of β1C and β1A to modulate integrin-mediated signaling events that affect cell proliferation and survival in Chinese hamster ovary stable cell lines expressing either human β1C or human β1A. The different cytodomains of either β1C or β1A did not affect either association with the endogenous α2, αV, and α5 subunits or cell adhesion to fibronectin or TS2/16, a mAb to human β1. Upon engagement of endogenous and exogenous integrins by fibronectin, cells expressing β1C showed significantly inhibited extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) 2 activation compared with β1A stable cell lines. In contrast, focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation and Protein Kinase B/AKT activity were not affected. Selective engagement of the exogenously expressed β1C by TS2/16 led to stimulation of Protein Kinase B/AKT phosphorylation but not of ERK2 activation; in contrast, β1A engagement induced activation of both proteins. We show that Ras activation was strongly reduced in β1C stable cell lines in response to fibronectin adhesion and that expression of constitutively active Ras, Ras 61 (L), rescued β1C-mediated down-regulation of ERK2 activation. Inhibition of cell proliferation in β1C stable cell lines was attributable to an inhibitory effect of β1C on the Ras/MAP kinase pathway because expression of activated MAPK kinase rescued β1C antiproliferative effect. These findings show that the β1C variant, by means of a unique signaling mechanism, selectively inhibits the MAP kinase pathway by preventing Ras activation without affecting either survival signals stimulated by integrins or cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix. These findings

  8. Discovery of 1-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-3-(2-fluoro-4-methyl-5-(7-methyl-2-(methylamino)pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenyl)urea (LY3009120) as a pan-RAF inhibitor with minimal paradoxical activation and activity against BRAF or RAS mutant tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Henry, James R; Kaufman, Michael D; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Ahn, Yu Mi; Caldwell, Timothy M; Vogeti, Lakshminarayana; Telikepalli, Hanumaiah; Lu, Wei-Ping; Hood, Molly M; Rutkoski, Thomas J; Smith, Bryan D; Vogeti, Subha; Miller, David; Wise, Scott C; Chun, Lawrence; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Youyan; Kays, Lisa; Hipskind, Philip A; Wrobleski, Aaron D; Lobb, Karen L; Clay, Julia M; Cohen, Jeffrey D; Walgren, Jennie L; McCann, Denis; Patel, Phenil; Clawson, David K; Guo, Sherry; Manglicmot, Danalyn; Groshong, Chris; Logan, Cheyenne; Starling, James J; Flynn, Daniel L

    2015-05-28

    The RAS-RAF-MEK-MAPK cascade is an essential signaling pathway, with activation typically mediated through cell surface receptors. The kinase inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib, which target oncogenic BRAF V600E, have shown significant clinical efficacy in melanoma patients harboring this mutation. Because of paradoxical pathway activation, both agents were demonstrated to promote growth and metastasis of tumor cells with RAS mutations in preclinical models and are contraindicated for treatment of cancer patients with BRAF WT background, including patients with KRAS or NRAS mutations. In order to eliminate the issues associated with paradoxical MAPK pathway activation and to provide therapeutic benefit to patients with RAS mutant cancers, we sought to identify a compound not only active against BRAF V600E but also wild type BRAF and CRAF. On the basis of its superior in vitro and in vivo profile, compound 13 was selected for further development and is currently being evaluated in phase I clinical studies.

  9. Cooperative loss of RAS feedback regulation drives myeloid leukemognesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Chen, Chi-Chao; Rillahan, Cory D.; Shen, Ronglai; Kitzing, Thomas; McNerney, Megan E.; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Zuber, Johannes; Shannon, Kevin; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Spector, Mona S.; Kogan, Scott C.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    RAS network activation is common in human cancers and, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), achieved mainly through gain-of-function mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase1. In mice, we show that premalignant myeloid cells harboring a KrasG12D allele retain low Ras signaling owing to a negative feedback involving Spry4 that prevents transformation. In humans, SPRY4 is located on chromosome 5q, a region affected by large heterozygous deletion that are associated with an aggressive disease in which gain-of-function RAS pathway mutations are rare. These 5q deletions often co-occur with chromosome 17 alterations involving deletion of NF1 - another RAS negative regulator - and TP53. Accordingly, combined suppression of Spry4, Nf1 and Trp53 produces high Ras signaling and drives AML in mice. Therefore, SPRY4 is a 5q tumor suppressor whose disruption contributes to a lethal AML subtype that appears to acquire RAS pathway activation through loss of negative regulators. PMID:25822087

  10. Deletion mutants of Harvey ras p21 protein reveal the absolute requirement of at least two distant regions for GTP-binding and transforming activities.

    PubMed Central

    Lacal, J C; Anderson, P S; Aaronson, S A

    1986-01-01

    Deletions of small sequences from the viral Harvey ras gene have been generated, and resulting ras p21 mutants have been expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification of each deleted protein allowed the in vitro characterization of GTP-binding, GTPase and autokinase activity of the proteins. Microinjection of the highly purified proteins into quiescent NIH/3T3 cells, as well as transfection experiments utilizing a long terminal repeat (LTR)-containing vector, were utilized to analyze the biological activity of the deleted proteins. Two small regions located at 6-23 and 152-165 residues are shown to be absolutely required for in vitro and in vivo activities of the ras product. By contrast, the variable region comprising amino acids 165-184 was shown not to be necessary for either in vitro or in vivo activities. Thus, we demonstrate that: (i) amino acid sequences at positions 5-23 and 152-165 of ras p21 protein are probably directly involved in the GTP-binding activity; (ii) GTP-binding is required for the transforming activity of ras p21 and by extension for the normal function of the proto-oncogene product; and (iii) the variable region at the C-terminal end of the ras p21 molecule from amino acids 165 to 184 is not required for transformation. Images Fig.2. Fig.4. PMID:3011420

  11. MicroRNA-132–mediated loss of p120RasGAP activates the endothelium to facilitate pathological angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Sudarshan; Majeti, Bharat K; Acevedo, Lisette M; Murphy, Eric A; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Scheppke, Lea; Huang, Miller; Shields, David J; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Lapinski, Philip E; King, Philip D; Weis, Sara M; Cheresh, David A

    2011-01-01

    Although it is well established that tumors initiate an angiogenic switch, the molecular basis of this process remains incompletely understood. Here we show that the miRNA miR-132 acts as an angiogenic switch by targeting p120RasGAP in the endothelium and thereby inducing neovascularization. We identified miR-132 as a highly upregulated miRNA in a human embryonic stem cell model of vasculogenesis and found that miR-132 was highly expressed in the endothelium of human tumors and hemangiomas but was undetectable in normal endothelium. Ectopic expression of miR-132 in endothelial cells in vitro increased their proliferation and tube-forming capacity, whereas intraocular injection of an antagomir targeting miR-132, anti–miR-132, reduced postnatal retinal vascular development in mice. Among the top-ranking predicted targets of miR-132 was p120RasGAP, which we found to be expressed in normal but not tumor endothelium. Endothelial expression of miR-132 suppressed p120RasGAP expression and increased Ras activity, whereas a miRNA-resistant version of p120RasGAP reversed the vascular response induced by miR-132. Notably, administration of anti–miR-132 inhibited angiogenesis in wild-type mice but not in mice with an inducible deletion of Rasa1 (encoding p120RasGAP). Finally, vessel-targeted nanoparticle delivery1 of anti–miR-132 restored p120RasGAP expression in the tumor endothelium, suppressed angiogenesis and decreased tumor burden in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of human breast carcinoma. We conclude that miR-132 acts as an angiogenic switch by suppressing endothelial p120RasGAP expression, leading to Ras activation and the induction of neovascularization, whereas the application of anti–miR-132 inhibits neovascularization by maintaining vessels in the resting state. PMID:20676106

  12. Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP Binding Protein: Sensitization of Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317–326 Sequence Does Not Involve G3BP1

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Alessandro; Dousse, Aline; Martin, Sophie; Tazi, Jamal; Widmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317–326) thought to bind to G3BP1 corresponds exactly to the sequence within fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated fragment of RasGAP, that mediates sensitization of tumor cells to genotoxins. While assessing the contribution of G3BP1 in the anti-cancer function of a cell-permeable peptide containing the 317–326 sequence of RasGAP (TAT-RasGAP317–326), we found that, in conditions where G3BP1 and RasGAP bind to known partners, no interaction between G3BP1 and RasGAP could be detected. TAT-RasGAP317–326 did not modulate binding of G3BP1 to USP10, stress granule formation or c-myc mRNA levels. Finally, TAT-RasGAP317–326 was able to sensitize G3BP1 knock-out cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively these results indicate that G3BP1 and its putative RasGAP binding region have no functional influence on each other. Importantly, our data provide arguments against G3BP1 being a genuine RasGAP-binding partner. Hence, G3BP1-mediated signaling may not involve RasGAP. PMID:22205990

  13. Original Research: Atorvastatin prevents rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by parathyroid hormone 1-34 associated with the Ras-ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaogang; Zou, Chunbo; Yu, Chengyuan; Xie, Rujuan; Sui, Manshu; Mu, Suhong; Li, Li; Zhao, Shilei

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the effects of atorvastatin (Ator) on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy (CMH) induced by rat parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH1-34) and Ras-extracellular signal regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Rat cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into seven groups: normal controls (NC), PTH1-34 (10(-7) mol/L), Ator (10(-5) mol/L), farnesyl transferase inhibitors-276 (FTI-276, 4 × 10(-5) mol/L), PTH1-34 + Ator, PTH1-34 + FTI-276 and PTH1-34 + Ator + mevalonic acid (MVA, 10(-4) mol/L). After treatment, the hypertrophic responses of cardiomyocytes were assessed by measuring cell diameter, detecting protein synthesis, and single-cell protein content. The concentrations of hypertrophic markers such as atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by ELISA. Protein expressions of ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and Ras were detected by western blotting. The results showed that compared with the PTH1-34 group, cellular diameter, 3H-leucine incorporation, single-cell protein content, ANP and BNP concentration decreased by 12.07 µm, 1622 cpm/well, 84.34 pg, 7.13 ng/L and 20.04 µg/L, respectively, and the expressions of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were downregulated in PTH1-34 + Ator group (P < 0.05). Compared to the PTH1-34 + Ator group, the corresponding hypertrophic responses and hypertrophic markers increased by 4.95 µm, 750 cpm/well, 49.08 pg, 3.12 ng/L and 9.35 µg/L, respectively, and the expressions of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were upregulated in the PTH1-34 + Ator + MVA group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Ator prevents neonatal rat CMH induced by PTH1-34 and Ras-ERK signaling may be involved in this process.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma stimulates human dermal fibroblast proliferation via a Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomoya; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Lai, Fangyuan; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a high concentration of several growth factors and contributes to soft-tissue engineering and wound healing. However, the effect of PRP on human dermal fibroblast proliferation and responses is unknown. This was investigated in the present study using PRP prepared from the whole human blood using the double-spin method. Human dermal fibroblast cultures were established from skin samples collected during plastic surgery. Platelet concentration and growth factor levels in PRP were estimated, and a cell proliferation assay was carried out after PRP treatment. The role of Ras-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the effects of PRP was investigated in human dermal fibroblasts by suppressing ERK1/2 expression with an inhibitor or by short interfering (si)RNA-mediated knockdown, and assessing ERK1/2 phosphorylation by western blotting as well as proliferation in PRP-treated cells. We found that PRP stimulated human dermal fibroblast proliferation, which was suppressed by ERK1/2 inhibitor treatment (P < 0.01). ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in the presence of PRP, while siRNA-mediated knockdown of ERK1/2 blocked cell proliferation normally induced by PRP treatment (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that PRP induces human dermal fibroblast proliferation via activation of ERK1/2 signaling. Our findings provide a basis for the development of agents that can promote wound healing and can be applied to soft-tissue engineering.

  15. Regulation of a LATS-homolog by Ras GTPases is important for the control of cell division

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear Dbf-related/large tumor suppressor (NDR/LATS) kinases have been shown recently to control pathways that regulate mitotic exit, cytokinesis, cell growth, morphological changes and apoptosis. LATS kinases are core components of the Hippo signaling cascade and important tumor suppressors controlling cell proliferation and organ size in flies and mammals, and homologs are also present in yeast and Dictyostelium discoideum. Ras proto-oncogens regulate many biological functions, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Dysfunctions of LATS kinases or Ras GTPases have been implicated in the development of a variety of cancers in humans. Results In this study we used the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum to analyze the functions of NdrC, a homolog of the mammalian LATS2 protein, and present a novel regulatory mechanism for this kinase. Deletion of the ndrC gene caused impaired cell division and loss of centrosome integrity. A yeast two-hybrid analysis, using activated Ras proteins as bait, revealed NdrC as an interactor and identified its Ras-binding domain. Further in vitro pull-down assays showed that NdrC binds RasG and RasB, and to a lesser extent RasC and Rap1. In cells lacking NdrC, the levels of activated RasB and RasG are up-regulated, suggesting a functional connection between RasB, RasG, and NdrC. Conclusions Dictyostelium discoideum NdrC is a LATS2-homologous kinase that is important for the regulation of cell division. NdrC contains a Ras-binding domain and interacts preferentially with RasB and RasG. Changed levels of both, RasB or RasG, have been shown previously to interfere with cell division. Since a defect in cell division is exhibited by NdrC-null cells, RasG-null cells, and cells overexpressing activated RasB, we propose a model for the regulation of cytokinesis by NdrC that involves the antagonistic control by RasB and RasG. PMID:24986648

  16. Mutation-Specific RAS Oncogenicity Explains N-RAS Codon 61 Selection in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Christin E.; Liu, Wenjin; Huynh, Minh V.; Waqas, Meriam A.; Gillahan, James E.; Clark, Kelly S.; Fu, Kailing; Martin, Brit L.; Jeck, William R.; Souroullas, George P.; Darr, David B.; Zedek, Daniel C.; Miley, Michael J.; Baguley, Bruce C.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    N-RAS mutation at codon 12, 13 or 61 is associated with transformation; yet, in melanoma, such alterations are nearly exclusive to codon 61. Here, we compared the melanoma susceptibility of an N-RasQ61R knock-in allele to similarly designed K-RasG12D and N-RasG12D alleles. With concomitant p16INK4a inactivation, K-RasG12D or N-RasQ61R expression efficiently promoted melanoma in vivo, whereas N-RasG12D did not. Additionally, N-RasQ61R mutation potently cooperated with Lkb1/Stk11 loss to induce highly metastatic disease. Functional comparisons of N-RasQ61R and N-RasG12D revealed little difference in the ability of these proteins to engage PI3K or RAF. Instead, N-RasQ61R showed enhanced nucleotide binding, decreased intrinsic GTPase activity and increased stability when compared to N-RasG12D. This work identifies a faithful model of human N-RAS mutant melanoma, and suggests that the increased melanomagenecity of N-RasQ61R over N-RasG12D is due to heightened abundance of the active, GTP-bound form rather than differences in the engagement of downstream effector pathways. PMID:25252692

  17. The ras superfamily proteins.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P

    1988-07-01

    Several recent discoveries indicate that the ras genes, frequently activated to a transforming potential in some human tumours, belong to a large family that can be divided into three main branches: the first branch represented by the ras, ral and rap genes; the second branch, by the rho genes; and the third branch, by the rab genes. The C-terminal end of the encoded proteins always includes a cystein, which may become fatty-acylated, suggesting a sub-membrane localization. The ras superfamily proteins share four regions of high homology corresponding to the GTP binding site; however, even in these regions, significant differences are found, suggesting that the various proteins may possess slightly different biochemical properties. Recent reports show that some of these proteins play an essential role in the control of physical processes such as cell motility, membrane ruffling, endocytosis and exocytosis. Nevertheless, the characterization of the proteins directly interacting with the ras or ras-related gene-products will be required to precisely understand their function.

  18. Gene expression studies demonstrate that the K-ras/Erk MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and other novel pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of cumene-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Collins, Jennifer B; Parker, Joel S; Tessema, Mathewos; Clayton, Natasha P; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Belinsky, Steven; Devereux, Theodora R; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation studies demonstrated that cumene significantly increased the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Cumene or isopropylbenzene is a component of crude oil used primarily in the production of phenol and acetone. The authors performed global gene expression analysis to distinguish patterns of gene regulation between cumene-induced tumors and normal lung tissue and to look for patterns based on the presence or absence of K-ras and p53 mutations in the tumors. Principal component analysis segregated the carcinomas into groups with and without K-ras mutations, but failed to separate the tumors based on p53 mutation status. Expression of genes associated with the Erk MAP kinase signaling pathway was significantly altered in carcinomas with K-ras mutations compared to tumors without K-ras mutations or normal lung. Gene expression analysis also suggested that cumene-induced carcinomas with K-ras mutations have greater malignant potential than those without mutations. In addition, significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE) demonstrated expression changes of genes regulated by histone modification in carcinomas with K-ras mutations. The gene expression analysis suggested the formation of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in cumene-exposed mice typically involves mutation of K-ras, which results in increased Erk MAP kinase signaling and modification of histones.

  19. Specific activation of p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase stimulates DNA synthesis by ras- and p70 S6 kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, J; Chen, D; Wjasow, C; Michaeli, T; Backer, J M

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a polyclonal antibody that activates the heterodimeric p85-p110 phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase in vitro and in microinjected cells. Affinity purification revealed that the activating antibody recognized the N-terminal SH2 (NSH2) domain of p85, and the antibody increased the catalytic activity of recombinant p85-p110 dimers threefold in vitro. To study the role of endogenous PI 3'-kinase in intact cells, the activating anti-NSH2 antibody was microinjected into GRC + LR73 cells, a CHO cell derivative selected for tight quiescence during serum withdrawal. Microinjection of anti-NSH2 antibodies increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation fivefold in quiescent cells and enhanced the response to serum. These data reflect a specific activation of PI 3'-kinase, as the effect was blocked by coinjection of the appropriate antigen (glutathione S-transferase-NSH2 domains from p85 alpha), coinjection of inhibitory anti-p110 antibodies, or treatment of cells with wortmannin. We used the activating antibodies to study signals downstream from PI 3'-kinase. Although treatment of cells with 50 nM rapamycin only partially decreased anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation, coinjection with an anti-p70 S6 kinase antibody effectively blocked anti-NSH2-stimulated DNA synthesis. We also found that coinjection of inhibitory anti-ras antibodies blocked both serum- and anti-NSH2-stimulated BrdU incorporation by approximately 60%, and treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of MEK abolished antibody-stimulated BrdU incorporation. We conclude that selective activation of physiological levels of PI 3'-kinase is sufficient to stimulate DNA synthesis in quiescent cells. PI 3'-kinase-mediated DNA synthesis requires both p70 S6 kinase and the P21ras/MEK pathway. PMID:8972205

  20. ras proto-oncogene activation in dichloroacetic acid-, trichloroethylene- and tetrachloroethylene-induced liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Anna, C H; Maronpot, R R; Pereira, M A; Foley, J F; Malarkey, D E; Anderson, M W

    1994-10-01

    The frequency and mutation spectra of proto-oncogene activation in hepatocellular neoplasms induced by tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroacetic acid were examined to help define the molecular basis for their carcinogenicity. H-ras codon 61 activation was not significantly different among dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced and combined historical and concurrent control hepatocellular tumors (62%, 51% and 69% respectively). The mutation spectra of H-ras codon 61 mutations showed a significant decrease in AAA and increase in CTA mutations for dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced tumors when compared to combined controls. The H-ras codon 61 mutation frequency for tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors was significantly lower (24%) than that of combined controls and also that of the two other chemicals. Mutations at codons 13 and 117 plus a second exon insert contributed 4% to the total H-ras frequencies for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. There was also a higher incidence of K-ras activation (13%) in tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors than in the other chemically induced or control tumors. Four liver tumors were found to contain insertions of additional bases within the second exon of K- or H-ras. These findings suggest that exposure to dichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene provides a selective growth advantage to spontaneously occurring mutations in codon 61 of H-ras and, at the same time, is responsible for a small number of unique molecular lesions suggestive of either a random genotoxic mode of action or a non-specific result of secondary DNA damage. However, the absence of ras activation in many of the liver neoplasms suggests that alternative mechanisms are also important in B6C3F1 mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

  1. Fas-induced programmed cell death is mediated by a Ras-regulated O2- synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gulbins, E; Brenner, B; Schlottmann, K; Welsch, J; Heinle, H; Koppenhoefer, U; Linderkamp, O; Coggeshall, K M; Lang, F

    1996-01-01

    Fas induces apoptosis in lymphocytes via a poorly defined intracellular signalling cascade. Previously, we have demonstrated the involvement and significance of a signalling cascade from the Fas receptor via sphingomyelinases and ceramide to Ras in Fas-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate rapid and transient synthesis of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) via activation of Ras after Fas. Genetic inhibition of Ras by transfection of transdominant inhibitory N17Ras blocked Fas-mediated ROI synthesis and programmed cell death. Likewise, the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and N-t-butyl-phenylnitrone abolished Fas-induced cell death, pointing to an important role for Ras-triggered ROI synthesis in Fas-mediated programmed cell death. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8943716

  2. Guanyl Nucleotide Exchange Factor Sql2 and Ras2 Regulate Filamentous Growth in Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Philip; Katzenberger, Jörg D.; Loubradou , Gabriel; Kahmann, Regine

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-signaling pathway regulates cell morphology and plays a crucial role during pathogenic development of the plant-pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis. Strains lacking components of this signaling pathway, such as the Gα-subunit Gpa3 or the adenylyl cyclase Uac1, are nonpathogenic and grow filamentously. On the other hand, strains exhibiting an activated cAMP pathway due to a dominant-active allele of gpa3 display a glossy colony phenotype and are unable to proliferate in plant tumors. Here we present the identification of sql2 as a suppressor of the glossy colony phenotype of a gpa3Q206L strain. sql2 encodes a protein with similarity to CDC25-like guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which are known to act on Ras proteins. Overexpression of sql2 leads to filamentous growth that cannot be suppressed by exogenous cAMP, suggesting that Sql2 does not act upstream of Uac1. To gain more insight in signaling processes regulated by Sql2, we isolated two genes encoding Ras proteins. Expression of dominant active alleles of ras1 and ras2 showed that Ras2 induces filamentous growth while Ras1 does not affect cell morphology but elevates pheromone gene expression. These results indicate that Ras1 and Ras2 fulfill different functions in U. maydis. Moreover, observed similarities between the filaments induced by sql2 and ras2 suggest that Sql2 is an activator of Ras2. Interestingly, sql2 deletion mutants are affected in pathogenic development but not in mating, indicating a specific function of sql2 during pathogenesis. PMID:12796306

  3. ROLE OF RAS IN METAL-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR AND NFKB SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that EGF receptor signaling is triggered by some metals associated with ambient air particles. Western blot using phospho-specific antibodies showed that As, Zn and V activated EGF receptor tyrosine kinase and the downstream kinases, MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. Us...

  4. Implications of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in glioma.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vimal; Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors. Gliomas originate from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells or their precursors. According to WHO classification, gliomas are classified into four different malignant grades ranging from grade I to grade IV based on histopathological features and related molecular aberrations. The induction and maintenance of these tumors can be attributed largely to aberrant signaling networks. In this regard, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network has been widely studied and is reported to be severely altered in glial tumors. Mutations in MAPK pathways most frequently affect RAS and B-RAF in the ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways leading to malignant transformation. Also, it is linked to both inherited and sequential accumulations of mutations that control receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-activated signal transduction pathways, cell cycle growth arrest pathways, and nonresponsive cell death pathways. Genetic alterations that modulate RTK signaling can also alter several downstream pathways, including RAS-mediated MAP kinases along with JNK pathways, which ultimately regulate cell proliferation and cell death. The present review focuses on recent literature regarding important deregulations in the RTK-activated MAPK pathway during gliomagenesis and progression.

  5. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  6. Transcriptional profile of Ki-Ras-induced transformation of thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Roberta; Federico, Antonella; Coppola, Valeria; Pentimalli, Francesca; Berlingieri, Maria Teresa; Pallante, Pierlorenzo; Kruhoffer, Mogens; Orntoft, Torben F; Fusco, Alfredo

    2007-06-01

    In the last years, an increasing number of experiments has provided compelling evidence for a casual role of Ras protein mutations, resulting in their constitutive activation, in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, despite the clear involvement of Ras proteins in thyroid carcinogenesis, the nature of most of the target genes, whose expression is modulated by the Ras-induced signaling pathways and that are ultimately responsible for Ras-induced cellular transformation, remains largely unknown. To analyze Ras-dependent modulation of gene expression in thyroid cells we took advantage of a differentiated rat thyroid cell line, FRTL-5. As a model for Ras-dependent thyroid transformation, we used FRTL-5 cells infected with the Kirsten murine sarcoma virus, carrying the v-Ki-Ras oncogene. The infected cells (FRTL-5 v-Ki-Ras) have lost expression of the thyroid differentiation markers and also are completely transformed. We hybridized two different Affimetrix chips containing probe sets interrogating both known rat genes and ESTs for a total of more than 17,000 sequences using mRNA extracted from FRTL-5 and FRTL-5 v-Ki-Ras cell lines. We identified about 50 genes whose expression was induced and about 40 genes whose expression was downregulated more than 10-fold by Ras. We confirmed the differential expression of many of these genes in FRTL-5 v-Ki-Ras as compared to parental cells by using alternative techniques. Remarkably, we investigated the expression of some of the Ras-regulated genes in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tumor samples, our results, therefore, providing a new molecular profile of the genes involved in thyroid neoplastic transformation.

  7. Drugging the undruggable Ras: mission possible?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Adrienne D.; Fesik, Stephen W.; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Luo, Ji; Der, Channing J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite more than three decades of intensive effort, no effective pharmacologic inhibitors of the Ras oncoproteins have reached the clinic, prompting the widely held perception that Ras proteins are “undruggable”. However, there is renewed hope that this is not the case. In this review, we summarize the progress and promise of five key directions. First, we focus on the prospects of direct inhibitors of Ras. Second, we revisit the issue of whether blocking Ras membrane association is a viable approach. Third, we assess the status of targeting Ras downstream effector signalling, arguably the most favourable current direction. Fourth, we address whether the search for synthetic lethal interactors of mutant RAS still holds promise. Finally, Ras-mediated changes in cell metabolism have recently been described. Can these changes be exploited for new therapeutic directions? We conclude with perspectives on how additional complexities, not yet fully understood, may impact each of these approaches. PMID:25323927

  8. Isolation of two novel ras genes in Dictyostelium discoideum; evidence for a complex, developmentally regulated ras gene subfamily.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J; Bush, J; Cardelli, J; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    1994-02-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, three ras genes (rasD, rasG and rasB) and one ras-related gene (rap1) have been previously isolated and characterized, and the deduced amino acid sequence of their predicted protein products share at least 50% sequence identity with the human H-Ras protein. We have now cloned and characterized two additional members of the ras gene subfamily in Dictyostelium, rasC and rasS. These genes are developmentally regulated and unlike the previously isolated Dictyostelium ras genes, maximum levels of their transcripts were detected during aggregation, suggesting that the encoded proteins have distinct functions during aggregation. The rasC cDNA encodes a 189 amino acid protein that is 65% identical to the Dictyostelium RasD and RasG proteins and 56% identical to the human H-Ras protein. The predicted 194 amino acid gene product encoded by rasS is 60% identical to the Dictyostelium RasD and RasG proteins and 54% identical to the human H-Ras protein. Whereas RasD, RasG, RasB and Rap1 are totally conserved in their putative effector domains relative to H-Ras, RasC and RasS have single amino acid substitutions in their effector domains, consistent with the idea that they have unique functions. In RasC, aspartic acid-38 has been replaced by asparagine (D38N), and in RasS, isoleucine-36 has been replaced by leucine (I36L). In addition, both proteins have several differences in the effector-proximal domain, a domain which is believed to play a role in Ras target activation. In RasC, there is a single conservative amino acid change in the canonical sequence of the binding site for the Ras-specific monoclonal antibody Y13-259, and consequently, RasC is less immunoreactive with the antibody than either of the Dictyostelium RasD or RasG proteins. In contrast, RasS, which has three substitutions in the Y13-259 binding site, does not react with the Y13-259 antibody.

  9. The Rb/E2F pathway and Ras activation regulate RecQ helicase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqing; El-Naggar, Shahenda; Clem, Brian; Chesney, Jason; Dean, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    Disruption of the Rb (retinoblastoma protein)/E2F cell-cycle pathway and Ras activation are two of the most frequent events in cancer, and both of these mutations place oncogenic stress on cells to increase DNA replication. In the present study, we demonstrate that these mutations have an additive effect on induction of members of the RecQ DNA helicase family. RecQ activity is important for genomic stability, initiation of DNA replication and telomere maintenance, and mutation of the BLM (Bloom's syndrome gene), WRN (Werner's syndrome gene) or RECQL4 (Rothmund-Thomson syndrome gene) family members leads to premature aging syndromes characterized by genetic instability and telomere loss. RecQ family members are frequently overexpressed in cancers, and overexpression of BLM has been shown to cause telomere elongation. Concomitant with induction of RecQ genes in response to Rb family mutation and Ras activation, we show an increase in the number of telomeric repeats. We suggest that this induction of RecQ genes in response to common oncogenic mutations may explain the up-regulation of the genes seen in cancers, and it may provide a means for transformed cells to respond to an increased demand for DNA replication.

  10. Evolution of the Ras-like small GTPases and their regulators

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Johannes L; Snel, Berend

    2011-01-01

    Small GTPases are molecular switches at the hub of many signaling pathways and the expansion of this protein family is interwoven with the origin of unique eukaryotic cell features. We have previously reported on the evolution of CDC25 Homology Domain containing proteins, which act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Ras-like proteins. We now report on the evolution of both the Ras-like small GTPases as well as the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for Ras-like small GTPases. We performed an in depth phylogenetic analysis in 64 genomes of diverse eukaryotic species. These analyses revealed that multiple ancestral Ras-like GTPases and GAPs were already present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA), compatible with the presence of RasGEFs in LECA . Furthermore, we endeavor to reconstruct in which order the different Ras-like GTPases diverged from each other. We identified striking differences between the expansion of the various types of Ras-like GTPases and their respective GAPs and GEFs. Altogether, our analysis forms an extensive evolutionary framework for Ras-like signaling pathways and provides specific predictions for molecular biologists and biochemists. PMID:21686276

  11. Genetic and functional characterization of putative Ras/Raf interaction inhibitors in C. elegans and mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Activation of the mammalian Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK MAPK signaling cascade promotes cellular proliferation, and activating Ras mutations are implicated in cancer onset and maintenance. This pathway, a therapeutic target of interest, is highly conserved and required for vulval development in C. elegans. Gain-of-function mutations in the Ras ortholog lead to constitutive pathway signaling and a multivulva (Muv) phenotype. MCP compounds were identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen for their ability to disrupt Ras-Raf interactions. However, this had not been confirmed in another system, and conflicting results were reported regarding selective MCP-mediated blockade of Ras- and Raf-mediated biological activities in mammalian cells. Here we used the easily-scored Muv phenotype as an in vivo readout to characterize the selectivity of MCP110 and its analogs, and performed biochemical studies in mammalian cells to determine whether MCP treatment results in impaired interaction between Ras and its effector Raf. Results Our genetic analyses showed significant dose-dependent MCP-mediated reduction of Muv in C. elegans strains with activating mutations in orthologs of Ras (LET-60) or Raf (LIN-45), but not MAP kinases or an Ets-like transcription factor. Thus, these inhibitors selectively impair pathway function downstream of Ras and upstream of or at the level of Raf, consistent with disruption of the Ras/Raf interaction. Our biochemical analyses of MCP110-mediated disruption of Ras-Raf interactions in mammalian cells showed that MCP110 dose-dependently reduced Raf-RBD pulldown of Ras, displaced a fluorescently-tagged Raf-RBD probe from plasma membrane locations of active Ras to the cytosol and other compartments, and decreased active, phosphorylated ERK1/2. Conclusions We have effectively utilized C. elegans as an in vivo genetic system to evaluate the activity and selectivity of inhibitors intended to target the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway. We demonstrated the ability of MCP110

  12. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  13. [Mouse models of K-ras-initiated oncogenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrière, C; Marjou, F El; Louvard, D; Robine, S

    2009-12-01

    Activating mutations of the oncogene K-ras are found in one third of all human cancers. Much of our knowledge on K-ras signal transduction and its influence on tumor initiation and progression come from in vitro studies with cell lines. However, mouse models of human cancer allow a much more faithful recapitulation of the human disease, and the in vivo perspective is crucial for our understanding of neoplasia. In recent years, several new murine models for K-ras-induced tumorigenesis have been described. They allow new insights into the specific role that oncogenic K-ras proteins play in different solid tumors, and they permit the molecular dissection of the pathways that are initiated by somatic mutations in subsets of cells. Key advances have been made by the use of tissue-specific and inducible control of expression, which is achieved by the Cre/loxP technology or the tetracycline system. From these sophisticated models, a common picture emerges: the effects of K-ras on tumor initiation depend strongly on the cellular context, and different tissues vary in their susceptibility to K-ras transformation.

  14. Ras1 and Ras2 play antagonistic roles in regulating cellular cAMP level, stationary-phase entry and stress response in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong; Fang, Hao-Ming; Wang, Yan-Ming; Zeng, Gui-Sheng; Zheng, Xin-De; Wang, Yue

    2009-11-01

    The GTPase Ras1 activates the yeast-to-hypha transition in Candida albicans by activating cAMP synthesis. Here, we have characterized Ras2. Ras2 belongs to a group of atypical Ras proteins in some fungal species that share poor identity with other Ras GTPases with many variations in conserved motifs thought to be crucial for Ras-associated activities. We find that recombinant Ras2 is enzymatically as active as Ras1. However, only RAS1 can rescue the lethality of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras1 ras2 mutant, suggesting functional divergence of the two genes. ras2Delta is normal in hyphal growth, but deleting RAS2 in the ras1Delta background greatly aggravates the hyphal defect, indicating that Ras2 also has a role in hyphal development. Strikingly, while RAS1 deletion causes a approximately 20-fold decrease in cellular cAMP, further deletion of RAS2 restores it to approximately 30% of the wild-type level. Consistently, while the ras1Delta mutant enters the stationary phase prematurely, the double mutant does so normally. Moreover, ras1Delta cells exhibit increased resistance to H(2)O(2) and higher sensitivity to the heavy metal Co(2+), whereas ras2Delta cells show the opposite phenotypes. Together, our data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism by which two antagonizing Ras GTPases balance each other in regulating multiple cellular processes in C. albicans.

  15. Evidence for adenylate cyclase as a scaffold protein for Ras2-Ira interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisie.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Sonia; Paiardi, Chiara; Pardons, Katrien; Winderickx, Joris; Martegani, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Data in literature suggest that budding yeast adenylate cyclase forms a membrane-associated complex with the upstream components of the cAMP/PKA pathway. Here we provide evidences that adenylate cyclase (Cyr1p) acts as a scaffold protein keeping Ras2 available for its regulatory factors. We show that in a strain with deletion of the CYR1 gene (cyr1Δ pde2Δ msn2Δ msn4Δ) the basal Ras2-GTP level is very high and this is independent on the lack of feedback inhibition that could result from the absence of adenylate cyclase activity. Moreover, strains effected either in the intrinsic adenylate cyclase activity (fil1 strain) or in the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by active G-proteins (lcr1 strain) had a normal basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level, indicating that adenylate cyclase activity does not influence the Ras2 activation state and suggesting that Cyr1 protein is required for the proper interaction between Ras2 and the Ira proteins. We also provide evidence that the two Ras-binding sites mapped on Cyr1p are required for the signalling complex assembly. In fact, we show that the cyr1Δ strain expressing CYR1 alleles lacking either the LRR region or the C-terminal domain still have a high basal and glucose-induced Ras2-GTP level. In contrast, a mutant expressing a Cyr1 protein only missing the N-terminal domain showed a normal Ras2 activation pattern. Likewise, the Ras2-GTP levels are comparable in the wild type strain and the srv2Δ strain, supporting the hypothesis that Cap is not essential for the Ras-adenylate cyclase interaction.

  16. Functional significance of the novel H-RAS gene mutation M72I in a patient with medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Barollo, S; Pezzani, R; Cristiani, A; Bertazza, L; Rubin, B; Bulfone, A; Pelizzo, M R; Torresan, F; Mantero, F; Pennelli, G; Moro, S; Mian, C

    2013-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for around 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. Though usually sporadic, 1 in 4 cases are of genetic origin, with germinal mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in familial forms and somatic mutations both in RET and in the RAS family genes in sporadic ones.This study aimed to characterize a rare H-RAS sequence variant -M72I- in a patient with sporadic MTC, focusing on its functional significance.Mutation analysis was performed for the RET, N-RAS, K-RAS and H-RAS genes by direct sequencing. Western blot analysis was done on 4 thyroid tissues from 1 patient carrying the M72I mutation in H-RAS, 1 with the Q61R mutation in H-RAS, 1 with no RET, H-RAS, K-RAS or N-RAS gene mutations, and 1 normal thyroid, using different antibodies against Erk1/2, phospho-Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), Akt and phospho-Akt (Ser473). Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were completed for H-RAS wt and H-RAS M72I.Western blot analysis demonstrated that both MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were activated in the MTC patient carrying the M72I variant. In silico results showed conformational changes in H-RAS that could influence its activation by Sos and phosphate binding. Results of molecular dynamics were consistent with Western blot experiments.The M72I mutation may contribute effectively to proliferation and survival signaling throughout the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. This work underscores the importance of studying genetic alterations that may lead to carcinogenesis.

  17. Where no Ras has gone before: VPS35 steers N-Ras through the cytosol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mo; Philips, Mark R

    2017-01-27

    Ras is the best-studied member of the superfamily of small GTPases because of its role in cancer. Ras proteins transmit signals for proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three RAS genes encode 4 isoforms. All Ras isoforms have long been considered membrane bound, a localization required for function. Our recent study revealed that N-Ras differs from all other isoforms in being largely cytosolic even following modification with a prenyl lipid. Endogenous, cytosolic N-Ras chromatographed in both high and low molecular weight pools, a pattern that required prenylation, suggesting prenyl-dependent interaction with other proteins. VPS35, a coat protein of the retromer, was shown to interact with prenylated N-Ras in the cytosol. Silencing VPS35 results in partial N-Ras mislocalization on vesicular and tubulovesicular structures, reduced GTP-loading of Ras proteins, and inhibited proliferation and MAPK signaling in an oncogenic N-Ras-driven tumor cell line. Our data revealed a novel regulator of N-Ras trafficking and signaling.

  18. Ras signaling pathway in the chemopreventive action of different ratios of fish oil and corn oil in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kansal, S; Negi, A K; Bhatnagar, A; Agnihotri, N

    2012-01-01

    Dietary factors play a significant role in colon cancer. The essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), n-3 PUFAs, and n-6 PUFAs exert inverse effect on cancer. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of chemopreventive action of different ratios of fish oil (FO) and corn oil (CO) in colon carcinoma. Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 received purified diet whereas Groups 2 and 3 received modified diet with FO:CO (1:1) and FO:CO (2.5:1), respectively. The groups were further subdivided into controls receiving ethylenediamine-tetra acetic-acid and treated groups received dimethylhydrazine-dihydrochloride (DMH)/wk for 4 wk. Animals sacrificed 48 h after last injection constituted initiation phase and that sacrificed after 16 wk constituted post-initiation phase. Differential effect of different ratios of FO and CO was analyzed in isolated colonocytes. In both phases, DMH treatment showed an increase in pan Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, and c-fos levels. Akt levels were increased in post-initiation phase only. Treatment with FO + CO (1:1) + DMH decreased pan Ras, MEK1/2 and Erk1/2 levels in post-initiation phase whereas Raf and c-fos were decreased in both phases. Treatment with FO + CO (2.5:1) + DMH decreased Ras, Raf, MEK1/2, Erk1/2, and c-fos levels in both phases. Akt was decreased in post-initiation phase only. The chemo-preventive action of FO and CO may be mediated by time- and dose-dependent effect.

  19. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L.; Ogata, Fernando T.; Monteiro, Hugo P. Arai, Roberto J.

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras{sup C118S}) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  20. The nitric oxide-sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway mediates S-nitrosoglutathione-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Maristela; Batista, Wagner L; Ogata, Fernando T; Stern, Arnold; Monteiro, Hugo P; Arai, Roberto J

    2008-05-16

    p21Ras protein plays a critical role in cellular signaling that induces either cell cycle progression or apoptosis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been consistently reported to activate p21Ras through the redox sensitive cysteine residue (118). In this study, we demonstrated that the p21Ras-ERK pathway regulates THP-1 monocyte/macrophage apoptosis induced by S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG). This was apparent from studies in THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras (p21Ras(C118S)) where the pro-apoptotic action of SNOG was almost abrogated. Three major MAP kinase pathways (ERK, JNK, and p38) that are downstream to p21Ras were investigated. It was observed that only the activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases by SNOG in THP-1 cells was attributable to p21Ras. The inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 markedly attenuated apoptosis in SNOG-treated THP-1 cells, but had a marginal effect on SNOG-treated THP-1 cells expressing NO-insensitive p21Ras. The inhibition of the JNK and p38 pathways by selective inhibitors had no marked effects on the percentage of apoptosis. The induction of p21Waf1 expression by SNOG was observed in THP-1 cells harboring mutant and wild-type p21Ras, however in cells expressing mutant Ras, the expression of p21Waf1 was significantly attenuated. The treatment of THP-1 cells expressing wild-type p21Ras with PD98059 resulted in significant attenuation of p21Waf1 expression. These results indicate that the redox sensitive p21Ras-ERK pathway plays a critical role in sensing and delivering the pro-apoptotic signaling mediated by SNOG.

  1. RAS/MAPK activation is associated with reduced tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer: therapeutic cooperation between MEK and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Sherene; Dushyanthen, Sathana; Beavis, Paul A; Salgado, Roberto; Denkert, Carsten; Savas, Peter; Combs, Susan; Rimm, David L.; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Estrada, Monica V.; Sánchez, Violeta; Sanders, Melinda E.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Pilkinton, Mark A.; Mallal, Simon A.; Wang, Kai; Miller, Vincent A.; Stephens, Phil J.; Yelensky, Roman; Doimi, Franco D.; Gómez, Henry; Ryzhov, Sergey V.; Darcy, Phillip K.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Balko, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the residual disease (RD) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are associated with improved survival, but insight into tumor cell-autonomous molecular pathways affecting these features are lacking. Experimental Design We analyzed TILs in the RD of clinically and molecularly characterized TNBCs after NAC and explored therapeutic strategies targeting combinations of MEK inhibitors with PD-1/PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy in mouse models of breast cancer. Results Presence of TILs in the RD was significantly associated with improved prognosis. Genetic or transcriptomic alterations in Ras/MAPK signaling were significantly correlated with lower TILs. MEK inhibition up-regulated cell-surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression and PD-L1 in TNBC cells both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, combined MEK and PDL-1/PD-1 inhibition enhanced anti-tumor immune responses in mouse models of breast cancer. Conclusions These data suggest the possibility that Ras/MAPK pathway activation promotes immune-evasion in TNBC, and support clinical trials combining MEK- and PD-L1-targeted therapies. Furthermore, Ras/MAPK activation and MHC expression may be predictive biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26515496

  2. 8-Hydroxyquinoline-based inhibitors of the Rce1 protease disrupt Ras membrane localization in human cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Idrees; Hampton, Shahienaz E; Ashall, Louise; Hildebrandt, Emily R; Kutlik, Robert A; Manandhar, Surya P; Floyd, Brandon J; Smith, Haley E; Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D; Schmidt, Walter K; Dore, Timothy M

    2016-01-15

    Ras converting enzyme 1 (Rce1) is an endoprotease that catalyzes processing of the C-terminus of Ras protein by removing -aaX from the CaaX motif. The activity of Rce1 is crucial for proper localization of Ras to the plasma membrane where it functions. Ras is responsible for transmitting signals related to cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The disregulation of these pathways due to constitutively active oncogenic Ras can ultimately lead to cancer. Ras, its effectors and regulators, and the enzymes that are involved in its maturation process are all targets for anti-cancer therapeutics. Key enzymes required for Ras maturation and localization are the farnesyltransferase (FTase), Rce1, and isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT). Among these proteins, the physiological role of Rce1 in regulating Ras and other CaaX proteins has not been fully explored. Small-molecule inhibitors of Rce1 could be useful as chemical biology tools to understand further the downstream impact of Rce1 on Ras function and serve as potential leads for cancer therapeutics. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of a previously reported Rce1 inhibitor, NSC1011, has been performed to generate a new library of Rce1 inhibitors. The new inhibitors caused a reduction in Rce1 in vitro activity, exhibited low cell toxicity, and induced mislocalization of EGFP-Ras from the plasma membrane in human colon carcinoma cells giving rise to a phenotype similar to that observed with siRNA knockdowns of Rce1 expression. Several of the new inhibitors were more effective at mislocalizing K-Ras compared to a potent farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), which is significant because of the preponderance of K-Ras mutations in cancer.

  3. Activation of cellular signaling by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1-initiated DNA base excision repair.

    PubMed

    German, Peter; Szaniszlo, Peter; Hajas, Gyorgy; Radak, Zsolt; Bacsi, Attila; Hazra, Tapas K; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-10-01

    Accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) in the DNA results in genetic instability and mutagenesis, and is believed to contribute to carcinogenesis, aging processes and various aging-related diseases. 8-OxoG is removed from the DNA via DNA base excision repair (BER), initiated by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1). Our recent studies have shown that OGG1 binds its repair product 8-oxoG base with high affinity at a site independent from its DNA lesion-recognizing catalytic site and the OGG1•8-oxoG complex physically interacts with canonical Ras family members. Furthermore, exogenously added 8-oxoG base enters the cells and activates Ras GTPases; however, a link has not yet been established between cell signaling and DNA BER, which is the endogenous source of the 8-oxoG base. In this study, we utilized KG-1 cells expressing a temperature-sensitive mutant OGG1, siRNA ablation of gene expression, and a variety of molecular biological assays to define a link between OGG1-BER and cellular signaling. The results show that due to activation of OGG1-BER, 8-oxoG base is released from the genome in sufficient quantities for activation of Ras GTPase and resulting in phosphorylation of the downstream Ras targets Raf1, MEK1,2 and ERK1,2. These results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism for cellular responses to OGG1-initiated DNA BER.

  4. A RAS renaissance: emerging targeted therapies for KRAS-mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Neil; Boyer, Julie L; Herbst, Roy S

    2014-08-01

    Of the numerous oncogenes implicated in human cancer, the most common and perhaps the most elusive to target pharmacologically is RAS. Since the discovery of RAS in the 1960s, numerous studies have elucidated the mechanism of activity, regulation, and intracellular trafficking of the RAS gene products, and of its regulatory pathways. These pathways yielded druggable targets, such as farnesyltransferase, during the 1980s to 1990s. Unfortunately, early clinical trials investigating farnesyltransferase inhibitors yielded disappointing results, and subsequent interest by pharmaceutical companies in targeting RAS waned. However, recent advances including the identification of novel regulatory enzymes (e.g., Rce1, Icmt, Pdeδ), siRNA-based synthetic lethality screens, and fragment-based small-molecule screens, have resulted in a "Ras renaissance," signified by new Ras and Ras pathway-targeted therapies that have led to new clinical trials of patients with Ras-driven cancers. This review gives an overview of KRas signaling pathways with an emphasis on novel targets and targeted therapies, using non-small cell lung cancer as a case example.

  5. A RAS Renaissance: Emerging Targeted Therapies for KRAS-Mutated Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, Neil; Boyer, Julie; Herbst, Roy S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the numerous oncogenes implicated in human cancer, the most common and perhaps the most elusive to target pharmacologically is RAS. Since the discovery of RAS in the 1960s, numerous studies have elucidated the mechanism of activity, regulation, and intracellular trafficking of the RAS gene products, and of its regulatory pathways. These pathways yielded druggable targets, such as farnesyltransferase during the 1980s–1990s. Unfortunately, early clinical trials investigating farnesyltransferase inhibitors yielded disappointing results, and subsequent interest by pharmaceutical companies in targeting RAS waned. However, recent advances including the identification of novel regulatory enzymes (e.g. Rce1, Icmt, Pdeδ), siRNA-based synthetic lethality screens, and fragment-based small molecule screens have resulted in a “Ras renaissance”, signified by new Ras and Ras-pathway targeted therapies that have led to new clinical trials of patients with Ras-driven cancers. This review gives an overview of KRas signaling pathways with an emphasis on novel targets and targeted therapies, using non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a case example. PMID:24893629

  6. Exploiting the bad eating habits of Ras-driven cancers.

    PubMed

    White, Eileen

    2013-10-01

    Oncogenic Ras promotes glucose fermentation and glutamine use to supply central carbon metabolism, but how and why have only emerged recently. Ras-mediated metabolic reprogramming generates building blocks for growth and promotes antioxidant defense. To fuel metabolic pathways, Ras scavenges extracellular proteins and lipids. To bolster metabolism and mitigate stress, Ras activates cellular self-cannibalization and recycling of proteins and organelles by autophagy. Targeting these distinct features of Ras-driven cancers provides novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  7. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan; Panthi, Bhavana; Khan, Zahid; Koppula, Purushotham Reddy; Alanazi, Mohammed Saud; Sachchidanand; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Chourasia, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras) protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the “off” state over “on” state conformation of K-Ras protein. Moreover, the designed compounds’ interactions are similar to guanosine diphosphate and, thus, could presumably act as a potential lead for K-Ras. The predicted drug-likeness properties of these compounds suggest that these compounds follow the Lipinski’s rule of five and have tolerable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity values. Conclusion Thus, through the current study, we propose targeting only “off” state conformations as a promising strategy for the design of reversible inhibitors to pharmacologically inhibit distinct conformations of K-Ras protein. PMID:27217775

  8. Ras-driven transformation of human nestin-positive pancreatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M; Lee, Kwang M; Ouellette, Michel M; Kim, Hong Jin; Groehler, Angela L; Khazak, Vladimir; Der, Channing J

    2008-01-01

    Mutational activation of the K-Ras oncogene is well established as a key genetic step in the development and growth of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. However, the means by which aberrant Ras signaling promotes uncontrolled pancreatic tumor cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. The recent use of primary human cells to study Ras-mediated oncogenesis provides important model cell systems to dissect this signaling biology. This chapter describes the establishment and characterization of telomerase-immortalized human pancreatic duct-derived cells to study mechanisms of Ras growth transformation. An important strength of this model system is the ability of mutationally activated K-Ras to cause potent growth transformation in vitro and in vivo. We have utilized this cell system to evaluate the antitumor activity of small molecule inhibitors of the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. This model will be useful for genetic and pharmacologic dissection of the contribution of downstream effector signaling in Ras-dependent growth transformation.

  9. Para-phenylenediamine-induces apoptosis via a pathway dependent on PTK-Ras-Raf-JNK activation but independent of the PI3K/Akt pathway in NRK-52E cells.

    PubMed

    Kasi, Reena A P; Moi, Chye Soi; Kien, Yip Wai; Yian, Koh Rhun; Chin, Ng Wei; Yen, Ng Khuen; Ponnudurai, Gnanajothy; Fong, Seow Heng

    2015-03-01

    para‑Phenylenediamine (p‑PD) is a potential carcinogen, and widely used in marketed hair dye formulations. In the present study, the role of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK)/Ras/Raf/c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3k)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways on the growth of NRK‑52E cells was investigated. The results demonstrated that p‑PD reduced cell viability in a dose‑dependent manner. The cell death due to apoptosis was confirmed by cell cycle analysis and an Annexin‑V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate binding assay. Subsequent to staining with 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate, the treated cells demonstrated a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation compared with the controls. The effects of p‑PD on the signalling pathways were analysed by western blotting. p‑PD‑treated cells exhibited an upregulated phospho‑stress‑activated protein kinase/JNK protein expression level and downregulated Ras and Raf protein expression levels; however, Akt, Bcl‑2, Bcl‑XL and Bad protein expression levels were not significantly altered compared with the control. In conclusion, p‑PD induced apoptosis by a PTK/Ras/Raf/JNK‑dependent pathway and was independent of the PI3K/Akt pathway in NRK‑52E cells.

  10. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  11. Upregulating Apoptotic Signaling in Neurofibromatosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    sNF and ST- 8814 cells were co-immunoprecipitated with a RBD/GST fusion protein and immunoblotting with anti-Ras antibody. Even loading was verified by...led us to test whether hyperactive Ras signaling could be in synergy with loss of PKC in NF deficient condition. Human sNF (MPNST) and ST- 8814 ...can only associate with the active form of Ras (Figs. 2a and b). The association of active Ras with the fusion protein was observed in sNF or ST- 8814

  12. Inhibitors of Ras/Raf-1 interaction identified by two-hybrid screening revert Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kato-Stankiewicz, Juran; Hakimi, Irina; Zhi, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Guo, Lea; Edamatsu, Hironori; Koide, Hiroshi; Menon, Sanjay; Eckl, Robert; Sakamuri, Sukumar; Lu, Yingchun; Chen, Quin-Zene; Agarwal, Seema; Baumbach, William R; Golemis, Erica A; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Khazak, Vladimir

    2002-10-29

    The interaction of activated Ras with Raf initiates signaling cascades that contribute to a significant percentage of human tumors, suggesting that agents that specifically disrupt this interaction might have desirable chemotherapeutic properties. We used a subtractive forward two-hybrid approach to identify small molecule compounds that block the interaction of Ras with Raf. These compounds (MCP1 and its derivatives, 53 and 110) reduced serum-induced transcriptional activation of serum response element as well as Ras-induced transcription by way of the AP-1 site. They also inhibited Ras-induced Raf-1 activation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 activities in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, and epidermal growth factor-induced Raf-1 activation in A549 lung carcinoma cells. The MCP compounds caused reversion of ras-transformed phenotypes including morphology, in vitro invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth of HT1080 cells. Decreased level of matrix metalloproteinases was also observed. Further characterization showed that MCP compounds restore actin stress fibers and cause flat reversion in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with H-Ras (V12) but not in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with constitutively active Raf-1 (RafDeltaN). Finally, we show that MCP compounds inhibit anchorage-independent growth of A549 and PANC-1 cells harboring K-ras mutation. Furthermore, MCP110 caused G(1) enrichment of A549 cells with the decrease of cyclin D level. These results highlight potent and specific effects of MCP compounds on cancer cells with intrinsic Ras activation.

  13. Inhibitors of Ras/Raf-1 interaction identified by two-hybrid screening revert Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes in human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kato-Stankiewicz, Juran; Hakimi, Irina; Zhi, Gang; Zhang, Jie; Serebriiskii, Ilya; Guo, Lea; Edamatsu, Hironori; Koide, Hiroshi; Menon, Sanjay; Eckl, Robert; Sakamuri, Sukumar; Lu, Yingchun; Chen, Quin-Zene; Agarwal, Seema; Baumbach, William R.; Golemis, Erica A.; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Khazak, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of activated Ras with Raf initiates signaling cascades that contribute to a significant percentage of human tumors, suggesting that agents that specifically disrupt this interaction might have desirable chemotherapeutic properties. We used a subtractive forward two-hybrid approach to identify small molecule compounds that block the interaction of Ras with Raf. These compounds (MCP1 and its derivatives, 53 and 110) reduced serum-induced transcriptional activation of serum response element as well as Ras-induced transcription by way of the AP-1 site. They also inhibited Ras-induced Raf-1 activation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 activities in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, and epidermal growth factor-induced Raf-1 activation in A549 lung carcinoma cells. The MCP compounds caused reversion of ras-transformed phenotypes including morphology, in vitro invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth of HT1080 cells. Decreased level of matrix metalloproteinases was also observed. Further characterization showed that MCP compounds restore actin stress fibers and cause flat reversion in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with H-Ras (V12) but not in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with constitutively active Raf-1 (RafΔN). Finally, we show that MCP compounds inhibit anchorage-independent growth of A549 and PANC-1 cells harboring K-ras mutation. Furthermore, MCP110 caused G1 enrichment of A549 cells with the decrease of cyclin D level. These results highlight potent and specific effects of MCP compounds on cancer cells with intrinsic Ras activation. PMID:12391290

  14. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  15. Peroxiredoxin I is important for cancer-cell survival in Ras-induced hepatic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Shin, Hye-Jun; Bak, In Seon; Bak, Yesol; Jeong, Ye-Lin; Kwon, Taeho; Park, Young-Ho; Sun, Hu-Nan; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2016-10-18

    Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I), an antioxidant enzyme, has multiple functions in human cancer. However, the role of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis has not been characterized. Here we investigated the relevance and underlying mechanism of Prx I in hepatic tumorigenesis. Prx I increased in tumors of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients that aligned with overexpression of oncogenic H-ras. Prx I also increased in H-rasG12V transfected HCC cells and liver tumors of H-rasG12V transgenic (Tg) mice, indicating that Prx I may be involved in Ras-induced hepatic tumorigenesis. When Prx I was knocked down or deleted in HCC-H-rasG12V cells or H-rasG12V Tg mice, cell colony or tumor formation was significantly reduced that was associated with downregulation of pERK pathway as well as increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced DNA damage and cell death. Overexpressing Prx I markedly increased Ras downstream pERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 signaling pathway and inhibited oxidative damage in HCC cells and H-rasG12V Tg mice. In this study, we found Nrf2 was transcriptionally activated by FoxM1, and Prx I was activated by the H-rasG12V/pERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 pathway and suppressed ROS-induced hepatic cancer-cell death along with formation of a positive feedback loop with Ras/ERK/FoxM1/Nrf2 to promote hepatic tumorigenesis.

  16. Across the universe of K-RAS mutations in non-small-cell-lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Piva, Sheila; Ganzinelli, Monica; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Caiola, Elisa; Farina, Gabriella; Broggini, Massimo; Marabese, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    RAS family proteins are important signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation by coupling receptor activation to downstream effector pathways. Three distinct genes encode for the three different proteins H-, K-, and N- RAS. These proteins share high sequence homology, particularly at the N-Terminal domain. Among them, K-RAS is one of the most frequently mutated in human cancer. The majority of the mutations present in K-RAS are at codon 12 (from 80 to 100%) followed by codon 13 and 61. In all cases, aminoacid change leads to a constitutively activated protein. K-RAS mutations have a role in tumor development as well as in tumor progression and resistance. Despite the various studies which have been published, the prognostic and predictive role of K-RAS mutations is still under debate. Keeping in mind that the glycine present at position 12 can be substituted by valine, aspartic acid or cysteine, it could be well understood that each different substitution plays a different role in K-RAS-dependent processes. The present article focuses on the molecular and biological characteristics of K-RAS protein, its role in NSCLC tumor development and progression. We also present an overview of the preclinical models both in vitro and in vivo available to determine the role of K-RAS in tumor progression and response to treatment and on the recent results obtained in this field. Finally, we have considered the impact of KRAS mutations in clinical practice, analyzing the different recent trials that have taken into consideration K-RAS.

  17. Measuring Ras-family GTP levels in vivo--running hot and cold.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ariel F; Rebhun, John F; Quilliam, Lawrence A

    2005-10-01

    The detection of Ras-family GTPase activity is important in the determination of cell signaling events elicited by numerous ligands and cellular processes. This has been made much easier in recent years by the use of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused Ras binding domains. These domains from downstream effectors such as Raf and RalGDS preferentially bind the GTP-bound Ras proteins enabling their extraction and subsequent quantification by immunoblotting. Despite this advance, effectors that efficiently discriminate between GTP- and GDP-bound states are not available for many Ras-family members. While this hampers the ability to detect activity in tissue specimens, it is still possible to metabolically label cells with (32)Pi to load the GTP/GDP pool with labeled nucleotides, immunoprecipitate the Ras protein and detect the bound label following thin layer chromatographic separation and exposure to film or a phosphorimager. Using a transfection system and antibodies that recognize epitope tags one can test the ability of a protein to work as a GEF or GAP for a certain GTPase. Alternatively, if an immunoprecipitating antibody is available to the target GTPase, then analysis of endogenous GTP/GDP ratio is possible. Here we describe the detection of M-Ras and Rap1 activity by GST-RBD pull-down as well as that of Rheb and epitope-tagged R-Ras by classical metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation.

  18. Ras-related TC21 is activated by mutation in a breast cancer cell line, but infrequently in breast carcinomas in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, K. T.; Crompton, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    Activating ras mutations are found in many types of human tumour. Mutations in Harvey (H-), Kirsten (K-) and neuronal (N-) ras are, however, rarely found in breast carcinomas. TC21 is a ras family member that shares close homology to H-, K- and N-ras, and activating mutations have been found in ovarian carcinoma and leiomyosarcoma cell lines. We have examined panels of cDNAs from breast, ovarian and cervical cell lines, and primary and metastatic breast tumours for mutations in TC21 using a single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-based assay. One breast cancer cell line, CAL51, exhibited an altered SSCP pattern, compared with normal tissue, which was due to an A-T base change in codon 72, causing a predicted Gln-Leu activating mutation. Of nine primary and 15 metastatic breast tumour cDNAs analysed, none exhibited an altered pattern by SSCP. The apparently wild-type pattern by SSCP analysis was confirmed by sequence analysis of some of the cDNAs assayed. Thus, we conclude that mutations in TC21 are uncommon in breast carcinomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9703274

  19. MicroRNA-based Therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Mutant and Wild Type RAS in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sriganesh B.; Ruppert, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have been causally implicated in the progression and development of a wide variety of cancers. miRs modulate the activity of key cell signaling networks by regulating the translation of pathway component proteins. Thus, the pharmacological targeting of miRs that regulate cancer cell signaling networks, either by promoting (using miR-supplementation) or by suppressing (using anti-sense oligonucleotide based strategies) miR activity is an area of intense research. The RAS-Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathway represents a major miR-regulated signaling network that endows cells with some of the classical hallmarks of cancer, and is often inappropriately activated in malignancies by somatic genetic alteration through point mutation or alteration of gene copy number. In addition, recent progress indicates that many tumors may be deficient in GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) due to the collaborative action of oncogenic microRNAs. Recent studies also suggest that in tumors harboring a mutant RAS allele there is a critical role for wild type RAS proteins in determining overall RAS-ERK pathway activity. Together, these two advances comprise a new opportunity for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we evaluate miR-based therapeutic strategies for modulating RAS-ERK signaling in cancers, in particular for more direct modulation of RAS-GTP levels, with the potential to complement current strategies in order to yield more durable treatment responses. To this end, we discuss the potential for miR-based therapies focused on three prominent miRs including the pan-RAS regulator let-7 and the GAP regulator comprised of miR-206 and miR-21 (miR-206/21). PMID:26284568

  20. Serine214 of Ras2p plays a role in the feedback regulation of the Ras-cAMP pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Xiaojia, Bai; Jian, Dong

    2010-06-03

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ras proteins are essential for the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway. A serine to alanine substitution at position 214 in the yeast Ras2p resulted in enhanced sensitivity to heat shock, reduced levels of storage glycogen and enhanced both basal cAMP level and glucose-induced cAMP signal. Further work showed that Ras2(Ala214)p had a higher GTP-binding capability than wild type Ras2p. These results suggested that serine 214 of Ras2p plays a role in the feedback regulation of the Ras-cAMP pathway.

  1. Activation of ras p21 transforming properties associated with an increase in the release rate of bound guanine nucleotide.

    PubMed Central

    Lacal, J C; Aaronson, S A

    1986-01-01

    An Ala-to-Thr substitution at position 59 activates the transforming properties of the p21ras protein without impairment of GTPase activity, a biochemical alteration associated with other activating mutations. To investigate the basis for the transforming properties of the Thr-59 mutant, we characterized guanine nucleotide release. This reaction exhibited a slow rate and stringent temperature requirements. To further dissect the release reaction, we used monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the p21 molecule. One monoclonal specifically interfered with nucleotide release, while others which recognized different regions of the molecule blocked nucleotide binding. Mutants with the Thr-59 substitution exhibited a three- to ninefold-higher rate of GDP and GTP release than normal p21 or mutants with other activating lesions. This alteration in the Thr-59 mutant would have the effect of increasing its rate of nucleotide exchange. In an intracellular environment with a high GTP/GDP ratio, this would favor the association of GTP with the Thr-59 mutant. Consistent with knowledge of known G-regulatory proteins, these findings support a model in which the p21-GTP complex is the biologically active form of the p21 protein. PMID:3540608

  2. Targeting RAS Membrane Association: Back to the Future for Anti-RAS Drug Discovery?

    PubMed

    Cox, Adrienne D; Der, Channing J; Philips, Mark R

    2015-04-15

    RAS proteins require membrane association for their biologic activity, making this association a logical target for anti-RAS therapeutics. Lipid modification of RAS proteins by a farnesyl isoprenoid is an obligate step in that association, and is an enzymatic process. Accordingly, farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) were developed as potential anti-RAS drugs. The lack of efficacy of FTIs as anticancer drugs was widely seen as indicating that blocking RAS membrane association was a flawed approach to cancer treatment. However, a deeper understanding of RAS modification and trafficking has revealed that this was an erroneous conclusion. In the presence of FTIs, KRAS and NRAS, which are the RAS isoforms most frequently mutated in cancer, become substrates for alternative modification, can still associate with membranes, and can still function. Thus, FTIs failed not because blocking RAS membrane association is an ineffective approach, but because FTIs failed to accomplish that task. Recent findings regarding RAS isoform trafficking and the regulation of RAS subcellular localization have rekindled interest in efforts to target these processes. In particular, improved understanding of the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle that regulates RAS interaction with the plasma membrane, endomembranes, and cytosol, and of the potential importance of RAS chaperones, have led to new approaches. Efforts to validate and target other enzymatically regulated posttranslational modifications are also ongoing. In this review, we revisit lessons learned, describe the current state of the art, and highlight challenging but promising directions to achieve the goal of disrupting RAS membrane association and subcellular localization for anti-RAS drug development. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1819-27. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers."

  3. Inorganic pyrophosphate generation by transforming growth factor-beta-1 is mainly dependent on ANK induction by Ras/Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cailotto, Frederic; Bianchi, Arnaud; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Venkatesan, Narayanan; Moulin, David; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves; Netter, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ANK is a multipass transmembrane protein transporter thought to play a role in the export of intracellular inorganic pyrophosphate and so to contribute to the pathophysiology of chondrocalcinosis. As transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta1) was shown to favor calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition, we investigated the contribution of ANK to the production of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) by chondrocytes and the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of Ank expression by TGF-beta1. Chondrocytes were exposed to 10 ng/mL of TGF-beta1, and Ank expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. ePPi was quantified in cell supernatants. RNA silencing was used to define the respective roles of Ank and PC-1 in TGF-beta1-induced ePPi generation. Finally, selective kinase inhibitors and dominant-negative/overexpression plasmid strategies were used to explore the contribution of several signaling pathways to Ank induction by TGF-beta1. TGF-beta1 strongly increased Ank expression at the mRNA and protein levels, as well as ePPi production. Using small interfering RNA technology, we showed that Ank contributed approximately 60% and PC-1 nearly 20% to TGF-beta1-induced ePPi generation. Induction of Ank by TGF-beta1 required activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway but not of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase or of protein kinase A. In line with the general protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor calphostin C, Gö6976 (a Ca2+-dependent PKC inhibitor) diminished TGF-beta1-induced Ank expression by 60%, whereas a 10% inhibition was observed with rottlerin (a PKCdelta inhibitor). These data suggest a regulatory role for calcium in TGF-beta1-induced Ank expression. Finally, we demonstrated that the stimulatory effect of TGF-beta1 on Ank expression was inhibited by the suppression of the Ras/Raf-1 pathway, while being enhanced by their constitutive activation. Transient overexpression of Smad 7, an

  4. About the RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  5. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Cancer.gov

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  6. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  7. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-05

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence.

  8. A Ras GTPase associated protein is involved in the phototropic and circadian photobiology responses in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Polaino, Silvia; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M.; Shakya, Viplendra P. S.; Miralles-Durán, Alejandro; Chaudhary, Suman; Sanz, Catalina; Shahriari, Mahdi; Luque, Eva M.; Eslava, Arturo P.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Light is an environmental signal perceived by most eukaryotic organisms and that can have major impacts on their growth and development. The MadC protein in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus (Mucoromycotina) has been postulated to form part of the photosensory input for phototropism of the fruiting body sporangiophores, but the madC gene has remained unidentified since the 1960s when madC mutants were first isolated. In this study the madC gene was identified by positional cloning. All madC mutant strains contain loss-of-function point mutations within a gene predicted to encode a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Ras. The madC gene complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ras-GAP ira1 mutant and the encoded MadC protein interacts with P. blakesleeanus Ras homologs in yeast two-hybrid assays, indicating that MadC is a regulator of Ras signaling. Deletion of the homolog in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa affects the circadian clock output, yielding a pattern of asexual conidiation similar to a ras-1 mutant that is used in circadian studies in N. crassa. Thus, MadC is unlikely to be a photosensor, yet is a fundamental link in the photoresponses from blue light perceived by the conserved White Collar complex with Ras signaling in two distantly-related filamentous fungal species. PMID:28322269

  9. Argos induces programmed cell death in the developing Drosophila eye by inhibition of the Ras pathway.

    PubMed

    Sawamoto, K; Taguchi, A; Hirota, Y; Yamada, C; Jin, M H; Okano, H

    1998-04-01

    We studied the role of Ras signaling in the regulation of cell death during Drosophila eye development. Overexpression of Argos, a diffusible inhibitor of the EGF receptor and Ras signaling, caused excessive cell death in developing eyes at pupal stages. The Argos-induced cell death was suppressed by coexpression of the anti-apoptotic genes p35, diap1, or diap2 in the eye as well as by the Df(3L)H99 chromosomal deletion that lacks three apoptosis-inducing genes, reaper, head involution defective (hid) and grim. Transient misexpression of the activated Ras1 protein (Ras1V12) later in pupal development suppressed the Argos-induced cell death. Thus, Argos-induced cell death seemed to have resulted from the suppression of the anti-apoptotic function of Ras. Conversely, cell death induced by overexpression of Hid was suppressed by gain-of-function mutations of the genes coding for MEK and ERK. These results support the idea that Ras signaling functions in two distinct processes during eye development, first triggering the recruitment of cells and later negatively regulating cell death.

  10. Specific cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region of Ras increase tumorigenicity by nanocluster augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Šolman, Maja; Ligabue, Alessio; Blaževitš, Olga; Jaiswal, Alok; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Lectez, Benoit; Kopra, Kari; Guzmán, Camilo; Härmä, Harri; Hancock, John F; Aittokallio, Tero; Abankwa, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hotspot mutations of Ras drive cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Less frequent mutations in Ras are poorly characterized for their oncogenic potential. Yet insight into their mechanism of action may point to novel opportunities to target Ras. Here, we show that several cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region moderately increase Ras activity in all isoforms. Mutants are biochemically inconspicuous, while their clustering into nanoscale signaling complexes on the plasma membrane, termed nanocluster, is augmented. Nanoclustering dictates downstream effector recruitment, MAPK-activity, and tumorigenic cell proliferation. Our results describe an unprecedented mechanism of signaling protein activation in cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08905.001 PMID:26274561

  11. RAS - Target Identification - Informatics

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Informatics lab group develops tools to track and analyze “big data” from the RAS Initiative, as well as analyzes data from external projects. By integrating internal and external data, this group helps improve understanding of RAS-driven cancers.

  12. Ras and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) drive GTP into a precatalytic state as revealed by combining FTIR and biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Rudack, Till; Xia, Fei; Schlitter, Jürgen; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2012-09-18

    Members of the Ras superfamily regulate many cellular processes. They are down-regulated by a GTPase reaction in which GTP is cleaved into GDP and P(i) by nucleophilic attack of a water molecule. Ras proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a factor of 10(5) compared to GTP in water. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) accelerate hydrolysis by another factor of 10(5) compared to Ras alone. Oncogenic mutations in Ras and GAPs slow GTP hydrolysis and are a factor in many cancers. Here, we elucidate in detail how this remarkable catalysis is brought about. We refined the protein-bound GTP structure and protein-induced charge shifts within GTP beyond the current resolution of X-ray structural models by combining quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics simulations with time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The simulations were validated by comparing experimental and theoretical IR difference spectra. The reactant structure of GTP is destabilized by Ras via a conformational change from a staggered to an eclipsed position of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the γ- relative to the β-phosphates and the further rotation of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of α- relative to the β- and γ-phosphates by GAP. Further, the γ-phosphate becomes more positive although two of its oxygen atoms remain negative. This facilitates the nucleophilic attack by the water oxygen at the phosphate and proton transfer to the oxygen. Detailed changes in geometry and charge distribution in the ligand below the resolution of X-ray structure analysis are important for catalysis. Such high resolution appears crucial for the understanding of enzyme catalysis.

  13. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, J; Carlson, M; Mansour, S J; Chien, K R; Ahn, N G; Thorburn, A

    1995-01-01

    Signaling via the Ras pathway involves sequential activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Expression from the c-Fos, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters during phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy requires activation of this pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Ras or Raf-1 can mimic the action of phenylephrine in inducing expression from these promoters. In this study, we tested whether constitutively active MKK, the molecule immediately downstream of Raf, was sufficient to induce expression. Expression of constitutively active MKK induce ERK2 kinase activity and caused expression from the c-Fos promoter, but did not significantly activate expression of reporter genes under the control of either the ANF or MLC-2 promoters. Expression of CL100, a phosphatase that inactivates ERKs, prevented expression from all of the promoters. Taken together, these data suggest that ERK activation is required for expression from the Fos, ANF, and MLC-2 promoters but MKK and ERK activation is sufficient for expression only from the Fos promoter. Constitutively active MKK synergized with phenylephrine to increase expression from a c-Fos- or an AP1-driven reporter. However, active MKK inhibited phenylephrine- and Raf-1-induced expression from the ANF and MLC-2 promoters. A DNA sequence in the MLC-2 promoter that is a target for inhibition by active MKK, but not CL100, was mapped to a previously characterized DNA element (HF1) that is responsible for cardiac specificity. Thus, activation of cardiac gene expression during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy requires ERK activation but constitutive activation by MKK can inhibit expression by targeting a DNA element that controls the cardiac specificity of gene expression. PMID:8589450

  14. Hepatitis C Virus Co-Opts Ras-GTPase-Activating Protein-Binding Protein 1 for Its Genome Replication ▿

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Zhigang; Pan, Tingting; Wu, Xianfang; Song, Wuhui; Wang, Shanshan; Xu, Yan; Rice, Charles M.; MacDonald, Margaret R.; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that Ras-GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5B and the 5′ end of the HCV minus-strand RNA. In the current study we confirmed these observations using immunoprecipitation and RNA pulldown assays, suggesting that G3BP1 might be an HCV replication complex (RC) component. In replicon cells, transfected G3BP1 interacts with multiple HCV nonstructural proteins. Using immunostaining and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that G3BP1 is colocalized with HCV RCs in replicon cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of G3BP1 moderately reduces established HCV RNA replication in HCV replicon cells and dramatically reduces HCV replication-dependent colony formation and cell-culture-produced HCV (HCVcc) infection. In contrast, knockdown of G3BP2 has no effect on HCVcc infection. Transient replication experiments show that G3BP1 is involved in HCV genome amplification. Thus, G3BP1 is associated with HCV RCs and may be co-opted as a functional RC component for viral replication. These findings may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HCV genome replication. PMID:21561913

  15. Ras Oncogene-Mediated Progressive Silencing of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase in Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Francesca; de Vita, Gabriella; Salvatore, Marco; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is a secreted enzyme that uses superoxide anion as a substrate in a dismutase reaction that results in the formation of hydrogen peroxide. Both of these reactive oxygen species affect growth signaling in cells. Although SOD3 has growth-supporting characteristics, the expression of SOD3 is downregulated in epithelial cancer cells. In the current work, we studied the mechanisms regulating SOD3 expression in vitro using thyroid cell models representing different stages of thyroid cancer. We demonstrate that a low level of RAS activation increases SOD3 mRNA synthesis that then gradually decreases with increasing levels of RAS activation and the decreasing degree of differentiation of the cancer cells. Our data indicate that SOD3 regulation can be divided into two classes. The first class involves RAS–driven reversible regulation of SOD3 expression that can be mediated by the following mechanisms: RAS GTPase regulatory genes that are responsible for SOD3 self-regulation; RAS-stimulated p38 MAPK activation; and RAS-activated increased expression of the mir21 microRNA, which inversely correlates with sod3 mRNA expression. The second class involves permanent silencing of SOD3 mediated by epigenetic DNA methylation in cells that represent more advanced cancers. Therefore, the work suggests that SOD3 belongs to the group of ras oncogene-silenced genes. PMID:26550576

  16. Superoxide Inhibits Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) Action on Ras, but not on Rho, through Desensitization of Ras to GEF

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ras and Rho GTPases are molecular switches for various vital cellular signaling pathways. Overactivation of these GTPases often causes development of cancer. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and oxidants function to upregulate these GTPases through facilitation of guanine nucleotide exchange (GNE) of these GTPases. However, the effect of oxidants on GEF functions, or vice versa, has not been known. We show that, via targeting Ras Cys51, an oxidant inhibits the catalytic action of Cdc25—the catalytic domain of RasGEFs—on Ras. However, the enhancement of Ras GNE by an oxidant continues regardless of the presence of Cdc25. Limiting RasGEF action by an oxidant may function to prevent the pathophysiological overactivation of Ras in the presence of both RasGEFs and oxidants. The continuous exposure of Ras to nitric oxide and its derivatives can form S-nitrosated Ras (Ras-SNO). This study also shows that an oxidant not only inhibits the catalytic action of Cdc25 on Ras-SNO but also fails to enhance Ras-SNO GNE. This lack of enhancement then populates the biologically inactive Ras-SNO in cells, which may function to prevent the continued redox signaling of the Ras pathophysiological response. Finally, this study also demonstrates that, unlike the case with RasGEFs, an oxidant does not inhibit the catalytic action of RhoGEF—Vav or Dbs—on Rho GTPases such as Rac1, RhoA, RhoC, and Cdc42. This result explains the results of the previous study in which, despite the presence of an oxidant, the catalytic action of Dbs in cells continued to enhance RhoC GNE. PMID:24422478

  17. Absolute Quantification of Endogenous Ras Isoform Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mageean, Craig J.; Griffiths, John R.; Smith, Duncan L.; Clague, Michael J.; Prior, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ≥260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS≥HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data. PMID:26560143

  18. Contribution of the R-Ras2 GTP-binding protein to primary breast tumorigenesis and late-stage metastatic disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larive, Romain M.; Moriggi, Giulia; Menacho-Márquez, Mauricio; Cañamero, Marta; Álava, Enrique De; Alarcón, Balbino; Dosil, Mercedes; Bustelo, Xosé R.

    2014-05-01

    R-Ras2 is a transforming GTPase that shares downstream effectors with Ras subfamily proteins. However, little information exists about the function of this protein in tumorigenesis and its signalling overlap with classical Ras GTPases. Here we show, by combining loss- and gain-of-function studies in breast cancer cells, mammary epithelial cells and mouse models, that endogenous R-Ras2 has a role in both primary breast tumorigenesis and the late metastatic steps of cancer cells in the lung parenchyma. R-Ras2 drives tumorigenesis in a phosphatidylinostiol-3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent and signalling autonomous manner. By contrast, its prometastatic role requires other priming oncogenic signals and the engagement of several downstream elements. R-Ras2 function is required even in cancer cells exhibiting constitutive activation of classical Ras proteins, indicating that these GTPases are not functionally redundant. Our results also suggest that application of long-term R-Ras2 therapies will result in the development of compensatory mechanisms in breast tumours.

  19. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M; Knotts, Trina A; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; McCoin, Colin S; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Adams, Sean H; Hwang, Daniel H

    2014-06-15

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed D,L isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant L-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. L-C14 carnitine (5-25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, L-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, L-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified.

  20. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M.; Knotts, Trina A.; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D.; McCoin, Colin S.; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed d,l isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant l-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. l-C14 carnitine (5–25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, l-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, l-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified. PMID:24760988

  1. Quadruple wild-type (WT) GIST: defining the subset of GIST that lacks abnormalities of KIT, PDGFRA, SDH, or RAS signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Maria A; Nannini, Margherita; Corless, Christopher L; Heinrich, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    A subset of GISTs lack mutations in the KIT/PDGFRA or RAS pathways and yet retain an intact succinate dehydrogensase (SDH) complex. We propose that these KIT/PDGFRA/SDH/RAS-P WT GIST tumors be designated as quadruple wild-type (WT) GIST. Further molecular and clinicophatological characterization of quadruple WT GIST will help to determine their prognosis as well as assist in the optimization of medical management, including clinical test of novel therapies.

  2. RAS and BRAF in metastatic colorectal cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jun; Cho, May

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been further refined with the development of monoclonal antibodies, cetuximab and panitumumab, towards the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Anti-EGFR therapy has afforded improved survival in those with wild-type RAS mCRC but provides no benefit and even harm in those with RAS-mutant tumors. BRAF mutations have also been shown to predict lack of clinically meaningful benefit to anti-EGFR therapy in mCRC. Mechanisms of resistance to EGFR blockade in wild-type RAS or BRAF metastatic colorectal tumors appear to converge on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Clinical trials involving combined BRAF, EGFR, and/or MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibition have shown promising activity in BRAF-mutant mCRC. Here, we review pivotal clinical trials that have redefined our treatment approach in mCRC with respect to anti-EGFR therapy based on RAS and BRAF mutation status. Future studies will likely focus on improving efficacy of anti-EGFR-based therapy in mCRC through sustained MAPK pathway inhibition. PMID:27747083

  3. Mutations activating human c-Ha-ras1 protooncogene (HRAS1) induced by chemical carcinogens and depurination.

    PubMed Central

    Vousden, K H; Bos, J L; Marshall, C J; Phillips, D H

    1986-01-01

    In vitro modification of plasmids containing the human c-Ha-ras1 protooncogene (HRAS1) with the ultimate carcinogens N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene and r-7, t-8-dihydroxy-t-9, 10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[alpha]pyrene (anti-BPDE) generated a transforming oncogene when the modified DNA was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. The protooncogene was also activated by heating the plasmid at 70 degrees C, pH 4, to generate apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in the DNA. DNA isolated from transformed foci was analyzed by hybridization with 20-mer oligonucleotides designed to detect single point mutations within two regions of the gene commonly found to be mutated in tumor DNA. Of 23 transformants studied, 7 contained a mutation in the region of the 12th codon, whereas the remaining 16 were mutated in the 61st codon. Of the codon-61 mutants, 6 were mutated at the first base position (C X G), 5 at the second (A X T), and 5 at the third (G X C). The point mutations induced by anti-BPDE were predominantly G X C----T X A and A X T----T X A base substitutions, whereas four N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene-induced mutations were all G X C----T X A, and a single depurination-induced activation that was analyzed contained an A X T----T X A transversion. Together, these methods provide a useful means of determining point mutations produced by DNA-damaging agents in mammalian cells. Images PMID:3513171

  4. Computational Modeling Reveals that Signaling Lipids Modulate the Orientation of K-Ras4A at the Membrane Reflecting Protein Topology.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Lu; Buck, Matthias

    2017-04-04

    The structural, dynamical, and functional characterization of the small GTPase K-Ras has become a research area of intense focus due to its high occurrence in human cancers. Ras proteins are only fully functional when they interact with the plasma membrane. Here we present all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (totaling 5.8 μs) to investigate the K-Ras4A protein at membranes that contain anionic lipids (phosphatidyl serine or phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate). We find that similarly to the homologous and highly studied K-Ras4B, K-Ras4A prefers a few distinct orientations at the membrane. Remarkably, the protein surface charge and certain lipids can strongly modulate the orientation preference. In a novel analysis, we reveal that the electrostatic interaction (attraction but also repulsion) between the protein's charged residues and anionic lipids determines the K-Ras4A orientation, but that this is also influenced by the topology of the protein, reflecting the geometry of its surfaces.

  5. Ifenprodil Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization and Activation of Ras-ERK-∆FosB Pathway in the Caudate Putamen.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liu, Xinshe; Qiao, Chuchu; Chen, Gang; Li, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Addiction is a debilitating, chronic psychiatric disorder that is difficult to cure completely owing to the high rate of relapse. Behavioral sensitization is considered to may underlie behavioral changes, such as relapse, caused by chronic abuse of psychomotor stimulants. Thus, its animal models have been widely used to explore the etiology of addiction. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play an important role in addiction to psychomotor stimulants. However, the role of GluN2B-containing receptors and their downstream signaling pathway(s) in behavioral sensitization induced by methamphetamine (METH) have not been investigated yet. In this study, we used different doses of ifenprodil (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg), a selective antagonist of the GluN2B subunit, to investigate the role of GluN2B-containing NMDARs in METH-induced behavioral sensitization. We then examined changes in the levels of Ras, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)/ERK, and ∆FosB in the caudate putamen (CPu) by western blot. We found that 2.5 or 10 mg/kg ifenprodil significantly attenuated METH-induced behavioral sensitization, whereas the mice treated with a moderate dose of ifenprodil (5 mg/kg) displayed no significant changes. Further results of western blot experiments showed that repeated administration of METH caused the increases in the levels of Ras, pERK/ERK and ∆FosB in the CPu, and these changes were inhibited by only the 2.5 mg/kg dose of ifenprodil. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that 2.5 mg/kg ifenprodil could attenuate METH-induced behavioral sensitization. Moreover, GluN2B-containing NMDARs and their downstream Ras-ERK-∆FosB signaling pathway in the CPu might be involved in METH-induced behavioral sensitization.

  6. Cardiac remodelling and RAS inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes are known to augment the activity and tissue expression of angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector peptide of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). Overstimulation of the RAS has been implicated in a chain of events that contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease, including the development of cardiac remodelling. This chain of events has been termed the CV continuum. The concept of CV disease existing as a continuum was first proposed in 1991 and it is believed that intervention at any point within the continuum can modify disease progression. Treatment with antihypertensive agents may result in regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, with different drug classes exhibiting different degrees of efficacy. The greatest decrease in left ventricular mass is observed following treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), which inhibit Ang II formation. Although ACE-Is and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) provide significant benefits in terms of CV events and stroke, mortality remains high. This is partly due to a failure to completely suppress the RAS, and, as our knowledge has increased, an escape phenomenon has been proposed whereby the human sequence of the 12 amino acid substrate angiotensin-(1-12) is converted to Ang II by the mast cell protease, chymase. Angiotensin-(1-12) is abundant in a wide range of organs and has been shown to increase blood pressure in animal models, an effect abolished by the presence of ACE-Is or ARBs. This review explores the CV continuum, in addition to examining the influence of the RAS. We also consider novel pathways within the RAS and how new therapeutic approaches that target this are required to further reduce Ang II formation, and so provide patients with additional benefits from a more complete blockade of the RAS. PMID:27105891

  7. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  8. MiR-124 governs glioma growth and angiogenesis and enhances chemosensitivity by targeting R-Ras and N-Ras

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhumei; Chen, Qiudan; Li, Chongyong; Wang, Lin; Qian, Xu; Jiang, Chengfei; Liu, Xue; Wang, Xiefeng; Li, Hai; Kang, Chunsheng; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Ling-Zhi; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Glioma is one of the most aggressive and lethal human brain tumors. Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in cancers, including glioma. Previous studies reported that miR-124 levels were downregulated in glioma specimens. Here, we further investigate the potential role of miR-124 in glioma. Methods The expression levels of miR-124 were detected in glioma specimens by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The direct targets of miR-124 were identified by bioinformatics analysis and were further validated by immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assay. The effects of miR-124 on glioma cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to temozolomide were analyzed by Cell-Counting Kit 8 assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. A xenograft model was used to study the effect of miR-124 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. Results Expression levels of miR-124 were greatly downregulated in glioma specimens. related Ras viral oncogene homolog (R-Ras) and neuroblastoma Ras viral oncogene homolog (N-Ras) were identified as direct targets of miR-124. MiR-124 inhibited glioma cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor growth and increased chemosensitivity to temozolomide treatment by negatively regulating the Ras family and its downstream signaling pathways: phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt and Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Furthermore, overexpression of R-Ras rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-124. Meanwhile, overexpression of R-Ras and N-Ras restored miR-124–inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription activation. In clinical glioma specimens, protein levels of R-Ras and N-Ras were upregulated and inversely correlated with miR-124 expression levels. Conclusions Taken together, these results revealed that miR-124 levels in tumor tissues are associated with glioma occurrence, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance and that miR-124 may be used as a new diagnostic marker

  9. Ras oncogene and inflammation: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Anke; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that Ras oncogenes facilitate neoplastic conversion by stimulating tumor cell growth, survival and motility. However, current studies have indicated that the role of Ras in malignant transformation extends beyond these cell-intrinsic effects to include the establishment of a pro-tumorigenic host environment. We have recently demonstrated that Ras-induced secretion of the chemokine Interleukin-8 (CXCL-8/IL-8) elicits a local inflammatory reaction that is critical for neo-vascularization and sustained tumor growth. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which the Ras oncogene promotes tumor-host interactions that are essential for cancer progression, and suggest that CXCL-8 could serve as a surrogate marker for in-vivo Ras activity.

  10. Functional determinants of ras interference 1 mutants required for their inhbitory activity on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Galvis, Adriana; Giambini, Hugo; Villasana, Zoilmar; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2009-03-10

    In this study, we initiated experiments to address the structure-function relationship of Rin1. A total of ten substitute mutations were created, and their effects on Rin1 function were examined. Of the ten mutants, four of them (P541A, E574A, Y577F, T580A) were defective in Rab5 binding, while two other Rin1 mutants (D537A, Y561F) partially interacted with Rab5. Mutations in several other residues (Y506F, Y523F, T572A, Y578F) resulted in partial loss of Rab5 function. Biochemical studies showed that six of them (D537A, P541A, Y561F, E574A, Y577F, T580A) were unable to activate Rab5 in an in vitro assay. In addition, Rin1: D537A and Rin1: Y561F mutants showed dominant inhibition of Rab5 function. Consistent with the biochemical studies, we observed that these two Rin1 mutants have lost their ability to stimulate the endocytosis of EGF, form enlarged Rab5-positive endosomes, or support in vitro endosome fusion. Based on these data, our results showed that mutations in the Vps9 domain of Rin1 lead to a loss-of-function phenotype, indicating a specific structure-function relationship between Rab5 and Rin1.

  11. Mutated K-ras(Asp12) promotes tumourigenesis in Apc(Min) mice more in the large than the small intestines, with synergistic effects between K-ras and Wnt pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feijun; Brooks, David G; Ye, Hongtao; Hamoudi, Rifat; Poulogiannis, George; Patek, Charles E; Winton, Douglas J; Arends, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Summary K-ras mutations are found in 40-50% of human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, but their functional contribution remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that a conditional mutant K-ras mouse model (K-ras(Asp12)/Cre), with transient intestinal Cre activation by beta-Naphthoflavone (beta-NF) treatment, displayed transgene recombination and K-ras(Asp12) expression in the murine intestines, but developed few intestinal adenomas over 2 years. However, when crossed with Apc(Min/+) mice, the K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) offspring showed acceleration of intestinal tumourigenesis with significantly changed average lifespan (P < 0.05) decreased to 18.4 +/- 5.4 weeks from 20.9 +/- 4.7 weeks (control Apc(Min/+) mice). The numbers of adenomas in the small intestine and large intestine were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 1.5-fold and 5.7-fold, respectively, in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) mice compared with Apc(Min/+) mice, with the more marked increase in adenoma prevalence in the large intestine. To explore possible mechanisms for K-ras(Asp12) and Apc(Min) co-operation, the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk), Akt and Wnt signalling pathways, including selected target gene expression levels, were evaluated in normal large intestine and large intestinal tumours. K-ras(Asp12) increased activation of Mapk and Akt signalling pathway targets phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pErk) and pAkt, and increased relative expression levels of Wnt pathway targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), gastrin, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (Cox2) and T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) adenomas compared with that of Apc(Min/+) adenomas, although other Wnt signalling pathway target genes such as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd), matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1A) and c-myc remained unchanged. In conclusion, intestinal expression of K-ras(Asp12) promotes mutant

  12. Desensitization of the Ca2+-mobilizing system to serum growth factors by Ha-ras and v-mos.

    PubMed Central

    Maly, K; Doppler, W; Oberhuber, H; Meusburger, H; Hofmann, J; Jaggi, R; Grunicke, H H

    1988-01-01

    An elevation of the intracellular pH and a rise in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration are considered important mitogenic signals which are observed after stimulation by various growth factors. In a preceding report it was demonstrated that the expression of Ha-ras or v-mos in cells transfected with Ha-ras or v-mos, respectively, leads to an activation of the Na+/H+ antiporter and a concomitant rise in intracellular pH (W. Doppler, R. Jaggi, and B. Groner, Gene 54:145-151, 1987). This report describes the effect of the Ha-ras and v-mos oncogenes on intracellular Ca2+ release. The expression of Ha-ras in NIH 3T3 cells carrying a glucocorticoid-inducible transforming Ha-ras gene caused a desensitization of the Ca2+-mobilizing system to serum growth factors. The induction of p21ras in cells carrying the corresponding glucocorticoid-inducible proto-oncogene did not affect the Ca2+ response to growth factors. Conditions leading to the expression of the transforming Ha-ras gene but not those causing the induction of the normal Ha-ras gene yielded an increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover and a concomitant rise in inositol phosphates. Results similar to those obtained with the transforming Ha-ras gene were seen after the expression of v-mos. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which expression of the transforming Ha-ras gene leads to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores via elevated levels of inositol trisphosphate. PMID:3141785

  13. Epigenetic alteration to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling in Raf-induced senescence

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Mai; Mano, Yasunobu; Anai, Motonobu; Yamamoto, Shogo; Fukuyo, Masaki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate epigenomic and gene expression alterations during cellular senescence induced by oncogenic Raf. METHODS: Cellular senescence was induced into mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by infecting retrovirus to express oncogenic Raf (RafV600E). RNA was collected from RafV600E cells as well as MEFs without infection and MEFs with mock infection, and a genome-wide gene expression analysis was performed using microarray. The epigenomic status for active H3K4me3 and repressive H3K27me3 histone marks was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing for RafV600E cells on day 7 and for MEFs without infection. These data for Raf-induced senescence were compared with data for Ras-induced senescence that were obtained in our previous study. Gene knockdown and overexpression were done by retrovirus infection. RESULTS: Although the expression of some genes including secreted factors was specifically altered in either Ras- or Raf-induced senescence, many genes showed similar alteration pattern in Raf- and Ras-induced senescence. A total of 841 commonly upregulated 841 genes and 573 commonly downregulated genes showed a significant enrichment of genes related to signal and secreted proteins, suggesting the importance of alterations in secreted factors. Bmp2, a secreted protein to activate Bmp2-Smad signaling, was highly upregulated with gain of H3K4me3 and loss of H3K27me3 during Raf-induced senescence, as previously detected in Ras-induced senescence, and the knockdown of Bmp2 by shRNA lead to escape from Raf-induced senescence. Bmp2-Smad inhibitor Smad6 was strongly repressed with H3K4me3 loss in Raf-induced senescence, as detected in Ras-induced senescence, and senescence was also bypassed by Smad6 induction in Raf-activated cells. Different from Ras-induced senescence, however, gain of H3K27me3 did not occur in the Smad6 promoter region during Raf-induced senescence. When comparing genome-wide alteration between Ras- and Raf-induced senescence, genes

  14. Ras transformation uncouples the kinesin-coordinated cellular nutrient response

    PubMed Central

    Zaganjor, Elma; Weil, Lauren M.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    The kinesin family members (KIFs) KIF2A and KIF2C depolymerize microtubules, unlike the majority of other kinesins, which transport cargo along microtubules. KIF2A regulates the localization of lysosomes in the cytoplasm, which assists in activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosomal surface. We find that the closely related kinesin KIF2C also influences lysosomal organization in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Expression of KIF2C and, to a lesser extent, KIF2A in untransformed and mutant K-Ras–transformed cells is regulated by ERK1/2. Prolonged inhibition of ERK1/2 activation with PD0325901 mimics nutrient deprivation by disrupting lysosome organization and decreasing mTORC1 activity in HBEC, suggesting a long-term mechanism for optimization of mTORC1 activity by ERK1/2. We tested the hypothesis that up-regulation of KIF2C and KIF2A by ERK1/2 caused aberrant lysosomal positioning and mTORC1 activity in a mutant K-Ras–dependent cancer and cancer model. In Ras-transformed cells, however, mTORC1 activity and lysosome organization appear independent of ERK1/2 and these kinesins although ERK1/2 activity and the kinesins are required for Ras-dependent proliferation and migration. We conclude that mutant K-Ras repurposes these signaling and regulatory proteins to support the transformed phenotype. PMID:25002494

  15. Radiosensitization of EGFR/HER2 positive pancreatic cancer is mediated by inhibition of Akt independent of Ras mutational status

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Vaseva, Angelina V.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Baerman, Kathryn M.; Calvo, Benjamin F.; Tepper, Joel E.; Shields, Janiel M.; Sartor, Carolyn I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor family members (e.g., EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4) are commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. We investigated the effects of inhibition of EGFR/HER2 signaling on pancreatic cancer to elucidate the role(s) of EGFR/HER2 in radiosensitization and to provide evidence in support of further clinical investigations. Experimental Design Expression of EGFR family members in pancreatic cancer lines was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell growth inhibition was determined by MTS assay. The effects of inhibition of EGFR family receptors and downstream signaling pathways on in vitro radiosensitivity were evaluated using clonogenic assays. Growth delay was used to evaluate the effects of nelfinavir on in vivo tumor radiosensitivity. Results Lapatinib inhibited cell growth in four pancreatic cancer cell lines, but radiosensitized only wild-type K-ras-expressing T3M4 cells. Akt activation was blocked in a wild-type K-ras cell line, whereas constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and ERK was seen in lines expressing mutant K-ras. Overexpression of constitutively-active K-ras(G12V) abrogated lapatinib-mediated inhibition of both Akt phosphorylation and radiosensitization. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling with U0126 had no effect on radiosensitization, whereas inhibition of activated Akt with LY294002 (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.8) or nelfinavir (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.4) radiosensitized cells regardless of K-ras mutation status. Oral nelfinavir administration to mice bearing mutant K-ras-containing Capan-2 xenografts resulted in a greater than additive increase in radiation-mediated tumor growth delay (synergy assessment ratio of 1.5). Conclusions Inhibition of EGFR/HER2 enhances radiosensitivity in wild-type K-ras pancreatic cancer. Nelfinavir, and other PI3K/Akt inhibitors, are effective pancreatic radiosensitizers regardless of K-ras mutation status. PMID:20103665

  16. RAS/ERK pathway transcriptional regulation through ETS/AP-1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is activated by mutation in many cancers. Neighboring ETS and AP-1 DNA binding sequences can act as response elements for transcriptional activation by this pathway. ERK phosphorylation of an ETS transcription factor is one mechanism of activating the RAS/ERK gene expression program that can promote cancer cell phenotypes such as proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent genome-wide mapping of ETS proteins over-expressed by chromosomal rearrangement in prostate cancer reveals a second mechanism for activation of this gene expression program. An oncogenic subset of ETS transcription factors can activate RAS/ERK target genes even in the absence of RAS/ERK pathway activation by binding ETS/AP-1 sequences. Thus, regulation of cancer cell invasion and metastasis via ETS/AP-1 sequence elements depends on which ETS protein is bound, and the status of the RAS/ERK pathway. This commentary will focus on what is known about the selectivity of ETS/AP-1 sequences for different ETS transcription factors and the transcriptional consequences of ETS protein selection.

  17. Activity Dependent Signal Transduction in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    The overall goals of this project are: 1) to define the initial signal transduction events whereby the removal of gravitational load from antigravity muscles, such as the soleus, triggers muscle atrophy, and 2) to develop countermeasures to prevent this from happening. Our rationale for this approach is that, if countermeasures can be developed to regulate these early events, we could avoid having to deal with the multiple cascades of events that occur downstream from the initial event. One of our major findings is that hind limb suspension causes an early and sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca (2+)](sub i)). In most cells the consequences of changes in ([Ca (2+)](sub i))depend on the amplitude, frequency and duration of the Ca(2+) signal and on other factors in the intracellular environment. We propose that muscle remodeling in microgravity represents a change in the balance among several CA(2+) regulated signal transduction pathways, in particular those involving the transcription factors NFAT and NFkB and the pro-apoptotic protein BAD. Other Ca(2+) sensitive pathways involving PKC, ras, rac, and CaM kinase II may also contribute to muscle remodeling.

  18. Metabolic Dependencies in RAS-Driven Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kimmelman, Alec C

    2015-04-15

    The ability to inhibit the RAS oncogene has been the holy grail of oncology because of the critical role of this gene in a multitude of tumor types. In addition, RAS-mutant tumors are among the most aggressive and refractory to treatment. Although directly targeting the RAS oncogene has proven challenging, an alternative approach for treating RAS-driven cancers is to inhibit critical downstream events that are required for tumor maintenance. Indeed, much focus has been put on inhibiting signaling cascades downstream of RAS. Recent studies have shown that oncogenic RAS promotes a metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, shifting them toward an anabolic metabolism necessary to produce biomass to support unconstrained proliferation. These cancers also use a diverse set of fuel sources to meet their metabolic needs and have even developed a variety of mechanisms to act as metabolic scavengers to obtain necessary metabolic substrates from both extracellular and intracellular sources. Collectively, these adaptations can create "metabolic bottlenecks" whereby tumor cells rely on particular pathways or rate-limiting metabolites. In this regard, inhibiting individual or combinations of these metabolic pathways can attenuate growth in preclinical models. Because these dependencies are tumor selective and downstream of oncogenic RAS, there is the opportunity for therapeutic intervention. Although targeting tumor metabolism is still in the early days of translation to patients, our continued advances in understanding critical metabolic adaptations in RAS-driven cancers, as well as the ability to study this altered metabolism in relevant tumor models, will accelerate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1828-34. ©2015 AACR. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Targeting RAS-Driven Cancers."

  19. Prolonged exposure to FLT3 inhibitors leads to resistance via activation of parallel signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Piloto, Obdulio; Wright, Melissa; Brown, Patrick; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Levis, Mark; Small, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Continuous treatment of malignancies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may select for resistant clones (ie, imatinib mesylate). To study resistance to TKIs targeting FLT3, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is frequently mutated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we developed resistant human cell lines through prolonged coculture with FLT3 TKIs. FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines and primary samples still exhibit inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation on FLT3 TKI treatment. However, FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines and primary samples often show continued activation of downstream PI3K/Akt and/or Ras/MEK/MAPK signaling pathways as well as continued expression of genes involved in FLT3-mediated cellular transformation. Inhibition of these signaling pathways restores partial sensitivity to FLT3 TKIs. Mutational screening of FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines revealed activating N-Ras mutations in 2 cell lines that were not present in the parental FLT3 TKI-sensitive cell line. Taken together, these data indicate that FLT3 TKI-resistant cells most frequently become FLT3 independent because of activation of parallel signaling pathways that provide compensatory survival/proliferation signals when FLT3 is inhibited. Anti-FLT3 mAb treatment was still cytotoxic to FLT3 TKI-resistant clones. An approach combining FLT3 TKIs with anti-FLT3 antibodies and/or inhibitors of important pathways downstream of FLT3 may reduce the chances of developing resistance. PMID:17047150

  20. A sensitive dual-fluorescence reporter system enables positive selection of