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Sample records for activated receptor tyrosine

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanisms of activation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication. These single-pass transmembrane receptors, which bind polypeptide ligands — mainly growth factors — play key roles in processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism and motility. Recent progress has been achieved towards an understanding of the precise (and varied) mechanisms by which RTKs are activated by ligand binding and by which signals are propagated from the activated receptors to downstream targets in the cell. PMID:17306972

  2. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases. PMID:23716717

  3. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  4. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  5. Dimerization mediated through a leucine zipper activates the oncogenic potential of the met receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M

    1993-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of the met (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) receptor tyrosine kinase involves a genomic rearrangement that generates a hybrid protein containing tpr-encoded sequences at its amino terminus fused directly to the met-encoded receptor kinase domain. Deletion of Tpr sequences abolishes the transforming ability of this protein, implicating this region in oncogenic activation. We demonstrate, by site-directed mutagenesis and coimmunoprecipitation experiments, that a leucine zipper motif within Tpr mediates dimerization of the tpr-met product and is essential for the transforming activity of the met oncogene. By analogy with ligand-stimulated activation of receptor tyrosine kinases, we propose that constitutive dimerization mediated by a leucine zipper motif within Tpr is responsible for oncogenic activation of the Met kinase. The possibility that this mechanism of activation represents a paradigm for a class of receptor tyrosine kinase oncogenes activated by DNA rearrangement is discussed. Images PMID:8413267

  6. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  7. Oestradiol stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation and hormone binding activity of its own receptor in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Auricchio, F; Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Nola, E

    1987-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that calf uterus oestrogen receptor exists in a tyrosine-phosphorylated hormone binding form and in non-phosphorylated, non-hormone binding form. We report here that physiological concentrations of oestradiol in complex with the receptor stimulate the calf uterus receptor kinase that converts the non-hormone binding receptor into hormone binding receptor through phosphorylation of the receptor on tyrosine. The activity of this enzyme has been followed by reactivation of hormone binding sites and phosphorylation on tyrosine of calf uterus phosphatase-inactivated receptor. Phosphorylation of the receptor has been demonstrated by interaction of kinase 32P-phosphorylated proteins with anti-receptor antibody followed either by sucrose gradient centrifugation or SDS-PAGE of the immunoprecipitated proteins. Hormone stimulation of the kinase is inhibited by receptor occupancy of the anti-oestrogen tamoxifen. Oestradiol-receptor complex increases the affinity of the kinase for the dephosphorylated receptor. Findings of this report are consistent with the observation that several protein tyrosine kinases that are associated with peptide hormone receptors are stimulated by the binding of the hormone to the receptor. This is the first report on the activation of a tyrosine kinase by a steroid hormone. The finding that hormones can regulate their own receptor binding activity through a tyrosine kinase is also new. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3691476

  8. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  9. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  10. Ly-6A is required for T cell receptor expression and protein tyrosine kinase fyn activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S K; Su, B; Maher, S E; Bothwell, A L

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the function of the Ly-6A antigen in T cell activation, antisense Ly-6 RNA was expressed in a stably transfected antigen-specific T cell clone. Reduced Ly-6A expression results in inhibition of responses to antigen, anti-TCR (anti-T cell receptor) crosslinking and concanavalin A plus recombinant interleukin 1 and causes impairment of in vitro fyn tyrosine kinase activity. More substantial reduction of Ly-6A results in reduction of TCR expression. Analysis of mRNA species indicates that the reduction is specific for the TCR beta chain. These data demonstrate that Ly-6A may regulate TCR expression and may be involved in early events of T cell activation via regulation of fyn tyrosine kinase activity. Images PMID:8187770

  11. Structure and activation of MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase central to neuromuscular junction formation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Stevan R; Gnanasambandan, Kavitha

    2013-10-01

    MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a central signaling role in the formation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). MuSK is activated in a complex spatio-temporal manner to cluster acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic (muscle) side of the synapse and to induce differentiation of the nerve terminal on the presynaptic side. The ligand for MuSK is LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), a transmembrane protein in muscle, whose binding affinity for MuSK is potentiated by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. In addition, Dok7, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is also required for MuSK activation in vivo. This review focuses on the physical interplay between these proteins and MuSK for activation and downstream signaling, which culminates in NMJ formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emerging recognition and activation mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23467009

  12. Distinct Pathways Regulate Syk Protein Activation Downstream of Immune Tyrosine Activation Motif (ITAM) and hemITAM Receptors in Platelets*

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Bhanu Kanth; Badolia, Rachit; Dangelmaier, Carol; Eble, Johannes A.; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Kahn, Mark; Kunapuli, Satya P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase pathways are known to play an important role in the activation of platelets. In particular, the GPVI and CLEC-2 receptors are known to activate Syk upon tyrosine phosphorylation of an immune tyrosine activation motif (ITAM) and hemITAM, respectively. However, unlike GPVI, the CLEC-2 receptor contains only one tyrosine motif in the intracellular domain. The mechanisms by which this receptor activates Syk are not completely understood. In this study, we identified a novel signaling mechanism in CLEC-2-mediated Syk activation. CLEC-2-mediated, but not GPVI-mediated, platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation were abolished by inhibition of PI3K, which demonstrates that PI3K regulates Syk downstream of CLEC-2. Ibrutinib, a Tec family kinase inhibitor, also completely abolished CLEC-2-mediated aggregation and Syk phosphorylation in human and murine platelets. Furthermore, embryos lacking both Btk and Tec exhibited cutaneous edema associated with blood-filled vessels in a typical lymphatic pattern similar to CLEC-2 or Syk-deficient embryos. Thus, our data show, for the first time, that PI3K and Tec family kinases play a crucial role in the regulation of platelet activation and Syk phosphorylation downstream of the CLEC-2 receptor. PMID:25767114

  13. Structure and Activation of MuSK, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Central to Neuromuscular Junction Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Gnanasambandan, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a central signaling role in formation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). MuSK is activated in a complex spatio-temporal manner to cluster acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic (muscle) side of the synapse and to induce differentiation of the nerve terminal on the presynaptic side. The ligand for MuSK is LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), a transmembrane protein in muscle, whose binding affinity for MuSK is potentiated by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. In addition, Dok7, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is also required for MuSK activation in vivo. This review focuses on the physical interplay between these proteins and MuSK for activation and downstream signaling, which culminates in NMJ formation. PMID:23467009

  14. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  15. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, H.J.; White, M.F.; Khan, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the ..beta..-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 22/sup 0/C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit (..cap alpha..Pep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the (/sup 32/P)phosphate originally found in the ..beta..-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the ..beta..-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor.

  16. Insulin binding and receptor tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Párrizas, M; Planas, J; Plisetskaya, E M; Gutiérrez, J

    1994-06-01

    We characterized the insulin receptors in skeletal muscle from several fish species with different nutritional preferences: brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), and carp (Cyprinus carpio), semipurified by affinity chromatography (wheat germ agglutinin-agarose). Total specific binding and number of receptors per unit weight of piscine white skeletal muscle were lower than those values found in mammalian skeletal muscle. The same parameters in carp muscle receptor preparations were severalfold higher than in trout muscle (binding capacity 440 +/- 47 fmol/mg glycoprotein in carp and 82 +/- 23 fmol/mg glycoprotein in trout). Piscine insulin receptors phosphorylated exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr) but less so than mammalian receptors. Tyrosine kinase activity of receptors, calculated as percent of 32P incorporated into substrate in the presence of insulin compared with basal incorporation, was also highest in carp (210 +/- 4%) and lowest in trout (150 +/- 2%). In both trout and carp deprived of food for 15 days, specific binding of insulin decreased. Nevertheless, differences between the two species were retained. Our results demonstrate that particular properties of insulin receptors in fish skeletal muscle may be related to nutritional preferences. This finding coincides with the phenomenon of differential glucose tolerance in fish: carnivorous fish, such as trout, are less tolerant, whereas omnivorous fish, such as carp, readily utilize a carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:8024051

  17. H-Ras Modulates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Function via Inhibition of Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Claire; Yaka, Rami; Dinh, Son; Ron, Dorit

    2005-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2A and NR2B subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor by Src protein-tyrosine kinases modulates receptor channel activity and is necessary for the induction of long term potentiation (LTP). Deletion of H-Ras increases both NR2 tyrosine phosphorylation and NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal LTP. Here we investigated whether H-Ras regulates phosphorylation and function of the NMDA receptor via Src family protein-tyrosine kinases. We identified Src as a novel H-Ras binding partner. H-Ras bound to Src but not Fyn both in vitro and in brain via the Src kinase domain. Cotransfection of H-Ras and Src inhibited Src activity and decreased NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation. Treatment of rat brain slices with Tat-H-Ras depleted NR2A from the synaptic membrane, decreased endogenous Src activity and NR2A phosphorylation, and decreased the magnitude of hip-pocampal LTP. No change was observed for NR2B. We suggest that H-Ras negatively regulates Src phosphorylation of NR2A and retention of NR2A into the synaptic membrane leading to inhibition of NMDA receptor function. This mechanism is specific for Src and NR2A and has implications for studies in which regulation of NMDA receptor-mediated LTP is important, such as synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and addiction. PMID:12695509

  18. Spatio-temporally precise activation of engineered receptor tyrosine kinases by light

    PubMed Central

    Grusch, Michael; Schelch, Karin; Riedler, Robert; Reichhart, Eva; Differ, Christopher; Berger, Walter; Inglés-Prieto, Álvaro; Janovjak, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a large family of cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones and regulate a variety of cell behaviours in health and disease. Contactless activation of RTKs with spatial and temporal precision is currently not feasible. Here, we generated RTKs that are insensitive to endogenous ligands but can be selectively activated by low-intensity blue light. We screened light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-sensing domains for their ability to activate RTKs by light-activated dimerization. Incorporation of LOV domains found in aureochrome photoreceptors of stramenopiles resulted in robust activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET). In human cancer and endothelial cells, light induced cellular signalling with spatial and temporal precision. Furthermore, light faithfully mimicked complex mitogenic and morphogenic cell behaviour induced by growth factors. RTKs under optical control (Opto-RTKs) provide a powerful optogenetic approach to actuate cellular signals and manipulate cell behaviour. PMID:24986882

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by diesel particles is mediated by tyrosine phosphatase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tamara L.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kim, Yumee; Samet, James M.

    2008-12-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of ambient PM and may contribute to PM-induced pulmonary inflammation. Proinflammatory signaling is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways whose activation is opposed by the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) which thereby function to maintain signaling quiescence. PTPases contain an invariant catalytic cysteine that is susceptible to electrophilic attack. DEP contain electrophilic oxy-organic compounds that may contribute to the oxidant effects of PM. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to DEP impairs PTPase activity allowing for unopposed basal kinase activity. Here we report that exposure to 30 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} DEP for 4 h induces differential activation of signaling in primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEC), a primary target cell in PM inhalation. In-gel kinase activity assay of HAEC exposed to DEPs of low (L-DEP), intermediate (I-DEP) or high (H-DEP) organic content showed differential activation of intracellular kinases. Exposure to these DEP also induced varying levels of phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in a manner that requires EGFR kinase activity but does not involve receptor dimerization. We demonstrate that treatment with DEP results in an impairment of total and EGFR-directed PTPase activity in HAEC with a potency that is independent of the organic content of these particles. These data show that DEP-induced EGFR phosphorylation in HAEC is the result of a loss of PTPase activities which normally function to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity.

  20. Novel Small Molecule Activators of the Trk Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Obianyo, Obiamaka; Ye, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    The Tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors are a subset of the receptor tyrosine kinase family with an important functionality in the regulation of neurotrophic signaling in the peripheral and central nervous system. As the receptors are able to mediate neuronal survival by associating with their respective neurotrophin ligands, many studies have focused on the therapeutic potential of generating small-molecule mimetic compounds that elicit agonistic effects similar to those of the natural protein ligands. To this end, various structure-based studies have led to the generation of bivalent peptide-based agonists and antibodies that selectively initiate Trk receptor signaling; however, these compounds do not possess the ideal characteristics of a potential drug. Additionally, the reliance of structure-based data to generate the compound libraries, limits the potential identification of novel chemical structures with desirable activity. Therefore, subsequent investigations utilized a cell-based apoptotic screen to facilitate the analysis of large, diverse chemical libraries of small molecules and quickly identify compounds with Trk-dependent antiapoptotic activity. Herein, we describe the Trk agonists that have been identified by this screening methodology and summarize their in vitro and in vivo neurotrophic activity as well as their efficacy in various neurological disease models, implicating their future utility as therapeutic compounds. PMID:22982231

  1. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  2. Novel method demonstrates differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation of insulin receptor tyrosine-specific phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cieniewicz, Anne M; Cooper, Philip R; McGehee, Jennifer; Lingham, Russell B; Kihm, Anthony J

    2016-08-01

    Insulin receptor signaling is a complex cascade leading to a multitude of intracellular functional responses. Three natural ligands, insulin, IGF1 and IGF2, are each capable of binding with different affinities to the insulin receptor, and result in variable biological responses. However, it is likely these affinity differences alone cannot completely explain the myriad of diverse cellular outcomes. Ligand binding initiates activation of a signaling cascade resulting in phosphorylation of the IR itself and other intracellular proteins. The direct catalytic activity along with the temporally coordinated assembly of signaling proteins is critical for insulin receptor signaling. We hypothesized that determining differential phosphorylation among individual tyrosine sites activated by ligand binding or dephosphorylation by phosphatases could provide valuable insight into insulin receptor signaling. Here, we present a sensitive, novel immunoassay adapted from Meso Scale Discovery technology to quantitatively measure changes in site-specific phosphorylation levels on endogenous insulin receptors from HuH7 cells. We identified insulin receptor phosphorylation patterns generated upon differential ligand activation and phosphatase-mediated deactivation. The data demonstrate that insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 elicit different insulin receptor phosphorylation kinetics and potencies that translate to downstream signaling. Furthermore, we show that insulin receptor deactivation, regulated by tyrosine phosphatases, occurs distinctively across specific tyrosine residues. In summary, we present a novel, quantitative and high-throughput assay that has uncovered differential ligand activation and site-specific deactivation of the insulin receptor. These results may help elucidate some of the insulin signaling mechanisms, discriminate ligand activity and contribute to a better understanding of insulin receptor signaling. We propose this methodology as a powerful approach to characterize

  3. Human biliverdin reductase: a member of the insulin receptor substrate family with serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Lerner-Marmarosh, Nicole; Shen, Jenny; Torno, Michael D; Kravets, Anatoliy; Hu, Zhenbo; Maines, Mahin D

    2005-05-17

    We describe here the tyrosine kinase activity of human biliverdin reductase (BVR) and its potential role in the insulin-signaling pathway. BVR is both a substrate for insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (IRK) activity and a kinase for serine phosphorylation of IR substrate 1 (IRS-1). Our previous studies have revealed serine/threonine kinase activity of BVR. Y198, in the YMKM motif found in the C-terminal domain of BVR, is shown to be a substrate for insulin-activated IRK. This motif in IRS proteins provides a docking site for proteins that contain a Src homology 2 domain. Additionally, Y228 in the YLSF sequence and Y291 are IRK substrates; the former sequence provides optimum recognition motif in the tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, and for SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing transfroming protein 1). BVR autophosphorylates N-terminal tyrosines Y72 and Y83. Serine residues in IRS-1 are targets for BVR phosphorylation, and point mutation of serine residues in the kinase domain of the reductase inhibits phosphotransferase activity. Because tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 activates the insulin signaling pathway and serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 blocks insulin action, our findings that insulin increases BVR tyrosine phosphorylation and that there is an increase in glucose uptake in response to insulin when expression of BVR is "knocked down" by small interfering RNA suggest a potential role for BVR in the insulin signaling pathway. PMID:15870194

  4. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  5. PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) is independent of PDGF beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Cartel, N J; Liu, J; Wang, J; Post, M

    2001-10-01

    Herein, we investigated the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a key component of downstream signaling events, which is activated subsequent to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB stimulation. Specifically, p42(MAPK) activity peaked 60 min after addition of PDGF-BB, declined thereafter, and was determined not to be a direct or necessary component of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis. PDGF-BB also activated MAPK kinase 2 (MAPKK2) but had no effect on MAPKK1 and Raf-1 activity. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src kinase, or tyrosine phosphorylation inhibition of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) did not abrogate PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation or its threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation. A dominant negative cytoplasmic receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility variant 4 (RHAMMv4), a regulator of MAPKK-MAPK interaction and activation, did not inhibit PDGF-BB-induced p42(MAPK) activation nor did a construct expressing PDGFR-beta with cytoplasmic tyrosines mutated to phenylalanine. However, overexpression of a dominant negative PDGFR-beta lacking the cytoplasmic signaling domain abrogated p42(MAPK) activity. These results suggest that PDGF-BB-mediated activation of p42(MAPK) requires the PDGFR-beta but is independent of its tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:11557582

  6. Cross-talk between receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and alpha1b-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Medina, L; Vázquez-Prado, J; García-Sáinz, J A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the phosphorylation and function of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors transfected into Rat-1 fibroblasts was studied. EGF and PDGF increased the phosphorylation of these adrenoceptors. The effect of EGF was blocked by tyrphostin AG1478 and that of PDGF was blocked by tyrphostin AG1296, inhibitors of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activities of the receptors for these growth factors. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, blocked the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation induced by EGF but not that induced by PDGF. Inhibition of protein kinase C blocked the adrenoceptor phosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF. The ability of noradrenaline to increase [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP[S]) binding in membrane preparations was used as an index of the functional coupling of the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors and G-proteins. Noradrenaline-stimulated [(35)S]GTP[S] binding was markedly decreased in membranes from cells pretreated with EGF or PDGF. Our data indicate that: (i) activation of EGF and PDGF receptors induces phosphorylation of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors, (ii) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in the EGF response, but does not seem to play a major role in the action of PDGF, (iii) protein kinase C mediates this action of both growth factors and (iv) the phosphorylation of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors induced by EGF and PDGF is associated with adrenoceptor desensitization. PMID:10947955

  7. Hypotonicity stimulates renal epithelial sodium transport by activating JNK via receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Taruno, Akiyuki; Niisato, Naomi; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-07-01

    We previously reported that hypotonic stress stimulated transepithelial Na(+) transport via a pathway dependent on protein tyrosine kinase (PTK; Niisato N, Van Driessche W, Liu M, Marunaka Y. J Membr Biol 175: 63-77, 2000). However, it is still unknown what type of PTK mediates this stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the role of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in the hypotonic stimulation of Na(+) transport. In renal epithelial A6 cells, we observed inhibitory effects of AG1478 [an inhibitor of the EGF receptor (EGFR)] and AG1296 [an inhibitor of the PDGF receptor (PDGFR)] on both the hypotonic stress-induced stimulation of Na(+) transport and the hypotonic stress-induced ligand-independent activation of EGFR. We further studied whether hypotonic stress activates members of the MAP kinase family, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK/SAPK, via an RTK-dependent pathway. The present study indicates that hypotonic stress induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK, but not p38 MAPK, that the hypotonic stress-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK/SAPK was diminished by coapplication of AG1478 and AG1296, and that only JNK/SAPK was involved in the hypotonic stimulation of Na(+) transport. A further study using cyclohexamide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) suggests that both RTK and JNK/SAPK contributed to the protein synthesis-independent early phase in hypotonic stress-induced Na(+) transport, but not to the protein synthesis-dependent late phase. The present study also suggests involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade-mediated Na(+) transport. These observations indicate that 1) hypotonic stress activates JNK/SAPK via RTKs in a ligand-independent pathway, 2) the RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade acts as a mediator of hypotonic stress for stimulation of Na(+) transport, and 3) PI3-kinase is involved in the RTK-JNK/SAPK cascade for the hypotonic stress-induced stimulation of Na(+) transport. PMID:17344192

  8. Defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from a patient with insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, R; Shiba, T; Tobe, K; Shibasaki, Y; Koshio, O; Izumi, T; Odawara, M; Mikami, Y; Matsuura, N; Akanuma, Y

    1990-04-01

    We report here a defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from an insulin-resistant patient with acanthosis nigricans using cultured Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphocytes. As judged by affinity labeling and immunoblotting, the alpha- and beta-subunits of insulin receptors from the patient's lymphocytes exhibited the same mol wt as those from control subjects. Lectin-purified extracts from lymphocytes of the patient and the control subjects containing the same insulin-binding capacity were assayed for autophosphorylation and the ability to phosphorylate histone H2B. The degree of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor from the patient's lymphocytes were decreased to 15% and 13%, respectively, in a cell-free system. The insulin-dependent autophosphorylation of the insulin receptor was also impaired in intact EBV lymphocytes from the patient. Consistent with these results, we found that one of this patient's alleles had a mutation in which valine is substituted for Gly996, the third glycine in the conserved Gly-X-Gly-X-X-Gly motif in the kinase domain. Thus, it seems likely that the defect in tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor cause the insulin resistance in this patient. The EBV lymphocyte can be a good system to detect genetically determined abnormalities in the insulin receptor. PMID:2180980

  9. Structure-activity relationship study of EphB3 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Lixin; Choi, Sungwoon; Case, April; Gainer, Thomas G.; Seyb, Kathleen; Glicksman, Marcie A.; Lo, Donald C.; Stein, Ross L.; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    A structure-activity relationship study for a 2-chloroanilide derivative of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine revealed that increased EphB3 kinase inhibitory activity could be accomplished by retaining the 2-chloroanilide and introducing a phenyl or small electron donating substituents to the 5-position of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine. In addition, replacement of the pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine with imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was well tolerated and resulted in enhanced mouse liver microsome stability. The structure-activity relationship for EphB3 inhibition of both heterocyclic series was similar. Kinase inhibitory activity was also demonstrated for representative analogs in cell culture. An analog (32, LDN-211904) was also profiled for inhibitory activity against a panel of two hundred and eighty eight kinases and found to be quite selective for tyrosine kinases. Overall, these studies provide useful molecular probes for examining the in vitro, cellular and potentially in vivo kinase-dependent function of EphB3 receptor. PMID:19783434

  10. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Intracellular Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, John J M; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Dahan, Sophie; Dominguez, Michel; Posner, Barry I

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) exemplify how receptor location is coupled to signal transduction. Extracellular binding of ligands to these RTKs triggers their concentration into vesicles that bud off from the cell surface to generate intracellular signaling endosomes. On the exposed cytosolic surface of these endosomes, RTK autophosphorylation selects the downstream signaling proteins and lipids to effect growth factor and polypeptide hormone action. This selection is followed by the recruitment of protein tyrosine phosphatases that inactivate the RTKs and deliver them by membrane fusion and fission to late endosomes. Coincidentally, proteinases inside the endosome cleave the EGF and insulin ligands. Subsequent inward budding of the endosomal membrane generates multivesicular endosomes. Fusion with lysosomes then results in RTK degradation and downregulation. Through the spatial positioning of RTKs in target cells for EGF and insulin action, the temporal extent of signaling, attenuation, and downregulation is regulated. PMID:27023845

  11. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudino, G.; Cirillo, D.; Naldini, L.; Rossino, P.; Comoglio, P.M. )

    1988-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bombesin-like peptides produced by small cell lung carcinomas may sustain deregulated proliferation through an autocrine mechanism. The authors have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin leads to the activation of a protein-tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a 115-kDa protein (p115) associated with the bombesin receptor complex in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. They now report that phosphotyrosine antibodies recognize a 115-kDa protein, phosphorylated on tyrosine, in four human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines producing bombesin but not in a nonproducer variant line. p115 from detergent-treated small cell lung carcinoma cells binds to bombesin-Sepharose and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in the presence of radiolabeled ATP and Mn{sup 2+}. As for the p115 immunoprecipitated from mouse fibroblast, the small cell lung carcinoma p115 can be phosphorylated in an immunocomplex kinase assay. However, the latter does not require the presence of exogenous bombesin for activity. Binding data, obtained by using radiolabeled ligand, suggest receptor occupancy in the cell lines producing bombesin. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that proliferation in some human small cell lung carcinoma lines is under autocrine control, regulated through activation of bombesin receptors.

  12. Cell signaling by receptor-tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses. PMID:20602996

  13. mTORC2 promotes type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor activation through the tyrosine kinase activity of mTOR.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yancun; Hua, Hui; Li, Minjing; Liu, Shu; Kong, Qingbin; Shao, Ting; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Yuanming; Wang, Qian; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core component of raptor-mTOR (mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) complexes that control diverse cellular processes. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF-IR and InsR themselves. Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF-IR/InsR. Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR. Moreover, mTORC2 promotes ligand-induced activation of IGF-IR/InsR. IGF- and insulin-induced IGF-IR/InsR phosphorylation is significantly compromised in rictor-null cells. Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) directly interacts with SIN1 thereby recruiting mTORC2 to IGF-IR/InsR and promoting rapamycin- or ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/InsR. mTOR exhibits tyrosine kinase activity towards the general tyrosine kinase substrate poly(Glu-Tyr) and IGF-IR/InsR. Both recombinant mTOR and immunoprecipitated mTORC2 phosphorylate IGF-IR and InsR on Tyr1131/1136 and Tyr1146/1151, respectively. These effects are independent of the intrinsic kinase activity of IGF-IR/InsR, as determined by assays on kinase-dead IGF-IR/InsR mutants. While both rictor and mTOR immunoprecitates from rictor(+/+) MCF-10A cells exhibit tyrosine kinase activity towards IGF-IR and InsR, mTOR immunoprecipitates from rictor(-/-) MCF-10A cells do not induce IGF-IR and InsR phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutation of residue Tyr1131 in IGF-IR or Tyr1146 in InsR abrogates the activation of IGF-IR/InsR by mTOR. Finally, overexpression of rictor promotes IGF-induced cell proliferation. Our work identifies mTOR as a dual-specificity kinase and clarifies how mTORC2 promotes IGF-IR/InsR activation. PMID:26584640

  14. Identification of Tyrosine Residues in Constitutively Activated Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 Involved in Mitogenesis, Stat Activation, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Kristen C.; Robertson, Scott C.; Donoghue, Daniel J.

    2001-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are frequently involved in human developmental disorders and cancer. Activation of FGFR3, through mutation or ligand stimulation, results in autophosphorylation of multiple tyrosine residues within the intracellular domain. To assess the importance of the six conserved tyrosine residues within the intracellular domain of FGFR3 for signaling, derivatives were constructed containing an N-terminal myristylation signal for plasma membrane localization and a point mutation (K650E) that confers constitutive kinase activation. A derivative containing all conserved tyrosine residues stimulates cellular transformation and activation of several FGFR3 signaling pathways. Substitution of all nonactivation loop tyrosine residues with phenylalanine rendered this FGFR3 construct inactive, despite the presence of the activating K650E mutation. Addition of a single tyrosine residue, Y724, restored its ability to stimulate cellular transformation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, and phosphorylation of Shp2, MAPK, Stat1, and Stat3. These results demonstrate a critical role for Y724 in the activation of multiple signaling pathways by constitutively activated mutants of FGFR3. PMID:11294897

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  16. Protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) enhances Src-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Luan, Yi-Fei; Guo, Peng; Li, Yi-Hang; Liu, Yong; Qi, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that Src could modulate NMDA receptor, and PAR1 could also affect NMDAR signaling. However, whether PAR1 could regulate NMDAR through Src under ICH has not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the role of Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling cascades in rat ICH model and in vitro thrombin challenged model. Using the PAR1 agonist SFLLR, antagonist RLLFS and Src inhibitor PP2, electrophysiological analysis showed that PAR1 regulated NMDA-induced whole-cell currents (INMDA) though Src in primary cultured neurons. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed the elevated phosphorylation of tyrosine in Src and GluN2A and enhanced interaction of the Src-PSD95-GluN2A under model conditions. Treatment with the PAR1 antagonist RLLFS, AS-PSD95 (Antisense oligonucleotide against PSD95) and Src inhibitor PP2 inhibited the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A, and p-Src, p-GluN2A. Co-application of SFLLR and AS-PSD95, PP2, or MK801 (NMDAR inhibitor) abolished the effect of SF. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that activated thrombin receptor PAR1 induced Src activation, enhanced the interaction among Src-PSD95-GluN2A signaling modules, and up-regulated GluN2A phosphorylation after ICH injury. Elucidation of such signaling cascades would possibly provide novel targets for ICH treatment. PMID:27385592

  17. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  18. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, TYRO3, AXL, and MER, Demonstrate Distinct Patterns and Complex Regulation of Ligand-induced Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Wen-I; Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh N.; Calarese, Daniel A.; Garforth, Scott J.; Antes, Anita L.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Almo, Steve C.; Birge, Raymond B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL, and MER receptors (TAMs) are three homologous type I receptor-tyrosine kinases that are activated by endogenous ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6). These ligands can either activate TAMs as soluble factors, or, in turn, opsonize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells (ACs) and serve as bridging molecules between ACs and TAMs. Abnormal expression and activation of TAMs have been implicated in promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells, as well as in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Despite the fact that TAM receptors share significant similarity, little is known about the specificity of interaction between TAM receptors and their ligands, particularly in the context of ACs, and about the functional diversity of TAM receptors. To study ligand-mediated activation of TAMs, we generated a series of reporter cell lines expressing chimeric TAM receptors. Using this system, we found that each TAM receptor has a unique pattern of interaction with and activation by GAS6 and PROS1, which is also differentially affected by the presence of ACs, PS-containing lipid vesicles and enveloped virus. We also demonstrated that γ-carboxylation of ligands is essential for the full activation of TAMs and that soluble immunoglobulin-like TAM domains act as specific ligand antagonists. These studies demonstrate that, despite their similarity, TYRO3, AXL, and MER are likely to perform distinct functions in both immunoregulation and the recognition and removal of ACs. PMID:25074926

  19. Structural features that specify tyrosine kinase activity deduced from homology modeling of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, D R; Cadena, D L; Zheng, J; Ten Eyck, L F; Taylor, S S; Sowadski, J M; Gill, G N

    1993-01-01

    To identify structural features that distinguish protein-tyrosine kinases from protein-serine kinases, a molecular model of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor was constructed by substituting its amino acid sequence for the amino acid sequence of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a 2.7-A refined crystallographic model. General folding was conserved as was the configuration of invariant residues at the active site. Two sequence motifs that distinguish the two families correspond to loops that converge at the active site of the enzyme. A conserved arginine in the catalytic loop is proposed to interact with the gamma phosphate of ATP. The second loop provides a binding surface that positions the tyrosine of the substrate. A positively charged surface provides additional sites for substrate recognition. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8389462

  20. Delta Opioid activation of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade does not require transphosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, H Kenneth; Onoprishvili, Irma; Andria, Matthew L; Hanna, Kayane; Sheinkman, Karina; Haddad, Lisa B; Simon, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which delta opioids induce their potent activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) in different cell lines expressing the cloned δ-opioid receptor (δ-OR). While it has been known for some time that OR stimulation leads to the phosphorylation of both ERK isoforms, the exact progression of events has remained elusive. Results Our results indicate that the transphosphorylation of an endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cell line does not occur when co-expressed δ-ORs are stimulated by the δ-opioid agonist, D-Ser-Leu-enkephalin-Thr (DSLET). Moreover, neither pre-incubation of cultures with the selective EGFR antagonist, AG1478, nor down-regulation of the EGFR to a point where EGF could no longer activate ERKs had an inhibitory effect on ERK activation by DSLET. These results appear to rule out any structural or catalytic role for the EGFR in the δ-opioid-mediated MAPK cascade. To confirm these results, we used C6 glioma cells, a cell line devoid of the EGFR. In δ-OR-expressing C6 glioma cells, opioids produce a robust phosphorylation of ERK 1 and 2, whereas EGF has no stimulatory effect. Furthermore, antagonists to the RTKs that are endogenously expressed in C6 glioma cells (insulin receptor (IR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)) were unable to reduce opioid-mediated ERK activation. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that the transactivation of resident RTKs does not appear to be required for OR-mediated ERK phosphorylation and that the tyrosine-phosphorylated δ-OR, itself, is likely to act as its own signalling scaffold. PMID:11897012

  1. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Acquire Resistance to the ALK Inhibitor Alectinib by Activating Alternative Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Hideko; Ichihara, Eiki; Takigawa, Nagio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Ochi, Nobuaki; Yasugi, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Takashi; Yamane, Hiromichi; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Sakai, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Kunio; Hosokawa, Shinobu; Bessho, Akihiro; Sendo, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-03-15

    Crizotinib is the standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene, but resistance invariably develops. Unlike crizotinib, alectinib is a selective ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with more potent antitumor effects and a favorable toxicity profile, even in crizotinib-resistant cases. However, acquired resistance to alectinib, as for other TKIs, remains a limitation of its efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms by which human NSCLC cells acquire resistance to alectinib. We established two alectinib-resistant cell lines that did not harbor the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells. One cell line lost the EML4-ALK fusion gene, but exhibited increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), and overexpressed the HER3 ligand neuregulin 1. Accordingly, pharmacologic inhibition of IGF1R and HER3 signaling overcame resistance to alectinib in this cell line. The second alectinib-resistant cell line displayed stimulated HGF autocrine signaling that promoted MET activation and remained sensitive to crizotinib treatment. Taken together, our findings reveal two novel mechanisms underlying alectinib resistance that are caused by the activation of alternative tyrosine kinase receptors rather than by secondary ALK mutations. These studies may guide the development of comprehensive treatment strategies that take into consideration the various approaches ALK-positive lung tumors use to withstand therapeutic insult. PMID:26719536

  2. CD45 tyrosine phosphatase activity and membrane anchoring are required for T-cell antigen receptor signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Niklinska, B B; Hou, D; June, C; Weissman, A M; Ashwell, J D

    1994-01-01

    T cells that lack the CD45 transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase have a variety of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling defects that are corrected by reexpression of wild-type CD45 or its intracytoplasmic domains. In this study, a chimeric molecule containing the myristylation sequence of Src and the intracellular portion of CD45, previously shown to restore function in CD45- T cells, was mutagenized to determine if membrane-associated CD45 tyrosine phosphatase activity is required to restore TCR-mediated signaling in CD45- T cells. Abolition of enzymatic activity by substitution of a serine for a critical cysteine in the first catalytic domain resulted in failure of this molecule to restore TCR signaling. Another mutation, in which a single amino acid substitution destroyed the myristylation site, resulted in failure of the chimeric molecule to partition to the plasma membrane. Although expressed at high levels and enzymatically active, this form of intracellular CD45 also failed to restore normal signaling in CD45- T cells. These findings strongly suggest that CD45's function in TCR signaling requires its proximity to membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatase substrates. Images PMID:7526153

  3. Dimerization of the EphA1 receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane domain: Insights into the mechanism of receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Chavent, Matthieu; Chetwynd, Alan P; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2014-10-28

    EphA1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a key role in developmental processes, including guidance of the migration of axons and cells in the nervous system. EphA1, in common with other RTKs, contains an N-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) α-helix, and a C-terminal intracellular kinase domain. The TM helix forms a dimer, as seen in recent NMR studies. We have modeled the EphA1 TM dimer using a multiscale approach combining coarse-grain (CG) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The one-dimensional potential of mean force (PMF) for this system, based on interhelix separation, has been calculated using CG MD simulations. This provides a view of the free energy landscape for helix-helix interactions of the TM dimer in a lipid bilayer. The resulting PMF profiles suggest two states, consistent with a rotation-coupled activation mechanism. The more stable state corresponds to a right-handed helix dimer interacting via an N-terminal glycine zipper motif, consistent with a recent NMR structure (2K1K). A second metastable state corresponds to a structure in which the glycine zipper motif is not involved. Analysis of unrestrained CG MD simulations based on representative models from the PMF calculations or on the NMR structure reveals possible pathways of interconversion between these two states, involving helix rotations about their long axes. This suggests that the interaction of TM helices in EphA1 dimers may be intrinsically dynamic. This provides a potential mechanism for signaling whereby extracellular events drive a shift in the repopulation of the underlying TM helix dimer energy landscape. PMID:25286141

  4. Modulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity alters the subunit assembly in native N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex.

    PubMed

    Ferrani-Kile, Karima; Leslie, Steven W

    2005-07-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is crucial for development and neuroplasticity as well as excitotoxicity. The biochemical basis of the disassembly and reassembly of NMDA receptor has never been reported. Using coimmunoprecipitation, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, we show that inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases triggers disassembly of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B in cortical NMDA receptor complexes. Furthermore, the disassembly of the NMDA receptor subunits is immediate, dose-dependent, and reversible and seems to occur through mechanisms linked to Src kinases. Together, these results define a novel role for tyrosine phosphatases in the complex mechanism of NMDA receptor regulation. PMID:15837820

  5. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase occurs via a posttranslational modification and is activated by the juxtamembrane domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In metazoans, receptor kinases control many essential processes related to growth and development and response to the environment. The receptor kinases in plants and animals are structurally similar but evolutionarily distinct from one another, and thus while most animal receptor kinases are tyrosin...

  7. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Kevin J; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-04-21

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  8. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  9. The heterotrimeric G q protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine kinase-Shc-Grb2-Sos pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoshima, J; Izumo, S

    1996-01-01

    p21 ras plays as important role in cell proliferation, transformation and differentiation. Recently, the requirement of p21 ras has been suggested for cellular responses induced by stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. However, it remains to be determined how agonists for G protein-coupled receptors activate p21 ras in metazoans. We show here that stimulation of the G q protein-coupled angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor causes activation of p21 ras in cardiac myocytes. The p21 ras activation by Ang II is mediated by an increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity, but not by an inhibition of the GTPase-activating protein. Ang II causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with Grb2 and mSos-1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of p21 ras. This leads to translocation of mSos-1 to the membrane fraction. Shc associates with the SH3 domain of Fyn whose tyrosine kinase activity is activated by Ang II with a similar time course as that of tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Ang II-induced increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity was inhibited by a peptide ligand specific to the SH3 domain of the Src family tyrosine kinases. These results suggest that an agonist for a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein-coupled receptor may initiate the cross-talk with non-receptor-type tyrosine kinases, thereby activating p21 ras using a similar mechanism as receptor tyrosine kinase-induced p21 ras activation. Images PMID:8631299

  10. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with Intracellular Pseudokinase Domains

    PubMed Central

    Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Shi, Fumin; Park, Jin H.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    As with other groups of protein kinases, approximately 10% of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the human proteome contain intracellular pseudokinases that lack one or more conserved catalytically important residues. These include ErbB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, and a series of unconventional Wnt receptors. We recently showed that, despite its reputation as a pseudokinase, the ErbB3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) does retain significant – albeit weak – kinase activity. This led us to suggest that a subgroup of RTKs may be able to signal even with very inefficient kinases. Recent work suggests that this is not the case, however. Other pseudokinase RTKs have not revealed significant kinase activity, and mutations that impair ErbB3’s weak kinase activity have not so far been found to exhibit signaling defects. These findings therefore point to models in which the TKDs of pseudokinase RTKs participate in receptor signaling by allosterically regulating associated kinases (such as ErbB3 regulation of ErbB2) and/or function as regulated ‘scaffolds’ for other intermolecular interactions central to signal propagation. Further structural and functional studies – particularly of the pseudokinase RTKs involved in Wnt signaling – are required to shed new light on these intriguing signaling mechanisms. PMID:23863174

  11. Glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor γ chain-independent tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of murine platelets by collagen

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the ability of collagen to induce signalling and functional responses in suspensions of murine platelets deficient in the FcRγ (Fc receptor γ) chain, which lack the collagen receptor GPVI (glycoprotein VI). In the absence of the FcRγ chain, collagen induced a unique pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation which was potentiated by the thromboxane analogue U46619. Immunoprecipitation studies indicated that neither collagen alone nor the combination of collagen plus U46619 induced phosphorylation of the GPVI-regulated proteins Syk and SLP-76 (Src homology 2-containing leucocyte protein of 76 kDa). A low level of tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 was observed, which was increased in the presence of U46619, although the degree of phosphorylation remained well below that observed in wild-type platelets (∼10%). By contrast, collagen-induced phosphorylation of the adapter ADAP (adhesion- and degranulation-promoting adapter protein) was substantially potentiated by U46619 to levels equivalent to those observed in wild-type platelets. Collagen plus U46619 also induced significant phosphorylation of FAK (focal adhesion kinase). The functional significance of collagen-induced non-GPVI signals was highlighted by the ability of U46619 and collagen to induce the secretion of ATP in FcRγ chain-deficient platelets, even though neither agonist was effective alone. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the release of ATP were abolished by the anti-(α2 integrin) antibodies Ha1/29 and HMα2, but not by blockade of αIIbβ3. These results illustrate a novel mechanism of platelet activation by collagen which is independent of the GPVI–FcRγ chain complex, and is facilitated by binding of collagen to integrin α2β1. PMID:15283702

  12. A p60v-src-related tyrosine kinase in the acetylcholine receptor-rich membranes of Narke japonica: association and dissociation of phosphatidylinositol kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Y; Owada, M K; Sumi, M; Hayashi, F

    1986-09-14

    We have isolated a tyrosine-specific protein kinase from the acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich membranes of the electric ray Narke japonica. The enzyme is immunologically related to p60v-src, the product of the transforming gene of Rous sarcoma virus. A substantial phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase activity was associated with this enzyme when it was purified through tyrosine-agarose affinity chromatography used previously for the purification of p60v-src. However, by subsequent chromatography on casein-agarose, most of the associated PI kinase activity was separated from the tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that the tyrosine-specific protein kinase in the AChR-rich membranes of N. japonica has no intrinsic PI kinase activity. PMID:3094516

  13. A point mutation at tyrosine-809 in the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor impairs mitogenesis without abrogating tyrosine kinase activity, association with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, or induction of c-fos and junB genes

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, M.F. ); Shurtleff, S.A.; Downing, J.R. ); Sherr, C.J. Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN )

    1990-09-01

    Substitution of phenylalanine for tyrosine-809 in the human colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibited its ability to transduce ligand-dependent mitogenic signals in mouse NIH 3T3 cells. When combined with an activating mutation at codon 301 that induces constitutive CSF-1R tyrosine kinase activity, the codon 809 mutation suppressed ligand-independent cell transformation. Comparative mapping tryptic phosphopeptides from mutant and wild-type CSF-1R indicated that tyrosine-809 is a site of ligand-dependent receptor phosphorylation in vivo. The mutant receptor was active as a tyrosine kinase in vitro and in vivo, underwent CSF-1-dependent association with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and induced expression of the protooncogenes c-fos and junB, underscoring its ability to trigger some of the known cellular responses to CSF-1. The mutant receptor is likely to be impaired in its ability to interact with critical cellular effectors whose activity is required for mitogenesis.

  14. Activation of HER3 Interferes with Antitumor Effects of Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: Suggestion of Combination Therapy1

    PubMed Central

    Torka, Robert; Pénzes, Kinga; Gusenbauer, Simone; Baumann, Christine; Szabadkai, István; Őrfi, Lászlȯ; Kéri, György; Ullrich, Axel

    2014-01-01

    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been established as a strong candidate for targeted therapy of cancer. However, the benefits of targeted therapies are limited due to acquired resistance and activation of alternative RTKs. Therefore, we asked if cancer cells are able to overcome targeted Axl therapies. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of Axl by short interfering RNA or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BMS777607 induces the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) and the neuregulin 1(NRG1)–dependent phosphorylation of HER3 in MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Moreover, analysis of 20 Axl-expressing cancer cell lines of different tissue origin indicates a low basal phosphorylation of RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) as a general requirement for HER3 activation on Axl inhibition. Consequently, phosphorylation of AKT arises as an independent biomarker for Axl treatment. Additionally, we introduce phosphorylation of HER3 as an independent pharmacodynamic biomarker for monitoring of anti-Axl therapy response. Inhibition of cell viability by BMS777607 could be rescued by NRG1-dependent activation of HER3, suggesting an escape mechanism by tumor microenvironment. The Axl-TKI MPCD84111 simultaneously blocked Axl and HER2/3 signaling and thereby prohibited HER3 feedback activation. Furthermore, dual inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 using BMS777607 and lapatinib led to a significant inhibition of cell viability in Axl-expressing MDA-MB231 and Ovcar8 cells. Therefore, we conclude that, in patient cohorts with expression of Axl and low basal activity of AKT, a combined inhibition of Axl and HER2/3 kinase would be beneficial to overcome acquired resistance to Axl-targeted therapies. PMID:24862757

  15. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  16. Protein tyrosine kinase activity is essential for Fc gamma receptor-mediated intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L; Nibbering, P H; Zomerdijk, T P; van Furth, R

    1994-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma receptor I (Fc gamma RI) or Fc gamma RII is a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent process. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity plays a role in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of bacteria and activation of PLC in these cells. The results showed that phagocytosis of bacteria by monocytes was not affected by the PTK inhibitors genistein and tyrphostin-47. The intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes after cross-linking Fc gamma RII or Fc gamma RII with anti-Fc gamma R monoclonal antibody and a bridging antibody or with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was inhibited by these compounds in a dose-dependent fashion. The production of O2- by monocytes after stimulation with IgG or IgG-opsonized S. aureus was almost completely blocked by the PTK inhibitor. These results indicate that inhibition of PTK impairs the oxygen-dependent bactericidal mechanisms of monocytes. Genistein and tyrphostin-47, which do not affect the enzymatic activity of purified PLC, prevented activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII, measured as an increase in the intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate concentration. Cross-linking Fc gamma RI or Fc gamma RII induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in monocytes, one of which was identified as PLC-gamma 1, and the phosphorylation could be completely blocked by PTK inhibitors, leading to the conclusion that activation of PLC after cross-linking Fc gamma R in monocytes is regulated by PTK activity. Together, these results demonstrate that PTK activity is essential for the activation of PLC which is involved in the Fc gamma R-mediated intracellular killing of S. aureus by human monocytes. Images PMID:7927687

  17. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Girbau, M; Bassas, L; Alemany, J; de Pablo, F

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage. Images PMID:2548191

  18. The upregulation of NR2A-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by tyrosine phosphorylation of postsynaptic density 95 via facilitating Src/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Du, Cai-Ping; Peng, Yan; Xu, Zhen; Sun, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Hou, Xiao-Yu

    2015-04-01

    The activation of postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is required for long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) serves as a scaffold protein that tethers NMDA receptor subunits, kinases, and signal molecules. Our previous study proves that PSD-95 is a substrate of Src/Fyn and identifies Y523 on PSD-95 as a principal phosphorylation site. In this paper, we try to define an involvement and molecular consequences of PSD-95 phosphorylation by Src in NMDA receptor regulation. We found that either NMDA or chemical LTP induction leads to rapid phosphorylation of PSD-95 by Src in cultured cortical neurons. The phosphorylation of Y523 on PSD-95 potentiates NR2A-containing NMDA receptor current amplitude, implying an important role of Src-mediated PSD-95 phosphorylation in NMDA receptor activation. Comparing to wild-type PSD-95, overexpression of nonphosphorylatable mutant PSD-95Y523F attenuated the NMDA-stimulated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation that enhances electrophysiological responses of NMDA receptor channels, while did not affect the membrane localization of NR2A subunits. PSD-95Y523D, a phosphomimetic mutant of PSD-95, induced NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation even if there was no NMDA treatment. In addition, the deficiency of Y523 phosphorylation on PSD-95 impaired the facilitatory effect of PSD-95 on the activation of Src and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) and decreased the binding of Pyk2 with PSD-95. These results indicate that PSD-95 phosphorylation by Src facilitates the integration of Pyk2 to PSD-95 signal complex, the activation of Pyk2/Src, as well as the subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2A, which ultimately results in the upregulation of NMDA receptor function and synaptic transmission. PMID:24981431

  19. Slik and the receptor tyrosine kinase Breathless mediate localized activation of Moesin in terminal tracheal cells.

    PubMed

    Ukken, Fiona Paul; Aprill, Imola; JayaNandanan, N; Leptin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A key element in the regulation of subcellular branching and tube morphogenesis of the Drosophila tracheal system is the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by the ERM protein Moesin. Activation of Moesin within specific subdomains of cells, critical for its interaction with actin, is a tightly controlled process and involves regulatory inputs from membrane proteins, kinases and phosphatases. The kinases that activate Moesin in tracheal cells are not known. Here we show that the Sterile-20 like kinase Slik, enriched at the luminal membrane, is necessary for the activation of Moesin at the luminal membrane and regulates branching and subcellular tube morphogenesis of terminal cells. Our results reveal the FGF-receptor Breathless as an additional necessary cue for the activation of Moesin in terminal cells. Breathless-mediated activation of Moesin is independent of the canonical MAP kinase pathway. PMID:25061859

  20. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  1. Investigating Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Mutation of the HER2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase through Computational Modeling and Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Telesco, Shannon E.; Shih, Andrew; Liu, Yingting; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/ErbB2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the EGFR/ErbB family and is overexpressed in 20–30% of human breast cancers. Since there is a growing effort to develop pharmacological inhibitors of the HER2 kinase for the treatment of breast cancer, it is clinically valuable to rationalize how specific mutations impact the molecular mechanism of receptor activation. Although several crystal structures of the ErbB kinases have been solved, the precise mechanism of HER2 activation remains unknown, and it has been suggested that HER2 is unique in its requirement for phosphorylation of Y877, a key tyrosine residue located in the activation loop (A-loop). In our studies, discussed here, we have investigated the mechanisms that are important in HER2 kinase domain regulation and compared them with the other ErbB family members, namely EGFR and ErbB4, to determine the molecular basis for HER2’s unique mode of activation. We apply computational simulation techniques at the atomic level and at the electronic structure (quantum mechanical) level to elucidate details of the mechanisms governing the kinase domains of these ErbB members. Through analysis of our simulation results, we have discovered potential regulatory mechanisms common to EGFR, HER2, and ErbB4, including a tight coupling between the A-loop and catalytic loop that may contribute to alignment of residues required for catalysis in the active kinase. We further postulate an autoinhibitory mechanism whereby the inactive kinase is stabilized through sequestration of catalytic residues. In HER2, we also predict a role for phosphorylated Y877 in bridging a network of hydrogen bonds that fasten the A-loop in its active conformation, suggesting that HER2 may be unique among the ErbB members in requiring A-loop tyrosine phosphorylation for functionality. In EGFR, HER2, and ErbB4, we discuss the possible effects of activating mutations. Delineation of the activation

  2. Multiple receptor tyrosine kinase activation attenuates therapeutic efficacy of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor AZD4547 in FGFR2 amplified gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Xinyang; Wu, Zheng; Geng, Ruixuan; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Dai, Congqi; Liu, Rujiao; Zhang, Qunling; Li, Wenhua; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-targeted therapy has attracted considerable attention as novel anticancer agents in gastric cancer (GC). However, intrinsic or acquired drug resistance has emerged as a major challenge to their clinical use. In this study, we demonstrated that several receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), including EGFR, HER3 and MET, activations contributed to AZD4547 (a selective FGFR2 inhibitor) hyposensitivity in FGFR2 amplified GC cells. The rescue effect was abrogated by inhibiting these RTKs with their targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In addition, synergy in growth inhibition was observed when the GC cells were treated with a combination of AZD4547 and cetuximab (an EGFR monoclonal antibody) both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, tissue microarray analysis revealed that these resistance-conferring RTKs were highly expressed in FGFR2 positive GC patients. Taken together, these observations demonstrated RTKs including EGFR, HER3 and MET activations as novel mechanisms of hyposensitivity to AZD4547. It will be clinically valuable to investigate the involvement of RTK-mediated signaling in intrinsicor acquired resistance to FGFR2 TKIs in GC. A combination targeted therapeutic strategy may be recommended for treating FGFR2 amplified GC patients with these RTK activations. PMID:25576915

  3. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  4. 1,2-Naphthoquinone activates vanilloid receptor 1 through increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to contraction of guinea pig trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuno, Shota; Taguchi, Keiko; Iwamoto, Noriko; Yamano, Shigeru; Cho, Arthur K.; Froines, John R.; Kumagai, Yoshito . E-mail: yk-em-tu@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    1,2-Naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) has recently been identified as an environmental quinone in diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and atmospheric PM{sub 2.5}. We have found that this quinone is capable of causing a concentration-dependent contraction of tracheal smooth muscle in guinea pigs with EC{sub 5} value of 18.7 {mu}M. The contraction required extracellular calcium and was suppressed by L-type calcium channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem. It was found that 1,2-NQ activated phospholipase A2 (PLA2)/lipoxygenase (LO)/vanilloid receptor (VR1) signaling. Additionally, 1,2-NQ was capable of transactivating protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in guinea pig trachea, suggesting that phosphorylation of PTKs contributes to 1,2-NQ-induced tracheal contraction. Consistent with this notion, this action was blocked by the PTKs inhibitor genistein and the EGFR antagonist PD153035, indicating that contraction was, at least in part, attributable to PTKs phosphorylation that activates VR1, resulting in increased intracellular calcium content in the smooth muscle cells.

  5. Stimulation of proliferation of a human osteosarcoma cell line by exogenous acidic fibroblast growth factor requires both activation of receptor tyrosine kinase and growth factor internalization.

    PubMed Central

    Wiedłocha, A; Falnes, P O; Rapak, A; Muñoz, R; Klingenberg, O; Olsnes, S

    1996-01-01

    U2OS Dr1 cells, originating from a human osteosarcoma, are resistant to the intracellular action of diphtheria toxin but contain toxin receptors on their surfaces. These cells do not have detectable amounts of fibroblast growth factor receptors. When these cells were transfected with fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, the addition of acidic fibroblast growth factor to the medium induced tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation. A considerable fraction of the cell-associated growth factor was found in the nuclear fraction. When the growth factor was fused to the diphtheria toxin A fragment, it was still bound to the growth factor receptor and induced tyrosine phosphorylation but did not induce DNA synthesis or cell proliferation, nor was any fusion protein recovered in the nuclear fraction. On the other hand, when the fusion protein was associated with the diphtheria toxin B fragment to allow translocation to the cytosol by the toxin pathway, the fusion protein was targeted to the nucleus and stimulated both DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. In untransfected cells containing toxin receptors but not fibroblast growth factor receptors, the fusion protein was translocated to the cytosol and targeted to the nucleus, but in this case, it stimulated only DNA synthesis. These data indicate that the following two signals are required to stimulate cell proliferation in transfected U2OS Dr1 cells: the tyrosine kinase signal from the activated fibroblast growth factor receptor and translocation of the growth factor into the cell. PMID:8524304

  6. A New Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with a Venus Flytrap Binding Domain in Insects and Other Invertebrates Activated by Aminoacids

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, Arnaud; Rondard, Philippe; Gouignard, Nadège; Khayath, Naji; Huang, Siluo; Trolet, Jacques; Donoghue, Daniel J.; Gauthier, Monique; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Dissous, Colette

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors that regulate various cellular processes in cell biology of diverse organisms. We previously described an atypical RTK in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap module (VFT) linked through a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of the insulin receptor. Methods and Findings Here we show that this receptor is a member of a new family of RTKs found in invertebrates, and particularly in insects. Sixteen new members of this family, named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR), were identified in many insects. Structural and phylogenetic studies performed on VFT and TK domains showed that VKR sequences formed monophyletic groups, the VFT group being close to that of GABAB receptors and the TK one being close to that of insulin receptors. We show that a recombinant VKR is able to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues, and report that it can be activated by L-arginine. This is in agreement with the high degree of conservation of the alpha amino acid binding residues found in many amino acid binding VFTs. The presence of high levels of vkr transcripts in larval forms and in female gonads indicates a putative function of VKR in reproduction and/or development. Conclusion The identification of RTKs specific for parasites and insect vectors raises new perspectives for the control of human parasitic and infectious diseases. PMID:19461966

  7. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  8. Downregulation of the Ras–Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway by the EphB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is Required for Ephrin-Induced Neurite Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Elowe, Sabine; Holland, Sacha J.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Activation of the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase by clustered ephrin-B1 induces growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in differentiated NG108 neuronal cells. We have investigated the cytoplasmic signaling events associated with EphB2-induced cytoskeletal reorganization in these neuronal cells. We find that unlike other receptor tyrosine kinases, EphB2 induces a pronounced downregulation of GTP-bound Ras and consequently of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A similar inhibition of the Ras-MAPK pathway was observed on stimulation of endogenous EphB2 in COS-1 cells. Inactivation of Ras, induced by ephrin B1 stimulation of NG108 neuronal cells, requires EphB2 tyrosine kinase activity and is blocked by a truncated form of p120-Ras GTPase-activating protein (p120-RasGAP), suggesting that EphB2 signals through the SH2 domain protein p120-RasGAP to inhibit the Ras-MAPK pathway. Suppression of Ras activity appears functionally important, since expression of a constitutively active variant of Ras impaired the ability of EphB2 to induce neurite retraction. In addition, EphB2 attenuated the elevation in ERK activation induced by attachment of NG108 cells to fibronectin, indicating that the EphB2 receptor can modulate integrin signaling to the Ras GTPase. These results suggest that a primary function of EphB2, a member of the most populous family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is to inactivate the Ras-MAPK pathway in a fashion that contributes to cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesion responses in neuronal growth cones. PMID:11585923

  9. Validation of in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a novel PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor using immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Michael R; Mei, Jay M; Tuman, Robert W; Galemmo, Robert A; Johnson, Dana L

    2005-08-01

    With the advent of agents directed against specific molecular targets in drug discovery, it has become imperative to show a compound's cellular impact on the intended biomolecule in vivo. The objective of the present study was to determine if we could develop an assay to validate the in vivo effects of a compound. Hence, we investigated the in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of JNJ-10198409, a relatively selective inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (PDGF-RTK), in tumor tissues after administering the compound orally in a nude mouse xenograft model of human LoVo colon cancer. We developed a novel assay to quantify the in vivo anti-PDGF-RTK activity of the inhibitor in tumor tissue by determining the phosphorylation status of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), a key downstream cellular molecule in the PDGF-RTK signaling cascade. We used two antibodies, one specific for the total (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms) PLCgamma1 (pan-PLCgamma1) and the other, specific for phosphorylated form of PLCgamma1 (ph-PLCgamma1) to immunohistochemically detect their expression in tumor tissues. Computer-assisted image analysis was then used to directly compare the ratio of ph-PLCgamma1 to pan-PLCgamma1 immunolabeling intensities in serial sections (5 mum) of tumors obtained from vehicle- and JNJ-10198409-treated tumor-bearing mice. Our data showed statistically significant, dose-dependent differences in the ph-PLC/pan-PLC ratio among the four treatment groups (vehicle, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.i.d.). These results confirmed this compound's ability to suppress PDGF-RTK downstream signaling in tumor tissues in vivo. In addition to this specific application of this in vivo validation approach to those targets that use PLCgamma as a downstream signaling partner, these methods may also benefit other drug discovery targets. PMID:16093435

  10. p56lck-independent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk by T-cell antigen receptor/CD3 stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Couture, C; Baier, G; Altman, A; Mustelin, T

    1994-01-01

    Activation of resting T lymphocytes by ligands to the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex is initiated by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) of the src family are known to be important, but the mechanism of their recruitment and their interactions with PTKs of other families are incompletely understood. We show that a member of another family of PTKs, the p72syk kinase, is constitutively bound to the TCR/CD3 complex and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and activated within 1 min after TCR/CD3 stimulation. This activation did not depend on the presence of p56lck in T cells and in transfected COS cells. In both cases, however, the phosphorylation of cellular substrates was augmented by src family PTKs. We propose that p72syk may act as an immediate receptor-activated kinase upstream of the related p70zap PTK and the src family PTKs p56lck and p59fyn in T cells and that these src family PTKs act as signal amplifiers. Images PMID:7515496

  11. The Ror receptor tyrosine kinase family.

    PubMed

    Forrester, W C

    2002-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) participate in numerous developmental decisions. Ror RTKs are a family of orphan receptors that are related to muscle specific kinase (MuSK) and Trk neurotrophin receptors. MuSK assembles acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, and Trk receptors function in the developing nervous system (reviewed in [3-5]). Rors have been identified in nematodes, insects and mammals. Recent studies have begun to shed light on Ror function during development. In most species, Rors are expressed in many tissue types during development. Analyses of mutants that are defective in the single nematode Ror demonstrate a role in cell migration and in orienting cell polarity. Mice lacking one of the two Ror gene products display defects in bone and heart formation. Similarly, two different human bone development disorders, dominant brachydactyly B and recessive Robinow syndrome, result from mutations in one of the human Ror genes. PMID:11846036

  12. Redundant and selective roles for erythropoietin receptor tyrosines in erythropoiesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Longmore, G D; You, Y; Molden, J; Liu, K D; Mikami, A; Lai, S Y; Pharr, P; Goldsmith, M A

    1998-02-01

    Cytokine receptors have been shown in cell culture systems to use phosphotyrosine residues as docking sites for certain signal transduction intermediates. Studies using various cellular backgrounds have yielded conflicting information about the importance of such residues. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether or not tyrosine residues within the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) are essential for biologic activity during hematopoiesis in vivo. A variant of the EPOR was constructed that contains both a substitution (R129C) causing constitutive receptor activation as well as replacement of all eight cytoplasmic tyrosines by phenylalanines (cEPORYF). A comparison between animals exposed to recombinant retroviruses expressing cEPOR and cEPORYF showed that efficient red blood cell (RBC) development in vivo is dependent on the pressence of tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain of the EPOR. In addition, an inefficient EPOR tyrosine independent pathway supporting RBC development was detected. Tyrosine add-back mutants showed that multiple individual tyrosines have the capacity to restore full erythropoietic potential to the EPOR as determined in whole animals. The analysis of primary erythroid progenitors transduced with the various cEPOR tyrosine mutants and tyrosine add-backs showed that only tyrosine 343 (Y1) and tyrosine 479 (Y8) were capable of supporting immature burst-forming unit-erythroid progenitor development. Thus, this receptor is characterized by striking functional redundancy of tyrosines in a biologically relevant context. However, selective tyrosine residues may be uniquely important for early signals supporting erythroid development. PMID:9446647

  13. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 transforming protein specifically binds and activates the beta-type receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor but not other related tyrosine kinase-containing receptors to induce cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Li, W; Wang, L M; Heidaran, M A; Aaronson, S; Shinn, R; Schlegel, R; Pierce, J H

    1994-01-01

    The 44-amino-acid E5 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is a highly hydrophobic protein which appears to transform cells through the activation of growth factor receptors. To investigate the specificity of E5-growth factor receptor interactions required for mitogenic signaling, we utilized a nontumorigenic, murine myeloid cell line (32D) which is strictly dependent on interleukin-3 (IL-3) for sustained proliferation in culture. This IL-3 dependence can be functionally substituted by the expression of a variety of surrogate growth factor receptors and the addition of the corresponding ligand. Several receptor cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptors [alpha PDGFR and beta PDGFR], the epidermal growth factor receptor, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor) were transfected into 32D cells constitutively expressing the E5 protein to test for IL-3-independent growth. Only beta PDGFR was capable of abrogating the IL-3 dependence of 32D cells. The proliferative signal induced by the coexpression of beta PDGFR and E5 was accompanied by stable complex formation between these proteins, constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. The lack of cooperative interaction between E5 and the epidermal growth factor receptor, the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and the highly related alpha PDGFR was paralleled by the inability of E5 to bind to these receptors and failure to increase receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, these data indicate that the ability of E5 to induce sustained proliferation and transformation of 32D cells is a direct consequence of specific interaction between the E5 protein and the beta PDGFR signaling complex and the subsequent stimulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:8207816

  14. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif phosphorylation during engulfment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the neutrophil-restricted CEACAM3 (CD66d) receptor.

    PubMed

    McCaw, Shannon E; Schneider, Jutta; Liao, Edward H; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2003-08-01

    Gonorrhea is characterized by a purulent urethral or cervical discharge consisting primarily of neutrophils associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These interactions are facilitated by gonococcal colony opacity-associated (Opa) protein binding to host cellular CEACAM receptors. Of these, CEACAM3 is restricted to neutrophils and contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) reminiscent of that found within certain phagocytic Fc receptors. CEACAM3 was tyrosine phosphorylated by a Src family kinase-dependent process upon infection by gonococci expressing CEACAM-specific Opa proteins. This phosphorylation was necessary for efficient bacterial uptake; however, a less efficient uptake process became evident when kinase inhibitors or mutagenesis of the ITAM were used to prevent phosphorylation. Ligated CEACAM3 was recruited to a cytoskeleton-containing fraction, intense foci of polymerized actin were evident where bacteria attached to HeLa-CEACAM3, and disruption of polymerized actin by cytochalasin D blocked all bacterial uptake by these cells. These data support a model whereby CEACAM3 can mediate the Opa-dependent uptake of N. gonorrhoeae via either an efficient, ITAM phosphorylation-dependent process that resembles phagocytosis or a less efficient, tyrosine phosphorylation-independent mechanism. PMID:12864848

  15. Transformation and scattering activities of the receptor tyrosine kinase RON/Stk in rodent fibroblasts and lack of regulation by the jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus receptor, Hyal2

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A Dusty; Van Hoeven, Neal S; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2004-01-01

    Background The envelope (Env) protein of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) can transform cells in culture and is likely to be the main factor responsible for lung cancer induction by JSRV in animals. A recent report indicates that the epithelial-cell transforming activity of JSRV Env depends on activation of the cell-surface receptor tyrosine kinase Mst1r (called RON for the human and Stk for the rodent orthologs). In the immortalized line of human epithelial cells used (BEAS-2B cells), the virus receptor Hyal2 was found to bind to and suppress the activity of RON. When Env was expressed it bound to Hyal2 causing its degradation, release of RON activity from Hyal2 suppression, and activation of pathways resulting in cell transformation. Methods Due to difficulty with reproducibility of the transformation assay in BEAS-2B cells, we have used more tractable rodent fibroblast models to further study Hyal2 modulation of RON/Stk transforming activity and potential effects of Hyal2 on RON/Stk activation by its natural ligand, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP). Results We did not detect transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by plasmids expressing RON or Stk, but did detect transformation of 208F rat fibroblasts by these plasmids at a very low rate. We were able to isolate 208F cell clones that expressed RON or Stk and that showed changes in morphology indicative of transformation. The parental 208F cells did not respond to MSP but 208F cells expressing RON or Stk showed obvious increases in scattering/transformation in response to MSP. Human Hyal2 had no effect on the basal or MSP-induced phenotypes of RON-expressing 208F cells, and human, mouse or rat Hyal2 had no effect on the basal or MSP-induced phenotypes of Stk-expressing 208F cells. Conclusions We have shown that RON or Stk expression in 208F rat fibroblasts results in a transformed phenotype that is enhanced by addition of the natural ligand for these proteins, MSP. Hyal2 does not directly modulate the basal or MSP

  16. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  17. Small Molecule Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) Ligands That Inhibit Phosphatase Activity via Perturbation of the Tryptophan-Proline-Aspartate (WPD) Loop

    SciTech Connect

    Sheriff, Steven; Beno, Brett R; Zhai, Weixu; Kostich, Walter A; McDonnell, Patricia A; Kish, Kevin; Goldfarb, Valentina; Gao, Mian; Kiefer, Susan E; Yanchunas, Joseph; Huang, Yanling; Shi, Shuhao; Zhu, Shirong; Dzierba, Carolyn; Bronson, Joanne; Macor, John E; Appiah, Kingsley K; Westphal, Ryan S; O’Connell, Jonathan; Gerritz, Samuel W

    2012-11-09

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) catalyze the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues, a process that involves a conserved tryptophan-proline-aspartate (WPD) loop in catalysis. In previously determined structures of PTPs, the WPD-loop has been observed in either an 'open' conformation or a 'closed' conformation. In the current work, X-ray structures of the catalytic domain of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) revealed a ligand-induced 'superopen' conformation not previously reported for PTPs. In the superopen conformation, the ligand acts as an apparent competitive inhibitor and binds in a small hydrophobic pocket adjacent to, but distinct from, the active site. In the open and closed WPD-loop conformations of RPTPγ, the side chain of Trp1026 partially occupies this pocket. In the superopen conformation, Trp1026 is displaced allowing a 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituent to occupy this site. The bound ligand prevents closure of the WPD-loop over the active site and disrupts the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

  18. The EphA8 Receptor Regulates Integrin Activity through p110γ Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase in a Tyrosine Kinase Activity-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Park, Soochul

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that ephrins may function in a kinase-independent Eph receptor pathway. Here we report that expression of EphA8 in either NIH 3T3 or HEK293 cells enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin via α5β1- or β3 integrins. Interestingly, a kinase-inactive EphA8 mutant also markedly promoted cell attachment to fibronectin in these cell lines. Using a panel of EphA8 point mutants, we have demonstrated that EphA8 kinase activity does not correlate with its ability to promote cell attachment to fibronectin. Analysis using EphA8 extracellular and intracellular domain mutants has revealed that enhanced cell adhesion is dependent on ephrin A binding to the extracellular domain and the juxtamembrane segment of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. EphA8-promoted adhesion was efficiently inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor. Additionally, we found that EphA8 had associated PI 3-kinase activity and that the p110γ isoform of PI 3-kinase is associated with EphA8. In vitro binding experiments revealed that the EphA8 juxtamembrane segment was sufficient for the formation of a stable complex with p110γ. Similar results were obtained in assay using cells stripped of endogenous ephrin A ligands by treatment with preclustered ephrin A5-Fc proteins. In addition, a membrane-targeted lipid kinase-inactive p110γ mutant was demonstrated to stably associate with EphA8 and suppress EphA8-promoted cell adhesion to fibronectin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism by which the EphA8 receptor localizes p110γ PI 3-kinase to the plasma membrane in a tyrosine kinase-independent fashion, thereby allowing access to lipid substrates to enable the signals required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:11416136

  19. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  20. The role of AXL and the in vitro activity of the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BGB324 in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Fleuren, Emmy D.G.; Hillebrandt-Roeffen, Melissa H.S.; Flucke, Uta E.; te Loo, D. Maroeska W.M.; Boerman, Otto C.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M.H.

    2014-01-01

    New targets for Ewing sarcoma (ES) patients are urgently needed. Therefore, we investigated the expression and genetic aberrations of the oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL in ES and determined the efficacy of AXL targeting on cell viability and migration. First, AXL and Gas6 (ligand) mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR on 29 ES samples. Low, medium and high AXL mRNA expression was observed in 31% (n = 9), 48% (n = 14) and 21% (n = 6) of samples. Gas6 was abundantly present in all specimens. We next tested AXL protein expression immunohistochemically in 36 tumors (primary, post-chemotherapy, metastasized and relapsed samples) from 25 ES patients. Low, medium and high AXL protein expression was observed in 17% (n = 6), 19% (n = 7) and 36% (n = 13) of samples. In primary tumors (n = 15), high AXL expression correlated significantly with a worse overall survival compared to patients with lower expression (61 vs. 194 months, p = 0.026). No genetic aberrations were detected in the AXL RTK domain (n = 29). The AXL-inhibitor BGB324 affected viability (IC50 0.79–2.13 μmol/L) and migratory potential of all tested ES cell lines in vitro (n = 5–6). BGB324 chemosensitized chemotherapy-resistant ES-4 cells to vincristine and doxorubicin. These data suggest that AXL is a potential novel, druggable therapeutic target in ES. PMID:25528764

  1. Src-family tyrosine kinases in activation of ERK-1 and p85/p110-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by G/CCKB receptors.

    PubMed

    Daulhac, L; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Pradayrol, L; Vaysse, N; Seva, C

    1999-07-16

    We have analyzed in Chinese hamster ovary cells the upstream mediators by which the G protein-coupled receptor, gastrin/CCKB, activates the extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p85/p110-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathways. Overexpression of an inhibitory mutant of Shc completely blocked gastrin-stimulated Shc.Grb2 complex formation but partially inhibited ERK-1 activation by this peptide. Expression of Csk, which inactivates Src-family kinases, totally inhibited gastrin-induced Src-like activity detected in anti-Src and anti-Shc precipitates but diminished by 50% Shc phosphorylation and ERK-1 activation. We observed a rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and an increase in Src-like kinase activity in anti-IRS-1 immunoprecipitates from gastrin-stimulated cells, suggesting that IRS-1 may be a direct substrate of Src. This hypothesis was supported by the inhibition of gastrin-induced Src. IRS-1 complex formation and IRS-1 phosphorylation in Csk-transfected cells. In addition, the increase in PI 3-kinase activity measured in anti-p85 or anti-IRS-1 precipitates following gastrin stimulation was abolished by Csk. Our results demonstrate the existence of two mechanisms in gastrin-mediated ERKs activation. One requires Shc phosphorylation by Src-family kinases, and the other one is independent of these two proteins. They also indicate that tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 by Src-family kinases could lead to the recruitment and the activation of the p85/p110-PI 3-kinase in response to gastrin. PMID:10400698

  2. Critical Role for an Acidic Amino Acid Region in Platelet Signaling by the HemITAM (Hemi-immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motif) Containing Receptor CLEC-2 (C-type Lectin Receptor-2)*

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Craig E.; Sinha, Uma; Pandey, Anjali; Eble, Johannes A.; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.; Watson, Steve P.

    2013-01-01

    CLEC-2 is a member of new family of C-type lectin receptors characterized by a cytosolic YXXL downstream of three acidic amino acids in a sequence known as a hemITAM (hemi-immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif). Dimerization of two phosphorylated CLEC-2 molecules leads to recruitment of the tyrosine kinase Syk via its tandem SH2 domains and initiation of a downstream signaling cascade. Using Syk-deficient and Zap-70-deficient cell lines we show that hemITAM signaling is restricted to Syk and that the upstream triacidic amino acid sequence is required for signaling. Using surface plasmon resonance and phosphorylation studies, we demonstrate that the triacidic amino acids are required for phosphorylation of the YXXL. These results further emphasize the distinct nature of the proximal events in signaling by hemITAM relative to ITAM receptors. PMID:23264619

  3. Receptor tyrosine kinase targeting in multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    While growing cells as a monolayer is the traditional method for cell culture, the incorporation of multicellular spheroids into experimental design is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the understanding that cells grown as spheroids tend to replicate the in vivo situation more reliably than monolayer cells. Thus, the use of multicellular spheroids may be more clinically relevant than monolayer cell cultures. Here, we describe methods for multicellular 3D spheroid generation that may be used to provide samples for receptor tyrosine kinase (and other protein) detection. Methods described include the forced-floating poly-HEMA method, the hanging-drop method, and the use of ECM to form multicellular 3D spheroids. PMID:25319898

  4. Monitoring Conformational Changes in the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EGFR.

    PubMed

    Becker, Christian; Öcal, Sinan; Nguyen, Hoang D; Phan, Trang; Keul, Marina; Simard, Jeffrey R; Rauh, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR is regulated by complex conformational changes, and this conformational control is disturbed in certain types of cancer. Many ligands are known to bind EGFR in its active conformation, thereby preventing ATP from binding. Only a few ligands are known to stabilize EGFR in its inactive conformation, thus providing novel strategies for perturbing EGFR activity. We report a direct binding assay that enables the identification of novel ligands that bind to and stabilize the inactive conformation of EGFR. PMID:26991964

  5. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma in situ: analyses of a large series with reference to smoking, driver mutations, and receptor tyrosine kinase pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seijiro; Motoi, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Miyako; Miyauchi, Eisaku; Ono, Hiroshi; Saito, Yuichi; Nagano, Hiroko; Ninomiya, Hironori; Inamura, Kentaro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Mun, Mingyon; Sakao, Yukinori; Okumura, Sakae; Tsuchida, Masanori; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas in situ (AISs) often occur in individuals who have never smoked, although smoking is one of the main causes of lung cancer. To characterize AIS and, in particular, determine how AIS might be related to smoking, we collected a large number of AIS cases and examined clinicopathologic features, EGFR and KRAS mutation status, and activation status of receptor tyrosine kinase downstream signal pathways, including pAkt, pERK, and pStat3, using immunohistochemistry. We identified 110 AISs (36 smokers and 74 nonsmokers) among 1549 adenocarcinomas resected surgically during 1995 to 2010. Between the AIS of smokers and nonsmokers, only the sex ratio was significantly different; all the other clinicopathologic factors including TTF-1 and driver mutations were not significantly different: EGFR and KRAS mutation rates (smokers:nonsmokers) were 61:58 (%) (P=0.7) and 6.1:1.4 (%) (P=0.2), respectively, whereas, in invasive adenocarcinomas, the rates were 41:69 (%) (P<0.001) and 9.4:2.3 (%) (P<0.04), respectively. For pAkt and pERK, around 40% to 50% of AISs were positive, and for pStat3, >80% were positive, with no significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers with AIS. Mucinous AIS (n=8) rarely harbored KRAS mutations and expressed significantly less pStat3 (P<0.001) than nonmucinous AIS. Taken together, AIS occurs predominantly in female individuals and nonsmokers. However, characteristics of AIS arising in smokers and nonsmokers were similar in terms of cell lineage, driver mutations, and receptor tyrosine kinase pathway activation. Our results suggest that smoking is not a major cause of AIS. Rather, smoking may play a role in progression of AIS to invasive adenocarcinoma with AIS features. PMID:25970685

  6. Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent activation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase occurs upstream of Ca2+-signalling induced by Fcgamma receptor cross-linking in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Vossebeld, P J; Homburg, C H; Schweizer, R C; Ibarrola, I; Kessler, J; Koenderman, L; Roos, D; Verhoeven, A J

    1997-01-01

    The effect of wortmannin on IgG-receptor (FcgammaR)-mediated stimulation of human neutrophils was investigated. The Ca2+ influx induced by clustering of both Fcgamma receptors was inhibited by wortmannin, as was the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Wortmannin also inhibited, with the same efficacy, the accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 observed after FcgammaR stimulation, but did not affect the increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 induced by the chemotactic peptide, formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. Because wortmannin is, in the concentrations used here, an inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, these results suggested a role for PtdIns 3-kinase upstream of Ca2+ signalling, induced by FcgammaR cross-linking. Support for this notion was obtained by investigating the effect of another inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, LY 294002, and by studying the kinetics of PtdIns 3-kinase activation. We found translocation of PtdIns 3-kinase to the plasma membrane and increased PtdIns 3-kinase activity in the membrane as soon as 5 s after FcgammaR cross-linking, even before the onset of the Ca2+ response. Moreover, the translocation of PtdIns 3-kinase to the plasma membrane was inhibited by co-cross-linking of either FcgammaRIIa and FcgammaRIIIb with the tyrosine phosphatase, CD45, indicating a requirement for protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the recruitment of PtdIns 3-kinase to the plasma membrane. Taken together, our results suggest a role for PtdIns 3-kinase in early signal transduction events after FcgammaR cross-linking in human neutrophils. PMID:9173906

  7. Augmented EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity impairs vascular function by NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism in type 2 diabetic mouse.

    PubMed

    Kassan, Modar; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Ali, Maha; Trebak, Mohamed; Matrougui, Khalid

    2015-10-01

    We previously determined that augmented EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFRtk) impairs vascular function in type 2 diabetic mouse (TD2). Here we determined that EGFRtk causes vascular dysfunction through NADPH oxidase activity in TD2. Mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from C57/BL6 and db-/db- mice were mounted in a wired myograph and pre-incubated for 1h with either EGFRtk inhibitor (AG1478) or exogenous EGF. The inhibition of EGFRtk did not affect the contractile response to phenylephrine-(PE) and thromboxane-(U46619) or endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) to acetylcholine in MRA from control group. However, in TD2 mice, AG1478 reduced the contractile response to U46619, improved vasodilatation and reduced p22phox-NADPH expression, but had no effect on the contractile response to PE. The incubation of MRA with exogenous EGF potentiated the contractile response to PE in MRA from control and diabetic mice. However, EGF impaired the EDR and potentiated the vasoconstriction to U46619 only in the control group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase inhibition in the presence of EGF restored the normal contraction to PE and improved the EDR but had no effect on the potentiated contraction to U46619. Vascular function improvement was associated with the rescue of eNOS and Akt and reduction in phosphorylated Rho-kinase, NOX4 mRNA levels, and NADPH oxidase activity. MRA from p47phox-/- mice incubated with EGF potentiated the contraction to U46619 but had no effect to PE or ACh responses. The present study provides evidence that augmented EGFRtk impairs vascular function by NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism. Therefore, EGFRtk and oxidative stress should be potential targets to treat vascular dysfunction in TD2. PMID:26036345

  8. Functions of the major tyrosine phosphorylation site of the PDGF receptor beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, A; Durden, D L; Cooper, J A

    1991-01-01

    Two tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) beta subunit have been mapped previously to tyrosine (Y)751, in the kinase insert, and Y857, in the kinase domain. Y857 is the major site of tyrosine phosphorylation in PDGF-stimulated cells. To evaluate the importance of these phosphorylations, we have characterized the wild-type (WT) and mutant human PDGF receptor beta subunits in dog kidney epithelial cells. Replacement of either Y751 or Y857 with phenylalanine (F) reduced PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis to approximately 50% of the WT level. A mutant receptor with both tyrosines mutated was unable to initiate DNA synthesis, as was a kinase-inactive mutant receptor. Transmodulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor required Y857 but not Y751. We also tested the effects of phosphorylation site mutations on PDGF-stimulated receptor kinase activity. PDGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of two cellular proteins, phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and the GTPase activating protein of Ras (GAP), was assayed in epithelial cells expressing each of the mutant receptors. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GAP and PLC gamma 1 was reduced markedly by the F857 mutation but not significantly by the F751 mutation. Reduced kinase activity of F857 receptors was also evident in vitro. Immunoprecipitated WT receptors showed a two- to fourfold increase in specific kinase activity if immunoprecipitated from PDGF-stimulated cells. The F751 receptors showed a similar increase in activity, but F857 receptors did not. Our data suggest that phosphorylation of Y857 may be important for stimulation of kinase activity of the receptors and for downstream actions such as epidermal growth factor receptor transmodulation and mitogenesis. Images PMID:1653029

  9. MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase is a therapeutic target in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Jennifer; Sambade, Maria J.; Sather, Susan; Moschos, Stergios J.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Winges, Amanda; DeRyckere, Deborah; Carson, Craig C.; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Tentler, John J.; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Miller, C. Ryan; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Midkiff, Bentley R.; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Yang, Chao; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V.; Earp, H. Shelton; Shields, Janiel M.; Graham, Douglas K.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cutaneous cancers. Although recent therapeutic advances have prolonged patient survival, the prognosis remains dismal. C-MER proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with oncogenic properties that is often overexpressed or activated in various malignancies. Using both protein immunohistochemistry and microarray analyses, we demonstrate that MERTK expression correlates with disease progression. MERTK expression was highest in metastatic melanomas, followed by primary melanomas, while the lowest expression was observed in nevi. Additionally, over half of melanoma cell lines overexpressed MERTK compared with normal human melanocytes; however, overexpression did not correlate with mutations in BRAF or RAS. Stimulation of melanoma cells with the MERTK ligand GAS6 resulted in the activation of several downstream signaling pathways including MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT. MERTK inhibition via shRNA reduced MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, reduced colony formation by up to 59%, and diminished tumor volume by 60% in a human melanoma murine xenograft model. Treatment of melanoma cells with UNC1062, a novel MERTK-selective small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduced activation of MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, induced apoptosis in culture, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and inhibited invasion of melanoma cells. This work establishes MERTK as a therapeutic target in melanoma and provides a rationale for the continued development of MERTK-targeted therapies. PMID:23585477

  10. Activation of muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase and binding to dystroglycan are regulated by alternative mRNA splicing of agrin.

    PubMed

    Scotton, Patrick; Bleckmann, Dorothee; Stebler, Michael; Sciandra, Francesca; Brancaccio, Andrea; Meier, Thomas; Stetefeld, Jörg; Ruegg, Markus A

    2006-12-01

    Agrin induces the aggregation of postsynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This activity requires the receptor-tyrosine kinase MuSK. Agrin isoforms differ in short amino acid stretches at two sites, called A and B, that are localized in the two most C-terminal laminin G (LG) domains. Importantly, agrin isoforms greatly differ in their activities of inducing MuSK phosphorylation and of binding to alpha-dystroglycan. By using site-directed mutagenesis, we characterized the amino acids important for these activities of agrin. We find that the conserved tripeptide asparagineglutamate-isoleucine in the eight-amino acid long insert at the B-site is necessary and sufficient for full MuSK phosphorylation activity. However, even if all eight amino acids were replaced by alanines, this agrin mutant still has significantly higher MuSK phosphorylation activity than the splice version lacking any insert. We also show that binding to alpha-dystroglycan requires at least two LG domains and that amino acid inserts at the A and the B splice sites negatively affect binding. PMID:17012237

  11. DIRECT MODULATION OF THE PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT α BY GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, George B.; Howe, Alan K.; Nickl, Christian K.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Deming, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates processes such as cell proliferation and migration following activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), yet the signaling mechanisms that link PKA with growth factor receptors remain largely undefined. Here we report that RTKs can directly modulate the function of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA-C) through post-translational modification. In vitro kinase assays revealed that both the epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR, respectively) tyrosine phosphorylate PKA-C. Mass spectrometry identified tyrosine 330 (Y330) as a receptor-mediated phosphorylation site and mutation of Y330 to phenylalanine (Y330F) all but abolished the RTK-mediated phosphorylation of PKA-C in vitro. Y330 resides within a conserved region at the C-terminal tail of PKA-C that allosterically regulates enzymatic activity. Therefore, the effect of phosphorylation at Y330 on the activity of PKA-C was investigated. The Km for a peptide substrate was markedly decreased when PKA-C subunits were tyrosine phosphorylated by the receptors as compared to un-phosphorylated controls. Importantly, tyrosine-phosphorylated PKA-C subunits were detected in cells stimulated with EGF, PDGF and FGF2 and in fibroblasts undergoing PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. These results demonstrate a direct, functional interaction between RTKs and PKA-C and identify tyrosine phosphorylation as a novel mechansim for regulating PKA activity. PMID:21866565

  12. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 downregulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma to promote hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bijli, Kaiser M; Kang, Bum-Yong; Sutliff, Roy L; Hart, C Michael

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxia stimulates pulmonary hypertension (PH), in part by increasing the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) via sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4); and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) levels. However, the upstream mediators that control these responses remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) plays a critical role in the mechanism of hypoxia-induced HPASMC proliferation. To test this hypothesis, HPASMCs were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2) for 72 hours. Hypoxia activated Pyk2 (detected as Tyr402 phosphorylation), and inhibition of Pyk2 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or tyrphostin A9 attenuated hypoxia-induced HPASMC proliferation. Pyk2 inhibition attenuated ERK 1/2 activation as early as 24 hours after the onset of hypoxia, suggesting a proximal role for Pyk2 in this response. Pyk2 inhibition also attenuated hypoxia-induced NF-κB activation, reduced HPASMC PPARγ messenger RNA levels and activity, and increased NF-κB-mediated Nox4 levels. The siRNA-mediated PPARγ knockdown enhanced Pyk2 activation, whereas PPARγ overexpression reduced Pyk2 activation in HPASMCs, confirming a reciprocal relationship between Pyk2 and PPARγ. Pyk2 depletion also attenuated hypoxia-induced NF-κB p65 activation and reduced PPARγ protein levels in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These in vitro findings suggest that Pyk2 plays a central role in the proliferative phenotype of pulmonary vascular wall cells under hypoxic conditions. Coupled with recent reports that hypoxia-induced PH is attenuated in Pyk2 knockout mice, these findings suggest that Pyk2 may represent a novel therapeutic target in PH. PMID:27252847

  13. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 downregulates peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma to promote hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypoxia stimulates pulmonary hypertension (PH), in part by increasing the proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) via sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB); elevated expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4); and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) levels. However, the upstream mediators that control these responses remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) plays a critical role in the mechanism of hypoxia-induced HPASMC proliferation. To test this hypothesis, HPASMCs were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (1% O2) for 72 hours. Hypoxia activated Pyk2 (detected as Tyr402 phosphorylation), and inhibition of Pyk2 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or tyrphostin A9 attenuated hypoxia-induced HPASMC proliferation. Pyk2 inhibition attenuated ERK 1/2 activation as early as 24 hours after the onset of hypoxia, suggesting a proximal role for Pyk2 in this response. Pyk2 inhibition also attenuated hypoxia-induced NF-κB activation, reduced HPASMC PPARγ messenger RNA levels and activity, and increased NF-κB-mediated Nox4 levels. The siRNA-mediated PPARγ knockdown enhanced Pyk2 activation, whereas PPARγ overexpression reduced Pyk2 activation in HPASMCs, confirming a reciprocal relationship between Pyk2 and PPARγ. Pyk2 depletion also attenuated hypoxia-induced NF-κB p65 activation and reduced PPARγ protein levels in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These in vitro findings suggest that Pyk2 plays a central role in the proliferative phenotype of pulmonary vascular wall cells under hypoxic conditions. Coupled with recent reports that hypoxia-induced PH is attenuated in Pyk2 knockout mice, these findings suggest that Pyk2 may represent a novel therapeutic target in PH. PMID:27252847

  14. Molecular Basis of the Interaction of the Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 4 (PTPN4) with the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase p38γ.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Pierre; Caillet-Saguy, Célia; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bibi-Zainab, Edoo; Sawyer, Kristi; Raynal, Bertrand; Haouz, Ahmed; Delepierre, Muriel; Lafon, Monique; Cordier, Florence; Wolff, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) prevents cell death induction in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines in a PDZ·PDZ binding motifs-dependent manner, but the cellular partners of PTPN4 involved in cell protection are unknown. Here, we described the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ as a cellular partner of PTPN4. The main contribution to the p38γ·PTPN4 complex formation is the tight interaction between the C terminus of p38γ and the PDZ domain of PTPN4. We solved the crystal structure of the PDZ domain of PTPN4 bound to the p38γ C terminus. We identified the molecular basis of recognition of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ that displays the highest affinity among all endogenous partners of PTPN4. We showed that the p38γ C terminus is also an efficient inducer of cell death after its intracellular delivery. In addition to recruiting the kinase, the binding of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ to PTPN4 abolishes the catalytic autoinhibition of PTPN4 and thus activates the phosphatase, which can efficiently dephosphorylate the activation loop of p38γ. We presume that the p38γ·PTPN4 interaction promotes cellular signaling, preventing cell death induction. PMID:27246854

  15. Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hill, Kristen S; Elferink, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    The internalization of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by endocytosis and their subsequent down regulation in lysosomes plays a critical role in regulating the duration and intensity of downstream signaling events. Uncoupling of the RTK cMet from ligand-induced degradation was recently shown to correlate with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell tumorigenicity, suggesting that the corruption of these endocytic mechanisms could contribute to increased cMet signaling in metastatic cancers. To understand how cMet signaling for normal cell growth is controlled by endocytosis and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in metastatic cancers, we developed flow cytometry-based assays to examine cMet internalization. PMID:19066037

  16. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder. PMID:22736441

  17. The EGFR Family: Not So Prototypical Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Ferguson, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was among the first receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) for which ligand binding was studied and for which the importance of ligand-induced dimerization was established. As a result, EGFR and its relatives have frequently been termed “prototypical” RTKs. Many years of mechanistic studies, however, have revealed that—far from being prototypical—the EGFR family is quite unique. As we discuss in this review, the EGFR family uses a distinctive “receptor-mediated” dimerization mechanism, with ligand binding inducing a dramatic conformational change that exposes a dimerization arm. Intracellular kinase domain regulation in this family is also unique, being driven by allosteric changes induced by asymmetric dimer formation rather than the more typical activation-loop phosphorylation. EGFR family members also distinguish themselves from other RTKs in having an intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) domain that activates (rather than autoinhibits) the receptor and a very large carboxy-terminal tail that contains autophosphorylation sites and serves an autoregulatory function. We discuss recent advances in mechanistic aspects of all of these components of EGFR family members, attempting to integrate them into a view of how RTKs in this important class are regulated at the cell surface. PMID:24691965

  18. Co-active receptor tyrosine kinases mitigate the effect of FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1-amplified lung cancers with low FGFR1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kotani, H; Ebi, H; Kitai, H; Nanjo, S; Kita, K; Huynh, T G; Ooi, A; Faber, A C; Mino-Kenudson, M; Yano, S

    2016-07-01

    Targeted therapies are effective in subsets of lung cancers with EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations. Large-scale genomics have recently expanded the lung cancer landscape with FGFR1 amplification found in 10-20% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, the response rates have been low for biomarker-directed fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor therapy in SCC, which contrasts to the relatively high rates of response seen in EGFR mutant and ALK-translocated lung cancers treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and ALK inhibitors, respectively. In order to better understand the low response rates of FGFR1-amplified lung cancers to FGFR inhibitors, relationships between gene copy number, mRNA expression and protein expression of FGFR1 were assessed in cell lines, tumor specimens and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The importance of these factors for the sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors was determined by analyzing drug screen data and conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments. We report that there was a discrepancy between FGFR1 amplification level and FGFR1 protein expression in a number of these cell lines, and the cancers with unexpectedly low FGFR1 expression were uniformly resistant to the different FGFR inhibitors. Further interrogation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity in these discordant cell lines revealed co-activation of HER2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) caused by gene amplification or ligand overexpression maintained phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and MEK/ERK signaling even in the presence of FGFR inhibitor. Accordingly, co-inhibition of FGFR1 and HER2 or PDGFRα led to enhanced drug responses. In contrast, FGFR1-amplified high FGFR1 protein-expressing lung cancers are sensitive to FGFR inhibitor monotherapy by downregulating ERK signaling. Addition of a PI3K inhibitor to these high FGFR1 protein-expressing cancers further sensitized them to FGFR

  19. SGX523 is an exquisitely selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase with antitumor activity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Sean G.; Hendle, Jorg; Lee, Patrick S.; Smith, Christopher R.; Bounaud, Pierre-Yves; Jessen, Katti A.; Tang, Crystal M.; Huser, Nanni H.; Felce, Jeremy D.; Froning, Karen J.; Peterman, Marshall C.; Aubol, Brandon E.; Gessert, Steve F.; Sauder, J. Michael; Schwinn, Kenneth D.; Russell, Marijane; Rooney, Isabelle A.; Adams, Jason; Leon, Barbara C.; Do, Tuan H.; Blaney, Jeff M.; Sprengeler, Paul A.; Thompson, Devon A.; Smyth, Lydia; Pelletier, Laura A.; Atwell, Shane; Holme, Kevin; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Emtage, Spencer; Burley, Stephen K.; Reich, Siegfried H.

    2010-01-12

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase has emerged as an important target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Activation of MET by mutation or gene amplification has been linked to kidney, gastric, and lung cancers. In other cancers, such as glioblastoma, autocrine activation of MET has been demonstrated. Several classes of ATP-competitive inhibitor have been described, which inhibit MET but also other kinases. Here, we describe SGX523, a novel, ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor remarkable for its exquisite selectivity for MET. SGX523 potently inhibited MET with an IC{sub 50} of 4 nmol/L and is >1,000-fold selective versus the >200-fold selectivity of other protein kinases tested in biochemical assays. Crystallographic study revealed that SGX523 stabilizes MET in a unique inactive conformation that is inaccessible to other protein kinases, suggesting an explanation for the selectivity. SGX523 inhibited MET-mediated signaling, cell proliferation, and cell migration at nanomolar concentrations but had no effect on signaling dependent on other protein kinases, including the closely related RON, even at micromolar concentrations. SGX523 inhibition of MET in vivo was associated with the dose-dependent inhibition of growth of tumor xenografts derived from human glioblastoma and lung and gastric cancers, confirming the dependence of these tumors on MET catalytic activity. Our results show that SGX523 is the most selective inhibitor of MET catalytic activity described to date and is thus a useful tool to investigate the role of MET kinase in cancer without the confounding effects of promiscuous protein kinase inhibition.

  20. Cell-free expression of functional receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Scharadin, Tiffany M.; Saldana, Matthew; Gellner, Candice; Hoang-Phou, Steven; Takanishi, Christina; Hura, Gregory L.; Tainer, John A; Carraway III, Kermit L.; Henderson, Paul T.; Coleman, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play critical roles in physiological and pathological processes, and are important anticancer drug targets. In vitro mechanistic and drug discovery studies of full-length RTKs require protein that is both fully functional and free from contaminating proteins. Here we describe a rapid cell-free and detergent-free co-translation method for producing full-length and functional ERBB2 and EGFR receptor tyrosine kinases supported by water-soluble apolipoprotein A-I based nanolipoprotein particles. PMID:26274523

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: Are they real tumor killers?

    PubMed

    Gaumann, Andreas K A; Kiefer, Friedemann; Alfer, Joachim; Lang, Sven A; Geissler, Edward K; Breier, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Inhibiting tumor growth by targeting the tumor vasculature was first proposed by Judah Folkman almost 40 years ago. Since then, different approaches and numerous drugs and agents have been developed to achieve this goal, either with the aim of inhibiting tumor neoangiogenesis or normalizing the tumor vasculature. Among the most promising therapeutic targets are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), some of which are predominantly expressed on tumor endothelial cells, although they are sometimes also present on tumor cells. The majority of RTK inhibitors investigated over the past two decades competes with ATP at the active site of the kinase and therefore block the phosphorylation of intracellular targets. Some of these drugs have been approved for therapy, whereas others are still in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the scientific basis, current status, problems and future prospects of RTK inhibition in anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25716346

  2. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  3. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  4. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Their Ligands in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Saceda, Miguel; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent, aggressive and fatal type of brain tumor. Glioblastomas are characterized by their infiltrating nature, high proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Recently, oncologic therapy experienced a rapid evolution towards “targeted therapy,” which is the employment of drugs directed against particular targets that play essential roles in proliferation, survival and invasiveness of cancer cells. A number of molecules involved in signal transduction pathways are used as molecular targets for the treatment of various tumors. In fact, inhibitors of these molecules have already entered the clinic or are undergoing clinical trials. Cellular receptors are clear examples of such targets and in the case of glioblastoma multiforme, some of these receptors and their ligands have become relevant. In this review, the importance of glioblastoma multiforme in signaling pathways initiated by extracellular tyrosine kinase receptors such as EGFR, PDGFR and IGF-1R will be discussed. We will describe their ligands, family members, structure, activation mechanism, downstream molecules, as well as the interaction among these pathways. Lastly, we will provide an up-to-date review of the current targeted therapies in cancer, in particular glioblastoma that employ inhibitors of these pathways and their benefits. PMID:24709958

  5. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takashi; Kim, Daniel; Knox, Joseph A.; Johnson, Erik; Mucke, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Diverse lines of evidence suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides causally contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. However, the mechanisms by which Aβ impairs neuronal functions remain to be fully elucidated. Previous studies showed that soluble Aβ oligomers interfere with synaptic functions by depleting NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) from the neuronal surface and that overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 can counteract this process. Through pharmacological treatments and biochemical analyses of primary neuronal cultures expressing wild-type or mutant forms of EphB2, we demonstrate that this protective effect of EphB2 depends on its PDZ-binding motif and the presence of neuronal activity but not on its kinase activity. We further present evidence that the protective effect of EphB2 may be mediated by the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2, which can become associated with the PDZ-binding motif of EphB2 through PDZ domain-containing proteins and can promote the retention of NMDARs in the membrane. In addition, we show that the Aβ-induced depletion of surface NMDARs does not depend on several factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction, including aberrant neuronal activity, tau, prion protein (PrPC), and EphB2 itself. Thus, although EphB2 does not appear to be directly involved in the Aβ-induced depletion of NMDARs, increasing its expression may counteract this pathogenic process through a neuronal activity- and PDZ-dependent regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. PMID:26589795

  6. Tyrosine 763 of the murine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor mediates Ras-dependent activation of the JNK/SAPK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, O; Marshall, C J

    1997-01-01

    The receptor for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can mediate differentiation and proliferation of hemopoietic cells. A proliferative signal is associated with activation of the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To determine whether other MAPK pathways are activated by G-CSF signalling, we have investigated activation of JNK/SAPK in cells proliferating in response to G-CSF. Here we show that G-CSF and interleukin-3 activate JNK/SAPK in two hemopoietic cell lines. The region of the G-CSF receptor required for G-CSF-induced JNK/SAPK activation is located within the C-terminal 68 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain, which contains Tyr 763. Mutation of Tyr 763 to Phe completely blocks JNK/SAPK activation. However, the C-terminal 68 amino acids are not required for ERK2 activation. We show that activation of JNK/SAPK, like that of ERK2, is dependent on Ras but that higher levels of Ras-GTP are associated with activation of JNK/SAPK than with activation of ERK2. Two separate functional regions of the G-CSF receptor contribute to activation of Ras. The Y763F mutation reduces G-CSF-induced Ras activation from 30 to 35% Ras-GTP to 10 to 13% Ras-GTP. Low levels of Ras activation (10 to 13% Ras-GTP), which are sufficient for ERK2 activation, require only the 100 membrane-proximal amino acids. High levels of Ras-GTP provided by expression of oncogenic Ras are not sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK. An additional signal, also mediated by Tyr 763, is required for activation of JNK/SAPK. PMID:9032244

  7. Recent developments in receptor tyrosine kinases targeted anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Samir H.; Singh, Ratn D.; Joshi, Dilip V.; Patel, Hitesh B.; Mody, Shailesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel concepts and understanding of receptors lead to discoveries and optimization of many small molecules and antibodies as anti-cancerous drugs. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are such a promising class of receptors under the investigation in past three decades. RTKs are one of the essential mediators of cell signaling mechanism for various cellular processes. Transformations such as overexpression, dysregulation, or mutations of RTKs may result into malignancy, and thus are an important target for anticancer therapy. Numerous subfamilies of RTKs, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor, have been being investigated in recent years as target for anticancer therapy. The present review focuses several small molecules drugs as well as monoclonal antibodies targeting aforesaid subfamilies either approved or under investigation to treat the various cancers. PMID:27051190

  8. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  9. Ligand-independent activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor by ETK (Bmx) tyrosine kinase helps MCF10AT1 breast cancer cells to survive in an apoptosis-inducing environment.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Li, Wen; Wu, Dalei; Wong, Patrick; Vogel, Christoph; Dong, Bin; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Matsumura, Fumio

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is overexpressed in certain types of breast tumors. However, so far no concrete evidence has been provided yet as to why and how the overexpressed AHR in those cancer cells is functionally activated without exogenous ligands. Here we show that the AHR was functionally activated when estrogen receptor-negative, AHR overexpressing MCF10AT1 human breast cancer cells (designated P20E) were subjected to serum starvation. Transfection of cells with ETK-KQ, a plasmid for kinase-dead epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase (ETK), attenuated this AHR activation. Artificial over-expression of ETK in P20E cells through transfection with wild-type ETK plasmid (ETK-wt) caused up-regulation of cytochrome P4501a1 (CYP1A1; a marker of functional activation of AHR). Furthermore, ablation of ETK expression by a specific antisense oligonucleotide or AG879, a specific inhibitor of ETK kinase suppressed activation of AHR induced by omeprazole, a strong ligand-independent activator of AHR. Activation of ETK in those cells conferred them resistance to UVB- as well as doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, both of which were reversed by ETK-KQ. Together, these findings support our conclusion that ETK is the tyrosine kinase responsible for the functional activation of the AHR in these mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21861773

  10. Ligand-induced IFN gamma receptor tyrosine phosphorylation couples the receptor to its signal transduction system (p91).

    PubMed Central

    Greenlund, A C; Farrar, M A; Viviano, B L; Schreiber, R D

    1994-01-01

    Herein we report that interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) induces the rapid and reversible tyrosine phosphorylation of the IFN gamma receptor. Using a panel of receptor intracellular domain mutants, we show that a membrane-proximal LPKS sequence (residues 266-269) is required for ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activation and/or kinase-receptor association and biological responsiveness, and a functionally critical membrane-distal tyrosine residue (Y440) is a target of the activated enzyme. The biological significance of Y440 phosphorylation was demonstrated by showing that a receptor-derived nonapeptide corresponding to receptor residues 436-444 and containing phosphorylated Y440 bound specifically to p91, blocked p91 phosphorylation and inhibited the generation of an active p91-containing transcription factor complex. In contrast, nonphosphorylated wild-type, phosphorylated mutant, or phosphorylated irrelevant peptides did not. Moreover, the phosphorylated Y440-containing peptide did not interact with a related but distinct latent transcription factor (p113) which is activatible by IFN alpha but not IFN gamma. These results thus document the specific and inducible association of p91 with the phosphorylated IFN gamma receptor and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which ligand couples the IFN gamma receptor to its signal transduction system. Images PMID:8156998

  11. The role of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjun; Chen, You; Zhan, Liying; Zhang, Linan; Hu, Jie; Gao, Zibin

    2016-04-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the primary modes of regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The non-receptor tyrosine kinases are one of the two types of protein tyrosine kinases that are involved in this process. The overactivation of NMDA receptors is a primary reason for neuron death following cerebral ischemia. Many studies have illustrated the important role of non-receptor tyrosine kinases in ischemia insults. This review introduces the roles of Src, Fyn, focal adhesion kinase, and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 in the excitotoxicity induced by the overactivation of NMDA receptors following cerebral ischemia. PMID:26540220

  12. Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor-mediated macrophage differentiation in myeloid cells: a role for tyrosine 559-dependent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity.

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, K A; Wilson, N J; Marks, D C; Beecroft, T L; Whitty, G A; Hamilton, J A; Csar, X F

    2001-01-01

    M1 myeloid cells transfected with the wild-type (WT) colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R; M1/WT cells) undergo CSF-1-dependent macrophage differentiation. By mutation studies, we have provided prior evidence that tyrosine 559 in the CSF-1R cytoplasmic domain governs the Src-dependent differentiation pathway. Further components of this pathway were then sought. We report that the extent of CSF-1-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and the associated loss of its activity were reduced in M1 cells transfected with the CSF-1R with a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation at position 559 (M1/559 cells), compared with the corresponding responses in CSF-1-treated M1/WT cells. This evidence for an involvement of a reduction in PP2A activity in the differentiation process was supported by the restoration of the defect in the CSF-1-mediated differentiation of M1/559 cells by the addition of the PP2A inhibitor, okadaic acid. It was also found that the degree of activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities by CSF-1 was reduced in M1/559 cells, suggesting their involvement in the differentiation process. These data suggest that PP2A and ERK form part of the Src-dependent signal-transduction cascade governing CSF-1-mediated macrophage differentiation in M1 cells. PMID:11513742

  13. Activation of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHR) in MA-10 cells leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by a pathway that involves Src family kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Koji; Welsh, Toni; Ascoli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We show that activation of the endogenous or recombinant LHR in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MA-10 cells) leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and one of its substrates (paxillin). Using specific antibodies to the five tyrosine residues of FAK that become phosphorylated we show that activation of the LHR increases the phosphorylation of Tyr576 and Tyr577 but it does not affect the phosphorylation of Tyr397, Tyr861 or Tyr925. Because FAK is a prominent substrate for the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) we tested for their involvement in the LHR-mediated phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576. Src is not detectable in MA-10 cells, but two other prominent members of this family (Fyn and Yes) are present. The LHR-mediated phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576 is readily inhibited by PP2 (a pharmacological inhibitor of SFKs) and by dominant-negative mutants of SKFs. Moreover, activation of the LHR in MA-10 cells results in the stimulation of the activity of Fyn and Yes and overexpression of either of these two tyrosine kinases enhances the LHR-mediate phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576. Studies involving activation of other G protein-coupled receptors, overexpression of the different Gα subunits, and the use of second messenger analogs suggest that the LHR-induced phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576 in MA-10 cells is mediated by SFKs, and that this family of kinases is, in turn, independently or cooperatively activated by the LHR-induced stimulation of Gs and Gq/11-mediated pathways. PMID:16293639

  14. Regulation of therapeutic resistance in cancers by receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    In response to DNA damage lesions due to cellular stress, DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are activated to promote cell survival and genetic stability or unrepaired lesion-induced cell death. Current cancer treatments predominantly utilize DNA damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy drugs, to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell death through the activation of DDR. However, a portion of cancer patients is reported to develop therapeutic resistance to these DDR-inducing agents. One significant resistance mechanism in cancer cells is oncogenic kinase overexpression, which promotes cell survival by enhancing DNA damage repair pathways and evading cell cycle arrest. Among the oncogenic kinases, overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is reported in many of solid tumors, and numerous clinical trials targeting RTKs are currently in progress. As the emerging trend in cancer treatment combines DNA damaging agents and RTK inhibitors, it is important to understand the substrates of RTKs relative to the DDR pathways. In addition, alteration of RTK expression and their phosphorylated substrates can serve as biomarkers to stratify patients for combination therapies. In this review, we summarize the deleterious effects of RTKs on the DDR pathways and the emerging biomarkers for personalized therapy. PMID:27186434

  15. Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Nan P; LaMarche, Matthew J; Chan, Ho Man; Fekkes, Peter; Garcia-Fortanet, Jorge; Acker, Michael G; Antonakos, Brandon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Zhouliang; Cooke, Vesselina G; Dobson, Jason R; Deng, Zhan; Fei, Feng; Firestone, Brant; Fodor, Michelle; Fridrich, Cary; Gao, Hui; Grunenfelder, Denise; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jacob, Jaison; Ho, Samuel; Hsiao, Kathy; Kang, Zhao B; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Larrow, Jay; La Bonte, Laura R; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Price, Edmund; Quinn, Christopher; Shakya, Subarna; Shultz, Michael D; Slisz, Joanna; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Wang, Ping; Warmuth, Markus; Williams, Sarah; Yang, Guizhi; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Zhu, Ping; Ramsey, Timothy; Keen, Nicholas J; Sellers, William R; Stams, Travis; Fortin, Pascal D

    2016-07-01

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27362227

  16. Calmodulin-stimulated phosphorylation of 17 beta-estradiol receptor on tyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Rotondi, A; Auricchio, F

    1984-01-01

    The calf uterine 17 beta-estradiol receptor is a phosphoprotein. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the receptor is controlled by a cytosol receptor kinase that activates the hormone binding and by a nuclear phosphatase that inactivates this binding. This report concerns the nature of the 17 beta-estradiol receptor kinase. Highly purified calf uterus 17 beta-estradiol receptor preinactivated by the nuclear phosphatase was used as substrate of the purified receptor kinase. Ca2+ and calmodulin stimulate both the kinase-dependent activation of the hormone binding and 32P incorporation from [gamma-32P]-ATP into the receptor. Maximal stimulation of hormone binding activation requires 1 microM Ca2+ and 0.6 microM calmodulin. Fifteen micromolar trifluoperazine is the lowest concentration that will prevent completely Ca2+-calmodulin stimulation of the kinase. The receptor is phosphorylated by the receptor kinase exclusively on tyrosine. Phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine is a rare event implicated in hormone-induced cell growth and cell transformation. Images PMID:6207535

  17. Intracellular Ca2+ stores modulate SOCCs and NMDA receptors via tyrosine kinases in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Koss, David J; Riedel, Gernot; Platt, Bettina

    2009-07-01

    The regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling by phosphorylation processes remains poorly defined, particularly with regards to tyrosine phosphorylation. Evidence from non-excitable cells implicates tyrosine phosphorylation in the activation of so-called store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCCs), but their involvement in neuronal Ca(2+) signalling is still elusive. In the present study, we determined the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in the coupling between intracellular Ca(2+) stores and SOCCs in neonatal rat hippocampal neurons by Fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging. An early Ca(2+) response from intracellular stores was triggered with thapsigargin, and followed by a secondary plasma membrane Ca(2+) response. This phase was blocked by the non-specific Ca(2+) channel blocker NiCl and the SOCC blocker, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Interestingly, two structurally distinct PTK inhibitors, genistein and AG126, also inhibited this secondary response. Application of the PTP inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (OV) also activated a sustained and tyrosine kinase dependent Ca(2+) response, blocked by NiCl and 2-APB. In addition, OV resulted in a Ca(2+) store dependent enhancement of NMDA responses, corresponding to, and occluding the signalling pathway for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). This study provides first evidence for tyrosine based phospho-regulation of SOCCs and NMDA signalling in neurons. PMID:19423160

  18. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of knowledge about how different Ser/Thr protein kinases participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In many cases, we know the identities of the Ser/Thr residues of various components of the TLR-signaling pathways that are phosphorylated, the functional consequences of the phosphorylation and the responsible protein kinases. In contrast, the analysis of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins is currently incomplete, because several existing analyses are not systematic or they do not rely on robust experimental data. Nevertheless, it is clear that many TLRs require, for signaling, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of specific Tyr residues in their cytoplasmic domains; the list includes TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8 and TLR9. In this article, we discuss the current status of knowledge on the effect of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins on their biochemical and biological functions, the possible identities of the relevant protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the nature of regulations of PTK-mediated activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:25022196

  19. The Role of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors in Peritoneal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhuang, Shougang

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a modality for treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that depends on the structural and functional integrity of the peritoneal membrane. However, long-term PD can lead to morphological and functional changes in the peritoneum; in particular, peritoneal fibrosis has become one of the most common complications that ultimately results in ultrafiltration failure (UFF) and discontinuation of PD. Several factors and mechanisms such as inflammation and overproduction of transforming growth factor-β1 have been implicated in the development of peritoneal fibrosis, but there is no effective therapy to prevent or delay this process. Recent studies have shown that activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is associated with the development and progression of tissue fibrosis in various organs, and there are also reports indicating the involvement of some RTKs in peritoneal fibrosis. This review will describe the role and mechanisms of RTKs in peritoneal fibrosis and discuss the possibility of using them as therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of this complication. PMID:26450477

  20. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury. PMID:24677237

  1. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  2. eps15, a novel tyrosine kinase substrate, exhibits transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Fazioli, F; Minichiello, L; Matoskova, B; Wong, W T; Di Fiore, P P

    1993-01-01

    An expression cloning method which allows direct isolation of cDNAs encoding substrates for tyrosine kinases was applied to the study of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. A previously undescribed cDNA was isolated and designated eps15. The structural features of the predicted eps15 gene product allow its subdivision into three domains. Domain I contains signatures of a regulatory domain, including a candidate tyrosine phosphorylation site and EF-hand-type calcium-binding domains. Domain II presents the characteristic heptad repeats of coiled-coil rod-like proteins, and domain III displays a repeated aspartic acid-proline-phenylalanine motif similar to a consensus sequence of several methylases. Antibodies specific for the eps15 gene product recognize two proteins: a major species of 142 kDa and a minor component of 155 kDa, both of which are phosphorylated on tyrosine following EGFR activation by EGF in vivo. EGFR is also able to directly phosphorylate the eps15 product in vitro. In addition, phosphorylation of the eps15 gene product in vivo is relatively receptor specific, since the erbB-2 kinase phosphorylates it very inefficiently. Finally, overexpression of eps15 is sufficient to transform NIH 3T3 cells, thus suggesting that the eps15 gene product is involved in the regulation of mitogenic signals. Images PMID:7689153

  3. Agonistic TAM-163 antibody targeting tyrosine kinase receptor-B

    PubMed Central

    Vugmeyster, Yulia; Rohde, Cynthia; Perreault, Mylene; Gimeno, Ruth E.; Singh, Pratap

    2013-01-01

    TAM-163, an agonist monoclonal antibody targeting tyrosine receptor kinase-B (TrkB), is currently being investigated as a potential body weight modulatory agent in humans. To support the selection of the dose range for the first-in-human (FIH) trial of TAM-163, we conducted a mechanistic analysis of the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data (e.g., body weight gain) obtained in lean cynomolgus and obese rhesus monkeys following single doses ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg. A target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model was used to describe the observed nonlinear PK and Emax approach was used to describe the observed dose-dependent PD effect. The TMDD model development was supported by the experimental determination of the binding affinity constant (9.4 nM) and internalization rate of the drug-target complex (2.08 h−1). These mechanistic analyses enabled linking of exposure, target (TrkB) coverage, and pharmacological activity (e.g., PD) in monkeys, and indicated that ≥ 38% target coverage (time-average) was required to achieve significant body weight gain in monkeys. Based on the scaling of the TMDD model from monkeys to humans and assuming similar relationship between the target coverage and pharmacological activity between monkey and humans, subcutaneous (SC) doses of 1 and 15 mg/kg in humans were projected to be the minimally and the fully pharmacologically active doses, respectively. Based on the minimal anticipated biological effect level (MABEL) approach for starting dose selection, the dose of 0.05 mg/kg (3 mg for a 60 kg human) SC was recommended as the starting dose for FIH trials, because at this dose level < 10% target coverage was projected at Cmax (and all other time points). This study illustrates a rational mechanistic approach for the selection of FIH dose range for a therapeutic protein with a complex model of action. PMID:23529133

  4. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. PMID:26675259

  5. The novel receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is constitutively active in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acts as a docking site of nonreceptor kinases: implications for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Secreto, Charla; Boysen, Justin; Sassoon, Traci; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Kay, Neil E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we detected that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cell–derived microvesicles in CLL plasma carry a constitutively phosphorylated novel receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), Axl, indicating that Axl was acquired from the leukemic B cells. To examine Axl status in CLL, we determined the expression of phosphorylated-Axl (P-Axl) in freshly isolated CLL B cells by Western blot analysis. We detected differential levels of P-Axl in CLL B cells, and further analysis showed that expression of P-Axl was correlated with the other constitutively phosphorylated kinases, including Lyn, phosphoinositide-3 kinase, SyK/ζ-associated protein of 70 kDa, phospholipase C γ2 in CLL B cells. We found that these intracellular signaling molecules were complexed with P-Axl in primary CLL B cells. When Axl and Src kinases were targeted by a Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, bosutinib (SKI-606), or a specific-inhibitor of Axl (R428), robust induction of CLL B-cell apoptosis was observed in both a dose- and time-dependent manner. Therefore, we have identified a novel RTK in CLL B cells which appears to work as a docking site for multiple non-RTKs and drives leukemic cell survival signals. These findings highlight a unique target for CLL treatment. PMID:21135257

  6. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10–18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. PMID:26675259

  7. Family of receptor-linked protein tyrosine phosphatases in humans and Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, M.; Krueger, N.X.; Saito, H. ); Tsai, A.Y.M. )

    1989-11-01

    To understand the regulation of cell proliferation by tyrosine phosphorylation, characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatases is essential. The human genes LCA (leukocyte common antigen) and LAR encode putative receptor-linked PTPases. By using consensus sequence probes, two additional receptor-linked PTPase genes, DLAR and DPTP, were isolated from Drosophila melanogaster. The extra-cellular segments of both DLAR and DPTP are composed of multiple immunoglobulin-like domains and fibronectin type III-like domains. The cytoplasmic region of DLAR and DPTP, as well as human LCA and LAR, are composed of two tandemly repeated PTPase domains. PTPase activities of immunoprecipitated LCA and LAR were demonstrated by measuring the release of phosphate from a {sup 32}P-labeled (Tyr(P))peptide. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domains of LCA, LAR, DLAR, and DPTP, expressed in Escherichia coli, have PTPase activity. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that a conserved cysteine residue is essential for PTPase activity.

  8. Grb2, a Double-Edged Sword of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Belov, Artur A.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) exhibit basal tyrosine phosphorylation and activity in the absence of ligand stimulation, which has been attributed to the “leaky” nature of tyrosine kinase autoinhibition and stochastic collisions of receptors in the membrane bilayer. This basal phosphorylation does not produce a signal of sufficient amplitude and intensity to manifest in a biological response and hence is considered to be a passive, futile process that does not have any biological function. This paradigm has now been challenged by a study showing that the basal phosphorylation of RTKs is a physiologically relevant process that is actively inhibited by the intracellular adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound 2 (Grb2) and serves to “prime” receptors for a rapid response to ligand stimulation. Grb2 is conventionally known for playing positive roles in RTK signaling. The discovery of a negative regulatory role for Grb2 reveals that this adaptor acts as a double-edged sword in the regulation of RTK signaling. PMID:23131845

  9. Dephosphorylation of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor exhibits structural and functional similarities to the insulin receptor. Although the regulation of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor have received only little attention. To obtain a better understanding of the mode of IGF-I action, we have investigated the effects of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) on the phosphorylation status of the IGF-I receptor. The dephosphorylation of the human IGF-I receptor by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases was studied by an immuno-enzymic assay based on the recognition of phosphotyrosine residues by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using intact IGF-I receptors as substrates, we show that they could be completely dephosphorylated by different cellular PTPases. Three pieces of evidence indicate that receptor dephosphorylation takes place on phosphotyrosine, i.e. the inhibition profile of phosphatase activity by zinc and vanadate, its absolute requirement for thiol compounds and the diminution of [32P]phosphotyrosine labelling of the beta subunit assessed by SDS/PAGE and phosphoamino acid analysis. Tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PTPases, indicating that partial dephosphorylation of the receptor was associated with a decrease in its intrinsic activity. The sensitivity of the activated human IGF-I receptor to dephosphorylation on tyrosine leads to the speculation that IGF-I receptor activity might be regulated by mechanisms such as those described for the insulin receptor. Further investigation of the pathways of IGF-I receptor dephosphorylation will contribute to define the role(s) of PTPases in the overall mechanism of IGF-I signalling. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1322128

  10. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity mediates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in human airway epithelial cells exposed to Zn{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, T.L.; Graves, L.M.; Silbajoris, R.; Bromberg, P.A.; Wu, W.; Samet, J.M. . E-mail: samet.james@epa.gov

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads to Src-dependent activation of EGFR signaling in B82 and A431 cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism of Zn{sup 2+}-induced EGFR activation in HAEC, we treated HAEC with 500 {mu}M ZnSO{sub 4} for 5-20 min and measured the state of activation of EGFR, c-Src and PTPs. Western blots revealed that exposure to Zn{sup 2+} results in increased phosphorylation at both trans- and autophosphorylation sites in the EGFR. Zn{sup 2+}-mediated EGFR phosphorylation did not require ligand binding and was ablated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD153035, but not by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2. Src activity was inhibited by Zn{sup 2+} treatment of HAEC, consistent with Src-independent EGFR transactivation in HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+}. The rate of exogenous EGFR dephosphorylation in lysates of HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+} or V{sup 4+} was significantly diminished. Moreover, exposure of HAEC to Zn{sup 2+} also resulted in a significant impairment of dephosphorylation of endogenous EGFR. These data show that Zn{sup 2+}-induced activation of EGFR in HAEC involves a loss of PTP activities whose function is to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity. These findings also suggest that there are marked cell-type-specific differences in the mechanism of EGFR activation induced by Zn{sup 2+} exposure.

  11. Targeting of DNA molecules, BSA/c-Met tyrosine kinase receptors and anti-proliferative activity of bis(terpyridine)copper(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kumar, Raju Senthil; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur

    2016-05-01

    A series of homoleptic bis(terpyridine)copper(ii) complexes of the type [Cu(L(1-5))2]Cl2 (), where L(1-5) = 4'-(4-substituted)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridines, have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structure of complex was confirmed by the single crystal XRD technique, and the geometry of the complexes is best described as distorted octahedral. Structural parameters from the crystallographic and DFT studies are in good agreement with each other. The small HOMO-LUMO energy gap supports bioefficacy of the complexes. DNA binding studies show high intrinsic binding constant values 1.53 ± 0.15, 1.62 ± 0.08 and 3.09 ± 0.12 × 10(5) M(-1) for complexes , and , respectively, with intercalative mode of binding to CT-DNA. The binding results were further supported by molecular docking studies. The experimental results indicate that the interaction between the complexes and BSA protein involves a static quenching mechanism. The molecular docking studies with c-Met tyrosine kinase receptors show hydrophobic and π-π interactions. All the complexes bring about hydroxyl radical mediated DNA cleavage in the presence of H2O2. In vitro cytotoxicities of the complexes () were tested against three cancerous cell lines, namely human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), epithelioma (Hep-2) and cervical (HeLa) cell lines, and one non-tumorigenic human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cell line by MTT reduction assay. The morphological assessment data obtained using Hoechst 33258 staining revealed that complex induces apoptosis much more effectively than the other complexes. PMID:27063595

  12. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  13. Proteolytic cleavage, trafficking, and functions of nuclear receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular localization has been reported for over three-quarters of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) families in response to environmental stimuli. Internalized RTK may bind to non-canonical substrates and affect various cellular processes. Many of the intracellular RTKs exist as fragmented forms that are generated by γ-secretase cleavage of the full-length receptor, shedding, alternative splicing, or alternative translation initiation. Soluble RTK fragments are stabilized and intracellularly transported into subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, by binding to chaperone or transcription factors, while membrane-bound RTKs (full-length or truncated) are transported from the plasma membrane to the ER through the well-established Rab- or clathrin adaptor protein-coated vesicle retrograde trafficking pathways. Subsequent nuclear transport of membrane-bound RTK may occur via two pathways, INFS or INTERNET, with the former characterized by release of receptors from the ER into the cytosol and the latter characterized by release of membrane-bound receptor from the ER into the nucleoplasm through the inner nuclear membrane. Although most non-canonical intracellular RTK signaling is related to transcriptional regulation, there may be other functions that have yet to be discovered. In this review, we summarize the proteolytic processing, intracellular trafficking and nuclear functions of RTKs, and discuss how they promote cancer progression, and their clinical implications. PMID:26096795

  14. Macrophage Proliferation Is Regulated through CSF-1 Receptor Tyrosines 544, 559, and 807*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenfeng; Chen, Jian; Xiong, Ying; Pixley, Fiona J.; Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1)-stimulated CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) tyrosine phosphorylation initiates survival, proliferation, and differentiation signaling pathways in macrophages. Either activation loop Y807F or juxtamembrane domain (JMD) Y559F mutations severely compromise CSF-1-regulated proliferation and differentiation. YEF, a CSF-1R in which all eight tyrosines phosphorylated in the activated receptor were mutated to phenylalanine, lacks in vitro kinase activity and in vivo CSF-1-regulated tyrosine phosphorylation. The addition of Tyr-807 alone to the YEF backbone (Y807AB) led to CSF-1-independent but receptor kinase-dependent proliferation, without detectable activation loop Tyr-807 phosphorylation. The addition of Tyr-559 alone (Y559AB) supported a low level of CSF-1-independent proliferation that was slightly enhanced by CSF-1, indicating that Tyr-559 has a positive Tyr-807-independent effect. Consistent with the postulated autoinhibitory role of the JMD Tyr-559 and its relief by ligand-induced Tyr-559 phosphorylation, the addition of Tyr-559 to the Y807AB background suppressed proliferation in the absence of CSF-1, but restored most of the CSF-1-stimulated proliferation. Full restoration of kinase activation and proliferation required the additional add back of JMD Tyr-544. Inhibitor experiments indicate that the constitutive proliferation of Y807AB macrophages is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK1/2 pathways, whereas proliferation of WT and Y559,807AB macrophages is, in addition, contributed to by Src family kinase (SFK)-dependent pathways. Thus Tyr-807 confers sufficient kinase activity for strong CSF-1-independent proliferation, whereas Tyr-559 maintains the receptor in an inactive state. Tyr-559 phosphorylation releases this restraint and may also contribute to the CSF-1-regulated proliferative response by activating Src family kinase. PMID:22375015

  15. Tyrosine kinase receptor alteration of renal vasoconstriction in rats is sex- and age-related.

    PubMed

    Passmore, John C; Fleming, John T; Tyagi, Suresh C; Falcone, Jeff C

    2012-10-01

    Male rat renal blood vessels undergo reduced contraction to norepinephrine with aging. There is a greater renal vascular impairment in male compared with female rats. We investigated specific tyrosine kinase receptor inhibition of renal interlobar artery responsiveness to phenylephrine in male and female rats at specifically designated ages. Vessels from young male rats contracted much less to phenylephrine when the vessels were pretreated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors Lavendustin A, HNMPA-(AM)₃, or AG1478. Vessels from adult female rats pretreated with Lavendustin A showed no difference in contraction from control, but did demonstrate a slightly reduced contraction when pretreated with AG1478. Middle-aged male rat vessels treated with Lavendustin A demonstrated no inhibition, but the insulin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists both induced a decline in contraction. Vessels from aged male rats demonstrated no effect related to the 3 pretreatments. Middle-aged and aged female rats pretreated with any inhibitor demonstrated no inhibitor-dependent alterations. We conclude that maximum contraction of interlobar arteries from adult male rats is reduced when tyrosine kinase receptor activity is reduced. Female rats demonstrated much less inhibitor-related change of contraction. PMID:22724583

  16. Tyrosine kinase receptors as molecular targets In pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Clarissa A.; Winer, Daniel; Liu, Wei; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors shown to be responsive to multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Despite growing knowledge regarding their genetic basis, the ability to predict behavior in these tumors remains challenging. There is also limited knowledge of their tyrosine kinase receptor expression and whether the clinical response observed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib relates only to its anti-angiogenic properties or also due to a direct effect on tumor cells. To answer these questions, an in vitro model of sunitinib treatment of a pheochromocytoma cell line was created. Sunitinib targets (VEGFRs, PDGFRs, C-KIT), FGFRs and cell cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in human tissue microarrays. SDHB immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate marker for the presence of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. The FGFR4 G388R SNP was also investigated. Sunitinib treatment in vitro decreases cell proliferation mainly by targeting cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cell organization genes. FGFR1, -2 and -4, VEGFR2, PDGFRα and p16 were overexpressed in primary human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Discordant results were observed for VEGFR1, p27 and p21 (overexpressed in paragangliomas but underexpressed in pheochromoctyomas); PDGFRβ, Rb and Cyclin D1 (overexpressed in paragangliomas only) and FGFR3 (overexpressed in pheochromocytomas and underexpressed in paragangliomas). Low expression of C-KIT, p53, Aurora Kinase A and B was observed. Nuclear FGFR2 expression was associated with increased risk of metastasis (odds ratio [OR]=7.61; p=0.008), as was membranous PDGFRα (OR= 13.71, p=0.015), membranous VEGFR1 (OR=8.01; p=0.037), nuclear MIB1 (OR=1.26, p=0.008) and cytoplasmic p27 (OR=1.037, p=0.030). FGFR3, VEGFR2 and C-KIT levels were associated with decreased risk of metastasis. We provide new insights into the mechanistic actions of sunitinib in pheochromoctyomas and paragangliomas and support current

  17. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R; Hanrahan, John W

    2016-05-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  18. Estrus cycle effect on muscle tyrosine kinase activity in bitches.

    PubMed

    Gomes Pöppl, Álan; Costa Valle, Sandra; Hilário Díaz González, Félix; de Castro Beck, Carlos Afonso; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Silveira Martins Da Silva, Roselis

    2012-03-01

    Estrus cycle is a well recognized cause of insulin resistance in bitches. The insulin receptor (IR) as well as the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor belong to the same subfamily of tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate basal TK activity in muscle tissue of bitches during the estrus cycle. Twenty-four bitches were used in the study (7 in anestrus, 7 in estrus, and 10 in diestrus). Muscle samples, taken after spaying surgery to determine TK activity, were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -80°C until the membranes were prepared by sequential centrifugation after being homogenized. TK activity was determined by Poly (Glu 4:Tyr 1) phosphorylation and expressed in cpm/μg of protein. TK activity was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the animals in estrus (104.5 ± 11.9 cpm/μg of protein) and diestrus (94.5 ± 16.9 cpm/μg of protein) when compared with bitches in anestrus (183.2 ± 39.2 cpm/μg of protein). These results demonstrate, for the first time, lower basal TK activity in the muscle tissue of female dogs during estrus and diestrus, which may represent lower insulin signaling capacity, opening a new field of investigation into the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in dogs. PMID:22139063

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications.

    PubMed

    Quintanal-Villalonga, A; Paz-Ares, Luis; Ferrer, Irene; Molina-Pinelo, S

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as "omics" has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed. PMID:27528792

  20. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  1. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Quintanal-Villalonga, A.; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as “omics” has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed. PMID:27528792

  2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling: Regulating Neural Crest Development One Phosphate at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Soriano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) bind to a subset of growth factors on the surface of cells and elicit responses with broad roles in developmental and postnatal cellular processes. Receptors in this subclass consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain harboring a catalytic tyrosine kinase and regulatory sequences that are phosphorylated either by the receptor itself or various interacting proteins. Once activated, RTKs bind signaling molecules and recruit effector proteins to mediate downstream cellular responses through various intracellular signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will highlight the role of a subset of RTK families in regulating the activity of neural crest cells (NCCs) and the development of their derivatives in mammalian systems. NCCs are migratory, multipotent cells that can be subdivided into four axial populations, cranial, cardiac, vagal and trunk. These cells migrate throughout the vertebrate embryo along defined pathways and give rise to unique cell types and structures. Interestingly, individual RTK families often have specific functions in a subpopulation of NCCs that contribute to the diversity of these cells and their derivatives in the mammalian embryo. We will additionally discuss current methods used to investigate RTK signaling, including genetic, biochemical, large-scale proteomic and biosensor approaches, which can be applied to study intracellular signaling pathways active downstream of this receptor subclass during NCC development. PMID:25662260

  3. The HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein Causes Prolonged Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Enhances Internalization of Phosphorylated Receptor Species

    PubMed Central

    Spangle, Jennifer M.; Munger, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins are consistently expressed in HPV-associated lesions and cancers. HPV16 E6 sustains the activity of the mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling cascades under conditions of growth factor deprivation. Here we report that HPV16 E6 activated mTORC1 by enhanced signaling through receptor protein tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptors. This is evidenced by sustained signaling through these receptors for several hours after growth factor withdrawal. HPV16 E6 increased the internalization of activated receptor species, and the signaling adaptor protein GRB2 was shown to be critical for HPV16 E6 mediated enhanced EGFR internalization and mTORC1 activation. As a consequence of receptor protein kinase mediated mTORC1 activation, HPV16 E6 expression increased cellular migration of primary human epithelial cells. This study identifies a previously unappreciated mechanism by which HPV E6 proteins perturb host-signaling pathways presumably to sustain protein synthesis during the viral life cycle that may also contribute to cellular transforming activities of high-risk HPV E6 proteins. PMID:23516367

  4. Dopamine D1 receptor inhibition of NMDA receptor currents mediated by tyrosine kinase-dependent receptor trafficking in neonatal rat striatum

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Huaxia; Gibb, Alasdair J

    2008-01-01

    NMDA receptors are of particular importance in the control of synaptic strength and integration of synaptic activity. Dopamine receptor modulation of NMDA receptors in neonatal striatum may influence the efficacy of synaptic transmission in the cortico-striatal pathway and if so, this modulation will affect the behaviour of the basal ganglia network. Here, we show that in acute brain slices of neonatal (P7) rat striatum the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 significantly decreases NMDA receptor currents in patch-clamp whole-cell recordings. This inhibition is not abolished by application of a G protein inhibitor (GDP-β-S) or irreversible G protein activator (GTP-γ-S) suggesting a G protein-independent mechanism. In addition, intracellular application of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors (lavendustin A or PP2) abolished D1 inhibition of NMDA currents. In contrast, in older animals (P28) D1 receptor activation produces a potentiation of the NMDA response which suggests there is a developmental switch in D1 modulation of striatal NMDA receptors. Single-channel recordings show that direct D1 receptor inhibition of NMDA receptors cannot be observed in isolated membrane patches. We hypothesize that D1 inhibition in whole-cell recordings from neonatal rats may be mediated by a change in NMDA receptor trafficking. Consistent with this hypothesis, intracellular application of a dynamin inhibitory peptide (QVPSRPNRAP) abolished D1 inhibition of NMDA receptor currents. We therefore conclude that a tyrosine kinase-dependent alteration of NMDA receptor trafficking underlies D1 dopamine receptor-mediated down-regulation of NMDA receptor currents in medium spiny neurons of neonatal rat striatum. PMID:18703578

  5. The MET receptor tyrosine kinase in invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, Silvia; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2007-11-01

    Various cytokines and soluble growth factors upon interaction with their membrane receptors are responsible for inducing cellular proliferation, differentiation, movement, and protection from anoikis (a planned suicide activated by normal cells in absence of attachment to neighboring cells or extracellular matrix (EMC)). Among those soluble factors a major position is exerted by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) together with its receptor MET and macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) in cooperation with its receptor RON. PMID:17607709

  6. Activation of a protein tyrosine phosphatase and inactivation of Raf-1 by somatostatin.

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, D B; Wood, S L; Brautigan, D L; Bell, G I; Dent, P; Sturgill, T W

    1996-01-01

    Human somatostatin receptor 3 ('hsstr3') was transiently expressed in NIH 3T3 cells stably transformed with Ha-Ras (G12V). Somatostatin activated a protein tyrosine phosphatase and inactivated the constitutively active, membrane-associated form of the Raf-1 serine kinase present in these cells in vivo and in vitro. PMID:8670047

  7. The coreceptor CD4 is expressed in distinct nanoclusters and does not colocalize with T-cell receptor and active protein tyrosine kinase p56lck

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Lillemeier, Björn F.; Wang, Feng; Davis, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 molecules on the surface of T lymphocytes greatly augment the sensitivity and activation process of these cells, but how it functions is not fully understood. Here we studied the spatial organization of CD4, and its relationship to T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the active form of Src kinase p56lck (Lck) using single and dual-color photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). In nonactivated T cells, CD4 molecules are clustered in small protein islands, as are TCR and Lck. By dual-color imaging, we find that CD4, TCR, and Lck are localized in their separate clusters with limited interactions in the interfaces between them. Upon T-cell activation, the TCR and CD4 begin clustering together, developing into microclusters, and undergo a larger scale redistribution to form supramolecluar activation clusters (SMACs). CD4 and Lck localize in the inner TCR region of the SMAC, but this redistribution of disparate cluster structures results in enhanced segregation from each other. In nonactivated cells these preclustered structures and the limited interactions between them may serve to limit spontaneous and random activation events. However, the small sizes of these island structures also ensure large interfacial surfaces for potential interactions and signal amplification when activation is initiated. In the later activation stages, the increasingly larger clusters and their segregation from each other reduce the interfacial surfaces and could have a dampening effect. These highly differentiated spatial distributions of TCR, CD4, and Lck and their changes during activation suggest that there is a more complex hierarchy than previously thought. PMID:25829544

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asami, Kazuhiro; Atagi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including gefitinib and erlotinib, have proven to be highly effective agents for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients harboring an activating EGFR mutation such as the exon 19 deletion mutation and L858R. Although those reversible small molecular targeted agents provide a significant response and survival benefit, all responders eventually acquire resistance. Second-generation EGFR-targeting agents, such as irreversible EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pan-HER TKIs, may improve survival further and be useful for patients who acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKIs. This review discusses novel therapeutic strategies for EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC using first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. PMID:25302168

  9. Discovery and Evaluation of Clinical Candidate AZD3759, a Potent, Oral Active, Central Nervous System-Penetrant, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingbei; Wang, Jiabing; Cheng, Ziqiang; Chen, Kan; Johnström, Peter; Varnäs, Katarina; Li, David Yunzhi; Yang, Zhen Fan; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2015-10-22

    Recent reports suggest that an increasing number of patients with lung cancer, especially those with activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), also present with brain metastases and leptomeningeal metastases. These patients have poor prognosis as there are no approved drugs for these indications. Available agents have poor efficacy for these patients even at well above their standard dose. Herein, we report the discovery of (4-[(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl (2R)-2,4-dimethylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 1m (AZD3759), an investigational drug currently in Phase 1 clinical trial, which has excellent central nervous system penetration and which induces profound regression of brain metastases in a mouse model. PMID:26313252

  10. Endocytosis and the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Reinecke, James; Caplan, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The regulated intracellular transport of nutrient, adhesion, and growth factor receptors is crucial for maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis. Endocytosis, or endocytic membrane trafficking, involves the steps of intracellular transport that include, but are not limited to: internalization from the plasma membrane, sorting in early endosomes, transport to late endosomes/lysosomes followed by degradation, and/or recycling back to the plasma membrane via tubular recycling endosomes. In addition to regulating the localization of transmembrane receptor proteins, the endocytic pathway also controls the localization of non-receptor molecules. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src (Src), and its closely related family members Yes and Fyn, represent three proteins whose localization and signaling activities are tightly regulated by endocytic trafficking. Here, we provide a brief overview of endocytosis, Src function and its biochemical regulation. We will then concentrate on recent advances in understanding how Src intracellular localization is regulated and how its subcellular localization ultimately dictates downstream functioning. Since Src kinases are hyperactive in many cancers, it is essential to decipher the spatiotemporal regulation of this important family of tyrosine kinases. PMID:25372749

  11. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans. PMID:26883686

  12. Enhancement of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity by propylthiouracil-induced hyperplasia in the rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R; Fantus, I G

    1989-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) is a well established model of rapid cell proliferation in vivo. Recent evidence indicates that tyrosine kinase activity is associated with growth factor receptors and oncogene protein products and may have an important regulatory action in the control of cell growth. Thus, we examined tyrosine kinase activity in rat thyroid membrane and cytosol preparations at rest and during PTU-induced hyperplasia. Although kinase activity was present in a crude microsomal membrane preparation, no change was observed during thyroid growth. In contrast, tyrosine kinase activity assayed with the artificial substrate poly(Glu,Na:Tyr) 4:1 was present in normal rat thyroid cytosol and increased 2- to 6-fold during the rapid phase of hyperplasia in the first 5-10 days of PTU treatment. It declined to control values by day 15, when the size and DNA content of the thyroid reached a plateau. Preincubation of the cytosolic preparations with several peptides known to bind to and activate growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases failed to enhance the activity, suggesting, along with the cytosolic localization, that the activity was distinct from these receptors. By gel filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tyrosine kinase activity was associated with a 55 kDa protein. Partial purification over a poly(Glu,Na:Tyr)4:1-Sepharose column, yielded a protein that appeared capable of autophosphorylation. It is suggested that this tyrosine kinase plays a role in mediating the growth-promoting effects of this model of thyroid cell hyperplasia. PMID:2909378

  13. Redundant kinase activation and resistance of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Fu, Li-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic effects against that tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations in the EGFR intracytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain and resulted in cell apoptosis. Unfortunately, a number of patients ultimately developed resistance by multiple mechanisms. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs can provide strategies for blocking or reversing the situation. Recent studies suggested that redundant kinase activation plays pivotal roles in escaping from the effects of EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in the resistance to EGFR-TKIs mediated by redundant kinase activation. PMID:25520855

  14. Estradiol receptor: phosphorylation on tyrosine in uterus and interaction with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Rotondi, A; Auricchio, F

    1986-01-01

    Estradiol receptor from rat uteri incubated with [32P] orthophosphate has been purified by diethylstilbestrol--Sepharose followed by heparin--Sepharose chromatography. The purified receptor, analyzed by centrifugation through sucrose gradients after incubation with monoclonal antibodies against purified estradiol receptor, appears to be labeled with 32P. The receptor preparation has been further purified by immunoaffinity chromatography and submitted to SDS--poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. A heavily 32P-labeled 68 kd protein and a very lightly 32P-labeled 48 kd protein, probably a proteolytic product of the 68 kd protein, were detected. Phosphoamino acid analysis of the receptor eluted from the immunoaffinity column shows that its 32P-labeling occurs exclusively on tyrosine. This is the first report on phosphorylation on tyrosine of a steroid receptor in tissue. It is consistent with our previous finding that a uterus estradiol receptor-kinase, which confers hormone binding ability to the estradiol receptor, in vitro phosphorylates this receptor exclusively on tyrosine. Calf uterus receptor binds with high specificity and affinity to monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies covalently bound to Sepharose (Kd = 0.28 nM). Dephosphorylation of the receptor by nuclei containing the calf uterus nuclear phosphatase abolishes the interaction with antibodies. These results suggest that also in calf uterus, estradiol receptor is phosphorylated on tyrosine. Anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies bound to Sepharose have been used to partially purify the estradiol receptor from calf uterus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2431901

  15. Angiotensin II-Induced Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Mediated by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated c-Src Through Spleen Tyrosine Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mugabe, Benon E.; Yaghini, Fariborz A.; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 ± 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 μM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 μM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 μM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c-Src through

  16. Angiotensin II-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated c-Src through spleen tyrosine kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Mugabe, Benon E; Yaghini, Fariborz A; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K; Waters, Christopher M; Malik, Kafait U

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 +/- 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 microM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 microM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 microM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c

  17. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, W. David; Daugherty, Jennifer; Gao, ChongFeng; Xie, Qian; Miranti, Cindy; Gherardi, Ermanno; Vande Woude, George; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Met receptor tyrosine kinase by binding and promoting receptor dimerization. Here we describe a mechanistic basis for designing Met antagonists based on NK1, a natural variant of HGF containing the N-terminal and the first kringle domain. Through detailed biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that both mouse and human NK1 induce Met dimerization via a conserved NK1 dimer interface. Mutations designed to alter the NK1 dimer interface abolish its ability to promote Met dimerization but retain full Met-binding activity. Importantly, these NK1 mutants act as Met antagonists by inhibiting HGF-mediated cell scattering, proliferation, branching, and invasion. The ability to separate the Met-binding activity of NK1 from its Met dimerization activity thus provides a rational basis for designing Met antagonists. This strategy of antagonist design may be applicable for other growth factor receptors by selectively abolishing the receptor activation ability but not the receptor binding of the growth factors.

  18. Studying N-linked glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri M; Mills, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alterations have been identified as a frequent event in cancer. This is often associated with increased flux through glycolysis, and also a secondary pathway to glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). HBP provides substrate for N-linked glycosylation, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. N-linked glycosylation supports protein folding and correct sorting of proteins to plasma membrane and secretion. This process generates complex glycoforms, which can be recognized by other proteins and glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can also regulate their plasma-membrane retention time. Of special interest for experimental biologists, plants produce proteins, termed lectins, which bind with high specificity to glyco-conjugates. For the purposes of molecular biology, plant lectins can be conjugated to different moieties, such as agarose beads, which enable precipitation of specifically glycosylated proteins. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to perform pull-down experiments with commercially available lectins to identify changes in the glycosylation of RTKs. PMID:25319893

  19. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR) in the heart after morphine withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Almela, Pilar; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors involved in signal transduction. These receptors are linked to a variety of physiological and biological processes such as regulation of neurotransmission, growth, and cell differentiation among others. Some of the effects of GPCRs are known to be mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK) pathways. Cross-talk among various signal pathways plays an important role in activation of intracellular and intranuclear signal transduction cascades. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal leads to an up-regulation of adenyl cyclase-mediated signaling, resulting in high expression of protein kinase (PK) A. In addition, there is also an increased expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), one member of MAPK. For this reason, the crosstalk between these GPCRs and receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (TKR) can be considered a possible mechanism for adaptive changes that occurs after morphine withdrawal. Morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004), a PKA inhibitor was infused, the ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK, which phosphorylates TH at Ser31, was reduced. The present finding demonstrated that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation of TH. Increasing understanding of the mechanisms that interconnect the two pathway regulated by GPCRs and TKRs may facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24409147

  20. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-04-19

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10-100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  1. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10–100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  2. Novel 2,7-Substituted (S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic Acids: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Partial Agonists with Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Otake, Kazuya; Azukizawa, Satoru; Takeda, Shigemitsu; Fukui, Masaki; Kawahara, Arisa; Kitao, Tatsuya; Shirahase, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2,7-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. (S)-2-(2-Furylacryloyl)-7-[2-(2-methylindane-2-yl)-5-methyloxazol-4-yl]methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid tert-butylamine salt (13jE) was identified as a potent human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-selective agonist (EC50=85 nM) and human protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B) inhibitor (IC50=1.0 µM). Compound 13jE partially activated PPARγ, but not PPARα or PPARδ, and antagonized farglitazar, a full PPARγ agonist. Cmax after the oral administration of 13jE at 10 mg/kg was 28.6 µg/mL (53 µM) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Repeated administration of 13jE and rosiglitazone for 14 d at 10 mg/kg/d decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride levels significantly in male KK-A(y) mice. Rosiglitazone, but not 13jE, significantly increased the plasma volume and liver weight. In conclusion, 13jE showed stronger hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and weaker hemodilution and hepatotoxic effects than rosiglitazone, suggesting that its safer efficacy may be due to its partial PPARγ agonism and PTP-1B inhibition. PMID:26633022

  3. The Complex of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Up-Regulates Connexin43 and Intercellular Coupling in Astrocytes via the Janus Tyrosine Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription PathwayD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ozog, Mark A.; Bernier, Suzanne M.; Bates, Dave C.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lo, Cecilia W.; Naus, Christian C.G.

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines regulate numerous cell processes, including connexin expression and gap junctional coupling. In this study, we examined the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on connexin43 (Cx43) expression and intercellular coupling in astrocytes. Murine cortical astrocytes matured in vitro were treated with CNTF (20 ng/ml), soluble ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CNTFRα) (200 ng/ml), or CNTF-CNTFRα. Although CNTF and CNTFRα alone had no effect on Cx43 expression, the heterodimer CNTF-CNTFRα significantly increased both Cx43 mRNA and protein levels. Cx43 immunostaining correlated with increased intercellular coupling as determined by dye transfer analysis. By using the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-(3,4-dihydroxy)-N-benzylcinnamide (AG490), the increase in Cx43 was found to be dependent on the Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that CNTF-CNTFRα treatment produced nuclear localization of phosphorylated STAT3, whereas CNTF treatment alone did not. Transient transfection of constructs containing various sequences of the Cx43 promoter tagged to a LacZ reporter into ROS 17/2.8 cells confirmed that the promoter region between -838 to -1693 was deemed necessary for CNTF-CNTFRα to induce heightened expression. CNTF-CNTFRα did not alter Cx30 mRNA levels, suggesting selectivity of CNTF-CNTFRα for connexin signaling. Together in the presence of soluble receptor, CNTF activates the JAK/STAT pathway leading to enhanced Cx43 expression and intercellular coupling. PMID:15342787

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III mutations in lung tumorigenesis and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongbin; Zhao, Xiaojun; Yuza, Yuki; Shimamura, Takeshi; Li, Danan; Protopopov, Alexei; Jung, Boonim L; McNamara, Kate; Xia, Huili; Glatt, Karen A; Thomas, Roman K; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Horner, James W; Eck, Michael; Mitchell, Albert; Sun, Yangping; Al-Hashem, Ruqayyah; Bronson, Roderick T; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Discafani, Carolyn M; Maher, Elizabeth; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Meyerson, Matthew; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2006-05-16

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) have shown anti-tumor activity in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dramatic and durable responses have occurred in NSCLC tumors with mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In contrast, these inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in glioblastoma, where a distinct EGFR mutation, the variant III (vIII) in-frame deletion of exons 2-7, is commonly found. In this study, we determined that EGFRvIII mutation was present in 5% (3/56) of analyzed human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but was not present in human lung adenocarcinoma (0/123). We analyzed the role of the EGFRvIII mutation in lung tumorigenesis and its response to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Tissue-specific expression of EGFRvIII in the murine lung led to the development of NSCLC. Most importantly, these lung tumors depend on EGFRvIII expression for maintenance. Treatment with an irreversible EGFR inhibitor, HKI-272, dramatically reduced the size of these EGFRvIII-driven murine tumors in 1 week. Similarly, Ba/F3 cells transformed with the EGFRvIII mutant were relatively resistant to gefitinib and erlotinib in vitro but proved sensitive to HKI-272. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for cancers harboring the EGFRvIII mutation. PMID:16672372

  5. Autoregulation by the Juxtamembrane Region of the Human Ephrin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase A3 (EphA3)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Loppnau, Peter; Butler-Cole, Christine; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2008-07-08

    Ephrin receptors (Eph) affect cell shape and movement, unlike other receptor tyrosine kinases that directly affect proliferative pathways. The kinase domain of EphA3 is activated by ephrin binding and receptor oligomerization. This activation is associated with two tyrosines in the juxtamembrane region; these tyrosines are sites of autophosphorylation and interact with the active site of the kinase to modulate activity. This allosteric event has important implications both in terms of understanding signal transduction pathways mediated by Eph kinases as well as discovering specific therapeutic ligands for receptor kinases. In order to provide further details of the molecular mechanism through which the unphosphorylated juxtamemebrane region blocks catalysis, we studied wild-type and site-specific mutants in detail. High-resolution structures of multiple states of EphA3 kinase with and without the juxtamembrane segment allowed us to map the coupled pathway of residues that connect the juxtamembrane segment, the activation loop, and the catalytic residues of the kinase domain. This highly conserved set of residues likely delineates a molecular recognition pathway for most of the Eph RTKs, helping to characterize the dynamic nature of these physiologically important enzymes.

  6. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Expression Predicts Response to Sunitinib in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spanheimer, Philip M.; Lorenzen, Allison W.; De Andrade, James P.; Kulak, Mikhail V.; Carr, Jennifer C.; Woodfield, George W.; Sugg, Sonia L.; Weigel, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preliminary data indicate that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) function through rearranged during transfection (RET) in breast cancer. However, TKIs are not specific and can block several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). This study used cell lines and primary breast cancer specimens to determine factors associated with TKI response. Methods Proliferation was assessed after short interfering RNA knockdown with or without sunitinib in breast cancer cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylhiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Breast cancer tissue and matched normal breast was obtained from 30 women with invasive breast carcinoma. Gene expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Fresh tissue was treated in vitro with sunitinib or control media for 30 min, and response was assessed by phosphorylation-specific western blot. Results The RTKs including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1-3), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRa/b), and Kit were overexpressed in triple-negative breast tumors relative to HER2- and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)-positive tumors and normal breast tissue. Knockdown of EGFR reduced in vitro proliferation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 but not in SKBR-3 or ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells. With the exception of RET, response to sunitinib was independent of RTK expression in all four cell lines. Both ERα-positive and low-EGFR-expressing tumors had an increased in vitro sunitinib response, as determined by alteration of Erk activation. Expression of other RTKs and additional clinical factors were not associated with response. Conclusion Triple-negative breast cancers overexpress RTKs but have decreased in vitro response to the TKI sunitinib. In addition to RET, TKIs that block EGFR may increase the therapeutic efficacy of TKIs in breast cancer. PMID:25971960

  7. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRS Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human and Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Bunin, Anna; Sisirak, Vanja; Ghosh, Hiyaa S; Grajkowska, Lucja T; Hou, Z Esther; Miron, Michelle; Yang, Cliff; Ceribelli, Michele; Uetani, Noriko; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel; Hendriks, Wiljan; Tremblay, Michel L; Häcker, Hans; Staudt, Louis M; Green, Peter H; Bhagat, Govind; Reizis, Boris

    2015-08-18

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are primary producers of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viruses. The IFN-producing capacity of pDCs is regulated by specific inhibitory receptors, yet none of the known receptors are conserved in evolution. We report that within the human immune system, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPRS) is expressed specifically on pDCs. Surface PTPRS was rapidly downregulated after pDC activation, and only PTPRS(-) pDCs produced IFN-α. Antibody-mediated PTPRS crosslinking inhibited pDC activation, whereas PTPRS knockdown enhanced IFN response in a pDC cell line. Similarly, murine Ptprs and the homologous receptor phosphatase Ptprf were specifically co-expressed in murine pDCs. Haplodeficiency or DC-specific deletion of Ptprs on Ptprf-deficient background were associated with enhanced IFN response of pDCs, leukocyte infiltration in the intestine and mild colitis. Thus, PTPRS represents an evolutionarily conserved pDC-specific inhibitory receptor, and is required to prevent spontaneous IFN production and immune-mediated intestinal inflammation. PMID:26231120

  8. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases: Expression, disease and oncogenesis in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Angela M.; Keating, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface proteins that tightly regulate a variety of downstream intra-cellular processes; ligand-receptor interactions result in cascades of signaling events leading to growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. There are 58 described RTKs, which are further categorized into 20 different RTK families. When dysregulated or overexpressed, these RTKs are implicated in disordered growth, development, and oncogenesis. The TAM family of RTKs, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK, is prominently expressed during the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Aberrant expression and dysregulated activation of TAM family members has been demonstrated in a variety of CNS-related disorders and diseases, including the most common but least treatable brain cancer in children and adults: glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:24184575

  9. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakedis, Jeffery; French, Randall; Babicky, Michele; Jaquish, Dawn; Howard, Haleigh; Mose, Evangeline; Lam, Raymond; Holman, Patrick; Miyamoto, Jaclyn; Walterscheid, Zakk; Lowy, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription (IPT) domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patient derived xenografts and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirms translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  10. A novel protein isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor transforms human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, J; French, R; Babicky, M; Jaquish, D; Howard, H; Mose, E; Lam, R; Holman, P; Miyamoto, J; Walterscheid, Z; Lowy, A M

    2016-06-23

    The MST1R gene is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer producing elevated levels of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor protein. While mutations in MST1R are rare, alternative splice variants have been previously reported in epithelial cancers. We report the discovery of a novel RON isoform discovered in human pancreatic cancer. Partial splicing of exons 5 and 6 (P5P6) produces a RON isoform that lacks the first extracellular immunoglobulin-plexin-transcription domain. The splice variant is detected in 73% of xenografts derived from pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and 71% of pancreatic cancer cell lines. Peptides specific to RON P5P6 detected in human pancreatic cancer specimens by mass spectrometry confirm translation of the protein isoform. The P5P6 isoform is found to be constitutively phosphorylated, present in the cytoplasm, and it traffics to the plasma membrane. Expression of P5P6 in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells activates downstream AKT, and in human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing cells, activates both the AKT and MAPK pathways. Inhibiting RON P5P6 in HPDE cells using a small molecule inhibitor BMS-777607 blocked constitutive activation and decreased AKT signaling. P5P6 transforms NIH3T3 cells and induces tumorigenicity in HPDE cells. Resultant HPDE-P5P6 tumors develop a dense stromal compartment similar to that seen in pancreatic cancer. In summary, we have identified a novel and constitutively active isoform of the RON tyrosine kinase receptor that has transforming activity and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer. These findings provide additional insight into the biology of the RON receptor in pancreatic cancer and are clinically relevant to the study of RON as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26477314

  11. Acetylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; James, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    Background Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are key moderators of insulin action. Their specific regulation determines downstream protein-protein interactions and confers specificity on growth factor signalling. Regulatory mechanisms that have been identified include phosphorylation of IRS proteins on tyrosine and serine residues and ubiquitination of lysine residues. This study investigated other potential molecular mechanisms of IRS-1 regulation. Results Using the sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system we found that IRS-1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) interact in the cytoplasmic compartment of yeast cells. The interaction mapped to the C-terminus of IRS-1 and was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation in vitro of recombinant IRS-1 and HDAC2. HDAC2 bound to IRS-1 in mammalian cells treated with phorbol ester or after prolonged treatment with insulin/IGF-1 and also in the livers of ob/ob mice but not PTP1B knockout mice. Thus, the association occurs under conditions of compromised insulin signalling. We found that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, of which the acetylation is increased by treatment of cells with Trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of HDAC activity. TSA-induced increases in acetylation of IRS-1 were concomitant with increases in tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin. These effects were confirmed using RNA interference against HDAC2, indicating that HDAC2 specifically prevents phosphorylation of IRS-1 by the insulin receptor. Conclusions Our results show that IRS-1 is an acetylated protein, a post-translational modification that has not been previously described. Acetylation of IRS-1 is permissive for tyrosine phosphorylation and facilitates insulin-stimulated signal transduction. Specific inhibition of HDAC2 may increase insulin sensitivity in otherwise insulin resistant conditions. PMID:15522123

  12. Non-receptor-tyrosine Kinases Integrate Fast Glucocorticoid Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Silei; Roselli, Francesco; Patchev, Alexandre V.; Yu, Shuang; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous descriptions of rapid effects of corticosterone on neuronal function, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for these changes remain elusive. The present comprehensive analysis reveals that signaling from a membrane-located G protein-coupled receptor activates PKC, Akt/PKB, and PKA, which subsequently trigger the phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Pyk2, Src, and Abl. These changes induce rapid cytoskeletal rearrangements (increased PSD-95 co-clustering) within the post-synaptic density; these events are accompanied by increased surface NMDA receptor expression, reflecting corticosterone-induced inhibition of NMDA receptor endocytosis. Notably, none of these signaling mechanisms require de novo protein synthesis. The observed up-regulation of ERK1/2 (downstream of NMDA receptor signaling) together with the fact that c-Abl integrates cytoplasmic and nuclear functions introduces a potential mechanism through which rapid signaling initiated at the plasma membrane may eventually determine the long term integrated response to corticosterone by impacting on the transcriptional machinery that is regulated by classical, nuclear mineralocorticoid, and glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:23818519

  13. Quantitative analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase-effector coupling at functionally relevant stimulus levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Simin; Bhave, Devayani; Chow, Jennifer M; Riera, Thomas V; Schlee, Sandra; Rauch, Simone; Atanasova, Mariya; Cate, Richard L; Whitty, Adrian

    2015-04-17

    A major goal of current signaling research is to develop a quantitative understanding of how receptor activation is coupled to downstream signaling events and to functional cellular responses. Here, we measure how activation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase on mouse neuroblastoma cells by the neurotrophin artemin (ART) is quantitatively coupled to key downstream effectors. We show that the efficiency of RET coupling to ERK and Akt depends strongly on ART concentration, and it is highest at the low (∼100 pM) ART levels required for neurite outgrowth. Quantitative discrimination between ERK and Akt pathway signaling similarly is highest at this low ART concentration. Stimulation of the cells with 100 pM ART activated RET at the rate of ∼10 molecules/cell/min, leading at 5-10 min to a transient peak of ∼150 phospho-ERK (pERK) molecules and ∼50 pAkt molecules per pRET, after which time the levels of these two signaling effectors fell by 25-50% while the pRET levels continued to slowly rise. Kinetic experiments showed that signaling effectors in different pathways respond to RET activation with different lag times, such that the balance of signal flux among the different pathways evolves over time. Our results illustrate that measurements using high, super-physiological growth factor levels can be misleading about quantitative features of receptor signaling. We propose a quantitative model describing how receptor-effector coupling efficiency links signal amplification to signal sensitization between receptor and effector, thereby providing insight into design principles underlying how receptors and their associated signaling machinery decode an extracellular signal to trigger a functional cellular outcome. PMID:25635057

  14. Novel Anthraquinone-based Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stasevych, M.; Zvarych, V.; Lunin, V.; Halenova, T.; Savchuk, O.; Dudchak, O.; Vovk, M.; Novikov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of new derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone with benzoylthiourea, thiazole, triazole and amino acid fragments on the activity of membrane-associated tyrosine kinases was investigated. Inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase activity of the membrane fraction, as promising agents to search for new potential anticancer agents among the studied compounds, were discovered. PMID:26798182

  15. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)
    Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  16. PSD-93 MEDIATES TYROSINE-PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuko; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Su, Qingning; Johns, Roger A

    2009-01-01

    Src family protein kinases (SFKs)-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor synaptic function. Some members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins bind to both SFKs and NMDA receptors, but it is unclear whether the MAGUK family of proteins is required for SFKs-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors. Here, we showed by co-immunoprecipitation that PSD-93, a member of the MAGUK family of proteins, interacts with the NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B as well as with Fyn, a member of the SFKs, in mouse cerebral cortex. Using a biochemical fractionation approach to isolate subcellular compartments revealed that the expression of Fyn, but not of other members of the SFKs (Lyn, Src, and Yes), was significantly decreased in synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from the cerebral cortex of PSD-93 knockout mice. Interestingly, we found that PSD-93 disruption causes reduction of tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B in the same fraction. Moreover, PSD-93 deletion markedly blocked the SFKs-mediated increase in tyrosine-phosphorylated NR2A and NR2B through the protein kinase C pathway after induction with 4β-PMA in cultured cortical neurons. Our findings indicate that PSD-93 appears to mediate tyrosine-phosphorylation of the NMDA receptors and synaptic localization of Fyn. PMID:18423999

  17. Oxido-reductive regulation of vascular remodeling by receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ziad A.; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Yuan, Ke; Orcholski, Mark; Pan, Stephen; Qi, Wei; Chopra, Gaurav; Adams, Christopher; Kojima, Yoko; Leeper, Nicholas J.; Qu, Xiumei; Zaleta-Rivera, Kathia; Kato, Kimihiko; Yamada, Yoshiji; Oguri, Mitsutoshi; Kuchinsky, Allan; Hazen, Stanley L.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Channon, Keith; Leon, Martin B.; Charest, Alain; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A.

    2014-01-01

    Angioplasty and stenting is the primary treatment for flow-limiting atherosclerosis; however, this strategy is limited by pathological vascular remodeling. Using a systems approach, we identified a role for the network hub gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) in pathological remodeling following human blood vessel stenting. Constitutive deletion of Gpx1 in atherosclerotic mice recapitulated this phenotype of increased vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and plaque formation. In an independent patient cohort, gene variant pair analysis identified an interaction of GPX1 with the orphan protooncogene receptor tyrosine kinase ROS1. A meta-analysis of the only genome-wide association studies of human neointima-induced in-stent stenosis confirmed the association of the ROS1 variant with pathological remodeling. Decreased GPX1 expression in atherosclerotic mice led to reductive stress via a time-dependent increase in glutathione, corresponding to phosphorylation of the ROS1 kinase activation site Y2274. Loss of GPX1 function was associated with both oxidative and reductive stress, the latter driving ROS1 activity via s-glutathiolation of critical residues of the ROS1 tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. ROS1 inhibition with crizotinib and deglutathiolation of SHP-2 abolished GPX1-mediated increases in VSMC proliferation while leaving endothelialization intact. Our results indicate that GPX1-dependent alterations in oxido-reductive stress promote ROS1 activation and mediate vascular remodeling. PMID:25401476

  18. Phosphorylation of Tyrosine 1070 at the GluN2B Subunit Is Regulated by Synaptic Activity and Critical for Surface Expression of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen; Fang, Weiqing; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qian; Yan, Xunyi; Peng, Lin; Ai, Heng; Wang, Jie-jie; Liu, Xiao; Luo, Jianhong; Yang, Wei

    2015-09-18

    The number and subunit composition of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play critical roles in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory and are implicated in neurological disorders. Tyrosine phosphorylation provides a powerful means of regulating NMDAR function, but the underling mechanism remains elusive. In this study we identified a tyrosine site on the GluN2B subunit, Tyr-1070, which was phosphorylated by a proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein (Fyn) kinase and critical for the surface expression of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. The phosphorylation of GluN2B at Tyr-1070 was required for binding of Fyn kinase to GluN2B, which up-regulated the phosphorylation of GluN2B at Tyr-1472. Moreover, our results revealed that the phosphorylation change of GluN2B at Tyr-1070 accompanied the Tyr-1472 phosphorylation and Fyn associated with GluN2B in synaptic plasticity induced by both chemical and contextual fear learning. Taken together, our findings provide a new mechanism for regulating the surface expression of NMDARs with implications for synaptic plasticity. PMID:26229100

  19. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential. PMID:25568918

  20. Viral Interference with Functions of the Cellular Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase CD45

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Nadine; Zischke, Jasmin; Elbasani, Endrit; Kay-Fedorov, Penelope; Messerle, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is expressed on the surface of almost all cells of hematopoietic origin. CD45 functions are central to the development of T cells and determine the threshold at which T and B lymphocytes can become activated. Given this pivotal role of CD45 in the immune system, it is probably not surprising that viruses interfere with the activity of CD45 in lymphocytes to dampen the immune response and that they also utilize this molecule to accomplish their replication cycle. Here we report what is known about the interaction of viral proteins with CD45. Moreover, we debate putative interactions of viruses with CD45 in myeloid cells and the resulting consequences—subjects that remain to be investigated. Finally, we summarize the evidence that pathogens were the driving force for the evolution of CD45. PMID:25807057

  1. Paired inhibitory and activating receptor signals.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L S; Paul, S P; McVicar, D W

    2000-01-01

    The immunological literature has become inundated with reports regarding paired inhibitory receptors. Paired inhibitory receptor systems are highly conserved families that contain receptors involved in either cellular inhibition or activation. In most cases the paired putative biochemical antagonists are co-expressed on a given cell and thought to bind similar, if not identical, ligands making their biological role difficult to understand. Examples of these systems include immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (Killer Ig Receptors, Immunoglobulin-like Transcripts/Leukocyte Ig-like Receptors/Monocyte Macrophage Ig Receptors, and Paired Ig-like Receptors), and type II lectin-like receptor systems (NKG2 and Ly49). General characteristics of these inhibitory receptors include a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The ITIM is phosphorylated upon engagement and recruits protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate cellular substrates that would otherwise mediate activation. In contrast, the activating receptors of these pairs use charged residues within their transmembrane domains to associate with various signal transduction chains including the gamma chain of the receptor for the Fc portion of IgE, DAP12 or DAP10. Once phosphorylated, these chains direct the signal transduction cascade resulting in cellular activation. Here we review the signaling of several paired systems and present the current models for their signal transduction cascades. PMID:11258418

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 via NMDA receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo; Len, Guo-Wei; McAuliffe, Geoff; Ma, Chia; Tai, Jessica P; Xu, Fei; Black, Ira B

    2004-11-01

    Brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) acutely regulates synaptic transmission and modulates hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), cellular models of plasticity associated with learning and memory. Our previous studies revealed that BDNF rapidly increases phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B in the postsynaptic density (PSD), potentially linking receptor phosphorylation to synaptic plasticity. To further define molecular mechanisms governing BDNF actions, we examined tyrosine phosphorylation of GluR1, the most well-characterized subunit of AMPA receptors. Initially, we investigated synaptoneurosomes that contain intact pre- and postsynaptic elements. Incubation of synaptoneurosomes with BDNF for 5 min increased tyrosine phosphorylation of GluR1 in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal, 4-fold enhancement at 10 ng/ml BDNF. NGF had no effects, suggesting the specificity of BDNF actions. Subsequently, we found that BDNF elicited a maximal, 2.5-fold increase in GluR1 phosphorylation in the PSD at 250 ng/ml BDNF within 5 min, suggesting that BDNF enhances the phosphorylation through postsynaptic mechanisms. Activation of trkB receptors was critical as k252-a, an inhibitor of trk receptor tyrosine kinase, blocked the BDNF-activated GluR1 phosphorylation. In addition, AP-5 and MK 801, NMDA receptor antagonists, blocked BDNF enhancement of phosphorylation in synaptoneurosomes or PSDs. Conversely, NMDA, the specific receptor agonist, evoked respective 3.8- and 2-fold increases in phosphorylation in synaptoneurosomes and PSDs within 5 min, mimicking the effects of BDNF. These findings raise the possibility that BDNF modulates GluR1 activity via changes in NMDA receptor function. Moreover, incubation of synaptoneurosomes or PSDs with BDNF and ifenprodil, a specific NR2B antagonist, reproduced the results of AP-5 and MK-801. Finally, coexposure of synaptoneurosomes or PSDs to BDNF and NMDA was not additive, suggesting that

  3. Contractile effects of angiotensin peptides in rat aorta are differentially dependent on tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, G; Costuleanu, M; Slatineanu, S M; Costuleanu, N; Foia, L; Costuleanu, A

    2001-09-01

    . One argument against a direct action of genistein on the Ca2+ channel itself is that it did not markedly affect the K+-induced contraction (depolarisation) in rat aorta. At the same time, a potential role for tyrosine kinase activity in the process of calcium entry is suggested. An elevation of intracellular calcium via tyrosine kinase-mediated processes may mediate the actions of G-protein coupled receptor agonists in smooth muscle, including angiotensin peptides. PMID:11881120

  4. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor GIV Promotes Activation of PI3K During Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Changsheng; Ear, Jason; Pavlova, Yelena; Mittal, Yash; Kufareva, Irina; Ghassemian, Majid; Abagyan, Ruben; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    GIV (Gα-interacting vesicle-associated protein; also known as Girdin), enhances Akt activation downstream of multiple growth factor– and G-protein–coupled receptors to trigger cell migration and cancer invasion. Here we demonstrate that GIV is a tyrosine phosphoprotein that directly binds to and activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Upon ligand stimulation of various receptors, GIV was phosphorylated at Tyr1764 and Tyr1798 by both receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases. These phosphorylation events enabled direct binding of GIV to the N- and C-terminal SH2 domains of p85α, a regulatory subunit of PI3K, stabilized receptor association with PI3K, and enhanced PI3K activity at the plasma membrane to trigger cell migration. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV and its association with p85α increased during metastatic progression of a breast carcinoma. These results suggest a mechanism by which multiple receptors activate PI3K through tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV, thereby making the GIVPI3K interaction a potential therapeutic target within the PI3K-Akt pathway. PMID:21954290

  5. The ROR2 tyrosine kinase receptor regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Iván E; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    Wnt signaling regulates synaptic development and function and contributes to the fine-tuning of the molecular and morphological differentiation of synapses. We have shown previously that Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling to stimulate postsynaptic differentiation in excitatory hippocampal neurons promoting the clustering of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 and the development of dendritic spines. At least three different kinds of Wnt receptors have been associated with Wnt5a signaling: seven trans-membrane Frizzled receptors and the tyrosine kinase receptors Ryk and ROR2. We report here that ROR2 is distributed in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons in close proximity to synaptic contacts and it is contained in dendritic spine protrusions. We demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary to maintain dendritic spine number and morphological distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. ROR2 overexpression increased dendritic spine growth without affecting the density of dendritic spine protrusions in a form dependent on its extracellular Wnt binding cysteine rich domain (CRD) and kinase domain. Overexpression of dominant negative ROR2 lacking the extracellular CRD decreased spine density and the proportion of mushroom like spines, while ROR2 lacking the C-terminal and active kinase domains only affected spine morphology. Our results indicate a crucial role of the ROR2 in the formation and maturation of the postsynaptic dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. PMID:26003414

  6. Delineation of a T-cell activation motif required for binding of protein tyrosine kinases containing tandem SH2 domains.

    PubMed Central

    Koyasu, S; Tse, A G; Moingeon, P; Hussey, R E; Mildonian, A; Hannisian, J; Clayton, L K; Reinherz, E L

    1994-01-01

    To define the T-cell receptor signal transduction motif, we have transfected human and murine T-cell lines with a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human CD8 alpha and the membrane-proximal portion of CD3 zeta containing at its C terminus either an 18-amino acid segment (NQLYNELNLGRREEYDVL) or alanine-scanning point mutant derivatives. Crosslinking of the extracellular domain of the chimera is sufficient to initiate Ca2+ flux, interleukin 2 production, and tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins including the chimera. Subsequently, the chimera becomes associated with several tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, among them the 70-kDa protein tyrosine kinase ZAP70. Mutational data identify the T-cell activation motif as Y(X)2L(X)7Y(X)2L and show that each of the four designated residues is necessary for the above activation events. Recombinant protein containing the two tandem SH2 domains derived from ZAP70 binds to a synthetic peptide corresponding to the above 18-amino acid motif but only when both tyrosines are phosphorylated; in contrast, little or no binding is observed to monophosphorylated or nonphosphorylated analogues. These results imply that after receptor crosslinking in T cells, and by inference also in B cells and mast cells, the motif is phosphorylated on both tyrosine residues, thereafter serving as a docking site for protein tyrosine kinases containing tandem SH2 domains. Images PMID:7517560

  7. L-tyrosine administration increases acetylcholinesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Vieira, Júlia S; Scaini, Giselli; Ghedim, Fernando V; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2012-12-01

    Tyrosinemia is a rare genetic disease caused by mutations on genes that codify enzymes responsible for tyrosine metabolism. Considering that tyrosinemics patients usually present symptoms associated with central nervous system alterations that ranges from slight decreases in intelligence to severe mental retardation, we decided to investigate whether acute and chronic administration of L-tyrosine in rats would affect acetylcholinesterase mRNA expression and enzymatic activity during their development. In our acute protocol, Wistar rats (10 and 30 days old) were killed one hour after a single intraperitoneal L-tyrosine injection (500 mg/kg) or saline. Chronic administration consisted of L-tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline injections 12 h apart for 24 days in Wistar rats (7 days old) and rats were killed 12 h after last injection. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured by Ellman's method and acetylcholinesterase expression was carried out by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. We observed that acute (10 and 30 days old rats) and chronic L-tyrosine administration increased acetylcholinesterase activity in serum and all tested brain areas (hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex) when compared to control group. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in mRNA levels of acetylcholinesterase in hippocampus was observed after acute protocol (10 and 30 days old rats) and in striatum after chronic protocol. In case these alterations also occur in the brain of the patients, our results may explain, at least in part, the neurological sequelae associated with high plasma concentrations of tyrosine seen in patients affected by tyrosinemia type II. PMID:23046746

  8. A novel calmodulin-β-PIX interaction and its implication in receptor tyrosine kinase regulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay K; Munro, Kim; Jia, Zongchao

    2012-09-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, regulates numerous cellular processes, primarily in response to calcium flux. We have identified and characterized a novel interaction between CaM and β-p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (β-PIX), a putative guanine exchange factor implicated in cell signaling, using affinity pull-down assays, co-immunoprecipitation, co-localization and circular dichroism studies. Fluorescence-based titration and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent binding mechanism (K(D)≤10μM). Further, we show that CaM participates in a multi-protein complex involving β-PIX and E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl (casitas B-cell lymphoma), which may play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase regulation and downstream signaling. PMID:22588125

  9. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; et al

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lungmore » cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.« less

  11. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphA5 Is a Functional Molecular Target in Human Lung Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. Finally, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications. PMID:25623065

  12. Receptor tyrosine kinases: Characterisation, mechanism of action and therapeutic interests for bone cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ségaliny, Aude I.; Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Bone cancers are characterised by the development of tumour cells in bone sites, associated with a dysregulation of their environment. In the last two decades, numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed to target the cancer cells or tumour niche. As the crosstalk between these two entities is tightly controlled by the release of polypeptide mediators activating signalling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RTK inhibitors have been designed. These inhibitors have shown exciting clinical impacts, such as imatinib mesylate, which has become a reference treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. The present review gives an overview of the main molecular and functional characteristics of RTKs, and focuses on the clinical applications that are envisaged and already assessed for the treatment of bone sarcomas and bone metastases. PMID:26579483

  13. A computational study of the phosphorylation mechanism of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Baojing; Wong, Chung F

    2009-04-30

    Although various groups have studied the phosphorylation mechanism of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (IRK), an unanimous picture has not yet emerged. In this work, we performed a computational study to gain further insights. We first built a structural model of the reactant complex with the guide of several crystal structures and previous computational studies of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. We then optimized the structure by performing geometry optimization using a quantum mechanical model containing nearly 300 atoms. A reaction path was then traced between the reactant and the product by using a multiple coordinate-driven method. The calculations mapped out a sequence of structural changes depicting the conversion of the reactant to the product. Analysis of the structural changes revealed the formation of a dissociative transition state and the involvement of a proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of the tyrosyl residue of the peptide substrate to a conserved aspartate in the active site of the enzyme. The proton transfer began well before the transition state was reached and finished only shortly before the product was completely formed. In addition, the formation of a hydrogen bonding network among Arg1136, Asp1132, the gamma-phosphate of ATP, and the tyrosine residue of the substrate appeared to hold the latter two in a near-attack position for reaction. The model estimated a reaction barrier of 14 kcal/mol, semiquantitatively in accord with experiment. PMID:19334696

  14. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Marceline; Miller, A. Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu . E-mail: shan-lu.liu@mcgill.ca

    2007-08-17

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.

  15. Requirement of SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 for paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B)-mediated inhibitory signal.

    PubMed

    Maeda, A; Kurosaki, M; Ono, M; Takai, T; Kurosaki, T

    1998-04-20

    Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PIR-B) (p91) molecule has been proposed to function as an inhibitory receptor in B cells and myeloid lineage cells. We demonstrate here that the cytoplasmic region of PIR-B is capable of inhibiting B cell activation. Mutational analysis of five cytoplasmic tyrosines indicate that tyrosine 771 in the motif VxYxxL plays the most crucial role in mediating the inhibitory signal. PIR-B-mediated inhibition was markedly reduced in the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 double-deficient DT40 B cells, whereas this inhibition was unaffected in the inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase SHIP-deficient cells. These data demonstrate that PIR-B can negatively regulate B cell receptor activation and that this PIR-B-mediated inhibition requires redundant functions of SHP-1 and SHP-2. PMID:9547347

  16. REGULATED PROTEOLYTIC PROCESSING OF TIE1 MODULATES LIGAND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TIE2

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Marie B; Singh, Harprit; Tahir, Tariq A; Kavumkal, Jais; Kim, Hak-Zoo; Koh, Gou Young; Brindle, Nicholas PJ

    2008-01-01

    Regulated ectodomain shedding followed by intramembrane proteolysis has recently been recognized as important in cell signaling and for degradation of several type I transmembrane proteins. The receptor tyrosine kinase Tie1 is known to undergo ectodomain cleavage generating a membrane tethered endodomain. Here we show Tie1 is a substrate for regulated intramembrane proteolysis. Following Tie1 ectodomain cleavage the newly formed 45 kDa endodomain undergoes additional proteolytic processing mediated by γ-secretase to generate an amino-terminally truncated 42 kDa fragment which is subsequently degraded by proteasomal activity. This sequential processing occurs constitutively and is stimulated by phorbol ester and vascular endothelial growth factor. To assess the biological significance of regulated Tie1 processing we analyzed its effects on angiopoietin signaling. Activation of ectodomain cleavage causes loss of phosphorylated Tie1 holoreceptor and generation of phosphorylated receptor fragments in the presence of COMP-Angiopoietin1. A key function of γ-secretase is in preventing accumulation of these phosphorylated fragments. We also find that regulated Tie1 processing modulates ligand responsiveness of the Tie-1-associated receptor Tie2. Activation of Tie1 ectodomain cleavage increases COMP-Angiopoietin1 activation of Tie2. This correlates with increased ability of Tie2 to bind ligand following shedding of the Tie1 extracellular domain. A similar enhancement of ligand activation of Tie2 is seen when Tie1 expression is suppressed by RNA interference. Together these data indicate that Tie1, via its extracellular domain, limits the ability of ligand to bind and activate Tie2. Furthermore the data suggests regulated processing of Tie1 may be an important mechanism for controlling signaling by Tie2. PMID:17728252

  17. Phosphacan and Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase β Expression Mediates Deafferentation-Induced Synaptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Janna L.; Reeves, Thomas M.; Phillips, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the spatial and temporal expression of three structurally related chondroitin sulfated proteoglycans (CSPGs) during synaptic regeneration induced by brain injury. Using the unilateral entorhinal cortex lesion model of adaptive synaptogenesis, we documented mRNA and protein profiles of phosphacan and its two splice variants, full length receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTPβ) and the short transmembrane receptor form (sRPTPβ), at 2, 7, and 15 d postlesion. We report that whole hippocampal sRPTPβ protein and mRNA are persistently elevated over the first two weeks after UEC. As predicted, this transmembrane family member was localized adjacent to synaptic sites in the deafferented neuropil and showed increased distribution over that zone following lesion. By contrast, whole hippocampal phosphacan protein was not elevated with deafferentation, however, its mRNA was increased during the period of sprouting and synapse formation (7d). When the zone of synaptic reorganization was sampled using molecular layer/granule cell (ML/GCL) enriched dissections, we observed an increase in phosphacan protein at 7d, concurrent with the observed hippocampal mRNA elevation. Immunohistochemistry also showed a shift in phosphacan distribution from granule cell bodies to the deafferented ML at 2 and 7d postlesion. Phosphacan and sRPTPβ were not co-localized with glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), suggesting that reactive astrocytes were not a major source of either proteoglycan. While transcript for the developmentally prominent full length RPTPβ was also increased at 2 and 15d, its protein was not detected in our adult samples. These results indicate that phosphacan and RPTPβ splice variants participate in both the acute degenerative and long-term regenerative phases of reactive synaptogenesis. These results suggest that increase in the transmembrane sRPTPβ tyrosine phosphatase activity is critical to this plasticity, and that local elevation of

  18. Hydroxyindole Carboxylic Acid-Based Inhibitors for Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Protein Phosphatase Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Li-Fan; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Yunpeng; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play an important role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. Understanding the role of PTPs within these processes has been hampered by a lack of potent and selective PTP inhibitors. Generating potent and selective probes for PTPs remains a significant challenge because of the highly conserved and positively charged PTP active site that also harbors a redox-sensitive Cys residue. Results: We describe a facile method that uses an appropriate hydroxyindole carboxylic acid to anchor the inhibitor to the PTP active site and relies on the secondary binding elements introduced through an amide-focused library to enhance binding affinity for the target PTP and to impart selectivity against off-target phosphatases. Here, we disclose a novel series of hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based inhibitors for receptor-type tyrosine protein phosphatase beta (RPTPβ), a potential target that is implicated in blood vessel development. The representative RPTPβ inhibitor 8b-1 (L87B44) has an IC50 of 0.38 μM and at least 14-fold selectivity for RPTPβ over a large panel of PTPs. Moreover, 8b-1 also exhibits excellent cellular activity and augments growth factor signaling in HEK293, MDA-MB-468, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Innovation: The bicyclic salicylic acid pharmacophore-based focused library approach may provide a potential solution to overcome the bioavailability issue that has plagued the PTP drug discovery field for many years. Conclusion: A novel method is described for the development of bioavailable PTP inhibitors that utilizes bicyclic salicylic acid to anchor the inhibitors to the active site and peripheral site interactions to enhance binding affinity and selectivity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2130–2140. PMID:24180557

  19. Combined therapeutic potential of nuclear receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wairagu, Peninah M.; Park, Kwang Hwa; Kim, Jihye; Choi, Jong-Whan; Kim, Hyun-Won; Yeh, Byung-Il; Jung, Soon-Hee; Yong, Suk-Joong; Jeong, Yangsik

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • The 48 NR genes and 48 biological anti-cancer targets are profiled in paired-cells. • Growth inhibition by NR ligands or TKIs is target receptor level-dependent. • T0901317 with gefitinib/PHA665752 shows additive growth inhibition in lung cells. - Abstract: Cancer heterogeneity is a big hurdle in achieving complete cancer treatment, which has led to the emergence of combinational therapy. In this study, we investigated the potential use of nuclear receptor (NR) ligands for combinational therapy with other anti-cancer drugs. We first profiled all 48 NRs and 48 biological anti-cancer targets in four pairs of lung cell lines, where each pair was obtained from the same patient. Two sets of cell lines were normal and the corresponding tumor cell lines while the other two sets consisted of primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines. Analysis of the expression profile revealed 11 NRs and 15 cancer targets from the two pairs of normal versus tumor cell lines, and 9 NRs and 9 cancer targets from the primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines had distinct expression patterns in each category. Finally, the evaluation of nuclear receptor ligand T0901317 for liver X receptor (LXR) demonstrated its combined therapeutic potential with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The combined treatment of cMET inhibitor PHA665752 or EGFR inhibitor gefitinib with T0901317 showed additive growth inhibition in both H2073 and H1993 cells. Mechanistically, the combined treatment suppressed cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclinD1 and cyclinB expression. Taken together, this study provides insight into the potential use of NR ligands in combined therapeutics with other biological anti-cancer drugs.

  20. Distinct cellular properties of oncogenic KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mutants enable alternative courses of cancer cell inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiarong; Sousa, Leiliane P; Mandel-Bausch, Elizabeth M; Tome, Francisco; Reshetnyak, Andrey V; Hadari, Yaron; Schlessinger, Joseph; Lax, Irit

    2016-08-16

    Large genomic sequencing analysis as part of precision medicine efforts revealed numerous activating mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases, including KIT. Unfortunately, a single approach is not effective for inhibiting cancer cells or treating cancers driven by all known oncogenic KIT mutants. Here, we show that each of the six major KIT oncogenic mutants exhibits different enzymatic, cellular, and dynamic properties and responds distinctly to different KIT inhibitors. One class of KIT mutants responded well to anti-KIT antibody treatment alone or in combination with a low dose of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A second class of KIT mutants, including a mutant resistant to imatinib treatment, responded well to a combination of TKI with anti-KIT antibodies or to anti-KIT toxin conjugates, respectively. We conclude that the preferred choice of precision medicine treatments for cancers driven by activated KIT and other RTKs may rely on clear understanding of the dynamic properties of oncogenic mutants. PMID:27482095

  1. Autoimmunity-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase PEP negatively regulates IFN-α receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Derek A.; Suto, Eric; Lee, Wyne P.; Ou, Qinglin; Gong, Qian; Smith, Hamish R.C.; Caplazi, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22(C1858T) allelic polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility for development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other autoimmune diseases. PTPN22 (also known as LYP) and its mouse orthologue PEP play important roles in antigen and Toll-like receptor signaling in immune cell functions. We demonstrate here that PEP also plays an important inhibitory role in interferon-α receptor (IFNAR) signaling in mice. PEP co-immunoprecipitates with components of the IFNAR signaling complex. Pep−/− hematopoietic progenitors demonstrate increased IFNAR signaling, increased IFN-inducible gene expression, and enhanced proliferation and activation compared to Pep+/+ progenitors in response to IFN-α. In addition, Pep−/− mice treated with IFN-α display a profound defect in hematopoiesis, resulting in anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia when compared to IFN-α–treated Pep+/+ mice. As SLE patients carrying the PTPN22(C1858T) risk variant have higher serum IFN-α activity, these data provide a molecular basis for how type I IFNs and PTPN22 may cooperate to contribute to lupus-associated cytopenias. PMID:26077719

  2. Characterization of a Mn sup 2+ -dependent membrane serine kinase that is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, T.J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is hypothesized that the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate one or more serine kinases. The identities of such serine kinases as well as their modes of activation are unclear. The authors have described a serine kinase from rat liver membranes that copurifies with the IR on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-sepharose. The kinase is activated after phosphorylation of the WGA-sepharose-purified fraction by casein kinase-1, casein kinase-2, or casein kinase-3. A tyrosine kinase, possibly IR tyrosine kinase, also participates in the activation process since a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor such as vanadate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, or phosphotyrosine is required in reaction mixtures for activation to be observed. By contrast, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine do not support activation. The activated kinase can use IR {beta}-subunit, myelin basic protein (MBP), and histones as substrates. IR {beta}-subunit phosphorylation was stimulated by MBP, histones, and polylysine, and inhibited by heparin and poly(glu, tyr). The kinase prefers Mn{sup 2+} over Mg{sup 2+} as a metal cofactor.

  3. Aberrant Mer receptor tyrosine kinase expression contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sherick, A B; Eisenman, K M; Sather, S; McGranahan, A; Armistead, P M; McGary, C S; Hunsucker, S A; Schlegel, J; Martinson, H; Cannon, C; Keating, A K; Earp, H S; Liang, X; DeRyckere, D; Graham, D K

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be extremely difficult to treat successfully, and the unacceptably low overall survival rates mandate that we assess new potential therapies to ameliorate poor clinical response to conventional therapy. Abnormal tyrosine kinase activation in AML has been associated with poor prognosis and provides strategic targets for novel therapy development. We found that Mer receptor tyrosine kinase was over-expressed in a majority of pediatric (29/36, 80%) and adult (10/10, 100%) primary AML patient blasts at the time of diagnosis, and 100% of patient samples at the time of relapse. Mer was also found to be expressed in 12 of 14 AML cell lines (86%). In contrast, normal bone marrow myeloid precursors expressed little to no Mer. Following AML cell line stimulation with Gas6, a Mer ligand, we observed activation of prosurvival and proliferative signaling pathways, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, MSK1, CREB, ATF1, AKT and STAT6. To assess the phenotypic role of Mer in AML, two independent short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs were used to decrease Mer expression in the AML cell lines Nomo-1 and Kasumi-1. Reduction of Mer protein levels significantly increased rates of myeloblast apoptosis two to threefold in response to serum starvation. Furthermore, myeloblasts with knocked-down Mer demonstrated decreased colony formation by 67–87%, relative to control cell lines (P<0.01). NOD-SCID-gamma mice transplanted with Nomo-1 myeloblasts with reduced levels of Mer had a significant prolongation in survival compared with mice transplanted with the parental or control cell lines (median survival 17 days in parental and control cell lines, versus 32–36 days in Mer knockdown cell lines, P<0.0001). These data suggest a role for Mer in acute myeloid leukemogenesis and indicate that targeted inhibition of Mer may be an effective therapeutic strategy in pediatric and adult AML. PMID:23474756

  4. Aberrant Mer receptor tyrosine kinase expression contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee-Sherick, A B; Eisenman, K M; Sather, S; McGranahan, A; Armistead, P M; McGary, C S; Hunsucker, S A; Schlegel, J; Martinson, H; Cannon, C; Keating, A K; Earp, H S; Liang, X; DeRyckere, D; Graham, D K

    2013-11-14

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be extremely difficult to treat successfully, and the unacceptably low overall survival rates mandate that we assess new potential therapies to ameliorate poor clinical response to conventional therapy. Abnormal tyrosine kinase activation in AML has been associated with poor prognosis and provides strategic targets for novel therapy development. We found that Mer receptor tyrosine kinase was over-expressed in a majority of pediatric (29/36, 80%) and adult (10/10, 100%) primary AML patient blasts at the time of diagnosis, and 100% of patient samples at the time of relapse. Mer was also found to be expressed in 12 of 14 AML cell lines (86%). In contrast, normal bone marrow myeloid precursors expressed little to no Mer. Following AML cell line stimulation with Gas6, a Mer ligand, we observed activation of prosurvival and proliferative signaling pathways, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, MSK1, CREB, ATF1, AKT and STAT6. To assess the phenotypic role of Mer in AML, two independent short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs were used to decrease Mer expression in the AML cell lines Nomo-1 and Kasumi-1. Reduction of Mer protein levels significantly increased rates of myeloblast apoptosis two to threefold in response to serum starvation. Furthermore, myeloblasts with knocked-down Mer demonstrated decreased colony formation by 67-87%, relative to control cell lines (P<0.01). NOD-SCID-gamma mice transplanted with Nomo-1 myeloblasts with reduced levels of Mer had a significant prolongation in survival compared with mice transplanted with the parental or control cell lines (median survival 17 days in parental and control cell lines, versus 32-36 days in Mer knockdown cell lines, P<0.0001). These data suggest a role for Mer in acute myeloid leukemogenesis and indicate that targeted inhibition of Mer may be an effective therapeutic strategy in pediatric and adult AML. PMID:23474756

  5. EGFRvIII-mediated transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases in glioma: mechanism and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Greenall, S A; Donoghue, J F; Van Sinderen, M; Dubljevic, V; Budiman, S; Devlin, M; Street, I; Adams, T E; Johns, T G

    2015-10-01

    A truncation mutant of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, is commonly expressed in glioma, an incurable brain cancer. EGFRvIII is tumorigenic, in part, through its transactivation of other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Preventing the effects of this transactivation could form part of an effective therapy for glioma; however, the mechanism by which the transactivation occurs is unknown. Focusing on the RTK MET, we show that MET transactivation in U87MG human glioma cells in vitro is proportional to EGFRvIII activity and involves MET heterodimerization associated with a focal adhesion kinase (FAK) scaffold. The transactivation of certain other RTKs was, however, independent of FAK. Simultaneously targeting EGFRvIII (with panitumumab) and the transactivated RTKs themselves (with motesanib) in an intracranial mouse model of glioma resulted in significantly greater survival than with either agent alone, indicating that cotargeting these RTKs has potent antitumor efficacy and providing a strategy for treating EGFRvIII-expressing gliomas, which are usually refractory to treatment. PMID:25659577

  6. Receptor tyrosine kinase expression of circulating tumor cells in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Hochmair, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis and is found disseminated at first presentation in the majority of cases. The cell biological mechanisms underlying metastasis and drug resistance are not clear. SCLC is characterized by high numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and we were able to expand several CTC lines ex vivo and to relate chitinase-3-like-1/YKL-40 (CHI3L1) as marker. Availability of expanded SCLC CTC cells allowed for a screening of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) expressed. The metastatic CHI3L1-negative SCLC cell line SCLC26A, established from a pleural effusion was used for comparison. The CTC cell line BHGc10 was found to exhibit increased expression of RYK, AXL, Tie-1, Dtk, ROR1/2, several ephrins (Eph) and FGF/EGF receptors compared to SCLC26A. All of these RTKs have been associated with cell motility, invasion and poor prognosis in diverse cancer entities without knowledge of their association with CTCs. The identification of RYK, AXL and ROR1/2 as pseudokinases, lacking activity, seems to be related to the observed failure of RTK inhibitors in SCLC. These kinases are involved in the noncanonical WNT pathway and their expression in SCLC CTCs represents a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. PMID:26328272

  7. The juxtamembrane regions of human receptor tyrosine kinases exhibit conserved interaction sites with anionic lipids

    PubMed Central

    Hedger, George; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Koldsø, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a critical role in diverse cellular processes and their activity is regulated by lipids in the surrounding membrane, including PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate) in the inner leaflet, and GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) in the outer leaflet. However, the precise details of the interactions at the molecular level remain to be fully characterised. Using a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach, we comprehensively characterise anionic lipid interactions with all 58 known human RTKs. Our results demonstrate that the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of RTKs are critical for inducing clustering of anionic lipids, including PIP2, both in simple asymmetric bilayers, and in more complex mixed membranes. Clustering is predominantly driven by interactions between a conserved cluster of basic residues within the first five positions of the JM region, and negatively charged lipid headgroups. This highlights a conserved interaction pattern shared across the human RTK family. In particular predominantly the N-terminal residues of the JM region are involved in the interactions with PIP2, whilst residues within the distal JM region exhibit comparatively less lipid specificity. Our results suggest that JM–lipid interactions play a key role in RTK structure and function, and more generally in the nanoscale organisation of receptor-containing cell membranes. PMID:25779975

  8. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-01-01

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

  9. Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinases for Chemoprevention by Green Tea Catechin, EGCG

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Masahito; Shirakami, Yohei; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2008-01-01

    Tea is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between consumption of tea, especially green tea, and development of cancers. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies indicate strong chemopreventive effects for green tea and its constituents against cancers of various organs. (–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin in green tea, appears to be the most biologically active constituent in tea with respect to inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Recent studies indicate that the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are one of the critical targets of EGCG to inhibit cancer cell growth. EGCG inhibits the activation of EGFR (erbB1), HER2 (neu/erbB2) and also HER3 (neu/erbB3), which belong to subclass I of the RTK superfamily, in various types of human cancer cells. The activation of IGF-1 and VEGF receptors, the other members of RTK family, is also inhibited by EGCG. In addition, EGCG alters membrane lipid organization and thus inhibits the dimerization and activation of EGFR. Therefore, EGCG inhibits the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, which are RTK-related cell signaling pathways, as well as the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, thereby modulating the expression of target genes which are associated with induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. These findings are significant because abnormalities in the expression and function of RTKs and their downstream effectors play a critical role in the development of several types of human malignancies. In this paper we review evidence indicating that EGCG exerts anticancer effects, at least in part, through inhibition of activation of the specific RTKs and conclude that targeting RTKs and related signaling pathway by tea catechins might be a promising strategy for the prevention of human cancers. PMID:19325845

  10. A chimeric tyrosine/tryptophan hydroxylase. The tyrosine hydroxylase regulatory domain serves to stabilize enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Mockus, S M; Kumer, S C; Vrana, K E

    1997-08-01

    The neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are each composed of an amino-terminal regulatory domain and a carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain. A chimeric hydroxylase was generated by coupling the regulatory domain of TH (TH-R) to the catalytic domain of TPH (TPH-C) and expressing the recombinant enzyme in bacteria. The chimeric junction was created at proline 165 in TH and proline 106 in TPH because this residue is within a conserved five amino-acid span (ValProTrpPhePro) that defines the beginning of the highly homologous catalytic domains of TH and TPH. Radioenzymatic activity assays demonstrated that the TH-R/TPH-C chimera hydroxylates tryptophan, but not tyrosine. Therefore, the regulatory domain does not confer substrate specificity. Although the TH-R/TPH-C enzyme did serve as a substrate for protein kinase (PKA), activation was not observed following phosphorylation. Phosphorylation studies in combination with kinetic data provided evidence that TH-R does not exert a dominant influence on TPH-C. Stability assays revealed that, whereas TH exhibited a t1/2 of 84 min at 37 degrees C, TPH was much less stable (t1/2 = 28.3 min). The stability profile of TH-R/TPH-C, however, was superimposable on that of TH. Removal of the regulatory domain (a deletion of 165 amino acids from the N-terminus) of TH rendered the catalytic domain highly unstable, as demonstrated by a t1/2 of 14 min. The authors conclude that the regulatory domain of TH functions as a stabilizer of enzyme activity. As a corollary, the well-characterized instability of TPH may be attributed to the inability of its regulatory domain to stabilize the catalytic domain. PMID:9356925

  11. The Plasticity of Oncogene Addiction: Implications for Targeted Therapies Directed to Receptor Tyrosine Kinases12

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Vinochani; Allaf, Layal; Wilding, Alexander L; Donoghue, Jacqui F; Court, Naomi W; Greenall, Steve A; Scott, Andrew M; Johns, Terrance G

    2009-01-01

    A common mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extracellular truncation known as the de2-7 EGFR (or EGFRvIII). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is the ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) c-Met, and this signaling axis is often active in GBM. The expression of the HGF/c-Met axis or de2-7 EGFR independently enhances GBMgrowth and invasiveness, particularly through the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/pAkt pathway. Using RTK arrays, we show that expression of de2-7 EGFR in U87MG GBM cells leads to the coactivation of several RTKs, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor β and c-Met. A neutralizing antibody to HGF (AMG102) did not inhibit de2-7 EGFR-mediated activation of c-Met, demonstrating that it is ligand-independent. Therapy for parental U87MG xenografts with AMG 102 resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth, whereas U87MG.Δ2-7 xenografts were profoundly resistant. Treatment of U87MG.Δ2-7 xenografts with panitumumab, an anti-EGFR antibody, only partially inhibited tumor growth as xenografts rapidly reverted to the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway. Cotreatment with panitumumab and AMG 102 prevented this escape leading to significant tumor inhibition through an apoptotic mechanism, consistent with the induction of oncogenic shock. This observation provides a rationale for using panitumumab and AMG 102 in combination for the treatment of GBM patients. These results illustrate that GBM cells can rapidly change the RTK driving their oncogene addiction if the alternate RTK signals through the same downstream pathway. Consequently, inhibition of a dominant oncogene by targeted therapy can alter the hierarchy of RTKs resulting in rapid therapeutic resistance. PMID:19412429

  12. The receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr promotes tissue closure by coordinating corpse removal and epidermal zippering.

    PubMed

    Garlena, Rebecca A; Lennox, Ashley L; Baker, Lewis R; Parsons, Trish E; Weinberg, Seth M; Stronach, Beth E

    2015-10-01

    A leading cause of human birth defects is the incomplete fusion of tissues, often manifested in the palate, heart or neural tube. To investigate the molecular control of tissue fusion, embryonic dorsal closure and pupal thorax closure in Drosophila are useful experimental models. We find that Pvr mutants have defects in dorsal midline closure with incomplete amnioserosa internalization and epidermal zippering, as well as cardia bifida. These defects are relatively mild in comparison to those seen with other signaling mutants, such as in the JNK pathway, and we demonstrate that JNK signaling is not perturbed by altering Pvr receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Rather, modulation of Pvr levels in the ectoderm has an impact on PIP3 membrane accumulation, consistent with a link to PI3K signal transduction. Polarized PI3K activity influences protrusive activity from the epidermal leading edge and the protrusion area changes in accord with Pvr signaling intensity, providing a possible mechanism to explain Pvr mutant phenotypes. Tissue-specific rescue experiments indicate a partial requirement in epithelial tissue, but confirm the essential role of Pvr in hemocytes for embryonic survival. Taken together, we argue that inefficient removal of the internalizing amnioserosa tissue by mutant hemocytes coupled with impaired midline zippering of mutant epithelium creates a situation in some embryos whereby dorsal midline closure is incomplete. Based on these observations, we suggest that efferocytosis (corpse clearance) could contribute to proper tissue closure and thus might underlie some congenital birth defects. PMID:26293306

  13. The rice immune receptor XA21 recognizes a tyrosine-sulfated protein from a Gram-negative bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Joe, Anna; Thomas, Nicholas; Liu, Furong; Albert, Markus; Robinson, Michelle R.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Luu, Dee Dee; Chen, Huamin; Bahar, Ofir; Daudi, Arsalan; De Vleesschauwer, David; Caddell, Daniel; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Li, Xiang; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Ruan, Deling; Majumder, Dipali; Chern, Mawsheng; Kalbacher, Hubert; Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B.; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Chang C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We report the identification of a previously undescribed Xoo protein, called RaxX, which is required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity. Xoo strains that lack RaxX, or carry mutations in the single RaxX tyrosine residue (Y41), are able to evade XA21-mediated immunity. Y41 of RaxX is sulfated by the prokaryotic tyrosine sulfotransferase RaxST. Sulfated, but not nonsulfated, RaxX triggers hallmarks of the plant immune response in an XA21-dependent manner. A sulfated, 21–amino acid synthetic RaxX peptide (RaxX21-sY) is sufficient for this activity. Xoo field isolates that overcome XA21-mediated immunity encode an alternate raxX allele, suggesting that coevolutionary interactions between host and pathogen contribute to RaxX diversification. RaxX is highly conserved in many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. The new insights gained from the discovery and characterization of the sulfated protein, RaxX, can be applied to the development of resistant crop varieties and therapeutic reagents that have the potential to block microbial infection of both plants and animals. PMID:26601222

  14. Augmentor α and β (FAM150) are ligands of the receptor tyrosine kinases ALK and LTK: Hierarchy and specificity of ligand–receptor interactions

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Andrey V.; Murray, Phillip B.; Shi, Xiarong; Mo, Elizabeth S.; Mohanty, Jyotidarsini; Tome, Francisco; Bai, Hanwen; Gunel, Murat; Lax, Irit; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a class of cell surface receptors that, upon ligand binding, stimulate a variety of critical cellular functions. The orphan receptor anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is one of very few RTKs that remain without a firmly established protein ligand. Here we present a novel cytokine, FAM150B, which we propose naming augmentor-α (AUG-α), as a ligand for ALK. AUG-α binds ALK with high affinity and activates ALK in cells with subnanomolar potency. Detailed binding experiments using cells expressing ALK or the related receptor leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK) demonstrate that AUG-α binds and robustly activates both ALK and LTK. We show that the previously established LTK ligand FAM150A (AUG-β) is specific for LTK and only weakly binds to ALK. Furthermore, expression of AUG-α stimulates transformation of NIH/3T3 cells expressing ALK, induces IL-3 independent growth of Ba/F3 cells expressing ALK, and is expressed in neuroblastoma, a cancer partly driven by ALK. These experiments reveal the hierarchy and specificity of two cytokines as ligands for ALK and LTK and set the stage for elucidating their roles in development and disease states. PMID:26630010

  15. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  16. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  17. Araguspongine C induces autophagic death in breast cancer cells through suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Akl, Mohamed R; Ayoub, Nehad M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Orabi, Khaled Y; Foudah, Ahmed I; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases are key regulators of cellular growth and proliferation. Dysregulations of receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells may promote tumorigenesis by multiple mechanisms including enhanced cell survival and inhibition of cell death. Araguspongines represent a group of macrocyclic oxaquinolizidine alkaloids isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species. This study evaluated the anticancer activity of the known oxaquinolizidine alkaloids araguspongines A, C, K and L, and xestospongin B against breast cancer cells. Araguspongine C inhibited the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, araguspongine C-induced autophagic cell death in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells was characterized by vacuole formation and upregulation of autophagy markers including LC3A/B, Atg3, Atg7, and Atg16L. Araguspongine C-induced autophagy was associated with suppression of c-Met and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase activation. Further in-silico docking studies and cell-free Z-LYTE assays indicated the potential of direct interaction between araguspongine C and the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and HER2 at their kinase domains. Remarkably, araguspongine C treatment resulted in the suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling cascade in breast cancer cells undergoing autophagy. Induction of autophagic death in BT-474 cells was also associated with decreased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor upon treatment with effective concentration of araguspongine C. In conclusion, results of this study are the first to reveal the potential of araguspongine C as an inhibitor to receptor tyrosine kinases resulting in the induction of autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells. PMID:25580621

  18. Identification of therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer through active tyrosine kinase profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Alberto; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of a set of pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer patient samples was analyzed to define potential therapeutic targets. Frequent activation of HER family receptor tyrosine kinases, especially HER2, was observed. Studies in ovarian cancer cell lines confirmed the activation of HER2. Moreover, knockdown of HER2 caused a strong inhibition of their proliferation. Analyses of the action of agents that target HER2 indicated that the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) caused a substantial antitumoral effect in vivo and in vitro, and potentiated the action of drugs used in the therapy of ovarian cancer. T-DM1 provoked cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and caused the appearance of aberrant mitotic spindles in cells treated with the drug. Biochemical experiments confirmed accumulation of the mitotic markers phospho-Histone H3 and phospho-BUBR1 in cells treated with the drug. Prolonged treatment of ovarian cancer cells with T-DM1 provoked the appearance of multinucleated cells which later led to cell death. Together, these data indicate that HER2 represents an important oncogene in ovarian cancer, and suggest that targeting this tyrosine kinase with T-DM1 may be therapeutically effective, especially in ovarian tumors with high content of HER2. PMID:26336133

  19. Effects of platelet inhibitors on propyl gallate-induced platelet aggregation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and platelet factor 3 activation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hongyan; Kovics, Richard; Jackson, Van; Remick, Daniel G

    2004-04-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) is a platelet agonist characterized by inducing platelet aggregation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, and platelet factor 3 activity. The mechanisms of platelet activation following PG stimulation were examined by pre-incubating platelets with well-defined platelet inhibitors using platelet aggregation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, activated plasma clotting time, and annexin V binding by flow cytometry. PG-induced platelet aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins were substantially abolished by aspirin, apyrase, and abciximab (c7E3), suggesting that PG is associated with activation of platelet cyclooxygenase 1, adenosine phosphate receptors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, respectively. The phosphorylation of the cytoskeletal enzyme pp60(c-src) increased following PG stimulation, but was blunted by pre-incubation of platelets with aspirin, apyrase, and c7E3, suggesting that tyrosine kinase is important for the signal transduction of platelet aggregation. Propyl gallate also activates platelet factor 3 by decreasing the platelet coagulation time and increasing platelet annexin V binding. Platelet incubation with aspirin, apyrase, and c7E3 did not alter PG-induced platelet coagulation and annexin V binding. The results suggest that platelet factor 3 activation and membrane phosphotidylserine expression were not involved with activation of platelet cyclooxygenase, adenosine phosphate receptors, and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. PG is unique in its ability to stimulate platelet aggregation and coagulation simultaneously, and platelet inhibitors in this study affect only platelet aggregation but not platelet coagulation. PMID:15060414

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  2. An extended surface of binding to Trk tyrosine kinase receptors in NGF and BDNF allows the engineering of a multifunctional pan-neurotrophin.

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, C F; Ilag, L L; Murray-Rust, J; Persson, H

    1993-01-01

    Neurotrophin-mediated cell survival and differentiation of vertebrate neurons is caused by ligand-specific binding to the Trk family of tyrosine kinase receptors. However, sites in the neurotrophins responsible for the binding to Trk receptors and the mechanisms whereby this interaction results in receptor activation and biological activity are unknown. Here we show that in nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), discontinuous stretches of amino acid residues group together on one side of the neurotrophin dimer forming a continuous surface responsible for binding to and activation of TrkA and TrkB receptors. Two symmetrical surfaces are formed along the two-fold axis of the neurotrophin dimer providing a model for ligand-mediated receptor dimerization. Mutated neurotrophins inducing similar levels of receptor phosphorylation showed different biological activities, suggesting that structural differences in a ligand may result in dissimilar responses in a given tyrosine kinase receptor. Our results allowed us to combine structural elements from NGF, BDNF and neurotrophin-3 to engineer a pan-neurotrophin that efficiently activates all Trk receptors and displays multiple neurotrophic specificities. Images PMID:8508763

  3. Tyrosines 868, 966, and 972 in the Kinase Domain of JAK2 Are Autophosphorylated and Required for Maximal JAK2 Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Argetsinger, Lawrence S.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Robertson, Scott A.; Koleva, Rositsa I.; Cline, Joel M.; Marto, Jarrod A.; Myers, Martin G.; Carter-Su, Christin

    2010-01-01

    Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) is activated by a majority of cytokine family receptors including receptors for GH, leptin, and erythropoietin. To identify novel JAK2-regulatory and/or -binding sites, we set out to identify autophosphorylation sites in the kinase domain of JAK2. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping of in vitro autophosphorylated JAK2 identified tyrosines 868, 966, and 972 as sites of autophosphorylation. Phosphorylated tyrosines 868 and 972 were also identified by mass spectrometry analysis of JAK2 activated by an erythropoietin-bound chimeric erythropoietin receptor/leptin receptor. Phosphospecific antibodies suggest that the phosphorylation of all three tyrosines increases in response to GH. Compared with wild-type JAK2, which is constitutively active when overexpressed, JAK2 lacking tyrosine 868, 966, or 972 has substantially reduced activity. Coexpression with GH receptor and protein tyrosine phosphatase1B allowed us to investigate GH-dependent activation of these mutated JAK2s in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. All three mutated JAK2s are activated by GH, although to a lesser extent than wild-type JAK2. The three mutated JAK2s also mediate GH activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (Stat5b) and ERK1, but at reduced levels. Coexpression with Src-homology 2B1β (SH2B1β), like coexpression with GH-bound GH receptor, partially restores the activity of all three JAK2 mutants. Based on these results and the crystal structure of the JAK2 kinase domain, we hypothesize that small changes in the conformation of the regions of JAK2 surrounding tyrosines 868, 966, and 972 due to e.g. phosphorylation, binding to a ligand-bound cytokine receptor, and/or binding to Src-homology 2B1, may be essential for JAK2 to assume a maximally active conformation. PMID:20304997

  4. Left-Handed Dimer of EphA2 Transmembrane Domain: Helix Packing Diversity among Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Bocharov, Eduard V.; Mayzel, Maxim L.; Volynsky, Pavel E.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; Tkach, Elena N.; Ermolyuk, Yaroslav S.; Schulga, Alexey A.; Efremov, Roman G.; Arseniev, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ephrin ligands control a diverse array of cell-cell interactions in the developing and adult organisms. During signal transduction across plasma membrane, Eph receptors, like other receptor tyrosine kinases, are involved in lateral dimerization and subsequent oligomerization presumably with proper assembly of their single-span transmembrane domains. Spatial structure of dimeric transmembrane domain of EphA2 receptor embedded into lipid bicelle was obtained by solution NMR, showing a left-handed parallel packing of the transmembrane helices (535–559)2. The helices interact through the extended heptad repeat motif L535X3G539X2A542X3V546X2L549 assisted by intermolecular stacking interactions of aromatic rings of (FF557)2, whereas the characteristic tandem GG4-like motif A536X3G540X3G544 is not used, enabling another mode of helix-helix association. Importantly, a similar motif AX3GX3G as was found is responsible for right-handed dimerization of transmembrane domain of the EphA1 receptor. These findings serve as an instructive example of the diversity of transmembrane domain formation within the same family of protein kinases and seem to favor the assumption that the so-called rotation-coupled activation mechanism may take place during the Eph receptor signaling. A possible role of membrane lipid rafts in relation to Eph transmembrane domain oligomerization and Eph signal transduction was also discussed. PMID:20197042

  5. The viral G protein-coupled receptor ORF74 unmasks phospholipase C signaling of the receptor tyrosine kinase IGF-1R.

    PubMed

    de Munnik, Sabrina M; van der Lee, Rosan; Velders, Daniëlle M; van Offenbeek, Jody; Smits-de Vries, Laura; Leurs, Rob; Smit, Martine J; Vischer, Henry F

    2016-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes the constitutively active G protein-coupled receptor ORF74, which is expressed on the surface of infected host cells and has been linked to the development of the angioproliferative tumor Kaposi's sarcoma. Furthermore, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor, a receptor tyrosine kinase, also plays an essential role in Kaposi's sarcoma growth and survival. In this study we examined the effect of the constitutively active viral receptor ORF74 on human IGF-1R signaling. Constitutive and CXCL1-induced ORF74 signaling did not transactivate IGF-1R. In contrast, IGF-1 stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activation in an ORF74-dependent manner without affecting chemokine binding to ORF74. Inhibition of constitutive ORF74 activity by mutagenesis or the inverse agonist CXCL10, or neutralizing IGF-1R with an antibody or silencing IGF-1R expression using siRNA inhibited PLC activation by IGF-1. Transactivation of ORF74 in response to IGF-1 occurred independently of Src, PI3K, and secreted ORF74 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine residues in the carboxyl-terminus and intracellular loop 2 of ORF74 are not essential for IGF-1-induced PLC activation. Interestingly, PLC activation in response to IGF-1 is specific for ORF74 as IGF-1 was unable to activate PLC in cells expressing the constitutively active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded GPCR US28. Interestingly, IGF-1 does not induce β-arrestin recruitment to ORF74. The proximity ligation assay revealed close proximity between ORF74 and IGF-1R on the cell surface, but a physical interaction was not confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Unmasking IGF-1R signaling to PLC in response to IGF-1 is a previously unrecognized action of ORF74. PMID:26931381

  6. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a therapeutic target in pre–B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rachel M. A.; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; DeRyckere, Deborah; Cohen, Rebecca A.; Jacobsen, Kristen M.; McGranahan, Amy; Brandão, Luis N.; Winges, Amanda; Sawczyn, Kelly K.; Liang, Xiayuan; Keating, Amy K.; Tan, Aik Choon; Earp, H. Shelton

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is currently treated with an intense regimen of chemotherapy yielding cure rates near 85%. However, alterations to treatment strategies using available drugs are unlikely to provide significant improvement in survival or decrease therapy-associated toxicities. Here, we report ectopic expression of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase in pre–B-cell ALL (B-ALL) cell lines and pediatric patient samples. Inhibition of Mer in B-ALL cell lines decreased activation of AKT and MAPKs and led to transcriptional changes, including decreased expression of antiapoptotic PRKCB gene and increase in proapoptotic BAX and BBC3 genes. Further, Mer inhibition promoted chemosensitization, decreased colony-forming potential in clonogenic assays, and delayed disease onset in a mouse xenograft model of leukemia. Our results identify Mer as a potential therapeutic target in B-ALL and suggest that inhibitors of Mer may potentiate lymphoblast killing when used in combination with chemotherapy. This strategy could reduce minimal residual disease and/or allow for chemotherapy dose reduction, thereby leading to improved event-free survival and reduced therapy-associated toxicity for patients with B-ALL. Additionally, Mer is aberrantly expressed in numerous other malignancies suggesting that this approach may have broad applications. PMID:23861246

  7. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a therapeutic target in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Linger, Rachel M A; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B; DeRyckere, Deborah; Cohen, Rebecca A; Jacobsen, Kristen M; McGranahan, Amy; Brandão, Luis N; Winges, Amanda; Sawczyn, Kelly K; Liang, Xiayuan; Keating, Amy K; Tan, Aik Choon; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K

    2013-08-29

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is currently treated with an intense regimen of chemotherapy yielding cure rates near 85%. However, alterations to treatment strategies using available drugs are unlikely to provide significant improvement in survival or decrease therapy-associated toxicities. Here, we report ectopic expression of the Mer receptor tyrosine kinase in pre-B-cell ALL (B-ALL) cell lines and pediatric patient samples. Inhibition of Mer in B-ALL cell lines decreased activation of AKT and MAPKs and led to transcriptional changes, including decreased expression of antiapoptotic PRKCB gene and increase in proapoptotic BAX and BBC3 genes. Further, Mer inhibition promoted chemosensitization, decreased colony-forming potential in clonogenic assays, and delayed disease onset in a mouse xenograft model of leukemia. Our results identify Mer as a potential therapeutic target in B-ALL and suggest that inhibitors of Mer may potentiate lymphoblast killing when used in combination with chemotherapy. This strategy could reduce minimal residual disease and/or allow for chemotherapy dose reduction, thereby leading to improved event-free survival and reduced therapy-associated toxicity for patients with B-ALL. Additionally, Mer is aberrantly expressed in numerous other malignancies suggesting that this approach may have broad applications. PMID:23861246

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Spalinger, Marianne R; McCole, Declan F; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory disorders. Expression of PTPN2 is enhanced in actively inflamed intestinal tissue featuring a marked up-regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. PTPN2 deficient mice suffer from severe intestinal and systemic inflammation and display aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, PTPN2 is involved in the regulation of inflammatory signalling cascades, and critical for protecting intestinal epithelial barrier function, regulating innate and adaptive immune responses, and finally for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. On one hand, dysfunction of PTPN2 has drastic effects on innate host defence mechanisms, including increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, limited autophagosome formation in response to invading pathogens, and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, PTPN2 function is crucial for controlling adaptive immune functions, by regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation as well as maintaining T cell tolerance. In this way, dysfunction of PTPN2 contributes to the manifestation of IBD. The aim of this review is to present an overview of recent findings on the role of PTPN2 in intestinal homeostasis and the impact of dysfunctional PTPN2 on intestinal inflammation. PMID:26811645

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Spalinger, Marianne R; McCole, Declan F; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-21

    Genome wide association studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory disorders. Expression of PTPN2 is enhanced in actively inflamed intestinal tissue featuring a marked up-regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. PTPN2 deficient mice suffer from severe intestinal and systemic inflammation and display aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, PTPN2 is involved in the regulation of inflammatory signalling cascades, and critical for protecting intestinal epithelial barrier function, regulating innate and adaptive immune responses, and finally for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. On one hand, dysfunction of PTPN2 has drastic effects on innate host defence mechanisms, including increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, limited autophagosome formation in response to invading pathogens, and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, PTPN2 function is crucial for controlling adaptive immune functions, by regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation as well as maintaining T cell tolerance. In this way, dysfunction of PTPN2 contributes to the manifestation of IBD. The aim of this review is to present an overview of recent findings on the role of PTPN2 in intestinal homeostasis and the impact of dysfunctional PTPN2 on intestinal inflammation. PMID:26811645

  10. Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation interaction network in Bacillus subtilis reveals new substrates, kinase activators and kinase cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ventroux, Magali; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Mijakovic, Ivan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Signal transduction in eukaryotes is generally transmitted through phosphorylation cascades that involve a complex interplay of transmembrane receptors, protein kinases, phosphatases and their targets. Our previous work indicated that bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases may exhibit similar properties, since they act on many different substrates. To capture the complexity of this phosphorylation-based network, we performed a comprehensive interactome study focused on the protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The resulting network identified many potential new substrates of kinases and phosphatases, some of which were experimentally validated. Our study highlighted the role of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases in DNA metabolism, transcriptional control and cell division. This interaction network reveals significant crosstalk among different classes of kinases. We found that tyrosine kinases can bind to several modulators, transmembrane or cytosolic, consistent with a branching of signaling pathways. Most particularly, we found that the division site regulator MinD can form a complex with the tyrosine kinase PtkA and modulate its activity in vitro. In vivo, it acts as a scaffold protein which anchors the kinase at the cell pole. This network highlighted a role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the spatial regulation of the Z-ring during cytokinesis. PMID:25374563

  11. Structure of macrophage colony stimulating factor bound to FMS: Diverse signaling assemblies of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; He, Xiaolin

    2009-06-12

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), through binding to its receptor FMS, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), regulates the development and function of mononuclear phagocytes, and plays important roles in innate immunity, cancer and inflammation. We report a 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of M-CSF bound to the first 3 domains (D1-D3) of FMS. The ligand binding mode of FMS is surprisingly different from KIT, another class III RTK, in which the major ligand-binding domain of FMS, D2, uses the CD and EF loops, but not the {beta}-sheet on the opposite side of the Ig domain as in KIT, to bind ligand. Calorimetric data indicate that M-CSF cannot dimerize FMS without receptor-receptor interactions mediated by FMS domains D4 and D5. Consistently, the structure contains only 1 FMS-D1-D3 molecule bound to a M-CSF dimer, due to a weak, hydrophilic M-CSF:FMS interface, and probably a conformational change of the M-CSF dimer in which binding to the second site is rendered unfavorable by FMS binding at the first site. The partial, intermediate complex suggests that FMS may be activated in two steps, with the initial engagement step distinct from the subsequent dimerization/activation step. Hence, the formation of signaling class III RTK complexes can be diverse, engaging various modes of ligand recognition and various mechanistic steps for dimerizing and activating receptors.

  12. Growth hormone (GH) induces tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in mouse L cells that express recombinant GH receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Xu, B; Souza, S C; Kopchick, J J

    1994-01-01

    Porcine and bovine GH receptor (GHR) cDNAs were stably expressed in mouse L cells, which normally do not possess detectable levels of mouse GHR. Expression of the GHR cDNAs resulted in specific binding of 125I-labeled GH by these cell lines. To study GHR-related signaling events in these cells, protein tyrosine phosphorylation was examined. In GH-treated cells, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein with a molecular mass of approximately 95 kDa (pp95) was increased dramatically (approximately 100-fold) relative to non-GH-treated cells. The amount of pp95 within the cells after GH treatment was positively correlated with the number of GHRs on the cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of pp95 could not be induced by prolactin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, interleukin 2, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor. Phosphorylation of pp95 was found to be a rapid event that could be observed 60 sec after GH treatment. Also, pp95 appears to exist as a complex of two proteins, i.e., pp95 and pp96. The GH-induced response by these cells may be of use in screening GH analogs for biological activity. Images PMID:7509070

  13. Characterization of a novel Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, EphA10, expressed in testis.

    PubMed

    Aasheim, Hans-Christian; Patzke, Sebastian; Hjorthaug, Hanne Sagsveen; Finne, Eivind Farmen

    2005-05-25

    In mammals, 14 members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family have been described so far. Here we present a not yet described member of this family denoted EphA10. We report the identification of three putative EphA10 isoforms: one soluble and two transmembrane isoforms. One of the latter isoforms lacked the sterile alpha motif commonly found in Eph receptors. The gene encoding EphA10 is located on chromosome 1p34 and expression studies show that EphA10 mRNA is mainly expressed in testis. Binding studies to ephrin ligands suggests that this receptor belongs to the EphA subclass of Eph receptors binding mainly to ephrin-A ligands. PMID:15777695

  14. Construction and Stable Expression of a Truncated Human Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ror1 (Ror1-ECD).

    PubMed

    Forouzesh, Flora; Tabarian, Samira Shakeri; Emami, Shaghayegh; Tehrani, Mahmood-Jeddi; Hadavi, Reza; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2012-01-01

    Expression of receptor tyrosine kinase Ror1 in a wide variety of cancers has emerged as a new era focusing on targeting this receptor in cancer therapy. Our preliminary results indicate the presence of a truncated transcript of Ror1 in tumor cells. The truncated Ror1 encompasses extracellular and transmembrane domains, lacking catalytic kinase domain (Ror1-ECD). As enzyme activity is highly dependent on the catalytic domain, we were wondering how this transcript and its encoded protein could play a possible role in tumorigenesis. To understand the function of this truncated transcript and whether or not the encoded protein translocates to the cell surface, we constructed a mammalian expression vector containing exon 1 to exon 8 of human Ror1 gene as a model system. The encoded protein by this construct covers the entire extracellular and transmembrane domains of Ror1. The Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell line (CHO) was used for transfection. Our results showed that this construct could express Ror1-ECD at protein level and also the protein could effectively translocate to the surface of transfected cells. Such model may suggest that a proportion of Ror1 molecules expressed by tumor cells are not full-length Ror1. This notion may be considered when applying flow cytometry using antibodies against Ror1 for screening of tumor cells in order to avoid any miscalculation in the number of Ror1 molecules expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, such expression may bring about assumptions on functional roles of Ror1-ECD in tumorigenesis, which requires extensive functional studies. PMID:23408137

  15. Construction and Stable Expression of a Truncated Human Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ror1 (Ror1-ECD)

    PubMed Central

    Forouzesh, Flora; Tabarian, Samira Shakeri; Emami, Shaghayegh; Tehrani, Mahmood-Jeddi; Hadavi, Reza; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2012-01-01

    Expression of receptor tyrosine kinase Ror1 in a wide variety of cancers has emerged as a new era focusing on targeting this receptor in cancer therapy. Our preliminary results indicate the presence of a truncated transcript of Ror1 in tumor cells. The truncated Ror1 encompasses extracellular and transmembrane domains, lacking catalytic kinase domain (Ror1-ECD). As enzyme activity is highly dependent on the catalytic domain, we were wondering how this transcript and its encoded protein could play a possible role in tumorigenesis. To understand the function of this truncated transcript and whether or not the encoded protein translocates to the cell surface, we constructed a mammalian expression vector containing exon 1 to exon 8 of human Ror1 gene as a model system. The encoded protein by this construct covers the entire extracellular and transmembrane domains of Ror1. The Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell line (CHO) was used for transfection. Our results showed that this construct could express Ror1-ECD at protein level and also the protein could effectively translocate to the surface of transfected cells. Such model may suggest that a proportion of Ror1 molecules expressed by tumor cells are not full-length Ror1. This notion may be considered when applying flow cytometry using antibodies against Ror1 for screening of tumor cells in order to avoid any miscalculation in the number of Ror1 molecules expressed by tumor cells. Furthermore, such expression may bring about assumptions on functional roles of Ror1-ECD in tumorigenesis, which requires extensive functional studies. PMID:23408137

  16. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:17441906

  17. Crystal Structure of the Frizzled-Like Cysteine-Rich Domain of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegler, A.; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2009-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is an essential receptor tyrosine kinase for the establishment and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activation of MuSK by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), the agrin receptor, leads to clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic side of the NMJ. The ectodomain of MuSK comprises three immunoglobulin-like domains and a cysteine-rich domain (Fz-CRD) related to those in Frizzled proteins, the receptors for Wnts. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MuSK Fz-CRD at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure reveals a five-disulfide-bridged domain similar to CRDs of Frizzled proteins but with a divergent C-terminal region. An asymmetric dimer present in the crystal structure implicates surface hydrophobic residues that may function in homotypic or heterotypic interactions to mediate co-clustering of MuSK, rapsyn, and acetylcholine receptors at the NMJ.

  18. Crystal structure of the frizzled-like cysteine-rich domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Amy L; Burden, Steven J; Hubbard, Stevan R

    2009-10-16

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is an essential receptor tyrosine kinase for the establishment and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Activation of MuSK by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan, and LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), the agrin receptor, leads to clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic side of the NMJ. The ectodomain of MuSK comprises three immunoglobulin-like domains and a cysteine-rich domain (Fz-CRD) related to those in Frizzled proteins, the receptors for Wnts. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MuSK Fz-CRD at 2.1 A resolution. The structure reveals a five-disulfide-bridged domain similar to CRDs of Frizzled proteins but with a divergent C-terminal region. An asymmetric dimer present in the crystal structure implicates surface hydrophobic residues that may function in homotypic or heterotypic interactions to mediate co-clustering of MuSK, rapsyn, and acetylcholine receptors at the NMJ. PMID:19664639

  19. Activity-based kinase profiling of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Koichi; Gouda, Masaki; Narumi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Eiji; Akita, Kensaku; Kirii, Yasuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The specificities of nine approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib) were determined by activity-based kinase profiling using a large panel of human recombinant active kinases. This panel consisted of 79 tyrosine kinases, 199 serine/threonine kinases, three lipid kinases, and 29 disease-relevant mutant kinases. Many potential targets of each inhibitor were identified by kinase profiling at the K(m) for ATP. In addition, profiling at a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm) was carried out, and the IC(50) values of the inhibitors against each kinase were compared with the estimated plasma-free concentration (calculated from published pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma C(trough) and C(max) values). This analysis revealed that the approved kinase inhibitors were well optimized for their target kinases. This profiling also implicates activity at particular off-target kinases in drug side effects. Thus, large-scale kinase profiling at both K(m) and physiological ATP concentrations could be useful in characterizing the targets and off-targets of kinase inhibitors. PMID:23279183

  20. Opposing Roles of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors Mer and Axl Determine Clinical Outcomes in Experimental Immune-Mediated Nephritis.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Yuxuan; Priest, Stephen O; Shao, Wen-Hai

    2016-09-15

    Glomerulonephritis is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, with considerable morbidity and mortality. There remains a major unmet need for successful management of lupus nephritis. TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases (Mer and Axl) play an important role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the kidney. Mer is constitutively expressed in the glomeruli; Axl expression is inducible in glomeruli under inflammatory conditions. To investigate the distinct functions of Axl and Mer in lupus nephritis, we compared the severity of nephrotoxic serum glomerulonephritis in wild-type (WT), Axl-knockout (KO), Mer-KO, and Axl/Mer-KO mice. Mer-KO mice developed severe glomerulonephritis, with significantly decreased survival and increased blood urea nitrogen levels compared with WT mice given the same treatment. However, nephrotoxic serum-treated Axl-KO mice had significantly increased survival rates and improved renal function compared with similarly treated WT, Mer-KO, and Axl/Mer-KO mice. Interestingly, mice lacking both Axl and Mer developed kidney inflammation comparable to WT mice. Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased Stat3 phosphorylation and caspase-1 activation in the kidneys of nephritic Mer-KO mice. In contrast, Axl-deficient nephrotoxic serum-injected mice showed decreased Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-xL upregulation. Thus, the reciprocal activation of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases has a major impact on the outcome of renal inflammation. PMID:27527599

  1. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Analysis Reveals a Key Role of Insulin Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Tyrosine Kinase in Human Sperm Capacitation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Qi, Lin; Huang, Shaoping; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Yueshuai; Wang, Gaigai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important changes during sperm capacitation is the enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation. However, the mechanisms of protein tyrosine phosphorylation during sperm capacitation are not well studied. We used label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the overall phosphorylation events during sperm capacitation in humans and identified 231 sites with increased phosphorylation levels. Motif analysis using the NetworKIN algorithm revealed that the activity of tyrosine phosphorylation kinases insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)/insulin receptor is significantly enriched among the up-regulated phosphorylation substrates during capacitation. Western blotting further confirmed inhibition of IGF1R with inhibitors GSK1904529A and NVP-AEW541, which inhibited the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation levels during sperm capacitation. Additionally, sperm hyperactivated motility was also inhibited by GSK1904529A and NVP-AEW541 but could be up-regulated by insulin growth factor 1, the ligand of IGF1R. Thus, the IGF1R-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation pathway may play important roles in the regulation of sperm capacitation in humans and could be a target for improvement in sperm functions in infertile men. PMID:25693802

  2. A systematic analysis of the resistance and sensitivity of HER2YVMA receptor tyrosine kinase mutant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in HER2-positive lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaokun; Chen, Beibei; Ma, Zhaosheng; Xie, Bojian; Cao, Xinguang; Yang, Tiejun; Zhao, Yuzhou; Qin, Jianjun; Li, Jicheng; Cao, Feilin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has become a well-established target for the treatment of HER2-positive lung cancer. However, a frequently observed in-frame mutation that inserts amino acid quadruplex Tyr776-Val777-Met778-Ala779 at G776 (G776(YVMA)) in HER2 kinase domain can cause drug resistance and sensitivity, largely limiting the application of reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer therapy. A systematic investigation of the intermolecular interactions between the HER2(YVMA) mutant and clinical small-molecule inhibitors would help to establish a complete picture of drug response to HER2 G776(YVMA) insertion in lung cancer, and to design new tyrosine kinase inhibitors with high potency and selectivity to target the lung cancer-related HER2(YVMA) mutant. Here, we combined homology modeling, ligand grafting, structure minimization, molecular simulation and binding affinity analysis to profile a number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the G776(YVMA) insertion in HER2. It is found that the insertion is far away from HER2 active pocket and thus cannot contact inhibitor ligand directly. However, the insertion is expected to induce marked allosteric effect on some regions around the pocket, including A-loop and hinges connecting between the N- and C-lobes of HER2 kinase domain, which may exert indirect influence to inhibitor binding. Most investigated inhibitors exhibit weak binding strength to both wild-type and mutant HER2, which can be attributed to steric hindrance that impairs ligand compatibility with HER2 active pocket. However, the cognate inhibitor lapatinib and the non-cognate inhibitor bosutinib were predicted to have low affinity for wild-type HER2 but high affinity for HER2(YVMA) mutant, which was confirmed by subsequent kinase assay experiments; the inhibitory potencies of bosutinib against wild-type and mutant HER2 were determined to be IC(50) > 1000 and =27 nM, respectively, suggesting that the bosutinib might be

  3. Histidine-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor intracellular sorting and degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haisha; Wardega, Piotr; Mazaud, David; Klosowska-Wardega, Agnieszka; Jurek, Aleksandra; Engström, Ulla; Lennartsson, Johan; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2015-11-01

    Histidine domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP) is a putative phosphatase that has been shown to affect the signaling and downregulation of certain receptor tyrosine kinases. To investigate if HD-PTP affects platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling, we employed the overexpression of HA-tagged HD-PTP, as well as siRNA-mediated and lentivirus shRNA-mediated silencing of HD-PTP in NIH3T3 cells. We found that HD-PTP was recruited to the PDGFRβ in a ligand-dependent manner. Depletion of HD-PTP resulted in an inability of PDGF-BB to promote tyrosine phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligases c-Cbl and Cbl-b, with a concomitant missorting and reduction of the degradation of activated PDGFRβ. In contrast, ligand-induced internalization of PDGFRβ was unaffected by HD-PTP silencing. Furthermore, the levels of STAM and Hrs of the ESCRT0 machinery were decreased, and immunofluorescence staining showed that in HD-PTP-depleted cells, PDGFRβ accumulated in large aberrant intracellular structures. After the reduction of HD-PTP expression, an NIH3T3-derived cell line that has autocrine PDGF-BB signaling (sis-3T3) showed increased ability of anchorage-independent growth. However, exogenously added PDGF-BB promoted efficient additional colony formation in control cells, but was not able to do so in HD-PTP-depleted cells. Furthermore, cells depleted of HD-PTP migrated faster than control cells. In summary, HD-PTP affects the intracellular sorting of activated PDGFRβ and the migration, proliferation and tumorigenicity of cells stimulated by PDGF. PMID:26232618

  4. Hyaluronidase 2 negatively regulates RON receptor tyrosine kinase and mediates transformation of epithelial cells by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus

    PubMed Central

    Danilkovitch-Miagkova, Alla; Duh, Fuh-Mei; Kuzmin, Igor; Angeloni, Debora; Liu, Shan-Lu; Miller, A. Dusty; Lerman, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    The candidate tumor-suppressor gene hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2) encodes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell-surface protein that serves as an entry receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, a virus that causes contagious lung cancer in sheep that is morphologically similar to human bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The viral envelope (Env) protein alone can transform cultured cells, and we hypothesized that Env could bind and sequester the HYAL2 receptor and thus liberate a potential oncogenic factor bound and negatively controlled by HYAL2. Here we show that the HYAL2 receptor protein is associated with the RON receptor tyrosine kinase (also called MST1R or Stk in the mouse), rendering it functionally silent. In human cells expressing a jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus Env transgene, the Env protein physically associates with HYAL2. RON liberated from the association with HYAL2 becomes functionally active and consequently activates the Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways leading to oncogenic transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. We find activated RON in a subset of human bronchioloalveolar carcinoma tumors, suggesting RON involvement in this type of human lung cancer. PMID:12676986

  5. SH2 domains prevent tyrosine dephosphorylation of the EGF receptor: identification of Tyr992 as the high-affinity binding site for SH2 domains of phospholipase C gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Rotin, D; Margolis, B; Mohammadi, M; Daly, R J; Daum, G; Li, N; Fischer, E H; Burgess, W H; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1992-01-01

    Several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases contain a conserved, non-catalytic stretch of approximately 100 amino acids called the src homology 2 (SH2) domain, and a region of approximately 50 amino acids called the SH3 domain. SH2/SH3 domains are also found in several other proteins, including phospholipase C-gamma (PLC gamma). Recent studies indicate that SH2 domains promote association between autophosphorylated growth factor receptors such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and signal transducing molecules such as PLC gamma. Because SH2 domains bind specifically to protein sequences containing phosphotyrosine, we examined their capacity to prevent tyrosine dephosphorylation of the EGF and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. For this purpose, various SH2/SH3 constructs of PLC gamma were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins. Our results show that purified SH2 domains of PLC gamma are able to prevent tyrosine dephosphorylation of the EGF receptor and other receptors with tyrosine activity. The inhibition of tyrosine dephosphorylation paralleled the capacity of various SH2-containing constructs to bind to the EGF receptor, suggesting that the tyrosine phosphatase and the SH2 domain compete for the same tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the carboxy-terminal tail of the EGF receptor. Analysis of the phosphorylation sites protected from dephosphorylation by PLC gamma-SH2 revealed substantial inhibition of dephosphorylation of Tyr992 at 1 microM SH2. This indicates that Tyr992 and its flanking sequence is the high-affinity binding site for SH2 domains of PLC gamma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1537335

  6. When Good Turns Bad: Regulation of Invasion and Metastasis by ErbB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Brix, Ditte Marie; Bundgaard Clemmensen, Knut Kristoffer; Kallunki, Tuula

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and activation of ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in breast cancer is strongly linked to an aggressive disease with high potential for invasion and metastasis. In addition to inducing very aggressive, metastatic cancer, ErbB2 activation mediates processes such as increased cancer cell proliferation and survival and is needed for normal physiological activities, such as heart function and development of the nervous system. How does ErbB2 activation make cancer cells invasive and when? Comprehensive understanding of the cellular mechanisms leading to ErbB2-induced malignant processes is necessary for answering these questions. Here we present current knowledge about the invasion-promoting function of ErbB2 and the mechanisms involved in it. Obtaining detailed information about the “bad” behavior of ErbB2 can facilitate development of novel treatments against ErbB2-positive cancers. PMID:24709902

  7. Gi-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2)-bound dynamin-II by lysophosphatidic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Kranenburg, O; Verlaan, I; Moolenaar, W H

    1999-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is the prototypic G-protein-coupled receptor agonist that activates the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade through pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi and enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. We recently detected a 100 kDa protein (p100) that binds to the C-terminal SH3 domain of growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in a PTX-sensitive manner in LPA-treated Rat-1 cells [Kranenburg, Verlaan, Hordijk and Moolenaar (1997) EMBO J. 16, 3097-3105]. Through glutathione S-transferase-Grb2 affinity purification and microsequencing, we have now identified p100 as dynamin-II, a GTPase that regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that in Rat-1 cells, Grb2-bound dynamin-II is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPA in a PTX-sensitive manner. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb2-bound dynamin-II may be a critical event in Gi-mediated activation of the Ras-MAP kinase cascade in fibroblasts. PMID:10085221

  8. Critical role of tyrosine 277 in the ligand-binding and transactivating properties of retinoic acid receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Mailfait, S; Belaiche, D; Kouach, M; Dallery, N; Chavatte, P; Formstecher, P; Sablonnière, B

    2000-03-01

    Retinoic acid receptors specifically bind all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and function as RA-inducible transcriptional regulatory factors. Binding of RA to RARalpha, beta, and gamma is sensitive to nitration with tetranitromethane, a tyrosine-specific modifying reagent. To identify tyrosine residue(s) that are important for RA binding, we carried out chemical modification experiments with purified RARalpha ligand-binding domain (RARalpha-LBD) subjected to partial acid hydrolysis and selective proteolysis. The chemically modified peptides containing each of the three Tyr residues present in the RARalpha-LBD sequence were then analyzed and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS). We found that RA binding to RARalpha-LBD protected Tyr(277)-containing peptides from nitration. Protection of Tyr(277) could result either from direct masking by the bound ligand or from ligand-induced changes in receptor conformation and tyrosine accessibility. The role of Tyr residues was further documented by site directed mutagenesis using three site-specific RARalpha mutants: Y208A, Y277A, and Y362A. The affinity for RA of these mutant receptors was in the range of that of the wild-type protein, except for the Y277A receptor mutant, which displays a 15-20-fold reduction in affinity and transactivation activity for RA. Whereas mutation of Tyr(277) into alanine had a variable effect on different agonists and antagonists binding, it caused a dramatic decrease of retinoid-dependent transactivation activity. This later effect was also observed with mutation of Tyr(277) into phenylalanine. It is unlikely that major conformational changes are responsible for the lower affinity of RA binding and RA-dependent transactivation since these mutants displayed wild-type dimerization and DNA-binding activities. Limited proteolysis revealed that upon ligand binding, the Y277A mutant induced a conformational change slightly

  9. Growth inhibition of human lung adenocarcinoma cells by antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and by ganglioside GM3: involvement of receptor-directed protein tyrosine phosphatase(s).

    PubMed Central

    Suarez Pestana, E.; Greiser, U.; Sánchez, B.; Fernández, L. E.; Lage, A.; Perez, R.; Böhmer, F. D.

    1997-01-01

    Growth of the EGF receptor-expressing non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line H125 seems to be at least partially driven by autocrine activation of the resident EGF receptors. Thus, the possibility of an EGF receptor-directed antiproliferative treatment was investigated in vitro using a monoclonal antibody (alpha EGFR ior egf/r3) against the human EGF receptor and gangliosides which are known to possess antiproliferative and anti-tyrosine kinase activity. The moderate growth-inhibitory effect of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 was strongly potentiated by the addition of monosialoganglioside GM3. Likewise, the combination of alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 inhibited EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity in H125 cells more strongly than either agent alone. A synergistic inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by alpha EGFR ior egf/r3 and GM3 was also observed in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A431. In both cell lines, the inhibition of EGF receptor autophosphorylation by GM3 was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with pervanadate, a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). Also, GM3 accelerated EGF receptor dephosphorylation in isolated A431 cell membranes. These findings indicate that GM3 has the capacity to activate EGF receptor-directed PTPase activity and suggest a novel possible mechanism for the regulation of cellular PTPases. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9010029

  10. Multiple tyrosine residues at the GABA binding pocket influence surface expression and mediate kinetics of the GABAA receptor.

    PubMed

    Laha, Kurt T; Tran, Phu N

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of aromatic residues in the ligand binding site of the GABA(A) receptor, as with other cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels, is undoubtedly important for the ability of neurotransmitters to bind and trigger channel opening. Here, we have examined three conserved tyrosine residues at the GABA binding pocket (β(2) Tyr97, β(2) Tyr157, and β(2) Tyr205), making mutations to alanine and phenylalanine. We fully characterized the effects each mutation had on receptor function using heterologous expression in HEK-293 cells, which included examining surface expression, kinetics of macroscopic currents, microscopic binding and unbinding rates for an antagonist, and microscopic binding rates for an agonist. The assembly or trafficking of GABA(A) receptors was disrupted when tyrosine mutants were expressed as αβ receptors, but interestingly not when expressed as αβγ receptors. Mutation of each tyrosine accelerated deactivation and slowed GABA binding. This provides strong evidence that these residues influence the binding of GABA. Qualitatively, mutation of each tyrosine has a very similar effect on receptor function; however, mutations at β(2) Tyr157 and β(2) Tyr205 are more detrimental than β(2) Tyr97 mutations, particularly to the GABA binding rate. Overall, the results suggest that interactions involving multiple tyrosine residues are likely during the binding process. PMID:23121119

  11. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor bafetinib inhibits PAR2-induced activation of TRPV4 channels in vitro and pain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Grace, M S; Lieu, T; Darby, B; Abogadie, F C; Veldhuis, N; Bunnett, N W; McIntyre, P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is expressed on nociceptive neurons, and can sensitize transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels to amplify neurogenic inflammation and pain. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. PAR2 causes receptor-operated activation of TRPV4 channels and TRPV4 null mice have attenuated PAR2-stimulated neurogenic inflammation and mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigate the intracellular signalling mechanisms underlying PAR2-induced TRPV4 channel activation and pain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Responses of non-transfected and TRPV4-transfected HEK293 cells to agonists of PAR2 (trypsin and SLIGRL) and TRPV4 channels (GSK1016790A) were determined using calcium imaging. Inhibitors of TRPV4 channels (HC067047), sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase (thapsigargin), Gαq (UBO-QIC), tyrosine kinases (bafetinib and dasatinib) or PI3 kinases (wortmannin and LY294002) were used to investigate signalling mechanisms. In vivo effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on PAR2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia were assessed in mice. KEY RESULTS In non-transfected HEK293 cells, PAR2 activation transiently increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Functional expression of TRPV4 channels caused a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i, inhibited by HC067047, bafetinib and wortmannin; but not by thapsigargin, UBO-QIC, dasatinib or LY294002. Bafetinib but not dasatinib inhibited PAR2-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study supports a role for tyrosine kinases in PAR2-mediated receptor-operated gating of TRPV4 channels, independent of Gαq stimulation. The ability of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor to diminish PAR2-induced activation of TRPV4 channels and consequent mechanical hyperalgesia identifies bafetinib (which is in development in oncology) as a potential novel analgesic therapy. PMID:24779362

  12. The ER structural protein Rtn4A stabilizes and enhances signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB3.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Jason; Wald, Jessica H; Rafidi, Hanine; Cuevas, Antonio; Sweeney, Colleen; Carraway, Kermit L

    2016-01-01

    ErbB3 and ErbB4 are receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by the neuregulin (NRG) family of growth factors. These receptors govern various developmental processes, and their dysregulation contributes to several human disease states. The abundance of ErbB3 and ErbB4, and thus signaling through these receptors, is limited by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1, which targets ErbB3 and ErbB4 for degradation. Reticulons are proteins that influence the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by promoting the formation of tubules, a response of cells to some stressors. We found that the ER structural protein reticulon 4A (Rtn4A, also known as Nogo-A) increased ErbB3 abundance and proliferative signaling by suppressing Nrdp1 function. Rtn4A interacted with Nrdp1 and stabilized ErbB3 in an Nrdp1-dependent manner. Rtn4A overexpression induced the redistribution of Nrdp1 from a cytosolic or perinuclear localization to ER tubules. Rtn4A knockdown in human breast tumor cells decreased ErbB3 abundance, NRG-stimulated signaling, and cellular proliferation and migration. Because proteins destined for the plasma membrane are primarily synthesized in the sheet portions of the ER, our observations suggest that Rtn4A counteracts the Nrdp1-mediated degradation of ErbB3 by sequestering the ubiquitin ligase into ER tubules. The involvement of a reticulon suggests a molecular link between ER structure and the sensitivity of cells to receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated survival signals at the cell surface. PMID:27353365

  13. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the endocytosis and surface expression of GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Dhrubajyoti; Marco, Sonia; Brooks, Ian M; Zandueta, Aitor; Rao, Yijian; Haucke, Volker; Wesseling, John F; Tavalin, Steven J; Pérez-Otaño, Isabel

    2013-02-27

    Selective control of receptor trafficking provides a mechanism for remodeling the receptor composition of excitatory synapses, and thus supports synaptic transmission, plasticity, and development. GluN3A (formerly NR3A) is a nonconventional member of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit family, which endows NMDAR channels with low calcium permeability and reduced magnesium sensitivity compared with NMDARs comprising only GluN1 and GluN2 subunits. Because of these special properties, GluN3A subunits act as a molecular brake to limit the plasticity and maturation of excitatory synapses, pointing toward GluN3A removal as a critical step in the development of neuronal circuitry. However, the molecular signals mediating GluN3A endocytic removal remain unclear. Here we define a novel endocytic motif (YWL), which is located within the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of GluN3A and mediates its binding to the clathrin adaptor AP2. Alanine mutations within the GluN3A endocytic motif inhibited clathrin-dependent internalization and led to accumulation of GluN3A-containing NMDARs at the cell surface, whereas mimicking phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue promoted internalization and reduced cell-surface expression as shown by immunocytochemical and electrophysiological approaches in recombinant systems and rat neurons in primary culture. We further demonstrate that the tyrosine residue is phosphorylated by Src family kinases, and that Src-activation limits surface GluN3A expression in neurons. Together, our results identify a new molecular signal for GluN3A internalization that couples the functional surface expression of GluN3A-containing receptors to the phosphorylation state of GluN3A subunits, and provides a molecular framework for the regulation of NMDAR subunit composition with implications for synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. PMID:23447623

  14. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively. PMID:25460314

  15. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). Evidence for integrated co-receptor function betwenn LRP and the PDGF.

    PubMed

    Loukinova, Elena; Ranganathan, Sripriya; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Gorlatova, Natalia; Migliorini, Mary M; Loukinov, Dmitri; Ulery, Paula G; Mikhailenko, Irina; Lawrence, Daniel A; Strickland, Dudley K

    2002-05-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) functions in the catabolism of numerous ligands including proteinases, proteinase inhibitor complexes, and lipoproteins. In the current study we provide evidence indicating an expanded role for LRP in modulating cellular signaling events. Our results show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB induces a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of the LRP cytoplasmic domain in a process dependent on PDGF receptor activation and c-Src family kinase activity. Other growth factors, including basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, were unable to mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of LRP. The basis for this selectivity may result from the ability of LRP to bind PDGFBB, because surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that only PDGF, and not basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, or insulin-like growth factor-1, bound to purified LRP immobilized on a sensor chip. The use of LRP mini-receptor mutants as well as in vitro phosphorylation studies demonstrated that the tyrosine located within the second NPXY motif found in the LRP cytoplasmic domain is the primary site of tyrosine phosphorylation by Src and Src family kinases. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that PDGF-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of LRPs cytoplasmic domain results in increased association of the adaptor protein Shc with LRP and that Shc recognizes the second NPXY motif within LRPs cytoplasmic domain. In the accompanying paper, Boucher et al. (Boucher, P., Liu, P. V., Gotthardt, M., Hiesberger, T., Anderson, R. G. W., and Herz, J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 15507-15513) reveal that LRP is found in caveolae along with the PDGF receptor. Together, these studies suggest that LRP functions as a co-receptor that modulates signal transduction pathways initiated by the PDGF receptor. PMID:11854294

  16. axl, a transforming gene isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells, encodes a novel receptor tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    O'Bryan, J.P.; Frye, R.A.; Cogswell, P.C.; Neubauer, A.; Kitch, B.; Prokop, C.; Earp, H.S.; Liu, E.T. ); Espinosa, R. III; Le Beau, M.M. )

    1991-10-01

    Using a sensitive transfection-tumorigenicity assay, the authors have isolated a novel transforming gene from the DNA of two patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia. Sequence analysis indicates that the product of this gene, axl, is a receptor tyrosine kinase. Overexpression of axl cDNA in NIH 3T3 cells induces neoplastic transformation with the concomitant appearance of a 140-kDa axl tyrosine-phosphorylated protein. Expression of axl cDNA in the baculovirus system results in the expression of the appropriate recombinant protein that is recognized by antophosphotyrosine antibodies, confirming that the axl protein is a tyrosine kinase. The juxtaposition of fibronectin type II and immunoglobulinlike repeats in the extracellular domain, as well as distinct amino acid sequences in the kinase domain, indicate that the axl protein represents a novel subclass of receptor tyrosine kinases.

  17. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations

    PubMed Central

    Deniger, Drew C.; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M. Helen; Figliola, Matthew J.; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Widhopf, George F.; Hurton, Lenka V.; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E.; Wierda, William G.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  18. Sleeping Beauty Transposition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors Targeting Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Like Orphan Receptor-1 (ROR1) into Diverse Memory T-Cell Populations.

    PubMed

    Deniger, Drew C; Yu, Jianqiang; Huls, M Helen; Figliola, Matthew J; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra N; Widhopf, George F; Hurton, Lenka V; Thokala, Radhika; Singh, Harjeet; Olivares, Simon; Champlin, Richard E; Wierda, William G; Kipps, Thomas J; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2015-01-01

    T cells modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19 demonstrated clinical activity against some B-cell malignancies. However, this is often accompanied by a loss of normal CD19+ B cells and humoral immunity. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor-1 (ROR1) is expressed on sub-populations of B-cell malignancies and solid tumors, but not by healthy B cells or normal post-partum tissues. Thus, adoptive transfer of T cells specific for ROR1 has potential to eliminate tumor cells and spare healthy tissues. To test this hypothesis, we developed CARs targeting ROR1 in order to generate T cells specific for malignant cells. Two Sleeping Beauty transposons were constructed with 2nd generation ROR1-specific CARs signaling through CD3ζ and either CD28 (designated ROR1RCD28) or CD137 (designated ROR1RCD137) and were introduced into T cells. We selected for T cells expressing CAR through co-culture with γ-irradiated activating and propagating cells (AaPC), which co-expressed ROR1 and co-stimulatory molecules. Numeric expansion over one month of co-culture on AaPC in presence of soluble interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-21 occurred and resulted in a diverse memory phenotype of CAR+ T cells as measured by non-enzymatic digital array (NanoString) and multi-panel flow cytometry. Such T cells produced interferon-γ and had specific cytotoxic activity against ROR1+ tumors. Moreover, such cells could eliminate ROR1+ tumor xenografts, especially T cells expressing ROR1RCD137. Clinical trials will investigate the ability of ROR1-specific CAR+ T cells to specifically eliminate tumor cells while maintaining normal B-cell repertoire. PMID:26030772

  19. Structure-Based Network Analysis of Activation Mechanisms in the ErbB Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: The Regulatory Spine Residues Are Global Mediators of Structural Stability and Allosteric Interactions

    PubMed Central

    James, Kevin A.; Verkhivker, Gennady M.

    2014-01-01

    The ErbB protein tyrosine kinases are among the most important cell signaling families and mutation-induced modulation of their activity is associated with diverse functions in biological networks and human disease. We have combined molecular dynamics simulations of the ErbB kinases with the protein structure network modeling to characterize the reorganization of the residue interaction networks during conformational equilibrium changes in the normal and oncogenic forms. Structural stability and network analyses have identified local communities integrated around high centrality sites that correspond to the regulatory spine residues. This analysis has provided a quantitative insight to the mechanism of mutation-induced “superacceptor” activity in oncogenic EGFR dimers. We have found that kinase activation may be determined by allosteric interactions between modules of structurally stable residues that synchronize the dynamics in the nucleotide binding site and the αC-helix with the collective motions of the integrating αF-helix and the substrate binding site. The results of this study have pointed to a central role of the conserved His-Arg-Asp (HRD) motif in the catalytic loop and the Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) motif as key mediators of structural stability and allosteric communications in the ErbB kinases. We have determined that residues that are indispensable for kinase regulation and catalysis often corresponded to the high centrality nodes within the protein structure network and could be distinguished by their unique network signatures. The optimal communication pathways are also controlled by these nodes and may ensure efficient allosteric signaling in the functional kinase state. Structure-based network analysis has quantified subtle effects of ATP binding on conformational dynamics and stability of the EGFR structures. Consistent with the NMR studies, we have found that nucleotide-induced modulation of the residue interaction networks is not limited to the

  20. Adamantyl-Substituted Retinoid-Derived Molecules That Interact with the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner: Effects of Replacing the 1-Adamantyl or Hydroxyl Group on Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth, Induction of Cancer Cell Apoptosis, and Inhibition of Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Marcia I.; Xia, Zebin; Jiang, Tao; Ye, Mao; Fontana, Joseph A.; Farhana, Lulu; Patel, Bhaumik; Xue, Li Ping; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Pellicciari, Roberto; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Nuti, Roberto; Zhang, Xiao-Kun; Han, Young-Hoon; Tautz, Lutz; Hobbs, Peter D.; Jong, Ling; Waleh, Nahid; Chao, Wan-ru; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Pang, Yuhong; Su, Ying

    2014-01-01

    (E)-4-[3-(1-Adamantyl)-4′-hydroxyphenyl]-3-chlorocinnamic acid (3-Cl-AHPC) induces the cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of leukemia and cancer cells. Studies demonstrated that 3-Cl-AHPC bound to the atypical orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). Although missing a DNA-binding domain, SHP heterodimerizes with the ligand-binding domains of other nuclear receptors to repress their abilities to induce or inhibit gene expression. 3-Cl-AHPC analogues having the 1-adamantyl and phenolic hydroxyl pharmacophoric elements replaced with isosteric groups were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their inhibition of proliferation and induction of human cancer cell apoptosis. Structure–anticancer activity relationship studies indicated the importance of both groups to apoptotic activity. Docking of 3-Cl-AHPC and its analogues to an SHP computational model that was based on the crystal structure of ultraspiracle complexed with 1-stearoyl-2-palmitoylglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine suggested why these 3-Cl-AHPC groups could influence SHP activity. Inhibitory activity against Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp-2) was also assessed. The most active Shp-2 inhibitor was found to be the 3′-(3,3-dimethylbutynyl) analogue of 3-Cl-AHPC. PMID:18759424

  1. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is up-regulated in metformin resistant prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nitu; Mishra, Prasun J.; Stein, Mark; DiPaola, Robert S.; Bertino, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies showed that metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug might prevent certain cancers. Metformin also has an anti-proliferative effect in preclinical studies of both hematologic malignancies as well as solid cancers and clinical studies testing metformin as an anti-cancer drug are in progress. However, all cancer types do not respond to metformin with the same effectiveness or acquire resistance. To understand the mechanism of acquired resistance and possibly its mechanism of action as an anti-proliferative agent, we developed metformin resistant LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Metformin resistant LNCaP cells had an increased proliferation rate, increased migration and invasion ability as compared to the parental cells, and expressed markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A detailed gene expression microarray comparing the resistant cells to the wild type cells revealed that Edil2, Ereg, Axl, Anax2, CD44 and Anax3 were the top up-regulated genes and calbindin 2 and TPTE (transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology) and IGF1R were down regulated. We focused on Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been shown to be up regulated in several drug resistance cancers. Here, we show that the metformin resistant cell line as well as castrate resistant cell lines that over express Axl were more resistant to metformin, as well as to taxotere compared to androgen sensitive LNCaP and CWR22 cells that do not overexpress Axl. Forced overexpression of Axl in LNCaP cells decreased metformin and taxotere sensitivity and knockdown of Axl in resistant cells increased sensitivity to these drugs. Inhibition of Axl activity by R428, a small molecule Axl kinase inhibitor, sensitized metformin resistant cells that overexpressed Axl to metformin. Inhibitors of Axl may enhance tumor responses to metformin and other chemotherapy in cancers that over express Axl. PMID:26036314

  2. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta} is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Garcia-Suarez, Olivia; Menendez-Rodriguez, Primitiva; Mortimer, J.; Chang, Y.; Astudillo, A.; Deuel, T.F.

    2007-10-12

    Increasing evidence suggests mutations in human breast cancer cells that induce inappropriate expression of the 18-kDa cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) initiate progression of breast cancers to a more malignant phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals through inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP){beta}/{zeta}, leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of different substrate proteins of RPTP{beta}/{zeta}, including {beta}-catenin, {beta}-adducin, Fyn, GIT1/Cat-1, and P190RhoGAP. PTN signaling thus has wide impact on different important cellular systems. Recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway; this discovery potentially is very important, since constitutive ALK activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein is causative of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and, activated ALK is found in other malignant cancers. Recently ALK was identified in each of 63 human breast cancers from 22 subjects. We now demonstrate that RPTP{beta}/{zeta} is expressed in each of these same 63 human breast cancers that previously were found to express ALK and in 10 additional samples of human breast cancer. RPTP{beta}/{zeta} furthermore was localized not only in its normal association with the cell membrane but also scattered in cytoplasm and in nuclei in different breast cancer cells and, in the case of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the distribution of RPTP{beta}/{zeta} changes as the breast cancer become more malignant. The data suggest that the PTN/RPTP{beta}/{zeta} signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer.

  3. Catalytic and substrate promiscuity: distinct multiple chemistries catalysed by the phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Marks, Hanna; Mitra, Sreyoshi; Smalley, David M; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-07-15

    The presence of latent activities in enzymes is posited to underlie the natural evolution of new catalytic functions. However, the prevalence and extent of such substrate and catalytic ambiguity in evolved enzymes is difficult to address experimentally given the order-of-magnitude difference in the activities for native and, sometimes, promiscuous substrate/s. Further, such latent functions are of special interest when the activities concerned do not fall into the domain of substrate promiscuity. In the present study, we show a special case of such latent enzyme activity by demonstrating the presence of two mechanistically distinct reactions catalysed by the catalytic domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase isoform δ (PTPRδ). The primary catalytic activity involves the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester bond (C─O─P) with high catalytic efficiency, whereas the secondary activity is the hydrolysis of a glycosidic bond (C─O─C) with poorer catalytic efficiency. This enzyme also displays substrate promiscuity by hydrolysing diester bonds while being highly discriminative for its monoester substrates. To confirm these activities, we also demonstrated their presence on the catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase Ω (PTPRΩ), a homologue of PTPRδ. Studies on the rate, metal-ion dependence, pH dependence and inhibition of the respective activities showed that they are markedly different. This is the first study that demonstrates a novel sugar hydrolase and diesterase activity for the phosphatase domain (PD) of PTPRδ and PTPRΩ. This work has significant implications for both understanding the evolution of enzymatic activity and the possible physiological role of this new chemistry. Our findings suggest that the genome might harbour a wealth of such alternative latent enzyme activities in the same protein domain that renders our knowledge of metabolic networks incomplete. PMID:27208174

  4. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase psi is required for Delta/Notch signalling and cyclic gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Aerne, Birgit; Ish-Horowicz, David

    2004-07-01

    Segmentation in vertebrate embryos is controlled by a biochemical oscillator ('segmentation clock') intrinsic to the cells in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm, and is manifested in cyclic transcription of genes involved in establishing somite polarity and boundaries. We show that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase psi (RPTPpsi) gene is essential for normal functioning of the somitogenesis clock in zebrafish. We show that reduction of RPTPpsi activity using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides results in severe disruption of the segmental pattern of the embryo, and loss of cyclic gene expression in the presomitic mesoderm. Analysis of cyclic genes in RPTPpsi morphant embryos indicates an important requirement for RPTPpsi in the control of the somitogenesis clock upstream of or in parallel with Delta/Notch signalling. Impairing RPTPpsi activity also interferes with convergent extension during gastrulation. We discuss this dual requirement for RPTPpsi in terms of potential functions in Notch and Wnt signalling. PMID:15226256

  5. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is required for T cell priming and antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Edward T; Pang, Iris K; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; Bosurgi, Lidia; Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S; Iwasaki, Akiko; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL is induced in response to type I interferons (IFNs) and limits their production through a negative feedback loop. Enhanced production of type I IFNs in Axl(-/-) dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro have led to speculation that inhibition of AXL would promote antiviral responses. Notwithstanding, type I IFNs also exert potent immunosuppressive functions. Here we demonstrate that ablation of AXL enhances the susceptibility to infection by influenza A virus and West Nile virus. The increased type I IFN response in Axl(-/-) mice was associated with diminished DC maturation, reduced production of IL-1β, and defective antiviral T cell immunity. Blockade of type I IFN receptor or administration of IL-1β to Axl(-/-) mice restored the antiviral adaptive response and control of infection. Our results demonstrate that AXL is essential for limiting the immunosuppressive effects of type I IFNs and enabling the induction of protective antiviral adaptive immunity. PMID:27350258

  6. Radiation induction of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene Ptk-3 in normal rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, S.; Hideyuki, S.; Akihiro, I.

    1995-07-01

    Radiation-induced gene expression was examined in rat astrocyte cultures using differential display of mRNA via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A 0.3-kb cDNA that was consistently observed in irradiated cultures but not in unirradiated cultures was cloned and sequenced. It was found to be identical to Ptk-3, a receptor tyrosine kinase gene identified recently. The protein encoded by Ptk-3 is a member of a novel class of receptor tyrosine kinases whose extracellular domain contains regions of homology with coagulation factors V and VIII and complement component C1. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of Ptk-3 was increased in rat astrocytes by 0.5 h after exposure to 10 Gy and remained at the same elevated level for at least 24 h. The maximum increase occurred after 5 Gy cloning studies indicated the presence of at least two Ptk-3 mRNA transcripts, which are probable the result of an alternative splicing mechanism. The short isoform lacks a 37 amino acid sequence in the glycine/proline-rich juxtamembrane region. The splicing pattern of the Ptk-3 gene was not altered by radiation. However, the ratios of the longer to the shorter mRNA transcripts differed between adult cortex, neonatal cortex and in vitro astrocyte cultures. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Role of Receptor Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase γ in Sensing Extracellular CO2 and HCO3.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuehan; Skelton, Lara A; Xu, Lumei; Chandler, Margaret P; Berthiaume, Jessica M; Boron, Walter F

    2016-09-01

    Regulation of blood pH-critical for virtually every facet of life-requires that the renal proximal tubule (PT) adjust its rate of H(+) secretion (nearly the same as the rate of HCO3 (-) reabsorption, JHCO3 ) in response to changes in blood [CO2] and [HCO3 (-)]. Yet CO2/HCO3 (-) sensing mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Because receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors render JHCO3 in the PT insensitive to changes in CO2 concentration, we hypothesized that the structural features of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-γ (RPTPγ) that are consistent with binding of extracellular CO2 or HCO3 (-) facilitate monitoring of blood CO2/HCO3 (-) concentrations. We now report that PTs express RPTPγ on blood-facing membranes. Moreover, RPTPγ deletion in mice eliminated the CO2 and HCO3 (-) sensitivities of JHCO3 as well as the normal defense of blood pH during whole-body acidosis. Thus, RPTPγ appears to be a novel extracellular CO2/HCO3 (-) sensor critical for pH homeostasis. PMID:26839367

  8. Multiple Functions of Let-23, a Caenorhabditis Elegans Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene Required for Vulval Induction

    PubMed Central

    Aroian, R. V.; Sternberg, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    The let-23 gene, which encodes a putative tyrosine kinase of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor subfamily, has multiple functions during Caenorhabditis elegans development. We show that let-23 function is required for vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to respond to the signal that induces vulval differentiation: a complete loss of let-23 function results in no induction. However, some let-23 mutations that genetically reduce but do not eliminate let-23 function result in VPCs apparently hypersensitive to inductive signal: as many as five of six VPCs can adopt vulval fates, in contrast to the three that normally do. These results suggest that the let-23 receptor tyrosine kinase controls two opposing pathways, one that stimulates vulval differentiation and another that negatively regulates vulval differentiation. Furthermore, analysis of 16 new let-23 mutations indicates that the let-23 kinase functions in at least five tissues. Since various let-23 mutant phenotypes can be obtained independently, the let-23 gene is likely to have tissue-specific functions. PMID:2071015

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GluK2 up-regulates kainate receptor-mediated responses and downstream signaling after brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiu-Ju; Kong, Fan-Shu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Yi; Du, Cai-Ping; Sun, Chang-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Li, Ting; Hou, Xiao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Although kainate receptors play important roles in ischemic stroke, the molecular mechanisms underlying postischemic regulation of kainate receptors remain unclear. In this study we demonstrate that Src family kinases contribute to the potentiation of kainate receptor function. Brain ischemia and reperfusion induce rapid and sustained phosphorylation of the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 by Src in the rat hippocampus, implicating a critical role for Src-mediated GluK2 phosphorylation in ischemic brain injury. The NMDA and kainate receptors are involved in the tyrosine phosphorylation of GluK2. GluK2 binds to Src, and the tyrosine residue at position 590 (Y590) on GluK2 is a major site of phosphorylation by Src kinases. GluK2 phosphorylation at Y590 is responsible for increases in whole-cell currents and calcium influx in response to transient kainate stimulation. In addition, GluK2 phosphorylation at Y590 facilitates the endocytosis of GluK2 subunits, and the activation of JNK3 and its substrate c-Jun after long-term kainate treatment. Thus, Src phosphorylation of GluK2 plays an important role in the opening of kainate receptor channels and downstream proapoptosis signaling after brain ischemia. The present study reveals an additional mechanism for the regulation of GluK2-containing kainate receptors by Src family kinases, which may be of pathological significance in ischemic stroke. PMID:25201974

  10. The Novel Smad Protein Expansion Regulates Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Pathway to Control Drosophila Tracheal Tube Size

    PubMed Central

    Iordanou, Ekaterini; Chandran, Rachana R.; Yang, Yonghua; Essak, Mina; Blackstone, Nicholas; Jiang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Tubes with distinct shapes and sizes are critical for the proper function of many tubular organs. Here we describe a unique phenotype caused by the loss of a novel, evolutionarily-conserved, Drosophila Smad-like protein, Expansion. In expansion mutants, unicellular and intracellular tracheal branches develop bubble-like cysts with enlarged apical membranes. Cysts in unicellular tubes are enlargements of the apical lumen, whereas cysts in intracellular tubes are cytoplasmic vacuole-like compartments. The cyst phenotype in expansion mutants is similar to, but weaker than, that observed in double mutants of Drosophila type III receptor tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs), Ptp4E and Ptp10D. Ptp4E and Ptp10D negatively regulate the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, especially epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor/breathless (FGFR, Btl) signaling to maintain the proper size of unicellular and intracellular tubes. We show Exp genetically interacts with RTK signaling, the downstream targets of RPTPs. Cyst size and number in expansion mutants is enhanced by increased RTK signaling and suppressed by reduced RTK signaling. Genetic interaction studies strongly suggest that Exp negatively regulates RTK (EGFR, Btl) signaling to ensure proper tube sizes. Smad proteins generally function as intermediate components of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, DPP) signaling pathway. However, no obvious genetic interaction between expansion and TGF-β (DPP) signaling was observed. Therefore, Expansion does not function as a typical Smad protein. The expansion phenotype demonstrates a novel role for Smad-like proteins in epithelial tube formation. PMID:24973580

  11. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival

    PubMed Central

    Vajkoczy, Peter; Knyazev, Pjotr; Kunkel, Andrea; Capelle, Hans-Holger; Behrndt, Sandra; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Kiessling, Fabian; Eichelsbacher, Uta; Essig, Marco; Read, Tracy-Ann; Erber, Ralf; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Malignant gliomas remain incurable brain tumors because of their diffuse-invasive growth. So far, the genetic and molecular events underlying gliomagenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion. We demonstrate that Axl and its ligand Gas6 are overexpressed in human glioma cell lines and that Axl is activated under baseline conditions. Furthermore, Axl is expressed at high levels in human malignant glioma. Inhibition of Axl signaling by overexpression of a dominant-negative receptor mutant (AXL-DN) suppressed experimental gliomagenesis (growth inhibition >85%, P < 0.05) and resulted in long-term survival of mice after intracerebral glioma cell implantation when compared with Axl wild-type (AXL-WT) transfected tumor cells (survival times: AXL-WT, 10 days; AXL-DN, >72 days). A detailed analysis of the distinct hallmarks of glioma pathology, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and tumor angiogenesis, revealed that inhibition of Axl signaling interfered with cell proliferation (inhibition 30% versus AXL-WT), glioma cell migration (inhibition 90% versus mock and AXL-WT, P < 0.05), and invasion (inhibition 62% and 79% versus mock and AXL-WT, respectively; P < 0.05). This study describes the identification, functional manipulation, in vitro and in vivo validation, and preclinical therapeutic inhibition of a target receptor tyrosine kinase mediating glioma growth and invasion. Our findings implicate Axl in gliomagenesis and validate it as a promising target for the development of approaches toward a therapy of these highly aggressive but, as yet, therapy-refractory, tumors. PMID:16585512

  12. Preclinical and first-in-human phase I studies of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with insulin-like growth factor receptor-1/insulin receptor selectivity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary K; Dickson, Mark A; LoRusso, Patricia M; Sausville, Edward A; Maekawa, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Kashima, Naomi; Nakashima, Daisuke; Akinaga, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Numerous solid tumors overexpress or have excessively activated insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R). We summarize preclinical studies and the first-in-human study of KW-2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with IGF-1R and insulin receptor (IR) inhibitory activity. Preclinical activity of KW-2450 was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo models. It was then evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in 13 patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT00921336). In vitro, KW-2450 inhibited human IGF-1R and IR kinases (IC50 7.39 and 5.64 nmol/L, respectively) and the growth of various human malignant cell lines. KW-2450 40 mg/kg showed modest growth inhibitory activity and inhibited IGF-1-induced signal transduction in the murine HT-29/GFP colon carcinoma xenograft model. The maximum tolerated dose of KW-2450 was 37.5 mg once daily continuously; dose-limiting toxicity occurred in two of six patients at 50 mg/day (both grade 3 hyperglycemia) and in one of seven patients at 37.5 mg/day (grade 3 rash). Four of 10 evaluable patients showed stable disease. Single-agent KW-2450 was associated with modest antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with solid tumors and is being further investigated in combination therapy with lapatinib/letrozole in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-postive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26850678

  13. Identification of tyrosines 154 and 307 in the extracellular domain and 653 and 766 in the intracellular domain as phosphorylation sites in the heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (flg).

    PubMed Central

    Hou, J.; McKeehan, K.; Kan, M.; Carr, S. A.; Huddleston, M. J.; Crabb, J. W.; McKeehan, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    Four tyrosine residues have been identified as phosphorylation sites in the tyrosine kinase isoform of the heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor receptor flg (FGF-R1). Baculoviral-insect cell-derived recombinant FGF-R1 was phosphorylated and fragmented with trypsin while immobilized on heparin-agarose beads. Phosphotyrosine peptides were purified by chromatography on immobilized anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and analyzed by Edman degradation and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Tyrosine residue 653, which is in a homologous spatial position to major autophosphorylation sites in the catalytic domain of the src and insulin receptor kinases, is the major intracellular FGF-R1 phosphorylation site. Residue 766 in the COOH-terminus outside the kinase domain is a secondary site. Tyrosine residues 154 and 307, which are in the extracellular domain of transmembrane receptor isoforms and are in an unusual sequence context for tyrosine phosphorylation, were also phosphorylated. PMID:8443592

  14. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of SGEF Regulates RhoG Activity and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Yusuke; Umeda, Kentaro; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    SGEF and Ephexin4 are members of the Ephexin subfamily of RhoGEFs that specifically activate the small GTPase RhoG. It is reported that Ephexin1 and Ephexin5, two well-characterized Ephexin subfamily RhoGEFs, are tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src, and that their phosphorylation affect their activities and functions. In this study, we show that SGEF, but not Ephexin4, is tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src. Tyrosine phosphorylation of SGEF suppresses its interaction with RhoG, the elevation of RhoG activity, and SGEF-mediated promotion of cell migration. We identified tyrosine 530 (Y530), which is located within the Dbl homology domain, as a major phosphorylation site of SGEF by Src, and Y530F mutation blocked the inhibitory effect of Src on SGEF. Taken together, these results suggest that the activity of SGEF is negatively regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of the DH domain. PMID:27437949

  15. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Laura R; Ather, Jennifer L; Randall, Matthew J; DePuccio, Daniel P; Landry, Christopher C; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-15

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol, and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation or N-methyl-d-asparate receptor inhibition but were associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other

  16. A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, So Jung; Park, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jung Jin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. {yields} Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

  17. erbB3 Is an Active Tyrosine Kinase Capable of Homo- and Heterointeractions

    PubMed Central

    Steinkamp, Mara P.; Low-Nam, Shalini T.; Yang, Shujie; Lidke, Keith A.; Lidke, Diane S.

    2014-01-01

    Often considered to be a “dead” kinase, erbB3 is implicated in escape from erbB-targeted cancer therapies. Here, heregulin stimulation is shown to markedly upregulate kinase activity in erbB3 immunoprecipitates. Intact, activated erbB3 phosphorylates tyrosine sites in an exogenous peptide substrate, and this activity is abolished by mutagenesis of lysine 723 in the catalytic domain. Enhanced erbB3 kinase activity is linked to heterointeractions with catalytically active erbB2, since it is largely blocked in cells pretreated with lapatinib or pertuzumab. erbB2 activation of erbB3 is not dependent on equal surface levels of these receptors, since it occurs even in erbB3-transfected CHO cells with disproportionally small amounts of erbB2. We tested a model in which transient erbB3/erbB2 heterointeractions set the stage for erbB3 homodimers to be signaling competent. erbB3 homo- and heterodimerization events were captured in real time on live cells using single-particle tracking of quantum dot probes bound to ligand or hemagglutinin tags on recombinant receptors. PMID:24379439

  18. The sustained phase of tyrosine hydroxylase activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ong, Lin Kooi; Sominsky, Luba; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M; Dunkley, Peter R

    2012-09-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for catecholamine synthesis. Stress triggers an increase in TH activity, resulting in increased release of catecholamines from both neurons and the adrenal medulla. In response to stress three phases of TH activation have been identified (acute, sustained and chronic) and each phase has a unique mechanism. The acute and chronic phases have been studied in vivo in a number of animal models, but to date the sustained phase has only been characterised in vitro. We aimed to investigate the effects of dual exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in neonatal rats on TH protein, TH phosphorylation at serine residues 19, 31 and 40 and TH activity in the adrenal gland over the sustained phase. Wistar rats were administered LPS (0.05 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) or an equivolume of non-pyrogenic saline on days 3 and 5 postpartum. Adrenal glands were collected at 4, 24 and 48 h after the drug exposure on day 5. Neonatal LPS treatment resulted in increases in TH phosphorylation of Ser40 at 4 and 24 h, TH phosphorylation of Ser31 at 24 h, TH activity at 4 and 24 h and TH protein at 48 h. We therefore have provided evidence for the first time that TH phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 occurs for up to 24 h in vivo and leads to TH activation independent of TH protein synthesis, suggesting that the sustained phase of TH activation occurs in vivo. PMID:22684282

  19. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mimche, Patrice N.; Brady, Lauren M.; Bray, Christian F.; Mimche, Sylvie M.; Thapa, Manoj; King, Thayer P.; Quicke, Kendra; McDermott, Courtney D.; Lee, Choon M.; Grakoui, Arash; Morgan, Edward T.; Lamb, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the well-defined role of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinases in developmental processes, cell motility, cell trafficking/adhesion and cancer, nothing is known about their involvement in liver pathologies. During blood-stage rodent malaria infection we have found that EphB2 transcripts and proteins were upregulated in the liver, a result likely driven by elevated surface expression on immune cells including macrophages. This was significant for malaria pathogenesis because EphB2−/− mice were protected from malaria-induced liver fibrosis despite having a similar liver parasite burden compared with littermate control mice. This protection was correlated with a defect in the inflammatory potential of hepatocytes from EphB2−/− mice resulting in a reduction in adhesion molecules, chemokines/chemokines receptors RNA levels and infiltration of leukocytes including macrophages/Kupffer cells which mediate liver fibrosis during rodent malaria infections. These observations are recapitulated in the well-established carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) model of liver fibrosis in which EphB2−/− CCL4-treated mice showed a significant reduction of liver fibrosis compared to CCL4-treated littermate mice. Depletion of macrophages by clodronate-liposome abrogates liver EphB2 mRNA and proteins up-regulation and fibrosis in malaria-infected mice. Conclusion: During rodent malaria, EphB2 expression promotes malaria-associated liver fibrosis. To our knowledge, our data is the first to reveal the implication of the EphB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in liver fibrosis or in the pathogenesis of malaria infection. PMID:25784101

  20. Function of redox-active tyrosine in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2006-06-01

    Water oxidation at photosystem II Mn-cluster is mediated by the redox-active tyrosine Y(Z). We calculated the redox potential (E(m)) of Y(Z) and its symmetrical counterpart Y(D), by solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The calculated E(m)(Y( )/Y(-)) were +926 mV/+694 mV for Y(Z)/Y(D) with the Mn-cluster in S2 state. Together with the asymmetric position of the Mn-cluster relative to Y(Z/D), differences in H-bond network between Y(Z) (Y(Z)/D1-His(190)/D1-Asn(298)) and Y(D) (Y(D)/D2-His(189)/D2-Arg(294)/CP47-Glu(364)) are crucial for E(m)(Y(Z/D)). When D1-His(190) is protonated, corresponding to a thermally activated state, the calculated E(m)(Y(Z)) was +1216 mV, which is as high as the E(m) for P(D1/D2). We observed deprotonation at CP43-Arg(357) upon S-state transition, which may suggest its involvement in the proton exit pathway. E(m)(Y(D)) was affected by formation of P(D2)(+) (but not P(D1)(+)) and sensitive to the protonation state of D2-Arg(180). This points to an electrostatic link between Y(D) and P(D2). PMID:16513785

  1. Pyridazinone derivatives displaying highly potent and selective inhibitory activities against c-Met tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Jin, Shiyu; Peng, Xia; Lu, Dong; Zeng, Limin; Sun, Yiming; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Hu, Youhong

    2016-01-27

    Over activation of c-Met tyrosine kinase is known to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis, as well as to cause therapeutic resistance. Herein we describe the design, synthesis and biological activities of novel, ATP-competitive, c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are members of the 6-aryl-2-(3-(heteroarylamino)benzyl)pyridazinone family. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of these substances led to identification of pyridazinone 19 as a highly selective and potent c-Met tyrosine inhibitor, which displays favorable pharmacokinetic properties in mice and significant antitumor activity against a c-Met driven EBC-1 tumor xenograft. PMID:26698536

  2. The Ephrin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase A2 is a Cellular Receptor for Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Alexander; Kaufmann, Johanna; Wies, Effi; Naschberger, Elisabeth; Panteleev-Ivlev, Julia; Schmidt, Katharina; Holzer, Angela; Schmidt, Martin; Chen, Jin; König, Simone; Ensser, Armin; Myoung, Jinjong; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; Stürzl, Michael; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Neipel, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the human oncovirus which causes Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a highly vascularised tumour originating from lymphatic endothelial cells. Amongst others, the dimeric complex formed by the KSHV virion envelope glycoproteins H and L (gH/gL) is required for entry of herpesviruses into the host cell. We show that the Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is a cellular receptor for KSHV gH/gL. EphA2 co-precipitated with both gH/gL and KSHV virions. KSHV infection rates were increased upon over-expression of EphA2. In contrast, antibodies against EphA2 and siRNAs directed against EphA2 inhibited KSHV infection of lymphatic endothelial cells. Pretreatment of KSHV virions with soluble EphA2 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of KSHV infection by up to 90%. Similarly, pretreating cells with the soluble EphA2 ligand EphrinA4 but not with EphA2 itself impaired KSHV infection. Notably, deletion of the EphA2 gene essentially abolished KSHV infection of murine vascular endothelial cells. Binding of gH/gL to EphA2 triggered EphA2 phosphorylation and endocytosis, a major pathway of KSHV entry. Quantitative RT-PCR and situ histochemistry revealed a close correlation between KSHV infection and EphA2 expression both in cultured cells derived from KS or lymphatic endothelium and in KS specimens, respectively. Taken together, these results identify EphA2, a tyrosine kinase with known functions in neo-vascularisation and oncogenesis, as receptor for KSHV gH/gL and implicate an important role for EphA2 in KSHV infection especially of endothelial cells and in KS. PMID:22635007

  3. Linifanib (ABT-869) Potentiates the Efficacy of Chemotherapeutic Agents through the Suppression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase-Mediated AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Guo, Jiawei; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Jieqiong; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer, highly dependent on tumor angiogenesis, causes uncontrolled lethality, in part due to chemoresistance. Here, we demonstrate that linifanib (ABT-869), a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, markedly augments cytotoxicity of chemotherapies in human gastric cancer. ABT-869 and chemotherapeutic agents exhibited a strong synergy to inhibit the viability of several gastric cancer cell lines, with combination index values ranging from 0.017 to 0.589. Additionally, the combination of ABT-869 and chemotherapeutic agents led to remarkable suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, in a preclinical gastric cancer xenograft mouse model, drug co-treatments led to increased mouse survival as well as a synergistic reduction in tumor size and the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Mechanistic studies further revealed that all of the co-treatments containing ABT-869 resulted in decreased activation of the VEGF receptor, the epidermal growth factor receptor and the insulin growth factor receptor. Inhibition of these receptor tyrosine kinases consequently attenuated the activation of the downstream AKT/mTOR signaling pathway both in cultured gastric cancer cells and in gastric cancer xenografts. Collectively, our findings suggest that the addition of ABT-869 to traditional chemotherapies may be a promising strategy for the treatment of human gastric cancer. PMID:27387652

  4. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Caspase-8 Abrogates Its Apoptotic Activity and Promotes Activation of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Jennifer LY; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Plant, Pamela; Lodyga, Monika; Charbonney, Emmanuel; Szaszi, Katalin; Kapus, Andras; Marshall, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Src family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) phosphorylate caspase-8A at tyrosine (Y) 397 resulting in suppression of apoptosis. In addition, the phosphorylation of caspase-8A at other sites including Y465 has been implicated in the regulation of caspase-8 activity. However, the functional consequences of these modifications on caspase-8 processing/activity have not been elucidated. Moreover, various Src substrates are known to act as potent Src regulators, but no such role has been explored for caspase-8. We asked whether the newly identified caspase-8 phosphorylation sites might regulate caspase-8 activation and conversely, whether caspase-8 phosphorylation might affect Src activity. Here we show that Src phosphorylates caspase-8A at multiple tyrosine sites; of these, we have focused on Y397 within the linker region and Y465 within the p12 subunit of caspase-8A. We show that phosphomimetic mutation of caspase-8A at Y465 prevents its cleavage and the subsequent activation of caspase-3 and suppresses apoptosis. Furthermore, simultaneous phosphomimetic mutation of caspase-8A at Y397 and Y465 promotes the phosphorylation of c-Src at Y416 and increases c-Src activity. Finally, we demonstrate that caspase-8 activity prevents its own tyrosine phosphorylation by Src. Together these data reveal that dual phosphorylation converts caspase-8 from a pro-apoptotic to a pro-survival mediator. Specifically, tyrosine phosphorylation by Src renders caspase-8 uncleavable and thereby inactive, and at the same time converts it to a Src activator. This novel dynamic interplay between Src and caspase-8 likely acts as a potent signal-integrating switch directing the cell towards apoptosis or survival. PMID:27101103

  5. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Promising Tools for Targeted Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs are widely used in the treatment of cancer. In spite of the improvements in the life quality of patients, their effectiveness is compromised by several disadvantages. This represents a demand for developing new effective strategies with focusing on tumor cells and minimum side effects. Targeted cancer therapies and personalized medicine have been defined as a new type of emerging treatments. Small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) are among the most effective drugs for targeted cancer therapy. The growing number of approved SMIs of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the clinical oncology imply the increasing attention and application of these therapeutic tools. Most of the current approved RTK–TKIs in preclinical and clinical settings are multi-targeted inhibitors with several side effects. Only a few specific/selective RTK–TKIs have been developed for the treatment of cancer patients. Specific/selective RTK–TKIs have shown less deleterious effects compared to multi-targeted inhibitors. This review intends to highlight the importance of specific/selective TKIs for future development with less side effects and more manageable agents. This article provides an overview of: (1) the characteristics and function of RTKs and TKIs; (2) the recent advances in the improvement of specific/selective RTK–TKIs in preclinical or clinical settings; and (3) emerging RTKs for targeted cancer therapies by TKIs. PMID:25110867

  6. Neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 is a direct transcriptional and epigenetic target of IL-13 involved in allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Rochman, M.; Kartashov, A.V.; Caldwell, J.M.; Collins, M.H.; Stucke, E.M.; Kc, K.; Sherrill, J.D.; Herren, J.; Barski, A.; Rothenberg, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Although IL-13 and neurotrophins are functionally important for the pathogenesis of immune responses, the interaction of these pathways has not been explored. Herein, by interrogating IL-13–induced responses in human epithelial cells we show that neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 1 (NTRK1), a cognate, high-affinity receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF), is an early transcriptional IL-13 target. Induction of NTRK1 was accompanied by accumulation of activating epigenetic marks in the promoter; transcriptional and epigenetic changes were STAT6-dependent. Using eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) as a model for human allergic inflammation, we found that NTRK1 was increased in inflamed tissue, dynamically expressed as a function of disease activity, and the downstream mediator of NTRK1 signaling early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein was elevated in allergic inflammatory tissue compared with control tissue. Unlike NTRK1, its ligand NGF was constitutively expressed in control and disease states, indicating that IL-13–stimulated NTRK1 induction is a limiting factor in pathway activation. In epithelial cells, NGF and IL-13 synergistically induced several target genes, including CCL26 (eotaxin-3). In summary, we have demonstrated that IL-13 confers epithelial cell responsiveness to NGF by regulating NTRK1 levels by a transcriptional and epigenetic mechanism and that this process likely contributes to allergic inflammation. PMID:25389033

  7. Tyrosine receptor kinase B silencing inhibits anoikis‑resistance and improves anticancer efficiency of sorafenib in human renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Xing, Zengshu; Li, Xuechao; Song, Yarong; Zhao, Jun; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2016-04-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid neoplasm of adult kidney, and the major treatment for metastatic RCC (mRCC) is molecular targeted therapy. Sorafenib, as a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has significantly improved clinical outcomes of mRCC patients. However, complete or long-term remissions are rarely achieved due to intolerance to dose-related adverse effects. It is therefore, necessary to explore novel target molecules for treatment or to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of present TKI for mRCC treatment. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis that plays a vital physiological role in regulating tissue homoeostasis. Anoikis-resistance is of critical importance for metastasis of various human cancers including mRCC. However, the precise mechanisms on anoikis-resistance in mRCC are still unclear. Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) belongs to the Trk family of neurotrophin receptors. Previous investigations have implied that activation or overexpression of TrkB promoted proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, anoikis-resistance and metastasis in human cancers. Yet, the correlation between TrkB and anoikis-resistance in mRCC has rarely been reported. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of TrkB on anoikis-resistance and targeted therapy in mRCC. Our data revealed that anoikis-resistant ACHN cells presented with tolerance to detachment-induced apoptosis, excessive proliferation and aggressive invasion, accompanied by upregulation of TrkB expression in contrast to parental cells. Furthermore, TrkB silencing caused apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, retarded invasion as well as improved anticancer efficiency of sorafenib in anoikis-resistant ACHN cells through inactivation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways. Our data may offer a novel potential therapeutic strategy for mRCC. PMID:26820170

  8. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  9. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  10. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 acts in skin cells to promote sensory dendrite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianzhuang; Wang, Xiangming; Shen, Kang

    2016-05-01

    Sensory dendrite morphogenesis is directed by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The extracellular environment plays instructive roles in patterning dendrite growth and branching. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the proprioceptive neuron PVD forms highly branched sensory dendrites adjacent to the hypodermis. We report that receptor tyrosine phosphatase CLR-1 functions in the hypodermis to pattern the PVD dendritic branches. Mutations in clr-1 lead to loss of quaternary branches, reduced secondary branches and increased ectopic branches. CLR-1 is necessary for the dendrite extension but not for the initial filopodia formation. Its role is dependent on the intracellular phosphatase domain but not the extracellular adhesion domain, indicating that it functions through dephosphorylating downstream factors but not through direct adhesion with neurons. Genetic analysis reveals that clr-1 also functions in parallel with SAX-7/DMA-1 pathway to control PVD primary dendrite development. We provide evidence of a new environmental factor for PVD dendrite morphogenesis. PMID:26968353

  11. Structural Recognition of an Optimized Substrate for the Ephrin family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Parker, Sirlester A.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2010-01-01

    Summary Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A3 (EphA3, EC 2.7.10.1) is a member of a unique branch of the kinome in which downstream signaling occurs in both ligand- and receptor- expressing cells. Consequently the ephrins and ephrin RTKs often mediate processes involving cell:cell contact, including cellular adhesion or repulsion, developmental remodeling, and neuronal mapping. The receptor is also frequently overexpressed in invasive cancers, including breast, small-cell lung and gastrointestinal cancers. However, little is known about direct substrates of EphA3 kinase and no chemical probes are available. Using a library approach, we found a short peptide sequence that is a good substrate for EphA3 and that is suitable for cocrystallization studies. Complex structures show multiple contacts between kinase and substrates, and in particular two residues undergo conformational changes and by mutation are found to be important for substrate binding and turnover. In addition, a difference in catalytic efficiency between EPH kinase family members is observed. These results provide insight into the mechanism of substrate binding to these developmentally integral enzymes. PMID:19678838

  12. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Controls Dendritic Complexity, Spine Morphogenesis, and Glutamatergic Synapse Maturation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongming; Levitt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), implicated in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in functional and structural circuit integrity in humans, is a temporally and spatially regulated receptor enriched in dorsal pallial-derived structures during mouse forebrain development. Here we report that loss or gain of function of MET in vitro or in vivo leads to changes, opposite in nature, in dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and the timing of glutamatergic synapse maturation onto hippocampus CA1 neurons. Consistent with the morphological and biochemical changes, deletion of Met in mutant mice results in precocious maturation of excitatory synapse, as indicated by a reduction of the proportion of silent synapses, a faster GluN2A subunit switch, and an enhanced acquisition of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. Thus, MET-mediated signaling appears to serve as a mechanism for controlling the timing of neuronal growth and functional maturation. These studies suggest that mistimed maturation of glutamatergic synapses leads to the aberrant neural circuits that may be associated with ASD risk. PMID:25471559

  13. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is a discriminator of macrophage function in the inflamed lung

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manminder; Bell, Thomas J; Fujino, Naoya; Cook, Peter C; Svedberg, Freya R; MacDonald, Andrew S; Maciewicz, Rose A; Singh, Dave; Hussell, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Much of the biology surrounding macrophage functional specificity has arisen through examining inflammation-induced polarising signals, but this also occurs in homeostasis, requiring tissue-specific environmental triggers that influence macrophage phenotype and function. The TAM receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (Tyro3, Axl and MerTK) mediates the non-inflammatory removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes through the bridging phosphatidylserine-binding molecules Gas6 or Protein S. We show that one such TAM receptor (Axl) is exclusively expressed on mouse airway macrophages, but not interstitial macrophages and other lung leukocytes, under homeostatic conditions and is constitutively ligated to Gas6. Axl expression is potently induced by GM-CSF expressed in the healthy and inflamed airway, and by type I interferon or TLR3 stimulation on human and mouse macrophages, indicating potential involvement of Axl in apoptotic cell removal under inflammatory conditions. Indeed, an absence of Axl does not cause sterile inflammation in health, but leads to exaggerated lung inflammatory disease upon influenza infection. These data imply that Axl allows specific identification of airway macrophages, and that its expression is critical for macrophage functional compartmentalisation in the airspaces or lung interstitium. We propose that this may be a critical feature to prevent excessive inflammation due to secondary necrosis of apoptotic cells that have not been cleared by efferocytosis. PMID:25603826

  14. Whole Genome Duplications Shaped the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Repertoire of Jawed Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Frédéric G.; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene family, involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, comprises proteins with a common enzymatic tyrosine kinase intracellular domain adjacent to a transmembrane region. The amino-terminal portion of RTKs is extracellular and made of different domains, the combination of which characterizes each of the 20 RTK subfamilies among mammals. We analyzed a total of 7,376 RTK sequences among 143 vertebrate species to provide here the first comprehensive census of the jawed vertebrate repertoire. We ascertained the 58 genes previously described in the human and mouse genomes and established their phylogenetic relationships. We also identified five additional RTKs amounting to a total of 63 genes in jawed vertebrates. We found that the vertebrate RTK gene family has been shaped by the two successive rounds of whole genome duplications (WGD) called 1R and 2R (1R/2R) that occurred at the base of the vertebrates. In addition, the Vegfr and Ephrin receptor subfamilies were expanded by single gene duplications. In teleost fish, 23 additional RTK genes have been retained after another expansion through the fish-specific third round (3R) of WGD. Several lineage-specific gene losses were observed. For instance, birds have lost three RTKs, and different genes are missing in several fish sublineages. The RTK gene family presents an unusual high gene retention rate from the vertebrate WGDs (58.75% after 1R/2R, 64.4% after 3R), resulting in an expansion that might be correlated with the evolution of complexity of vertebrate cellular communication and intracellular signaling. PMID:27260203

  15. Whole Genome Duplications Shaped the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Repertoire of Jawed Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Frédéric G; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) gene family, involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, comprises proteins with a common enzymatic tyrosine kinase intracellular domain adjacent to a transmembrane region. The amino-terminal portion of RTKs is extracellular and made of different domains, the combination of which characterizes each of the 20 RTK subfamilies among mammals. We analyzed a total of 7,376 RTK sequences among 143 vertebrate species to provide here the first comprehensive census of the jawed vertebrate repertoire. We ascertained the 58 genes previously described in the human and mouse genomes and established their phylogenetic relationships. We also identified five additional RTKs amounting to a total of 63 genes in jawed vertebrates. We found that the vertebrate RTK gene family has been shaped by the two successive rounds of whole genome duplications (WGD) called 1R and 2R (1R/2R) that occurred at the base of the vertebrates. In addition, the Vegfr and Ephrin receptor subfamilies were expanded by single gene duplications. In teleost fish, 23 additional RTK genes have been retained after another expansion through the fish-specific third round (3R) of WGD. Several lineage-specific gene losses were observed. For instance, birds have lost three RTKs, and different genes are missing in several fish sublineages. The RTK gene family presents an unusual high gene retention rate from the vertebrate WGDs (58.75% after 1R/2R, 64.4% after 3R), resulting in an expansion that might be correlated with the evolution of complexity of vertebrate cellular communication and intracellular signaling. PMID:27260203

  16. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  17. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by metformin is associated with decreased plasma IGF-I and diminished receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Brendan J.; Dallos, Matthew; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Memmott, Regan M.; Hollander, M. Christine; Gills, Joell J.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for type II diabetes and is associated with decreased cancer risk. Previously, we showed that metformin prevented tobacco carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in a non-diabetic mouse model, which was associated with decreased IGF-I/insulin receptor signaling but not activation of AMPK in lung tissues, as well as decreased circulating levels of IGF-1 and insulin. Here, we used liver-IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice to determine the importance of IGF-1 in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoprevention by metformin. LID mice had decreased lung tumor multiplicity and burden compared to WT mice. Metformin further decreased lung tumorigenesis in LID mice without affecting IGF-1 levels, suggesting that metformin can act through IGF-1-independent mechanisms. In lung tissues, metformin decreased phosphorylation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as levels of GTP-bound Ras independently of AMPK. Metformin also diminished plasma levels of several cognate ligands for these RTKs. Tissue distribution studies using [14C]-metformin showed that uptake of metformin was high in liver but 4 fold lower in lungs, suggesting that the suppression of RTK activation by metformin occurs predominantly via systemic, indirect effects. Systemic inhibition of circulating growth factors and local RTK signaling are new AMPK-independent mechanisms of action of metformin that could underlie its ability to prevent tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. PMID:23771523

  18. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  19. Defining the role of tyrosine and rational tuning of oxidase activity by genetic incorporation of unnatural tyrosine analogs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Lv, Xiaoxuan; Li, Jiasong; Zhou, Qing; Cui, Chang; Hosseinzadeh, Parisa; Mukherjee, Arnab; Nilges, Mark J; Wang, Jiangyun; Lu, Yi

    2015-04-15

    While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pKa and reduction potential in O2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr. PMID:25672571

  20. Coarse-grained molecular simulation of epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase multi-site self-phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Koland, John G

    2014-01-01

    Upon the ligand-dependent dimerization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of one receptor monomer is activated, and the dimeric receptor undergoes self-phosphorylation at any of eight candidate phosphorylation sites (P-sites) in either of the two C-terminal (CT) domains. While the structures of the extracellular ligand binding and intracellular PTK domains are known, that of the ∼225-amino acid CT domain is not, presumably because it is disordered. Receptor phosphorylation on CT domain P-sites is critical in signaling because of the binding of specific signaling effector molecules to individual phosphorylated P-sites. To investigate how the combination of conventional substrate recognition and the unique topological factors involved in the CT domain self-phosphorylation reaction lead to selectivity in P-site phosphorylation, we performed coarse-grained molecular simulations of the P-site/catalytic site binding reactions that precede EGFR self-phosphorylation events. Our results indicate that self-phosphorylation of the dimeric EGFR, although generally believed to occur in trans, may well occur with a similar efficiency in cis, with the P-sites of both receptor monomers being phosphorylated to a similar extent. An exception was the case of the most kinase-proximal P-site-992, the catalytic site binding of which occurred exclusively in cis via an intramolecular reaction. We discovered that the in cis interaction of P-site-992 with the catalytic site was facilitated by a cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the PTK domain that allows the short CT domain sequence tethering P-site-992 to the PTK core to reach the catalytic site. Our work provides several new mechanistic insights into the EGFR self-phosphorylation reaction, and demonstrates the potential of coarse-grained molecular simulation approaches for investigating the complexities of self-phosphorylation in molecules such as EGFR

  1. Notch and TGF-β pathways cooperatively regulate receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-κ (PTPRK) gene expression in human primary keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiru; Xue, Siliang; Zhou, Jin; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-κ (PTPRK) specifically and directly dephosphorylates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thereby limiting EGFR function in primary human keratinocytes. PTPRK expression is increased by the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway and cell–cell contact. Because the Notch receptor pathway is responsive to cell–cell contact and regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation, we investigated the interplay between Notch and TGF-β pathways in regulation of PTPRK expression in human keratinocytes. Suppression of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitors substantially reduced cell contact induction of PTPRK gene expression. In sparse keratinocyte cultures, addition of soluble Notch-activating ligand jagged one peptide (Jag1) induced PTPRK. Of interest, cell contact–induced expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β receptor inhibitor SB431542 inhibited contact-induced expression of PTPRK. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling, via knockdown of Notch1 or by γ-secretase inhibitors, significantly reduced TGF-β–induced PTPRK gene expression, indicating that Notch and TGF-β pathways function together to regulate PTPRK. Of importance, the combination of Jag1 plus TGF-β results in greater PTPRK expression and lower EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation than either ligand alone. These data indicate that Notch and TGF-β act in concert to stimulate induction of PTPRK, which suppresses EGFR activation in human keratinocytes. PMID:25609089

  2. A tyrosine-phosphorylated carboxy-terminal peptide of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (Flg) is a binding site for the SH2 domain of phospholipase C-gamma 1.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, M; Honegger, A M; Rotin, D; Fischer, R; Bellot, F; Li, W; Dionne, C A; Jaye, M; Rubinstein, M; Schlessinger, J

    1991-01-01

    Phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma) is a substrate of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR; encoded by the flg gene) and other receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. It has been demonstrated that the src homology region 2 (SH2 domain) of PLC-gamma and of other signalling molecules such as GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p85 direct their binding toward tyrosine-autophosphorylated regions of the epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor. In this report, we describe the identification of Tyr-766 as an autophosphorylation site of flg-encoded FGFR by direct sequencing of a tyrosine-phosphorylated tryptic peptide isolated from the cytoplasmic domain of FGFR expressed in Escherichia coli. The same phosphopeptide was found in wild-type FGFR phosphorylated either in vitro or in living cells. Like other growth factor receptors, tyrosine-phosphorylated wild-type FGFR or its cytoplasmic domain becomes associated with intact PLC-gamma or with a fusion protein containing the SH2 domain of PLC-gamma. To delineate the site of association, we have examined the capacity of a 28-amino-acid tryptic peptide containing phosphorylated Tyr-766 to bind to various constructs containing SH2 and other domains of PLC-gamma. It is demonstrated that the tyrosine-phosphorylated peptide binds specifically to the SH2 domain but not to the SH3 domain or other regions of PLC-gamma. Hence, Tyr-766 and its flanking sequences represent a major binding site in FGFR for PLC-gamma. Alignment of the amino acid sequences surrounding Tyr-766 with corresponding regions of other FGFRs revealed conserved tyrosine residues in all known members of the FGFR family. We propose that homologous tyrosine-phosphorylated regions in other FGFRs also function as binding sites for PLC-gamma and therefore are involved in coupling to phosphatidylinositol breakdown. Images PMID:1656221

  3. Insulin-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase requires active phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1D.

    PubMed Central

    Ouwens, D M; Mikkers, H M; van der Zon, G C; Stein-Gerlach, M; Ullrich, A; Maassen, J A

    1996-01-01

    Insulin stimulation of fibroblasts rapidly induces the tyrosine dephosphorylation of proteins of 68 kDa and 125 kDa, in addition to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-chain, insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2, and Shc. Using specific antibodies, the 68 kDa and 125 kDa proteins were identified as paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) respectively. We have examined whether dephosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK requires interaction of the cells with the extracellular matrix. For this, cells were grown on poly(L-lysine) plates, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin was increased by addition of lysophosphatidic acid. Under these conditions, insulin still induced the complete dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin, indicating that this process can occur independently of the interaction of integrins with extracellular matrix proteins. We also studied whether dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin results from the action of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. It was found that phenylarsine oxide, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevented the insulin-induced dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin. Furthermore, this insulin-induced dephosphorylation was also impaired in cells expressing a dominant-negative mutant of phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1D (PTP 1D). Thus we have identified paxillin as a target for dephosphorylation by insulin. In addition, we have obtained evidence that the insulin-mediated dephosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK requires active PTP 1D. PMID:8809054

  4. The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR promotes R7 photoreceptor axon targeting by a phosphatase-independent signaling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Kerstin; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2009-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) control many aspects of nervous system development. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ), regulation of synapse growth and maturation by the RPTP LAR depends on catalytic phosphatase activity and on the extracellular ligands Syndecan and Dally-like. We show here that the function of LAR in controlling R7 photoreceptor axon targeting in the visual system differs in several respects. The extracellular domain of LAR important for this process is distinct from the domains known to bind Syndecan and Dally-like, suggesting the involvement of a different ligand. R7 targeting does not require LAR phosphatase activity, but instead depends on the phosphatase activity of another RPTP, PTP69D. In addition, a mutation that prevents dimerization of the intracellular domain of LAR interferes with its ability to promote R7 targeting, although it does not disrupt phosphatase activity or neuromuscular synapse growth. We propose that LAR function in R7 is independent of its phosphatase activity, but requires structural features that allow dimerization and may promote the assembly of downstream effectors. PMID:19889974

  5. Endosomal trafficking of the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK proceeds via clathrin-dependent pathways, Arf6 and actin

    PubMed Central

    Luiskandl, Susan; Woller, Barbara; Schlauf, Marlies; Schmid, Johannes A; Herbst, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is the key player during the formation of the neuromuscular junction. Signal transduction events downstream of MuSK activation induce both pre-and postsynaptic differentiation, which, most prominently, includes the clustering of acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites. More recently, regulated MuSK endocytosis and degradation have been implicated as crucial events for MuSK signalling activity, implicating a cross-talk between signalling and endocytosis. In the present study, we use a live imaging approach to study MuSK endocytosis. We find that MuSK is internalized via a clathrin-, dynamin-dependent pathway. MuSK is transported to Rab7-positive endosomes for degradation and recycled via Rab4-and Rab11-positive vesicles. MuSK activation by Dok7 mildly affects the localization of MuSK on the cell surface but has no effect on the rate of MuSK internalization. Interestingly, MuSK colocalizes with actin and Arf6 at the cell surface and during endosomal trafficking. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton or the proper function of Arf6 concentrates MuSK in cell protrusions. Moreover, inhibition of Arf6 or cytoskeletal rearrangements impairs acetylcholine receptor clustering and phosphorylation. These results suggest that MuSK uses both classical and nonclassical endosomal pathways that involve a variety of different components of the endosomal machinery. Structured digital abstract MuSK and Arf6 colocalize by fluorescence microscopy (View Interaction: 1, 2) MuSK and Rab4 colocalize by fluorescence microscopy (View interaction) MuSK and Rab11 colocalize by fluorescence microscopy (View interaction) MuSK and Rab7 colocalize by fluorescence microscopy (View interaction) PMID:23621612

  6. Systems Analysis of Drug-Induced Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Reprogramming Following Targeted Mono- and Combination Anti-Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Goltsov, Alexey; Deeni, Yusuf; Khalil, Hilal S.; Soininen, Tero; Kyriakidis, Stylianos; Hu, Huizhong; Langdon, Simon P.; Harrison, David J.; Bown, James

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key drivers of cancer progression and targets for drug therapy. A major challenge in anti-RTK treatment is the dependence of drug effectiveness on co-expression of multiple RTKs which defines resistance to single drug therapy. Reprogramming of the RTK network leading to alteration in RTK co-expression in response to drug intervention is a dynamic mechanism of acquired resistance to single drug therapy in many cancers. One route to overcome this resistance is combination therapy. We describe the results of a joint in silico, in vitro, and in vivo investigations on the efficacy of trastuzumab, pertuzumab and their combination to target the HER2 receptors. Computational modelling revealed that these two drugs alone and in combination differentially suppressed RTK network activation depending on RTK co-expression. Analyses of mRNA expression in SKOV3 ovarian tumour xenograft showed up-regulation of HER3 following treatment. Considering this in a computational model revealed that HER3 up-regulation reprograms RTK kinetics from HER2 homodimerisation to HER3/HER2 heterodimerisation. The results showed synergy of the trastuzumab and pertuzumab combination treatment of the HER2 overexpressing tumour can be due to an independence of the combination effect on HER3/HER2 composition when it changes due to drug-induced RTK reprogramming. PMID:24918976

  7. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is required for T cell priming and antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Edward T; Pang, Iris K; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; Bosurgi, Lidia; Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S; Iwasaki, Akiko; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL is induced in response to type I interferons (IFNs) and limits their production through a negative feedback loop. Enhanced production of type I IFNs in Axl-/-dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro have led to speculation that inhibition of AXL would promote antiviral responses. Notwithstanding, type I IFNs also exert potent immunosuppressive functions. Here we demonstrate that ablation of AXL enhances the susceptibility to infection by influenza A virus and West Nile virus. The increased type I IFN response in Axl-/- mice was associated with diminished DC maturation, reduced production of IL-1β, and defective antiviral T cell immunity. Blockade of type I IFN receptor or administration of IL-1β to Axl-/- mice restored the antiviral adaptive response and control of infection. Our results demonstrate that AXL is essential for limiting the immunosuppressive effects of type I IFNs and enabling the induction of protective antiviral adaptive immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12414.001 PMID:27350258

  8. Decreased expression of receptor tyrosine kinase of EphB1 protein in renal cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuigen; Wang, Longxin; Li, Guimei; Zhang, Zhengyu; Wang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Receptors tyrosine kinase of Eph superfamily plays an important role in human cancers. We previously found that EphB1 subtype is down-regulated in gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and ovary serous carcinoma. Fore the more, the decreased expression of EphB1 is related to invasion and metastasis in cancers. Although EphB1 has been revealed as an important receptor in cancers, our understanding of its roles in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is limited. In the present study, using specific anit-EphB1 polyclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated EphB1 protein expression levels in RCC specimens surgically resected from 82 patients (including 62 conventional clear-cell RCC, 10 papillary, and 10 chromophobic RCC cases). We found EphB1 protein is positively expressed in the epithelium of renal tubules. Decreased expression of EphB1 was found in all RCC carcinomas compared with expression in the normal epithelium of renal tubules. EphB1 protein moderately expressed in chromophobic RCC, weakly expressed in clear-cell RCC and negatively expressed in papillary RCC. Our results indicate that EphB1 may be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, the molecular mechanisms of down-regulation of EphB1 including genetic and epigenetic alterations and the dedicated roles of EphB1 in occurrence and progress of RCC need to be explicated in next step. PMID:25120806

  9. Mice lacking Axl and Mer tyrosine kinase receptors are susceptible to experimental autoimmune orchitis induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged organ where male germ cell autoantigens are immunologically ignored. Both systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens and local immunosuppressive milieu contribute to the testicular immune privilege. Testicular immunosuppression has been intensively studied, but information on systemic immune tolerance to autoantigens is lacking. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases in maintaining the systemic tolerance to male germ cell antigens using the experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) model. Axl and Mer double-knockout (Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-)) mice developed evident EAO after a single immunization with germ cell homogenates emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. EAO was characterized by the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the testis. Damage to the seminiferous epithelium was also observed. EAO induction was associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in the testes, impaired permeability of the blood-testis barrier and generation of autoantibodies against germ cell antigens in Axl(-/-)Mer(-/-) mice. Immunization also induced mild EAO in Axl or Mer single-gene-knockout mice. By contrast, a single immunization failed to induce EAO in wild-type mice. The results indicate that Axl and Mer receptors cooperatively regulate the systemic immune tolerance to male germ cell antigens. PMID:25403570

  10. Expression of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase δ, PTPδ, in mouse central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, Maria; Nakamura, Fumio; Yamashita, Naoya; Uetani, Noriko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Goshima, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphate δ (PTPδ), one of the receptor type IIa protein tyrosine phosphates, is known for its roles in axon guidance, synapse formation, cell adhesion, and tumor suppression. Alternative splicing of this gene generates at least four (A-D) isoforms; however, the major isoform in vivo is yet to be determined. The protein localization has neither been revealed. We have generated anti-mouse PTPδ-specific monoclonal antibody and analyzed the protein expression in wild-type and Ptpδ knockout mice. Immunoblot analysis of various organs revealed that neuronal tissues express both C-and D-isoforms of PTPδ, whereas non-neuronal tissues express only C-isoform. Immunohistochemistry of wild-type or Ptpδ heterozygous sections showed that olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and several nuclei in brain stem exhibit moderate to strong positive signals. These signals were absent in Ptpδ knockout specimens. Higher magnification revealed differences between expression patterns of PTPδ mRNA and its protein product. In hippocampus, weak mRNA expression in CA1 stratum pyramidale but strong immunostaining in the stratum lacunosum moleculare was observed, suggesting the axonal expression of PTPδ in the entorhinal cortical afferents. Olfactory mitral cells exhibited mRNA expression in cell bodies and protein localization in their dendritic fields, glomerular and external plexiform layers. Nissl staining showed that the external plexiform layer was reduced in Ptpδ knockout mice. Golgi-impregnation confirmed the poor dendritic growth of homozygous mitral cells. These results suggest that PTPδ may localize in axons as well as in dendrites to regulate their elaboration in the central nervous system. PMID:27026654

  11. ZD6474, a Multitargeted Inhibitor for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, Suppresses Growth of Gliomas Expressing an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant, EGFRvIII, in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Schornack, Paul A.; Sengar, Raghvendra S.; Liu, Kun-wei; Feng, Haizhong; Lieberman, Frank S.; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Wiener, Erik C.; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII is a mutated EGFR that is frequently overexpressed in glioblastomas and implicated in response to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we investigate the effect of ZD6474 (ZACTIMA, vandetanib), a dual inhibitor for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and EGFR on growth and angiogenesis of gliomas expressing EGFRvIII. We used two glioma xenograft models, U87MG cells overexpressing EGFRvIII and short-term cultured primary glioma GBM8 cells with EGFRvIII. ZD6474 inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and induced cell apoptosis in various brain gliomas. Moreover, significant inhibition of EGFRvIII-expressing U87MG and GBM8 gliomas was observed compared with their controls. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis using the apparent diffusion coefficient and three-dimensional T2*weighed measurements validated ZD6474 inhibition on tumor growth and angiogenesis in EGFRvIII-expressing GBM8 gliomas. Mechanistically, ZD6474 shows better inhibition of cell growth and survival of U87MG/EGFRvIII, GBM6, and GBM8 cells that express EGFRvIII than U87MG or GBM14 cells that have nondetectable EGFRvIII through attenuation of activated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Akt, and Bcl-XL expression. Albeit in lesser extent, ZD6474 also displays suppressions of U87MG/EGFR and GBM12 cells that overexpress wild-type EGFR. Additionally, ZD6474 inhibits activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in both types of cells, and expression of a constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinases partially rescued ZD6474 inhibition in U87MG/EGFRvIII cells. Taken together, these data show that ZD6474 significantly inhibited growth and angiogenesis of gliomas expressing EGFRvIII by specifically blocking EGFRvIII-activated signaling mediators, suggesting a potential application of ZD6474 in treatments for glioblastomas that overexpress EGFRvIII. PMID:20371720

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of estradiol receptor by Src regulates its hormone-dependent nuclear export and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Castoria, G; Giovannelli, P; Lombardi, M; De Rosa, C; Giraldi, T; de Falco, A; Barone, M V; Abbondanza, C; Migliaccio, A; Auricchio, F

    2012-11-15

    We report that in breast cancer cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of the estradiol receptor alpha (ERalpha) by Src regulates cytoplasmic localization of the receptor and DNA synthesis. Inhibition of Src or use of a peptide mimicking the ERalpha p-Tyr537 sequence abolishes ERalpha tyrosine phosphorylation and traps the receptor in nuclei of estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells. An ERalpha mutant carrying a mutation of Tyr537 to phenylalanine (ER537F) persistently localizes in nuclei of various cell types. In contrast with ERalpha wt, ER537F does not associate with Ran and its interaction with Crm1 is insensitive to estradiol. Thus, independently of estradiol, ER537F is retained in nuclei, where it entangles FKHR-driving cell cycle arrest. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that overexpression of ER537F in breast cancer cells enhances FKHR interaction with cyclin D1 promoter. This mutant also counteracts cell transformation by the activated forms of Src or PI3-K. In conclusion, in addition to regulating receptor localization, ERalpha phosphorylation by Src is required for hormone responsiveness of DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells. PMID:22266855

  13. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Modulates MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and β-Catenin Functional Interactions to Enhance Synapse Formation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihui; Eagleson, Kathie L; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2016-01-01

    MET, a pleiotropic receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in autism risk, influences multiple neurodevelopmental processes. There is a knowledge gap, however, in the molecular mechanism through which MET mediates developmental events related to disorder risk. In the neocortex, MET is expressed transiently during periods of peak dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis, with expression enriched at developing synapses, consistent with demonstrated roles in dendritic morphogenesis, modulation of spine volume, and excitatory synapse development. In a recent coimmunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screen, β-catenin was identified as part of the MET interactome in developing neocortical synaptosomes. Here, we investigated the influence of the MET/β-catenin complex in mouse neocortical synaptogenesis. Western blot analysis confirms that MET and β-catenin coimmunoprecipitate, but N-cadherin is not associated with the MET complex. Following stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), β-catenin is phosphorylated at tyrosine(142) (Y142) and dissociates from MET, accompanied by an increase in β-catenin/N-cadherin and MET/synapsin 1 protein complexes. In neocortical neurons in vitro, proximity ligation assays confirmed the close proximity of these proteins. Moreover, in neurons transfected with synaptophysin-GFP, HGF stimulation increases the density of synaptophysin/bassoon (a presynaptic marker) and synaptophysin/PSD-95 (a postsynaptic marker) clusters. Mutation of β-catenin at Y142 disrupts the dissociation of the MET/β-catenin complex and prevents the increase in clusters in response to HGF. The data demonstrate a new mechanism for the modulation of synapse formation, whereby MET activation induces an alignment of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements that are necessary for assembly and formation of functional synapses by subsets of neocortical neurons that express MET/β-catenin complex. PMID:27595133

  14. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Modulates MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and β-Catenin Functional Interactions to Enhance Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhihui; Eagleson, Kathie L.

    2016-01-01

    MET, a pleiotropic receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in autism risk, influences multiple neurodevelopmental processes. There is a knowledge gap, however, in the molecular mechanism through which MET mediates developmental events related to disorder risk. In the neocortex, MET is expressed transiently during periods of peak dendritic outgrowth and synaptogenesis, with expression enriched at developing synapses, consistent with demonstrated roles in dendritic morphogenesis, modulation of spine volume, and excitatory synapse development. In a recent coimmunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry screen, β-catenin was identified as part of the MET interactome in developing neocortical synaptosomes. Here, we investigated the influence of the MET/β-catenin complex in mouse neocortical synaptogenesis. Western blot analysis confirms that MET and β-catenin coimmunoprecipitate, but N-cadherin is not associated with the MET complex. Following stimulation with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), β-catenin is phosphorylated at tyrosine142 (Y142) and dissociates from MET, accompanied by an increase in β-catenin/N-cadherin and MET/synapsin 1 protein complexes. In neocortical neurons in vitro, proximity ligation assays confirmed the close proximity of these proteins. Moreover, in neurons transfected with synaptophysin-GFP, HGF stimulation increases the density of synaptophysin/bassoon (a presynaptic marker) and synaptophysin/PSD-95 (a postsynaptic marker) clusters. Mutation of β-catenin at Y142 disrupts the dissociation of the MET/β-catenin complex and prevents the increase in clusters in response to HGF. The data demonstrate a new mechanism for the modulation of synapse formation, whereby MET activation induces an alignment of presynaptic and postsynaptic elements that are necessary for assembly and formation of functional synapses by subsets of neocortical neurons that express MET/β-catenin complex. PMID:27595133

  15. Novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine in PMA-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, J.; Oliver, C.; Ohno, Y.; Gallin, J.I.

    1986-03-05

    During studies undertaken to determine whether stimulation of tubulin tyrosinolation occurs in PMA-activated PMN, a distinctly different and novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine into multiple PMN proteins was observed. The reaction also occurred in organelle-depleted neutrophil cytoplasts and was highly exaggerated in organelle-enriched karyogranuloplasts. The incorporation was specific for tyrosine, did not require extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and was inhibited in the presence of a variety of reducing agents, intracellular scavengers of oxygen radicals and inhibitors of peroxidase-mediated reactions. The PMA-induced incorporation of tyrosine was completely absent in PMN from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, but occurred normally in PMN of a patient with myeloperoxidase deficiency. Moreover, the incorporation of tyrosine was blocked by N-acetyl-L-tyrosine but not by phenylalanine suggesting a requirement for the phenolic group. A two-fold increase in stable protein carbonyl derivatives was demonstrated suggesting an increased oxidative modification of the proteins. SDS urea PAGE and reversed phase HPLC did not reveal any detectable changes in the extent of protein cross-linking. The PMN tyrosine pool was approximately 900 ..mu..M and yet only 1 ..mu..M tyrosine was added in these experiments. The functional significance of this reaction is not yet clear.

  16. A Phytochrome Sensory Domain Permits Receptor Activation by Red Light.

    PubMed

    Reichhart, Eva; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Tichy, Alexandra-Madelaine; McKenzie, Catherine; Janovjak, Harald

    2016-05-17

    Optogenetics and photopharmacology enable the spatio-temporal control of cell and animal behavior by light. Although red light offers deep-tissue penetration and minimal phototoxicity, very few red-light-sensitive optogenetic methods are currently available. We have now developed a red-light-induced homodimerization domain. We first showed that an optimized sensory domain of the cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 can be expressed robustly and without cytotoxicity in human cells. We then applied this domain to induce the dimerization of two receptor tyrosine kinases-the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and the neurotrophin receptor trkB. This new optogenetic method was then used to activate the MAPK/ERK pathway non-invasively in mammalian tissue and in multicolor cell-signaling experiments. The light-controlled dimerizer and red-light-activated receptor tyrosine kinases will prove useful to regulate a variety of cellular processes with light. PMID:27101018

  17. Carnosine, nerve growth factor receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase expression during the ontogeny of the rat olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Biffo, S; Martí, E; Fasolo, A

    1992-01-01

    The localizations of carnosine, nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were studied in the embryonic and postnatal rat olfactory bulb and epithelium by means of single- and double-immunostaining methods. Tyrosine hydroxylase ontogeny was also evaluated at the mRNA level by in situ hybridization. All these molecules were expressed in the olfactory bulb but with different developmental patterns and cellular localization: carnosine immunoreactivity is seen from embryonic day 17 in primary olfactory neurons scattered in the nasal cavity and in fibres projecting from them to the olfactory bulb. Nerve growth factor-receptor immunoreactivity associated with small glial-like cells is visible in some glomeruli starting from the second day of postnatal life. At postnatal day 10 NGF-receptor immunoreactivity is extended to all glomeruli. Periglomerular neurons expressing TH mRNA and protein are present prenatally and their number sharply increases during the early postnatal development. Double-staining methods show that TH and NGF-receptor immunoreactivity do not overlap in cell bodies and processes. In addition, NGF-receptor immunoreactivity is not colocalized with carnosine. These findings definitely exclude NGF-receptor expression in periglomerular and primary olfactory neurons, suggesting that at least part of NGF-receptor expression in the olfactory bulb is associated with glial cells. In addition, they provide the first immunohistochemical data on carnosine ontogeny and confirm at the mRNA level previous studies on the ontogeny of TH protein. PMID:1376608

  18. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β: its role in breast cancer and associations with receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zahnow, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of leucine-zipper transcription factors that regulate gene expression to control cellular proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and metabolism. Encoded by an intronless gene, C/EBPβ is expressed as several distinct protein isoforms (LAP1, LAP2, LIP) whose expression is regulated by the differential use of several in-frame translation start sites. LAP1 and LAP2 are transcriptional activators and are associated with differentiation, whereas LIP is frequently elevated in proliferative tissue and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of transcription. However, emerging evidence suggests that LIP can serve as a transcriptional activator in some cellular contexts, and that LAP1 and LAP2 might also have unique actions. The LIP:LAP ratio is crucial for the maintenance of normal growth and development, and increases in this ratio lead to aggressive forms of breast cancer. This review discusses the regulation of C/EBPβ activity by post-translational modification, the individual actions of LAP1, LAP2 and LIP, and the functions and downstream targets that are unique to each isoform. The role of the C/EBPβ isoforms in breast cancer is discussed and emphasis is placed on their interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:19351437

  19. Colony-stimulating factor 1-mediated regulation of a chimeric c-fms/v-fms receptor containing the v-fms-encoded tyrosine kinase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, M.F.; Downing, J.R.; Ashmun, R.A.; Rettenmier, C.W.; Sherr, C.J. )

    1988-08-01

    A chimeric gene specifying the 308 N-terminal amino acids of the extracellular ligand binding domain of the human c-fms protooncogene joined to the remainder of the feline v-fms oncogene product encodes a functional colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) receptor. When expressed in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, the chimeric gene product was rapidly transported to the cell surface, was autophosphorylated on tyrosine only in response to human recombinant CSF-1, underwent ligand-induced but not phorbol ester-induced down-modulation, and stimulated CSF-1-dependent cell proliferation. By contrast, the C-terminally truncated glycoprotein encoded by the v-fms oncogene is partially inhibited in its transport to the plasma membrane, is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine, and is relatively refractory to both ligand-induced and phorbol ester-induced down-modulation. Although the v-fms oncogene can transform cells in the absence of CSF-1, its tyrosine kinase activity and turnover can be appropriately regulated by the human c-fms-encoded ligand binding domain. The results confirm that C-terminal truncation of the c-fms gene is insufficient to activate its transforming potential and suggest that an additional mutation in its distal extracellular domain is required for oncogenic activation.

  20. Multiplexed tyrosine kinase activity detection in cancer cells using hydrogel immobilized substrate

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Alicia D.; Han, Wenquing; Liu, Bi; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Kinases play a key role in cellular signaling, and the overactivation or overexpression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors treat the mechanism of these cancers by targeting the specific kinases that are overactive. Some patients, however, do not respond to these inhibitors or develop resistance to these inhibitors during treatment. Additionally, even within cancers of the same tissue type, different kinases may be overactive in different patients. For example, some lung cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and respond to EGFR inhibitors, while other lung cancers do not overexpress EGFR and receive no benefit from this treatment. Even among patients exhibiting EGFR overexpression, some do not respond to EGFR kinase inhibitors because other kinases, such as Met kinase, are also overactivated. Here we describe a quantitative and specific multiplexed microfluidic assay using a hydrogel immobilized substrate for measuring the kinase activity of Met and Abl kinase from cancer cells. We immobilized kinase specific substrates into macroporous hydrogel micropillars in microchannels. These microchannels were incubated with 6 µl of a kinase reaction solution containing cancer cell lysate and measured kinase activity via fluorescence detection of a phosphotyrosine antibody. We showed that the assay can specifically measure the activity of both Met and Abl kinase within one microchannel with potential to measure the activity of as many as 5 kinases within one microchannel. The assay also detected Met kinase inhibition from lysates of cancer cells grown in the Met kinase inhibitor PHA665752. PMID:23624904

  1. Coincident signals from GPCRs and receptor tyrosine kinases are uniquely transduced by PI3Kβ in myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Houslay, Daniel M; Anderson, Karen E; Chessa, Tamara; Kulkarni, Suhasini; Fritsch, Ralph; Downward, Julian; Backer, Jonathan M; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2016-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) catalyze production of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which plays a central role in a complex signaling network regulating cell growth, survival, and movement. This network is overactivated in cancer and inflammation, and there is interest in determining the PI3K catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, or p110δ) that should be targeted in different therapeutic contexts. Previous studies have defined unique regulatory inputs for p110β, including direct interaction with Gβγ subunits, Rac, and Rab5. We generated mice with knock-in mutations of p110β that selectively blocked the interaction with Gβγ and investigated its contribution to the PI3K isoform dependency of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) responses in primary macrophages and neutrophils. We discovered a unique role for p110β in supporting synergistic PIP3 formation in response to the coactivation of macrophages by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the complement protein C5a. In contrast, we found partially redundant roles for p110α, p110β, and p110δ downstream of M-CSF alone and a nonredundant role for p110γ downstream of C5a alone. This role for p110β completely depended on direct interaction with Gβγ, suggesting that p110β transduces GPCR signals in the context of coincident activation by an RTK. The p110β-Gβγ interaction was also required for neutrophils to generate reactive oxygen species in response to the Fcγ receptor-dependent recognition of immune complexes and for their β2 integrin-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen or poly-RGD+, directly implicating heterotrimeric G proteins in these two responses. PMID:27531651

  2. The tyrosine phosphatase PTPRO sensitizes colon cancer cells to anti-EGFR therapy through activation of SRC-mediated EGFR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Asbagh, Layka Abbasi; Vazquez, Iria; Vecchione, Loredana; Budinska, Eva; De Vriendt, Veerle; Baietti, Maria Francesca; Steklov, Mikhail; Jacobs, Bart; Hoe, Nicholas; Singh, Sharat; Imjeti, Naga-Sailaja; Zimmermann, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a causal role in many cancers including colon cancer. The activation of EGFR by phosphorylation is balanced by receptor kinase and protein tyrosine phosphatase activities. However, the mechanisms of negative EGFR regulation by tyrosine phosphatases remain largely unexplored. Our previous results indicate that protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type O (PTPRO) is down-regulated in a subset of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with a poor prognosis. Here we identified PTPRO as a phosphatase that negatively regulates SRC by directly dephosphorylating Y416 phosphorylation site. SRC activation triggered by PTPRO down-regulation induces phosphorylation of both EGFR at Y845 and the c-CBL ubiquitin ligase at Y731. Increased EGFR phosphorylation at Y845 promotes its receptor activity, whereas enhanced phosphorylation of c-CBL triggers its degradation promoting EGFR stability. Importantly, hyperactivation of SRC/EGFR signaling triggered by loss of PTPRO leads to high resistance of colon cancer to EGFR inhibitors. Our results not only highlight the PTPRO contribution in negative regulation of SRC/EGFR signaling but also suggest that tumors with low PTPRO expression may be therapeutically targetable by anti-SRC therapies. PMID:25301722

  3. Clinical approaches to treat patients with non-small cell lung cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Tartarone, Alfredo; Lerose, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutations (EGFR Mut+) has determined a paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In several phase III studies, patients with NSCLC EGFR Mut+ achieved a significantly better progression-free survival when treated with a first- (gefitinib, erlotinib) or second-generation (afatinib) EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) compared with standard chemotherapy. However, despite these impressive results, most patients with NSCLC EGFR Mut+ develop acquired resistance to TKIs. This review will discuss both the mechanisms of resistance to TKIs and the therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance, including emerging data on third-generation TKIs. PMID:26016841

  4. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  5. The next generation of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Conor E; Khuri, Fadlo R; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2015-04-15

    The discovery of "driver" genomic alterations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically changed the field of thoracic oncology in recent years. The best understood of these molecular drivers are those involving the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which when aberrantly activated are integral to the development of a subset of NSCLC tumors. First-generation and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specific to the activated EGFR have shown significant efficacy and have brought about the era of targeted therapy for NSCLC. The most common resistance mechanism is a threonine-to-methionine substitution (T790M) in exon 20 of the EGFR gene. Although the previous standard of care in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that progressed on initial TKI therapy was chemotherapy, third-generation EGFR TKIs have now been developed and have yielded promising results for this population of patients with NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:25521095

  6. The insulin and IGF1 receptor kinase domains are functional dimers in the activated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabail, M. Zulema; Li, Shiqing; Lemmon, Eric; Bowen, Mark E.; Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2015-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) are highly related receptor tyrosine kinases with a disulfide-linked homodimeric architecture. Ligand binding to the receptor ectodomain triggers tyrosine autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains, which stimulates catalytic activity and creates recruitment sites for downstream signalling proteins. Whether the two phosphorylated tyrosine kinase domains within the receptor dimer function independently or cooperatively to phosphorylate protein substrates is not known. Here we provide crystallographic, biophysical and biochemical evidence demonstrating that the phosphorylated kinase domains of IR and IGF1R form a specific dimeric arrangement involving an exchange of the juxtamembrane region proximal to the kinase domain. In this dimer, the active position of α-helix C in the kinase N lobe is stabilized, which promotes downstream substrate phosphorylation. These studies afford a novel strategy for the design of small-molecule IR agonists as potential therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes.

  7. Tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin inhibits tyrosine uptake into cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, K.; Teraoka, K.; Azuma, M.; Oka, M.; Hamano, S. )

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ channel activator palytoxin on both the secretion of endogenous catecholamines and the formation of 14C-catecholamines from (14C)tyrosine were examined using cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Palytoxin was shown to cause the stimulation of catecholamine secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. However, this toxin caused the reduction rather than the stimulation of 14C-catecholamine formation at the same concentrations. Palytoxin failed to cause any alteration in the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. Furthermore, the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells was shown to be inhibited by this toxin under the conditions in which the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation was observed, and this inhibitory action on tyrosine uptake was closely correlated with that on catecholamine formation. The inhibitory action of palytoxin on tyrosine uptake into the cells was observed to be noncompetitive, and this effect was not altered by the removal of Na+ from the incubation mixture. These results suggest that palytoxin may be able to inhibit the uptake of (14C)tyrosine into the cells, resulting in the suppression of 14C-catecholamine formation, probably through its direct action on the plasma membranes of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.

  8. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  9. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: Mutation analysis of the receptor tyrosine kinase RET

    SciTech Connect

    Bolk, S.; Angrist, M.; Schwartz, S.; Chakravarti, A.

    1996-06-28

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) usually occurs as an isolated phenotype. However, 16% of the index cases are also affected with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Complex segregation analysis suggests that CCHS is familial and has the same inheritance pattern with or without HSCR. We postulate that alteration of normal function of the receptor tyrosine kinase, RET, may contribute to CCHS based on RET`s expression pattern and the identification of RET mutations in HSCR patients. To further explore the nature of the inheritance of CCHS, we have undertaken two main routes of investigation: cytogenetic analysis and mutation detection. Cytogenetic analysis of metaphase chromosomes showed normal karyotypes in 13 of the 14 evaluated index cases; one index case carried a familial pericentric inversion on chromosome 2. Mutation analysis showed no sequence changes unique to index cases, as compared to control individuals, and as studied by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding region of RET. We conclude that point mutations in the RET coding region cannot account for a substantial fraction of CCHS in this patient population, and that other candidate genes involved in neural crest cell differentiation and development must be considered. 54 refs.

  10. Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, mediates flow-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Mohan, Amy M; Georger, Mary A; Berk, Bradford C

    2006-06-01

    Intima-media thickening (IMT) in response to hemodynamic stress is a physiological process that requires coordinated signaling among endothelial, inflammatory, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, whose ligand is Gas6, is highly induced in VSMC after carotid injury. Because Axl regulates cell migration, phagocytosis and apoptosis, we hypothesized that Axl would play a role in IMT. Vascular remodeling in mice deficient in Axl (Axl(-/-)) and wild-type littermates (Axl(+/+)) was induced by ligation of the left carotid artery (LCA) branches maintaining flow via the left occipital artery. Both genotypes had similar baseline hemodynamic parameters and carotid artery structure. Partial ligation altered blood flow equally in both genotypes: increased by 60% in the right carotid artery (RCA) and decreased by 80% in the LCA. There were no significant differences in RCA remodeling between genotypes. However, in the LCA Axl(-/-) developed significantly smaller intima+media compared with Axl(+/+) (31+/-4 versus 42+/-6x10(-6) microm3, respectively). Quantitative immunohistochemistry of Axl(-/-) LCA showed increased apoptosis compared with Axl(+/+) (5-fold). As expected, p-Akt was decreased in Axl(-/-), whereas there was no difference in Gas6 expression. Cell composition also changed significantly, with increases in CD45+ cells and decreases in VSMC, macrophages, and neutrophils in Axl(-/-) compared with Axl(+/+). These data demonstrate an important role for Axl in flow-dependent remodeling by regulating vascular apoptosis and vascular inflammation. PMID:16627783

  11. Anks1a regulates COPII-mediated anterograde transport of receptor tyrosine kinases critical for tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeryung; Noh, Hyuna; Mun, Jiyoung; Gu, Changkyu; Sever, Sanja; Park, Soochul

    2016-01-01

    ErbB2 signalling, which is amplified by EphA2 binding, is an important therapeutic target for breast cancer. Despite the importance of the EphA2/ErbB2 complex in promoting breast tumorigenesis, the mechanism by which these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are exported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remains poorly understood. Here we report that the PTB adaptor Anks1a is specifically localized to the ER on its own serine phosphorylation. Once there, Anks1a acts as an important regulator of COPII-mediated EphA2 ER export. The Anks1a ankyrin repeat domain binds EphA2 and causes it to accumulate at sites of ER exit. Simultaneously, the Anks1a PTB domain binds Sec23. This induces internalization of EphA2 via COPII vesicles, while Anks1a remains behind on the ER membrane. EphA2 also binds ErbB2 in the ER and seems to load ErbB2 into growing COPII carriers. Together, our study reveals a novel mechanism that regulates the loading of RTKs into COPII vesicles. PMID:27619642

  12. NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP−) to oxygen to make O2•−. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

  13. Novel EPHB4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Mutations and Kinomic Pathway Analysis in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Carol Tan, Yi-Hung; Kanteti, Rajani S.; Liu, Ren; Gayed, Matthew J.; Vokes, Everett E.; Ferguson, Mark K.; John Iafrate, A.; Gill, Parkash S.; Salgia, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer outcomes remain poor despite the identification of several potential therapeutic targets. The EPHB4 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has recently emerged as an oncogenic factor in many cancers, including lung cancer. Mutations of EPHB4 in lung cancers have previously been identified, though their significance remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of novel EPHB4 mutations that lead to putative structural alterations as well as increased cellular proliferation and motility. We also conducted a bioinformatic analysis of these mutations to demonstrate that they are mutually exclusive from other common RTK variants in lung cancer, that they correspond to analogous sites of other RTKs’ variations in cancers, and that they are predicted to be oncogenic based on biochemical, evolutionary, and domain-function constraints. Finally, we show that EPHB4 mutations can induce broad changes in the kinome signature of lung cancer cells. Taken together, these data illuminate the role of EPHB4 in lung cancer and further identify EPHB4 as a potentially important therapeutic target. PMID:26073592

  14. Sequence analysis of two genomic regions containing the KIT and the FMS receptor tyrosine kinase genes

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, C.; Hampe, A.; Lachaume, P.

    1997-01-15

    The KIT and FMS tyrosine kinase receptors, which are implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation, stem through duplications from a common ancestor. We have conducted a detailed structural analysis of the two loci containing the KIT and FMS genes. The sequence of the {approximately}90-kb KIT locus reveals the position and size of the 21 introns and of the 5{prime} regulatory region of the KIT gene. The introns and the 3{prime}-untranslated parts of KIT and FMS have been analyzed in parallel. Comparison of the two sequences shows that, while introns of both genes have extensively diverged in size and sequence, this divergence is, at least in part, due to intron expansion through internal duplications, as suggested by the discrete extant analogies. Repetitive elements as well as exon predictions obtained using the GRAIL and GENEFINDER programs are described in detail. These programs led us to identify a novel gene, designated SMF, immediately downstream of FMS, in the opposite orientation. This finding emphasizes the gene-rich characteristic of this genomic region. 49 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Swim training of monosodium L-glutamate-obese mice improves the impaired insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Branco, Renato Chaves Souto; Gravena, Clarice; Barella, Luiz Felipe; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Picinato, Maria Cecília; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2013-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate changes on glucose homoeostasis and of the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) signalling in pancreatic islets from MSG-obese mice submitted to or not submitted to swim training. Swim training of 90-day-old MSG mice was used to evaluate whether signalling pathways of the IR and IRS-1 in islets are involved with the insulin resistance and glucose intolerance observed in this obese animal model. The results showed that IR tyrosine phosphorylation (pIR) was reduced by 42 % in MSG-obese mice (MSG, 6.7 ± 0.2 arbitrary units (a.u.); control, 11.5 ± 0.4 a.u.); on the other hand, exercise training increased pIR by 76 % in MSG mice without affecting control mice (MSG, 11.8 ± 0.3; control, 12.8 ± 0.2 a.u.). Although the treatment with MSG increased IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation (pIRS-1) by 96 % (MSG, 17.02 ± 0.6; control, 8.7 ± 0.2 a.u.), exercise training also increased it in both groups (control, 13.6 ± 0.1; MSG, 22.2 ± 1.1 a.u.). Current research shows that the practice of swim training increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 which can modulate the effect caused by obesity in insulin receptors. PMID:22983867

  16. Receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition causes simultaneous bone loss and excess bone formation within growing bone in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmio, Mirja; Joki, Henna; Kallio, Jenny; Maeaettae, Jorma A.; Vaeaenaenen, H. Kalervo; Toppari, Jorma; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina

    2011-08-01

    During postnatal skeletal growth, adaptation to mechanical loading leads to cellular activities at the growth plate. It has recently become evident that bone forming and bone resorbing cells are affected by the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor imatinib mesylate (STI571, Gleevec (registered)) . Imatinib targets PDGF, ABL-related gene, c-Abl, c-Kit and c-Fms receptors, many of which have multiple functions in the bone microenvironment. We therefore studied the effects of imatinib in growing bone. Young rats were exposed to imatinib (150 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-7, or 100 mg/kg on postnatal days 5-13), and the effects of RTK inhibition on bone physiology were studied after 8 and 70 days (3-day treatment), or after 14 days (9-day treatment). X-ray imaging, computer tomography, histomorphometry, RNA analysis and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone modeling and remodeling in vivo. Imatinib treatment eliminated osteoclasts from the metaphyseal osteochondral junction at 8 and 14 days. This led to a resorption arrest at the growth plate, but also increased bone apposition by osteoblasts, thus resulting in local osteopetrosis at the osteochondral junction. The impaired bone remodelation observed on day 8 remained significant until adulthood. Within the same bone, increased osteoclast activity, leading to bone loss, was observed at distal bone trabeculae on days 8 and 14. Peripheral quantitative computer tomography (pQCT) and micro-CT analysis confirmed that, at the osteochondral junction, imatinib shifted the balance from bone resorption towards bone formation, thereby altering bone modeling. At distal trabecular bone, in turn, the balance was turned towards bone resorption, leading to bone loss. - Research Highlights: > 3-Day imatinib treatment. > Causes growth plate anomalies in young rats. > Causes biomechanical changes and significant bone loss at distal trabecular bone. > Results in loss of osteoclasts at osteochondral junction.

  17. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Mediates FcγRIIa/Toll-Like Receptor–4 Receptor Crosstalk in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Krupa, Agnieszka; Fudala, Rafal; Florence, Jon M.; Tucker, Torry; Allen, Timothy C.; Standiford, Theodore J.; Luchowski, Rafal; Fol, Marek; Rahman, Moshiur; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2013-01-01

    Previous observations by our laboratory indicate that the presence of anti–IL-8 autoantibody:IL-8 immune complexes in lung fluids from patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) comprises an important prognostic indicator in the development and ultimate outcome of ALI/ARDS. We also showed that these complexes display proinflammatory activity toward neutrophils through the engagement of FcγRIIa receptors. Because sepsis is one of the most common risk factors for ALI/ARDS, the initial goal of our present study involved investigating the effects of LPS on the expression of FcγRIIa receptors in neutrophils. Our results indicate that LPS triggers an increase in the expression of FcγRIIa on the neutrophil surface, which leads to shortening of the molecular distance between FcγRIIa and Toll-like receptor–4 (TLR4). When such neutrophils are stimulated with anti–IL-8:IL-8 complexes, the TLR4 cascade becomes activated via the engagement of FcγRIIa. The underlying molecular mechanism has been subsequently examined and involves Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk). In conclusion, our study reveals the existence of Btk-dependent molecular cooperation between FcγRIIa and TLR4 signaling cascades in LPS-“primed” human neutrophils. Furthermore, we used fluorescence lifetime imaging to study the interactions between TLR4 and FcγRIIa in human alveolar neutrophils from patients with ALI/ARDS. The results from these experiments confirm the existence of the molecular cooperation between TLR4 and FcγRIIa. PMID:23239500

  18. Antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib in experimental models of lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Lutz; Maillet, Isabelle; Quesniaux, Valérie; Holweg, Alexander; Ryffel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib (BIBF 1120) is in clinical development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To explore its mode of action, nintedanib was tested in human lung fibroblasts and mouse models of lung fibrosis. Human lung fibroblasts expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-α and -β were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (homodimer) (PDGF-BB). Receptor activation was assessed by autophosphorylation and cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation was determined by α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA analysis. Lung fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal bleomycin or silica particle administration. Nintedanib was administered every day by gavage at 30, 60, or 100 mg/kg. Preventive nintedanib treatment regimen started on the day that bleomycin was administered. Therapeutic treatment regimen started at various times after the induction of lung fibrosis. Bleomycin caused increased macrophages and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and collagen in lung tissue. Histology revealed chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Silica-induced lung pathology additionally showed elevated BAL neutrophils, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels, and granuloma formation. Nintedanib inhibited PDGF receptor activation, fibroblast proliferation, and fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation. Nintedanib significantly reduced BAL lymphocytes and neutrophils but not macrophages. Furthermore, interleukin-1β, KC, TIMP-1, and lung collagen were significantly reduced. Histologic analysis showed significantly diminished lung inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis. The therapeutic effect was dependent on treatment start and duration. Nintedanib inhibited receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the proliferation and

  19. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W. . Coll. of Pharmacy)

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP[sub 3] and the release of intracellular Ca[sup 2+]. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10[mu]M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-[gamma]1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1, release of IP[sub 3], and mobilization of intracellular Ca[sup 2+].

  20. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1993-02-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP{sub 3} and the release of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10{mu}M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-{gamma}1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1, release of IP{sub 3}, and mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of tyrosine phenol-lyase gene mediated through TyrR and cAMP receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Katayama, T; Suzuki, H; Yamamoto, K; Kumagai, H

    1999-10-01

    Using a lac reporter system in Escherichia coli, we showed that the expression of E. herbicola tpl was regulated through TyrR and cAMP receptor protein. Three TyrR boxes upstream of tpl were essential for full expression. The results suggested that the tyrosine-mediated TyrR hexamerization was an important process. The DNA bending between two TyrR boxes, which is triggered by the binding of cAMP receptor protein, may facilitate the conformational change of TyrRs. PMID:10586511

  2. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Estefanía; Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM) exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred. PMID:26058065

  3. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA7 is required for interneuron connectivity at specific subcellular compartments of granule cells.

    PubMed

    Beuter, Simone; Ardi, Ziv; Horovitz, Omer; Wuchter, Jennifer; Keller, Stefanie; Saha, Rinki; Tripathi, Kuldeep; Anunu, Rachel; Kehat, Orli; Kriebel, Martin; Richter-Levin, Gal; Volkmer, Hansjürgen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal transmission is regulated by the local circuitry which is composed of principal neurons targeted at different subcellular compartments by a variety of interneurons. However, mechanisms that contribute to the subcellular localisation and maintenance of GABAergic interneuron terminals are poorly understood. Stabilization of GABAergic synapses depends on clustering of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and its interaction with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor collybistin. Lentiviral knockdown experiments in adult rats indicated that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA7 is required for the stabilisation of basket cell terminals on proximal dendritic and somatic compartments of granular cells of the dentate gyrus. EphA7 deficiency and concomitant destabilisation of GABAergic synapses correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced hippocampal learning. Reduced GABAergic innervation may be explained by an impact of EphA7 on gephyrin clustering. Overexpression or ephrin stimulation of EphA7 induced gephyrin clustering dependent on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is an interaction partner of gephyrin. Gephyrin interactions with mTOR become released after mTOR activation while enhanced interaction with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor collybistin was observed in parallel. In conclusion, EphA7 regulates gephyrin clustering and the maintenance of inhibitory synaptic connectivity via mTOR signalling. PMID:27405707

  4. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ephb6 Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractility and Modulates Blood Pressure in Concert with Sex Hormones*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongyu; Wu, Zenghui; Tremblay, Johanne; Thorin, Eric; Peng, Junzheng; Lavoie, Julie L.; Hu, Bing; Stoyanova, Ekatherina; Cloutier, Guy; Qi, Shijie; Wu, Tao; Cameron, Mark; Wu, Jiangping

    2012-01-01

    Eph kinases constitute the largest receptor tyrosine kinase family, and their ligands, ephrins (Efns), are also cell surface molecules. Our study is the first to assess the role of Ephb6 in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We observed that EphB6 and all three of its Efnb ligands were expressed on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in mice. We discovered that small arteries from castrated Ephb6 gene KO males showed increased contractility, RhoA activation, and constitutive myosin light chain phosphorylation ex vivo compared with their WT counterparts. Consistent with this finding, castrated Ephb6 KO mice presented heightened BP compared with castrated WT controls. In vitro experiments in VSMC revealed that cross-linking Efnbs but not Ephb6 resulted in reduced VSMC contractions, suggesting that reverse signaling through Efnbs was responsible for the observed BP phenotype. The reverse signaling was mediated by an adaptor protein Grip1. Additional experiments demonstrated decreased 24-h urine catecholamines in male Ephb6 KO mice, probably as a compensatory feedback mechanism to keep their BP in the normal range. After castration, however, such compensation was abolished in Ephb6 KO mice and was likely the reason why BP increased overtly in these animals. It suggests that Ephb6 has a target in the nervous/endocrine system in addition to VSMC, regulating a testosterone-dependent catecholamine compensatory mechanism. Our study discloses that Ephs and Efns, in concert with testosterone, play a critical role in regulating small artery contractility and BP. PMID:22223652

  5. Management of hyperglycemia from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting T790M-mediated resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Jennifer L.; Fong, Mei Ka; Sirianno, Lindsey; Story, Ellen S.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. Although studies show an increased progression free survival (PFS) with use of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting, most patients will develop resistance to therapy after the first 8-16 months. T790M is an acquired resistance mutation reported in 60-70% of patients who initially responded to a prior EGFR TKI. Recently, EGFR TKIs targeting T790M have been developed to overcome resistance with positive results in PFS and objective response rate in patients who have had disease progression on at least one TKI. Two EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are new active treatment options for NSCLC but differ in adverse effect profiles. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been reported with rociletinib and has required dose reduction, an oral antihyperglycemic, or both, without discontinuation of therapy. This suggests that patients may be effectively treated chronically for hyperglycemia associated with EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, however, guidelines for treatment of hyperglycemia in this setting have not been published. We discuss mechanisms of hyperglycemia associated with TKIs and initial management of hyperglycemia, including benefits and limitations of oral antihyperglycemic options, adjustment of therapy based on grade of hyperglycemia, and recommendations for follow-up glucose monitoring. PMID:26629426

  6. Management of hyperglycemia from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting T790M-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Villadolid, Jeryl; Ersek, Jennifer L; Fong, Mei Ka; Sirianno, Lindsey; Story, Ellen S

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. Although studies show an increased progression free survival (PFS) with use of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting, most patients will develop resistance to therapy after the first 8-16 months. T790M is an acquired resistance mutation reported in 60-70% of patients who initially responded to a prior EGFR TKI. Recently, EGFR TKIs targeting T790M have been developed to overcome resistance with positive results in PFS and objective response rate in patients who have had disease progression on at least one TKI. Two EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are new active treatment options for NSCLC but differ in adverse effect profiles. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been reported with rociletinib and has required dose reduction, an oral antihyperglycemic, or both, without discontinuation of therapy. This suggests that patients may be effectively treated chronically for hyperglycemia associated with EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, however, guidelines for treatment of hyperglycemia in this setting have not been published. We discuss mechanisms of hyperglycemia associated with TKIs and initial management of hyperglycemia, including benefits and limitations of oral antihyperglycemic options, adjustment of therapy based on grade of hyperglycemia, and recommendations for follow-up glucose monitoring. PMID:26629426

  7. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA7 is required for interneuron connectivity at specific subcellular compartments of granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Beuter, Simone; Ardi, Ziv; Horovitz, Omer; Wuchter, Jennifer; Keller, Stefanie; Saha, Rinki; Tripathi, Kuldeep; Anunu, Rachel; Kehat, Orli; Kriebel, Martin; Richter-Levin, Gal; Volkmer, Hansjürgen

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal transmission is regulated by the local circuitry which is composed of principal neurons targeted at different subcellular compartments by a variety of interneurons. However, mechanisms that contribute to the subcellular localisation and maintenance of GABAergic interneuron terminals are poorly understood. Stabilization of GABAergic synapses depends on clustering of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin and its interaction with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor collybistin. Lentiviral knockdown experiments in adult rats indicated that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA7 is required for the stabilisation of basket cell terminals on proximal dendritic and somatic compartments of granular cells of the dentate gyrus. EphA7 deficiency and concomitant destabilisation of GABAergic synapses correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced hippocampal learning. Reduced GABAergic innervation may be explained by an impact of EphA7 on gephyrin clustering. Overexpression or ephrin stimulation of EphA7 induced gephyrin clustering dependent on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is an interaction partner of gephyrin. Gephyrin interactions with mTOR become released after mTOR activation while enhanced interaction with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor collybistin was observed in parallel. In conclusion, EphA7 regulates gephyrin clustering and the maintenance of inhibitory synaptic connectivity via mTOR signalling. PMID:27405707

  8. Receptor tyrosine kinases exert dominant control over PI3K signaling in human KRAS mutant colorectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ebi, Hiromichi; Corcoran, Ryan B.; Singh, Anurag; Chen, Zhao; Song, Youngchul; Lifshits, Eugene; Ryan, David P.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Benes, Cyril; Settleman, Jeffrey; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Cantley, Lewis C.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Therapies inhibiting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are effective against some human cancers when they lead to simultaneous downregulation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling. However, mutant KRAS has the capacity to directly activate ERK and PI3K signaling, and this is thought to underlie the resistance of KRAS mutant cancers to RTK inhibitors. Here, we have elucidated the molecular regulation of both the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cells and identified combination therapies that lead to robust cancer cell apoptosis. KRAS knockdown using shRNA suppressed ERK signaling in all of the human KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines examined. However, no decrease, and actually a modest increase, in AKT phosphorylation was often seen. By performing PI3K immunoprecipitations, we determined that RTKs, often IGF-IR, regulated PI3K signaling in the KRAS mutant cell lines. This conclusion was also supported by the observation that specific RTK inhibition led to marked suppression of PI3K signaling and biochemical assessment of patient specimens. Interestingly, combination of RTK and MEK inhibitors led to concomitant inhibition of PI3K and MEK signaling, marked growth suppression, and robust apoptosis of human KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro and upon xenografting in mice. These findings provide a framework for utilizing RTK inhibitors in the treatment of KRAS mutant colorectal cancers. PMID:21985784

  9. Protein tyrosine kinase regulates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor trafficking induced by acute hypoxia in cultured brainstem neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Yu, L C; Li, Y C

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the modulation effect of protein tyrosine kinase on postsynaptic a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor trafficking induced by acute hypoxia in cultured brainstem neurons. The cultured neurons were exposed to 1% O2 and the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on the cell surface was significantly increased, while total GluR2 was not markedly changed. Furthermore, the hypoxia-induced increase in GluR2 expression on the cell surface was partially blocked by the protein tyrosine kinase membrane-permeable inhibitor genistein. In contrast, both the protein tyrosine kinase agonist nerve growth factor and protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate promoted the hypoxia-induced increase of GluR2 expression on cell surface. Moreover, GluR2 could be phosphorylated by tyrosine under normoxia and hypoxia conditions in vitro on brainstem neurons, and tyrosine phosphorylation of GluR2 was significantly stronger under hypoxia conditions. Our results indicate that acute hypoxia induces the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 to rapidly migrate to the cell membrane to modify the strength of the synapse. This study indicates that tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor is an important pathway regulating the rapid migration of GluR2 in the postsynaptic domain induced by hypoxia. PMID:27525851

  10. Adenosine-dependent activation of tyrosine hydroxylase is defective in adenosine kinase-deficient PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Erny, R; Wagner, J A

    1984-01-01

    (R)-N6-Phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) stimulates dopa production 3- to 5-fold in PC12 cells, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 50 nM. This increase can be explained by a stable activation of tyrosine hydroxylase [TyrOHase; L-tyrosine, tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.16.2] when it is phosphorylated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The activation of TyrOHase is mediated by the adenosine-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase (EC50 = 600 nM). PIA (10 microM) is as effective as cholera toxin or dibutyryl cAMP in activating TyrOHase in wild-type cells. Adenosine kinase-deficient mutants of PC12 were found to be resistant to PIA-dependent activation of TyrOHase (EC50 = 100-1000 nM). This phenomenon was explored in detail in one adenosine kinase-deficient mutant and was shown to occur because the mutant was resistant to the adenosine-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase. In this mutant, TyrOHase was activated 14-fold by cholera toxin, suggesting that activated TyrOHase is about 14 times as active as unactivated TyrOHase. These studies with kinase-deficient PC12 cells provide genetic evidence that adenosine-dependent activation of TyrOHase is mediated by acute increases in cAMP. When the adenosine receptor found on PC12 cells is expressed in vivo, it might function as either a presynaptic (i.e., localized on the nerve terminal) or a postsynaptic (i.e., localized on the cell body or dendrite) receptor that regulates rates of transmitter synthesis in response to cell activity. PMID:6146982

  11. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a new mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase cascade in human neutrophils stimulated with various agonists.

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, N; Molski, T F; Fernandez, G A; Sha'afi, R I

    1996-01-01

    The presence of a novel 38 kDa protein that is tyrosine phosphorylated in human neutrophils, a terminally differentiated cell, upon stimulation of these cells with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with serum has been demonstrated. This 38 kDa protein was identified as the mammalian homologue of HOG1 in yeast, the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. This conclusion is based on the experimental findings that anti-phosphotyrosine (anti-PY) antibody immunoprecipitates a 38 kDa protein that is recognized by anti-p38 MAP kinase antibody, and conversely, anti-p38 MAP kinase antibody immunoprecipitates a 38 kDa protein that can be recognized by anti-PY antibody. Moreover, this tyrosine phosphorylated protein is found associated entirely with the cytosol. It was also found that this p38 MAP kinase is activated following stimulation of these cells with low concentrations of LPS in combination with serum. This conclusion is based on three experimental findings. First, soluble fractions isolated from LPS-stimulated cells phosphorylate heat shock protein 27 (hsp27) in an in vitro assay, and this effect is not inhibited by protein kinase C and protein kinase A inhibitor peptides. This effect is similar to the effect produced by the commercially available phosphorylated and activated MAPKAP kinase-2 (MAP kinase activated protein kinase-2). Secondly, a 27 kDa protein that aligns with a protein recognized by anti-hsp27 antibody is phosphorylated upon LPS stimulation of intact human neutrophils prelabelled with radioactive phosphate. Lastly, immune complex protein kinase assays, using [gamma-32P]ATP and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) as substrates, showed increased p38 MAP kinase activity from LPS-stimulated human neutrophils. The phosphorylation and activation of this p38 MAP kinase can be affected by both G-protein-coupled receptors such as platelet-activating factor (PAF) and non-G-protein-coupled receptors such as the cytokine

  12. Overexpression of MERTK Receptor Tyrosine Kinase in Epithelial Cancer Cells Drives Efferocytosis in a Gain-of-Function Capacity*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh N.; Tsou, Wen-I; Calarese, Daniel A.; Kimani, Stanley G.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Hsieh, Shelly; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin; Wu, Yi; Garforth, Scott J.; Almo, Steve C.; Kotenko, Sergei V.; Birge, Raymond B.

    2014-01-01

    MERTK, a member of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases, has complex and diverse roles in cell biology. On the one hand, knock-out of MERTK results in age-dependent autoimmunity characterized by failure of apoptotic cell clearance, while on the other, MERTK overexpression in cancer drives classical oncogene pathways leading to cell transformation. To better understand the interplay between cell transformation and efferocytosis, we stably expressed MERTK in human MCF10A cells, a non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cell line devoid of endogenous MERTK. While stable expression of MERTK in MCF10A resulted in enhanced motility and AKT-mediated chemoprotection, MERTK-10A cells did not form stable colonies in soft agar, or enhance proliferation compared with parental MCF10A cells. Concomitant to chemoresistance, MERTK also stimulated efferocytosis in a gain-of-function capacity. However, unlike AXL, MERTK activation was highly dependent on apoptotic cells, suggesting MERTK may preferentially interface with phosphatidylserine. Consistent with this idea, knockdown of MERTK in breast cancer cells MDA-MB 231 reduced efferocytosis, while transient or stable expression of MERTK stimulated apoptotic cell clearance in all cell lines tested. Moreover, human breast cancer cells with higher endogenous MERTK showed higher levels of efferocytosis that could be blocked by soluble TAM receptors. Finally, through MERTK, apoptotic cells induced PD-L1 expression, an immune checkpoint blockade, suggesting that cancer cells may adopt MERTK-driven efferocytosis as an immune suppression mechanism for their advantage. These data collectively identify MERTK as a significant link between cancer progression and efferocytosis, and a potentially unrealized tumor-promoting event when MERTK is overexpressed in epithelial cells. PMID:25074939

  13. Integrin α1β1 Promotes Caveolin-1 Dephosphorylation by Activating T Cell Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  14. Integrin {alpha}1{beta}1 promotes caveolin-1 dephosphorylation by activating T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-12-17

    Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus, our results demonstrate that pCav-1 is a new substrate of TCPTP and that integrin α1β1 acts as a negative regulator of Cav-1 phosphorylation by activating TCPTP. This could explain the protective function of integrin α1β1 in oxidative stress-mediated damage and why integrin α1-null mice are more susceptible to fibrosis following injury. PMID:20940300

  15. The immunopharmacologic potential of Semaxanib and new generation directed therapeutic drugs: Receptor tyrosine kinase regulation with anti-tumorigenensis/angiogenesis properties

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular signaling of messages emanating from cellular membranes through receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a major mechanism for intercellular communication and transduction during development and metabolism, as well as in disease-associated processes. The phosphorylation status and signaling activity of RTKs are determined by a dynamic equilibrium of the activity of both RTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). RTKs are essentially a class of cell-surface receptors for growth factors and other extracellular ligands, the most conspicuous perhaps are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene family, which plays a fundamental role in the growth and differentiation of vascular, as well as lymphatic endothelial cells. In particular, VEGF is a major regulator of normal (physiologic) and abnormal (cancerous) angiogenesis, including that associated with tumors and cancer. Blockers/inhibitors and regulators of RTKs are indeed promising cancer interventions, their specific mechanisms are yet to be unraveled. In this cutting-edge synopsis, I elaborate on breakthroughs/advances and current concepts of RTK regulation, further shedding light on exploring the role of potential regulators, particularly the RTK inhibitor Semaxanib, and the mechanisms associated with tumorigenesis in an effort to understand a potentially alleviating pharmacologic therapeutic intervention. This survey also tackles the loopholes and shortcomings of the aforementioned inhibitory role of Semaxanib, especially its inefficacy and ultimate discontinuation of relevant clinical trials. PMID:23960782

  16. Human protein S inhibits the uptake of AcLDL and expression of SR-A through Mer receptor tyrosine kinase in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dan; Wang, Xinwen; Li, Min; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-01-01

    Human protein S is an anticoagulation protein. However, it is unknown whether protein S could regulate the expression and function of macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in macrophages. Human THP-1 monocytes and peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and then treated with physiological concentrations of human protein S. We found that protein S significantly reduced acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake and binding by macrophages and decreased the intracellular cholesteryl ester content. Protein S suppressed the expression of the SR-A at both mRNA and protein levels. Protein S reduced the SR-A promoter activity primarily through inhibition in the binding of transcription factors to the AP-1 promoter element in macrophages. Furthermore, human protein S could bind and induce phosphorylation of Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer RTK). Soluble Mer protein or tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A effectively blocked the effects of protein S on AcLDL uptake. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the level of protein S was substantially increased in human atherosclerotic arteries. Thus, human protein S can inhibit the expression and activity of SR-A through Mer RTK in macrophages, suggesting that human protein S is a modulator for macrophage functions in uptaking of modified lipoproteins. PMID:18922854

  17. The EphB4 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Promotes Lung Cancer Growth: A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Benjamin D.; Liu, Ren; Rolle, Cleo E.; Tan, Yi-Hung Carol; Krasnoperov, Valery; Kanteti, Rajani; Tretiakova, Maria S.; Cervantes, Gustavo M.; Hasina, Rifat; Hseu, Robyn D.; Iafrate, A. John; Karrison, Theodore; Ferguson, Mark K.; Husain, Aliya N.; Faoro, Leonardo; Vokes, Everett E.; Gill, Parkash S.; Salgia, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress in locoregional and systemic therapies, patient survival from lung cancer remains a challenge. Receptor tyrosine kinases are frequently implicated in lung cancer pathogenesis, and some tyrosine kinase inhibition strategies have been effective clinically. The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase has recently emerged as a potential target in several other cancers. We sought to systematically study the role of EphB4 in lung cancer. Here, we demonstrate that EphB4 is overexpressed 3-fold in lung tumors compared to paired normal tissues and frequently exhibits gene copy number increases in lung cancer. We also show that overexpression of EphB4 promotes cellular proliferation, colony formation, and motility, while EphB4 inhibition reduces cellular viability in vitro, halts the growth of established tumors in mouse xenograft models when used as a single-target strategy, and causes near-complete regression of established tumors when used in combination with paclitaxel. Taken together, these data suggest an important role for EphB4 as a potential novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. Clinical trials investigating the efficacy of anti-EphB4 therapies as well as combination therapy involving EphB4 inhibition may be warranted. PMID:23844053

  18. QTc interval prolongation with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ghatalia, P; Je, Y; Kaymakcalan, M D; Sonpavde, G; Choueiri, T K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multi-targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are known to cause cardiac toxicity, but the relative risk (RR) of QTc interval prolongation and serious arrhythmias associated with them are not reported. Methods: We conducted a trial-level meta-analysis of randomised phase II and III trials comparing arms with and without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved VEGFR TKI (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, ponatinib and regorafenib). A total of 6548 patients from 18 trials were selected. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, RR and 95% CIs. Results: The RR for all-grade and high-grade QTc prolongation for the TKI vs no TKI arms was 8.66 (95% CI 4.92–15.2, P<0.001) and 2.69 (95% CI 1.33–5.44, P=0.006), respectively, with most of the events being asymptomatic QTc prolongation. Respectively, 4.4% and 0.83% of patients exposed to VEGFR TKI had all-grade and high-grade QTc prolongation. On subgroup analysis, only sunitinib and vandetanib were associated with a statistically significant risk of QTc prolongation, with higher doses of vandetanib associated with a greater risk. The rate of serious arrhythmias including torsades de pointes did not seem to be higher with high-grade QTc prolongation. The risk of QTc prolongation was independent of the duration of therapy. Conclusions: In the largest study to date, we show that VEGFR TKI can be associated with QTc prolongation. Although most cases were of low clinical significance, it is unclear whether the same applies to patients treated off clinical trials. PMID:25349964

  19. Development of Specific, Irreversible Inhibitors for a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB3.

    PubMed

    Kung, Alvin; Chen, Ying-Chu; Schimpl, Marianne; Ni, Feng; Zhu, Jianfa; Turner, Maurice; Molina, Henrik; Overman, Ross; Zhang, Chao

    2016-08-24

    Erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph) receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of dynamic cellular events, including cell protrusion, migration, proliferation, and cell-fate determination. Small-molecule inhibitors of Eph kinases are valuable tools for dissecting the physiological and pathological roles of Eph. However, there is a lack of small-molecule inhibitors that are selective for individual Eph isoforms due to the high homology within the family. Herein, we report the development of the first potent and specific inhibitors of a single Eph isoform, EphB3. Through structural bioinformatic analysis, we identified a cysteine in the hinge region of the EphB3 kinase domain, a feature that is not shared with any other human kinases. We synthesized and characterized a series of electrophilic quinazolines to target this unique, reactive feature in EphB3. Some of the electrophilic quinazolines selectively and potently inhibited EphB3 both in vitro and in cells. Cocrystal structures of EphB3 in complex with two quinazolines confirmed the covalent linkage between the protein and the inhibitors. A "clickable" version of an optimized inhibitor was created and employed to verify specific target engagement in the whole proteome and to probe the extent and kinetics of target engagement of existing EphB3 inhibitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the autophosphorylation of EphB3 within the juxtamembrane region occurs in trans using a specific inhibitor. These exquisitely specific inhibitors will facilitate the dissection of EphB3's role in various biological processes and disease contribution. PMID:27478969

  20. The Src-family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1 interferes with the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, O Jameel; Kimball, Scot R; Jefferson, Leonard S

    2002-01-01

    Considerable biochemical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6Ks) by activated receptor tyrosine kinases involves multiple co-ordinated input signals. However, the identities of many of these inputs remain poorly described, and their precise involvement in S6K activation has been the subject of great investigative effort. In the present study, we have shown that 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP1), a selective inhibitor of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, interferes with the activation of 70 and 85 kDa S6K gene products (p70S6K1 and p85S6K1) by insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, sodium orthovanadate and activated alleles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and H-Ras. PP1 also impedes the activation of AKT/protein kinase B and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 by these various stimuli. Insulin-like growth factor 1 was observed to induce a sustained increase in c-Src autophosphorylation as revealed using anti-phospho-Y416 antisera, but this effect was absent from the cells treated with PP1. To conclude, an activated allele of p70S6K1 is compared with the wild-type allele, resistant to inhibition by PP1 when co-expressed with phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), suggesting that PP1 affects p70S6K1 via a PDK1-independent pathway. Thus activation of Src may supply a necessary signal for the activation of p70S6K1 and possibly other S6Ks. PMID:12014987

  1. Up-Regulation of Soluble Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Negatively Correlates with Gas6 in Established Multiple Sclerosis Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, Jason G.; Omari, Kakuri M.; Marsden, Kurt; Raine, Cedric S.; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease that is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal damage; it ultimately forms gliotic scars and lesions that severely compromise the function of the central nervous system. Evidence has shown previously that altered growth factor receptor signaling contributes to lesion formation, impedes recovery, and plays a role in disease progression. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), the ligand for the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, is important for cell growth, survival, and clearance of debris. In this study, we show that levels of membrane-bound Mer (205 kd), soluble Mer (∼150 kd), and soluble Axl (80 kd) were all significantly elevated in homogenates from established multiple sclerosis lesions comprised of both chronic active and chronic silent lesions. Whereas in normal tissue Gas6 positively correlated with soluble Axl and Mer, there was a negative correlation between Gas6 and soluble Axl and Mer in established multiple sclerosis lesions. In addition, increased levels of soluble Axl and Mer were associated with increased levels of mature ADAM17, mature ADAM10, and Furin, proteins that are associated with Axl and Mer solubilization. Soluble Axl and Mer are both known to act as decoy receptors and block Gas6 binding to membrane-bound receptors. These data suggest that in multiple sclerosis lesions, dysregulation of protective Gas6 receptor signaling may prolong lesion activity. PMID:19541935

  2. Tyrosines 1021 and 1009 are phosphorylation sites in the carboxy terminus of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta subunit and are required for binding of phospholipase C gamma and a 64-kilodalton protein, respectively.

    PubMed Central

    Valius, M; Bazenet, C; Kazlauskas, A

    1993-01-01

    Binding of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to the PDGF receptor (PDGFR) beta subunit triggers receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and the stable association of a number of signal transduction molecules, including phospholipase C gamma (PLC gamma), the GTPase activating protein of ras (GAP), and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). Previous reports have identified three PDGFR tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the kinase insert domain that are important for stable association of GAP and PI3K. Two of them, tyrosine (Y) 740, and Y-751 are required for the stable association of PI3K, while Y-771 is required for binding of GAP. Here we present data for two additional tyrosine phosphorylation sites, Y-1009 and Y-1021, that are both in the carboxy-terminal region of the PDGFR. Characterization of PDGFR mutants in which these phosphorylation sites are substituted with phenylalanine (F) indicated that Y-1021 and Y-1009 were required for the stable association of PLC gamma and a 64-kDa protein, respectively. An F-1009/F-1021 double mutant selectively failed to bind both PLC gamma and the 64-kDa protein, whereas all of the carboxy-terminal mutants bound wild-type levels of GAP and PI3K. The carboxy terminus encodes the complete binding site for PLC gamma, since a phosphorylated carboxy-terminal fusion protein selectively bound PLC gamma. To determine the biological consequences of failure to associate with PLC gamma, we measured PDGF-dependent inositol phosphate production and initiation of DNA synthesis. The PDGFR mutants that failed to associate with PLC gamma were not able to mediate the PDGF-dependent production of inositol phosphates. Since tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC gamma enhances its enzymatic activity, we speculated that PDGFR mutants that failed to activate PLC gamma were unable to mediate its tyrosine phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the F-1021 receptor mediated readily detectable levels of PDGF-dependent PLC gamma tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, the

  3. Biological and Structural Characterization of Glycosylation on Ephrin-A1, a Preferred Ligand for EphA2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Ferluga, Sara; Hantgan, Roy; Goldgur, Yehuda; Himanen, Juha P.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in a number of malignancies and is activated by ephrin ligands, most commonly by ephrin-A1. The crystal structure of the ligand-receptor complex revealed a glycosylation on the Asn-26 of ephrin-A1. Here we report for the first time the significance of the glycosylation in the biology of EphA2 and ephrin-A1. Ephrin-A1 was enzymatically deglycosylated, and its activity was evaluated in several assays using glioblastoma (GBM) cells and recombinant EphA2. We found that deglycosylated ephrin-A1 does not efficiently induce EphA2 receptor internalization and degradation, and does not activate the downstream signaling pathways involved in cell migration and proliferation. Data obtained by surface plasmon resonance confirms that deglycosylated ephrin-A1 does not bind EphA2 with high affinity. Mutations in the glycosylation site on ephrin-A1 result in protein aggregation and mislocalization. Analysis of Eph/ephrin crystal structures reveals an interaction between the ligand's carbohydrates and two residues of EphA2: Asp-78 and Lys-136. These findings suggest that the glycosylation on ephrin-A1 plays a critical role in the binding and activation of the EphA2 receptor. PMID:23661698

  4. Anti-Angiogenic Properties of BDDPM, a Bromophenol from Marine Red Alga Rhodomela confervoides, with Multi Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Wang, Li-Jun; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Li, Xiangqian; Liu, Shaofang; Luo, Jiao; Shi, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol first isolated from Rhodomelaceae confervoides. Our previous studies showed that BDDPM exerts PTP1B-inhibiting activity and anti-cancer activity against a wide range of tumor cells while it also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. In the present study, we found that BDDPM exhibits significant activities toward angiogenesis in vitro. BDDPM inhibits multiple angiogenesis processes, including endothelial cell sprouting, migration, proliferation, and tube formation. Further kinase assays investigations found that BDDPM is a potent selective, but multi-target, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) inhibitor. BDDPM (10 μM) inhibits the activities of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2, 3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) (inhibition rate: 57.7%, 78.6%, 78.5% and 71.1%, respectively). Moreover, BDDPM also decreases the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependent manner. These results indicate that BDDPM can be exploited as an anti-angiogenic drug, or as a lead compound for the development of novel multi-target RTKs inhibitors. PMID:26075871

  5. Anti-Angiogenic Properties of BDDPM, a Bromophenol from Marine Red Alga Rhodomela confervoides, with Multi Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Wang, Li-Jun; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Li, Xiangqian; Liu, Shaofang; Luo, Jiao; Shi, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol first isolated from Rhodomelaceae confervoides. Our previous studies showed that BDDPM exerts PTP1B-inhibiting activity and anti-cancer activity against a wide range of tumor cells while it also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. In the present study, we found that BDDPM exhibits significant activities toward angiogenesis in vitro. BDDPM inhibits multiple angiogenesis processes, including endothelial cell sprouting, migration, proliferation, and tube formation. Further kinase assays investigations found that BDDPM is a potent selective, but multi-target, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) inhibitor. BDDPM (10 μM) inhibits the activities of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2, 3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) (inhibition rate: 57.7%, 78.6%, 78.5% and 71.1%, respectively). Moreover, BDDPM also decreases the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependent manner. These results indicate that BDDPM can be exploited as an anti-angiogenic drug, or as a lead compound for the development of novel multi-target RTKs inhibitors. PMID:26075871

  6. Activation of signal transduction in platelets by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide).

    PubMed Central

    Pumiglia, K M; Lau, L F; Huang, C K; Burroughs, S; Feinstein, M B

    1992-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation 29-fold more than did thrombin in intact and saponin-permeabilized platelets. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation preceded, or was coincident with, a fall in PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, production of PtdIns(3,4)P2 and phosphatidic acid, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, stimulation of protein kinase C-dependent protein phosphorylation, secretion of dense and alpha-granules, increased actin polymerization, shape change and aggregation which required fibrinogen and was mediated by increased surface expression of GPIIb-IIIa. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor RG 50864 totally prevented induction of tyrosine phosphorylation by pervanadate, as well as all other responses measured; in contrast, the inactive structural analogue, tyrphostin #1, had no effect. Dense-granule secretion induced by pervanadate required protein kinase C activity; however, aggregation and alpha-granule secretion were independent of protein kinase C. In saponin-permeabilized platelets pervanadate and thrombin stimulated phospholipase C activity by GTP-independent and GTP-dependent mechanisms respectively. We conclude that PTPases are important regulators of signal transduction in platelets. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1530576

  7. The trkB Tyrosine Protein Kinase Is a Receptor for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Neurotrophin-3

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rüdiger; Nanduri, Venkata; Jing, Shuqian; Lamballe, Fabienne; Tapley, Peter; Bryant, Sherri; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Jones, Kevin R.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Barbacid, Mariano

    2009-01-01

    Summary trkB is a tyrosine protein kinase gene highly related to trk, a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). trkB expression is confined to structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting it also encodes a receptor for neurotrophic factors. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT-3, but not NGF, can induce rapid phosphorylation on tyrosine of gp145trkB, one of the receptors encoded by trkB. BDNF and NT-3 can induce DNA synthesis in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells that express gp145trkB. Cotransfection of plasmids encoding gp145trkB and BDNF or NT-3 leads to transformation of recipient NIH 3T3 cells. In these assays, BDNF elicits a response at least two orders of magnitude higher than NT-3. Finally, 125I-NT-3 binds to NIH 3T3 cells expressing gp145trkB; binding can be competed by NT-3 and BDNF but not by NGF. These findings indicate that gp145trkB may function as a neurotrophic receptor for BDNF and NT-3. PMID:1649702

  8. Platelet-activating factor attenuation of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampal slices via protein tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Benjamin; Wang, Wenwei; Liu, Jianuo; Xiong, Huangui

    2016-02-26

    It is well established that HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release platelet activating factor (PAF) and elevated levels of PAF have been detected in blood and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). It is our hypothesis that the elevated levels of PAF alter long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus, leading to neurocognitive dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of PAF on LTP in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Our results showed incubation of hippocampal slices with PAF attenuated LTP. The PAF-mediated attenuation was blocked by ginkgolide B, a PAF receptor antagonist, suggesting PAF attenuation of LTP via PAF receptors. Application of lyso-PAF, an inactive PAF analog, had no apparent effect on LTP. Further investigation revealed an involvement of tyrosine kinase in PAF attenuation of LTP, which was demonstrated by lavendustin A (a specific protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor) blockage of PAF attenuation of LTP. As LTP is widely considered as the cellular and synaptic basis for learning and memory, the attenuation of LTP by PAF may contribute at least in part to the HAND pathogenesis. PMID:26808643

  9. Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Alessandro; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Falasconi, Fabiano; De Feo, Gianfranco; Del Giudice, Antonia; Bryce, Jane; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Normanno, Nicola; Perrone, Francesco

    2009-04-01

    Vandetanib is a novel, orally available inhibitor of different intracellular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and REarranged during Transfection tyrosine kinase activity. Phase I clinical trials have shown that vandetanib is well tolerated as a single agent at daily doses < or =300 mg. In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma. In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy. Rash, diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, and asymptomatic QTc prolongation were the most common adverse events. Antitumor activity was also observed in medullary thyroid cancer. Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials. Based on a press release by the sponsor of these trials, the PFS time was longer with vandetanib in the ZODIAC and ZEAL trials; the ZEST trial was negative for its primary superiority analysis, but was successful according to a preplanned noninferiority analysis of PFS. Ongoing phase II and III clinical trials will better define the appropriate schedule, the optimal setting of evaluation, and the safety of long-term use of vandetanib. PMID:19349511

  10. Synergistic inhibition with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Witters, Lois; Scherle, Peggy; Friedman, Steven; Fridman, Jordan; Caulder, Eian; Newton, Robert; Lipton, Allan

    2008-09-01

    The ErbB family of receptors is overexpressed in numerous human tumors. Overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Use of ErbB-specific antibodies to the receptors (Herceptin or Erbitux) or ErbB-specific small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity (Iressa or Tarceva) has shown clinical efficacy in several solid tumors. An alternative method of affecting ErbB-initiated tumor growth and survival is to block sheddase activity. Sheddase activity is responsible for cleavage of multiple ErbB ligands and receptors, a necessary step in availability of the soluble, active form of the ligand and a constitutively activated ligand-independent receptor. This sheddase activity is attributed to the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins. ADAM 10 is the main sheddase of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and HER-2/neu cleavage, whereas ADAM17 is required for cleavage of additional EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands (transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, heregulin, heparin binding EGF-like ligand). This study has shown that addition of INCB3619, a potent inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17, reduces in vitro HER-2/neu and amphiregulin shedding, confirming that it interferes with both HER-2/neu and EGFR ligand cleavage. Combining INCB3619 with a lapatinib-like dual inhibitor of EGFR and HER-2/neu kinases resulted in synergistic growth inhibition in MCF-7 and HER-2/neu-transfected MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Combining the INCB7839 second-generation sheddase inhibitor with lapatinib prevented the growth of HER-2/neu-positive BT474-SC1 human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. These results suggest that there may be an additional clinical benefit of combining agents that target the ErbB pathways at multiple points. PMID:18757423

  11. Soluble CD40 ligand induces β3 integrin tyrosine phosphorylation and triggers platelet activation by outside-in signaling

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K. S. Srinivasa; Andre, Patrick; He, Ming; Bao, Ming; Manganello, Jeanne; Phillips, David R.

    2003-01-01

    We earlier reported that the soluble form of the CD40 ligand (sCD40L), is involved in thrombosis by stabilizing platelet thrombi. In this article, we have determined the mechanism by which this protein affects platelet biology. Addition of sCD40L to washed platelets was found to activate the receptor function of αIIbβ3 as measured by the induction of fibrinogen binding and the formation of platelet microparticles. Mutation in the KGD sequence (D117E) of sCD40L, the αIIbβ3-binding domain in the N terminus of the protein resulted in a loss of the platelet-stimulatory activity of this protein. Integrilin, a αIIbβ3 antagonist, but not an antibody to CD40 that blocked the ligand-binding activity, inhibited these platelet-stimulatory events. CD40-/- platelets bound fibrinogen and formed microparticles similar to WT platelets, again indicating that CD40 is not involved in sCD40L-induced platelet activation. Exposure of platelets to sCD40L, but not D117E-sCD40L-coated surfaces, induced platelet thrombi formation under arterial shear rate. sCD40L-induced platelet stimulation resulted in the phosphorylation of tyrosine-759 in the cytoplasmic domain of β3. Platelets from the diYF mouse strain, expressing β3 in which both cytoplasmic tyrosines are mutated to phenylalanine, were defective in sCD40L-induced platelet stimulation. These data indicate that sCD40L is a primary platelet agonist and that platelet stimulation is induced by the binding of the KGD domain of sCD40L to αIIbβ3, triggering outside-in signaling by tyrosine phosphorylation of β3. PMID:14519852

  12. The human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in European patients with advanced colorectal cancer harbors infrequent mutations in its tyrosine kinase domain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptors, is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase (TK) activated by the binding of extracellular ligands of the EGF-family and involved in triggering the MAPK signaling pathway, which leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain are frequent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, to date, only very few, mainly non-European, studies have reported rare EGFR mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods We screened 236 clinical tumor samples from European patients with advanced CRC by direct DNA sequencing to detect potential, as yet unknown mutations, in the EGFR gene exons 18 to 21, mainly covering the EGFR TK catalytic domain. Results EGFR sequences showed somatic missense mutations in exons 18 and 20 at a frequency of 2.1% and 0.4% respectively. Somatic SNPs were also found in exons 20 and 21 at a frequency of about 3.1% and 0.4% respectively. Of these mutations, four have not yet been described elsewhere. Conclusions These mutation frequencies are higher than in a similarly sized population characterized by Barber and colleagues, but still too low to account for a major role played by the EGFR gene in CRC. PMID:22026926

  13. Endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor B prevents VE-cadherin cleavage and protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun; Li, Xian; Huang, Shanying; Zhang, Yun; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) is a high-affinity receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition to its nervous system functions, TrkB is also expressed in the aortic endothelium. However, the effects of endothelial TrkB signaling on atherosclerosis remained unknown. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TrkB expression is downregulated in the endothelium of atherosclerotic lesions from ApoE−/− mice compared with the atheroma-free aorta of WT mice. Endothelial TrkB knockdown led to increased lesion size, lipid deposition and inflammatory responses in the atherosclerotic lesions of the ApoE−/− mice compared with the control mice. Mechanistic studies showed that TrkB activation prevented VE-cadherin shedding by enhancing the interaction between vascular endothelial protein tyrosine phosphatase and VE-cadherin, maintaining VE-cadherin in a dephosphorylated state. Our data demonstrate that TrkB is an endothelial injury-response molecule in atherogenesis. Endothelial BDNF/TrkB signaling reduces VE-cadherin shedding and protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE−/− mice. PMID:26431274

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter by nuclear receptor ERRγ in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Kim, Hyo-In; Bang, Yeojin; Seol, Wongi; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2015-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor relevant to the development of many mammalian organs including the brain. However, the molecular mechanisms by which signaling events mediate neuronal differentiation have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we show for the first time that the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is upregulated by HIF-1α and plays essential roles in HIF-1α-induced upregulation of dopaminergic marker molecules such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. We found that deferoxamine upregulated HIF-1α and enhanced the dopaminergic phenotype and neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Deferoxamine activated transcription and protein expression of ERRγ, and deferoxamine-induced upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter was attenuated by using the ERRγ inverse agonist or silencing ERRγ. Altogether, these results suggest that HIF-1α can positively regulate the dopaminergic phenotype through ERRγ. This study could provide new perspectives for understanding the mechanisms underlying the promotion of dopaminergic neuronal differentiation by hypoxia. PMID:25807177

  15. Analysis of the murine Dtk gene identifies conservation of genomic structure within a new receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.M.; Crosier, K.E.; Crosier, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Dtk/Tyro 3/Sky/rse/brt/tif is a member of a new subfamily of receptors that also includes Axl/Ufo/Ark and Eyk/Mer. These receptors are characterized by the presence of two immunoglobulin-like loops and two fibronectin type III repeats in their extracellular domains. The structure of the murine Dtk gene has been determined. The gene consists of 21 exons that are distributed over 21 kb of genomic DNA. An isoform of Dtk is generated by differential splicing of exons from the 5{prime} region of the gene. The overall genomic structure of Dtk is virtually identical to that determined for the human UFO gene. This particular genomic organization is likely to have been duplicated and closely maintained throughout evolution. 38 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ligand-Binding Affinity at the Insulin Receptor Isoform-A and Subsequent IR-A Tyrosine Phosphorylation Kinetics are Important Determinants of Mitogenic Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Harinda; Forbes, Briony E.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A) arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signaling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival, and migration by activating some unique signaling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signaling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signaling (MAPK and Akt) and receptor internalization rates (related to mitogenic signaling). We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic [(His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51) IGF-I, qIGF-I] or metabolic (S597 peptide) biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signaling through the IR-A. The threefold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316, and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide, it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I. PMID:26217307

  17. Furin-, ADAM 10-, and γ-Secretase-Mediated Cleavage of a Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase and Regulation of β-Catenin's Transcriptional Activity†

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Lars; Mertins, Philipp; Lammich, Sven; Murgia, Marta; Hartmann, Dieter; Saftig, Paul; Haass, Christian; Ullrich, Axel

    2006-01-01

    Several receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are cell adhesion molecules involved in homophilic interactions, suggesting that RPTP outside-in signaling is coupled to cell contact formation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which cell density regulates RPTP function. We show that the MAM family prototype RPTPκ is cleaved by three proteases: furin, ADAM 10, and γ-secretase. Cell density promotes ADAM 10-mediated cleavage and shedding of RPTPκ. This is followed by γ-secretase-dependent intramembrane proteolysis of the remaining transmembrane part to release the phosphatase intracellular portion (PIC) from the membrane, thereby allowing its translocation to the nucleus. When cells were treated with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, PIC accumulated in nuclear bodies. PIC is an active protein tyrosine phosphatase that binds to and dephosphorylates β-catenin, an RPTPκ substrate. The expression of RPTPκ suppresses β-catenin's transcriptional activity, whereas the expression of PIC increases it. Notably, this increase required the phosphatase activity of PIC. Thus, both isoforms have acquired opposing roles in the regulation of β-catenin signaling. We also found that RPTPμ, another MAM family member, undergoes γ-secretase-dependent processing. Our results identify intramembrane proteolysis as a regulatory switch in RPTPκ signaling and implicate PIC in the activation of β-catenin-mediated transcription. PMID:16648485

  18. Activating Mutations in PIK3CA Lead to Widespread Modulation of the Tyrosine Phosphoproteome

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Brian G.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Nirujogi, Raja S.; Jelinek, Christine A.; Malhotra, Radhika; Kim, Min-Sik; Park, Ben Ho; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    The human oncogene PIK3CA is frequently mutated in human cancers. Two hotspot mutations in PIK3CA, E545K and H1047R, have been shown to regulate widespread signaling events downstream of AKT, leading to increased cell proliferation, growth, survival, and motility. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile the global phosphotyrosine proteome of isogenic knock-in cell lines containing these activating mutations, where we identified 824 unique phosphopeptides. Although it is well understood that these mutations result in hyperactivation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT, we found a surprisingly widespread modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation levels of proteins in the mutant cells. In the tyrosine kinome alone, 29 tyrosine kinases were altered in their phosphorylation status. Many of the regulated phosphosites that we identified were located in the kinase domain or the canonical activation sites, indicating that these kinases and their downstream signaling pathways were activated. Our study demonstrates that there is frequent and unexpected cross-talk that occurs between tyrosine signaling pathways and serine/threonine signaling pathways activated by the canonical PI3K-AKT axis. PMID:26267517

  19. Discovery of Novel Benzimidazoles as Potent Inhibitors of TIE-2 and VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Masaichi; Nishigaki, Naohiko; Washio, Yoshiaki; Kano, Kazuya; Harris, Philip A.; Sato, Hideyuki; Mori, Ichiro; West, Rob I.; Shibahara, Megumi; Toyoda, Hiroko; Wang, Liping; Nolte, Robert T.; Veal, James M.; Cheung, Mui

    2008-09-12

    We herein disclose a novel chemical series of benzimidazole-ureas as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 and TIE-2 kinase receptors, both of which are implicated in angiogenesis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies elucidated a critical role for the N1 nitrogen of both the benzimidazole (segment E) and urea (segment B) moieties. The SAR results were also supported by the X-ray crystallographic elucidation of the role of the N1 nitrogen and the urea moiety when the benzimidazole-urea compounds were bound to the VEGFR-2 enzyme. The left side phenyl ring (segment A) occupies the backpocket where a 3-hydrophobic substituent was favored for TIE-2 activity.

  20. EGFR tyrosine kinase regulates human small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (hSKCa1) channels expressed in HEK-293 cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Sun, Hai-Ying; Deng, Xiu-Ling; Li, Gui-Rong

    2013-05-15

    SKCa (small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)) channels are widely distributed in different tissues, including the brain, pancreatic islets and myocardium and play an important role in controlling electrical activity and cellular functions. However, intracellular signal modulation of SKCa channels is not fully understood. The present study was designed to investigate the potential regulation of hSKCa1 (human SKCa1) channels by PTKs (protein tyrosine kinases) in HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells expressing the hSKCa1 (KCNN1) gene using approaches of whole-cell patch voltage-clamp, immunoprecipitation, Western blotting and mutagenesis. We found that the hSKCa1 current was inhibited by the broad-spectrum PTK inhibitor genistein, the selective EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) kinase inhibitors T25 (tyrphostin 25) and AG556 (tyrphostin AG 556), but not by the Src-family kinases inhibitor PP2. The inhibitory effect of these PTK inhibitors was significantly antagonized by the PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase) inhibitor orthovanadate. The tyrosine phosphorylation level of hSKCa1 channels was reduced by genistein, T25 or AG556. The reduced tyrosine phosphorylation was countered by orthovanadate. Interestingly, the Y109F mutant hSKCa1 channel lost the inhibitory response to T25 or AG556, and showed a dramatic reduction in tyrosine phosphorylation levels and a reduced current density. These results demonstrate the novel information that hSKCa1 channels are inhibited by genistein, T25 and AG556 via EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition, which is related to the phosphorylation of Tyr(109) in the N-terminus. This effect may affect electrical activity and cellular functions in brain, pancreatic islets and myocardium. PMID:23496660

  1. Metabolism and bioactivation of famitinib, a novel inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase, in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cen; Zhou, Jialan; Guo, Zitao; Diao, Xingxing; Gao, Zhiwei; Zhong, Dafang; Jiang, Haoyuan; Zhang, Lijia; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Famitinib is a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor under development for cancer treatment. This study aims to characterize the metabolic and bioactivation pathways of famitinib. Experimental Approach The metabolites in human plasma, urine and feces were identified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry and confirmed using synthetic standards. Biotransformation and bioactivation mechanisms were investigated using microsomes, recombinant metabolic enzymes and hepatocytes. Key Results Famitinib was extensively metabolized after repeated oral administrations. Unchanged famitinib was the major circulating material, followed by N-desethylfaminitib (M3), whose steady-state exposure represented 7.2 to 7.5% that of the parent drug. Metabolites in the excreta were mainly from oxidative deamination (M1), N-desethylation (M3), oxidative defluorination (M7), indolylidene hydroxylation (M9-1 and M9-5) and secondary phase-II conjugations. CYP3A4/5 was the major contributor to M3 formation, CYP3A4/5 and aldehyde dehydrogenase to M1 formation and CYP1A1/2 to M7, M9-1 and M9-5 formations. Minor cysteine conjugates were observed in the plasma, urine and feces, implying the formation of reactive intermediate(s). In vitro microsomal studies proved that famitinib was bioactivated through epoxidation at indolylidene by CYP1A1/2 and spontaneously defluorinated rearrangement to afford a quinone-imine species. A correlation between famitinib hepatotoxicity and its bioactivation was observed in the primary human hepatocytes. Conclusion and Implications Famitinib is well absorbed and extensively metabolized in cancer patients. Multiple enzymes, mainly CYP3A4/5 and CYP1A1/2, are involved in famitinib metabolic clearance. The quinone-imine intermediate formed through bioactivation may be associated with famitinib hepatotoxicity. Co-administered CYP1A1/2 inducers or inhibitors may potentiate or

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Defines Critical Prognostic Genes of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagasaki, Masao; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Saito, Ayumu; Ueno, Kazuko; Hatanaka, Yousuke; Yoshida, Ryo; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Masaharu; Beer, David G.; Yokota, Jun; Miyano, Satoru; Gotoh, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis who will benefit from adjuvant therapy. Patients and Methods Whole gene expression profiles were obtained at 19 time points over a 48-hour time course from human primary lung epithelial cells that were stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the presence or absence of a clinically used EGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-specific inhibitor, gefitinib. The data were subjected to a mathematical simulation using the State Space Model (SSM). “Gefitinib-sensitive” genes, the expressional dynamics of which were altered by addition of gefitinib, were identified. A risk scoring model was constructed to classify high- or low-risk patients based on expression signatures of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes in lung cancer using a training data set of 253 lung adenocarcinomas of North American cohort. The predictive ability of the risk scoring model was examined in independent cohorts of surgical specimens of lung cancer. Results The risk scoring model enabled the identification of high-risk stage IA and IB cases in another North American cohort for overall survival (OS) with a hazard ratio (HR) of 7.16 (P = 0.029) and 3.26 (P = 0.0072), respectively. It also enabled the identification of high-risk stage I cases without bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC) histology in a Japanese cohort for OS and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with HRs of 8.79 (P = 0.001) and 3.72 (P = 0.0049), respectively. Conclusion The set of 139 gefitinib-sensitive genes includes many genes known to be involved in biological aspects of cancer phenotypes, but not known to be involved in EGF signaling. The present result strongly re-emphasizes that EGF signaling status in cancer cells underlies an aggressive phenotype of cancer cells, which is useful for the selection of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma patients with a poor prognosis. Trial Registration The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) GSE31210 PMID:23028479

  3. Tyrosine kinase activity, cytoskeletal organization, and motility in human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Romer, L H; McLean, N; Turner, C E; Burridge, K

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins occurs during integrin-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. We have investigated the role of tyrosine phosphorylation in the migration and initial spreading of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Elevated phosphotyrosine concentrations were noted in the focal adhesions of HUVEC migrating into wounds. Anti-phosphotyrosine Western blots of extracts of wounded HUVEC monolayers demonstrated increased phosphorylation at 120-130 kDa when compared with extracts of intact monolayers. The pp125FAK immunoprecipitated from wounded monolayers exhibited increased kinase activity as compared to pp125FAK from intact monolayers. The time to wound closure in HUVEC monolayers was doubled by tyrphostin AG 213 treatment. The same concentration of AG 213 interfered with HUVEC focal adhesion and stress fiber formation. AG 213 inhibited adhesion-associated tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK in HUVEC. Tyrphostins AG 213 and AG 808 inhibited pp125FAK activity in in vitro kinase assays. pp125FAK immunoprecipitates from HUVEC treated with both of these inhibitors also had kinase activity in vitro that was below levels seen in untreated HUVEC. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins may be important in HUVEC spreading and migration and that pp125FAK may mediate phosphotyrosine formation during these processes. Images PMID:8049526

  4. Regulation of branching dynamics by axon-intrinsic asymmetries in Tyrosine Kinase Receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zschätzsch, Marlen; Oliva, Carlos; Langen, Marion; De Geest, Natalie; Özel, Mehmet Neset; Williamson, W Ryan; Lemon, William C; Soldano, Alessia; Munck, Sebastian; Hiesinger, P Robin; Sanchez-Soriano, Natalia; Hassan, Bassem A

    2014-01-01

    Axonal branching allows a neuron to connect to several targets, increasing neuronal circuit complexity. While axonal branching is well described, the mechanisms that control it remain largely unknown. We find that in the Drosophila CNS branches develop through a process of excessive growth followed by pruning. In vivo high-resolution live imaging of developing brains as well as loss and gain of function experiments show that activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is necessary for branch dynamics and the final branching pattern. Live imaging also reveals that intrinsic asymmetry in EGFR localization regulates the balance between dynamic and static filopodia. Elimination of signaling asymmetry by either loss or gain of EGFR function results in reduced dynamics leading to excessive branch formation. In summary, we propose that the dynamic process of axon branch development is mediated by differential local distribution of signaling receptors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01699.001 PMID:24755286

  5. COUP-TFI controls activity-dependent tyrosine hydroxylase expression in adult dopaminergic olfactory bulb interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bovetti, Serena; Bonzano, Sara; Garzotto, Donatella; Giannelli, Serena Gea; Iannielli, Angelo; Armentano, Maria; Studer, Michèle; De Marchis, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    COUP-TFI is an orphan nuclear receptor acting as a strong transcriptional regulator in different aspects of forebrain embryonic development. In this study, we investigated COUP-TFI expression and function in the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), a highly plastic telencephalic region in which continuous integration of newly generated inhibitory interneurons occurs throughout life. OB interneurons belong to different populations that originate from distinct progenitor lineages. Here, we show that COUP-TFI is highly expressed in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic interneurons in the adult OB glomerular layer (GL). We found that odour deprivation, which is known to downregulate TH expression in the OB, also downregulates COUP-TFI in dopaminergic cells, indicating a possible correlation between TH- and COUP-TFI-activity-dependent action. Moreover, we demonstrate that conditional inactivation of COUP-TFI in the EMX1 lineage results in a significant reduction of both TH and ZIF268 expression in the GL. Finally, lentiviral vector-mediated COUP-TFI deletion in adult-generated interneurons confirmed that COUP-TFI acts cell-autonomously in the control of TH and ZIF268 expression. These data indicate that COUP-TFI regulates TH expression in OB cells through an activity-dependent mechanism involving ZIF268 induction and strongly argue for a maintenance rather than establishment function of COUP-TFI in dopaminergic commitment. Our study reveals a previously unknown role for COUP-TFI in the adult brain as a key regulator in the control of sensory-dependent plasticity in olfactory dopaminergic neurons. PMID:24227652

  6. Functional proteomic analysis of long-term growth factor stimulation and receptor tyrosine kinase coactivation in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kohji; Akpan, Akunna; Warnasuriya, Gayathri; Corless, Steven; Totty, Nick; Yang, Alice; Stein, Robert; Zvelebil, Marketa; Stensballe, Allan; Burlingame, Al; Waterfield, Michael; Cramer, Rainer; Timms, John F; Naaby-Hansen, Søren

    2012-12-01

    In Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, long-term stimulation with PDGF, but not insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or EGF, results in the establishment of an elongated migratory phenotype, characterized by the formation of retractile dendritic protrusions and absence of actin stress fibers and focal adhesion complexes. To identify receptor tyrosine kinase-specific reorganization of the Swiss 3T3 proteome during phenotypic differentiation, we compared changes in the pattern of protein synthesis and phosphorylation during long-term exposure to PDGF, IGF-1, EGF, and their combinations using 2DE-based proteomics after (35)S- and (33)P-metabolic labeling. One hundred and five differentially regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and some of these extensively validated. PDGF stimulation produced the highest overall rate of protein synthesis at any given time and induced the most sustained phospho-signaling. Simultaneous activation with two or three of the growth factors revealed both synergistic and antagonistic effects on protein synthesis and expression levels with PDGF showing dominance over both IGF-1 and EGF in generating distinct proteome compositions. Using signaling pathway inhibitors, PI3K was identified as an early site for signal diversification, with sustained activity of the PI3K/AKT pathway critical for regulating late protein synthesis and phosphorylation of target proteins and required for maintaining the PDGF-dependent motile phenotype. Several proteins were identified with novel PI3K/Akt-dependent synthesis and phosphorylations including eEF2, PRS7, RACK-1, acidic calponin, NAP1L1, Hsp73, and fascin. The data also reveal induction/suppression of key F-actin and actomyosin regulators and chaperonins that enable PDGFR to direct the assembly of a motile cytoskeleton, despite simultaneous antagonistic signaling activities. Together, the study demonstrates that long-term exposure to different growth factors results in receptor tyrosine kinase

  7. Distinct Involvement of the Gab1 and Grb2 Adaptor Proteins in Signal Transduction by the Related Receptor Tyrosine Kinases RON and MET

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Amitabha; Xie, Ming-Hong; Yang, Becky; Mahapatra, Kaushiki; Liu, Jinfeng; Marsters, Scot; Bodepudi, Sweta; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2011-01-01

    Although the signal transduction mechanisms of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET are well defined, less is known about its close relative RON. MET initiates intracellular signaling by autophosphorylation on specific cytoplasmic tyrosines that form docking sites for the adaptor proteins Grb2 and Gab1. Grb2 binds directly and is essential for all of the biological activities of MET. Gab1 docks either directly or indirectly via Grb2 and controls only a subset of MET functions. Because MET and RON possess similar adaptor binding sites, it was anticipated that their adaptor interactions would be conserved. Here we show that in contrast to MET, RON relies primarily on Gab1 for signal transmission. Surprisingly, disruption of the Grb2 docking site of RON or Grb2 depletion augments activity, whereas enhancement of Grb2 binding attenuates Gab1 recruitment and signaling. Hence, RON and MET differ in their adaptor interactions; furthermore, Grb2 performs a novel antagonistic role in the context of RON signaling. PMID:21784853

  8. Activation of Protein Tyrosine Kinases by Coxiella burnetii: Role in Actin Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Bacterial Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Meconi, Sonia; Capo, Christian; Remacle-Bonnet, Maryse; Pommier, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2001-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is an obligate intracellular microorganism that grows in monocytes/macrophages. The internalization of virulent organisms by monocytes is lower than that of avirulent variants and is associated with actin cytoskeleton reorganization. We studied the activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) by C. burnetii in THP-1 monocytes. Virulent organisms induced early PTK activation and the tyrosine phosphorylation of several endogenous substrates, including Hck and Lyn, two Src-related kinases. PTK activation reflects C. burnetii virulence since avirulent variants were unable to stimulate PTK. We also investigated the role of PTK activation in C. burnetii-stimulated F-actin reorganization. Tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins were colocalized with F-actin inside cell protrusions induced by C. burnetii, and PTK activity was increased in Triton X-100-insoluble fractions. In addition, lavendustin A, a PTK inhibitor, and PP1, a Src kinase inhibitor, prevented C. burnetii-induced cell protrusions and F-actin reorganization. We finally assessed the role of PTK activation in bacterial phagocytosis. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with lavendustin A and PP1 upregulated the uptake of virulent C. burnetii but had no effect on the phagocytosis of avirulent organisms. Thus, it is likely that PTK activation by C. burnetii negatively regulates bacterial uptake by interfering with cytoskeleton organization. PMID:11254615

  9. PTP1B-dependent regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by the actin-binding protein Mena.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Shannon K; Oudin, Madeleine J; Tadros, Jenny; Neil, Jason; Del Rosario, Amanda; Joughin, Brian A; Ritsma, Laila; Wyckoff, Jeff; Vasile, Eliza; Eddy, Robert; Philippar, Ulrike; Lussiez, Alisha; Condeelis, John S; van Rheenen, Jacco; White, Forest; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2015-11-01

    During breast cancer progression, alternative mRNA splicing produces functionally distinct isoforms of Mena, an actin regulator with roles in cell migration and metastasis. Aggressive tumor cell subpopulations express Mena(INV), which promotes tumor cell invasion by potentiating EGF responses. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we report that Mena associates constitutively with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and mediates a novel negative feedback mechanism that attenuates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. On EGF stimulation, complexes containing Mena and PTP1B are recruited to the EGFR, causing receptor dephosphorylation and leading to decreased motility responses. Mena also interacts with the 5' inositol phosphatase SHIP2, which is important for the recruitment of the Mena-PTP1B complex to the EGFR. When Mena(INV) is expressed, PTP1B recruitment to the EGFR is impaired, providing a mechanism for growth factor sensitization to EGF, as well as HGF and IGF, and increased resistance to EGFR and Met inhibitors in signaling and motility assays. In sum, we demonstrate that Mena plays an important role in regulating growth factor-induced signaling. Disruption of this attenuation by Mena(INV) sensitizes tumor cells to low-growth factor concentrations, thereby increasing the migration and invasion responses that contribute to aggressive, malignant cell phenotypes. PMID:26337385

  10. Frequent mutation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases provides a mechanism for STAT3 hyperactivation in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Vivian Wai Yan; Peyser, Noah D.; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Hritz, Jozef; Zeng, Yan; Lu, Yiling; Li, Hua; Wang, Lin; Gilbert, Breean R.; General, Ignacio J.; Bahar, Ivet; Ju, Zhenlin; Wang, Zhenghe; Pendleton, Kelsey P.; Xiao, Xiao; Du, Yu; Vries, John K.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Garraway, Levi A.; Mills, Gordon B.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of STAT3 hyperphosphorylation resulting in enhanced signaling and cancer progression are incompletely understood. Loss-of-function mutations of enzymes that dephosphorylate STAT3, such as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are encoded by the PTPR gene family, represent a plausible mechanism of STAT3 hyperactivation. We analyzed whole exome sequencing (n = 374) and reverse-phase protein array data (n = 212) from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). PTPR mutations are most common and are associated with significantly increased phospho-STAT3 expression in HNSCC tumors. Expression of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) mutant proteins induces STAT3 phosphorylation and cell survival, consistent with a “driver” phenotype. Computational modeling reveals functional consequences of PTPRT mutations on phospho-tyrosine–substrate interactions. A high mutation rate (30%) of PTPRs was found in HNSCC and 14 other solid tumors, suggesting that PTPR alterations, in particular PTPRT mutations, may define a subset of patients where STAT3 pathway inhibitors hold particular promise as effective therapeutic agents. PMID:24395800

  11. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases restores immunocompetence and improves immune-dependent chemotherapy against experimental leishmaniasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Jane E.; Maroof, Asher; Owens, Benjamin M.J.; Narang, Priyanka; Johnson, Katherine; Brown, Najmeeyah; Rosenquist, Lovisa; Beattie, Lynette; Coles, Mark; Kaye, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in multiple cellular processes, and drugs that inhibit their action are used in the clinic to treat several types of cancer. However, the value of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) for treating infectious disease has yet to be explored. Here, we have shown in mice that administration of the broad-spectrum RTKI sunitinib maleate (Sm) blocked the vascular remodeling and progressive splenomegaly associated with experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore, Sm treatment restored the integrity of the splenic microarchitecture. Although restoration of splenic architecture was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells, Sm treatment alone was insufficient to cause a reduction in tissue parasite burden. However, preconditioning by short-term Sm treatment proved to be successful as an adjunct therapy, increasing the frequency of IFN-γ+ and IFN-γ+TNF+CD4+ T cells, enhancing NO production by splenic macrophages, and providing dose-sparing effects when combined with a first-line immune-dependent anti-leishmanial drug. We propose, therefore, that RTKIs may prove clinically useful as agents to restore immune competence before the administration of chemo- or immunotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis or other diseases involving lymphoid tissue remodeling, including cancer. PMID:20234089

  12. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  13. Sulfated Tyrosines Contribute to the Formation of the C5a Docking Site of the Human C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Michael; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Vasilieva, Natalya; Leung, Doris; Kuhn, Jens; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P.; Choe, Hyeryun

    2001-01-01

    The complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its seven-transmembrane segment (7TMS) receptor play an important role in host defense and in a number of inflammation-associated pathologies. The NH2-terminal domain of the C5a receptor (C5aR/CD88) contributes substantially to its ability to bind C5a. Here we show that the tyrosines at positions 11 and 14 of the C5aR are posttranslationally modified by the addition of sulfate groups. The sulfate moieties of each of these tyrosines are critical to the ability of the C5aR to bind C5a and to mobilize calcium. A C5aR variant lacking these sulfate moieties efficiently mobilized calcium in response to a small peptide agonist, but not to C5a, consistent with a two-site model of ligand association in which the tyrosine-sulfated region of the C5aR mediates the initial docking interaction. A peptide based on the NH2 terminus of the C5aR and sulfated at these two tyrosines, but not its unsulfated analogue or a doubly sulfated control peptide, partially inhibited C5a association with its receptor. These observations clarify structural and mutagenic studies of the C5a/C5aR association and suggest that related 7TMS receptors are also modified by functionally important sulfate groups on their NH2-terminal tyrosines. PMID:11342590

  14. The Eph Tyrosine Kinase Receptors EphB2 and EphA2 Are Novel Proteolytic Substrates of Tissue Factor/Coagulation Factor VIIa*

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Oskar; Ramström, Margareta; Hörnaeus, Katarina; Bergquist, Jonas; Mokhtari, Dariush; Siegbahn, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) binds the serine protease factor VIIa (FVIIa) to form a proteolytically active complex that can trigger coagulation or activate cell signaling. Here we addressed the involvement of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) in TF/FVIIa signaling by antibody array analysis and subsequently found that EphB2 and EphA2 of the Eph RTK family were cleaved in their ectodomains by TF/FVIIa. We used N-terminal Edman sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis to characterize the cleaved Eph isoforms and identified a key arginine residue at the cleavage site, in agreement with the tryptic serine protease activity of FVIIa. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling and downstream coagulation activity was non-essential in this context, in further support of a direct cleavage by TF/FVIIa. EphB2 was cleaved by FVIIa concentrations in the subnanomolar range in a number of TF expressing cell types, indicating that the active cellular pool of TF was involved. FVIIa caused potentiation of cell repulsion by the EphB2 ligand ephrin-B1, demonstrating a novel proteolytical event to control Eph-mediated cell segregation. These results define Eph RTKs as novel proteolytical targets of TF/FVIIa and provide new insights into how TF/FVIIa regulates cellular functions independently of PAR2. PMID:25281742

  15. Endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase activity is essential for myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Tanja; Räsänen, Markus; Anisimov, Andrey; Tuomainen, Tomi; Zheng, Wei; Tvorogov, Denis; Hulmi, Juha J; Andersson, Leif C; Cenni, Bruno; Tavi, Pasi; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-10-20

    Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease, and it is a strong predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deletion of bone marrow kinase in chromosome X (Bmx), an arterial nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in mice. This finding raised the possibility of therapeutic use of Bmx tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which we have addressed here by analyzing cardiac hypertrophy in gene-targeted mice deficient in Bmx tyrosine kinase activity. We found that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is significantly reduced in mice deficient in Bmx and in mice with inactivated Bmx tyrosine kinase compared with WT mice. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling showed that Bmx inactivation suppresses myocardial expression of genes related to Ang II-induced inflammatory and extracellular matrix responses whereas expression of RNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins after Ang II administration was maintained in Bmx-inactivated hearts. Very little or no Bmx mRNA was expressed in human cardiomyocytes whereas human cardiac endothelial cells expressed abundant amounts. Ang II stimulation of endothelial cells increased Bmx phosphorylation, and Bmx gene silencing inhibited downstream STAT3 signaling, which has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ang II treatment was decreased in the Bmx-deficient hearts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the cross-talk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by Bmx inactivation suppresses Ang II-induced signals for cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase could provide a target to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26430242

  16. Endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase activity is essential for myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Holopainen, Tanja; Räsänen, Markus; Anisimov, Andrey; Tuomainen, Tomi; Zheng, Wei; Tvorogov, Denis; Hulmi, Juha J.; Andersson, Leif C.; Cenni, Bruno; Tavi, Pasi; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease, and it is a strong predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deletion of bone marrow kinase in chromosome X (Bmx), an arterial nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in mice. This finding raised the possibility of therapeutic use of Bmx tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which we have addressed here by analyzing cardiac hypertrophy in gene-targeted mice deficient in Bmx tyrosine kinase activity. We found that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is significantly reduced in mice deficient in Bmx and in mice with inactivated Bmx tyrosine kinase compared with WT mice. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling showed that Bmx inactivation suppresses myocardial expression of genes related to Ang II-induced inflammatory and extracellular matrix responses whereas expression of RNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins after Ang II administration was maintained in Bmx-inactivated hearts. Very little or no Bmx mRNA was expressed in human cardiomyocytes whereas human cardiac endothelial cells expressed abundant amounts. Ang II stimulation of endothelial cells increased Bmx phosphorylation, and Bmx gene silencing inhibited downstream STAT3 signaling, which has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ang II treatment was decreased in the Bmx-deficient hearts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the cross-talk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by Bmx inactivation suppresses Ang II-induced signals for cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase could provide a target to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26430242

  17. Torso, a Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinase, plays a novel role in the larval fat body in regulating insulin signaling and body growth.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jong Woo; Han, Gangsik; Yun, Hyun Myoung; Lee, Gang Jun; Hyun, Seogang

    2016-08-01

    Torso is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose localized activation at the termini of the Drosophila embryo is mediated by its ligand, Trunk. Recent studies have unveiled a second function of Torso in the larval prothoracic gland (PG) as the receptor for the prothoracicotropic hormone, which triggers pupariation. As such, inhibition of Torso in the PG prolongs the larval growth period, thereby increasing the final pupa size. Here, we report that Torso also acts in the larval fat body, regulating body size in a manner opposite from that of Torso in PG. We confirmed the expression of torso mRNA in the larval fat body and its reduction by RNA interference (RNAi). Fat body-specific knockdown of torso, by either of the two independent RNAi transgenes, significantly decreased the final pupal size. We found that torso knockdown suppresses insulin/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling in the fat body, as confirmed by repression of Akt and S6K. Notably, the decrease in insulin/TOR signaling and decrease of pupal size induced by the knockdown of torso were rescued by the expression of a constitutively active form of the insulin receptor or by the knockdown of FOXO. Our study revealed a novel role for Torso in the fat body with respect to regulation of insulin/TOR signaling and body size. This finding exemplifies the contrasting effects of the same gene expressed in two different organs on organismal physiology. PMID:27126913

  18. In vitro activation of a transcription factor by gamma interferon requires a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase and is mimicked by vanadate.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, K; David, M; Larner, A C; Finbloom, D S

    1993-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) activates the formation of a DNA-binding protein complex (FcRF gamma) that recognizes the gamma response region (GRR) of the promoter for the human high-affinity Fc gamma receptor. In a membrane-enriched fraction prepared from human peripheral blood monocytes, IFN-gamma activation of FcRF gamma occurred within 1 min and was ATP dependent. Activation of FcRF gamma required a tyrosine kinase activity, and recognition of the GRR sequence by FcRF gamma could be abrogated by treatment with a tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase. Treatment of cells with vanadate alone resulted in the formation of FcRF gamma without the need for IFN-gamma. UV cross-linking and antibody competition experiments demonstrated that the FcRF gamma complex was composed of at least two components: the 91-kDa protein of the IFN-alpha-induced transcription complex ISGF3 and a 43-kDa component that bound directly to the GRR. Therefore, specificity for IFN-induced transcriptional activation of early response genes requires at least two events: (i) ligand-induced activation of membrane-associated protein by tyrosine phosphorylation and (ii) formation of a complex composed of an activated membrane protein(s) and a sequence-specific DNA-binding component. Images PMID:8321205

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rapidly increases NMDA receptor channel activity through Fyn-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Plummer, Mark R; Len, Guo-Wei; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Black, Ira B; Wu, Kuo

    2006-11-22

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent modulator of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Previously, we found that one of the targets of BDNF modulation is NR2B-containing NMDA receptors. Furthermore, exposure to the trophin rapidly increases NMDA receptor activity and enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B in cortical and hippocampal postsynaptic densities (PSDs), potentially linking receptor phosphorylation to synaptic plasticity. To define the specific NR2B residue(s) regulated by BDNF, we focused on tyrosine 1472, phosphorylation of which increases after LTP. BDNF rapidly increased phosphorylation in cortical PSDs. The tyrosine kinase Fyn is critical since BDNF-dependent phosphorylation was abolished in Fyn knockout mice. Single-channel patch clamp recordings showed that Fyn is required for the increase in NMDA receptor activity elicited by BDNF. Collectively, our results suggest that BDNF enhances phosphorylation of NR2B tyrosine 1472 through activation of Fyn, leading to alteration of NMDA receptor activity and increased synaptic transmission. PMID:17045972

  20. The latest therapeutic strategies after resistance to first generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Xie, Yiqun; Ni, Songshi

    2015-01-01

    First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, produce reliable responses and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Unfortunately, most patients who initially respond to first-line therapy with EGFR TKIs will experience disease progression in 1-2 years. To overcome the resistance of EGFR TKIs, the potent resistance mechanisms and novel therapeutic strategies have been developed. T790M mutation and activation of bypass signaling pathway are identified the predominant mechanisms of acquired resistance to TKIs. Several approaches have shown promise, such as next-generation EGFR TKIs, immunotherapy, and combinational therapies. And the limited clinical data suggest that all drugs are acceptable safe. Additionally, this review will also focus on the increasingly importance of re-biopsy at the time of disease progression, and the matching effective therapies is related to the identification of specific molecular types of tumors. PMID:26015938

  1. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10-12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  2. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10–12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  3. Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 7 in the Regulation of TNF-α Production in RAW 264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Huiyun; Lee, In-Seon; Park, Jae Eun; Park, Sung Goo; Lee, Do Hee; Park, Byoung Chul; Cho, Sayeon

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases play key roles in a diverse range of cellular processes such as differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, immunological signaling, and cytoskeletal function. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 7 (PTPN7), a member of the phosphatase family, specifically inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Here, we report that PTPN7 acts as a regulator of pro-inflammatory TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells that are stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that acts as an endotoxin and elicits strong immune responses in animals. Stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with LPS leads to a transient decrease in the levels of PTPN7 mRNA and protein. The overexpression of PTPN7 inhibits LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA) analysis showed that knock-down of PTPN7 in RAW 264.7 cells increased TNF-α production. PTPN7 has a negative regulatory function to extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 that increase LPS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages. Thus, our data presents PTPN7 as a negative regulator of TNF-α expression and the inflammatory response in macrophages. PMID:24265715

  4. Role of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in regulation of osteoclastic activity.

    PubMed

    Sheng, M H-C; Lau, K-H W

    2009-06-01

    Osteoclasts, the primary cell type mediating bone resorption, are multinucleated, giant cells derived from hematopoietic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage. Osteoclast activity is, in a large part, regulated by protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. While information about functional roles of several protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK), including c-Src, in osteoclastic resorption has been accumulated, little is known about the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in regulation of osteoclast activity. Recent evidence implicates important regulatory roles for four PTPs (SHP-1, cyt-PTP-epsilon, PTP-PEST, and PTPoc) in osteoclasts. Cyt-PTP-epsilon, PTP-PEST, and PTP-oc are positive regulators of osteoclast activity, while SHP-1 is a negative regulator. Of these PTPs in osteoclasts, only PTP-oc is a positive regulator of c-Src PTK through dephosphorylation of the inhibitory phosphotyrosine-527 residue. Although some information about mechanisms of action of these PTPs to regulate osteoclast activity is reviewed in this article, much additional work is required to provide more comprehensive details about their functions in osteoclasts. PMID:19189046

  5. Protein-Protein Interactions in Crystals of the Human Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ICA512 Ectodomain

    PubMed Central

    Primo, María E.; Jakoncic, Jean; Noguera, Martín E.; Risso, Valeria A.; Sosa, Laura; Sica, Mauricio P.; Solimena, Michele; Poskus, Edgardo; Ermácora, Mario R.

    2011-01-01

    ICA512 (or IA-2) is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase located in secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Initially, it was identified as one of the main antigens of autoimmune diabetes. Later, it was found that during insulin secretion, the cytoplasmic domain of ICA512 is cleaved and relocated to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of the insulin gene. The role of the other parts of the receptor in insulin secretion is yet to be unveiled. The structures of the intracellular pseudocatalytic and mature extracellular domains are known, but the transmembrane domain and several intracellular and extracellular parts of the receptor are poorly characterized. Moreover the overall structure of the receptor remains to be established. We started to address this issue studying by X-ray crystallography the structure of the mature ectodomain of ICA512 (ME ICA512) and variants thereof. The variants and crystallization conditions were chosen with the purpose of exploring putative association interfaces, metal binding sites and all other structural details that might help, in subsequent works, to build a model of the entire receptor. Several structural features were clarified and three main different association modes of ME ICA512 were identified. The results provide essential pieces of information for the design of new experiments aimed to assess the structure in vivo. PMID:21935384

  6. Pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatases set the amplitude of receptor tyrosine kinase output

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Gloria; Niederst, Matt; Cohen-Katsenelson, Ksenya; Stender, Joshua D.; Kunkel, Maya T.; Chen, Muhan; Brognard, John; Sierecki, Emma; Gao, Tianyan; Nowak, Dawid G.; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Glass, Christopher K.; Newton, Alexandra C.

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor receptor levels are aberrantly high in diverse cancers, driving the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. Understanding the molecular basis for this aberrant elevation has profound clinical implications. Here we show that the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) suppresses receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling output by a previously unidentified epigenetic mechanism unrelated to its previously described function as the hydrophobic motif phosphatase for the protein kinase AKT, protein kinase C, and S6 kinase. Specifically, we show that nuclear-localized PHLPP suppresses histone phosphorylation and acetylation, in turn suppressing the transcription of diverse growth factor receptors, including the EGF receptor. These data uncover a much broader role for PHLPP in regulation of growth factor signaling beyond its direct inactivation of AKT: By suppressing RTK levels, PHLPP dampens the downstream signaling output of two major oncogenic pathways, the PI3 kinase/AKT and the Rat sarcoma (RAS)/ERK pathways. Our data are consistent with a model in which PHLPP modifies the histone code to control the transcription of RTKs. PMID:25201979

  7. Protein-Protein Interactions in Crystals of the Human Receptor-Type Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase ICA512 Ectodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Primo M. E.; Jakoncic J.; Noguera M.E.; Risso V.A.; Sosa L.; Sica M.P.; Solimena M.; Poskus E. and Ermacora M.

    2011-09-15

    ICA512 (or IA-2) is a transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase located in secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Initially, it was identified as one of the main antigens of autoimmune diabetes. Later, it was found that during insulin secretion, the cytoplasmic domain of ICA512 is cleaved and relocated to the nucleus, where it stimulates the transcription of the insulin gene. The role of the other parts of the receptor in insulin secretion is yet to be unveiled. The structures of the intracellular pseudocatalytic and mature extracellular domains are known, but the transmembrane domain and several intracellular and extracellular parts of the receptor are poorly characterized. Moreover the overall structure of the receptor remains to be established. We started to address this issue studying by X-ray crystallography the structure of the mature ectodomain of ICA512 (ME ICA512) and variants thereof. The variants and crystallization conditions were chosen with the purpose of exploring putative association interfaces, metal binding sites and all other structural details that might help, in subsequent works, to build a model of the entire receptor. Several structural features were clarified and three main different association modes of ME ICA512 were identified. The results provide essential pieces of information for the design of new experiments aimed to assess the structure in vivo.

  8. A RP-UFLC Assay for Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: Focus on Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-Receptor Type 2 (PTPN2).

    PubMed

    Duval, Romain; Bui, Linh-Chi; Berthelet, Jérémy; Dairou, Julien; Mathieu, Cécile; Guidez, Fabien; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Cools, Jan; Chomienne, Christine; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are involved in numerous signaling pathways and dysfunctions of certain of these enzymes have been linked to several human diseases including cancer and autoimmune diseases. PTPN2 is a PTP mainly expressed in hematopoietic cells and involved in growth factor and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Loss of function analyses in patients with mutation/deletion of the PTPN2 gene and knock-out mouse models indicate that PTPN2 acts as a tumor suppressor in T-cell malignancies and as a regulator of inflammation and immunity. The use of sensitive and quantitative assays is of prime importance to better characterize the biochemical properties of PTPN2 and its biological roles. We report a highly sensitive non-radioactive assay that allows the measurement of the activity of purified PTPN2 and of endogenous PTPN2 immunoprecipitated on agarose beads. The assay relies on separation and quantitation by reverse-phase ultra fast liquid chromatography (RP-UFLC) of a fluorescein-labeled phosphotyrosine peptide substrate derived from the sequence of STAT1. The applicability and reliability of this approach is supported by kinetic and mechanistic studies using PTP inhibitors. More broadly, our PTPN2 assay provides the basis for the design of flexible methods for the measurement of other PTPs. PMID:26040922

  9. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expressed in septic patients is nitrated on selected tyrosine residues: implications for enzymic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lanone, Sophie; Manivet, Philippe; Callebert, Jacques; Launay, Jean-Marie; Payen, Didier; Aubier, Michel; Boczkowski, Jorge; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Tyrosine nitration is a post-translational protein modification with potentially significant biological implications. In the present study we demonstrate, for the first time, that tyrosine residues of human inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) can be nitrated by peroxynitrite in vitro, leading to a decreased activity. Moreover, we show that NOS2 expressed in a skeletal muscle from septic patients is nitrated on selective tyrosine residues belonging to a canonic sequence. This phenomenon could be an endogenous mechanism of in vivo modulation of NOS2 enzymic activity. PMID:12097137

  10. Src homology 2 domain-based high throughput assays for profiling downstream molecules in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Takuro; Chamnongpol, Sangpen; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-05-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are evolutionary conserved small protein modules that bind specifically to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. More than 100 SH2 domains have been identified in proteins encoded by the human genome. The binding specificity of these domains plays a critical role in signaling within the cell, mediating the relocalization and interaction of proteins in response to changes in tyrosine phosphorylation states. Here we developed an SH2 domain profiling method based on a multiplexed fluorescent microsphere assay in which various SH2 domains are used to probe the global state of tyrosine phosphorylation within a cell and to screen synthetic peptides that specifically bind to each SH2 domain. The multiplexed, fluorescent microsphere-based assay is a recently developed technology that can potentially detect a wide variety of interactions between biological molecules. We constructed 25-plex SH2 domain-GST fusion protein-conjugated fluorescent microsphere sets to investigate phosphorylation-mediated cell signaling through the specific binding of SH2 domains to activated target proteins. The response of HeLa, COS-1, A431, and 293 cells and four breast cancer cell lines to epidermal growth factor and insulin were quantitatively profiled using this novel microsphere-based, multiplexed, high throughput assay system. PMID:16477079

  11. The novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor AKN-028 has significant antileukemic activity in cell lines and primary cultures of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, A; Hermanson, M; Wickström, M; Lindhagen, E; Ekholm, C; Jenmalm Jensen, A; Löthgren, A; Lehmann, F; Larsson, R; Parrow, V; Höglund, M

    2012-01-01

    Aberrantly expressed tyrosine kinases have emerged as promising targets for drug development in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We report that AKN-028, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), is a potent FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor (IC50=6 nℳ), causing dose-dependent inhibition of FLT3 autophosphorylation. Inhibition of KIT autophosphorylation was shown in a human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line overexpressing KIT. In a panel of 17 cell lines, AKN-028 showed cytotoxic activity in all five AML cell lines included. AKN-028 triggered apoptosis in MV4-11 by activation of caspase 3. In primary AML samples (n=15), AKN-028 induced a clear dose-dependent cytotoxic response (mean IC50 1 μℳ). However, no correlation between antileukemic activity and FLT3 mutation status, or to the quantitative expression of FLT3, was observed. Combination studies showed synergistic activity when cytarabine or daunorubicin was added simultaneously or 24 h before AKN-028. In mice, AKN-028 demonstrated high oral bioavailability and antileukemic effect in primary AML and MV4-11 cells, with no major toxicity observed in the experiment. In conclusion, AKN-028 is a novel TKI with significant preclinical antileukemic activity in AML. Possible sequence-dependent synergy with standard AML drugs and good oral bioavailability has made it a candidate drug for clinical trials (ongoing). PMID:22864397

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors with Tyrosine Kinase Domain Mutations Exhibit Reduced Cbl Association, Poor Ubiquitylation, and Down-regulation but Are Efficiently Internalized

    PubMed Central

    Padrón, David; Sato, Mitsuo; Shay, Jerry W.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Roth, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Some non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain mutations require altered signaling through the EGFR for cell survival and are exquisitely sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR down-regulation was impaired in two NSCLCs with EGFR tyrosine kinase domain mutations. The mutant receptors were poorly ubiquitylated and exhibited decreased association with the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Over-expression of Cbl increased the degradation of EGFR. Treatment with geldanamycin, an inhibitor of the chaperone heat shock protein 90, also increased both wild-type and mutant EGFR degradation without affecting internalization. The down-regulation of the mutant EGFRs was still impaired when they were stably expressed in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the mutations that altered signaling also decreased the interaction of EGFRs with the mechanisms responsible for endosomal sorting. PMID:17699773

  13. Estrogen Regulates MAPK-Related Genes through Genomic and Nongenomic Interactions between IGF-I Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Signaling Pathways in Human Uterine Leiomyoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linda; Moore, Alicia B; Castro, Lysandra; Gao, Xiaohua; Huynh, Hoang-Long C; Klippel, Michelle; Flagler, Norris D; Lu, Yi; Kissling, Grace E; Dixon, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen and growth factors play a major role in uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) growth possibly through interactions of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) signaling. We determined the genomic and nongenomic effects of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on IGF-IR/MAPKp44/42 signaling and gene expression in human UtLM cells with intact or silenced IGF-IR. Analysis by RT(2) Profiler PCR-array showed genes involved in IGF-IR/MAPK signaling were upregulated in UtLM cells by E(2) including cyclin D kinases, MAPKs, and MAPK kinases; RTK signaling mediator, GRB2; transcriptional factors ELK1 and E2F1; CCNB2 involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival; and COL1A1 associated with collagen synthesis. Silencing (si)IGF-IR attenuated the above effects and resulted in upregulation of different genes, such as transcriptional factor ETS2; the tyrosine kinase receptor, EGFR; and DLK1 involved in fibrosis. E(2) rapidly activated IGF-IR/MAPKp44/42 signaling nongenomically and induced phosphorylation of ERα at ser118 in cells with a functional IGF-IR versus those without. E(2) also upregulated IGF-I gene and protein expression through a prolonged genomic event. These results suggest a pivotal role of IGF-IR and possibly other RTKs in mediating genomic and nongenomic hormone receptor interactions and signaling in fibroids and provide novel genes and targets for future intervention and prevention strategies. PMID:23094148

  14. Modeling receptor/gene-mediated effects of corticosteroids on hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase dynamics in rats: dual regulation by endogenous and exogenous corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Anasuya; Pyszczynski, Nancy; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor/gene-mediated effects of corticosteroids on hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) were evaluated in normal rats. A group of normal male Wistar rats were injected with 50 mg/kg methylprednisolone (MPL) intramuscularly at the nadir of their plasma corticosterone (CST) rhythm (early light cycle) and sacrificed at various time points up to 96 h post-treatment. Blood and livers were collected to measure plasma MPL, CST, hepatic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA, cytosolic GR density, TAT mRNA, and TAT activity. The pharmacokinetics of MPL showed bi-exponential disposition with two first-order absorption components from the injection site and bioavailability was 21%. Plasma CST was reduced after MPL dosing, but resumed its daily circadian pattern within 36 h. Cytosolic receptor density was significantly suppressed (90%) and returned to baseline by 72 h resuming its biphasic pattern. Hepatic GR mRNA follows a circadian pattern which was disrupted by MPL and did not return during the study. MPL caused significant down-regulation (50%) in GR mRNA which was followed by a delayed rebound phase (60–70 h). Hepatic TAT mRNA and activity showed up-regulation as a consequence of MPL, and returned to their circadian baseline within 72 and 24 h of treatment. A mechanistic receptor/gene-mediated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model was able to satisfactorily describe the complex interplay of exogenous and endogenous corticosteroid effects on hepatic GR mRNA, cytosolic free GR, TAT mRNA, and TAT activity in normal rats. PMID:17593325

  15. A Small Molecule Agonist of EphA2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibits Tumor Cell Migration In Vitro and Prostate Cancer Metastasis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Miao, Hui; Tochtrop, Gregory P.; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Page, Phillip; Liu, Lili; Lindner, Daniel J.; Acharya, Chayan; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Ficker, Eckhard; Song, Jianxing; Wang, Bingcheng

    2012-01-01

    During tumor progression, EphA2 receptor can gain ligand-independent pro-oncogenic functions due to Akt activation and reduced ephrin-A ligand engagement. The effects can be reversed by ligand stimulation, which triggers the intrinsic tumor suppressive signaling pathways of EphA2 including inhibition of PI3/Akt and Ras/ERK pathways. These observations argue for development of small molecule agonists for EphA2 as potential tumor intervention agents. Through virtual screening and cell-based assays, we report here the identification and characterization of doxazosin as a novel small molecule agonist for EphA2 and EphA4, but not for other Eph receptors tested. NMR studies revealed extensive contacts of doxazosin with EphA2/A4, recapitulating both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions recently found in the EphA2/ephrin-A1 complex. Clinically used as an α1-adrenoreceptor antagonist (Cardura®) for treating hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia, doxazosin activated EphA2 independent of α1-adrenoreceptor. Similar to ephrin-A1, doxazosin inhibited Akt and ERK kinase activities in an EphA2-dependent manner. Treatment with doxazosin triggered EphA2 receptor internalization, and suppressed haptotactic and chemotactic migration of prostate cancer, breast cancer, and glioma cells. Moreover, in an orthotopic xenograft model, doxazosin reduced distal metastasis of human prostate cancer cells and prolonged survival in recipient mice. To our knowledge, doxazosin is the first small molecule agonist of a receptor tyrosine kinase that is capable of inhibiting malignant behaviors in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22916121

  16. LAT-1 activity of meta-substituted phenylalanine and tyrosine analogs.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Evan; Finke, Karissa; Zur, Arik A; Hansen, Logan; Heeren, Nathan; Chien, Huan-Chieh; Lin, Lawrence; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Thomas, Allen A

    2016-06-01

    The transporter protein Large-neutral Amino Acid Transporter 1 (LAT-1, SLC7A5) is responsible for transporting amino acids such as tyrosine and phenylalanine as well as thyroid hormones, and it has been exploited as a drug delivery mechanism. Recently its role in cancer has become increasingly appreciated, as it has been found to be up-regulated in many different tumor types, and its expression levels have been correlated with prognosis. Substitution at the meta position of aromatic amino acids has been reported to increase affinity for LAT-1; however, the SAR for this position has not previously been explored. Guided by newly refined computational models of the binding site, we hypothesized that groups capable of filling a hydrophobic pocket would increase binding to LAT-1, resulting in improved substrates relative to parent amino acid. Tyrosine and phenylalanine analogs substituted at the meta position with halogens, alkyl and aryl groups were synthesized and tested in cis-inhibition and trans-stimulation cell assays to determine activity. Contrary to our initial hypothesis we found that lipophilicity was correlated with diminished substrate activity and increased inhibition of the transporter. The synthesis and SAR of meta-substituted phenylalanine and tyrosine analogs is described. PMID:27106710

  17. The Ron Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Macrophage Heterogeneity and Plays a Protective Role in Diet-Induced Obesity, Atherosclerosis, and Hepatosteatosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Allen, Joselyn N; Dey, Adwitia; Zhang, Limin; Balandaram, Gayathri; Kennett, Mary J; Xia, Mingcan; Xiong, Na; Peters, Jeffrey M; Patterson, Andrew; Hankey-Giblin, Pamela A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated in large part by the activation of inflammatory macrophages. This chronic inflammation underlies a whole host of diseases including atherosclerosis, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, among others. Macrophages are generally classified as either inflammatory or alternatively activated. Some tissue-resident macrophages are derived from yolk sac erythromyeloid progenitors and fetal liver progenitors that seed tissues during embryogenesis and have the ability to repopulate through local proliferation. These macrophages tend to be anti-inflammatory in nature and are generally involved in tissue remodeling, repair, and homeostasis. Alternatively, during chronic inflammation induced by obesity, bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages are recruited to inflamed tissues, where they produce proinflammatory cytokines and exacerbate inflammation. The extent to which these two populations of macrophages are plastic in their phenotype remains controversial. We have demonstrated previously that the Ron receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed on tissue-resident macrophages, where it limits inflammatory macrophage activation and promotes a repair phenotype. In this study, we demonstrate that Ron is expressed in a subpopulation of macrophages during chronic inflammation induced by obesity that exhibit a repair phenotype as determined by the expression of arginase 1. In addition, we demonstrate that the Ron receptor plays a protective role in the progression of diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and atherosclerosis. These results suggest that altering macrophage heterogeneity in vivo could have the potential to alleviate obesity-associated diseases. PMID:27233965

  18. Shp2 protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor activity of estramustine phosphate and its triterpenoid analogs

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Latanya M.; Chen, Liwei; Daniel, Kenyon G.; Brooks, Wesley H.; Guida, Wayne C.; Lawrence, Harshani R.; Sebti, Said M.; Lawrence, Nicholas J.; Wu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Shp2 protein tyrosine phosphate (PTP) is a novel target for anticancer drug discovery. We identified estramustine phosphate as a Shp2 PTP inhibitor from the National Cancer Institute Approved Oncology Drug set. A focused structure-activity relationship study indicated that the 17- phosphate group is required for the Shp2 PTP inhibitor activity of estramustine phosphate. A search for estramustine phosphate analogs led to identification of two triperpenoids, enoxolone and celastrol, having Shp2 PTP inhibitor activity. With the previously reported PTP1B inhibitor trodusquemine, our study reveals steroids and triterpenoids with negatively charged phosphate, carboxylate, or sulfonate groups as novel pharmacophores of selective PTP inhibitors. PMID:21193311

  19. Casein kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of neprilysin regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Akt.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Martin; Kumar, Sathish; Mayer, Günter; Walter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is a type II membrane metalloproteinase that cleaves physiologically active peptides at the cell surface thus regulating the local concentration of these peptides available for receptor binding and signal transduction. In addition, the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NEP interacts with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) thereby regulating intracellular signaling via Akt. Thus, NEP serves dual functions in extracellular and intracellular signal transduction. Here, we show that NEP undergoes phosphorylation at serine residue 6 within the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In vitro and cell culture experiments demonstrate that Ser 6 is efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2. The phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of NEP inhibits its interaction with PTEN. Interestingly, expression of a pseudophosphorylated NEP variant (Ser6Asp) abrogates the inhibitory effect of NEP on insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) stimulated activation of Akt. Thus, our data demonstrate a regulatory role of CK2 in the interaction of NEP with PTEN and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. PMID:20957047

  20. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TYRO3 FAMILY RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES TO THE HETEROGENEITY OF APOPTOTIC CELL UPTAKE BY MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Todt, Jill C.; Hu, Bin; Osterholzer, John J.; Freeman, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes comprise a mobile, broadly dispersed and highly adaptable system that lies at the very epicenter of host defense against pathogens and the interplay of the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that control the response of mononuclear phagocytes to apoptotic cells and the anti-inflammatory consequences of that response is an important goal with implications for multiple areas of biomedical sciences. This review details current understanding of the heterogeneity of apoptotic cell uptake by different members of the mononuclear phagocyte family in humans and mice. It also recounts the unique role of the Tyro3 family of receptor tyrosine kinases, best characterized for Mertk, in the signal transduction leading both to apoptotic cell ingestion and the anti-inflammatory effects that result. PMID:19273223

  1. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  2. Transcriptional activation of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and its regulation.

    PubMed

    Xin, Qi-Liang; Qiu, Jing-Tao; Cui, Sheng; Xia, Guo-Liang; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2016-08-25

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are two important members of steroid receptors family, an evolutionarily conserved family of transcription factors. Upon binding to their ligands, ER and PR enter cell nucleus to interact with specific DNA element in the context of chromatin to initiate the transcription of diverse target genes, which largely depends on the timely recruitment of a wide range of cofactors. Moreover, the interactions between steroid hormones and their respective receptors also trigger post-translational modifications on these receptors to fine-tune their transcriptional activities. Besides the well-known phosphorylation modifications on tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, recent studies have identified several other covalent modifications, such as ubiquitylation and sumoylation. These post-translational modifications of steroid receptors affect its stability, subcellular localization, and/or cofactor recruitment; eventually influence the duration and extent of transcriptional activation. This review is to focus on the recent research progress on the transcriptional activation of nuclear ER and PR as well as their physiological functions in early pregnancy, which may help us to better understand related female reproductive diseases. PMID:27546504

  3. Rational targeting of active-site tyrosine residues using sulfonyl fluoride probes.

    PubMed

    Hett, Erik C; Xu, Hua; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Gopalsamy, Ariamala; Kyne, Robert E; Menard, Carol A; Narayanan, Arjun; Parikh, Mihir D; Liu, Shenping; Roberts, Lee; Robinson, Ralph P; Tones, Michael A; Jones, Lyn H

    2015-04-17

    This work describes the first rational targeting of tyrosine residues in a protein binding site by small-molecule covalent probes. Specific tyrosine residues in the active site of the mRNA-decapping scavenger enzyme DcpS were modified using reactive sulfonyl fluoride covalent inhibitors. Structure-based molecular design was used to create an alkyne-tagged probe bearing the sulfonyl fluoride warhead, thus enabling the efficient capture of the protein from a complex proteome. Use of the probe in competition experiments with a diaminoquinazoline DcpS inhibitor permitted the quantification of intracellular target occupancy. As a result, diaminoquinazoline upregulators of survival motor neuron protein that are used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy were confirmed as inhibitors of DcpS in human primary cells. This work illustrates the utility of sulfonyl fluoride probes designed to react with specific tyrosine residues of a protein and augments the chemical biology toolkit by these probes uses in target validation and molecular pharmacology. PMID:25571984

  4. Sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27) inhibits the release of neuroinflammatory mediators from microglia by targeting spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Janus kinase 2 (Jak2): Two major non-receptor tyrosine signaling proteins involved in inflammatory events

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Wang, Shu; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-03-15

    Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRPTKs)-dependent inflammatory signal transduction cascades play key roles in immunoregulation. However, drug intervention through NRPTKs-involved immunoregulation mechanism in microglia (the major immune cells of the central nervous system) has not been widely investigated. A main aim of the present study is to elucidate the contribution of two major NRPTKs (Syk and Jak2) in neuroinflammation suppression by a bioactive sesquiterpene dimmer (DSF-27). We found that LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells activated Syk and further initiated Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. This Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB inflammatory pathway can be effectively ameliorated by DSF-27. Moreover, Jak2 was activated by LPS, which was followed by transcriptional factor Stat3 activation. The Jak2/Stat3 signal was suppressed by DSF-27 through inhibition of Jak2 and Stat3 phosphorylation, promotion of Jak/Stat3 inhibitory factors PIAS3 expression, and down-regulation of ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Furthermore, DSF-27 protected cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons against neuroinflammatory injury. Taken together, our findings indicate NRPTK signaling pathways including Syk/NF-κB and Jak2/Stat3 cascades are potential anti-neuroinflammatory targets in microglia, and may also set the basis for the use of sesquiterpene dimmer as a therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation via interruption of these pathways. - Highlights: • Sesquiterpene dimmer DSF-27 inhibits inflammatory mediators' production in microglia. • Syk-dependent Akt/NF-κB pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 pathway is important for DSF-27's anti-inflammation activity. • Jak2/Stat3 signaling pathway is partly regulated by ERK and p38 MAPKs and PIAS3. • DSF-27 protects neurons against microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory injury.

  5. Fusion of FIG to the receptor tyrosine kinase ROS in a glioblastoma with an interstitial del(6)(q21q21).

    PubMed

    Charest, Alain; Lane, Keara; McMahon, Kevin; Park, Julie; Preisinger, Elizabeth; Conroy, Helen; Housman, David

    2003-05-01

    The transmembrane proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ROS is an orphan receptor that is aberrantly expressed in neoplasms of the central nervous system. Here, we report the fusion of its carboxy-terminal kinase domain to the amino-terminal portion of a protein called FIG (Fused in Glioblastoma) in a human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). By characterizing both FIG and ROS genes in normal and in U118MG GBM cells, we determined that an intra-chromosomal homozygous deletion of 240 kilobases on 6q21 is responsible for the formation of the FIG-ROS locus. The FIG-ROS transcript is encoded by 7 FIG exons and 9 ROS-derived exons. We also demonstrate that the FIG-ROS locus encodes for an in-frame fusion protein with a constitutively active kinase activity, suggesting that FIG-ROS may act as an oncogene. This is the first example of a fusion RTK protein that results from an intra-chromosomal deletion, and it represents the first fusion RTK protein isolated from a human astrocytoma. PMID:12661006

  6. Streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet activation involves two waves of tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by FcgammaRIIA and alphaIIbbeta3.

    PubMed

    Pampolina, Caroline; McNicol, Archibald

    2005-05-01

    The low-affinity IgG receptor, FcgammaRIIA, has been implicated in Streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, it is likely that signal transduction is at least partly mediated by FcgammaRIIA activation and a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway. In this study the signal transduction mechanisms associated with platelet activation in response to the oral bacterium, S. sanguis were characterised. In the presence of IgG, S. sanguis strain 2017-78 caused the tyrosine phosphorylation of FcgammaRIIA 30s following stimulation, which led to the phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, and PLCgamma2. These early events were dependent on Src family kinases but independent of either TxA(2) or the engagement of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin. During the lag phase prior to platelet aggregation, FcgammaRIIA, Syk, LAT, and PLCgamma2 were each dephosphorylated, but were re-phosphorylated as aggregation occurred. Platelet stimulation by 2017-78 also induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of PECAM-1, an ITIM-containing receptor that recruits protein tyrosine phosphatases. PECAM-1 co-precipitated with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the lag phase. SHP-1 was also maximally tyrosine phosphorylated during this phase, suggesting a possible role for SHP-1 in the observed dephosphorylation events. As aggregation occurred, SHP-1 was dephosphorylated, while FcgammaRIIA, Syk, LAT, and PLCgamma2 were rephosphorylated in an RGDS-sensitive, and therefore alpha(IIb)beta(3)-dependent, manner. Additionally, TxA(2) release, 5-hydroxytryptamine secretion and phosphatidic acid formation were all blocked by RGDS. Aspirin also abolished these events, but only partially inhibited alpha(IIb)beta(3) -mediated re-phosphorylation. Therefore, S. sanguis -bound IgG cross links FcgammaRIIA and initiates a signaling pathway that is down-regulated by PECAM-1-bound SHP-1. Subsequent engagement of alpha(IIb)beta(3) leads to SHP-1 dephosphorylation permiting a second wave of signaling leading to TxA(2

  7. Molecular Mechanism for the Shp-2 Tyrosine Phosphatase Function in Promoting Growth Factor Stimulation of Erk Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhong-Qing; Yu, De-Hua; Park, Morag; Marshall, Mark; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) by epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment was significantly decreased in mouse fibroblast cells expressing a mutant Shp-2 molecule lacking 65 amino acids in the SH2-N domain, Shp-2Δ46-110. To address the molecular mechanism for the positive role of Shp-2 in mediating Erk induction, we evaluated the activation of signaling components upstream of Erk in Shp-2 mutant cells. EGF-stimulated Ras, Raf, and Mek activation was significantly attenuated in Shp-2 mutant cells, suggesting that Shp-2 acts to promote Ras activation or to suppress the down-regulation of activated Ras. Biochemical analyses indicate that upon EGF stimulation, Shp-2 is recruited into a multiprotein complex assembled on the Gab1 docking molecule and that Shp-2 seems to exert its biological function by specifically dephosphorylating an unidentified molecule of 90 kDa in the complex. The mutant Shp-2Δ46-110 molecule failed to participate in the Gab1-organized complex for dephosphorylation of p90, correlating with a defective activation of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk cascade in EGF-treated Shp-2 mutant cells. Evidence is also presented that Shp-2 does not appear to modulate the signal relay from EGF receptor to Ras through the Shc, Grb2, and Sos proteins. These results begin to elucidate the mechanism of Shp-2 function downstream of a receptor tyrosine kinase to promote the activation of the Ras-Erk pathway, with potential therapeutic applications in cancer treatment. PMID:10669730

  8. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C is phosphorylated and inhibited by 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Zhao, Z; Filloux, C; Fischer, E H; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C (PTP2C, also named SHPTP2, SHPTP3, or PTP1D) is a cytosolic enzyme with two Src homology 2 domains. We have investigated its regulation by phosphorylation in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. In untreated cells, PTP2C was phosphorylated predominantly on serine residues. A 5-min treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced an increase in phosphorylation on threonine and, to a lesser degree, on serine. After 45 min of exposure to EGF, PTP2C phosphorylation returned to basal levels. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we found that the 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, p44mapk, phosphorylated PTP2C on serine and threonine residues. This phosphorylation resulted in a pronounced inhibition of PTP2C enzyme activity measured with phosphorylated EGF receptors as substrate. Moreover, in intact PC12 cells, PTP2C was also inhibited following a short EGF treatment, but its activity returned to normal when the exposure to EGF was maintained for 45 min. The profile of this response to EGF can be inversely correlated to that of the stimulatory action of EGF on p44mapk. These data suggest that the EGF-induced regulation of PTP2C activity is mediated by p44mapk. These findings provide evidence for an additional role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade--namely, the regulation of a PTP. Images PMID:8197172

  9. Sensitivities to various epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations L861Q and S768I: What is the optimal epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Banno, Eri; Togashi, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yu; Chiba, Masato; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Terashima, Masato; de Velasco, Marco A; Sakai, Kazuko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations. PMID:27240419

  10. Platelet-activating factor increases VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse endothelial cells and its association with the PtdIns3'-kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hudry-Clergeon, Hélène; Stengel, Dominique; Ninio, Ewa; Vilgrain, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Platelet-activating-Factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, is involved in endothelial permeability. This study was designed to characterize PAF receptor (PAF-R) expression and its specific contribution to the modifications of adherens junctions in mouse endothelial cells. We demonstrated that PAF-R was expressed in mouse endothelial cells and was functionally active in stimulating p42/p44 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3′-kinase)/Akt activities. Treatment of cells with PAF induced a rapid, time- and dose-dependent (10−7 to 10−10M) increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a subset of proteins ranging from 90 kDa to 220 kDa, including the VE-cadherin, the latter effect being prevented by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and bis-tyrphostin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PAF promoted formation of multimeric aggregates of VE-cadherin with PtdIns3′-kinase which was also inhibited by herbimycin and bis-tyrphostin. Finally, we showed by immunostaining of endothelial cells VE-cadherin, that PAF dissociated adherens junctions. The present data provide the first evidence that the treatment of endothelial cells with PAF promoted activation of tyrosine kinases and the VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and PtdIns3′-kinase association, that ultimately lead to the dissociation of adherens junctions. Physical association between PtdIns3′-kinase, serving as a docking protein, and VE-cadherin may thus provide an efficient mechanism for amplification and perpetuation of PAF-induced cellular activation. PMID:15791001

  11. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  12. A "turn-on" fluorescent receptor for detecting tyrosine phosphopeptide using the surface imprinting procedure and the epitope approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Yan; Qin, Ya-Ping; Li, Hong-Yu; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2015-04-15

    A new strategy for the manufacture of a turn-on fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer (CdTe/SiO2/MIP) receptor for detecting tyrosine phosphopeptide (pTyr peptide) was proposed. The receptor was prepared by the surface imprinting procedure and the epitope approach with silica-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) as core substrate and fluorescent signal, phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) as the dummy template, 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] urea as the functional monomer, and octyltrimethoxysilane as the cross-linker. The synthetic CdTe/SiO2/MIP was able to selectively capture the template PPA and corresponding target pTyr peptide with fluorescence enhancement via the special interaction between them and the recognition cavities. The receptor exhibited the linear fluorescence enhancement to pTyr peptide in the range of 0.5-35μM, and the detection limit was 0.37μM. The precision for five replicate detections of pTyr peptide at 20μM was 2.60% (relative standard deviation). Combining the fluorescence property of the CdTe QDs with the merits of the surface imprinting technique and the epitope approach, the receptor not only owned high recognition site accessibility and good binding affinities for target pTyr peptide, but also improved the fluorescence selectivity of the CdTe QDs, as well revealed the feasibility of fabrication of a turn-on fluorescence probe using the surface imprinting procedure and the epitope approach. PMID:25437356

  13. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase regulates tumor cell migration in vitro by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Barden; VanderLaan, Paul A.; Sukhatme, Vikas P.

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Expression of 6PGD positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. •Knockdown of 6PGD by shRNA potently inhibits c-Met tyrosine phosphorylation. •Exogenous HGF fails to restore c-Met phosphorylation in cells with 6PGD knocked down. •6PGD knockdown results in inhibition of cell migration in vitro. •Constitutively active TPR-cMet significantly restores migration of cells without 6PGD. -- Abstract: 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) is the third enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Recently, we reported that knockdown of 6PGD inhibited lung tumor growth in vitro and in a xenograft model in mice. In this study, we continued to examine the functional role of 6PGD in cancer. We show that 6PGD expression positively correlates with advancing stage of lung carcinoma. In search of functional signals related to 6PGD, we discovered that knockdown of 6PGD significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met at tyrosine residues known to be critical for activity. This downregulation of c-Met phosphorylation correlated with inhibition of cell migration in vitro. Overexpression of a constitutively active c-Met specifically rescued the migration but not proliferation phenotype of 6PGD knockdown. Therefore, 6PGD appears to be required for efficient c-Met signaling and migration of tumor cells in vitro.

  14. B-cell antigen receptor signaling enhances chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell migration and survival: specific targeting with a novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, R406

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Maite P.; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Kurtova, Antonina V.; Sivina, Mariela; Keating, Michael J.; Wierda, William G.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    Antigenic stimulation through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is considered to promote the expansion of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. The spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a key component of BCR signaling, can be blocked by R406, a small-molecule Syk inhibitor, that displayed activity in CLL patients in a first clinical trial. In this study, we investigated the effects of BCR stimulation and R406 on CLL cell survival and migration. The prosurvival effects promoted by anti-IgM stimulation and nurselike cells were abrogated by R406. BCR triggering up-regulated adhesion molecules, and increased CLL cell migration toward the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL13. BCR activation also enhanced CLL cell migration beneath marrow stromal cells. These responses were blocked by R406, which furthermore abrogated BCR-dependent secretion of T-cell chemokines (CCL3 and CCL4) by CLL cells. Finally, R406 inhibited constitutive and BCR-induced activation of Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and AKT, and blocked BCR-induced calcium mobilization. These findings suggest that BCR activation favors CLL cell homing, retention, and survival in tissue microenvironments. R406 effectively blocks these BCR-dependent responses in CLL cells, providing an explanation for the activity of R406 in patients with CLL. PMID:19491390

  15. Autoinhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and activation by soluble inositol hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Vogan, Erik M; Nocka, Laura M; Rosen, Connor E; Zorn, Julie A; Harrison, Stephen C; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a Tec-family tyrosine kinase, is essential for B-cell function. We present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of Btk, which together reveal molecular details of its autoinhibition and activation. Autoinhibited Btk adopts a compact conformation like that of inactive c-Src and c-Abl. A lipid-binding PH-TH module, unique to Tec kinases, acts in conjunction with the SH2 and SH3 domains to stabilize the inactive conformation. In addition to the expected activation of Btk by membranes containing phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3), we found that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a soluble signaling molecule found in both animal and plant cells, also activates Btk. This activation is a consequence of a transient PH-TH dimerization induced by IP6, which promotes transphosphorylation of the kinase domains. Sequence comparisons with other Tec-family kinases suggest that activation by IP6 is unique to Btk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06074.001 PMID:25699547

  16. Oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: comparative pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Peters, Solange; Zimmermann, Stefan; Adjei, Alex A

    2014-09-01

    The development of orally active small molecule inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has led to new treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with activating mutations of the EGFR gene show sensitivity to, and clinical benefit from, treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKls). First generation reversible ATP-competitive EGFR-TKls, gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective as first, second-line or maintenance therapy. Despite initial benefit, most patients develop resistance within a year, 50-60% of cases being related to the appearance of a T790M gatekeeper mutation. Newer, irreversible EGFR-TKls - afatinib and dacomitinib - covalently bind to and inhibit multiple receptors in the ErbB family (EGFR, HER2 and HER4). These agents have been mainly evaluated for first-line treatment but also in the setting of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKls. Afatinib is the first ErbB family blocker approved for patients with NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations; dacomitinib is in late stage clinical development. Mutant-selective EGFR inhibitors (AZD9291, CO-1686, HM61713) that specifically target the T790M resistance mutation are in early development. The EGFR-TKIs differ in their spectrum of target kinases, reversibility of binding to EGFR receptor, pharmacokinetics and potential for drug-drug interactions, as discussed in this review. For the clinician, these differences are relevant in the setting of polymedicated patients with NSCLC, as well as from the perspective of innovative anticancer drug combination strategies. PMID:25027951

  17. rlk/TXK Encodes Two Forms of a Novel Cysteine String Tyrosine Kinase Activated by Src Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Jayantha; Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Rlk/Txk is a member of the BTK/Tec family of tyrosine kinases and is primarily expressed in T lymphocytes. Unlike other members of this kinase family, Rlk lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain near the amino terminus and instead contains a distinctive cysteine string motif. We demonstrate here that Rlk protein consists of two isoforms that arise by alternative initiation of translation from the same cDN