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Sample records for activated red mud

  1. Arsenic adsorption from aqueous solutions by activated red mud.

    PubMed

    Altundoğan, H Soner; Altundoğan, Sema; Tümen, Fikret; Bildik, Memnune

    2002-01-01

    Heat treatment and acid treatment methods have been tested on red mud to increase its arsenic adsorption capability. The results indicate that the adsorptive capacity of red mud can be increased by acid treatment. This treatment causes sodalite compounds to leach out. As(III) and As(V) adsorption characteristics of activated red mud have similar tendencies with raw red mud. Batch adsorption studies have shown that activated red mud in dosages ranging from 20 to 100 g l(-1) can be used effectively to remove arsenic from aqueous solutions. The process is pH dependent, the optimum range being 5.8-7.5 for As(III) and 1.8-3.5 for As(V). The maximum removals are 96.52% for As(V) and 87.54% for As(III) for solutions with a final pH of 7.25 and 3.50, respectively, for the initial arsenic concentration of 133.5 micromol l(-1) (10 mg l(-1)), activated red mud dosage of 20 g l(-1), contact time of 60 min and temperature of 25 degrees C. The adsorption data obtained follow a first-order rate expression and fit the Langmuir isotherm well. Isotherms have been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters. It was found that the adsorption of As(III) was exothermic, whereas As(V) adsorption was endothermic. PMID:11952183

  2. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (<2) was found to be much more favourable for the removal of Cr(VI). Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment. PMID:25299348

  3. Adsorption of arsenic from water using activated neutralized red mud.

    PubMed

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Tjell, Jens Christian; McConchie, David

    2004-04-15

    In this paper activated seawater-neutralized red mud, herein referred to as activated Bauxsol (AB), is used as a novel adsorbent for removing inorganic arsenic (As) from water. The adsorption of As onto AB is studied as a function of contact time, particle size, pH, initial As concentration, AB dosage, and temperature. Kinetic data indicate that the process pseudoequilibrates in 3 and 6 h for As(V) (arsenate) and As(III) (arsenite), respectively, and follows a pseudo-first-order rate expression. Within the range tested, the optimal pH for As(V) adsorption is 4.5, and close to 100% removal can be achieved irrespective of the initial As(V) concentration. Desorption of As(V) is greatest at pH 11.6 where a maximum of 40% can be achieved. In contrast, the optimum pH for As(III) removal is 8.5, and the removal efficiency changes with the initial As(III) concentration. The adsorption data fit the Langmuir isotherm and its linearized form well, with thermodynamic data indicating the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. The FITEQL (V.4) and PHREEQC (V.2) computer programs are used to predict As(V) adsorption at various pH values (based on diffuse double layer models). The modeling results fit the experimental results very well and indicate that surface complexation modeling is useful in describing the complex AB surface during the adsorption process. This study shows that As(III) needs to be oxidized to As(V) for a favorable removal using AB and that AB can be a very efficient unconventional adsorbent for removing As(V) from water. PMID:15116850

  4. An active dealkalization of red mud with roasting and water leaching.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Guan, Xuemao

    2015-04-01

    The research has focused on the dealkalization of red mud after active roasting and water leaching, which is obtained from bauxite during alumina production. The main factors such as roasting temperature, roasting time, water leaching stage, leaching temperature, leaching reaction time and liquid to solid ratio were investigated. The mechanism of dealkalization was in-depth studied by using ICP-AES, XRD, TG-DSC, SEM-EDS and leaching kinetic. The results show that the dealkalization rate reached 82% under the condition of roasting temperature of 700 °C, roasting time of 30 min, four stage water leaching, liquid to solid ratio of 7 mL/g, leaching temperature of 90 °C and reaction time of 60 min. The diffraction peak of Na6CaAl6Si6(CO3)O24 · 2H2O in red mud was decreased during the active roasting process, whereas the mineral phases of NaOH · H2O and Na2Ca(CO3)2 were appeared. The content of alkali obviously decreased and the grade of other elements increased during the process of active roasting and water leaching, which was in favor of next application process of red mud. The water leaching was controlled by internal diffusion of SCM and the apparent activation energy was 22.63 kJ/mol. PMID:25559862

  5. Pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Na; Liu Xiaoming; Sun Henghu; Li Longtu

    2011-03-15

    The pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue has been investigated through TG, DTA, XRD, FTIR and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. From viewpoint of reaction kinetics, it is found that the pozzolanic reaction mechanism of the compound-activated red mud-coal gangue - lime system is clearly consistent with diffusion control up to 14 days, and the reaction rate constant calculated from Jander equation decreases with the increase of CaO addition in the system. The hydration products formed in the red mud-coal gangue - lime systems at ambient temperature are essentially aluminous C-S-H and Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}.xH{sub 2}O. From TG analysis results, it is thought that the high amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the pastes of studied system is not conducive to the continual increase of non-evaporable water content of the hydration products. Of particular interest, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR proved to be an effective technique to obtain valuable information of Al{sup [4]} in C-S-H and Al{sup [6]} in Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6}.xH{sub 2}O.

  6. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail. PMID:21930526

  7. Red mud characterization using nuclear analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D.; Matjacic, L.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    Red mud is a toxic waste left as a byproduct in aluminum production Bayer process. Since it contains significant concentrations of other chemical elements interesting for industry, including REE, it is also potential secondary ore source. Recent events in some countries have shown that red mud presents a serious environmental hazard if not properly stored. The subject of our study is the red mud from an ex-aluminum plant in Obrovac, Croatia, left from processing of bauxite mined during late 70's and early 80's at the eastern Adriatic coast and since than stored in open concrete basins for more than 30 years. We have used energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (both tube and radioactive source excitation), fast neutron activation analysis and passive gamma spectrometry to identify a number of elements present in the red mud, their concentration levels and radioactivity in the red mud. The high concentrations of Al, Si, Ca, Ti and Fe have been measured. Chemical elements Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Pb, Th and U were found in lower concentrations. No significant levels of radioactivity have been measured. (authors)

  8. Preparation of Granular Red Mud Adsorbent using Different Binders by Microwave Pore - Making and Activation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thiquynhxuan; Wang, Hanrui; Ju, Shaohua; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Wang, Shixing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this work, microwave energy is used for preparing a granular red mud (GRM) adsorbent made of red mud with different binders, such as starch, sodium silicate and cement. The effects of the preparation parameters, such as binder type, binder addition ratio, microwave heating temperature, microwave power and holding time, on the absorption property of GRM are investigated. The BET surface area, strength, pore structure, XRD and SEM of the GRM absorbent are analyzed. The results show that the microwave roasting has a good effect on pore-making of GRM, especially when using organic binder. Both the BET surface area and the strength of GRM obtained by microwave heating are significantly higher than that by conventional heating. The optimum conditions are obtained as follows: 6:100 (w/w) of starch to red mud ratio, microwave roasting with a power of 2.6 kW at 500℃ for holding time of 30 min. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter of GRM prepared at the optimum conditions are 15.58 m2/g, 0.0337 cm3/g and 3.1693 A0, respectively.

  9. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  10. Controlled reduction of red mud waste to produce active systems for environmental applications: heterogeneous Fenton reaction and reduction of Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Costa, Regina C C; Moura, Flávia C C; Oliveira, Patrícia E F; Magalhães, Fabiano; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2010-02-01

    In this work, controlled reduction of red mud with H(2) was used to produce active systems for two different environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Mössbauer, powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy analyses showed that at different temperatures, i.e. 300, 400, 500 and 600 degrees C, H(2) reduces red mud to different phases, mainly Fe(3)O(4), Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4) and Fe(0). These Fe phases are dispersed on Al, Si and Ti oxides present in the red mud and show high reactivity towards two environmental applications, i.e. the heterogeneous Fenton reaction and the reduction of Cr(VI). Reduction with H(2) at 400 degrees C showed the best results for the oxidation of the model dye methylene blue with H(2)O(2) at neutral pH due to the presence of the composite Fe(0)/Fe(3)O(4). The reduced red mud at 500-600 degrees C produced Fe(0) highly active for the reduction of Cr(VI) in aqueous medium. Another feature of these red mud based system is that after deactivation due to extensive use they can be completely regenerated by simple treatment with H(2). PMID:20060564

  11. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  12. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud. PMID:25269817

  13. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  14. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-01

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized. PMID:27214002

  15. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II. PMID:20036053

  16. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  17. Recovering metals from red mud generated during alumina production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piga, Luigi; Pochetti, Fausto; Stoppa, Luisa

    1993-11-01

    There is growing interest in processing and utilizing the red mud by-product of the Bayer process for alumina extraction from bauxite. This interest stems largely from the environmental impacts associated with red mud and the storage costs involved. Furthermore, complete utilization of the raw materials, in this case bauxite, meets an ecological concept while ensuring raw material conservation. To prepare this article, the authors perused approximately 100 patents and articles in order to provide a concise description of the methods of storing red mud and its uses as a flocculant or construction material and in other minor applications. Special attention has been given to the methods developed for recovering metals contained in the red mud.

  18. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  19. Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

    2011-01-30

    The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction. PMID:21035262

  20. Radiological aspects of red mud disaster in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Tibor; Sas, Zoltán; Jobbágy, Viktor; Csordás, Anita; Szeiler, Gábor; Somlai, János

    2013-08-01

    One of the most severe industrial catastrophes happened in Kolontár, Hungary, on 4 October 2010. Red mud (bauxite residue) broke through the eroded wall of the red mud reservoir pond "Number X" and flooded the surrounding area. This led to the instant death of 10 people and the injury of more than 100 people. Red mud is enriched in radium and thorium isotopes; therefore, there is a chance that this flooding will increase radionuclide concentrations of soils and also in air. In this study we have examined the site to assess the realistic radiological risks. For the risk assessment the following parameters were determined: gamma dose rate, radon concentration, radionuclide concentration of red mud and air dust concentration. It was found that the radiation dose exposure resulting from red mud contamination was < 0.045 mSv y-1 (excluding radon), which can be considered negligible when compared to the average annual effective dose from natural sources (2.4 mSv y-1).

  1. Assessment of pollutants sequestration in flowing waters using Red Mud

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Mud, a waste product of bauxite refinement, has already been reported as a non-conventional adsorbent of heavy metals and some other important nutrients, such as phosphorus. Its use has been explored since it is a low cost solid adsorbent with a strong binding capacity. Although there were equil...

  2. The exploration of making acidproof fracturing proppants using red mud.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaorang; Wu, Bolin; Li, Jian

    2008-12-30

    In this study, the exploration of making acidproof fracturing proppants using red mud was carried out. The main raw materials are red mud and the refractory waste. During the exploration, three methods were explored to enhance the acid resistance of the samples of the fracturing proppants. Eventually, fracturing proppants with good acid resistance were produced using red mud, the refractory waste, barium carbonate and plasticizer. The acid solubility of the samples of the acidproof fracturing proppants was less than 4.5% which reached the demands of The Petroleum and Gas Industrial Standards of China (SY/T5108-2006). The results show that adding barium carbonate to the raw materials can decrease the acid solubility of the samples effectively. The main reason is the monoclinic celsian-BaAl2Si2O8 formed in sintering process which can protect the other compositions of the acidproof fracturing proppants to prevent them from erosion by acid. The exploration shows that it is probable to produce fracturing proppants with good acid resistance using red mud. PMID:18434003

  3. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  4. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  5. Characterisation of red mud by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Sara J; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Frost, Ray L

    2009-01-01

    The characterisation of red mud has been studied by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR region (DRS). For the first time the ferric ion responsible for the bands has been identified from electronic spectroscopy. It contains valuable amounts of oxidised iron (Fe(3+)) and aluminium hydroxide. The NIR peak at around 11,630 cm(-1) (860 nm) with a split of two components and a pair of sharp bands near 500 nm (20000 cm(-1)) in the visible spectrum are attributed to Fe(3+) ion in distorted sixfold coordinations. The observation of identical spectral patterns (both electronic and vibrational spectra) of red mud before and after seawater neutralisation (SWN) confirmed that there is no effect of seawater neutralisation on structural cation substitutions such as Al(3+), Fe(3+), Fe(2+), Ti(3+), etc. PMID:18693065

  6. Characterisation of red mud by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Sara J.; Reddy, B. Jagannadha; Frost, Ray L.

    2009-01-01

    The characterisation of red mud has been studied by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR region (DRS). For the first time the ferric ion responsible for the bands has been identified from electronic spectroscopy. It contains valuable amounts of oxidised iron (Fe 3+) and aluminium hydroxide. The NIR peak at around 11,630 cm -1 (860 nm) with a split of two components and a pair of sharp bands near 500 nm (20000 cm -1) in the visible spectrum are attributed to Fe 3+ ion in distorted sixfold coordinations. The observation of identical spectral patterns (both electronic and vibrational spectra) of red mud before and after seawater neutralisation (SWN) confirmed that there is no effect of seawater neutralisation on structural cation substitutions such as Al 3+, Fe 3+, Fe 2+, Ti 3+, etc.

  7. Modification of red mud by acid treatment and its application for CO removal.

    PubMed

    Sushil, Snigdha; Batra, Vidya S

    2012-02-15

    Activated red mud (ARM) samples were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation in the temperature range of 100-500°C. Conversion of >90% was obtained for temperatures above 400°C for all samples. In order to study the effect of hydroxylated phases of iron oxide in red mud on the removal of CO, 'as-received' red mud (RM) and acid digested and re-precipitated red mud (TRM) were also tested under similar conditions. It was found that TRM was more effective in removal of CO with the 50% conversion temperature (T50) 80°C lower than the ARM samples. The samples before and after reaction were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), BET N(2) adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). It was observed that TRM had iron in an amorphous form which then converted to iron oxide after heating. The higher activity of TRM was due to its higher surface area and presence of hydroxylated phase of iron oxide. PMID:22204836

  8. Red Mud and Li-Ion Batteries: A Magnetic Connection.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Anil; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Madhavi, Srinivasan; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-08-23

    Exceptional Li-ion battery performance is presented with the oxide component of the anode was extracted from red mud by simple magnetic separation and applied directly without any further processing. The extracted material has γ-Fe2 O3 as the major phase with inter-dispersed phases of Ti, Al, and Si oxides. In a half-cell assembly, the phase displayed a reversible capacity (∼697 mA h g(-1) ) with excellent stability upon cycling. Interestingly, the stability is rendered by the multiphase constitution of the material with the presence of other electrochemically inactive metal oxides, such as Al2 O3 , SiO2 , and Fe2 TiO4 , which could accommodate the strain and facilitate release during the charge-discharge processes in the electrochemically active maghemite component. We fabricated the full-cell assembly with eco-friendly cathode LiMn2 O4 by adjusting the mass loading. Prior to full-cell assembly, an electrochemical pre-lithiation was enforced to overcome the irreversible capacity loss obtained from the anode. The full-cell delivered a capacity of ∼100 mA h g(-1) (based on cathode loading) with capacity retention of ∼61 % after 2000 cycles under ambient conditions. PMID:27403736

  9. Production of pig iron from red mud waste fines using thermal plasma technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasankar, K.; Ray, P. K.; Chaubey, A. K.; Padhi, A.; Satapathy, B. K.; Mukherjee, P. S.

    2012-08-01

    Red mud, an insoluble residue produced during alkali leaching of bauxite, is considered as a low-grade iron ore containing 30% to 50% iron. The present paper deals with the use of thermal plasma technology for producing pig iron from red mud waste fines. The smelting reduction of red mud was carried out in a 35 kW DC extended arc thermal plasma reactor. Red mud was properly mixed with fluxes and graphite (fixed carbon, 99%) as a reductant as per stoichiometric requirement. The effect of various process parameters like a reductant, fluxes and smelting time on iron recovery was studied and optimized. An optimum condition for the maximum recovery of iron was obtained. A new thermal plasma process applicable to direct iron making from red mud waste fines that would achieve significant utilization of red mud was proposed.

  10. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  11. Stepwise extraction of valuable components from red mud based on reductive roasting with sodium salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Liu, Mingxia; Rao, Mingjun; Jiang, Tao; Zhuang, Jinqiang; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-09-15

    The feasibility of an integrated technological route for comprehensive utilization of red mud was verified in this study. Valuable components in the mud, including Fe2O3, Al2O3 and SiO2 were stepwise extracted by magnetic separation and sulfuric acid leaching from reduced red mud, and meanwhile TiO2 was enriched in the leaching residue. Sodium salts were proved to be favorable for the magnetic separation of metallic iron and the subsequent acid leaching of Al and Si, through facilitating the reduction of iron oxides and the growth of metallic iron grains, together with enhancing the activation of Al and Si components during the roasting process. After reductive roasting in the presence of 6% Na2CO3 and 6% Na2SO4, a magnetic concentrate containing 90.2% iron with iron recovery of 95.0% was achieved from the red mud by magnetic separation. Subsequently, 94.7% Fe, 98.6% Al and 95.9% Si were extracted by dilute sulfuric acid leaching from the upper-stream non-magnetic material, yielding a TiO2-rich material with 37.8% TiO2. Furthermore, value-added products of silica gel and Al(OH)3 were prepared from the leachate by ripening and neutralizing. PMID:25240647

  12. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM. PMID:22795841

  13. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  14. Reduction of iron oxides during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, N. A.; Korneev, V. P.; Averin, V. V.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Zinoveev, D. V.; Dyubanov, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experiments on the use of red mud in traditional pyrometallurgical processes and plants are presented. The red muds of the Ural Aluminum Plant (UAZ, Kamensk-Ural'skii) and the Alyum Plant (Tul'chiya) are shown to have similar phase and chemical compositions. The morphology of the iron oxides in red mud samples taken from mud storage is studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It is found that the metallic (cast iron) and slag phases that form during the pyrometallurgical processing of red mud by melting with a carbon reducer in the temperature range 1200-1500°C are clearly separated. Cast iron can be used in steelmaking, and the slag can be used for hydrometallurgical processing and extraction of nonferrous metals and for the building industry after correcting its composition.

  15. Immobilisation of beryllium in solid waste (red-mud) by fixation and vitrification.

    PubMed

    Bhat, P N; Ghosh, D K; Desai, M V M

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain information on the immobilization of beryllium (Be) in solid waste generated in the extraction process of beryllium from its ore, Beryl. This solid waste, termed red-mud, contains oxides of iron, aluminium, calcium, magnesium and beryllium. The red-mud waste contains beryllium at levels above the permissible limit, which prevents its disposal as solid waste. The total beryllium content in the red-mud analysed showed value ranging from 0.39 to 0.59% Be The studies showed that 50% of the total beryllium in red-mud can be extracted by water by repeated leaching over a period of 45 days. The cement mix, casting into cement blocks, was subjected to leachability studies over a period of 105 days and immobilization factor (IF factor) was determined. These IF values, of the order of 102, were compared with those obtained by performing leachability study on vitrified red-mud masses produced at different temperature conditions. Direct heating of the red-mud gave the gray coloured, non-transparent vitreous mass (as 'bad glass') showed effective immobilisation factor for beryllium in red-mud of the order of 10(4). PMID:12092765

  16. A study of iron mineral transformation to reduce red mud tailings.

    PubMed

    Li, L Y

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the effects of iron mineral transformation in an aluminum extraction process on the settling behavior, and the physical and chemical properties of the resulting red mud slurry that must be disposed of. By producing a red mud with a higher solid content, the total volume of mud slurry will also be reduced for a given alumina production rate and more caustic soda will be recovered. The settling behavior and the mineralogical, physical, and physico-chemical properties of one bauxite and three red muds processed under varying conditions were analyzed based on examination of the iron mineral transformations. The properties of red muds derived from the same bauxite can differ markedly due to variations in operating conditions of the Bayer process, such as temperature and the addition of a reducing agent. The settling of red mud can be improved by converting goethite into hematite and/or magnetite to produce a mud of larger particle size, smaller specific surface area, and larger specific gravity, characteristics which reduce the total volume of mud slurry to be disposed of and which allow for less potential contamination from caustic soda. This study also found that the by-product--Bayer sodalite--has the high exchange capacity for Na+ that might contribute to the long-term environmental problems. PMID:11478619

  17. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arogundade, A. I.; Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  18. Characterization of red mud-epoxy intumescent char using surface imaging and micro analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arogundade, A. I. Megat-Yusoff, P. S. M. Faiz, A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2015-07-22

    In this study, red mud (RM), an oxide waste was proposed as reinforcing, synergistic filler for the traditional epoxy intumescent coating (IC). 5.5 wt% of acid-modified and unmodified red mud were introduced into the basic intumescent formulation of ammonium polyphosphate (APP), pentaerythritol (PER) and melamine (MEL). In order to predict effect of modification on its suitability, Field emission electron scanning microscopy and Fourier transform infra red were used to obtain detailed characteristics such as the cell size, pore distribution, homogeneity and chemical composition of the red mud-epoxy carbonaceous char. Both acid-modified and unmodified RM-filled ICs produced chars with smaller and more closely packed cells compared to chars from the unfilled coating. Both coating types had hard carbonaceous metal phosphate coverings that could act as heat barriers. The unmodified red mud was found to be antagonistic to the intumescent action with an expansion of only 2 times the initial thickness. The leached, low iron-red mud produced an expansion of 15 times the initial thickness, but possessed a hollow interior. From these findings, it may be deduced that while acid leaching of red mud may improve intumescent expansion, it would be necessary to optimize the percent filler loading to improve residual mass.

  19. Recycling of red muds with the extraction of metals and special additions to cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoveev, D. V.; Diubanov, V. G.; Shutova, A. V.; Ziniaeva, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase reduction of iron oxides from red mud is experimentally studied. It is shown that, in addition to a metal, a slag suitable for utilization in the construction industry can be produced as a result of pyrometallurgical processing of red mud. Portland cement is shown to be produced from this slag with mineral additions and a high-aluminate expansion addition to cement.

  20. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. PMID:26951343

  2. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud. PMID:24703681

  3. No short-term cytogenetic consequences of Hungarian red mud catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Gundy, Sarolta; Farkas, Gyöngyi; Székely, Gábor; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Red mud is an industrial waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite with concentrated NaOH. When the red mud-containing reservoir collapsed in Ajka Alumina Plant Hungary in October 2010, the most serious immediate effects were caused by the high alkalinity (pH ≥ 13) of the flood. Many persons suffered burn-like damage to tissues and contact with caustic desiccated ultra-fine dust with traces of toxic metals also caused irritation of upper respiratory tract and eyes. This catastrophe was unique from the point of view of genotoxic effects as well. Therefore cytogenetic examinations were carried out on inhabitants, either with burns (17 persons) or on those inhaling desiccated caustic dust (42 persons). Chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and bleomycin (BLM)-sensitivity assays, as possible markers of effects, were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of persons within 4-6 weeks following the catastrophe. Controls were matched for age, sex and smoking habits, and also places of residence with different constituents of air pollution either from rural (59 persons), or from urban environments (59 persons). Neither spontaneous rate of CAs (1.47% vs. 1.69%) nor BLM-induced in vitro chromosomal breakage (0.79 vs. 0.83 break/cell) showed elevated rates when cytogenetic biomarkers of genotoxicity were compared between controls and exposed persons. Time spent in cleaning did not affect cytogenetic changes either (R(2) = 0.04). BLM-induced mutagen sensitivity was similar in exposed and control persons (27.1% vs. 30.5%). It seems that the red mud exposure does not appear to pose an immediate genotoxic hazard on residents when measured with cytogenetic methods. We recommend, however, that those involved in clean-up activities should be followed closely not only for overall health, but also for further genotoxic risk assessment, because the long-term hazards of ultra-fine fugitive dust particles with alkalinity of residual NaOH in red mud are still

  4. Gravity anomalies of the active mud diapirs off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Lo, Chung-Liang; Chen, Song-Chuen; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Jing-Yi; Huang, Yuan-Ping; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang

    2015-12-01

    Overpressure and buoyant effect of underlying sediments are generally used to account for the upward motion or formation of submarine mud volcanoes and mud diapirs. In this study, we process and interpret the gravity anomalies associated with the active mud diapirs off SW Taiwan. Geologically, the mud diapirs are just formed and are still very active, thus we can better understand the initial process of the mud diapirs formation through the gravity analysis. Our results show that the density contrasts of the submarine mud diapirs with respect to the surroundings are generally positive. Because the study area is in a tectonically compressive regime and the gas plume venting from the submarine mud volcanoes is very active, we thus infer that mechanically the mud diapirs off SW Taiwan have been formed mainly due to the tectonic compression on the underlying sediments of high pore-fluid pressure, instead of the buoyancy of the buried sediments. The overpressured sediments and fluid are compressed and pushed upwards to pierce the overlying sediments and form the more compacted mud diapirs. The relatively denser material of the mud diapirs probably constrains the flowing courses of the submarine canyons off SW Taiwan, especially for the upper reaches of the Kaoping and Fangliao submarine canyons.

  5. Carbon deposition and phase transformations in red mud on exposure to methane.

    PubMed

    Sushil, S; Alabdulrahman, A M; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Blackley, R A; Clapp, J; Hargreaves, J S J; Monaghan, A; Pulford, I D; Rico, J L; Zhou, W

    2010-08-15

    A characterization study detailing the phase transformations and microstructural nature of the carbon deposited during methane decomposition over red mud has been undertaken. In situ XRD was carried out to study the phase transformation sequences of red mud during the reaction. Scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, BET surface area determination and CHN analysis were carried out to investigate the properties of the post-reaction samples. Exposure to methane with increasing temperature caused a stepwise reduction of iron oxides in red mud and promoted methane cracking leading to carbon deposition. The presence of carbon nanostructures was confirmed by HRTEM observations. The carbon formed was graphitic in nature and the spent red mud, rich in Fe and Fe(3)C formed as a result of the reduction of the iron oxide, was magnetic in nature. The surface area of the material was enhanced upon reaction. In addition, reactivity comparisons between goethite and red mud were carried out to study the formation of carbon oxides during reaction. PMID:20462696

  6. Composites based on PET and red mud residues as catalyst for organic removal from water.

    PubMed

    Bento, Natálya I; Santos, Patrícia S C; de Souza, Talita E; Oliveira, Luiz C A; Castro, Cínthia S

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we obtained a composite based on carbon/iron oxide from red mud and PET (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) wastes by mechanical mixture (10, 15 and 20wt.% of PET powder/red mud) followed by a controlled thermal treatment at 400°C under air. XRD analyses revealed that the α-Fe2O3 is the main phase formed from red mud. TPR analyses showed that the iron oxide present in the composites undergoes reduction at lower temperature to form Fe(2+) species present in Fe3O4, indicating that the iron oxide in the composite can exhibit greater reactivity in the catalytic processes compared to the original red mud. In fact, catalytic tests showed that the composites presented higher capacity to remove methylene blue dye (MB), presenting about 90% of removal after 24h of reaction. The MB removal was also monitored by mass spectrometer with ionization via electrospray (ESI-MS), which demonstrated the occurrence of the oxidation process, showing the formation of MB oxidation products. The stability of the composites was confirmed after four reuse cycles. The results seem to indicate that PET carbon deposited over the iron oxide from red mud promotes adsorption of the contaminant allowing its contact with the iron atoms and their consequent reaction. PMID:27149399

  7. Surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue): zeta potential and surface charge density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravendra; Ming, Hui

    2013-03-15

    The surface electrochemical properties of red mud (bauxite residue) from different alumina refineries in Australia and China were studied by electrophoresis and measuring surface charge density obtained from acid/base potentiometric titrations. The electrophoretic properties were measured from zeta potentials obtained in the presence of 0.01 and 0.001 M KNO(3) over a wide pH range (3.5-10) by titration. The isoelectric point (IEP) values were found to vary from 6.35 to 8.70 for the red mud samples. Further investigation into the surface charge density of one sample (RRM) by acid/base potentiometric titration showed similar results for pH(PZC) with pH(IEP) obtained from electrokinetic measurements. The pH(IEP) determined from zeta potential measurements can be used as a characteristic property of red mud. The minerals contained in red mud contributed to the different values of pH(IEP) of samples obtained from different refineries. Different relationships of pH(IEP) with Al/Fe and Al/Si ratios (molar basis) were also found for different red mud samples. PMID:23270758

  8. Application of Bayer red mud for iron recovery and building material production from alumosilicate residues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanchao; Yang, Jiakuan; Xiao, Bo

    2009-01-15

    Red mud is a solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite. In this paper, recovery iron from Bayer red mud was studied with direct reduction roasting process followed by magnetic separation, and then building materials were prepared from alumosilicate residues. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery efficiency of iron were carried out. The optimum reaction parameters were proposed as the following: ratio of carbon powder: red mud at 18:100, ratio of additives: red mud at 6:100, roasting at 1300 degrees C for 110min. With these optimum parameters, total content of iron in concentrated materials was 88.77%, metallization ratio of 97.69% and recovery ratio of 81.40%. Then brick specimens were prepared with alumosilicate residues and hydrated lime. Mean compressive strength of specimens was 24.10MPa. It was indicated that main mineral phase transformed from nepheline (NaAlSiO4) in alumosilicate residues to gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) in brick specimens through X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology. The feasibility of this transformation under the experimental conditions was proved by thermodynamics calculation analysis. Combined the recovery of iron with the reuse of alumosilicate residues, it can realize zero-discharge of red mud from Bayer process. PMID:18457916

  9. Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis for revealing thermal transformations of red mud.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Zeng, Lingmin; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a worldwide environmental problem, and many authorities are trying to find an economic solution for its beneficial application or/and safe disposal. Ceramic production is one of the potential waste-to-resource strategies for using red mud as a raw material. Before implementing such a strategy, an unambiguous understanding of the reaction behavior of red mud under thermal conditions is essential. In this study, the phase compositions and transformation processes were revealed for the Pingguo red mud (PRM) heat-treated at different sintering temperatures. Hematite, perovskite, andradite, cancrinite, kaolinite, diaspore, gibbsite and calcite phases were observed in the samples. However, unlike those red mud samples from the other regions, no TiO2 (rutile or anatase) or quartz were observed. Titanium was found to exist mainly in perovskite and andradite while the iron mainly existed in hematite and andradite. A new silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) phase was found in samples treated at temperatures above 1100°C, and two possible formation pathways for SFCA were suggested. This is the first SFCA phase to be reported in thermally treated red mud, and this finding may turn PRM waste into a material resource for the iron-making industry. Titanium was found to be enriched in the perovskite phase after 1200°C thermal treatment, and this observation indicated a potential strategy for the recovery of titanium from PRM. In addition to noting these various resource recovery opportunities, this is also the first study to quantitatively summarize the reaction details of PRM phase transformations at various temperatures. PMID:25841072

  10. Mechanism of red mud combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jiakuan; Yu, Wenbo; Luo, Sen; Peng, Li; Shen, Xingxing; Shi, Yafei; Zhang, Shinan; Song, Jian; Ye, Nan; Li, Ye; Yang, Changzhu; Liang, Sha

    2014-08-01

    Red mud was evaluated as an alternative skeleton builder combined with Fenton's reagent in sewage sludge conditioning. The results show that red mud combined with Fenton's reagent showed good conditioning capability with the pH of the filtrate close to neutrality, indicating that red mud acted as a neutralizer as well as a skeleton builder when jointly used with Fenton's reagent. Through response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal dosages of Fe(2+), H2O2 and red mud were proposed as 31.9, 33.7 and 275.1 mg/g DS (dry solids), respectively. The mechanism of the composite conditioner could be illuminated as follows: (1) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS, were degraded into dissolved organics, e.g., proteins and polysaccharides; (2) bound water was released and converted into free water due to the degradation of EPS; and (3) morphology of the conditioned sludge exhibited a porous structure in contrast with the compact structure of raw sludge, and the addition of red mud formed new mineral phases and a rigid lattice structure in sludge, allowing the outflow of free water. Thus, sludge dewatering performance was effectively improved. The economic assessment for a wastewater treatment plant of 370,000 equivalent inhabitants confirms that using red mud conditioning, combined with Fenton's reagent, leads to a saving of approximately 411,000 USD/y or 50.8 USD/t DS comparing with using lime and ordinary Portland cement combined with Fenton's reagent, and approximately 612,000 USD/y or 75.5 USD/t DS comparing with the traditional treatment. PMID:24810740

  11. Statistical Modeling Studies of Iron Recovery from Red Mud Using Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagat, S. Rath; Archana, Pany; Jayasankar, K.; Ajit, K. Mitra; C. Satish, Kumar; Partha, S. Mukherjee; Barada, K. Mishra

    2013-05-01

    Optimization studies of plasma smelting of red mud were carried out. Reduction of the dried red mud fines was done in an extended arc plasma reactor to recover the pig iron. Lime grit and low ash metallurgical (LAM) coke were used as the flux and reductant, respectively. 2-level factorial design was used to study the influence of all parameters on the responses. Response surface modeling was done with the data obtained from statistically designed experiments. Metal recovery at optimum parameters was found to be 79.52%.

  12. Alkalistable xylanase production by alkalitolerant Paenibacillus montaniterrae RMV1 isolated from red mud.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amita; Krishna, Pankaj; Malik, Vinita; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2014-10-01

    The alkalitolerant and xylanolytic bacterial strain (RMV1) isolated from red mud pond was identified as Paenibacillus montaniterrae based on both biochemical and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The RMV1 bacterial isolate produced alkalistable and thermostable endoxylanase active over a broad range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-100 °C), with optima at 50 °C and pH 9.0 with a T1/2 of 6.7 hours at 50 °C. This is the first report on the isolation of P. montaniterrae from bauxite residue with quite a high xylanase producing ability. PMID:24026904

  13. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang

    2016-03-01

    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  14. Early-age characteristics of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Henghu; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jixiu

    2009-08-15

    This experimental research was to investigate the possibility of incorporating red mud and coal gangue as raw materials for the production of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material, abbreviated as RGC, including analyses of its chemical composition, physical properties, mechanical properties and hydration products. The red mud and coal gangue (at a ratio of 3:2) were mixed together and shaped in small spheres with a water to solid ratio of 0.30 and then calcined at 600 degrees C for 2h. Subsequently, the RGC was prepared by blending 50% the resultant red mud-coal gangue mixtures, 24% blast-furnace slag, 20% clinker and 6% gypsum. The hydration products of RGC were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM-EDS. The results showed that it is feasible to use red mud and coal gangue to replace up to 50% of the raw materials to produce cementitious material, which can be called as silica-alumina based cementitious material. The hydration products of RGC are mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel. As the dominant products, C-S-H gel and ettringite are principally responsible for the strength development of RGC in early hydration process. The content of Ca(OH)(2) initially increased but later was depleted after reaching the peak value at 21 days. Moreover, it is found that the composition of the C-S-H gel shifted towards higher Si, Al and Na contents with the increase of hydration age, whereas that of Ca shifted towards lower content. PMID:19237241

  15. Recovery of value-added products from red mud and foundry bag-house dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Keegan

    "Waste is wasted if you waste it, otherwise it is a resource. Resource is wasted if you ignore it and do not conserve it with holistic best practices and reduce societal costs. Resource is for the transformation of people and society." Red mud is a worldwide problem with reserves in the hundreds of millions of tons and tens of millions of tons being added annually. Currently there is not an effective way to deal with this byproduct of the Bayer Process, the primary means of refining bauxite ore in order to provide alumina. This alumina is then treated by electrolysis using the Hall-Heroult process to produce elemental aluminum. The resulting mud is a mixture of solid and metallic oxides, and has proven to be a great disposal problem. This disposal problem is compounded by the fact that the typical bauxite processing plant produces up to three times as much red mud as alumina. Current practice of disposal is to store red mud in retention ponds until an economical fix can be discovered. The danger associated with this current method of storage is immense to the surrounding communities and environment, thus the interest from the Center for Resource Recovery and Recycling (CR3). The purpose of this document is to explain one way to remove the value added materials, primarily iron, from the Jamaican red mud using both pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical approaches. In the beginning, soda ash and carbon roasting were completed simultaneously at 800°C. This type of roasting produced results that were unacceptable. After the soda ash roast was completed independently of carbon roasting, a water wash produced results that separations of alumina at 90%, Iron at 99%, calcium at 99%, titanium t 100%, and sodium by 74%. Smelting produced separations of 97% for alumina, 99% for iron, 87% for sodium, 94% for calcium and 72% for titanium.

  16. Rate of the reduction of the iron oxides in red mud by hydrogen and converted gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, O. A.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2013-01-01

    The drying and gas reduction of the iron oxides in the red mud of bauxite processing are studied. It is shown that at most 25% of aluminum oxide are fixed by iron oxides in this red mud, and the other 75% are fixed by sodium aluminosilicates. A software package is developed to calculate the gas reduction of iron oxides, including those in mud. Small hematite samples fully transform into magnetite in hydrogen at a temperature below 300°C and a heating rate of 500 K/h, and complete reduction of magnetite to metallic iron takes place below 420°C. The densification of a thin red mud layer weakly affects the character and temperature range of magnetizing calcination, and the rate of reduction to iron decreases approximately twofold and reduction covers a high-temperature range (above 900°C). The substitution of a converted natural gas for hydrogen results in a certain delay in magnetite formation and an increase in the temperature of the end of reaction to 375°C. In the temperature range 450-550°C, the transformation of hematite into magnetite in red mud pellets 1 cm in diameter in a converted natural gas is 30-90 faster than the reduction of hematite to iron in hydrogen. The hematite-magnetite transformation rate in pellets is almost constant in the temperature range under study, and reduction occurs in a diffusion mode. At a temperature of ˜500°C, the reaction layer thickness of pellets in a shaft process is calculated to be ˜1 m at a converted-gas flow rate of 0.1 m3/(m2 s) and ˜2.5 m at a flow rate of 0.25 m3/(m2 s). The specific capacity of 1 m2 of the shaft cross section under these conditions is 240 and 600 t/day, respectively. The use of low-temperature gas reduction processes is promising for the development of an in situ optimum red mud utilization technology.

  17. Cerium doped red mud catalytic ozonation for bezafibrate degradation in wastewater: Efficiency, intermediates, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingbing; Qi, Fei; Sun, Dezhi; Chen, Zhonglin; Robert, Didier

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the performance of bezafibrate (BZF) degradation and detoxification in the aqueous phase using cerium-modified red mud (RM) catalysts prepared using different cerium sources and synthesis methods were evaluated. Experimental results showed that the surface cerium modification was responsible for the development of the catalytic activity of RM and this was influenced by the cerium source and the synthesis method. Catalyst prepared from cerium (IV) by precipitation was found to show the best catalytic activity in BZF degradation and detoxification. Reactive oxygen species including peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, and super oxide ions were identified in all reactions and we proposed the corresponding catalytic reaction mechanism for each catalyst that prepared from different cerium source and method. This was supported by the intermediates profiles that were generated upon BZF degradation. The surface and the structural properties of cerium-modified RM were characterized in detail by several analytical methods. Two interesting findings were made: (1) the surface texture (specific surface area and mesoporous volume) influenced the catalytic reaction pathway; and (2) Ce(III) species and oxygen vacancies were generated on the surface of the catalyst after cerium modification. This plays an important role in the development of the catalytic activity. PMID:26706928

  18. Preparation and mechanism of the sintered bricks produced from Yellow River silt and red mud.

    PubMed

    He, Hongtao; Yue, Qinyan; Su, Yuan; Gao, Baoyu; Gao, Yue; Wang, Jingzhou; Yu, Hui

    2012-02-15

    The preparation, characteristics and mechanisms of sintered bricks manufactured by Yellow River silt and red mud were studied. The sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, water absorption and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition. Sintering mechanisms were discussed through linear regression analysis. Crystalline components of raw materials and bricks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Leaching toxicity of raw materials and bricks were measured according to sulphuric acid and nitric acid method. Radiation safety of the sintered bricks was characterized by calculating internal exposure index and external exposure index. The results showed that at the chosen best parameters (red mud content of 40%, sintering temperature of 1050°C and sintering time of 2h), the best characteristics of sintered bricks could be obtained. The weight loss on ignition of sintered bricks was principally caused by the removal of absorbed water and crystal water. The sintering shrinkage of sintered bricks mainly depended on sodium compounds and iron compounds of red mud. The sintering process made some components of raw materials transform into other crystals having better thermostability. Besides, the leaching toxicity and radioactivity index of sintered bricks produced under the optimum condition were all below standards. PMID:22192584

  19. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  20. Developing alternative resources of rare earth elements in Europe - EURARE and the red mud challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deady, Eimear; Mouchos, Evangelos; Goodenough, Kathryn; Wall, Frances; Williamson, Ben

    2015-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are considered to be highly "critical" by the European Commission [1], owing to the concentration of global supply [2] and their use in a wide range of emerging technologies (e.g. smart phones, electric cars and wind turbines). The main source of REE is the mineral bastnäsite, which is primarily extracted from carbonatites. Alternative resources of REE have been identified in a variety of other environments such as alluvial placers, bauxites and ore tailings. The EURARE project (www.eurare.eu), funded by the European Commission, aims to improve understanding of potential REE resources in Europe with the overall objective of establishing the basis for a European REE industry. As a part of this project, alternative sources of rare earth elements in Europe are being considered. REE have been identified as being particularly enriched in karst-bauxites and hence in the red muds generated as a waste product from the processing of these bauxites to alumina through the Bayer process [3]. Karst-bauxites are widely distributed with deposits known across the Mediterranean and with intermittent exploitation occurring over many decades. REE become concentrated in the bauxite deposits by the bauxitisation process and are retained due to the geochemical barrier created by the limestone bedrock below. This can result in several processes, including the crystallisation of authigenic REE-bearing minerals, the accumulation of residual phases and the adsorption of ions onto clays and other mineral surfaces [4]. Red muds produced from alumina processing represent a potentially important concentration of REE as it has been demonstrated that the REE pass through the alumina extraction process into the waste, and the total REE concentrations are typically enriched by a factor of two compared with the original bauxite ore [5]. Bauxites and red muds from the Parnassus Ghiona region of Greece [6] and the Seydişehir-Akseki region of Turkey have been assessed as

  1. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  2. Recovering metals from red mud by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plescia, Paolo; Maccari, Dante

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with an alternative treatment for recovering metals from goethite red mud (RM), which occurs as a by-product at zinc leaching plants. It is derived from the hydrometallurgical treatment of sphalerite, which involves roasting followed by acid attack and subsequent recovery of the zinc by electrodeposition. The leaching mud contains various oxides and hydroxides of iron plus lesser amounts of sulfates of Pb, Zn, Ca, Cd, Ag, In, Se, and other metals. In recent years, numerous attempts have been made to recover the RM or render it inert, particularly by such processes as vitrification or lithification for the production of glass ceramics. The work reported here proposes a treatment involving reduction and magnetic separation to permit the extraction of pure zinc, a high percentage of a pure magnetite, and a harmless slag containing mixed silicates of zinc and lead as well as oxides of minor elements.

  3. Kinetics and Statistical Behaviour of Iron Recovery from Red Mud using Plasma Arc Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Swagat S.; Jayasankar, K.; Satapathy, Bijoy K.; Mishra, Barada K.; Mukherjee, Partha S.

    2011-06-01

    Study of the recovery of pig iron from dry red mud through plasma smelting has been done. The reductant used was graphite. Various fluxes were used for the formation of slag. The parameters varied were smelting time, basicity and concentration of reductant and fluxes. It was observed that the reduction kinetics improved progressively with the increase of all the variables up to certain level and on further increase the metal recovery decreased. The results were interpreted kinetically and rate determining step was evaluated. Multi Linear Regression Analysis studies were carried out. The variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis. Four factors could explain 75.4% of the variables.

  4. Mössbauer Effect Study of Seawater-Neutralized Red Mud and its Adsorption Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, C. M.; Cashion, J. D.

    2005-04-01

    The 57Fe Mössbauer spectra of seawater-neutralized red mud from the Gladstone, Queensland, alumina refinery was found to be due almost entirely to SPM and magnetically split hematite, for which the Morin transition had been suppressed below 5 K. Adsorption of metal ions from solutions with varying concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn either enhanced or reduced the magnetic relaxation frequency in small concentrations, depending on the ion, but always reduced the relaxation frequency at large concentrations. Precipitation of hydrocerussite, Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2 was identified from the XRD spectrum.

  5. Arsenic mobilization by citrate and malate from a red mud-treated contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Mele, Elena; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    The mobility and bioavailability of As in the soil-plant system can be affected by a number of organic acids that originate from the activity of plants and microorganisms. In this study we evaluated the ability of citrate and malate anions to mobilize As in a polluted subacidic soil (UP soil) treated with red mud (RM soil). Both anions promoted the mobilization of As from UP and RM soils, with citrate being more effective than malate. The RM treatment induced a greater mobility of As. The amounts of As released in RM and UP soils treated with 3.0 mmol L citric acid solution were 2.78 and 1.83 μmol g respectively, whereas an amount equal to 1.73 and 1.06 μmol g was found after the treatment with a 3.0 mmol L malic acid solution. The release of As in both soils increased with increasing concentration of organic acids, and the co-release of Al and Fe in solution also increased. The sequential extraction showed that Fe/Al (oxi)hydroxides in RM were the main phases involved in As binding in RM soil. Two possible mechanisms could be responsible for As solubilization: (i) competition of the organic anions for As adsorption sites and (ii) partial dissolution of the adsorbents (e.g., dissolution of iron and aluminum oxi-hydroxides) induced by citrate or malate and formation of complexes between dissolved Fe and Al and organic anions. This is the first report on the effect of malate and citrate on the As mobility in a polluted soil treated with RM. PMID:23673944

  6. A facile disposal of Bayer red mud based on selective flocculation desliming with organic humics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfang; Han, Guihong; Liu, Jiongtian; Wang, Wenjuan

    2016-01-15

    Humics flocculant was applied in the disposal of Bayer red mud based on selective flocculation desliming process. The parameters affecting selective flocculation behavior such as flocculant dosage, slurry pH and agitation intensity were studied. For flocculating mechanism analysis, the iron mineral and the flocs product were characterized by ζ-potential testing, settling experiments, optical microscope and SEM imaging. The results show that humics exhibits a good selective flocculation performance in the high alkaline pH range. With an optimal condition of 2% solid density, flocculant dosage 30 mg L(-1), Na2SiO3 dosage 200 mg L(-1), slurry pH 10.0 and agitation speed 1000 rpm, the recovery of iron minerals of 86.25±1.31%, the iron grade of concentrate of 61.12±0.10%, the separation index of 0.69±0.02 can be obtained in the selective flocculation. It is found that the adsorption bridging of humics polymer dominates the selectively flocculating the iron minerals. Large flocs or aggregates with a better settling capacity are generated because of humics occurring. The maximum settling velocity of 38.23±1.51 m h(-1) is reached at pH 10. This work brings the easiness in directly recovering fine particle size of iron-bearing minerals from red mud. PMID:26342150

  7. Feasibility study of iron mineral separation from red mud by high gradient superconducting magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xiaojun; Wang, Baoqiang; Luan, Zhaokun

    2011-02-01

    The disposal of bayer red mud tailings now seriously threats the environment safety. Reduction and recycling of red mud is now an urgent work in aluminum industry. High gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS) system was applied to separate the extreme fine RM particles (<100 μm) into high iron content part and low iron content part. Two sorts of RM were fed in the HGSMS. The iron oxide contents in concentrates were about 65% and 45% when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. Meanwhile, the residues contained 52.0% or 14.1% iron oxide in residues after eight separation stages when RM 1# and RM 2# were fed respectively. The mass recovery of iron concentrates was about 10% after once separation process regardless of RM 1# or RM 2# was fed. Extreme fine particles (<10 μm) could be captured in the HGSMS. Intergrowth of Fe and other elements is disadvantages for iron mineral separation from RM by HGSMS. Some improvement should be studied to enhance the efficiency of iron separation. It is possible for HGSMS to separate RM into high iron content part and low iron content part, the former part could be used in iron-making furnace and the later part could be recycling to sintering process for alumina production or used as construction material.

  8. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  9. Red mud and fly ash for remediation of mine sites contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn.

    PubMed

    Bertocchi, Anna F; Ghiani, Marcello; Peretti, Roberto; Zucca, Antonio

    2006-06-30

    The paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation conducted for assessing the feasibility of immobilising the heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contained in a disused mine tailings dam. Samples of tailings were mixed with relatively small proportions of bauxite red mud and power station fly ash. The sorption capacity of these two materials, already determined for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, has been determined here for arsenic by means of batch experiments on purposely prepared solutions. The results of this preliminary investigation show that sorption capacity is strongly influenced by pH. While the red mud performs better at low pH, the ability of fly ash to adsorb As increases with increasing pH. Tests carried out in leach columns containing tailings alone and tailings mixed with 15% by weight neutralized red mud or fly ash demonstrate the heavy metal sorption potential of the two materials, the red mud proving to be the more effective. PMID:16326004

  10. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model. PMID:26950758

  11. Modified granulation of red mud by weak gelling and its application to stabilization of Pb.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-li; Huang, Sheng-sheng; Luo, Lin; Wu, Gen-yi; Liu, Yan

    2012-08-15

    This study presents a novel modification of red mud (RM) with cementitious materials by rotary drum granulation under partial hydration. Admixtures and surfactants were applied to improve the microspore structure of red mud-based granules in order to stabilize Pb steadily. Through XRD and SEM-EDS analyses, it was demonstrated that calcite, the main alkali in RM, was partially concreted and coated. Compared to pH 12.47 for RM, the lowest pH of the granules was 10.66 implying that the release of OH(-) from hydrolysis and decomposition was decreased. Based on stabilization of Pb, influence on soil properties and forming qualities, composition of the optimum granule PSP was determined as 5% cement, 5% gypsum, 1% rice straw, and 0.1% emulsifier OP-10. Within a 90 d remediation, immobilization of ionic Pb in a 500 mg kg(-1) Pb-contaminated artificial soil was 9.85 mg kg(-1) at day 30 with 5% PSP2 as substitute. Furthermore, the reverse increase diminished as the final concentration was 11.13 mg kg(-1) while it was 14.25 mg kg(-1) by RM. The increase of residual Pb was 122.61%, which was better than the 83.92% of RM. Particularly, the highest pH in mine soil was 11.09 at day 1 with RM, but the decrease of ionic Pb was 46.26%. Meanwhile, a significant deviation from the control soil zeta-potential lasted longer and the recovery was more difficult, as compared to the granules. Therefore, a granulated modification of RM is shown to be very important when aiming at steady release of OH(-) to improve the later stabilization of Pb. PMID:22664259

  12. Effect of experimental variables onto Co(2+) and Sr(2+) sorption behavior in red mud-water suspensions.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Aleksandra S; Smičiklas, Ivana D; Šljivić-Ivanović, Marija Z; Živković, Ljiljana S; Vukelić, Nikola S

    2016-07-01

    The prospects of rinsed red mud (alumina production residue) utilization for liquid radioactive waste treatment have been investigated, with Co(2+) and Sr(2+) as model cations of radioactive elements. To evaluate the sorption effectiveness and corresponding binding mechanisms, the process was analyzed in batch conditions, by varying experimental conditions (pH, Co(2+) and Sr(2+) concentrations in single solutions and binary mixtures, contact time, and the concentration of competing cations and ligands common in liquid radioactive waste). Comparison of the Co(2+) and Sr(2+) sorption pH edges with the red mud isoelectric point has revealed that Co(2+) removal took place at both positive and negative red mud surface, while Sr(2+) sorption abruptly increased when the surface became negatively charged. The increase of initial cation content and pH resulted in increased equilibrium times and sorption capacity and decreased rate constants. From single metal solutions and various binary mixtures, Co(2+) was sorbed more efficiently and selectively than Sr(2+). While Sr(2+) sorption was reduced by coexisting cations in the order Al(3+) ≥ Ca(2+) >Na(+) ≥Cs(+), removal of Co(2+) was affected by Al(3+) species and complexing agents (EDTA and citrate). Desorption of Co(2+) was negligible in Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) containing media and in solutions with initial pH 4-7. Sr(2+) desorption was generally more pronounced, especially at low pH and in the presence of Co(2+). Collected macroscopic data signify that Co(2+) sorption by red mud minerals occurred via strong chemical bonds, while Sr(2+) was retained mainly by weaker ion-exchange or electrostatic interactions. Results indicate that the rinsed red mud represent an efficient, low-cost sorbent for Co(2+) and Sr(2+) immobilization. PMID:27089252

  13. Property and performance of red mud-based catalysts for the complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Chai; Nahm, Seung Won; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-12-30

    Red mud (RM) was assessed as a catalyst for the complete oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The catalytic activity of RM was influenced by an acid treatment and the calcination temperature. Acid-treated RM (HRM) catalysts with a platinum loading (Pt/HRM) were prepared using a conventional impregnation method. Platinum catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3 (Pt/Al) were prepared for comparison. The physicochemical properties of the RM, HRM and Pt/HRM catalysts were characterized by BET analysis, ICP-AES, H2-TPD, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and FE-TEM. The acid treatment increased the BET surface area of the RM significantly, resulting in an increase in catalytic activity. Increasing the calcination temperature from 400°C to 600°C caused a decrease in its catalytic activity. Increasing the platinum loading on HRM(400) from 0.1 wt.% to 1 wt.% led to an increase in the toluene conversion, which was attributed to the better redox properties. The catalytic activities of the Pt/HRM(400) catalysts were superior to those of the Pt/Al catalysts. Benzene, toluene, o-xylene, and hexane were oxidized completely over the 1 wt.% Pt/HRM(400) catalyst at reaction temperatures less than 280°C. The presence of water vapor in the feed had a negative effect on the activity of the 1 wt.% Pt/HRM(400) catalyst. PMID:26163485

  14. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal.

    PubMed

    Fontanier, C; Fabri, M-C; Buscail, R; Biscara, L; Koho, K; Reichart, G J; Cossa, D; Galaup, S; Chabaud, G; Pigot, L

    2012-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals and various amorphous phases. At the shallowest station located very close to the pipe outlet, the benthic living foraminiferal community is characterised by a very low diversity and by an unusual dominance of Gyroidina umbonata and Bulimina marginata. The mechanical stress related to downslope transport of red mud is a likely source of hydro-sedimentary pollution precluding the settlement of diverse fauna. The living and dead foraminiferal faunas from the deepest site are typical of oligo-mesotrophic conditions prevailing in natural environments. There, bauxite residues have obviously no environmental impact on foraminiferal faunas. The bioavailability of trace metals is likely low as elemental enrichments were not observed in foraminiferal test chemistry. PMID:22795490

  15. Regional Applied Research Effort Project (RARE) with Region 8 - Beneficial Use of Red and Brown Mud and Phosphogypsum as Alternative Construction Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Red and brown muds are the secondary materials generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite, an aluminum-containing sedimentary rock (Ref. 2). Phosphogypsum is the secondary material generated by the phosphorous fertilizer industry from phosphate-containing sedimentary ...

  16. The potential application of red mud and soil mixture as additive to the surface layer of a landfill cover system.

    PubMed

    Ujaczki, Éva; Feigl, Viktória; Molnár, Mónika; Vaszita, Emese; Uzinger, Nikolett; Erdélyi, Attila; Gruiz, Katalin

    2016-06-01

    Red mud, the by-product of aluminum production, has been regarded as a problematic residue all over the world. Its storage involves risks as evidenced by the Ajka red mud spill, an accident in Hungary where the slurry broke free, flooding the surrounding areas. As an immediate remediation measure more than 5cm thick red mud layer was removed from the flooded soil surface. The removed red mud and soil mixture (RMSM) was transferred into the reservoirs for storage. In this paper the application of RMSM is evaluated in a field study aiming at re-utilizing waste, decreasing cost of waste disposal and providing a value-added product. The purpose was to investigate the applicability of RMSM as surface layer component of landfill cover systems. The field study was carried out in two steps: in lysimeters and in field plots. The RMSM was mixed at ratios ranging between 0 and 50% w/w with low quality subsoil (LQS) originally used as surface layer of an interim landfill cover. The characteristics of the LQS+RMSM mixtures compared to the subsoil (LQS) and the RMSM were determined by physical-chemical, biological and ecotoxicological methods. The addition of RMSM to the subsoil (LQS) at up to 20% did not result any ecotoxic effect, but it increased the water holding capacity. In addition, the microbial substrate utilization became about triple of subsoil (LQS) after 10months. According to our results the RMSM mixed into subsoil (LQS) at 20% w/w dose may be applied as surface layer of landfill cover systems. PMID:27266315

  17. Research on red mud treatment by a circulating superconducting magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Chen, Haoshu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Fengyu; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Red mud (RM) accumulated over the years and caused a serious environmental problem. Iron-rich fraction separation is a cost-effective way to reduce the amount of disposal RM. A circulating high-gradient superconducting magnetic separator was produced in this work. Steel wool was filled in the circulating boxes. The boxes were connected by two chains, which moved in and out the magnetic field by a drive motor. The efficiency of iron-rich RM separation by the superconducting magnetic separator was investigated. An amount of 25% (w/w) iron-rich RM fractions with a grade of 65% were separated from the 56% iron content raw RM. The parameters of the steel wool matrix were important in controlling the iron-rich RM magnetic separation. Finer steel wool increased the iron recovery ratio, but decreased the grade of the iron-rich RM concentrates. Microscopic photographs of the RM particles showed that opaque mineral particles were enriched in the collected RM. The particle size distributions of raw, concentrate and residue RM were measured. The increased particle size of concentrate RM implied that large particles were entrapped in the steel wool matrix. PMID:24701921

  18. Arsenic removal from aqueous solution using ferrous based red mud sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Wang, Jun; Luan, Zhaokun; Liang, Zhen

    2010-05-15

    Ferrous based red mud sludge (FRS) which combined the iron-arsenic co-precipitation and the high arsenic adsorption features was developed aimed at low arsenic water treatment in rural areas. Arsenic removal studies shown that FRS in dosage of 0.2 or 0.3g/l can be used effectively to remove arsenic from aqueous solutions when initial As(V) concentration was 0.2 or 0.3mg/l. Meanwhile, turbidity of supernatant in disturbing water was lower than 2 NTU after 24h. The pH range (4.5-8.0) for FRS in effective arsenic removal was applicable in natural circumstance. Phosphate can greatly reduce the arsenic removal efficiency while the presence of carbonate had no significant effect on arsenic removal. Arsenic fractionation experiments showed that amorphous hydrous oxide-bound arsenic was the major components. When aqueous pH was decreased from 8.0 to 4.5, arsenic in FRS was not obviously released. The high arsenic uptake capability, good settlement performance and cost-effective characteristic of FRS make it potentially attractive material for the arsenic removal in rural areas. PMID:20034742

  19. Red Mud as an Efficient, Stable, and Cost-Free Catalyst for COx-Free Hydrogen Production from Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Kurtoğlu, Samira Fatma; Uzun, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Red mud, one of the mostly produced industrial wastes, was converted into a catalyst with exceptionally high and stable performance for hydrogen production from ammonia. Results showed that iron species produced after reduction of the HCl digested red mud were converted into ε-Fe2N during the induction period of ammonia decomposition reaction at 700 °C. The catalytic performance measurements indicated that the modified red mud catalyst provides a record high hydrogen production rate for a non-noble metal catalyst at this temperature. For instance, stable hydrogen production rates were measured as 72 and 196 mmol H2 min−1 gcat−1 for the corresponding space velocities of 72 000 and 240 000 cm3 NH3 h−1 gcat−1, respectively, at 700 °C. These results offer opportunities to utilize one of the key hazardous industrial wastes as an eco-friendly, efficient, stable, and almost cost-free catalyst for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia decomposition. PMID:27558766

  20. Red Mud as an Efficient, Stable, and Cost-Free Catalyst for COx-Free Hydrogen Production from Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Kurtoğlu, Samira Fatma; Uzun, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Red mud, one of the mostly produced industrial wastes, was converted into a catalyst with exceptionally high and stable performance for hydrogen production from ammonia. Results showed that iron species produced after reduction of the HCl digested red mud were converted into ε-Fe2N during the induction period of ammonia decomposition reaction at 700 °C. The catalytic performance measurements indicated that the modified red mud catalyst provides a record high hydrogen production rate for a non-noble metal catalyst at this temperature. For instance, stable hydrogen production rates were measured as 72 and 196 mmol H2 min(-1) gcat(-1) for the corresponding space velocities of 72 000 and 240 000 cm(3) NH3 h(-1) gcat(-1), respectively, at 700 °C. These results offer opportunities to utilize one of the key hazardous industrial wastes as an eco-friendly, efficient, stable, and almost cost-free catalyst for COx-free hydrogen production from ammonia decomposition. PMID:27558766

  1. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-08-15

    A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable. PMID:27131457

  2. Assessing the Legacy of Red Mud Pollution in a Shallow Freshwater Lake: Arsenic Accumulation and Speciation in Macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Justyna P; Meharg, Andrew A; Heal, Kate V; Carey, Manus; Gunn, Iain D M; Searle, Kate R; Winfield, Ian J; Spears, Bryan M

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about long-term ecological responses in lakes following red mud pollution. Among red mud contaminants, arsenic (As) is of considerable concern. Determination of the species of As accumulated in aquatic organisms provides important information about the biogeochemical cycling of the element and transfer through the aquatic food-web to higher organisms. We used coupled ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess As speciation in tissues of five macrophyte taxa in Kinghorn Loch, U.K., 30 years following the diversion of red mud pollution from the lake. Toxic inorganic As was the dominant species in the studied macrophytes, with As species concentrations varying with macrophyte taxon and tissue type. The highest As content measured in roots of Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray (87.2 mg kg(-1)) greatly exceeded the 3-10 mg kg(-1) range suggested as a potential phytotoxic level. Accumulation of toxic As species by plants suggested toxicological risk to higher organisms known to utilize macrophytes as a food source. PMID:27415607

  3. Co-disposal of MSWI fly ash and Bayer red mud using an one-part geopolymeric system.

    PubMed

    Ye, Nan; Chen, Ye; Yang, Jiakuan; Liang, Sha; Hu, Yong; Xiao, Bo; Huang, Qifei; Shi, Yafei; Hu, Jingping; Wu, Xu

    2016-11-15

    In this research, Bayer red mud (RM) was pretreated through alkali-thermal activation process, and prepared as an one-part geopolymer precursor, which could be used as geopolymeric solidification/stabilization (S/S) reagent for municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA). Compressive strength test, modified TCLP leaching test and sequential extraction test were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the RM-based geopolymeric S/S reagent. The results show that the S/S effects for heavy metals of RM-based geopolymer exhibit the following order: Pb>Cu>Zn>Cr. Most of the Zn, Pb and Cu in the MSWI FA transform from the leachable fractions into the inactive fractions difficult or unavailable to leach out. In the geopolymeric S/S solid, the active aluminosilicates in MSWI FA are dissolved in the alkaline environment formed by pretreated RM and then participate in the geopolymerization, which increases the SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and enhances the structural stability of geopolymeric S/S solid. MSWI FA offsets the strength deterioration of RM based one-part geopolymer and improves the immobilization efficiency for heavy metals in the geopolymer structure. PMID:27399149

  4. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: properties and hydration characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Henghu; Li, Longtu

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, (27)Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud. PMID:20932639

  5. Red mud (RM)-Induced enhancement of iron plaque formation reduces arsenic and metal accumulation in two wetland plant species.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Guo, Q J; Yang, J; Zhou, X Y; Ren, H Y; Zhang, H Z; Xu, R X; Wang, X D; Peters, M; Zhu, G X; Wei, R F; Tian, L Y; Han, X K

    2016-01-01

    Human activities have resulted in arsenic (As) and heavy metals accumulation in paddy soils in China. Phytoremediation has been suggested as an effective and low-cost method to clean up contaminated soils. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of red mud (RM) supply on iron plaque formation and As and heavy metal accumulation in two wetland plant species (Cyperus alternifolius Rottb., Echinodorus amazonicus Rataj), using As and heavy metals polluted paddy soil combined with three rates of RM application (0, 2%, 5%). The results showed that RM supply significantly decreased As and heavy metals accumulation in shoots of the two plants due to the decrease of As and heavy metal availability and the enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere. Both wetland plants supplied with RM tended to have more Fe plaque, higher As and heavy metals on roots and in their rhizospheres, and were more tolerant of As and heavy metal toxicity. The results suggest that RM-induced enhancement of the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and in the rhizosphere of wetland plants may be significant for remediation of soils contaminated with As and heavy metals. PMID:26505322

  6. A review of the characterization and revegetation of bauxite residues (Red mud).

    PubMed

    Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Feng; Kong, Xiangfeng; Wu, Chuan; Huang, Ling; Huang, Nan; Hartley, William

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (Red mud) is produced in alumina plants by the Bayer process in which Al-containing minerals are dissolved in hot NaOH. The global residue inventory reached an estimated 3.5 billion tons in 2014, increasing by approximately 120 million tons per annum. The appropriate management of bauxite residue is becoming a global environmental concern following increased awareness of the need for environmental protection. Establishment of a vegetation cover is the most promising way forward for the management of bauxite residue, although its physical and chemical properties can limit plant growth due to high alkalinity and salinity, low hydraulic conductivity, trace element toxicity (Al and Fe), and deficiencies in organic matter and nutrition concentrations. This paper discusses the various revegetation and rehabilitation strategies. Studies of the rehabilitation of bauxite residues have mainly focused on two approaches, amelioration of the surface layer and screening of tolerant plants and soil microorganisms. Amendment with gypsum can reduce the high alkalinity and salinity, promote soil aggregation, and increase the hydraulic conductivity of bauxite residues. Organic matter can provide a source of plant nutrients, form stable complexes with metal cations, promote hydraulic conductivity, stabilize soil structure, and provide an energy source for soil organisms. Tolerant plants and microorganisms such as halophytes and alkaliphilic microbes show the greatest potential to ameliorate bauxite residues. However, during restoration or as a result of natural vegetation establishment, soil formation becomes a critical issue and an improved understanding of the various pedogenic processes are required, and future direction should focus on this area. PMID:25911289

  7. Investigation of the separation of scandium and rare earth elements from red mud by use of reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Tsakanika, Lambrini V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th; Mendrinos, Leonidas N

    2004-07-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed for separation and determination of scandium (Sc) and rare earth elements (REEs) in samples from a red mud (RM)-utilization process. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with post-column derivatization using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) and UV-visible detection at 520 nm was tested using different gradient elution profiles and pH values to optimize separation and recovery, primarily for Sc but also for yttrium and the individual lanthanides, from iron present in the samples. The separation was performed in less than 20 min by use of a mobile phase gradient. The concentration of alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid ( alpha-HIBA), as eluent, was altered from 0.06 to 0.4 mol L(-1) (pH 3.7) and 0.01 mol L(-1) sodium salt n-octane sulfonic acid (OS) was used as modifier. Very low detection limits in the nanogram range and a good resolution for Sc and REEs except for Y/Dy were achieved. Before application of the method to the red mud samples and to the corresponding bauxites, Sc and REEs were leached from red mud with 0.6 mol L(-1) HNO(3) and mostly separated, as a group, from the main elements by ion exchange/selective elution (6 mol L(-1) HNO(3)) in accordance with a pilot-plant process developed in this laboratory. After evaporation of the eluent to dryness the extracted elements were re-dissolved in the mobile phase. By use of this chromatographic method Sc, which is the most expensive of the elements investigated and occurs in economically interesting concentrations in red mud, could be separated not only from co-existing Fe but also from Y/Dy, Yb, Er, Ho, Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce and La. All the elements investigated were individually recovered. Their recoveries were found to be nearly quantitative. PMID:15221192

  8. Greek "red mud" residue: a study of microwave reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation for a metallic iron recovery process.

    PubMed

    Samouhos, Michail; Taxiarchou, Maria; Tsakiridis, Petros E; Potiriadis, Konstantinos

    2013-06-15

    The present research work is focused on the development of an alternative microwave reductive roasting process of red mud using lignite (30.15 wt.%Cfix), followed by wet magnetic separation, in order to produce a raw material suitable for sponge or cast iron production. The reduction degree of iron was controlled by both the reductive agent content and the microwave heating time. The reduction followed the Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe sequence. The dielectric constants [real (ε') and imaginary (ε″) permittivities] of red mud-lignite mixture were determined at 2.45 GHz, in the temperature range of 25-1100 °C. The effect of parameters such as temperature, intensity of reducing conditions, intensity of magnetic field and dispersing agent addition rate on the result of both processes was investigated. The phase's transformations in reduction process with microwave heating were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) in combination with thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The microstructural and morphological characterization of the produced calcines was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the optimum conditions a magnetic concentrate with total iron concentration of 35.15 and 69.3 wt.% metallization degree was obtained. PMID:23611801

  9. Dispersal and attenuation of trace contaminants downstream of the Ajka bauxite residue (red mud) depository failure, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Mayes, William M; Jarvis, Adam P; Burke, Ian T; Walton, Melanie; Feigl, Viktória; Klebercz, Orsolya; Gruiz, Katalin

    2011-06-15

    This paper identifies the spatial extent of bauxite processing residue (red mud)-derived contaminants and modes of transport within the Marcal and Rába river systems after the dike failure at Ajka, western Hungary. The geochemical signature of the red mud is apparent throughout the 3076 km² Marcal system principally with elevated Al, V, As, and Mo. Elevated concentrations of Cr, Ga, and Ni are also observed within 2 km of the source areas in aqueous and particulate phases where hyperalkalinity (pH < 13.1) is apparent. Although the concentrations of some trace elements exceed aquatic life standards in waters (e.g., V, As) and fluvial sediments (As, Cr, Ni, V), the spatial extent of these is limited to the Torna Creek and part of the upper Marcal. Source samples show a bimodal particle size distribution (peaks at 0.7 and 1.3 μm) which lends the material to ready fluvial transport. Where elevated concentrations are found in fluvial sediments, sequential extraction suggests the bulk of the As, Cr, Ni, and V are associated with residual (aqua-regia/HF digest) phases and unlikely to be mobile in the environment. However, at some depositional hotspots, association of As, Cr, and V with weak acid-extractable phases is observed. PMID:21591764

  10. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-04-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  11. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  12. Cellular immune responses and phagocytic activity of fishes exposed to pollution of volcano mud.

    PubMed

    Risjani, Yenny; Yunianta; Couteau, Jerome; Minier, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Since May 29, 2006, a mud volcano in the Brantas Delta of the Sidoarjo district has emitted mud that has inundated nearby villages. Pollution in this area has been implicated in detrimental effects on fish health. In fishes, leukocyte and phagocytic cells play a vital role in body defenses. We report for the first time the effect of "LUSI" volcano mud on the immune systems of fish in the Brantas Delta. The aim of this study was to find biomarkers to allow the evaluation of the effects of volcanic mud and anthropogenic pollution on fish health in the Brantas Delta. The study took places at the Brantas Delta, which was polluted by volcano mud, and at reference sites in Karangkates and Pasuruan. Leukocyte numbers were determined using a Neubauer hemocytometer and a light microscope. Differential leukocyte counts were determined using blood smears stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa, providing neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Macrophages were taken from fish kidney, and their phagocytic activity was measured. In vitro analyses revealed that leukocyte and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were higher in Channa striata and Chanos chanos caught from the polluted area. Macrophage numbers were higher in Oreochromis mossambicus than in the other species, indicating that this species is more sensitive to pollution. In areas close to volcanic mud eruption, all specimens had lower phagocytic activity. Our results show that immune cells were changed and phagocytic activity was reduced in the polluted area indicating cytotoxicity and alteration of the innate immune system in fishes exposed to LUSI volcano mud and anthropogenic pollution. PMID:24631200

  13. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success. PMID:25647492

  14. Treatment of percolate from metal sulfide mine tailings with a permeable reactive barrier of transformed red mud.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, J J P; Dessì, R; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2010-04-01

    Metal sulfide tailings of the Sardinian (Italy) abandoned Baccu Locci arsenic mine show high concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, and zinc in acid percolate (pH = 4) and have been classified as "dangerous waste." This paper shows that the release of toxic metals can be strongly reduced when the tailings are placed on a reactive permeable bed (7 wt %) of porous, alkaline pellets of transformed red mud (TRM). During a laboratory percolation test, two columns with 80 kg of waste, of which one contained a bottom layer of TRM pellets, were each alimented with 600 L of de-ionized water. Comparing pH, electroconductivity, metal, and sulfate concentrations of collected percolate from both columns demonstrates efficient neutralization (pH = 7.4) and removal of metals (80 to 99%) for the column with the permeable reactive bottom layer. PMID:20432649

  15. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-11-15

    In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, (27)Al MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al(IV) and Al(VI), but mainly in the form of Al(VI). Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO4] to [AlO6] and inhibits the combination between [AlO4] and [SiO4] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO4] in the hydration products declines. PMID:24076570

  16. High-resolution seismic structure analysis of an active submarine mud volcano area off SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chen, Song-Chuen

    2015-04-01

    In order to better understand the subsurface structure related to an active mud volcano MV1 and to understand their relationship with gas hydrate/cold seep formation, we conducted deep-towed side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP), multibeam echo sounding (MBES), and multi-channel reflection seismic (MCS) surveys off SW Taiwan from 2009 to 2011. As shown in the high-resolution sub-bottom profiler and EK500 sonar data, the detailed structures reveal more gas seeps and gas flares in the study area. In addition, the survey profiles show several submarine landslides occurred near the thrust faults. Based on the MCS results, we can find that the MV1 is located on top of a mud diapiric structure. It indicates that the MV1 has the same source as the associated mud diapir. The blanking of the seismic signal may indicate the conduit for the upward migration of the gas (methane or CO2). Therefore, we suggest that the submarine mud volcano could be due to a deep source of mud compressed by the tectonic convergence. Fluids and argillaceous materials have thus migrated upward along structural faults and reach the seafloor. The gas-charged sediments or gas seeps in sediments thus make the seafloor instable and may trigger submarine landslides.

  17. Morphometric, acoustic and lithofacies characterization of mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean: Toward a new approach and classification to constrain the regional distribution and activity of mud volcanoes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flore, Mary; Sébastien, Migeon; Elia, d'Acremont; Alain, Rabaute; Silvia, Ceramicola; Daniel, Praeg; Christian, Blanpied

    2015-04-01

    On continental margins, several types of seabed features recording fluid circulation within the sediment column have already been recognized, including mud volcanoes, pockmarks, carbonates pavements and/or mounds and brine lakes. They can be associated to (a) thermogenic or biogenic fluids migrating along tectonic conduits, (b) dissociation of gas hydrates, or (c) dewatering of turbidite channels and mass-transport deposits. Although fluid-escape structures have been analyzed for the last two decades using diverse and complementary data, many questions are still debated about their morphologies/architectures, origin and formation, their temporal dynamic and the impact of the geodynamical context on their location/formation. In the Eastern Mediterranean, fluid seepages and in particular mud volcanoes, were identified in three geodynamical contexts including active margins (Calabrian accretionary prism and Mediterranean ridge) and highly-sedimented passive margin (Nil deep-sea fan). In this study, we follow a new approach allowing to (1) better quantify a broad set of morphological parameters that characterize the seabed fluid-escape structures, (2) propose an advance classification of these structures, the final goal being to test whether one or several morphological types of fluid-escape structures can be characteristic of one tectonic and sedimentological setting in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. To achieve this classification based on geophysical and geological analysis (morphometry, reflectivity, seismic r and lithofacies features), we used a broad homogenous dataset at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean, including multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, 2D/3D seismic reflection, and sediment cores description and analysis. More than 500 mud volcano-like structures were identified based on one criterion or on the association of several criteria, while 40 of them were clearly proved to be mud volcanoes by coring. These structures exhibit different

  18. Prokaryotic community structure and diversity in the sediments of an active submarine mud volcano (Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Lykousis, Vasilios; Stefanou, Euripides G; Kormas, Konstantinos A

    2010-06-01

    We investigated 16S rRNA gene diversity at a high sediment depth resolution (every 5 cm, top 30 cm) in an active site of the Kazan mud volcano, East Mediterranean Sea. A total of 242 archaeal and 374 bacterial clones were analysed, which were attributed to 38 and 205 unique phylotypes, respectively (> or = 98% similarity). Most of the archaeal phylotypes were related to ANME-1, -2 and -3 members originating from habitats where anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs, although they occurred in sediment layers with no apparent AOM (below the sulphate depletion depth). Proteobacteria were the most abundant and diverse bacterial group, with the Gammaproteobacteria dominating in most sediment layers and these were related to phylotypes involved in methane cycling. The Deltaproteobacteria included several of the sulphate-reducers related to AOM. The rest of the bacterial phylotypes belonged to 15 known phyla and three unaffiliated groups, with representatives from similar habitats. Diversity index H was in the range 0.56-1.73 and 1.47-3.82 for Archaea and Bacteria, respectively, revealing different depth patterns for the two groups. At 15 and 20 cm below the sea floor, the prokaryotic communities were highly similar, hosting AOM-specific Archaea and Bacteria. Our study revealed different dominant phyla in proximate sediment layers. PMID:20370830

  19. Zonation of North Alex Mud Volcano Highlighted by 3-D Active and Passive Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, J.; Lefeldt, M. R.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Brueckmann, W.

    2010-12-01

    The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex (NA) developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A 3-D high-resolution multichannel seismic survey (IFM-GEOMAR P-Cable system) was completed across the mud volcano. 3-D time migration provided a 3-D data cube with a 6.25 m grid. Vertical seismic sections did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. Horizontal amplitude maps (time slices) of indicate recent activity of these faults even up to the seafloor. High gas saturation of the sediments is indicated by inverted reflection events. In the centre the gas front cuts into the seafloor reflection while it dips down with increasing radius. Only with the small grid resolution inward dipping reflections become visible, which form an upward opened concave reflector plane underlying the top gas front. The interpretation assumes an oval lens shaped body (conduit) saturated with gas at the top of the mud volcano. It provides the upper termination of the mud chimney. This separation is further supported by passive seismic observations. Distant earthquakes can stimulate long-period harmonic oscillations in mud volcanoes. Such oscillations are detectable with three

  20. Methanogenic activity and diversity in the centre of the Amsterdam Mud Volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; John Parkes, R; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stephane; Toffin, Laurent

    2012-07-01

    Marine mud volcanoes are geological structures emitting large amounts of methane from their active centres. The Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV), located in the Anaximander Mountains south of Turkey, is characterized by intense active methane seepage produced in part by methanogens. To date, information about the diversity or the metabolic pathways used by the methanogens in active centres of marine mud volcanoes is limited. (14)C-radiotracer measurements showed that methylamines/methanol, H(2)/CO(2) and acetate were used for methanogenesis in the AMV. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was measured all along the sediment core, Methanosarcinales affiliated sequences were detected using archaeal 16S PCR-DGGE and mcrA gene libraries, and enrichments of methanogens showed the presence of Methanococcoides in the shallow sediment layers. Overall acetoclastic methanogenesis was higher than hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, which is unusual for cold seep sediments. Interestingly, acetate porewater concentrations were extremely high in the AMV sediments. This might be the result of organic matter cracking in deeper hotter sediment layers. Methane was also produced from hexadecanes. For the most part, the methanogenic community diversity was in accordance with the depth distribution of the H(2)/CO(2) and acetate methanogenesis. These results demonstrate the importance of methanogenic communities in the centres of marine mud volcanoes. PMID:22458514

  1. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. PMID:21656823

  2. Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy 6061-Based Composites Reinforced with SiC, Al2O3, and Red Mud: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Yogesh Kumar; Chhibber, Rahul; Bansal, Hitesh; Kalra, Anil

    2015-09-01

    Metal-matrix composites are widely used in shipping, aerospace, automotive, and nuclear applications. Research attempts have been made in the past to reduce the cost of processing of composites, decrease the weight of the composites, and increase the desired performance characteristics. In this research article, an attempt has been made in using red mud obtained as an industrial waste during the production of aluminum from bauxite ore. This article discusses the novel findings of the experimental study on the dry sliding wear behavior of aluminum alloy 6061-based composites reinforced individually with red mud, SiC, and Al2O3. The microstructural characterization of the composites provides the further insight into the structure—wear behavior of the processed composites.

  3. Preparation and application of acidified/calcined red mud catalyst for catalytic degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Shao, Luhua; Wei, Guangtao; Wang, Yizhi; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Linye; Zhao, Shukai; Zhou, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Acidified/calcined red mud (ACRM), a novel catalyst used in Fenton-like process, was prepared by acidification and calcination of red mud (RM). Catalyst characterization showed that iron phase of ACRM was mainly α-Fe2O3 and ACRM was a porous material with rough surface and loose structure. Degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM was investigated. Butyl xanthate was effectively degraded, and the degradation of butyl xanthate was well fitted by second order kinetic model. ACRM had an excellent long-term stability in a Fenton-like process. The possible mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production and butyl xanthate degradation in a Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM were presented. PMID:27094281

  4. Synthesis of TiO2 nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud.

    PubMed

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Perraki, M; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2011-10-30

    The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25°C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95°C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected. PMID:21868153

  5. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale. PMID:25244134

  6. Trace metal and metalloid levels in surface water of Marcal River before and after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andrea Szabó; Szabó, János; Vass, István

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and assess the dissolved concentrations of trace elements (As, Zn, Hg, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Cu) in surface water of Marcal River before and after the red mud spill that occurred in Ajka, western Hungary, in October 2010. The caustic sludge flooded the surrounding settlements and polluted the nearby Torna Creek, which flows through the Marcal and Raba rivers into the Danube. A total of 92 surface water samples were collected from the Marcal River in the period of 2007-2012 and analysed for dissolved trace metal(loid)s by atomic absorption spectroscopy method. After the spill, the water management authority initially focused on acid dosing of surface waters to lower pH and was effective in lowering both pH and metal(loid) concentrations. Among the dissolved trace metal(loid)s, arsenic and nickel levels were moderately higher in the Marcal River 2 years since the spill compared to that observed in the pre-disaster period. The concentrations of dissolved trace metal(loid)s did not exceed the European water quality standards and the US Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria values (excluding one sample for cadmium). PMID:23975713

  7. Use of bauxite residue (red mud) as a low cost sorbent for sulfide removal in polluted water remediation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yanqing; Sun, Qiyao; Sun, Ruichuan; Burke, Ian T; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2016-01-01

    Sulfide is an important pollutant in aqueous systems. Sulfide removal from polluted waters is required prior to discharge. Red mud (RM) is a solid waste of bauxite processing that is rich in reactive iron oxides and consequently has the potential to be used to remove sulfide from aqueous systems. A series of experiments was undertaken using raw and sintered RM to remove sulfide from waters. RM was highly efficient at sulfide removal (average 75% sulfide removal at initial concentration of ∼5 mg L(-1), with 500 mg L(-1) RM addition) due to both physical adsorption (high specific area) and chemical reaction (with amorphous Fe). Sintered RM, which has a lower surface area and lower mineral reactivity, was much less efficient at removing sulfide (∼20% removal under equivalent experimental conditions). Furthermore, concomitant metal release from raw RM was lower than for sintered RM during the sulfide removal process. The results showed that raw RM is a potentially suitable material for sulfide removal from polluted waters and consequently could be used as a low cost alternative treatment in certain engineering applications. PMID:27438240

  8. Study of sorption processes and FT-IR analysis of arsenate sorbed onto red muds (a bauxite ore processing waste).

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Silvetti, Margherita; Enzo, Stefano; Melis, Pietro

    2010-03-15

    In this study we evaluated the arsenate adsorption capacity of red muds (RM), wastes tailing from the alumina production, at different pH values (4, 7, and 10). RM samples were artificially enriched in batch tests with solutions containing increasing concentrations of As(V). The pH of the solution significantly affected the adsorption, which increased with the decrease of pH. Moreover a sequential extraction procedure [H(2)O; (NH(4))(2)SO(4); NH(4)H(2)PO(4); NH(4)(+)-oxalate; NH(4)(+)-oxalate+ascorbic acid] was applied to RM samples exchanged with arsenate. Using this approach it was shown that low concentrations of arsenate sorbed in RM were present as water soluble and exchangeable fractions, while NH(4)(+)-oxalate and NH(4)(+)-oxalate+ascorbic acid extracted most of the adsorbed arsenate from RM at different pH values. Besides, FT-IR spectroscopy was used to better understand the nature of RM surface configuration after As(V) sorption. In the FT-IR spectra the presence of As(V) species was highlighted by a well resolved band at 865 cm(-1). The intensity and broadness of this band increased at the decreasing of pH. This band could be related to nu(As-O) vibration of an inner-sphere Al-O-As complex and/or due to As-O bonds of the adsorbed As(V) species on Fe oxides of RM samples. PMID:19853993

  9. Structural improvement of age-hardened gypsum-treated bauxite red mud waste using readily decomposable phyto-organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Mark Anglin

    2009-02-01

    Several years (7) after incidental lithification by added gypsum, the effect of crushing and phyto-organics on some physical properties of red mud wastes (RMW) was examined under laboratory conditions. It was hypothesized that mechanically breaking up the hardened masses would increase their permeability. However, on the contrary, crushing these rock-hard masses into <2-mm particles did not increase permeability. A phyto-organic treatment on the other hand greatly improved permeability of the crushed entities such that infiltration rates increased from 0 to 10 cm/h. After 24 weeks of incubation, the structure of the newly formed phyto-organically treated gypsum-hardened RMW aggregates was also substantially improved over that of the controls, as a >3-fold increase in resistance to disintegration during wet sieving was exhibited by the phyto-organically treated samples. The increase in water infiltration by combining crushing with phyto-organic applications was ascribed to a decrease in particle dispersion, creating more stable clay clusters, which in turn stabilized channels and pores. Conversely, it was concluded that the singular crushing of gypsum-hardened bauxite waste in the waste dumps is potentially wasteful and ineffective.

  10. Role of Aspergillus niger in recovery enhancement of valuable metals from produced red mud in Bayer process.

    PubMed

    Vakilchap, F; Mousavi, S M; Shojaosadati, S A

    2016-10-01

    Annual worldwide growth rate of red mud (RM) as a hazardous waste has caused serious environmental problems for its disposal in the mining and metallurgy industries. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate biological leaching of RM and recovery of metals using organic acids exerted by Aspergillus niger. Experiments using A. niger were conducted in batch cultures with a pulp density of 2% (w/v) RM under one-step, two-step and spent-medium bioleaching. Based on HPLC results, the major lixiviant was the secretion of organic acids (citric, gluconic, oxalic and malic) by A. niger. Leaching efficiency of metals in the one-step process was the highest and the amounts of leached metals were 69.8%, 60% and 25.4% for Al, Ti and Fe, respectively. The fungal leaching technique demonstrated an adequate recovery of metals, with an efficient and cost-effective means and respect to a reuse of RM for economic and environmental purposes. PMID:27450129

  11. Recovery of alumina and alkali in Bayer red mud by the formation of andradite-grossular hydrogarnet in hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Zheng, Shili; Ma, Shuhua; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-30

    Bayer red mud (RM) is an alumina refinery waste product rich in aluminum oxides and alkalis which are present primarily in the form of sodium hydro-aluminosilicate desilication product (DSP). A hydrothermal process was employed to recover alumina and alkali from "Fe-rich" and "Fe-lean" RM, the two representative species of RM produced in China. The hydrothermal process objective phase is andradite-grossular hydrogarnet characterized by the isomorphic substitution of Al and Fe. Batch experiments were used to evaluate the main factors influencing the recovery process, namely reaction temperature, caustic ratio (molar ratio of Na(2)O to Al(2)O(3) in sodium solution), sodium concentration and residence time. The results revealed that the Na(2)O content of 0.5 wt% and A/S of 0.3 (mass ratio of Al(2)O(3) to SiO(2)) in leached residue could be achieved with Fe-rich RM under optimal conditions. However, the hydrothermal treatment of Fe-lean RM proved less successful unless the reaction system was enriched with iron. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of the ferric compound's content and type on the substitution ratio. PMID:21444152

  12. Assessment of environmental risk for red mud storage facility in China: a case study in Shandong Province.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhi-Chao; Ma, Shu-Hua; Zheng, Shi-Li; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Red mud storage facility (RM-SF) pollution remains a serious problem in China mainly due to the RM's huge quantity, little recyclability, and high alkalinity. And, there is also a risk of dam failure because almost all RM-SFs are processed by damming. In order to address this challenge and improve the level of risk management, it is necessary to evaluate the environmental risk of RM-SFs systematically. So, this paper firstly designs a comprehensive evaluation index system with a three-level evaluation index in the terms of RM characteristics, RM-SF characteristics, ambient environment of RM-SF, the management of RM-SF, and the application aspect of RM by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Then, a case of RM-SF from a typical alumina production enterprise is studied according to this system, as is assisted by several experts from different fields when determining the weights of all indicators. The results show that the risk of selected RM-SF primarily depends on the former factors, that is, RM and RM-SF characteristics, while the contributions of the other factors are quite smaller. PMID:26920533

  13. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. PMID:27367291

  14. Diversity and activity of benthic microbial communities at the North Alex mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarow, Dorothee; Feseker, Tomas; Schmitz, Ruth; Treude, Tina

    2010-05-01

    North Alex mud volcano, located on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan, is characterized by an active seepage center transporting pore fluids, hydrocarbons and gases from deep subsurface sources to the sediment-water interface. Surface sediments feature steep temperature gradient of 8.5°C m-1. We sampled the top 40 cm of the sediments at different locations between the center and rim of the mud volcano to study the diversity, activity, and physiological characteristics of benthic microorganisms. The sediments revealed the activity of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction with a mesophilic temperature optimum. Organisms involved in the process include consortia of methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2 group) and an unknown bacterial partner. Besides methanotrophic organisms the sediments harbored a variety of other bacterial and archaeal groups - including potentially thermophilic bacteria that could be involved in sulfur cycling. This poster presentation will provide an overview of microbial activities and community compositions of North Alex mud volcano sediments.

  15. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

  16. Methanogenic diversity and activity in hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano, Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Parkes, R John; Cragg, Barry A; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. The Napoli mud volcano, situated in the brine-impacted Olimpi Area of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, emits mainly biogenic methane particularly at the centre of the mud volcano. Temperature gradients support the suggestion that Napoli is a cold mud volcano with moderate fluid flow rates. Biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses were carried out to assess the methanogenic activity rates, pathways and diversity in the hypersaline sediments of the centre of the Napoli mud volcano. Methylotrophic methanogenesis was the only significant methanogenic pathway in the shallow sediments (0-40 cm) but was also measured throughout the sediment core, confirming that methylotrophic methanogens could be well adapted to hypersaline environments. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway below 50 cm; however, low rates of acetoclastic methanogenesis were also present, even in sediment layers with the highest salinity, showing that these methanogens can thrive in this extreme environment. PCR-DGGE and methyl coenzyme M reductase gene libraries detected sequences affiliated with anaerobic methanotrophs (mainly ANME-1) as well as Methanococcoides methanogens. Results show that the hypersaline conditions in the centre of the Napoli mud volcano influence active biogenic methane fluxes and methanogenic/methylotrophic diversity. PMID:21382146

  17. Field Evidence of Cadmium Phytoavailability Decreased Effectively by Rape Straw and/or Red Mud with Zinc Sulphate in a Cd-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg−1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  18. Field evidence of cadmium phytoavailability decreased effectively by rape straw and/or red mud with zinc sulphate in a Cd-contaminated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Yang, Junxing; Wei, Dongpu; Chen, Shibao; Li, Jumei; Ma, Yibing

    2014-01-01

    To reduce Cd phytoavailability in calcareous soils, the effects of soil amendments of red mud, rape straw, and corn straw in combination with zinc fertilization on Cd extractability and phytoavailability to spinach, tomato, Chinese cabbage and radish were investigated in a calcareous soil with added Cd at 1.5 mg kg-1. The results showed that water soluble and exchangeable Cd in soils was significantly decreased by the amendments themselves from 26% to 70%, which resulted in marked decrease by approximately from 34% to 77% in Cd concentration in vegetables. The amendments plus Zn fertilization further decreased the Cd concentration in vegetables. Also cruciferous rape straw was more effective than gramineous corn straw. In all treatments, rape straw plus red mud combined with Zn fertilization was most effective in decreasing Cd phytoavailability in soils, and it is potential to be an efficient and cost-effective measure to ensure food safety for vegetable production in mildly Cd-contaminated calcareous soils. PMID:25303439

  19. Molecular characterization of thioredoxin-1 and thioredoxin reductase activity in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Hu, J H; Zhang, F Y; Jiang, K J; Fang, Y B; Wang, J; Zhao, M; Qiao, Z G; Ma, L B

    2014-01-01

    The thioredoxin (Trx) system consists of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), Trx, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). TrxR is an NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase. Trx is a ubiquitous small protein with a redox-active disulfide bridge that plays important regulatory roles in some vital metabolic reactions. In this study, a cDNA sequence (SpTrx1) showing high identity to the first Trx gene was isolated from a hepatopancreas cDNA library of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpTrx1 consisted of 672 bp and contained a complete open reading frame of 318 bp encoding a polypeptide of 105 amino acids. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that SpTrx1 expression was ubiquitous in various organs of S. paramamosain, including the gill, muscle, heart, hemolymph, testis, and hepatopancreas. SpTrx1 expression was upregulated significantly after Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge: it obviously rose at 48 h and reached the highest level at 72 h. Furthermore, TrxR activity was detected in the gill, heart, muscle, hemolymph, and hepatopancreas. The relative TrxR activity in different tissues after V. parahaemolyticus injection had the same tendency in each tissue (P < 0.01) as SpTrx1 expression. The TrxR activity increased 2 h after injection, peaked at 8 h, slowly decreased from 12 to 24 h, and returned to normal levels at 48 h. The consistency of the expression between the Trx transcript and TrxR activity demonstrated that Trx was closely related to TrxR in the Trx system in S. paramamosain, suggesting that it may participate in the immune system of mud crabs. PMID:25501236

  20. Active mud volcanoes on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S. R.; Caress, D. W.; Gwiazda, R.; Melling, H.; Riedel, M.; Jin, Y. K.; Hong, J. K.; Kim, Y.-G.; Graves, D.; Sherman, A.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Lundsten, L.; Villinger, H.; Kopf, A.; Johnson, S. B.; Hughes Clarke, J.; Blasco, S.; Conway, K.; Neelands, P.; Thomas, H.; Côté, M.

    2015-09-01

    Morphologic features, 600-1100 m across and elevated up to 30 m above the surrounding seafloor, interpreted to be mud volcanoes were investigated on the continental slope in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. Sediment cores, detailed mapping with an autonomous underwater vehicle, and exploration with a remotely operated vehicle show that these are young and actively forming features experiencing ongoing eruptions. Biogenic methane and low-chloride, sodium-bicarbonate-rich waters are extruded with warm sediment that accumulates to form cones and low-relief circular plateaus. The chemical and isotopic compositions of the ascending water indicate that a mixture of meteoric water, seawater, and water from clay dehydration has played a significant role in the evolution of these fluids. The venting methane supports extensive siboglinid tubeworms communities and forms some gas hydrates within the near seafloor. We believe that these are the first documented living chemosynthetic biological communities in the continental slope of the western Arctic Ocean.

  1. A novel application of red mud-iron on granulation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that used red mud-iron (RM-Fe) for methane production for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined. POME was used as the substrate carbon source. The biogas production rate was 1.7 l biogas/h with a methane yield of 0.78 l CH4/g CODremoved and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85% at POME concentration of 30 g COD/l at HRT 16 h. The reactor R2 showed average methane content of biogas and COD reduction of 78% and 85% at 400 mg/l RM-Fe. Significant increase in the granule diameter (up to 2900 μm) in R2 was compared to control R1 (up to 86 μm) at end of the experiment. PMID:25176306

  2. A perspective of stepwise utilisation of Bayer red mud: Step two--Extracting and recovering Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfang; Chai, Wencui; Han, Guihong; Wang, Wenjuan; Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Jiongtian

    2016-04-15

    The extraction and recovery of Ti from Ti-enriched tailing with acid leaching and precipitate flotation, as one of the critical steps, was proposed for the stepwise utilization of red mud. The factors influencing acid leaching and precipitate flotation were examined by factorial design. The leaching thermodynamics, kinetics of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+), and the mechanism of selectively Fe(3+) removal using [Hbet][Tf2N] as precipitating reagent were discussed. The extracting of Ti(4+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) in concentrated H2SO4 is controlled by diffusion reactions, depending mainly upon leaching time and temperature. The maximum extracting efficiency of Ti(4+) is approximately 92.3%, whereas Al(3+) and Fe(3+) leaching are respectively 75.8% and 84.2%. [Hbet][Tf2N], as a precipitating reagent, operates through a coordination mechanism in flotation. The pH value is the key factor influencing the flotation recovery of Ti(4+), whereas the dosage of precipitating reagent is that for Al(3+) recovery. The maximum flotation recovery of Ti(4+) is 92.7%, whereas the maximum Al(3+) recovery is 93.5%. The total recovery rate for extracting and recovering titanium is 85.5%. The liquor with Ti(4+) of 15.5g/L, Al(3+) of 30.4g/L and Fe(3+) of 0.48g/L was obtained for the following hydrolysis step in the integrated process for red mud utilisation. PMID:26799223

  3. Organic geochemical signatures controlling methane outgassing at active mud volcanoes in the Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DongHun, Lee; YoungKeun, Jin; JungHyun, Kim; Heldge, Niemann; JongKu, Gal; BoHyung, Choi

    2016-04-01

    Based on the water column acoustic anomalies related to active methane (CH4) venting, numerous active Mud Volcanoes (MVs) were recently identified at ~282, ~420, and ~740 m water depths on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea (Paull et al., 2015). While geophysical aspects such as the multibeam bathymetric mapping are thoroughly investigated, biogeochemical processes controlling outgassing CH4 at the active MVs are not well constrained. Here, we investigated three sediment cores from the active MVs and one sediment core from a non-methane influenced reference site recovered during the ARA-05C expedition with the R/V ARAON in 2014. We analyzed lipid biomarkers and their stable carbon isotopic values (δ13C) in order to determine key biogeochemical processes involved in CH4 cycling in the MV sediments. Downcore CH4 and sulphate (SO42-) concentration measurements revealed a distinct sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) at the shallow sections of the cores (15 - 45 cm below seafloor (cm bsf) at 282 m MV, 420 m MV, and 740 m MV). The most abundant diagnostic lipid biomarkers in the SMTZ were sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol (-94‰) and archaeol (-66‰) with the sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol: archaeol ratio of 1.1 to 5, indicating the presence of ANME-2 or -3. However, we also found substantial amounts of monocyclic biphytane-1 (BP-1, -118‰), which is rather indicative for ANME-1. Nevertheless, the concentration of sn-2-hydroxyarchaeol was 2-fold higher than any other archaeal lipids, suggesting a predominant ANME-2 or -3 rather than ANME-1 as a driving force for the anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) in these systems. We will further investigate the microbial community at the active MVs using nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) sequence analyses in near future. Our study provides first biogeochemical data set of the active MVs in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, which helps to better understand CH4 cycling mediated in these systems. Reference Paull, C.K., et al. (2015), Active mud

  4. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.T.; Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R.

    1997-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast, settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone`s ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps.

  5. Electrodewatering of Bayer muds - Laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baglin, E.G.; McIntosh, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Research was conducted by the Bureau of Mines to determine the feasibility of using electrokinetic densification to dewater Bayer process red mud, magnetic black and prepared by pressure digestion of red mud in the presence of ferrous sulfate, and magnetic black mud formed by simulated Bayer digestion of Jamaican bauxite with added ferrours sulfate. Tests showed that the solids content of presettled muds could be increased from 25 pct to approximately 40 to 48 pct by gravity draining followed by electrodewatering for approximately 48 h. Electrodewatering may not be practical because of increased reagent and processing costs and because the muds must be thoroughly wasted prior to electrodwatering to remove dissolved ions and decrease mud conductivities.

  6. Active sulfur cycling by diverse mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms in terrestrial mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Green-Saxena, A; Feyzullayev, A; Hubert, C R J; Kallmeyer, J; Krueger, M; Sauer, P; Schulz, H-M; Orphan, V J

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial mud volcanoes (TMVs) represent geochemically diverse habitats with varying sulfur sources and yet sulfur cycling in these environments remains largely unexplored. Here we characterized the sulfur-metabolizing microorganisms and activity in four TMVs in Azerbaijan. A combination of geochemical analyses, biological rate measurements and molecular diversity surveys (targeting metabolic genes aprA and dsrA and SSU ribosomal RNA) supported the presence of active sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing guilds in all four TMVs across a range of physiochemical conditions, with diversity of these guilds being unique to each TMV. The TMVs varied in potential sulfate reduction rates (SRR) by up to four orders of magnitude with highest SRR observed in sediments where in situ sulfate concentrations were highest. Maximum temperatures at which SRR were measured was 60°C in two TMVs. Corresponding with these trends in SRR, members of the potentially thermophilic, spore-forming, Desulfotomaculum were detected in these TMVs by targeted 16S rRNA analysis. Additional sulfate-reducing bacterial lineages included members of the Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae detected by aprA and dsrA analyses and likely contributing to the mesophilic SRR measured. Phylotypes affiliated with sulfide-oxidizing Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria were abundant in aprA libraries from low sulfate TMVs, while the highest sulfate TMV harboured 16S rRNA phylotypes associated with sulfur-oxidizing Epsilonproteobacteria. Altogether, the biogeochemical and microbiological data indicate these unique terrestrial habitats support diverse active sulfur-cycling microorganisms reflecting the in situ geochemical environment. PMID:23116231

  7. Characterization of the circulating hemocytes in mud crab (Scylla olivacea) revealed phenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Mangkalanan, Seksan; Sanguanrat, Piyachat; Utairangsri, Tanatchaporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2014-05-01

    This study focused on an isolation and characterization of the circulating hemocytes in mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Isolation of specific cell types of hemocytes from crab hemolymph was accomplished by using 60% Percoll density gradient centrifugation. Four separated bands of the hemocytes were successfully obtained. Characterization of these isolated hemocytes by light microscope using trypan blue-rose bengal staining, rose bengal-hematoxilin staining, and phase contrast revealed four distinct types of hemocyte cells. Using their specific morphology and granularity, they were identified as hyaline cell (HC), small granular cell (SGC), large granular cell (LGC) and mixed granular cell (MGC). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed more details on specific cell size, size of cytoplasmic granule, and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, and confirmed the classification. Relative abundance of these cells types in the hemolymph of an adult crab were 15.50±8.22% for HC, 55.50±7.15% for SGC, 13.50±5.28% for LGC, and 15.50±3.50% for MGC. Proteomic analysis of protein expression for each specific cell types by two-dimensional electrophoresis identified two highly abundant proteins, prophenoloxidase (ProPO) and peroxinectin in LGC. Determination of phenoloxidase (PO) activity in each isolated cell types using in vitro and in situ chemical assays confirmed the presence of PO activity only in LGC. Based on an increased PO activity of crab hemolymph during the course of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection, these results suggest that prophenoloxidase pathway was employed for host defense mechanism against WSSV and it may link to the role of large granular hemocyte. PMID:24316230

  8. Seafloor distribution and last glacial to postglacial activity of mud volcanoes on the Calabrian accretionary prism, Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceramicola, Silvia; Praeg, Daniel; Cova, Andrea; Accettella, Daniela; Zecchin, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are abundant along the eastern Mediterranean subduction zones, recording mud breccia extrusion over long timescales (106 years), but to date relatively few have been recognised in the northern Ionian Sea on the Calabrian accretionary prism (CAP). In the present study, the seafloor distribution and recent activity of MVs is investigated across a 35,600 km2 sector of the CAP using a regional acoustic dataset (multibeam bathymetric and backscatter imagery, integrated with subbottom profiles) locally ground-truthed by sediment cores. A total of 54 MVs are identified across water depths of 150-2,750 m using up to four geophysical criteria: distinctive morphology, high backscatter, unstratified subbottom facies and, in one case, a hydroacoustic flare. Fourteen MVs are identified from 3-4 criteria, of which five have been previously proven by cores containing mud breccia beneath up to 1.6 m of hemipelagic sediments (Madonna dello Ionio MVs 1-3, Pythagoras MV and the newly named Sartori MV), while nine others are identified for the first time (Athena, Catanzaro, Cerere, Diana, Giunone, Minerva, `right foot', Venere 1 and 2). Forty other as yet unnamed MVs are inferred from 1-2 geophysical criteria (three from distinctive morphology alone). All but one possible MV lie on the inner plateau of the CAP, landwards of the Calabrian Escarpment in a zone up to 120 km wide that includes the inner pre-Messinian wedge and the fore-arc basins, where they are interpreted to record the ascent from depth of overpressured fluids that interacted with tectonic structures and with evaporitic or shale seals within the fore-arc basins. The rise of fluids may have been triggered by post-Messinian out-of-sequence tectonism that affected the entire pre-Messinian prism, but Plio-Quaternary sedimentation rates and depositional styles support the inference that significant mud volcanism has taken place only on the inner plateau. Sedimentation rates across the CAP applied to a 12

  9. Effectiveness of covers and liners made of red mud bauxite and/or cement kiln dust for limiting acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Duchesne, J.; Doye, I.

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a laboratory investigation to evaluate the capacity of alkaline residues to inhibit acid mine drainage. Column tests were used to evaluate the geochemical behavior of cement kiln dust (CKD) and red mud bauxite (RMB) used as covers, liners, or mixed with acid producing tailings and waste rocks. The most important indicators of neutralization are pH and the concentrations of metals in solution. Initial leachate pH of samples with an alkaline cover composed of 10% CKD or 10% of a mixture of CKD and RMB was low, but rapidly increased to near 7.0 and stabilized for the duration of this study. The use of alkaline materials as a liner had a positive effect on the reduction of Fe, SO{sub 4} and other metals such as Cu and Zn concentrations and the number of viable bacteria. In the cases where the alkaline layer was used as a liner or mixed with the waste rocks, near neutral pH values were rapidly reached in the leachate. However, in these columns the leachate pH values decreased over time.

  10. Marvelous Mud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUD/DIRT CARRYOUT ONTO PAVED ROADS FROM CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes fugitive dust generated by vehicular traffic on paved streets and highways resulting from mud/dirt carryout from unpaved areas as a primary source of PM-10 (particles = or < 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter), and evaluates three technologies for eff...

  12. Mud volcanism as an indicator of late to neopleistocene-holocene activity of the Chilik-Kemin fault, Yli depression, Northern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deev, E. V.; Kokh, S. N.; Sokol, E. V.; Zol'nikov, I. D.; Panov, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    It is revealed that the Altyn-Emel mud volcanic field (43°52'56″ N, 79°06'31″ E) in the Yli depression (Dzharkent trough) is structurally linked to the northeastern end of the Chilik-Kemin deep fault. The mud volcano is related to hydrocarbon-rich gases (including methane) and pressure artesian mineralized thermal waters, which uplifted to the surface along the fault zone. It is suggested that the earthquakes with M≤ 5 related both to the Chilik-Kemin fault and other seismic generating structures intensified the mud volcanic activity. In some cases, the eruptions were accompanied by the short-lived ignition of hydrocarbon gases and formation of the Na-rich paralavas. The mud volcanism of the Altyn-Emel field has been manifested during the last 15-20 k.a., and, consequently, the northeastern part of the Chilik-Kemin fault is an active structure.

  13. Monitoring and Characterizing the Geysering and Seismic Activity at the Lusi Mud Eruption Site, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyono, Karyono; Obermann, Anne; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Syafri, Ildrem; Abdurrokhim, Abdurrokhim; Masturyono, Masturyono; Hadi, Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi eruption began on May 29, 2006 in the northeast of Java Island, Indonesia, and to date is still active. Lusi is a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system characterized by continuous expulsion of liquefied mud and breccias and geysering activity. Lusi is located upon the Watukosek fault system, a left lateral wrench system connecting the volcanic arc and the bakarc basin. This fault system is still periodically reactivated as shown by field data. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we conducted several types of monitoring. Based on camera observations, we characterized the Lusi erupting activity by four main behaviors occurring cyclically: (1) Regular activity, which consists in the constant emission of water and mud breccias (i.e. viscous mud containing clay, silt, sand and clasts) associated with the constant expulsion of gas (mainly aqueous vapor with minor amounts of CO2 and CH4) (2) Geysering phase with intense bubbling, consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful bursting events that do not seem to have a regular pattern. (3) Geysering phase with intense vapor and degassing discharge and a typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m height. (4) Quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (and the observed cycle) with no gas emissions or bursts observed. To investigate the possible seismic activity beneath Lusi and the mechanisms controlling the Lusi pulsating behaviour, we deployed a network of 5 seismic stations and a HD camera around the Lusi crater. We characterize the observed types of seismic activity as tremor and volcano-tectonic events. Lusi tremor events occur in 5-10 Hz frequency band, while volcano tectonic events are abundant in the high frequencies range from 5 Hz until 25 Hz. We coupled the seismic monitoring with the images collected with the HD camera to study the correlation between the seismic tremor and the different phases of the geysering activity. Key words: Lusi

  14. Distribution and characters of the mud diapirs and mud volcanoes off southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Song-Chuen; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Wang, Yunshuen; Chung, San-Hsiung; Chen, Po-Chun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Liu, Char-Shine; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Lee, Yuan-Wei

    2014-10-01

    In order to identify the mud diapirs and mud volcanoes off SW Taiwan, we have examined ∼1500 km long MCS profiles and related marine geophysical data. Our results show ten quasi-linear mud diapirs, oriented NNE-SSW to N-S directions. Thirteen mud volcanoes are identified from the multibeam bathymetric data. These mud volcanoes generally occur on tops of the diapiric structures. Moreover, the active mud flow tracks out of mud volcanoes MV1, MV3 and MV6 are observed through the high backscatter intensity stripes on the sidescan sonar images. The heights of the cone-shaped mud volcanoes range from 65 m to 345 m, and the diameters at base from 680 m to 4100 m. These mud volcanoes have abrupt slopes between 5.3° and 13.6°, implying the mudflow is active and highly viscous. In contrast, the flat crests of mud volcanoes are due to relative lower-viscosity flows. The larger cone-shaped mud volcanoes located at deeper water depths could be related to a longer eruption history. The formation of mud diapirs and volcanoes in the study area are ascribed to the overpressure in sedimentary layers, compressional tectonic forces and gas-bearing fluids. Especially, the gas-bearing fluid plays an important role in enhancing the intrusion after the diapirism as a large amount of gas expulsions is observed. The morphology of the upper Kaoping Slope is mainly controlled by mud diapiric intrusions.

  15. Warm Brine Lakes in Craters of Active Mud Volcanoes, Menes Caldera off NW Egypt: Evidence for Deep-Rooted Thermogenic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, S.; Mascle, J.; Foucher, J. P.; Woodside, J. M.; Pierre, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Menes caldera is a fault-controlled depression (~8 km in diameter) at ~3,000 m water depth in the western province of the Nile deep-sea fan off NW Egypt, comprising seven mud volcanoes (MVs) of which two are active. Based on multichannel and chirp seismic data, temperature profiles, and high-resolution bathymetric data collected during several oceanographic expeditions, the present study investigates factors controlling mud volcano morphology, the geometry of feeder channels, and the origin of emitted fluids (Dupré et al. 2014). The active Cheops and Chephren mud volcanoes are 1,500 m wide with subcircular craters at their summits, about 250 m in diameter, generally a few tens of metres deep, and filled with methane-rich muddy brines with temperatures reaching 42 °C and 57 °C respectively. Deployments of CTDs and corers with attached temperature sensors tracked these warm temperatures down to almost 0.5 km depth below the brine lake surface at the Cheops mud volcano, in a feeder channel probably only a few tens of metres wide. Thermogenic processes involve the dissolution of Messinian evaporites by warm fluids likely sourced even deeper, i.e. 1.7 and 2.6 km below the seabed at the Cheops and Chephren MVs respectively, and which ascend along listric faults. Seepage activity appears broadly persistent since the initiation of mud volcanism in the Early Pliocene, possibly accompanied by lateral migration of feeder channels.

  16. Multiphase modelling of mud volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simone; de'Michieli Vitturi, Mattia; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    Mud volcanism is a worldwide phenomenon, classically considered as the surface expression of piercement structures rooted in deep-seated over-pressured sediments in compressional tectonic settings. The release of fluids at mud volcanoes during repeated explosive episodes has been documented at numerous sites and the outflows resemble the eruption of basaltic magma. As magma, the material erupted from a mud volcano becomes more fluid and degasses while rising and decompressing. The release of those gases from mud volcanism is estimated to be a significant contributor both to fluid flux from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, and to the atmospheric budget of some greenhouse gases, particularly methane. For these reasons, we simulated the fluid dynamics of mud volcanoes using a newly-developed compressible multiphase and multidimensional transient solver in the OpenFOAM framework, taking into account the multicomponent nature (CH4, CO2, H2O) of the fluid mixture, the gas exsolution during the ascent and the associated changes in the constitutive properties of the phases. The numerical model has been tested with conditions representative of the LUSI, a mud volcano that has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. The activity of LUSI mud volcano has been well documented (Vanderkluysen et al., 2014) and here we present a comparison of observed gas fluxes and mud extrusion rates with the outcomes of numerical simulations. Vanderkluysen, L.; Burton, M. R.; Clarke, A. B.; Hartnett, H. E. & Smekens, J.-F. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, 15, 2932-2946

  17. Mud volcanoes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komar, Paul D.

    1991-01-01

    The term mud volcano is applied to a variety of landforms having in common a formation by extrusion of mud from beneath the ground. Although mud is the principal solid material that issues from a mud volcano, there are many examples where clasts up to boulder size are found, sometimes thrown high into the air during an eruption. Other characteristics of mud volcanoes (on Earth) are discussed. The possible presence of mud volcanoes, which are common and widespread on Earth, on Mars is considered.

  18. Mud volcanoes of the Orinoco Delta, Eastern Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aslan, A.; Warne, A.G.; White, W.A.; Guevara, E.H.; Smyth, R.C.; Raney, J.A.; Gibeaut, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Mud volcanoes along the northwest margin of the Orinoco Delta are part of a regional belt of soft sediment deformation and diapirism that formed in response to rapid foredeep sedimentation and subsequent tectonic compression along the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. Field studies of five mud volcanoes show that such structures consist of a central mound covered by active and inactive vents. Inactive vents and mud flows are densely vegetated, whereas active vents are sparsely vegetated. Four out of the five mud volcanoes studied are currently active. Orinoco mud flows consist of mud and clayey silt matrix surrounding lithic clasts of varying composition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the mud volcano sediment is derived from underlying Miocene and Pliocene strata. Hydrocarbon seeps are associated with several of the active mud volcanoes. Orinoco mud volcanoes overlie the crest of a mud-diapir-cored anticline located along the axis of the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. Faulting along the flank of the Pedernales mud volcano suggests that fluidized sediment and hydrocarbons migrate to the surface along faults produced by tensional stresses along the crest of the anticline. Orinoco mud volcanoes highlight the proximity of this major delta to an active plate margin and the importance of tectonic influences on its development. Evaluation of the Orinoco Delta mud volcanoes and those elsewhere indicates that these features are important indicators of compressional tectonism along deformation fronts of plate margins. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine-to-lacustrine transition, mud volcanism, and slope instability in an active tectonic setting: the MIS 5 to 4 transition in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grall, Céline; Henry, Pierre; Kendé, Julia; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Kadir Eriş, K.; Paillès, Christine; Sorlien, Christopher; Shillington, Donna; McHugh, Cecilia; Steckler, Michael; Çifçi, Günay; Géli, Louis

    2016-04-01

    In the Sea of Marmara, glacio-eustatic cycles set the tempo of a complex history of disconnection and reconnection with the Black Sea and with the global ocean through the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, the sedimentary record consists of alternating high stand marine sediments and lowstand sea or lake sediments. The Sea of Marmara is also an active transtensional basin along the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault (NNAF), which accommodates most (~3/4) of the 21-27 mm/a dextral slip between Eurasia and Anatolia. This peculiar setting makes the Sea of Marmara an exceptional site to study the interplay of paleo-environmental factors and seismotectonic processes. Notably, Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) crossing the faults provide offset markers although their age remains uncertain. A high resolution seismic stratigraphic model has been proposed for 100 ka glacial cycles, based on onlap sequences within basins, and paleo-deltas at shorelines. The sedimentation rate in basins decreases during episodes of sea-level rise and reach maximum values during low stands. Remarkably, seismic reflector sequences display nearly identical character for locations with similar sedimentation rate. The uppermost sequence boundary reflector (Red-H1) has been recently cored at several locations during MARSITECRUISE (Ifremer R/V Pourquoi Pas?, Oct-Nov. 2014), enabled us to correlate high resolution seismic data with core data. The Red-H1 reflector is regionally characterized by a high amplitude and a reverse polarity. Correlations between seismic data and piston core logs indicate that the reverse polarity of this reflector may be explained by a negative density contrast between lacustrine sediments above and a greenish sapropellic layer of several meters thickness below. On shelves, Red-H1 is on top of the low stand wedge. On slopes and topographic highs, Red-H1 appears as an erosional surface laterally correlative with an onlapping unit in basins and is frequently overlain by

  20. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic activities of red ginseng.

    PubMed

    Xiaoguang, C; Hongyan, L; Xiaohong, L; Zhaodi, F; Yan, L; Lihua, T; Rui, H

    1998-02-01

    Red ginseng extract A and B are the active components of Panax ginseng. Red ginseng is a classical traditional Chinese medicine. Among Chinese herbs, red ginseng has been considered as one of the tonics. Many studies indicated that red ginseng could enhance immune function of the human body. The effects of red ginseng extracts on transplantable tumors, proliferation of lymphocyte, two-stage model and rat liver lipid peroxidation were studied. In a two-stage model, red ginseng extracts had a significant cancer chemoprevention. At 50-400 mg/kg, they could inhibit DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin papilloma in mice, decrease the incidence of papilloma, prolong the latent period of tumor occurrence and reduce tumor number per mouse in a dose-dependent manner. Red ginseng extract B could effectively inhibit the Fe2+/cysteine-induced lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsome, suggesting that red ginseng extract B has a stronger antioxidative effect than that of extract A. The results indicated that red ginseng extracts (50 approximately 400 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the growth of transplantable mouse sarcoma S180 and melanoma B16. Red ginseng extracts A (0.5 mg/ml) and B (0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml) might effectively promote the transformation of T lymphocyte, but there was no influence on lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavalin A. This suggests that red ginseng extracts have potent tumor therapeutic activity and improve the cell immune system. PMID:9533434

  1. Teaching Ecological Interactions with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mud dauber wasp nests in laboratory activities in ecology and behavior and life science classes. Provides students with an opportunity to develop and practice basic skills including dissection, identification, observation, measurement, and communication. Discusses the life of mud daubers, obtaining and storing nests,…

  2. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity. PMID:26866566

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of the prophenoloxidase activating factor from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Jiang, K J; Zhang, F Y; Song, W; Zhao, M; Wei, H Q; Meng, Y Y; Ma, L B

    2015-01-01

    Prophenoloxidase activating factors (PPAFs) are a group of clip domain serine proteinases that can convert prophenoloxidase (pro-PO) to the active form of phenoloxidase (PO), causing melanization of pathogens. Here, two full-length PPAF cDNAs from Scylla paramamosain (SpPPAF1 and SpPPAF2) were cloned and characterized. The full-length SpPPAF1 cDNA was 1677 bp in length, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 52 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1131 bp coding for a polypeptide of 376 amino acids, and a 3'-UTR of 494 bp. The full-length SpPPAF2 cDNA was 1808 bp in length, including a 5'-UTR of 88 bp, an ORF of 1125 bp coding for a polypeptide of 374 amino acids, and a 3'-UTR of 595 bp. The estimated molecular weight of SpPPAF1 and SpPPAF2 was 38.43 and 38.56 kDa with an isoelectric point of 7.54 and 7.14, respectively. Both SpPPAF1 and SpPPAF2 proteins consisted of a signal peptide, a characteristic structure of clip domain, and a carboxyl-terminal trypsin-like serine protease domain. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR showed that SpPPAF1 mRNA was mainly expressed in the gill, testis, and hemocytes, and SpPPAF2 mRNA was mainly expressed in hemocytes. In addition, SpPPAF1 and SpPPAF2 mRNA was expressed in a time-dependent manner after Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge. The results showed that expression of both SpPPAF1 and SpPPAF2 was related to the bacterial challenge but the expression patterns differed. These findings suggest that SpPPAF is a serine proteinase and may be involved in the pro-PO activation pathway of the crab innate immune system. PMID:26345816

  4. A Phytochrome Sensory Domain Permits Receptor Activation by Red Light.

    PubMed

    Reichhart, Eva; Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Tichy, Alexandra-Madelaine; McKenzie, Catherine; Janovjak, Harald

    2016-05-17

    Optogenetics and photopharmacology enable the spatio-temporal control of cell and animal behavior by light. Although red light offers deep-tissue penetration and minimal phototoxicity, very few red-light-sensitive optogenetic methods are currently available. We have now developed a red-light-induced homodimerization domain. We first showed that an optimized sensory domain of the cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 can be expressed robustly and without cytotoxicity in human cells. We then applied this domain to induce the dimerization of two receptor tyrosine kinases-the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 and the neurotrophin receptor trkB. This new optogenetic method was then used to activate the MAPK/ERK pathway non-invasively in mammalian tissue and in multicolor cell-signaling experiments. The light-controlled dimerizer and red-light-activated receptor tyrosine kinases will prove useful to regulate a variety of cellular processes with light. PMID:27101018

  5. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    A small number of mud, road bed soil, and snow samples were collected in 2005 and 2006 to assess metal concentrations and loadings to areas adjacent to the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) road in northwest Alaska. The DMTS road is used by large trucks to transport lead and zinc concentrates from Red Dog Mine to the shipping facility at Red Dog Port; it traverses 32 kilometers of land in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR). Mud collected in the summer of 2005 from wheel-wells of two passenger vehicles used for transport between Red Dog Mine and the port facility were enriched in cadmium, lead, and zinc by factors of about 200 to 800 as compared with mud collected from a vehicle stationed in Kotzebue, Alaska, whereas DMTS road bed soil samples were enriched by factors of 6 to 12. Thus, as of 2005, dispersal of mine ore wastes or concentrates by vehicles appeared to remain a potential source of metals along the DMTS road. Compared to snow samples obtained near a gravel road located near Kotzebue, Alaska, metal loadings estimated from individual snow samples collected in CAKR in April 2006 near three creeks, 13 to 50 meters from the road, were greater by factors of 13 to 316 for cadmium, 28 to 589 for lead, and 8 to 195 for zinc. When averaged for all three creek locations, mean loadings of cadmium, lead, and zinc calculated from snow samples collected at a nominal distance of 15 meters to the north of the road were 0.63, 34, and 89 milligrams of metal per square meter, respectively. Variability of particulate and metal loadings between individual samples and the three creek locations probably was affected by localized meteorological conditions and micro-topography on the snow drift and scour patterns, but road orientation on attainable truck speeds also might have been a factor. Results indicated that the ?port effect?, previously attributed to fugitive metal-enriched dusts stemming from concentrate transfer operations at the port facility

  6. Predicting mud toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bleler, R. )

    1991-10-01

    Acute toxicity of drilling muds is measured in the U.S. by the mysid shrimp test. Drilling muds that fail the test cannot be discharged into the Gulf of Mexico, and such muds and their cuttings must be brought onshore for disposal. Discharge of water-based muds that pass the test is permitted in most instances. Because of the economic implications associated with hauling cuttings and fluids, a model that predicts test results on the basis of mud composition is clearly desirable. This paper focuses on the modeling of mysid shrimp test data. European laboratories use different test species and procedures. It seems plausible to expect, however, that the line of reasoning used here could apply to the modeling of aquatic data on other test species once a sufficient quantity of such data becomes available.

  7. Enrichment of heavy metals in the inner shelf mud of the East China Sea and its indication to human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Fan, Dejiang; Li, Weiran; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Xilin; Liu, Ming; Guo, Zhigang

    2014-11-01

    The Yangtze River Basin, which has a population of 0.4 billion and an economic output accounting for 50% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), is one of the most developed regions in China. With dramatic developments in the economy, large quantities of pollutants have entered the Yangtze River and have eventually been discharged into the East China Sea (ECS), and then most of them were preserved in the inner shelf coastal mud areas of the ECS. The inner shelf costal mud areas of the ECS, with sedimentation rate ranging from 0.8 cm/a to 1.2 cm/a, are an ideal place to obtain the high-resolution heavy metal record. In this work, two sediment cores collected in the inner shelf of the coastal mud areas of the ECS in 2009 were used to reconstruct historical records of anthropogenic heavy metal input from the Yangtze River Basin. The temporal distribution of enrichment factors (EFs) is in good accordance with social development of Yangtze River Basin. Before the 1930s, the EFs of Pb and Zn are considered as the background level of study area, according to the agricultural country of China in that time. The much higher EFs of Pb and Zn from the 1930s to 1980s were associated with significant improvement of industry of the Yangtze River Basin. After 1983, the dramatical incensement of EFs of Pb and Zn responded to the remarkable economic development of the Yangtze River Basin. Of particular interest, the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003 possibly induced a significant increase in the heavy metal levels in the coastal ECS, and the ban on leaded gasoline in China induced a remarkable decrease in Pb levels. Although heavy metal levels have increased since the 1930s, the coastal mud area of the ECS remains under low ecological risk.

  8. Human neutrophil leukocyte elastase activity is inhibited by Phenol Red

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...

  9. Imaging mud fluid conduits of the Gunshuiping mud volcano with Electric Resistivity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ling-Rong; Lin, Ting-Li; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted the resistivity survey at the Gunshuiping mud volcano and produced a 3D model in order to delineate the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. The Gunshuiping mud volcano is located in a 175-m × 90-m plateau in Southwest of Taiwan. There are three main mud-volcano craters: craters 1, 2 and 3. Crater 3 is active and the others are inactive. We conducted thirteen survey lines using the Wenner configuration to obtain the resistivity profile images. The lengths of the lines are about 155 m and 60 m, which can resolve the resistivity image down to 30 m and 10 m in depth, respectively. The results appeared that there is a vertical structure under the crater 3, and we suggest that it is the mud-fluid conduit. There is a chamber at depth between 3 and 14 m, and we interpret it is the temporary storage of mud fluid during the erupting process. Beneath the craters 1 and 2, there is a near-surface, horizontal conduit connecting the craters 1 and 2. At depth between 15 and 25 m, the vertical conduit beneath the crater 3 and the horizontal conduit beneath the craters 1 and 2 are connected. The resistivity images clearly delineate the conduit underneath the craters and suggest that the crater 3 is the main erupting conduit, which is consistent with the surface features, in the Gunshuiping mud volcano system.

  10. Colonizing the Red Planet: An Interdisciplinary Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, David C.; Bentley, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a simulation activity based on the hypothesis that human habitation on Mars is a realistic future public policy issue and a reasonable consequence of space exploration. Uses cooperative learning. (DDR)

  11. Warm brine lakes in craters of active mud volcanoes, Menes caldera off NW Egypt: evidence for deep-rooted thermogenic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Stéphanie; Mascle, Jean; Foucher, Jean-Paul; Harmegnies, François; Woodside, John; Pierre, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The Menes caldera is a fault-controlled depression (~8 km in diameter) at ~3,000 m water depth in the western province of the Nile deep-sea fan off NW Egypt, comprising seven mud volcanoes (MVs) of which two are active. Based on multichannel and chirp seismic data, temperature profiles, and high-resolution bathymetric data collected during the 2000 Fanil, 2004 Mimes and 2007 Medeco2 expeditions, the present study investigates factors controlling MV morphology, the geometry of feeder channels, and the origin of emitted fluids. The active Cheops and Chephren MVs are 1,500 m wide with subcircular craters at their summits, about 250 m in diameter, generally a few tens of metres deep, and filled with methane-rich muddy brines with temperatures reaching 42 °C and 57 °C respectively. Deployments of CTDs and corers with attached temperature sensors tracked these warm temperatures down to almost 0.5 km depth below the brine lake surface at the Cheops MV, in a feeder channel probably only a few tens of metres wide. Thermogenic processes involve the dissolution of Messinian evaporites by warm fluids likely sourced even deeper, i.e. 1.7 and 2.6 km below the seabed at the Cheops and Chephren MVs respectively, and which ascend along listric faults. Seepage activity appears broadly persistent since the initiation of mud volcanism in the Early Pliocene, possibly accompanied by lateral migration of feeder channels.

  12. Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Hod; Mohar, Boaz; Sun, Yi; Narayan, Sujatha; Gordus, Andrew; Hasseman, Jeremy P; Tsegaye, Getahun; Holt, Graham T; Hu, Amy; Walpita, Deepika; Patel, Ronak; Macklin, John J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Ahrens, Misha B; Schreiter, Eric R; Jayaraman, Vivek; Looger, Loren L; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) allow measurement of activity in large populations of neurons and in small neuronal compartments, over times of milliseconds to months. Although GFP-based GECIs are widely used for in vivo neurophysiology, GECIs with red-shifted excitation and emission spectra have advantages for in vivo imaging because of reduced scattering and absorption in tissue, and a consequent reduction in phototoxicity. However, current red GECIs are inferior to the state-of-the-art GFP-based GCaMP6 indicators for detecting and quantifying neural activity. Here we present improved red GECIs based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a), with sensitivity comparable to GCaMP6. We characterized the performance of the new red GECIs in cultured neurons and in mouse, Drosophila, zebrafish and C. elegans in vivo. Red GECIs facilitate deep-tissue imaging, dual-color imaging together with GFP-based reporters, and the use of optogenetics in combination with calcium imaging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12727.001 PMID:27011354

  13. Sensitive red protein calcium indicators for imaging neural activity.

    PubMed

    Dana, Hod; Mohar, Boaz; Sun, Yi; Narayan, Sujatha; Gordus, Andrew; Hasseman, Jeremy P; Tsegaye, Getahun; Holt, Graham T; Hu, Amy; Walpita, Deepika; Patel, Ronak; Macklin, John J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Ahrens, Misha B; Schreiter, Eric R; Jayaraman, Vivek; Looger, Loren L; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) allow measurement of activity in large populations of neurons and in small neuronal compartments, over times of milliseconds to months. Although GFP-based GECIs are widely used for in vivo neurophysiology, GECIs with red-shifted excitation and emission spectra have advantages for in vivo imaging because of reduced scattering and absorption in tissue, and a consequent reduction in phototoxicity. However, current red GECIs are inferior to the state-of-the-art GFP-based GCaMP6 indicators for detecting and quantifying neural activity. Here we present improved red GECIs based on mRuby (jRCaMP1a, b) and mApple (jRGECO1a), with sensitivity comparable to GCaMP6. We characterized the performance of the new red GECIs in cultured neurons and in mouse, Drosophila, zebrafish and C. elegans in vivo. Red GECIs facilitate deep-tissue imaging, dual-color imaging together with GFP-based reporters, and the use of optogenetics in combination with calcium imaging. PMID:27011354

  14. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    PubMed

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation. PMID:26675542

  15. Throttling mud choke apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Claycomb, J.R.

    1983-03-22

    Mud choke apparatus is disclosed, and the preferred embodiment has the form of a hollow, tubular body receiving a mud flow introduced from a lateral port, the flow being directed through an axial passage and past a valve seat. The valve seat is a replaceable, hardened metal liner and is formed with a gradual taper so that the mud flows from the large end through the tapered, smaller end. Thereafter, it flows out of the body through an axial opening. The flow of mud is throttled by a tapered, hardened plug serving as a valve element which is received into the valve seat. A hydraulic cylinder and piston with a connecting rod move the plug. The plug has a surrounding, perpendicular shoulder which seals and seats against a shoulder on the insert to fully close the throttling valve apparatus. Flow is choked by inserting the tapered plug with controlled clearance into the tapered valve seat.

  16. Activated chemical defenses suppress herbivory on freshwater red algae.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Keri M; Hay, Mark E

    2013-04-01

    The rapid life cycles of freshwater algae are hypothesized to suppress selection for chemical defenses against herbivores, but this notion remains untested. Investigations of chemical defenses are rare for freshwater macrophytes and absent for freshwater red algae. We used crayfish to assess the palatability of five freshwater red algae relative to a palatable green alga and a chemically defended aquatic moss. We then assessed the roles of structural, nutritional, and chemical traits in reducing palatability. Both native and non-native crayfish preferred the green alga Cladophora glomerata to four of the five red algae. Batrachospermum helminthosum, Kumanoa holtonii, and Tuomeya americana employed activated chemical defenses that suppressed feeding by 30-60 % following damage to algal tissues. Paralemanea annulata was defended by its cartilaginous structure, while Boldia erythrosiphon was palatable. Activated defenses are thought to reduce ecological costs by expressing potent defenses only when actually needed; thus, activation might be favored in freshwater red algae whose short-lived gametophytes must grow and reproduce rapidly over a brief growing season. The frequency of activated chemical defenses found here (three of five species) is 3-20× higher than for surveys of marine algae or aquatic vascular plants. If typical for freshwater red algae, this suggests that (1) their chemical defenses may go undetected if chemical activation is not considered and (2) herbivory has been an important selective force in the evolution of freshwater Rhodophyta. Investigations of defenses in freshwater rhodophytes contribute to among-system comparisons and provide insights into the generality of plant-herbivore interactions and their evolution. PMID:23011851

  17. Molecular Mechanism of Macrophage Activation by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide from Korean Red Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Se Eun; Lee, Jaehwi; Kim, Ji Hye; Yang, Woo Seok; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Sun Young; Choung, Eui Su; Rhee, Man Hee; Cho, Jae Youl

    2012-01-01

    Red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP), isolated from Korean red ginseng, displays immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Even though numerous studies have been reported, the mechanism as to how RGAP is able to stimulate the immune response is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of molecular activation of RGAP in macrophages. RGAP treatment strongly induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells without altering morphological changes, although the activity was not strong compared to LPS-induced dendritic-like morphology in RAW264.7 cells. RGAP-induced NO production was accompanied with enhanced mRNA levels of iNOS and increases in nuclear transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, STAT-1, ATF-2, and CREB. According to pharmacological evaluation with specific enzyme inhibitors, Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins and inhibitory pattern using blocking antibodies, ERK, and JNK were found to be the most important signaling enzymes compared to LPS signaling cascade. Further, TLR2 seems to be a target surface receptor of RGAP. Lastly, macrophages isolated from RGS2 knockout mice or wortmannin exposure strongly upregulated RGAP-treated NO production. Therefore, our results suggest that RGAP can activate macrophage function through activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1 and their upstream signaling enzymes such as ERK and JNK. PMID:22474399

  18. Hydrothermal activity and carbon-dioxide discharge at Shrub and upper Klawasi mud volcanoes, Wrangell Mountains, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael L.; Werner, Cindy; McGimsey, Robert G.; Evans, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Shrub mud volcano, one of three mud volcanoes of the Klawasi group in the Copper River Basin, Alaska, has been discharging warm mud and water and CO2?rich gas since 1996. A field visit to Shrub in June 1999 found the general level of hot-spring discharge to be similar, but somewhat more widespread, than in the previous two years. Evidence of recent animal and vegetation deaths from CO2 exposure were confined to localized areas around various gas and fluid vents. Maximum fluid temperatures in each of three main discharge areas, ranging from 48-54?C, were equal to or higher than those measured in the two previous years; such temperatures are significantly higher than those observed intermittently over the past 30 years. At Upper Klawasi mud volcano, measured temperatures of 23-26?C and estimated rates of gas and water discharge in the summit crater lake were also similar to those observed in the previous two years. Gas discharging at Shrub and Upper Klawasi is composed of over 98% CO2 and minor amounts of meteoric gases (N2, O2, Ar) and gases partly of deeper origin (CH4 and He). The rate of CO2 discharge from spring vents and pools at Shrub is estimated to be ~10 metric tonnes per day. This discharge, together with measured concentrations of bicarbonate, suggest that a total CO2 upflow from depth of 20-40 metric tonnes per day at Shrub.Measurements were made of diffuse degassing rates from soil at one ~300 m2 area near the summit of Shrub that included vegetation kill suggestive of high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. Most of measured gas flow rates in this area were significantly higher than background values, and a CO2 concentration of 26 percent was measured at a depth of 10 cm where the gas flow rate was highest. Although additional measurements of diffuse gas flow were made elsewhere at Shrub, no other areas of vegetation kill related to diffuse degassing and high soil-gas CO2 concentrations could be seen from the air.Chemical and isotopic compositions of

  19. Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Marja; Kylli, Petri; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Heinonen, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Ellagitannins from red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. The main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by ESI-MS to consist of the dimeric sanguiin H-6 and the trimeric lambertianin C. Monomeric ellagitannins such as casuarictin in raspberries and pedunculagin in cloudberries were also found. The antioxidant activity of the berry phenolic isolate, ellagitannin isolate (mixture), ellagitannin main fraction (dimer and trimer), and ellagic acid was studied in bulk and emulsified methyl linoleate, in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro, and the radical scavenging activity was studied in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Cloudberry and red raspberry ellagitannins were highly effective as radical scavengers. Berry ellagitannins also showed significant antioxidant activity toward oxidation of both human LDL and methyl linoleate emulsions. However, only weak or moderate antioxidant activity was exhibited by ellagitannins toward oxidation of bulk oil. Thus, ellagitannins contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of cloudberries and red raspberries in lipoprotein and lipid emulsion environments, the latter being more relevant for food applications. PMID:22229937

  20. Field applications of PHPA muds

    SciTech Connect

    Kadaster, A.G. ); Guild, G.J. Exploration Co., London ); Hanni, G.L. ); Schmidt, D.D. )

    1992-09-01

    Mud systems with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (PHPA) are used worldwide and have proved effective and versatile for inhibiting troublesome shale formations. This paper reports that the authors made significant changes in the generally recommended compositions for these systems and developed a systematic approach to applying them. The most significant changes are the constant maintenance of 1.0 lbm/bbl (2.9 kg/m{sup 3}) PHPA (active) on the basis of materials balance and the supplemental addition of PHPA to account for its loss and degradation, tightly controlled fluid loss, and selective use of seawater and NaCl for inhibition.

  1. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  2. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  3. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  4. In situ observations of wave-supported fluid-mud generation and deposition on an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, Richard P.; Ogston, Andrea S.

    2015-11-01

    Wave-supported fluid muds (WSFM) are a type of gravity flow that can rapidly transport sediment across continental margins. They occur when wave-induced bed stress maintains suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) >10 g L-1, and sediment-induced stratification near the top of the wave boundary layer limits upward diffusion of sediment. Observations from near-bed instrumentation are used to evaluate the conditions under which WSFMs form on the continental shelf offshore of the Waipaoa River, NZ. An event in July 2010 featured >130 h of energetic ocean conditions, and water discharge >1900 m3 s-1. A calibrated acoustic backscatter sensor at the midshelf measured near-bed SSC >50 g L-1, with a strong lutocline occurring >15 cm above the predicted wave-current boundary layer, resulting in ~5 cm deposition. A velocity anomaly occurred during this time, with offshore-directed currents faster at 1 m above bed (mab) than at 3.5 mab. Using these observations, we empirically solve a simple buoyancy-drag force balance to estimate the gravity-driven velocity of the WSFM, which is always <0.03 m s-1. Extending the force balance across a shelf transect suggests that WSFM-carried sediment can reach the shelf edge in 50-240 h. Spatial and temporal patterns of deposition predicted by the gradient of modeled sediment flux correlate well with seabed observations on the Waipaoa shelf reported in Walsh et al. (2014). This study highlights the importance of WSFMs for cross-shelf sediment transport, despite relatively slow gravity-driven velocities and the infrequency with which they occur.

  5. Are passive red spirals truly passive?. The current star formation activity of optically red disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, L.

    2012-07-01

    We used GALEX ultraviolet and WISE 22 μm observations to investigate the current star formation activity of the optically red spirals recently identified as part of the Galaxy Zoo project. These galaxies were accurately selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as pure discs with low or no current star formation activity, representing one of the best optically selected samples of candidate passive spirals. However, we show that these galaxies are not only still forming stars at a significant rate (≳1 M⊙ yr-1) but, more importantly, their star formation activity is not different from that of normal star-forming discs of the same stellar mass (M∗ ≳ 1010.2 M⊙). Indeed, these systems lie on the UV-optical blue sequence, even without any corrections for internal dust attenuation, and they follow the same specific star formation rate vs. stellar mass relation of star-forming galaxies. Our findings clearly show that at high stellar masses, optical colours do not allow to distinguish between actively star-forming and truly quiescent systems.

  6. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S.

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27–37°C, pH 8–10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6). PMID:25191320

  7. Drilling mud dispersants

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, P. A.; Brase, I. E.

    1985-05-21

    Dispersants useful in aqueous drilling mud formulations employed in the drilling of subterranean wells where high temperature and high pressure environments are encountered are disclosed. The dispersants, when used in amounts of about 0.1 to 25 ppb provide muds containing colloidal material suspended in an aqueous medium with improved high temperature and high pressure stability. The dispersants are water soluble sulfonated vinyl toluene-maleic anhydride copolymers which have a molar ratio of vinyl toluene to maleic anhydride of about 1:1 to less than about 2:1, a molecular weight of 1,000 to 25,000 and at least about 0.7 sulfonic acid groups per vinyl toluene unit.

  8. Detection of starquakes on magnetically active red dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Avgoloupis, S. J.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Papantoniou, Ch.

    2015-07-01

    The scientific team of the Stephanion Observatory, University of Thessaloniki contributed to the research of high frequency optical oscillations on red dwarfs by participating in international programs for Multiwavelength observation of strong Flares of selected flare stars ([12]). These joined research shed plenty of light on the phenomenon of high frequency optical oscillations. Nevertheless a better understanding of the high-frequency oscillations demand a unified analysis of the flare light-curve for a wider time window covering pre-flare, flare and post flare and a broader band of frequencies. Thus in addition to the international campaign research the Stephanion Observatory group observe and analysis one colour (B, or U) observations of the Stephanion Observatory of different red dwarfs: EV Lac([1], [2] and [7]), AD Leo ([4] and [5]),YZ CMin ([3],[9]), V 390 Auri ([6],[10]), UV Cet([8]), at any stage of their activity (quiescence, weak flares, strong flare! s).In this paper we present the analysis of the quiet state observations of the stars EV Lac, BY Drac , AD Leo, YZ Cmin in order to realize if starquakes appear far apart from the observed flares, during the quiet state of the stars, as a result of the general magnetic activity of the star.

  9. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888

  10. A hemagglutinin with mitogenic activity from dark red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lixin; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 67-kDa hemagglutinin composed of two identical subunits was purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Dark Red Kidney Bean'. It was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. The hemagglutinin was highly purified after the two aforementioned chromatographic steps as revealed by a single peak in gel filtration on Superdex 75 and a single band in SDS-PAGE. The hemagglutinating activity was stable between 25 degrees C and 70 degrees C, and between pH 4 and pH 11, and in the presence of a variety of divalent metal chlorides at 500 mM concentration. The activity was reduced by 50% at 80 degrees C, and also when the pH was lowered to 3 or elevated to 12. The activity was reduced by 75% in the presence of 250 mM KCl or NaCl. A variety of sugars tested failed to inhibit the hemagglutinating activity of the hemagglutinin. Although the hemagglutinin exhibited mitogenic activity toward murine splenocytes, it had no effect on the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase or mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It exerted an antiproliferative activity on leukemia L1210 cells. PMID:16945595

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  12. Chromospheric Activity in Red Giants of M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Whitney, B. A.; Pasquini, L.

    1994-12-01

    Red giants in the old open cluster M67 present a well-studied, homogeneous group of 1.27Msun stars with which to determine the evolution of chromospheric activity and mass loss. Echelle spectra of the Ca II H and K line region (lambda 3950) have been obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO, the MMT of the F. L. Whipple Observatory (K only), and the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla, Chile. Spectra of 16 red giant stars down to V ~ 11 were obtained; five of the sample are identified as clump giants. The flux of the emission reversal in the Ca II K core has been calibrated using normalization based on the narrow-band absolute spectrophotometry of Gunn &\\ Stryker (1983, ApJS, 52, 121). A new spectral synthesis of the Calcium line region for radiative models of the M67 giants based on Kurucz atmospheres provides the correction necessary to extract the chromospheric component of the flux. The Ca K emission reversals display asymmetries indicative of outward motions for giants more luminous than M_V ~ +0.5. The chromospheric emission flux in Ca II K decreases with increasing stellar luminosity. Clump giants, which are thought to be in a core-helium burning stage, show Ca II emission comparable to the stars on the red giant branch. Evidence for chromospheric variability is found from multiple observations of several objects. Implications of these results upon the evolution of chromospheres and presence of mass loss in giants will be discussed.

  13. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  14. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  15. Mud Volcanoes, Geodynamics and Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Panahi, Behrouz

    The purpose of the book is to link together knowledge obtained in the observation of mud volcanism and local seismicity. Geological, Seismological, Geophysical and Geochemical parameters are considered. The book represents the modern state of the art after many decades of observations. The book fills an editorial gap and improves knowledge in the fields of natural risks and energy resources. Mud volcanism occurs both onshore and offshore in many places of the world. Mud volcanic phenomena have been to date described by local monographs or by articles published in scientific journals and no books were published on topics highlighting the link between mud volcanism, geodynamics and seismicity.

  16. Adsorption behavior of direct red 80 and congo red onto activated carbon/surfactant: Process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Xiao; Jiang, Xiaohui; Li, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Adsorptions of congo red and direct red 80 onto activated carbon/surfactant from aqueous solution were optimized. The Box-Behnken design (BBD) has been employed to analyze the effects of concentration of surfactant, temperature, pH, and initial concentration of the dye in the adsorption capacity. Their corresponding experimental data could be evaluated excellently by second order polynomial regression models and the two models were also examined based on the analysis of variance and t test statistics, respectively. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: Cs = 34.10 μM, T = 50 °C, pH = 3.5, and CCR = 160 mg/L for the congo red system, and Cs = 34.10 μM, T = 50 °C, pH = 6.1, and CDR80 = 110 mg/L for the direct red 80 system. And in these conditions, the measured experimental maximum adsorption capacities for the congo red and direct red 80 removals were 769.48 mg/g and 519.90 mg/g, which were consistent with their corresponding predicted values, with small relative errors of -2.81% and -0.67%, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics for the two dye adsorptions onto AC/DDAC were also investigated. The experimental data were fitted by four isotherm models, and Langmuir model presented the best fit. The kinetic studies indicated that the kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model.

  17. Composition and antioxidant activity of red fruit liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Wińska, Katarzyna; Szumny, Antoni; Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Mizgier, Paulina; Wyspiańska, Dorota

    2014-08-15

    Fruits traditionally used for liqueurs are a good source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to compare the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of liqueurs made from red fruits. The liqueurs were made from fruits of 10 species: chokeberry, cornelian cherry, black rose, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, mahonia, sloe, strawberry, and sour cherry. The liqueurs from black rose, chokeberry, sloe and mahonia fruits contained the most of substances which react with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (671, 329, 271 and 218 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity. The samples stored at a temperature of 30 °C had antioxidant activity from 3% to 11% lower than the fresh samples. After 6 months, anthocyanins degraded almost completely in the samples stored at 30 °C and at 15 °C there was from 0% (blackcurrant liqueurs) to 47% (sloe liqueurs) of their initial content and slightly more in sweet liqueurs. PMID:24679815

  18. The Mud Center: Recapturing Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Becky J.; Bullard, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Montana child development center's creation of an area in which children could enjoy messy, creative, sensory experiences playing with mud and a wide variety of outdoor props. Discusses how mud play contributed to young children's emerging interests and provided opportunities for expressing creativity, enhancing fine motor skills, and…

  19. Discovery of a red quasar with recurrent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, S.; Baes, M.; Gentile, G.; Roy, R.; Saikia, D.J.; Singh, M.; Joshi, R.; Chandola, H.C.; Patgiri, M. E-mail: Sumana.Nandi@UGent.be

    2014-07-01

    We report a new double-double radio quasar (DDRQ) J0746+4526 which exhibits two cycles of episodic activity. From radio continuum observations at 607 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and 1400 MHz from the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm survey we confirm its episodic nature. We examine the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optical spectrum and estimate the black hole mass to be (8.2 ± 0.3)×10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} from its observed Mg II emission line, and the Eddington ratio to be 0.03. The black hole mass is significantly smaller than for the other reported DDRQ, J0935+0204, while the Eddington ratios are comparable. The SDSS spectrum is significantly red-continuum-dominated, suggesting that it is highly obscured with E(B – V){sub host} = 0.70 ± 0.16 mag. This high obscuration further indicates the existence of a large quantity of dust and gas along the line of sight, which may have a key role in triggering the recurrent jet activity in such objects.

  20. Antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) of mud crab Scylla paramamosain: molecular cloning, genomic organization and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic LPS binding domain.

    PubMed

    Imjongjirak, Chanprapa; Amparyup, Piti; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Sittipraneed, Siriporn

    2007-05-01

    Antilipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are small basic proteins that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities. In this study, we describe the isolation of the full-length cDNA encoding for ALF peptide (ALFSp) of mud crab, Scylla paramamosain by sequencing a hemocyte cDNA library and using the rapid amplification cDNA end (RACE) method. A full-length ALFSp cDNA of 614 bp contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 372 bp, encoding 123 amino acid protein with 26 residues signal sequence. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein is 11.18 kDa. The highly two conserve cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain were observed in ALFSp peptide. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed that ALFSp shared high identity with other known ALFs and had an overall similarity of 65, 64, 63, 61 and 59% to those of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, Litopenaeus vannamei, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Limulus polyphemus, and Tachypleus tridentatus, respectively. A neighbour-joining tree showed a clear differentiation of each species and also indicated that ALF from S. paramamosain, Carcinus maenas and Callinectes sapidus are closely related phylogenetically. The genomic DNA sequence of ALFSp gene consists of 1075 bp containing three exons and two introns. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that ALFSp was abundantly expressed in hemocytes, intestine, and muscle but not in eyestalk. The synthetic ALFSp peptide containing putative LPS binding domain revealed a strong antimicrobial activity against several bacteria especially on the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, Micrococcus luteus and Gram-negative bacteria, Vibrio harveyi suggested that ALFSp could play an essential role in defense mechanism in S. paramamosain. PMID:17368541

  1. Thyroid hormone stimulation in vitro of red blood cell Ca2+-ATPase activity: interspecies variation.

    PubMed

    Davis, F B; Kite, J H; Davis, P J; Blas, S D

    1982-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility to thyroid hormone stimulation of membrane-associated Ca2+-ATPase activity has been examined in red blood cells from rat, rabbit, dog, monkey, and man. Monkey and human red cell Ca2+-ATPase activities responded comparably to 10(-10)M T4 or T3. Basal and thyroid hormone-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase activity in rabbit erythrocytes was four-fold higher than in primate red cells. Rat and dog red cell Ca2+-ATPase did not respond to iodothyronines in vitro. PMID:6459228

  2. Violent Gas Venting on the Heng-Chun Mud Volcano, South China Sea Active Continental Margin offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chen, N. C.; Hsieh, I. C.; Yang, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of methane as gas hydrate under the sea floor has been considered a major trap for both thermal and biogenic gas in marine environment. Aided by rapid AOM process near the sea floor, fraction of methane escaping the sea floor has been considered at minuscule. However, most studies focused mainly on deepwater gas hydrate systems where gas hydrate remain relatively stable. We have studied methane seeps on the active margin offshore Taiwan, where rapid tectonic activities occur. Our intention is to evaluate the scale and condition of gas seeps in the tectonic active region. Towcam, coring, heat probe, chirp, multibeam bathymetric mapping and echo sounding were conducted at the study areas. Our results showed that gas is violently venting at the active margin, not only through sediments, but also through overlying sea water, directly into the atmosphere. Similar ventings, but, not in this scale, have also been identified previously in the nearby region. High concentrations of methane as well as traces of propane were found in sediments and in waters with flares. In conjunction, abundant chemosynthetic community, life mussel, clams, tube worms, bacterial mats together with high concentrations of dissolve sulfide, large authigenic carbonate buildups were also found. Our results indicate that methane could be another major green house gas in the shallow water active margin region.

  3. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    on surface, often of plane-conical shape, rising for 5 to 400 m and more over the country (for example, mud volcano Toragay, 400 m height). The base diameter is from 100 m to 3-4 km and more. Like the magmatic ones, the mud volcanoes are crowned with crater of convex-plane or deeply-seated shape. In Azerbaijan there are all types of mud volcanoes: active, extinct, buried, submarine, island, abundantly oil seeping. According to their morphology they are defined into cone-shaped, dome-shaped, ridge-shaped, plateau-shaped. The crater shapes are also various: conical, convex-plane, shield-shaped, deeply-seated, caldera-like. The most complete morphological classification was given in "Atlas of mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan" (Yakubov et al., 1971). Recently (Aliyev Ad. et al., 2003) it was proposed a quite new morphological classification of mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. For the first time the mud volcanic manifestations had been defined. Volcanoes are ranged according to morphological signs, crater shape and type of activity.

  4. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  5. Smart mud and sensitive enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1993-04-19

    Environmental legislation is increasingly preventing use of oil base mud. Most recently, Marathon Oil U.K. Ltd. won a U.K. production license that specified oil base mud cannot be used on the license blocks. The goal is to protect sea-birds. Unfortunately, water base mud, the green' alternative, does not have a performance to match oil base mud. But an Aberdeen chemist thinks he has found the answer with Smart Mud, an emulsion drilling mud that becomes water soluble as soon as it hits the sea. Smart Mud passed the laboratory test stage and is ready for field trials this year. Another researcher is using enzymes and organisms to detect gases that are hard to monitor and cause problems for the oil and gas industry: phenol vapors, methane, and sulfur and nitrous oxides. The methane sensor, for example, uses methanotrophic organisms. They metabolize methane, producing chemicals that can be detected by electrochemical sensors, which relay signals to instruments. Enzymes perform a similar task for phenol and oxide detection. The main problem is to keep the biosensors alive and detect their by-products, while maintaining contact with the toxic gases. To do this, the team invented a polymer matrix in which the biosensors can live.

  6. Procoagulant activity in stored units of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Aleshnick, Maya; Foley, Jonathan H; Keating, Friederike K; Butenas, Saulius

    2016-06-10

    The procoagulant activity (PA) of stored units of red blood cells (RBC) increases over time, which is related to the expression/exposure of tissue factor (TF). However, there is a discrepancy between the TF measured and changes in PA observed, suggesting that other blood components contribute to this activity. Our goal was to evaluate changes in PA of stored RBCs and to determine possible contributors to it. RBC units from 4 healthy donors were prepared and stored at 4 °C. On selected days, RBC aliquots were reconstituted with autologous plasma and tested in the thromboelastography assay. Corresponding supernatants were tested in a clotting assay. For all donors, the clotting time (CT) of reconstituted RBC units decreased from ∼3000-4000s on day 1 to ∼1000-1600s on day 30, with the most dramatic changes occurring between days 1 and 5. Anti-TF antibody slightly prolonged the CT. The concentration of TF did not change significantly over time and was within the range of 0.3-2.3 pM. Bovine lactadherin (LTD) prolonged the CT of the RBC (by 2.4-3.4-fold in days 3-5 and by 1.3-1.8-fold at day 30). Anti-TF antibody together with LTD had a cumulative effect on the CT prolongation. CT of supernatants responded to both anti-TF and anti-FXIa antibodies. Three contributors to the PA of stored RBC were identified, i.e. FXIa in solution and phosphatidylserine and TF exposed on blood cells and microparticles. Failure of LTD and antibodies to completely eliminate PA suggests that other components of blood could contribute to it. PMID:27150627

  7. Climate, Ice, and Mud: investigating the relationship between glacier activity and sediment flux using varved lake sediments, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, D. J.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.; Flowers, G. E.; Bjornsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The worldwide retreat of many glaciers during the 21st century is expected to have profound impacts on local and regional hydrologic cycles. Associated with the forecasted reductions in global ice volume are changes in meltwater runoff and sediment transport in glacially fed drainage systems. Alpine glaciers and small ice caps are particularly sensitive to climate change because their dimensions can respond quickly to changes in glacier mass balance. Records of past glacier fluctuations are important sources of paleoclimate data and also provide a context for current and future changes to glacier hydrologic systems. Annually laminated (varved) sediments from proglacial lake Hvítárvatn, central Iceland, offer a continuous archive of Langjökull ice cap (~925 km2) activity through the late Holocene. A multi-proxy record from this site indicates that Langjökull's size was more variable during the past millennium than during any other multi-centennial interval of the Holocene. Ice growth culminated in the Little Ice Age (LIA), when Langjökull advanced into Hvítárvatn and reached its maximum aerial extent of the past 10 ka. At present, roughly one-third of the ice cap's discharge flows into the lake catchment, constituting ~70% of the total inflow, and lake sedimentation rates are governed by the production and delivery of glacially eroded clastic material transported to the lake by four primary meltwater streams. Glacier fluctuations of the past 1 ka are reconstructed from physical proxies contained in sediment cores retrieved from six locations throughout the main basin. Total sediment yield and distribution during this period are calculated from sediment accumulation rates and from > 100 km of seismic reflection profiles. A tephra-constrained varve chronology provides high chronologic control, with a maximum age uncertainty of ± 10 years. Low and constant sedimentation rates characterize the 11th and 12th centuries, reflecting minimal glacier activity during

  8. Mud Pit Identification Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (September 2001, Rev. No. 0)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2001-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection completed the Mud Pit Strategy, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (DOE/NV, 2001) to document a systematic process for identifying and categorizing potentially contaminated mud pits located on the NTS, and systematically evaluating them for inclusion in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The objectives of this report are to summarize the process used to define the six mud pit categories, identify mud pits, discuss the mud pits that do not meet FFACO entry criteria, identify mud pits for proposed FFACO entry, and describe the general mud pit distribution. Underground nuclear testing conducted since 1951 at the NTS has produced mud pits that were used for the transfer and collection of drilling mud, rock cuttings, and drilling fluids. This report documents the execution of the strategy document by examining the identification process and documenting these results. For clarification purposes, this document uses the term ''entry'' to indicate inclusion of mud pits into the FFACO and ''exclusion'' to indicate those mud pits which do not meet the ''entry'' criteria defined in this report. Based on this criteria, 257 mud pits identified that have been proposed for FFACO entry were found in 14 separate areas of the NTS. Each of the 257 mud pits proposed for FFACO entry will need to be located in the field, photographed, and documented during future Industrial Sites Project, Preliminary Assessment activities. If the field review determines that a mud pit was misidentified or improperly categorized, the appropriate FFACO modification request will be submitted for review and approval.

  9. Block by ruthenium red of the ryanodine-activated calcium release channel of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The effects of ruthenium red and the related compounds tetraamine palladium (4APd) and tetraamine platinum (4APt) were studied on the ryanodine activated Ca2+ release channel reconstituted in planar bilayers with the immunoaffinity purified ryanodine receptor. Ruthenium red, applied at submicromolar concentrations to the myoplasmic side (cis), induced an all-or-none flickery block of the ryanodine activated channel. The blocking effect was strongly voltage dependent, as large positive potentials that favored the movement of ruthenium red into the channel conduction pore produced stronger block. The half dissociation constants (Kd) for ruthenium red block of the 500 pS channel were 0.22, 0.38, and 0.62 microM, at +100, +80, and +60 mV, respectively. Multiple ruthenium red molecules seemed to be involved in the inhibition, because a Hill coefficient of close to 2 was obtained from the dose response curve. The half dissociation constant of ruthenium red block of the lower conductance state of the ryanodine activated channel (250 pS) was higher (Kd = 0.82 microM at +100 mV), while the Hill coefficient remained approximately the same (nH = 2.7). Ruthenium red block of the channel was highly asymmetric, as trans ruthenium red produced a different blocking effect. The blocking and unblocking events (induced by cis ruthenium red) can be resolved at the single channel level at a cutoff frequency of 2 kHz. The closing rate of the channel in the presence of ruthenium red increased linearly with ruthenium red concentration, and the unblocking rate of the channel was independent of ruthenium red concentrations. This suggests that ruthenium red block of the channel occurred via a simple blocking mechanism. The on-rate of ruthenium red binding to the channel was 1.32 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, and the off-rate of ruthenium red binding was 0.75 x 10(3) s-1 at +60 mV, in the presence of 200 nM ryanodine. The two related compounds, 4APd and 4APt, blocked the channel in a similar way to that

  10. Authigenic carbonates related to active seepage of methane-rich hot brines at the Cheops mud volcano, Menes caldera (Nile deep-sea fan, eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Catherine; Bayon, Germain; Blanc-Valleron, Marie-Madeleine; Mascle, Jean; Dupré, Stéphanie

    2014-06-01

    On the passive margin of the Nile deep-sea fan, the active Cheops mud volcano (MV; ca. 1,500 m diameter, ~20-30 m above seafloor, 3,010-3,020 m water depth) comprises a crater lake with hot (up to ca. 42 °C) methane-rich muddy brines in places overflowing down the MV flanks. During the Medeco2 cruise in fall 2007, ROV dives enabled detailed sampling of the brine fluid, bottom lake sediments at ca. 450 m lake depth, sub-surface sediments from the MV flanks, and carbonate crusts at the MV foot. Based on mineralogical, elemental and stable isotope analyses, this study aims at exploring the origin of the brine fluid and the key biogeochemical processes controlling the formation of these deep-sea authigenic carbonates. In addition to their patchy occurrence in crusts outcropping at the seafloor, authigenic carbonates occur as small concretions disseminated within sub-seafloor sediments, as well as in the bottom sediments and muddy brine of the crater lake. Aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate in the carbonate crusts and in sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot, whereas Mg-calcite, dolomite and ankerite dominate in the muddy brine lake and in sub-seafloor concretions near the crater rim. The carbonate crusts and sub-seafloor concretions at the MV foot precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with bottom seawater temperature; their low δ13C values (-42.6 to -24.5‰) indicate that anaerobic oxidation of methane was the main driver of carbonate precipitation. By contrast, carbonates from the muddy lake brine, bottom lake concretions and crater rim concretions display much higher δ13C (up to -5.2‰) and low δ18O values (down to -2.8‰); this is consistent with their formation in warm fluids of deep origin characterized by 13C-rich CO2 and, as confirmed by independent evidence, slightly higher heavy rare earth element signatures, the main driver of carbonate precipitation being methanogenesis. Moreover, the benthic activity within the seafloor sediment enhances aerobic

  11. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuarine morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten; van Kessel, Thijs; Wongsoredjo, Samor; Bergsma, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sandy river estuaries have great economic and ecologic values, but a better understanding is required about the effect of mud on large-scale morphodynamics to optimise maintenance strategies. Very few studies actually include sand-mud interaction effects on morphodynamics on decadal and centennial timescales due to model limitations and lack of spatially and temporally dense data of mud in the bed. Here we study effects of cohesive sediment supply on equilibrium estuary shape, bar-channel patterns and dynamics, during formation from idealised initial conditions over a time scale of centuries and millennia. On the basis of related modelling and experimentation of river and delta patterns we hypothesise that mud will settle into mud flats flanking the estuary that resist erosion and thus self-confine and narrow the estuary and reduce braiding index and channel-bar mobility. We applied the process-based numerical model Delft3D in depth-averaged mode starting from idealised convergent estuaries. Mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for the cohesive regime, and Engelund-Hansen for the non-cohesive regime depending on the fraction of mud. This was subjected to a range of different mud inputs from the river or from the sea and a range of river discharge and tidal amplitudes. Our modelling results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the sides of the estuary. Higher mud concentration at the river inflow leads to narrower and shorter estuaries. Channels within the estuary also become narrower due to increased cohesion in the channel banks. This trend is confirmed in preliminary experiments. However, channels do not increase in depth; this is in contrast with what is observed in rivers and we do not yet fully understand this. Migration rates of channels and bars and bar splitting and merging also reduce with increasing mud concentration. For higher discharge channel

  12. Stimulated Emission of Active Media in the Red Spectral Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, T. N.; Gadirov, R. M.; Nikonov, S. Yu.; Valiev, R. R.; Tel'minov, E. N.; Nikonova, E. N.; Solodova, T. A.; Alekseeva, V. I.; Marinina, L. E.; Savvina, L. P.

    2016-05-01

    Spectral, luminescent, and lasing characteristics of chromene dyes and their julolidine analogs emitting in the red spectral range are investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the cause for a low lasing efficiency of oxochromene compared with iminochromene is a high intersystem crossing to the T 1 state and the presence of the induced T 1→T n absorption in the region of the luminescence band.

  13. Active mud volcanoes on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan—first results from the P362/2 cruise of R/V Poseidon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, Tomas; Brown, Kevin R.; Blanchet, Cecile; Scholz, Florian; Nuzzo, Marianne; Reitz, Anja; Schmidt, Mark; Hensen, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In February 2008, cruise P362/2 was undertaken aboard R/V Poseidon to the Giza and North Alex mud volcanoes (MVs) on the upper slope of the western Nile deep-sea fan. Emitted fluids were strongly depleted in chloride and rich in hydrocarbons, predominantly of thermogenic origin. In-situ sediment temperature measurements indicate extremely high and moderate levels of activity for the North Alex MV and Giza MV, respectively, and suggest rapid changes from dormant to active stages. Both the physical properties of core sediments (e.g., color and magnetic susceptibility), and their assemblages of micro- and nannofossils point to different sources for the two mud volcanoes. Biostratigraphic dating suggests source depths of 2,100-2,450 mbsf for the Giza MV and 1,150-1,550 mbsf for the North Alex MV. Very high temperatures of up to 70°C in shallow sediments at the North Alex MV can be explained only if the fluid source were warmer and deeper than the sediment source.

  14. Mud volcanoes: Indicators of stress orientation and tectonic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the use of specific mud volcano features (i.e., elongated calderas, aligned vents and elongated volcanoes) as potential indicators of tectonic stress orientation. The stress indicator principles, widely recognised for magmatic systems, have been discussed and applied to mud volcano settings such as in the Northern Apennines and the Azerbaijan Greater Caucasus, as well as in other instances where the analysis was fully based on a remote sensing study. The results of these applications are promising, the obtained maximum horizontal stress (SH) directions generally showing a good correlation with those determined in the upper crust by classical methods (i.e., earthquake focal mechanism solutions, well bore breakouts). Therefore, stress information from mud volcanoes could be used as a proxy for stress orientation (1) where stress data is lacking, (2) where settings are inaccessible (i.e., underwater or the surface of planets), or simply (3) as supplementary stress indicators. This study also pays special attention to structural elements that may control fluid expulsion at various length scales, and pathways that should have spawned the mud volcanoes and controlled their paroxysmal events and eruptions. Different types of sub-planar brittle elements have been found to focus fluid flow rising up-through fold cores, where the vertical zonation of stresses may take part in this process by creating distinctive feeder fracture/fault sets. On a regional scale, mud volcanoes in active fold-and-thrust belts may occur over wider areas, such as the prolific mud volcanism in Azerbaijan, or may cluster along discrete structures like the steep Pede-Apennine thrust in the Northern Apennines, where the generation of overpressures is expected to establish a positive feedback loop allowing for fault movement and mud volcanism.

  15. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on Special Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud...

  16. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  17. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Lakesh K; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in "saturation" of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  18. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima E Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G

    2016-12-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ε-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38

  19. A Variable Light Domain Fluorogen Activating Protein Homodimerizes To Activate Dimethylindole Red

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Nina; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Bhattacharyya, Shantanu; Rule, Gordon S.; Wilson, Ian A.; Armitage, Bruce A.; Waggoner, Alan S.; Berget, Peter B.

    2012-07-11

    Novel fluorescent tools such as green fluorescent protein analogues and fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs) are useful in biological imaging for tracking protein dynamics in real time with a low fluorescence background. FAPs are single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) selected from a yeast surface display library that produce fluorescence upon binding a specific dye or fluorogen that is normally not fluorescent when present in solution. FAPs generally consist of human immunoglobulin variable heavy (V{sub H}) and variable light (V{sub L}) domains covalently attached via a glycine- and serine-rich linker. Previously, we determined that the yeast surface clone, V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8, could bind and activate the fluorogen dimethylindole red (DIR) but that the fluorogen activation properties were localized to the M8V{sub L} domain. We report here that both nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction methods indicate the M8V{sub L} forms noncovalent, antiparallel homodimers that are the fluorogen activating species. The M8V{sub L} homodimers activate DIR by restriction of internal rotation of the bound dye. These structural results, together with directed evolution experiments with both V{sub H}-V{sub L} M8 and M8V{sub L}, led us to rationally design tandem, covalent homodimers of M8V{sub L} domains joined by a flexible linker that have a high affinity for DIR and good quantum yields.

  20. Chemical Speciation of Chromium in Drilling Muds

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, Takeyoshi; Yoshii, Mitsuru; Shinoda, Kohzo

    2007-02-02

    Drilling muds are made of bentonite and other clays, and/or polymers, mixed with water to the desired viscosity. Without the drilling muds, corporations could not drill for oil and gas and we would have hardly any of the fuels and lubricants considered essential for modern industrial civilization. There are hundreds of drilling muds used and some kinds of drilling muds contain chromium. The chemical states of chromium in muds have been studied carefully due to concerns about the environmental influence. However it is difficult to determine the chemical state of chromium in drilling muds directly by conventional analytical methods. We have studied the chemical form of chromium in drilling muds by using a laboratory XAFS system and a synchrotron facility.

  1. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. PMID:25722174

  2. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon Mud Volcano (Nile Deep Sea Fan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile Deep Sea Fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulphate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition and microbial activities over three years, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulphide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. Furthermore, within three years, cell numbers and hydrocarbon degrading activity increased at the gas-seeping sites. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon mud volcano is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer mud volcano area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  3. Fluid flow and mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean incipient collision zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid venting activity, either coupled with mud volcanism or along deep active faults or both, has been investigated in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, mainly in two areas associated with the incipient collision process between Africa and Eurasia. Mud volcanoes are abundant on the crestal part of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary prism, in association with thrusts, back-thrusts and transcurrent features. They are also found in the Anaximander Mountains/Florence Rise area, to the west of Cyprus, where a wrench system accommodates the pre-collisional deformation. Combined swath multibeam bathymetry and imagery, seismic profiling (ANAXIPROBE survey, 1995 and PRISMED II survey, 1998) and O.R.E.Tech sidescan sonar data (MEDINETH survey, 1999) indicate the genetic relationship between mud volcanoes and tectonics, particularly potential influence of strike-slip faulting. The in situ observations of mud volcanoes (MEDINAUT survey, 1998) have revealed common characteristics at cold seeps, such as carbonate crust constructions and specific chemosynthetic-based fauna. Ground-truth of the sonar data shows that the geophysical signature of mud volcanoes may be related to spatial and temporal evolution of mud volcanism activity, because the seafloor characteristics (surface of the mud flows, distribution and nature of the crusts) and the degree of colonization by benthic fauna vary with the intensity and age of the fluid seepage. Moreover, clay mineralogy studies on the mud matrix samples give insights into the depositional environment, age, and depth of the lithological unit from which the mud breccia is extruded. The shallow signature of the mud reservoir tends to indicate that the overpressured fluids originate from deeper strata than the solid phase of the expelled material.

  4. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  5. Characterization of a deep-sea microbial mat from an active cold seep at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Heijs, Sander K; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Forney, Larry J

    2005-09-01

    A white, filamentous microbial mat at the Milano mud volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was sampled during the Medinaut cruise of the R/V Nadir in 1998. The composition of the mat community was characterized using a combination of phylogenetic and lipid biomarker methods. The mat sample was filtered through 0.2 and 5-microm filters to coarsely separate unicellular and filamentous bacteria. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified from the total community DNA from these fractions showed that similar archaeal populations were present in both fractions. However, the bacterial populations in the fractions differed from one another, and were more diverse than the archaeal ones. Lipid analysis showed that bacteria were the dominant members of the mat microbial community and the relatively low delta(13)C carbon isotope values of bulk bacterial lipids suggested the occurrence of methane- and sulfide-based chemo(auto)trophy. Consistent with this, the bacterial populations in the fractions were related to Alpha-, Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria, most of which were chemoautotrophic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide (or reduced sulfur compounds) and/or methane. The most common archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were related to those of previously identified Archaea capable of anaerobic methane oxidation. Although the filamentous organisms observed in the mat were not conclusively identified, our results indicated that the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea microbial mat community might be sustained on a combination of methane- and sulfide-driven chemotrophy. PMID:16329971

  6. DNA Damage Protecting Activity and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins from Red Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Bran

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. Suganya; Kumar, M. Saravana; Das, S. Mohan

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in natural food colorants like carotenoids and anthocyanins with functional properties. Red sorghum bran is known as a rich source for anthocyanins. The anthocyanin contents extracted from red sorghum bran were evaluated by biochemical analysis. Among the three solvent system used, the acidified methanol extract showed a highest anthocyanin content (4.7 mg/g of sorghum bran) followed by methanol (1.95 mg/g) and acetone (1 mg/g). Similarly, the highest total flavonoids (143 mg/g) and total phenolic contents (0.93 mg/g) were obtained in acidified methanol extracts than methanol and acetone extracts. To study the health benefits of anthocyanin from red sorghum bran, the total antioxidant activity was evaluated by biochemical and molecular methods. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in acidified methanol extracts of anthocyanin in dose-dependent manner. The antioxidant activity of the red sorghum bran was directly related to the total anthocyanin found in red sorghum bran. PMID:22400119

  7. Saltwater and hard water bentonite mud

    SciTech Connect

    Pabley, A. S.

    1985-02-19

    A seawater/saltwater or hard water bentonite mud for use in drilling, and process for preparing same, comprising sequentially adding to seawater, to saltwater of a chloride concentration up to saturation, or hard water: a caustic agent; a filtration control agent; and bentonite. The resultant drilling mud meets API standards for viscosity and water loss, and is stable after aging and at tempertures in excess of 100/sup 0/ c. In another embodiment, the additives are premixed as dry ingredients and hydrated with seawater, saltwater or hard water. Unlike other bentonite drilling muds, the muds of this invention require no fresh water in their preparation, which makes them particularly useful at off-shore and remote on-shore drilling locations. The muds of this invention using bentonite further require less clay than known saltwater muds made with attapulgite, and provides superior filtration control, viscosity and stability.

  8. THREE POLYPHENOL OXIDASES FROM RED CLOVER (TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE) DIFFER IN ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES AND ACTIVATION PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) oxidize o-diphenols to o-quinones, which cause browning reactions in many wounded fruits, vegetables, and plants including the forage crop red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Production of o-quinones in red clover inhibits postharvest proteolysis during the ensiling proces...

  9. 76 FR 46325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Red Ribbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Red Ribbon Week Patch DEA Form 316 and 316A ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review. The Department of Justice...

  10. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, Herve; Fedosov, Dmitry; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cecile; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Gompper, Gerhard; Betz, Timo

    2015-03-01

    Red blood cell membrane flickering stimulated an abundant biological, biophysical and biochemical literature over the past 50 years. While the phenomenon has been interpreted as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane, recent results suggest the involvement of metabolic processes. However, to date there is no direct and conclusive evidence that an active force drives membrane flickering. By comparing membrane undulations and active microrheology measurements on single human erythrocytes, we show that flickering is partly driven by an active metabolic process, as it does not satisfy the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation on timescales slower than 100ms. Analytical and numerical models of the red blood cell reproduce experimental results. The analytical model assumes that membrane activity results from reversible binding of the elastic spectrin network to the lipid bilayer and predicts active fluctuations to increase with local curvature and extensional prestress in the cytoskeleton. Our mean-field calculation shows that the strength and kinetics of the binding activity regulates thereupon both passive and active mechanical properties of the red blood cell. Numerical simulations explore other possible origins of active forces on the membrane and predict coherent timescales for the molecular underlying metabolic processes.

  11. Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Souza, Micheline Cristiane; Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Guerra Dore, Celina Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Fernando Roberto; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the following six sulfated polysaccharides were investigated: iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, which are widely used in the food industry, fucoidan (homofucan) from the edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and fucans (heterofucans) F0.5 and F1.1 from the seaweed Padina gymnospora. With respect to the inhibition of superoxide radical formation, fucoidan had an IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.058 mg·mL−1, while the IC50 for the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans were 0.112, 0.332 and 0.046 mg·mL−1, respectively. All of the samples had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The results of peroxidation tests showed that fucoidan had an IC50 of 1.250 mg·mL−1 and that the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans had an IC50 of 2.753 and 2.338 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, respectively. Fucan fractions showed low antioxidant activity relative to fucoidan. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal polysaccharides as antioxidants. PMID:19396353

  12. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay. PMID:27366781

  13. Effect of parboiling on phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhanqiang; Tang, Xiaozhi; Liu, Junfei; Zhu, Zhiwei; Shao, Yafang

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve functional properties and palatability of germinated red rice, this study investigated differences in phytochemicals and physicochemical properties of germinated red rice at 2, 5, 10, 15min of parboiling. Total free phenolic content and antioxidant activity of germinated red rice parboiled for 5 and 15min was higher than that of germinated red rice. Free p-coumaric acid increased from 0.20 to 0.67mg/100g with parboiling time increasing from 5 to 15min. Bound vanillic (0.17-0.27mg/100g) and p-coumaric acid (6.56-8.59mg/100g) had higher levels at 0, 2, or 5min. During 15min of parboiling, color difference (ΔE) increased from 0.58 to 9.09, heat enthalpy (ΔH) decreased from 4.69 to 1.94J/g, and internal structure of rice was destroyed. Overall, parboiling time of less than 5min was suitable to improve the quality of germinated red rice. PMID:27507477

  14. "Ziziphus jujuba": A red fruit with promising anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Tahergorabi, Zoya; Abedini, Mohammad Reza; Mitra, Moodi; Fard, Mohammad Hassanpour; Beydokhti, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Z. jujuba) is a traditional herb with a long history of use for nutrition and the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. It grows mostly in South and East Asia, as well as in Australia and Europe. Mounting evidence shows the health benefits of Z. jujuba, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiobesity, antioxidant, and hepato- and gastrointestinal protective properties, which are due to its bioactive compounds. Chemotherapy, such as with cis-diamminedichloroplatinium (CDDP, cisplatin) and its derivatives, is widely used in cancer treatment. It is an effective treatment for human cancers, including ovarian cancer; however, drug resistance is a major obstacle to successful treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms and strategies for overcoming chemoresistance can greatly improve therapeutic outcomes for patients. In this review article, the bioactive compounds present in Z. jujuba are explained. The high prevalence of many different cancers worldwide has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. This is why our research group focused on studying the anticancer activity of Z. jujuba as well as its impact on chemoresistance both in vivo and in vitro. We hope that these studies can lead to a promising future for cancer patients. PMID:26392706

  15. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  16. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  17. High temperature drilling mud composition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a composition having improved rheological properties and improved stability at high temperatures and pressure for use in a water-based drilling mud comprising a high-yield bentonite, a low-yield bentonite and leonardite, wherein the weight ratio of the high-yield bentonite to the low-yield bentonites in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1, and the leonardite is present in the amount of about 0.1% to 1.0% by total dry weight of the composition.

  18. Surface activity and oscillation amplitudes of red giants in eclipsing binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulme, P.; Jackiewicz, J.; Appourchaux, T.; Mosser, B.

    2014-04-10

    Among the 19 red-giant stars belonging to eclipsing binary systems that have been identified in Kepler data, 15 display solar-like oscillations. We study whether the absence of mode detection in the remaining 4 is an observational bias or possibly evidence of mode damping that originates from tidal interactions. A careful analysis of the corresponding Kepler light curves shows that modes with amplitudes that are usually observed in red giants would have been detected if they were present. We observe that mode depletion is strongly associated with short-period systems, in which stellar radii account for 16%-24% of the semi-major axis, and where red-giant surface activity is detected. We suggest that when the rotational and orbital periods synchronize in close binaries, the red-giant component is spun up, so that a dynamo mechanism starts and generates a magnetic field, leading to observable stellar activity. Pressure modes would then be damped as acoustic waves dissipate in these fields.

  19. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  20. Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of β-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups. PMID:24299838

  1. Slag/mud mixtures improve cementing operations in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Peiyan; Huang, B.

    1996-12-23

    The use of blast furnace slag, which is inexpensive and widely available throughout China, can with proper activators and retarders, solidify mud into an excellent cementing material. The use of slag-mix has been somewhat controversial. Some experts claim slag-mix is the most important progress to date in mud-to-cement conversion and has become another choice for cementing practices.They also believed there were no fundamental limitations to its application downhole, and conceivably the material could be used for any well cemented. Other experts have different points of view and thought it might have limits for oil field use. In their studies, the basic mud had to be diluted by 60% or more with water before the blast furnace slag (BFS) was added. Their slag slurries showed a high incidence of cracking and apparent brittle nature, bad settling stability, and volume shrinkage. To date, the Chinese National petroleum Corp. (CNPC) has used mud solidification by slag successfully on 22 cementing jobs in the Sichun, Changqing, Jidong, and Shengli oil fields.The major purpose of these investigations was to determine the application of slag-mix technology to various cementing operations.

  2. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  3. Triggering and dynamic evolution of the LUSI mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, H.; Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G. G.; Aloisi, G.; Planke, S.; Sørenssen, A.; Istadi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are geologically important manifestations of vertical fluid flow and mud eruption in sedimentary basins worldwide. Their formation is predominantly ascribed to release of overpressure from clay- and organic- rich sediments, leading to impressive buildup of mud mountains in submarine and subaerial settings. Here we report data from two fieldworks on a newly born mud volcano named LUSI eruption in Eastern Java (Indonesia). The eruption site appears close to an active magmatic complex in a backarc sedimentary basin in Indonesia. Its specific location results in a high background temperature gradient that triggers mineralogical transformations and geochemical reactions at shallow depth. The eruption of 100 deg.C mud and gas that started the 29th of May 2006 flooded a large area within the Sidoarjo village in Northeast Java. Thousands of people have so far been evacuated and, since the initial eruption, the flow rate escalated from 5000 to 120,000 m3/d during the first eleven weeks. Then the erupted volume started to pulsate between almost zero and 120,000 m3/d in the period August-September, whereas it increased dramatically following swarms of earthquakes in September, before reaching almost 180,000 m3/d in December 2006. Fifteen months after the initial burst, LUSI is still vigorously erupting up to 111,000 m3/d, the average subsidence of the area reached 11 m. Seismic images show that a pre-existing structure was present before the eruption. Based on geochemical and field results, we propose a mechanism where the eruptions started following the 27th of May earthquake due to fracturing and accompanied depressurization of >100 deg.C pore fluids from > 1700 m depth released from a structure in already critical conditions. This resulted in the formation of a quasi-hydrothermal system with a geyser-like surface expression and with an activity influenced by the regional seismicity.

  4. Numerical simulation of mud erosion rate in sand-mud alternate layer and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Oyama, H.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    For gas production from methane hydrates in sand-mud alternate layers, depressurization method is expected as feasible. After methane hydrate is dissociated, gas and water flow in pore space. There is a concern about the erosion of mud surface and it may result in flow blockage that disturbs the gas production. As a part of a Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI), we developed a numerical simulation of water-induced mud erosion in pore-scale sand-mud domains to model such mud erosion. The size of which is of the order of 100 micro meter. Water flow is simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and mud surface is treated as solid boundary with arbitrary shape, which changes with time. Periodic boundary condition is adopted at the domain boundaries, except for the surface of mud layers and the upper side. Shear stress acting on the mud surface is calculated using a momentum-exchange method. Mud layer is eroded when the shear stress exceeds a threshold coined a critical shear stress. In this study, we compared the simulated mud erosion rate with experimental data acquired from an experiment using artificial sand-mud core. As a result, the simulated erosion rate agrees well with that of the experiment.

  5. Kelly mud saver valve sub

    SciTech Connect

    Reddoch, J.A.

    1986-12-02

    A mud saver valve is described for preventing drilling mud from escaping from a kelly when a drill string is broken below the kelly, the valve comprising: a tubular valve body having first and second ends, the first end being provided with means for attachment in fluid communicating relationship with the kelly, the second end being provided with means for attachment to the drill string; an annular seat fixed in the interior of the valve body adjacent its first end; a tubular closure member within the valve body. The closure member is provided with a selectively closed seating end for seating in valve closing engagement with the annular seat, an open non-seating end in fluid communicating relationship with the drill string, and an annular expansion in the outer diameter of the closure member adjacent the seating end; a top and bottom spacer ring disposed in sliding relationship around the tubular closure member intermediate the annular expansion and the non-seating end of the closure member. The spacer ring and annular expansion cooperatively define an annular chamber around the closure member; and a helical spring disposed around the closure member towards the annular seat.

  6. Extraction of phenolics and changes in antioxidant activity of red wines during vinification.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Gardner, P T; Matthews, D; Duthie, G G; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    2001-12-01

    The moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with protection against the development of coronary heart disease. Although alcohol itself can help prevent coronary heart disease through a number of mechanisms, red wine appears to offer protection above and beyond that attributable to alcohol alone. Red wine is a complex fluid containing grape, yeast, and wood-derived phenolic compounds, the majority of which have been recognized as potent antioxidants. The aim of this study was to investigate the major phenolic contributors to the antioxidant activity of wine. To this end, four wines were followed during the first 7-9 days of vinification. Individual phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC, and antioxidant activity was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The extraction of the phenolics was found to be influenced by vinification procedure, grape quality, and grape variety. Although fermenting wines reached a total phenolic content comparable to that of a bottled wine after 9 days of vinification, the antioxidant activity was significantly lower than that of a finished wine. This suggests that the larger polyphenolic complexes and condensation products that appear during aging make a sizable contribution to the overall antioxidant activity of red wines. PMID:11743766

  7. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increased. The content of ginsenoside Rg3, a previously recognized anticancer compound, increased significantly when the root was steamed at 120 °C for 0.5 – 3 h. The antiproliferative effects of unsteamed and steamed (120 °C for 1 h and 2 h) American ginseng root extracts were assayed by the modified trichrome stain (MTS) method using three cancer cell lines (SW-480, HT-29, NSCLC). Heat-processing increased the antiproliferative effect of American ginseng significantly, and the activity of the extract from roots steamed for 2 h was greater than that of roots steamed for 1 h. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative activities of white and red Asian ginseng have also been evaluated. Five representative ginsenosides, Rb1, Rd, Re, Rg2 and Rg3, were studied. Ginsenoside Rg3 had the most potent effect. The antiproliferative activities of red American ginseng are augmented when ginsenoside Rg3 is increased. PMID:17538869

  8. Antioxidant activities of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein hydrolysates as influenced by thermolysin and alcalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daud, Nur'Aliah; Babji, Abdul Salam; Yusop, Salma Mohamad

    2013-11-01

    The hydrolysis process was performed on fish meat from Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by enzymes thermolysin and alcalase under optimum conditions. The hydrolysis was performed from 0 - 4 hours at 37°C. Hydrolysates after 2 hours incubation with thermolysin and alcalase had degree of hydrolysis of 76.29 % and 63.49 %, respectively. The freeze dried protein hydrolysate was tested for peptide content and characterized with respect to amino acid composition. The result of increased peptide content in Red Tilapia (O. Niloticus) hydrolysates obtained was directly proportional to the increase activities of different proteolytic enzymes. The result of amino acid composition showed that the sample used contained abundant Gly, Ala, Asp, Glu, Lys and Leu in residues or peptide sequences. Both enzymatic hydrolysates were tested for anti-oxidant activity with DPPH and ABTS assay. Alcalase yielded higher anti-oxidative activity than Thermolysin hydrolysates after 1 hour incubation, but both enzymes hydrolysates showed a significant decrease of anti-oxidant activity after 2 hours of incubation. Hydrolysates from Red Tilapia may contribute as a health promoting ingredient in functional foods to reduce oxidation stress caused by accumulated free radicals.

  9. Engineering of a red-light–activated human cAMP/cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase

    PubMed Central

    Gasser, Carlos; Taiber, Sandra; Yeh, Chen-Min; Wittig, Charlotte Helene; Hegemann, Peter; Ryu, Soojin; Wunder, Frank; Möglich, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors elicit vital physiological adaptations in response to incident light. As light-regulated actuators, photoreceptors underpin optogenetics, which denotes the noninvasive, reversible, and spatiotemporally precise perturbation by light of living cells and organisms. Of particular versatility, naturally occurring photoactivated adenylate cyclases promote the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP under blue light. Here, we have engineered a light-activated phosphodiesterase (LAPD) with complementary light sensitivity and catalytic activity by recombining the photosensor module of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome with the effector module of Homo sapiens phosphodiesterase 2A. Upon red-light absorption, LAPD up-regulates hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP by up to sixfold, whereas far-red light can be used to down-regulate activity. LAPD also mediates light-activated cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis in eukaryotic cell cultures and in zebrafish embryos; crucially, the biliverdin chromophore of LAPD is available endogenously and does not need to be provided exogenously. LAPD thus establishes a new optogenetic modality that permits light control over diverse cAMP/cGMP-mediated physiological processes. Because red light penetrates tissue more deeply than light of shorter wavelengths, LAPD appears particularly attractive for studies in living organisms. PMID:24889611

  10. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  11. Overabundance of s-process elements in the atmosphere of the active red giant PZ Mon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Yu. V.

    2015-11-01

    Based on high-resolution ( R = 60 000) spectra taken with the NES spectrograph (the 6-m BTA telescope, the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences), we have determined the abundances of 26 elements, from lithium to europium, in the atmosphere of the active red giant PZ Mon, which belongs to the class of RS CVn variable stars, by the method of model stellar atmospheres. We have taken into account the hyperfine splitting, the isotopic shift, and the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Analysis of our data has revealed an overabundance of lithium and neutron-capture elements compared to normal red giants. For lithium, this is explained by the activity of the star, while the overabundance of s-elements is presumably similar in nature to that inmild bariumstars.

  12. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fangfang; Zhang, Yihe; Lv, Fengzhu; Chu, Paul K; Ye, Zhengfang

    2011-12-15

    Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu(2+), Ba(2+), Sn(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+) and Ag(+) was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC>Sn/LAC>Ag/LAC>Ba/LAC>Fe/LAC>Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu(2+) showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu(2+) on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu(2+) from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent reusability as well. PMID:22015039

  13. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. PMID:23845955

  14. Geochemical characterization of the Nirano Mud Volcano Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Ricci, Tullio; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    Mud volcanoes, among fluid venting structures, are the most important phenomena related to natural seepage from the Earth's surface. The occurrence of mud volcanoes is controlled by several factors, such as tectonic activity and continuous hydrocarbon accumulation in a reservoir. Mud volcanoes in Italy occur along the external compressive margin of the Apennine chain. These mud volcanoes are usually small and unspectacular, when compared to other world examples. They rarely exhibit the periodic explosions, which is often related to important seismic activity. The Nirano Mud Volcano Field (NMVF) is located in the western sector of the Modena Apennine margin (Italy), which belongs to the Northern Apennines. The NMVF occurs over the crest of a thrust anticline associated with the main Pede-Apennine thrust and represents a good example of an onshore relationship between a mud volcano caldera structure and active thrust deformation, even if the fluid pathways are still not well understood at depth. The mud volcanoes are distributed along an area of about 10 ha, inside of the wider Natural Reserve, and are situated at the bottom of a wide sub-circular depression. The NMVF is currently formed by four main vents composed of a number of individual active cones (or gryphons) defining structural alignments trending ENE-WSW. A geochemical soil gas survey of 230 CO2 and CH4 fluxes and 150 CO2, CH4, Rn, He, H2 concentration measurements has been carried out inside the NMVF. Moreover, the fluid emissions from 4 active cones located in different sectors of NMVF have been sampled for chemical and isotopical analysis of water and free gas. The distribution of pathfinder elements as 222Rn, He e H2 has been studied in order to identify potential faults and/or fractures related to preferential migration pathways and the possible interactions between reservoir and surface. Soil gas data highlight two zones characterized by higher values, localized in the WSW and ENE of the NMVF area. In

  15. Annual pattern of nitrate reductase activity in needles of high-elevation red spruce trees

    SciTech Connect

    Tjoelker, M.G.; Norby, R.J. ); DiCosty, R.J. ); Weerasuriya, Y. )

    1989-04-01

    To assess the ability of foliar nitrate reductase (NR) as a biochemical marker for the impact of nitrogen oxide pollutants on high-elevation forests, we measured needle NR activity in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) saplings at two stands in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1,935 m, 1,720 m). Seven times between September 1987 and 1988, branches were cut from selected saplings, and NR activity was assayed on current-year needles, using an in vivo method. NR activity increased to maximum values of 60 nmol g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} in late summer of both years and then declined by 85 percent in October 1987 and 65 percent in September 1988. Although NR activity was 30 percent great in red spruce at the high site relative to the low site in September and October 1987, NR activity dropped to 10 nmol g{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1} at both sites in November 1987. No difference between the sites were evident in 1988. The seasonal pattern of needle NR activity at these sites may be due to ontogenetic changes in needle N metabolism and/or extrinsic variation in temperature or nitrogen oxide deposition. Characterization of nitrogen oxide pollutant levels and exposure episodes at high-elevation sites may aid in assessing seasonal and site variation in NR activity and the likelihood of needle NR induction by uptake of nitrogen oxides. These measurements of NR activity indicate that red spruce are capable of reducing nitrate in foliage under field conditions and that the nitrate assimilation capacity varies seasonally.

  16. Lisdexamfetamine prodrug activation by peptidase-mediated hydrolysis in the cytosol of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Johannah; Pennick, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved as a once-daily treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults in some countries. LDX is a prodrug comprising d-amphetamine covalently linked to l-lysine via a peptide bond. Following oral administration, LDX is rapidly taken up from the small intestine by active carrier-mediated transport, probably via peptide transporter 1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond to release d-amphetamine has previously been shown to occur in human red blood cells but not in several other tissues. Here, we report that LDX hydrolytic activity resides in human red blood cell lysate and cytosolic extract but not in the membrane fraction. Among several inhibitors tested, a protease inhibitor cocktail, bestatin, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid each potently inhibited d-amphetamine production from LDX in cytosolic extract. These results suggest that an aminopeptidase is responsible for hydrolytic cleavage of the LDX peptide bond, although purified recombinant aminopeptidase B was not able to release d-amphetamine from LDX in vitro. The demonstration that aminopeptidase-like activity in red blood cell cytosol is responsible for the hydrolysis of LDX extends our understanding of the smooth and consistent systemic delivery of d-amphetamine by LDX and the long daily duration of efficacy of the drug in relieving the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25489246

  17. High pressure chemistry of red phosphorus by photo-activated simple molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppatelli, M.; Fanetti, S.; Bini, R.; Caporali, M.; Peruzzini, M.

    2014-05-01

    High pressure (HP) is very effective in reducing intermolecular distances and inducing unexpected chemical reactions. In addition the photo-activation of the reactants in HP conditions can lead to very efficient and selective processes. The chemistry of phosphorus is currently based on the white molecular form. The red polymeric allotrope, despite more stable and much less toxic, has not attracted much attention so far. However, switching from the white to the red form would benefit any industrial procedure, especially from an environmental point of view. On the other side, water and ethanol are renewable, environmental friendly and largely available molecules, usable as reactants and photo-activators in HP conditions. Here we report a study on the HP photo-induced reactivity of red phosphorus with water and ethanol, showing the possibility of very efficient and selective processes, leading to molecular hydrogen and valuable phosphorus compounds. The reactions have been studied by means of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and pressure has been generated using membrane Diamond (DAC) and Sapphire (SAC) anvil cells. HP reactivity has been activated by the two-photon absorption of near-UV wavelengths and occurred in total absence of solvents, catalysts and radical initiators, at room T and mild pressure conditions (0.2-1.5 GPa).

  18. Lisdexamfetamine prodrug activation by peptidase-mediated hydrolysis in the cytosol of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Johannah; Pennick, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is approved as a once-daily treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents, and adults in some countries. LDX is a prodrug comprising d-amphetamine covalently linked to l-lysine via a peptide bond. Following oral administration, LDX is rapidly taken up from the small intestine by active carrier-mediated transport, probably via peptide transporter 1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptide bond to release d-amphetamine has previously been shown to occur in human red blood cells but not in several other tissues. Here, we report that LDX hydrolytic activity resides in human red blood cell lysate and cytosolic extract but not in the membrane fraction. Among several inhibitors tested, a protease inhibitor cocktail, bestatin, and ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid each potently inhibited d-amphetamine production from LDX in cytosolic extract. These results suggest that an aminopeptidase is responsible for hydrolytic cleavage of the LDX peptide bond, although purified recombinant aminopeptidase B was not able to release d-amphetamine from LDX in vitro. The demonstration that aminopeptidase-like activity in red blood cell cytosol is responsible for the hydrolysis of LDX extends our understanding of the smooth and consistent systemic delivery of d-amphetamine by LDX and the long daily duration of efficacy of the drug in relieving the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25489246

  19. Post-coital contraceptive activity of crude extracts of Sri Lankan marine red algae.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Premakumara, G A; Tillekeratne, L M

    1994-09-01

    This study investigates the potential of marine red algae as a source for post-coital contraceptive agents using three varieties: Gracilaria corticata, Gelidiella acerosa and Jania sp. Methanol: methylene chloride (1:1) extracts of these red algae were made and were orally administered (500 or 1000 mg/kg/day) to female rats from day 1 to day 7 of pregnancy. The higher dose of Gracilaria corticata and both doses of Gelidiella acerosa extracts produced significant post-coital contraceptive activities without any marked side effects. Furthermore, the post-coital contraceptive activity of the latter extract was dose-dependent. On the other hand, extract made from Jania sp. had no significant post-coital contraceptive action. The post-coital contraceptive activity of Gracilaria corticata was due to enhanced pre-implantation loss and of Gelidiella acerosa was due to elevated post-implantation loss. These findings indicate that marine red algae is a useful source to be harvested for potential post-coital contraceptive drugs. PMID:7805379

  20. INFLUENCE OF DRILLING MUDS ON THE PRIMARY CHEMOSENSORY NEURONS IN WALKING LEGS OF THE LOBSTER, 'HOMARUS AMERICANUS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of whole drilling muds on the normal activity of walking leg chemosensory neurons were examined using extracellular neurophysiological recording techniques. Exposure of legs for 3-5 min to 10-mg/L drilling mud suspended in sea water altered responses to food odors of ...

  1. Extreme precipitation events in the Middle East: Dynamics of the Active Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, A. J.; Tyrlis, E.; Edry, D.; Krichak, S. O.; Steil, B.; Lelieveld, J.

    2013-07-01

    The Active Red Sea Trough (ARST) is an infrequent weather phenomenon that is associated with extreme precipitation, flash floods, and severe societal impacts in the Middle East (ME). Using reanalysis (ERA-Interim) and observational precipitation (Aphrodite and stations) data, we investigate its underlying dynamics, geographical extent, and seasonality. Twelve ARST events affecting the Levant have the same dynamical characteristics as those associated with a major flood in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) on 25 November 2009. Hence, the Jeddah flooding was caused by an ARST, which implies that ARSTs can affect a much larger part of the ME than previously assumed. We present an ARST concept involving six dynamical factors: (1) a low-level trough; the Red Sea Trough (RST), (2) an anticyclone over the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabian Anticyclone (AA), (3) a transient midlatitude upper trough, (4) an intensified subtropical jet stream, (5) moisture transport pathways, and (6) strong ascent resulting from tropospheric instability and the synoptic-scale dynamical forcing. We explain the ARST as the interaction of a persistent stationary wave in the tropical easterlies (i.e., the RST) with a superimposed amplifying Rossby wave, resulting in northward propagating moist air masses over the Red Sea. Our findings emphasize the relevance of the AA, causing moisture transport from the Arabian and Red Seas. The particular topography in the Red Sea region and associated low-level circulation makes the ARST unique among tropical-extratropical interactions. The ARST seasonality is explained by the large-scale circulation and in particular the seasonal cycle of the semipermanent quasi-stationary RST and AA.

  2. Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Helge; Lösekann, Tina; de Beer, Dirk; Elvert, Marcus; Nadalig, Thierry; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Sauter, Eberhard J; Schlüter, Michael; Klages, Michael; Foucher, Jean Paul; Boetius, Antje

    2006-10-19

    Mud volcanism is an important natural source of the greenhouse gas methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Recent investigations show that the number of active submarine mud volcanoes might be much higher than anticipated (for example, see refs 3-5), and that gas emitted from deep-sea seeps might reach the upper mixed ocean. Unfortunately, global methane emission from active submarine mud volcanoes cannot be quantified because their number and gas release are unknown. It is also unclear how efficiently methane-oxidizing microorganisms remove methane. Here we investigate the methane-emitting Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV, Barents Sea, 72 degrees N, 14 degrees 44' E; 1,250 m water depth) to provide quantitative estimates of the in situ composition, distribution and activity of methanotrophs in relation to gas emission. The HMMV hosts three key communities: aerobic methanotrophic bacteria (Methylococcales), anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME-2) thriving below siboglinid tubeworms, and a previously undescribed clade of archaea (ANME-3) associated with bacterial mats. We found that the upward flow of sulphate- and oxygen-free mud volcano fluids restricts the availability of these electron acceptors for methane oxidation, and hence the habitat range of methanotrophs. This mechanism limits the capacity of the microbial methane filter at active marine mud volcanoes to <40% of the total flux. PMID:17051217

  3. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions. PMID:17256074

  4. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mud Gravity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, N. A.; Testik, F. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid mud bottom gravity currents are simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, ANSYS-Fluent. In this study, Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid method is selected since this method treats all phases in a multiphase system as interpenetrated continua. There are three different phases in the computational model constructed for this study: water, fluid mud, and air. Water and fluid mud are defined as two miscible fluids and the mass and momentum transfers between these two phases are taken into account. Fluid mud, which is a dense suspension of clay particles and water, is defined as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid via user-defined-functions. These functions define the physical characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.) of the fluid mud and these characteristics vary with changing suspension concentration due to mass transfer between the fluid mud and the water phase. Results of this two-dimensional numerical model are verified with data obtained from experiments conducted in a laboratory flume with a lock-release set-up. Numerical simulations are currently being conducted to elucidate turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. This study is motivated by coastal dredge disposal operations.

  5. Imaging of caspase-3 activation by a novel FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Juquiang; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Caspases-3 is a kind of cysteine proteases and plays an important role in cell apoptosis. It has been reported that caspase-3 activation can be real-time detected in living cells by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. However, the large spectral overlap between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) emission and the highly sensitivity to pH of YFP restricted their detecting sensitivity and reliability. CFP and red fluorescent protein (DsRed) possess superb wavelength separation of donor and acceptor emission spectra and DsRed was insensitive to pH, so the FRET probe composed of CFP and DsRed would be more suitable for imaging caspase-3 activation than the FRET probe composed of CFP and YFP. We constructed a vector that encoded CRS (caspase-3 recognition site) fused with CFP and DsRed (CFP-CRS-DsRed). In CFP-CRS-DsRed expressing tumor cells, FRET from CFP to DsRed could be detected. In the Clinical applications of cancer chemotherapy, cisplatin is one of the most broadly used drugs. It was already confirmed that caspase-3 was activated in HeLa cell treated by cisplatin. When the cells were stimulated with cisplatin, we found that the FRET efficient was remarkably decreased and then disappeared. It indicated that actived caspase-3 cleaved the CFP-CRS-DsRed fusion protein at CRS site. Thus, the FRET probe of CFP-CRS-DsRed could sensitively and reliably monitor caspase-3 activation in living cell. This probe will be highly useful for rapid-screening potential drugs that may target the apoptotic process and for imaging tumors in vivo.

  6. Influence of seismicity on the Lusi mud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael; Tingay, Mark; Davies, Richard J.

    2015-09-01

    Earthquakes trigger the eruption of mud and magmatic volcanoes and influence ongoing eruptive activity. One mechanism that could trigger an eruption is clay liquefaction. Here we model the propagation of seismic waves beneath the Lusi mud eruption (East Java, Indonesia) using available seismic velocity and density models to assess the effect of subsurface structure on the amplification of incident seismic waves. We find that using an updated subsurface density and velocity structure, there is no significant amplification of incident seismic energy in the Upper Kalibeng Formation, the source of the erupting solids. Hence, the hypothesis that the Lusi eruption was triggered by clay liquefaction appears unlikely to be correct. Independent constraints from gas chemistry as well as analyses of drilling activities at the nearby Banjar-Panji 1 gas exploration well and an analysis of the effects of other earthquakes all favor a drilling trigger.

  7. Changes in phenolic compounds, colour and antioxidant activity in industrial red myrtle liqueurs during storage.

    PubMed

    Vacca, Vincenzo; Piga, Antonio; Del Caro, Alessandra; Fenu, Paolo A M; Agabbio, Mario

    2003-12-01

    The results of a study on the evolution of phenolic compounds, colour and antioxidant activity in two industrial red myrtle liqueurs during storage in bottles under different bottle headspace (constant or increasing) and exposure to light are reported. In the year of the study, the phenolic compounds showed considerable changes even in the liqueurs stored with constant headspace. The anthocyanins in particular, both free and combined, tended to decrease. As expected, the same phenomena were observed in an accelerated form in the product stored in bottles with increasing headspace. The colour, evaluated according to the classic spectrophotometric parameters of intensity and hue, showed marked variability, especially in samples in which headspace was progressively increased. The two liqueurs showed antioxidant capacity values, expressed as mM of Trolox, comparable to those of red wine. They significantly decreased during storage in the bottles with increasing headspace, while values remained almost constant in the others. PMID:14727776

  8. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  9. Episodic Deep Fluid Expulsion at Mud Volcanoes in the Kumano Forearc Basin, SE Offshore Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, S.; Kopf, A.

    2014-12-01

    from a reservoir within the older part of the accretionary prism, but that mud volcanic activity is less frequent than major earthquakes. Future models will focus on source depth and temperature, and might elucidate the prerequisites for fluid migration and its role in seismogenesis at the Nankai Trough subduction zone.

  10. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  11. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  12. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  13. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  14. 46 CFR 128.450 - Liquid-mud systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid-mud systems. 128.450 Section 128.450 Shipping...: EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Design Requirements for Specific Systems § 128.450 Liquid-mud systems. (a) Liquid-mud... this chapter. (b) Tanks for oil-based liquid mud must be fitted with tank vents equipped with...

  15. Distribution patters of mobile mud in the East China Sea: elucidated from particle size, radionuclides and magnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Du, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine surface sediments due to resuspension may return to water column followed by particles sedimentation on the seabed. Therefore, particulate material in estuarine and coastal environments would be typically deposited and resuspended several times before permanent accumulation or transport offshore. The suspension and mobile sediments, referred to be "mobile mud" definated by high water content(≥0.30) and no-decay 210Pbex vertical distribution, play an important role in the biogeochemical cycles in the estuarine/coastal area. In the present work, the spatial and temporal distribution of thickness, grain-size in the mobile mud of the East China Sea were conducted by May and August, 2011. Most mobile mud are distributed along the coast and north offshore, and the thick mud layer (≥2cm) is featured with fine grain size, high water content and TOC, exhibiting the activeness of mobile mud. The total amount of mobile mud in the East China Sea is ten times in comparison with annual sediment discharge from the Changjiang River. The maximum of mobile mud thickness and 7Be activity in May was distributed in the south coast, but that in August was distributed in the north coast. The mobile mud HIRM was relatively large both in May and August, but the north coast HIRM in August was larger than that in May. All these change of mobile mud thickness, nuclides and magnetic properties indicated that the mobile mud formation mechanism has the different patterns in the different region.The north coastal mobile mud formation is dominated by the Changjiang Diluted Water, and in the south is controlled by the monsoon-influenced Zhejiang-Fujian coastal current. The main source of mobile mud near the inshore is predominantly input from the Changjiang River. However, most mobile mud in the north offshore may be originally derived from the Changjiang River and old Huanghe River. Compared south offshore with thin layer of mobile mud, the north offshore mobile mud formation

  16. Cytotoxic and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities of Red Sea marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer and HIV/AIDS are two of the greatest public health and humanitarian challenges facing the world today. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. The enormous biodiversity of marine habitats is mirrored by the molecular diversity of secondary metabolites found in marine animals, plants and microbes which is why this work was designed to assess the anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities of some marine organisms of the Red Sea. Methods The lipophilic fractions of methanolic extracts of thirteen marine organisms collected from the Red Sea (Egypt) were screened for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines; leukaemia (U937) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) were used as normal non-malignant control cells. The extracts were also tested for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 enzymes, reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR). Results Cytotoxicity results showed strong activity of the Cnidarian Litophyton arboreum against U-937 (IC50; 6.5 μg/ml ±2.3) with a selectivity index (SI) of 6.45, while the Cnidarian Sarcophyton trochliophorum showed strong activity against HeLa cells (IC50; 5.2 μg/ml ±1.2) with an SI of 2.09. Other species showed moderate to weak cytotoxicity against both cell lines. Two extracts showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease; these were the Cnidarian jelly fish Cassiopia andromeda (IC50; 0.84 μg/ml ±0.05) and the red algae Galaxura filamentosa (2.6 μg/ml ±1.29). It is interesting to note that the most active extracts against HIV-1 PR, C. andromeda and G. filamentosa showed no cytotoxicity in the three cell lines at the highest concentration tested (100 μg/ml). Conclusion The strong cytotoxicity of the soft corals L. arboreum and S. trochliophorum as well as the anti-PR activity of the jelly fish C. andromeda and the red

  17. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  18. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    PubMed

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites. PMID:26492255

  19. Water-retentive and anti-inflammatory properties of organic and inorganic substances from Korean sea mud.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmi; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Shin, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Eun-Ki

    2010-03-01

    Sea mud has been popularly used as an effective base in cosmetic preparations although its biologically-active materials and mechanisms on skin have not yet been fully determined. We isolated humic substances as the major organic substance of the sea mud from a tidal flat in Korea, and investigated their water-retentive properties. Among the three isolated humic substances, humic acid (HA) showed the highest water retentive property (approximately 50 % mass increase from water uptake). Based on the observations that mud pack therapy has been traditionally used to soothe UV-irradiated skin, we examined the antiinflammatory property of the sea mud on UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) by measuring PGE2 levels produced by keratinocytes in the presence of either the total water or methanol extracts of the mud. The water extract showed higher inhibition of PGE2 production from HaCaT cells (30% inhibition) than the methanol extract at 200 ppm (microg/g). We further fractionated the water extract to determine the major components responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. It was found that the minerals in the mud inhibited PGE2 production by 83 % at 200 ppm, which is comparable with the inhibitory effect of 1 microM indomethacin. No mud extract showed cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. The mineral compositions of the mineral extract were determined by ICP-MS, revealing that the sea mud consisted of more than 19 different mineral components, rich in Na+, Mg2+, and Zn2+. These results imply that the anti-inflammatory effect of the sea mud is largely due to the minerals in the mud. Our research suggests the potential use of the organic and inorganic substances from the sea mud in various skin products as safe biological substances for skin protective purposes. PMID:20420315

  20. Genetically encoded far-red fluorescent sensors for caspase-3 activity.

    PubMed

    Zlobovskaya, Olga A; Sergeeva, Tatiana F; Shirmanova, Marina V; Dudenkova, Varvara V; Sharonov, George V; Zagaynova, Elena V; Lukyanov, Konstantin A

    2016-02-01

    Caspase-3 is a key effector caspase that is activated in both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Available fluorescent sensors for caspase-3 activity operate in relatively short wavelength regions and are nonoptimal for multiparameter microscopy and whole-body imaging. In the present work, we developed new genetically encoded sensors for caspase-3 activity possessing the most red-shifted spectra to date. These consist of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) pairs in which a far-red fluorescent protein (mKate2 or eqFP650) is connected to the infrared fluorescent protein iRFP through a linker containing the DEVD caspase-3 cleavage site. During staurosporine-induced apoptosis of mammalian cells (HeLa and CT26), both mKate2-DEVD-iRFP and eqFP650-DEVD-iRFP sensors showed a robust response (1.6-fold increase of the donor fluorescence intensity). However, eqFP650-DEVD-iRFP displayed aggregation in some cells. For stably transfected CT26 mKate2-DEVD-iRFP cells, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) enabled us to detect caspase-3 activation due to the increase of mKate2 donor fluorescence lifetime from 1.45 to 2.05 ns. We took advantage of the strongly red-shifted spectrum of mKate2-DEVD-iRFP to perform simultaneous imaging of EGFP-Bax translocation during apoptosis. We conclude that mKate2-DEVD-iRFP is well-suited for multiparameter imaging and also potentially beneficial for in vivo imaging in animal tissues. PMID:26842350

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  2. Matrix Effects on the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Red Cabbage Anthocyanins under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Podsędek, Anna; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Red cabbage is, among different vegetables, one of the major sources of anthocyanins. In the present study an in vitro digestion method has been used to assay the influence of the physiological conditions in the stomach and small intestine, as well as faecal microflora on anthocyanins stability in red cabbage and anthocyanin-rich extract. The recovery of anthocyanins during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was strongly influenced by food matrix. The results showed that other constituents present in cabbage enhanced the stability of anthocyanins during the digestion. The amount of anthocyanins (HPLC method) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays) strongly decreased after pancreatic-bile digestion in both matrices but total phenolics content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) in these digestions was higher than in initial samples. Incubation with human faecal microflora caused further decline in anthocyanins content. The results obtained suggest that intact anthocyanins in gastric and products of their decomposition in small and large intestine may be mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity and other physiological effects after consumption of red cabbage. PMID:24575407

  3. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment. PMID:27354013

  4. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate. The substrate of mud flats contains organic material and particles smaller in size than sand. They...

  5. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  6. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extremely low tides and inundated at high tides with the water table at or near the surface of the substrate... dewater the mud flat or disrupt periodic inundation, resulting in an increase in the rate of erosion...

  7. Isotopic composition of gases from mud volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Valysaev, B.M.; Erokhin, V.E.; Grinchenko, Y.I.; Prokhorov, V.S.; Titkov, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    A study has been made of the isotopic composition of the carbon in methane and carbon dioxide, as well as hydrogen in the methane, in the gases of mud volcanoes, for all main mud volcano areas in the USSR. The isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in methane shows that the gases resemble those of oil and gas deposits, while carbon dioxide of these volcanoes has a heavier isotopic composition with a greater presence of ''ultraheavy'' carbon dioxide. By the chemical and isotopic composition of gases, Azerbaidzhan and South Sakhalin types of mud volcano gases have been identified, as well as Bulganak subtypes and Akhtala and Kobystan varieties. Correlations are seen between the isotopic composition of gases and the geological build of mud volcano areas.

  8. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-01

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m2/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  9. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600°C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50 mg/L, natural pH, 0.1 g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  10. The activation of the sodium pump in pig red blood cells by internal and external cations.

    PubMed

    Brand, S C; Whittam, R

    1985-05-30

    A study has been made with pig red blood cells of the activation of the sodium pump by internal and external cations. Cell Na and K concentrations were altered using a PCMBS cation loading procedure. The procedure was characterised for resultant ionic conditions, maintenance of ATP levels and fragility. The activation of the sodium pump by external K was measured in cells suspended in choline (Na-free) solutions. External Cs was used as a substitute for K and elicited lower rates of pump activity. Both the Vmax and apparent Km for 42K influx and 134Cs influx increased as internal Na concentration was raised (within the non-saturating range). Vmax/apparent Km ratios for cation influx were constant. Raising external Cs concentration exerted a similar influence on pump activation by internal Na: both the maximum pump velocity and the apparent Na-site dissociation constant (K'Na) increased. The results provide evidence for a transmembrane connection between cation binding sites on opposite faces of the membrane and are consistent with a consecutive model for the sodium pump in pig red blood cells. PMID:2581622

  11. Methods for quantitative detection of antibody-induced complement activation on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Meulenbroek, Elisabeth M; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) can lead to complement activation resulting in an accelerated clearance via complement receptors in the liver (extravascular hemolysis) or leading to intravascular lysis of RBCs. Alloantibodies (e.g. ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal(1). Currently, complement activation due to (auto)-antibodies on RBCs is assessed in vitro by using the Coombs test reflecting complement deposition on RBC or by a nonquantitative hemolytic assay reflecting RBC lysis(1-4). However, to assess the efficacy of complement inhibitors, it is mandatory to have quantitative techniques. Here we describe two such techniques. First, an assay to detect C3 and C4 deposition on red blood cells that is induced by antibodies in patient serum is presented. For this, FACS analysis is used with fluorescently labeled anti-C3 or anti-C4 antibodies. Next, a quantitative hemolytic assay is described. In this assay, complement-mediated hemolysis induced by patient serum is measured making use of spectrophotometric detection of the released hemoglobin. Both of these assays are very reproducible and quantitative, facilitating studies of antibody-induced complement activation. PMID:24514151

  12. The Activity of Cholinesterases in Diapausing and Flying Red Mason Bees Osmia bicornis (Megachilidae).

    PubMed

    Dmochowska-Slezak, Kamila; Zaobidna, Ewa; Domeracka, Joanna; Swiatkowska, Marta; Rusznica, Małgorzata; Zółtowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The red mason bee (Osmia bicornis) is a highly effective pollinator that is exposed to various xenobiotics. The organism's potential resistance to the toxic effects of xenobiotics can be determined based on cholinesterase activity. The activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) towards acetylcholine (ACh) and butyrylcholine (BCh) was determined in extracts of diapausing (between October and late March) and flying bees (May). In both males and females, enzyme activity was higher towards ACh than towards BCh. The ratio of ACh/BCh activity was determined in the range of 1.43 to 4.15 in diapausing females and 3.00 to 7.18 in diapausing males. No significant changes in ChE activity towards ACh were observed in females before December and in males before February. Enzyme activity towards ACh increased dynamically in the second half of March. Enzyme activity towards BCh remained stable in both sexes until mid-March, after which it increased significantly. Excluding mid-March, enzyme BCh activity was significantly higher in females than in males. The activity of carboxylesterase towards 4-p-nitrophenyl butyrate was determined in females to assess the involvement of non-specific esterases in the hydrolysis of choline esters. Carboxylesterase activity was low in comparison with cholinesterase activity, and it remained practically unchanged throughout diapause, suggesting that choline esters in female O. bicornis extracts were hydrolyzed mainly by acetylcholinesterases. PMID:26975137

  13. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    PubMed

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. PMID:25766797

  14. Integrated geophysical and petrological characterization of mud volcanoes at the Morrocan Atlantic margin - linking morphology to fluid flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depreiter, D.; van Rensbergen, P.; Poort, J.; de Boever, E.; Swennen, R.; Henriet, J.

    2005-12-01

    Detailed geophysical, geochemical and petrological data over a cluster of large mud volcanoes at the Moroccan North Atlantic margin document the activity of sea floor mud volcanoes in relation to its morphology and structural setting. Mud volcanoes are often long-lived systems; their changing morphology bears witness of the evolution of fluid flow expulsion. The El Arraiche mud volcano field is a cluster of 9 mud volcanoes. It was discovered in 2002 at the Morrocan Atlantic margin in water depths from 200 m to 700 m. The largest mud volcano in the field is 255 m high and 5.4 km wide. Marine surveys between 2002 and 2005 yielded detailed geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological, and petrological data. The geophysical data include multibeam bathymetry, high-resolution seismics, deep-tow sub bottom profiles and side-scan sonar mosaics. Video imagery lines, video guided grab samples, dredge samples, gravity cores, and box cores were collected for groundtruthing purposes. Petrological and geochemical analysis of authigenic carbonates provided a record of hydrocarbon sources, fluid characteristics, processes of mixing and the mode of venting. The El Arraiche mud volcanoes cluster around two subparallel anticlines and are associated active extensional faults. Extruded rock clasts and regional seismic data locate the El Arraiche field over a Late Miocene to Pliocene extensional basin. The onset of mud volcanic activity is estimated at about 2.4 Ma and probably roots in the Cretacous to Miocene accretionary wedge. Stacked outflows are visible up to a depth of about 500 m below the sea floor. Stratigraphic correlation of the outflow lenses over the entire mud volcano field indicate that although large outflow events are not synchronized between the individual mud volcanoes, eruptions occurred more frequently during periods of active extensive tectonics. The morphology of the sea floor mud volcanoes is the result of a combination of extrusive and intrusive processes

  15. Dynamic filtration of invert-emulsion muds

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. )

    1993-09-01

    Dynamic-filtration experiments conducted on oil-based muds show that the dynamic-filtration rate is much higher than API filtration rates. The use of water-wet solids results in very poor-quality external mudcakes and high fluid-loss rates. Better external mudcakes are formed by mixing equal parts organophilic clay and mud. Filtration-loss-control additives (asphalt mineral pitches) do not reduce the equilibrium filtration rate, but do reduce spurt loss and limit solids invasion. In brine-saturated rocks, the invasion rate for oil-based muds is significantly smaller than for water-based muds because capillary pressure prevents the oil phase from entering the core in oil-based muds. Oil-based mudcakes are softer and more shear-sensitive than water-based mudcakes. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photomicrographs indicate that oil-based mudcakes consist of individual water droplets coated with clay particles. This cake structure gives rise to the low permeability and shear sensitivity of oil-based muds.

  16. What Makes Red Giants Tick? Linking Tidal Forces, Activity, and Solar-Like Oscillations via Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawls, Meredith L.; Gaulme, Patrick; McKeever, Jean; Jackiewicz, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to advances in asteroseismology, red giants have become astrophysical laboratories for studying stellar evolution and probing the Milky Way. However, not all red giants show solar-like oscillations. It has been proposed that stronger tidal interactions from short-period binaries and increased magnetic activity on spotty giants are linked to absent or damped solar-like oscillations, yet each star tells a nuanced story. In this work, we characterize a subset of red giants in eclipsing binaries observed by Kepler. The binaries exhibit a range of orbital periods, solar-like oscillation behavior, and stellar activity. We use orbital solutions together with a suite of modeling tools to combine photometry and spectroscopy in a detailed analysis of tidal synchronization timescales, star spot activity, and stellar evolution histories. These red giants offer an unprecedented opportunity to test stellar physics and are important benchmarks for ensemble asteroseismology.

  17. Four new ginsenosides from red ginseng with inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Le; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-08-15

    During a search for novel melanogenesis inhibitors originating from nature sources, four new ginsenosides, including three dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rf-1a (1), 20Z-ginsenoside-Rs4 (2), 23-O-methylginsenoside-Rg11 (3), and one oleanane-type saponin, ginsenoside-Ro-6'-O-butyl ester (4) were isolated from red ginseng (the steamed ginseng) to evaluate their protective effects against melanogenesis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, and were more potent than the positive control arbutin, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. The results indicated that just the two carbon-20(22) double-bond-type ginsenosides showed strong inhibiting activity on melanogenesis through reducing tyrosinase activity. Thus, ginsenosides with such similar chemical structure in red ginseng may be potential natural products as tyrosinase inhibitors against malignant melanoma. PMID:26087936

  18. Fluidization of mud in estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Chappell, John; Ridd, Peter; Vertessy, Rob

    1988-03-01

    The South Alligator River, located in the Northern Territory, Australia, is a macrotidal estuary with suspended sediment concentration values reaching 10 g 1-1 In September 1986, in the dry season, the estuary was well mixed in temperature and salinity. While the vertical gradients in suspended sediment concentration were small at flood tides, for most of the ebb tide duration a lutocline separated a clear upper layer from an extremely turbid bottom layer, both layers being of comparable thickness. The tidal evolution of the suspended sediment concentration is consistent with that computed by a numerical model based on the equation of conservation of mass of suspended sediment. In this model, sediment is entrained from the bottom and mixed vertically upward by eddy diffusion, but through a Richardson number dependence, sediment-induced buoyancy effects inhibit vertical mixing. The final depth of the turbid layer can be readily estimated analytically as a result of a balance between the rate of kinetic energy input and the buoyancy flux determined by the particle fall velocity. The presence of a lutocline helps form mud banks on the inner side of a meander.

  19. Rapid, Specific, No-wash, Far-red Fluorogen Activation in Subcellular Compartments by Targeted Fluorogen Activating Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Live cell imaging requires bright photostable dyes that can target intracellular organelles and proteins with high specificity in a no-wash protocol. Organic dyes possess the desired photochemical properties and can be covalently linked to various protein tags. The currently available fluorogenic dyes are in the green/yellow range where there is high cellular autofluorescence and the near-infrared (NIR) dyes need to be washed out. Protein-mediated activation of far-red fluorogenic dyes has the potential to address these challenges because the cell-permeant dye is small and nonfluorescent until bound to its activating protein, and this binding is rapid. In this study, three single chain variable fragment (scFv)-derived fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs), which activate far-red emitting fluorogens, were evaluated for targeting, brightness, and photostability in the cytosol, nucleus, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum with a cell-permeant malachite green analog in cultured mammalian cells. Efficient labeling was achieved within 20–30 min for each protein upon the addition of nM concentrations of dye, producing a signal that colocalized significantly with a linked mCerulean3 (mCer3) fluorescent protein and organelle specific dyes but showed divergent photostability and brightness properties dependent on the FAP. These FAPs and the ester of malachite green dye (MGe) can be used as specific, rapid, and wash-free labels for intracellular sites in live cells with far-red excitation and emission properties, useful in a variety of multicolor experiments. PMID:25650487

  20. Antitumour and antioxidant activity of some Red Sea seaweeds in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Hegazi, Muhammad M; Abd-Alla, Howaida I; Eskander, Emad F; Ellithey, Mona S

    2011-01-01

    The antitumour activities of extracts from the Red Sea seaweeds Jania rubens, Sargassum subrepandum, and Ulva lactuca were investigated in an in vivo mice model based on intramuscular injection of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. In parallel, antioxidant activities were measured. Tumour marker levels, liver biochemical parameters, and hepatic oxidant/antioxidant status were measured to prove the anticancer and antioxidant nature of the algal extracts. Significant decreases in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and a-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, activities of liver enzymes, levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were recorded in groups treated with the algal extracts. Jania rubens was selected for phytochemical screening of its phytoconstituents. In addition, carotenoids, halides, minerals, lipoidal matters, proteins, and carbohydrates were studied. Furthermore, 7-oxo-cholest-5(6)-en-3-ol (1) and cholesterol (2) were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. PMID:21950161

  1. Red Dwarf Stars: Ages, Rotation, Magnetic Dynamo Activity and the Habitability of Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    We report on our continued efforts to understand and delineate the magnetic dynamo-induced behavior/variability of red dwarf (K5 V - M6 V) stars over their long lifetimes. These properties include: rotation, light variations (from star spots), coronal-chromospheric XUV activity and flares. This study is being carried out as part of the NSF-sponsored Living with a Red Dwarf program. The Living with a Red Dwarf program's database of dM stars with photometrically determined rotation rates (from starspot modulations) continues to expand, as does the inventory of archival XUV observations. Recently, the photometric properties of several hundred dM stars from the Kepler database are being analyzed to determine the rotation rates, starspot areal coverage/distributions and stellar flare rates. When all data setsare combined with ages from cluster/population memberships and kinematics, the determination of Age-Rotation-Activity relationships is possible. Such relationships have broad impacts not only on the studies of magnetic dynamo theory and angular momentum loss of low-mass stars with deep convective zones, but also on the suitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs to support life. With intrinsically low luminosities (L< 0.02L⊙), the liquid water habitable zones (HZs) for hosted planets are very close to their host stars - typically at ˜0.1 AU < HZ < 0.4 AU. Planets located close to their host stars risk damage and atmospheric loss from coronal & chromospheric XUV radiation, flares and plasma blasts via strong winds and coronal mass ejections. In addition, our relationships permit the stellar ages to be determined through measures of either the stars' rotation periods (best way) or XUV activity levels. This also permits a determination of the ages of their hosted planets. We illustrate this with examples of age determinations of the exoplanet systems: GJ 581 and HD 85512 (both with large Earth-size planets within the host star's HZ), GJ 1214 (hot, close

  2. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    PubMed

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  3. DInSAR Analysis Reveals Bulging of Azerbaijan Mud Volcano Edifices Before an Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido

    2015-05-01

    Mud volcanism consists in the surface extrusion of gases, saline waters and mud breccias, which produce conical edifices of various sizes with morphology similar to that of magmatic volcanoes. In this work, DInSAR technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes during the period October 2003-November 2005. This work focuses on two important deformation events at the Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara-Zira mud volcanoes. The ground deformations at mud volcanoes are generally originated by fluid pressure and volume variations in the reservoir. The observed deformation pattern is characterized by pre-eruptive inflation that reaches a cumulative value of up to 20 cm at Ayaz-Akhtarma in about two years. Similar pre-eruptive bulging has been observed at magmatic volcanoes, where uplift is typically associated with magma intrusion. We conclude that mud and magmatic volcanoes display some similarities in the behavior of ground deformation during pre-eruptive stages.

  4. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor.

  5. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement

    PubMed Central

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R.; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R.; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO2 from the seafloor. PMID:25384354

  6. Limitations of microbial hydrocarbon degradation at the Amon mud volcano (Nile deep-sea fan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felden, J.; Lichtschlag, A.; Wenzhöfer, F.; de Beer, D.; Feseker, T.; Pop Ristova, P.; de Lange, G.; Boetius, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Amon mud volcano (MV), located at 1250 m water depth on the Nile deep-sea fan, is known for its active emission of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons into the hydrosphere. Previous investigations showed a low efficiency of hydrocarbon-degrading anaerobic microbial communities inhabiting the Amon MV center in the presence of sulfate and hydrocarbons in the seeping subsurface fluids. By comparing spatial and temporal patterns of in situ biogeochemical fluxes, temperature gradients, pore water composition, and microbial activities over 3 yr, we investigated why the activity of anaerobic hydrocarbon degraders can be low despite high energy supplies. We found that the central dome of the Amon MV, as well as a lateral mud flow at its base, showed signs of recent exposure of hot subsurface muds lacking active hydrocarbon degrading communities. In these highly disturbed areas, anaerobic degradation of methane was less than 2% of the methane flux. Rather high oxygen consumption rates compared to low sulfide production suggest a faster development of more rapidly growing aerobic hydrocarbon degraders in highly disturbed areas. In contrast, the more stabilized muds surrounding the central gas and fluid conduits hosted active anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities. The low microbial activity in the hydrocarbon-vented areas of Amon MV is thus a consequence of kinetic limitations by heat and mud expulsion, whereas most of the outer MV area is limited by hydrocarbon transport.

  7. 3-D Seismic Images of Mud Volcano North Alex, West-Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Gehrmann, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Mud volcanoes within shelf areas are the bathymetric expression of mobilized overpressured sediments causing a feature of possible instability within the slope. Such a scene is given in the West-Nile Delta offshore Alexandria, Egypt at 700 m water depth. The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. Deep-cutting channel systems like the Rosetta channel characterize the continental slope. Bathymetric expressions of slides and numerous mud volcanoes in the area are expressions of active processes, which contribute to the ongoing modification of the slope. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A grid of 2-D seismic profiles did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. They can be tracked up to the seafloor indicating ongoing tectonic activity of the slope area. A recently build 3-D acquisition system suitable for mid-size research vessels was applied to collect an active seismic cube of the mud volcano. Based on the P-Cable design 11 parallel streamers (each 12.5 m long with 1.5 m group interval) were used to record shots of a single 210 cinch GI airgun. After stacking a 3D time migration within the cube provided final signal to noise reduction and filled

  8. Microbial methane turnover at mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.; Duarte, J.; Hensen, C.; Omoregie, E.; Magalhães, V. H.; Elvert, M.; Pinheiro, L. M.; Kopf, A.; Boetius, A.

    2006-11-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is a tectonically active area of the European continental margin and characterised by a high abundance of mud volcanoes, diapirs, pockmarks and carbonate chimneys. During the R/V SONNE expedition "GAP-Gibraltar Arc Processes (SO-175)" in December 2003, several mud volcanoes were surveyed for gas seepage and associated microbial methane turnover. Pore water analyses and methane oxidation measurements on sediment cores recovered from the centres of the mud volcanoes Captain Arutyunov, Bonjardim, Ginsburg, Gemini and a newly discovered, mud volcano-like structure called "No Name" show that thermogenic methane and associated higher hydrocarbons rising from deeper sediment strata are completely consumed within the seabed. The presence of a distinct sulphate-methane transition zone (SMT) overlapping with high sulphide concentrations suggests that methane oxidation is mediated under anaerobic conditions with sulphate as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and sulphate reduction (SR) rates show maxima at the SMT, which was found between 20 and 200 cm below seafloor at the different mud volcanoes. In comparison to other methane seeps, AOM activity (<383 mmol m -2 year -1) and diffusive methane fluxes (<321 mmol m -2 year -1) in mud volcano sediments of the Gulf of Cadiz are low to mid range. Corresponding lipid biomarker and 16S rDNA clone library analysis give evidence that AOM is mediated by a mixed community of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and associated sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the studied mud volcanoes. Little is known about the variability of methane fluxes in this environment. Carbonate crusts littering the seafloor of mud volcanoes in the northern part of the Gulf of Cadiz had strongly 13C-depleted lipid signatures indicative of higher seepage activities in the past. However, actual seafloor video observations showed only scarce traces of methane seepage and associated biological processes at the seafloor. No

  9. Are reefs and mud mounds really so different?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Rachel

    2001-12-01

    Although both 'ecologic reefs' and mud mounds are demonstrably rigid, framework reefs, they are still considered to be distinct in terms of their dominant processes of formation and preferred environmental settings. This distinction has rested largely upon the assumption that ecologic reefs are dominated by skeletal metazoans growing in shallow waters, in contrast to the complex autochthonous micrite-supported cavity systems that characterise deep-water mud mounds, now considered to represent either organomineralic deposits (where carbonate precipitation has taken place in association with nonliving organic substrates to form 'automicrite') or various types of microbialite (where carbonate forms as a direct result of the physiological activity or decay of benthic microorganisms). Yet, such autochthonous micrite is increasingly recognised as an important component of many ancient shallow ecologic reefs as well as some modern coral reefs, and indeed may contribute locally up to 80% of the reef rock. These observations raise doubts as to the validity of current fabric-based definitions used to distinguish between mud mounds and ecologic reefs. Whether the autochthonous micrite in mud mounds proves to be dominated by either automicrite or microbialite, both require particular environmental conditions for their formation. Automicrites form where surplus organic matter from metazoans has degraded to release quantities of acidic amino acids with a significant ability to bind Ca 2+ , and microbialite formation also often requires either unusual marine chemistries or ecological conditions. Such conditions might include changes in terrigenous influx, ground water seepage, local anoxia, and increases in the pH of interstitial reef waters or in nutrient concentration.

  10. The Sirente crater, Italy: Impact versus mud volcano origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoppa, Francesco

    2006-03-01

    The Sirente crater is a circular structure with a diameter of ˜80 m. The rim deposit is an inverse-graded, matrix-supported breccia. Sedimentological features of the rim deposit suggest that the crater is not related to an explosion or violent mechanical displacement. The structure and texture of the deposit exhibit a primary sedimentary character. The rim deposits do not contain artifacts and do not show evidence of reworking. A multistage formation is reconstructed for the rim growth and associated deposits. The geometry and sedimentology of the deposits indicate that they were produced by the extrusion and accumulation of mudflow deposits. The dominant ejection mechanism was low mud fountains and the transport medium was water. Petrographic and geochemical evidence does not indicate any physical or cryptic trace of an extraterrestrial body. The most realistic agent that explains the observed effects is a rapid local emission of mud and/or water. Geological processes capable of producing these features include piping sinkholes or, more probably, "caldera"-type mud volcanoes, which may result from underground water-table perturbation and/or decompression of deep CO2/hydrocarbon gas reservoirs due to tectonic deformation or faulting activity during a seismic event. In both cases, the name "crater" for this geological form may be maintained, but there is no compelling evidence for an impact origin. In this paper, the scientific literature on the Sirente crater is reconsidered in the light of new morphological, sedimentological, geochemical, and archaeological data. A new mechanism is proposed involving mud-fountaining.

  11. Mud Volcanism and Fluid Venting In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea: Observations From Sidescan Sonar and Submersible Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitter, T. A. C.; Huguen, C.; Woodside, J. M.; Mascle, J.; Scientific Party, Medineth/Medinaut

    Mud volcanoes in the eastern Mediterranean Sea have been identified by their distinctive acoustic signature as well as their morphology and sedimentology. They appear as circular regions of high backscatter believed to be caused principally by the clast content of the mud flows forming the mud volcano. Both the MEDINAUT and MEDINETH expeditions, conducted in 1998 and 1999 over two mud fields, the Olimpi field and the Anaximander Mountains area, in Eastern Mediterranean Sea, studied mud volcanism using a multidisciplinary approach in order to determine the relationships between the activity of the mud volcanoes (importance of degassing, associated fauna) and their geophysical signature. Mud volcanoes in Eastern Mediterranean Sea vary from conical and dome-shaped reliefs from 500m to 2km wide and 100 to 200m high to large "mud pie" types up to 6km wide. Sidescan sonar records give a very high resolution of the acoustic response, enabling to distinguish several mud flows, often flowing along tectonic lineations. A clear relationship between the occurrence of mud volcanism and cold seeps and both thrust and transcurrent faulting has been observed in both mud fields, although the tectonic settings vary from purely compressional to a more transpressional stress field. The faults are inferred to provide pathways for over- pressured fluids, and secondary faulting (transcurrent and extensional faults) may facilitate mud ascension. On the basis of sidescan sonar interpretation, other typical features have been inferred such as main feeder channels, eruptive cone centers, or brine pools. The in situ observations have been used to characterize the seafloor over numerous mud volcanoes and ground-truth the sonar data. They reveal an abundance of fluid seeps, mainly methane and methane-rich brines, as well as associated specific fauna such as tube worms, clams and chemosynthetic bacteria, and specific diagenetic phenomenon i.e. carbonate crusts. Video observations proved that

  12. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.

    2016-05-01

    Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.

  13. Sensorimotor Processing in the Newborn Rat Red Nucleus during Active Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Sokoloff, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback from sleep-related myoclonic twitches is thought to drive activity-dependent development in spinal cord and brain. However, little is known about the neural pathways involved in the generation of twitches early in development. The red nucleus (RN), source of the rubrospinal tract, has been implicated in the production of phasic motor activity during active sleep in adults. Here we hypothesized that the RN is also a major source of motor output for twitching in early infancy, a period when twitching is an especially abundant motor behavior. We recorded extracellular neural activity in the RN during sleep and wakefulness in 1-week-old unanesthetized rats. Neurons in the RN fired phasically before twitching and wake movements of the contralateral forelimb. A subpopulation of neurons in the RN exhibited a significant peak of activity after forelimb movement onset, suggesting reafferent sensory processing. Consistent with this observation, manual stimulation of the forelimb evoked RN responses. Unilateral inactivation of the RN using a mixture comprising GABAA, GABAB, and glycine receptor agonists caused an immediate and temporary increase in motor activity followed by a marked and prolonged decrease in twitching and wake movements. Altogether, these data support a causal role for the RN in infant motor behavior. Furthermore, they indicate that twitching, which is characterized by discrete motor output and reafferent input, provides an opportunity for sensorimotor integration and activity-dependent development of topography within the newborn RN. PMID:26019345

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    PubMed

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p < 0.01). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in daily sperm production when irradiated and nonirradiated maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05). This is not observed with red maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained. PMID:26633045

  15. Antimicrobial activity of volatile components and various extracts of the red alga Jania rubens.

    PubMed

    Karabay-Yavasoglu, N Ulku; Sukatar, Atakan; Ozdemir, Guven; Horzum, Zerrin

    2007-02-01

    The methanol, dichloromethane, hexane, chloroform and volatile oil extracts of the red alga Jania rubens were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity (five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans ATCC 10239). GC-MS analysis of the volatile components of J. rubens identified 40 compounds which constituted 77.53% of the total. The volatile components of J. rubens consisted of n-docosane (6.35%), n-eicosane (5.77%) and n-tetratriacontane (5.58%) as major components. The methanol and chloroform extracts (4 mg/disc) showed more potent antimicrobial activity than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts and the volatile oil of J. rubens. PMID:17128433

  16. Extraction and evaluation of natural occurring bioactive compounds and change in antioxidant activity during red winemaking.

    PubMed

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Durakova, Sanja; Ricci, Arianna; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Phenolic composition of red wines from Stanušina, a grape variety indigenous of the Republic of Macedonia, was compared with the regional Vranec and the international Cabernet Sauvignon. The extent of skin contact (i.e. maceration time) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wines was evaluated. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Among these malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative, followed by catechin, the main flavan-3-ol. The concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and (+)-catechin ranged from 224 to 511 mg/L, 22 to 360 mg/L and 26 20 to 375 mg/L, respectively and peaked at 3rd, 6th and 9th day of maceration, respectively. However, prolong maceration slightly decreased their concentration. Stanušina wines presented high levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity. PMID:27478219

  17. Extreme Precipitation Events in the Middle East: Dynamics of the Active Red Sea Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Andries Jan; Lelieveld, Jos; Tyrlis, Evangelos; Krichak, Shimon; Edry, Dudi; Steil, Benedikt

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events in the Middle East can cause flash floods with serious societal impacts. For example, in Egypt in November 1994, and in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) in November 2009, flash floods caused almost 600 and more than 120 casualties, respectively. A major meteorological phenomenon involved is the Active Red Sea Trough (ARST), a midlatitude-tropical interaction. Previous ARST studies addressed the dynamics, however, do not provide a complete understanding of the mechanism, and moreover, focus only on the Levant. This study presents a generalized concept of the ARST dynamics and aims for an improved understanding of its geographical extent and seasonality. We used ERA-Interim data to analyze several ARST events affecting the Levant, the Jeddah flooding, and the seasonality of the ARST associated dynamics. The synoptics around 25 November 2009 show a similar dynamical evolution as the ARST events over the Levant, revealing that the Jeddah flooding was in fact caused by an ARST. An ARST concept is defined, involving six important dynamical features: (1) a semi-permanent low-level trough (i.e. the Red Sea Trough), (2) a semi-permanent anticyclone at mid-levels over the Arabian Peninsula, (3) a mid-latitude upper level trough, (4) an intensified subtropical jet stream, (5) moisture transport and convergence, and (6) ascending motions resulting from the large scale forcing and tropospheric instability, leading to mesoscale convective systems and (local) extreme precipitation. Our analysis emphasizes the significance of the semi-permanent anticyclone over the Arabian Peninsula, predominantly causing moisture transport from the Arabian and Red Seas. The seasonal cycle of these dynamical factors explains why the ARSTs over the Levant region occur primarily in autumn and to a lesser extent in spring, and suggests a temporal shift further to the south (e.g. around Jeddah), starting later in autumn, ending earlier in spring, and favorable conditions for ARSTs

  18. Active Sodium and Potassium Transport in High Potassium and Low Potassium Sheep Red Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P. G.; Tosteson, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the ouabain-sensitive (Na + K) transport system (pump) of high potassium (HK) and low potassium (LK) sheep red cells have been investigated. In sodium medium, the curve relating pump rate to external K is sigmoid with half maximal stimulation (K1/2) occurring at 3 mM for both cell types, the maximum pump rate in HK cells being about four times that in LK cells. In sodium-free media, both HK and LK pumps are adequately described by the Michaelis-Menten equation, but the K1/2 for HK cells is 0.6 ± 0.1 mM K, while that for LK is 0.2 ± 0.05 mM K. When the internal Na and K content of the cells was varied by the PCMBS method, it was found that the pump rate of HK cells showed a gradual increase from zero at very low internal Na to a maximum when internal K was reduced to nearly zero (100% Na). In LK cells, on the other hand, no pump activity was detected if Na constituted less than 70% of the total (Na + K) in the cell. Increasing Na from 70 to nearly 100% of the internal cation composition, however, resulted in an exponential increase in pump rate in these cells to about ⅙ the maximum rate observed in HK cells. While changes in internal composition altered the pump rate at saturating concentrations of external K, it had no effect on the apparent affinity of the pumps for external K. These results lead us to conclude that the individual pump sites in the HK and LK sheep red cell membranes must be different. Moreover, we believe that these data contribute significantly to defining the types of mechanism which can account for the kinetic characteristics of (Na + K) transport in sheep red cells and perhaps in other systems. PMID:5112660

  19. Results of study of deep underground structure of mud volcanoes in North-Western Caucasus by means of geological and geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobissevitch, A. L.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Ovsuychenko, A. N.; Sobissevitch, L. E.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Morev, B. A.

    2009-04-01

    Results of complementary geological and geophysical studies of mud volcanic phenomena in North-Western Caucasus (Taman mud volcanic province) are presented. New technology for passive subsurface sounding of the Earth's crust has been originally developed at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences. Patented since 2005, this technology represents the new kind of seismic survey based on specific features of propagation of the Rayleigh waves. It uses natural background microseismic noise as a sounding signal. By using the method of low-frequency microseismic sounding in the course of field works carried out in 2006 - 2008, there have been obtained three vertical cross-sections for the two mud volcanoes down to the depth of 25 km. For the two different mud volcanoes their deep subsurface structure has been revealed and discussed. The Gora Karabetova mud volcano is one of the most active mud volcanoes in the Taman peninsula with primarily explosive behaviour while the Shugo mud volcano's activity pattern is different, explosive events are rare and both types of phenomena may be explained by the configuration of their feeding systems, tectonic position and deep pathways of migration of fluids. Complementary interpretation of raw data sets delivered form geophysical and geological surveys allows considering principal differences of origin and mechanisms of mud volcanic activity for the Shugo and the Gora Karabetova mud volcanoes.

  20. Dancing red sprites and the lightning activity in their parent thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József; Zelkó, Zoltán; Hegedüs, Tibor; Jäger, Zoltán; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Popek, Martin; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Red sprites are brief optical emissions initiated in the mesosphere by intense tropospheric lightning discharges. A group of red sprites, in which the elements appear in rapid succession with some lateral offset from one another is referred to as a dancing sprite event. The occurrence of such events implies that significant and sequential charge removal extending to large regions of the thunderstorm can take place in the underlying cloud system. In this work, we examine the relation of the locations and observation times of appearing sprite elements to the temporal and spatial distribution of the lightning activity in a specific sprite-active thunderstorm. The selected mesoscale convective system (MCS) composed of several extremely active thundercloud cells crossed Central Europe from South-West to North-East through Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Poland on the night of 6 August, 2013. This MCS has triggered over one hundred sprites including several dancing sprite events. Video recordings of sprites captured from Sopron, Hungary (16.6°E, 47.7°N) and Nydek, Czech Republic (18.8°E, 49.7°N) were used to identify dancing sprite events and to determine the exact locations of the appearing sprite elements by a triangulation technique used originally to analyze meteor observations. Lightning activity in the MCS can be reviewed using the database of LINET lightning detection network which fully covers the region of interest (ROI). The poster demonstrates how cases of sequential charge removal in the thunderstorm can be followed by combining the available information on the occurrence time, location, polarity, and type (CG/IC) of detected lightning strokes in the ROI on one hand and the occurrence time and location of elements in dancing sprite events on the other hand.

  1. Flocculation settling characteristics of mud: sand mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew J.; Baugh, John V.; Spearman, Jeremy R.; Whitehouse, Richard J. S.

    2010-04-01

    When natural muds become mixed with sandy sediments in estuaries, it has a direct effect on the flocculation process and resultant sediment transport regime. Much research has been completed on the erosion and consolidation of mud/sand mixtures, but very little is known quantitatively about how mixed sediments interact whilst in suspension, particularly in terms of flocculation. This paper presents the settling velocity findings from a recent laboratory study which examined the flocculation dynamics for three different mud/sand mixtures at different concentrations (0.2-5 g.l-1) and turbulent shear stresses (0.06-0.9 Pa) in a mini-annular flume. The low intrusive video-based Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics instrument was used to determine floc/aggregate properties (e.g., size, settling velocity, density and mass) for each population. Settling data was assessed in terms of macrofloc (>160 μm) and microfloc (<160 μm) settling parameters: Wsmacro and Wsmicro, respectively. For pure muds, the macroflocs are regarded as the most dominant contributors to the total depositional flux. The parameterised settling data indicates that by adding more sand to a mud/sand mixture, the fall velocity of the macrofloc fraction slows and the settling velocity of microflocs quickens. Generally, a mainly sandy suspension comprising 25% mud and 75% sand (25M:75S), will produce resultant Wsmacro which are slower than Wsmicro. The quickest Wsmicro appears to consistently occur at a higher level of turbulent shear stress (τ ˜ 0.6 Pa) than both the macrofloc and microfloc fractions from suspensions of pure natural muds. Flocculation within a more cohesively dominant muddy-sand suspension (i.e., 75M:25S) produced macroflocs which fell at similar speeds (±10%) to pure mud suspensions at both low (200 mg l-1) and intermediate (1 g l-1) concentrations at all shear stress increments. Also, low sand content suspensions produced Wsmacro values that were faster than the Wsmicro

  2. Daily Variations of Methane Flux from Submarine Mud Volcanoes in Southwest Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Han; Yang, Tsanyao; Chen, Naichen; Lin, Saulwood; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2014-05-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are features that episodically emit gases, fluids, and mud onto the seafloor. Methane is the representative gas transport by mud volcanoes efficiently from deep buried sediment to the water column, and potentially to the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas. An active mud volcano, site-G96, located at the upper slope of southwest Taiwan, has plume from the top of mud volcano (360 m) direct to the sea surface. We can observe the bubbles at the sea surface. This study was conducted during cruise OR3-1693 in June 2013. To understand the activity of gas emissions of mud volcano, we utilized the 38kz echo sounder to scan back and forth over the site-G96 and obtained 53 acoustic images of plumes. Five water column samples were collected above the venting of G96 at the tidal maximum and minimum. Three gravity cores were taken at the mudflow site of G96. The results show high concentration of methane (38,522ul/l) and shallow depth of sulfate methane transition zone (~70cm) in the cored sediment profiles. The C1/(C2+C3) ratios from cored sediments are in the range of 29-392, indicating that the methane gas is mostly thermogenic in origin. Calculated areas of the plumes from echo sounder images show good correlation with the tide variations during the survey on 1st -2nd June 2013. Flux of methane from the water column to atmosphere can be estimated by diffusive exchange equation, showing that gas emission from an active mud volcano could be largely various (0.065, 3.426, 3.414, 0, 41.739umol m-2 d-1) from time to time, at least, in this study.

  3. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. )

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  4. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    PubMed

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  5. Esterase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from malolactic fermentation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2013-05-15

    The goal of this study was to examine the esterase activity of 243 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains from wines of different red grape varieties, belonging to the genera Oenococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus. p-Nitrophenyl octanoate was used as substrate. All strains presented esterase activity in the first screening, but only those showing higher activity were used in subsequent studies to determine the cellular location of this activity, the influence of pH, temperature and the presence of ethanol and the substrate specificity. For the thirteen selected strains, the highest activity was observed in the intracellular fraction. Responses to pH, temperature and ethanol were strain-dependent, but for all the strains, a marked decrease in activity in presence of ethanol was observed. When the influence of pH and ethanol acting together was studied at 25 °C and 37 °C, temperature-dependent differences were not observed for any of the strains except for Oen6. In the substrate specificity assay, the majority of strains of all genera displayed a trend to more readily hydrolyse ester substrates from C8 and longer. PMID:23558198

  6. Can red cell distribution width be a marker of disease activity in ulcerative colitis?

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Serkan; Cekic, Cem; Alper, Emrah; Coban, Eyup; Eliacik, Eylem; Arabul, Mahmut; Aslan, Fatih; Vatansever, Sezgin; Yalcin, Hulya; Unsal, Belkis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current study aimed to investigate the association between disease activity and red cell distribution width (RDW) levels in ulcerative colitis and to determine whether RDW can be used as a marker of disease activity in non-anemic ulcerative colitis. Methods: The RDW levels of 310 ulcerative colitis patients who underwent colonoscopy were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups (active disease and remission) according to the endoscopic activity index. In addition, the accuracy of RDW in determining disease activity in non-anemic patients was assessed. The efficacy of RDW in determining disease activity was compared to that of white blood cell count, platelet count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Results: Two hundred and six (66.5%) patients had active disease, and 104 (33.5%) were in remission. The mean RDW levels in patients with active ulcerative colitis and in those in remission were 16.8±2.9 and 15.5±1.4, respectively (P<0.001). Ninety-six (46.6%) patients in the active disease group and 89 (85.6%) in the remission group were non-anemic, and their respective RDW levels were 15.4±1.2 and 15.3±1.1 (P=0.267). The sensitivity and specificity of RDW in determining inflammation were 41% and 91%, respectively (AUC 0.65, P<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that RDW can be used as a marker for disease activity in ulcerative colitis, but it did not have the same efficacy in the non-anemic group. PMID:26550336

  7. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants. PMID:25004074

  8. Antimicrobial activities of red wine-based formulations containing plant extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of red wine and red wine solutions containing a commercial olive extract called Hydrox-12, oregano oil, or a mixture of both in red wine against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Stap...

  9. Photocatalytic activity of multielement doped TiO 2 in the degradation of congo red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Kalaivani, S.; Amala Infant Joice, J.; Sivakumar, T.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 although considered a promising photocatalyst for the degradation of aqueous pollutants, it suffers from poor absorption in the visible region and hence requires ultraviolet (UV) light for activation. To make TiO2 a visible active photocatalyst, multielement (C, N, B, and F) doping has been done. The synthesised CNBF/TiO2 catalysts were calcined at different temperatures and characterized by XRD, BET surface area, UV DRS, XPS, HRSEM-EDAX, and TEM techniques. These catalysts found to show less band gap values when compared to bare TiO2. These catalysts were tested for their catalytic activity towards the degradation of a textile dye - congo red (CR) under different reaction conditions. It was found that the photocatalytic activity was dependent on both doping of multielement and the calcination temperature of CNBF/TiO2. The co-doped catalysts which were calcined at 400 °C and 600 °C (100% intensity in anatase phase) were found to be the best catalysts (100% decolourisation of CR in 21/2 h and 2 h respectively). TOC analysis carried out for the samples at the reaction time of 5 h showed very high percentage (83%) degradation of CR over CNBF/TiO2 catalysts calcined at 600 °C when compared to the other catalysts calcined at different temperatures. CNBF/TiO2 (1000 °C) showed very less photocatalytic activity due to the formation of rutile phase.

  10. A brief review on red to near-infrared persistent luminescence in transition-metal-activated phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yixi; Katayama, Yumiko; Ueda, Jumpei; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2014-09-01

    In the past few years, red to near-infrared persistent phosphors activated by transition metals (Cr3+ or Mn2+) received much attention. The research was triggered by a recently proposed in vivo imaging application and it may show more significance in the future. In this review, we try to make a full list of known Cr3+ or Mn2+-activated compounds showing red to near-infrared persistent luminescence, which may be useful for further exploration of new compounds. We also notice that radiance (in units of W sr-1 m-2) is even more suitable than luminance (in units of cd m-2) to quantify the brightness of red to near-infrared persistent phosphors for the in vivo imaging application. Finally, we discuss the mechanism of the persistent luminescence by taking an example of Cr3+-activated Zn0.98(Ga1-xAlx)2O3.98 persistent phosphors.

  11. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed. PMID:26598138

  12. Magnetic activity of red secondaries: clues from the outburst cycle variations of dwarf novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinarova, L. L.

    Photometric variations of 6 dwarf novae stars are studied based on the photographic observations from the Odessa, Moscow and Sonneberg plate collections and published visual monitoring data from the AFOEV database (Schweitzer E.: 1993, Bull. AFOEV, 64, 14). The moments of maxima are determined by using the "running parabola" fit (Andronov I.L., 1990, Kinematika Fizika Nebesn. Tel., v.6,,N 6, 87) with automatically determined filter half-width (Andronov I.L., 1997, As.Ap. Suppl., in press). All investigated stars exhibit significant changes not only from cycle-to-cycle, but from season-to-season as well. Secondary decade-scale cycles of smooth variations (Bianchini A., 1990, AJ 99, 1941) and abrupt switchings (Andronov I.L., Shakun L.I., 1990, ASS 169, 237) were interpreted by a solar-type activity of the red dwarf secondary in a binary system and may argue for existence of two different subgroups of the dwarf novae.

  13. The Concentration Dependence of Active Potassium Transport in the Human Red Blood Cell*

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, John R.; Welt, Louis G.

    1967-01-01

    The relation between the active potassium influx in the human red blood cell and the extracellular potassium concentration does not appear to be consistent with the Michaelis-Menten model, but is adequately described by a model in which two potassium ions are required simultaneously at some site or sites in the transport mechanism before transport occurs. The same type of relation appears to exist between that portion of the sodium outflux that requires the presence of extracellular potassium and the extracellular potassium concentration. Rubidium, cesium, and lithium, which are apparently transported by the same system that transports potassium, stimulate the potassium influx when both potassium and the second ion are present at low concentrations, as is predicted by the two-site model. PMID:6018751

  14. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  15. Effects of Red, Far Red, and Blue Light on Enhancement of Nitrate Reductase Activity and on Nitrate Uptake in Etiolated Rice Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasakawa, Hideo; Yamamoto, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    The effects of red (R), far red (FR), or blue light (B) on the enhancement of nitrate reductase (NR) activity and on nitrate uptake in etiolated rice seedlings were examined. On 5-minute illumination followed by 12-hour dark, R caused marked increase of NR activity, but FR and B caused only slight increase. Illumination with 560 ergs per square centimeter per second of R for 5 minutes caused maximal increase. The effect of R was almost completely counteracted by subsequent illumination with 2,000 ergs per square centimeter per second of FR for 10 minutes, indicating that NR induction was mediated by phytochrome. Exogenous supply of inducer nitrate was not required during the 5-minute illumination and the R-FR cycles, if the seedlings were transferred to nitrate solution at the beginning of the dark incubation. NR activity in the shoots was found high when shoots were illuminated but was low when only roots were illuminated. On continuous illumination for 12 hours, B had more effect on NR increase than R. Nitrate uptake during 6-hour dark was not increased by exposure to R, FR, or B for 5 minutes at the beginning. On continuous illumination for 6 hours, R slightly increased nitrate uptake, whereas FR and B had no effect. PMID:16660864

  16. "RED" matters when naming "CAR": The cascading activation of nontarget properties.

    PubMed

    Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Seven experiments tested, whether when naming a colored object (e.g., CAR), its color (e.g., red) is phonologically encoded. In the first experiment, adults had to say aloud the names of colored line drawings of objects that were each displayed among 3 black-and-white line drawings (Experiment 1a) or that were presented alone (Experiment 1b). Naming times were shorter in Experiment 1a, but not in Experiment 1b, when both the color and object names were phonologically related (e.g., blue ball). In Experiment 2a, adults had to name objects having diagnostic colors (e.g., banana, tomato) while hearing distractor words. Compared with unrelated distractors, object naming times were longer when the distractors were phonologically related to the names of the colors, indicating that the names of the colors were activated. In Experiment 2b, this inhibitory effect did not surface when the same pictures were displayed in black and white, indicating that it originates from the perceptual level. In Experiment 3a, we used the same paradigm as in Experiment 2 (a and b) with objects having "plausible," but nondiagnostic, colors (e.g., red CAR). The inhibitory effect of color-related distractors turned out to be reliable but it vanished when regular colored-line drawings were used (Experiment 3b) and when colors and objects were spatially segregated (Experiment 3c). Taken together, the findings strongly suggest that under certain circumstances, an object's properties are phonologically activated during object naming. These findings are accounted for in terms of the general attentional view of cascading of Oppermann, Jescheniak, Schriefers, and Görges (2010). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389629

  17. Activated polymorphonuclear cells increase sickle red blood cell retention in lung: role of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Johnson; Obiako, Boniface

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the activated polymorphonuclear cell (APMN) products on sickle red blood cell (SRBC) retention/adherence in the pulmonary circulation. Isolated rat lungs were perfused with (51)Cr-labeled normal RBCs (NRBC) or SRBCs (10% hematocrit) suspensions +/- PMNs. Specific activities of lung and perfusate were measured and retention (the number of SRBC/g lung) was calculated. SRBC retention was 3.5 times greater than NRBC retention. PMN activation was required to increase SRBC retention. Supernatants from APMN increased SRBC retention, which suggested soluble products such as oxidants, PAF, and/or leukotriene (LTB(4)) are involved. Heat inactivation of PMN NADPH oxidase had no effect on retention. Whereas neither platelet-activating factor (PAF) nor LTB(4) (secreted by APMN) increased SRBC retention, PAF+LTB(4) did. The PAF antagonist, WEB-2170, attenuated SRBC retention mediated by PAF+LTB(4) and APMNs. Similarly, zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) attenuated APMN-mediated SRBC retention. We conclude the concomitant release of PAF and LTB(4) from APMN is involved in the initiation of microvascular occlusion by SRBCs in the perfused rat lung. PMID:11748055

  18. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing 1H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  19. Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis.

    PubMed

    Machado, Christiane Schineider; Mokochinski, João Benhur; de Lira, Tatiana Onofre; de Oliveira, Fátima de Cassia Evangelista; Cardoso, Magda Vieira; Ferreira, Roseane Guimarães; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Pessoa, Cláudia; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Torres, Yohandra Reyes

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba. Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis. Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria. Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated. PMID:27525023

  20. Mechanical perturbations trigger endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Shunmugan; Raj, Rajendran Kadarkarai; Saravanakumar, Venkatesan; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Shathya, Yogarajan; Ali, B Mohammed Jaffar; Sumantran, Venil; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a vascular signaling molecule, is primarily produced by endothelial NO synthase. Recently, a functional endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was described in red blood cells (RBC). The RBC-eNOS contributes to the intravascular NO pool and regulates physiological functions. However the regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications of RBC-eNOS are unknown. The present study investigated regulation and functions of RBC-eNOS under mechanical stimulation. This study shows that mechanical stimuli perturb RBC membrane, which triggers a signaling cascade to activate the eNOS. Extracellular NO level, estimated by the 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2', 7'-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate probe, was significantly increased under mechanical stimuli. Immunostaining and western blot studies confirmed that the mechanical stimuli phosphorylate the serine 1177 moiety of RBC-eNOS, and activates the enzyme. The NO produced by activation of RBC-eNOS in vortexed RBCs promoted important endothelial functions such as migration and vascular sprouting. We also show that mechanical perturbation facilitates nitrosylation of RBC proteins via eNOS activation. The results of the study confirm that mechanical perturbations sensitize RBC-eNOS to produce NO, which ultimately defines physiological boundaries of RBC structure and functions. Therefore, we propose that mild physical perturbations before, after, or during storage can improve viability of RBCs in blood banks. PMID:27345770

  1. Mechanical perturbations trigger endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Shunmugan; Raj, Rajendran Kadarkarai; Saravanakumar, Venkatesan; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Shathya, Yogarajan; Ali, B. Mohammed Jaffar; Sumantran, Venil; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a vascular signaling molecule, is primarily produced by endothelial NO synthase. Recently, a functional endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) was described in red blood cells (RBC). The RBC-eNOS contributes to the intravascular NO pool and regulates physiological functions. However the regulatory mechanisms and clinical implications of RBC-eNOS are unknown. The present study investigated regulation and functions of RBC-eNOS under mechanical stimulation. This study shows that mechanical stimuli perturb RBC membrane, which triggers a signaling cascade to activate the eNOS. Extracellular NO level, estimated by the 4-Amino-5-Methylamino-2′, 7′-Difluorofluorescein Diacetate probe, was significantly increased under mechanical stimuli. Immunostaining and western blot studies confirmed that the mechanical stimuli phosphorylate the serine 1177 moiety of RBC-eNOS, and activates the enzyme. The NO produced by activation of RBC-eNOS in vortexed RBCs promoted important endothelial functions such as migration and vascular sprouting. We also show that mechanical perturbation facilitates nitrosylation of RBC proteins via eNOS activation. The results of the study confirm that mechanical perturbations sensitize RBC-eNOS to produce NO, which ultimately defines physiological boundaries of RBC structure and functions. Therefore, we propose that mild physical perturbations before, after, or during storage can improve viability of RBCs in blood banks. PMID:27345770

  2. Sonication inhibited browning but decreased polyphenols contents and antioxidant activity of fresh apple (malus pumila mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yujing; Zhong, Liezhou; Cao, Lianfei; Lin, Wenwen; Ye, Xingqian

    2015-12-01

    Enzyme browning is the main challenge in the preparation of fresh apple juice. The influence of sonication on browning, as well as polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fresh apple juice was investigated. It was found that ultrasound can inhibit the browning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice, but decreased the contents of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and chlorogenic acid and reduced the antioxidant activity. On the whole, ultrasound technology cannot be used to the antibrowning of fresh apple (Malus pumila Mill, cv. Red Fuji) juice. PMID:26604412

  3. Organic pollutants removal from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water using low cost activated coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mohe; Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang

    2011-01-01

    We treated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from the Chinese explosive industry with activated coke (AC) from lignite. Since the composition of TNT red water was very complicated, chemical oxygen demand (COD) was used as the index for evaluating treatment efficiency. This study focused on sorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption isotherms of AC for the removal of COD from TNT red water, and the changes of water quality before and after adsorption were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography, UV-Vis spectra and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The results showed that the sorption kinetics of COD removal from TNT red water onto AC fitted well with the pseudo second-order model. The adsorption process was an exothermic and physical process. The sorption isotherm was in good agreement with Redlich-Peterson isotherm. At the conditions of initial pH = 6.28, 20 degrees C and 3 hr of agitation, under 160 g/L AC, 64.8% of COD was removed. The removal efficiencies of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-3-SO3-) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-5-SO3-) were 80.5% and 84.3%, respectively. After adsorption, the acute toxicity of TNT red water reduced greatly, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. PMID:22432325

  4. The effects of the Yogyakarta earthquake at LUSI mud volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, M.; Saenger, E. H.; Fuchs, F.; Miller, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The M6.3 Yogyakarta earthquake shook Central Java on May 27th, 2006. Forty seven hours later, hot mud outburst at the surface near Sidoarjo, approximately 250 km from the earthquake epicentre. The mud eruption continued and originated LUSI, the youngest mud volcanic system on earth. Since the beginning of the eruption, approximately 30,000 people lost their homes and 13 people died due to the mud flooding. The causes that initiated the eruption are still debated and are based on different geological observations. The earthquake-triggering hypothesis is supported by the evidence that at the time of the earthquake ongoing drilling operations experienced a loss of the drilling mud downhole. In addition, the eruption of the mud began only 47 hours after the Yogyakarta earthquake and the mud reached the surface at different locations aligned along the Watukosek fault, a strike-slip fault upon which LUSI resides. Moreover, the Yogyakarta earthquake also affected the volcanic activity of Mt. Semeru, located as far as Lusi from the epicentre of the earthquake. However, the drilling-triggering hypothesis points out that the earthquake was too far from LUSI for inducing relevant stress changes at depth and highlight how upwelling fluids that reached the surface first emerged only 200 m far from the drilling rig that was operative at the time. Hence, was LUSI triggered by the earthquake or by drilling operations? We conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model based on vp, vs, and density values for the different lithologies and seismic profiles of the crust beneath LUSI. Our analysis shows compelling evidence for the effects produced by the passage of seismic waves through the geological formations and highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused and reflected incoming seismic energy.

  5. Mud Volcanoes - Analogs to Martian Cones and Domes (by the Thousands!)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    Mud volcanoes are mounds formed by low temperature slurries of gas, liquid, sediments and rock that erupt to the surface from depths of meters to kilometers. They are common on Earth, with estimates of thousands onshore and tens of thousands offshore. Mud volcanoes occur in basins with rapidly-deposited accumulations of fine-grained sediments. Such settings are ideal for concentration and preservation of organic materials, and mud volcanoes typically occur in sedimentary basins that are rich in organic biosignatures. Domes and cones, cited as possible mud volcanoes by previous authors, are common on the northern plains of Mars. Our analysis of selected regions in southern Acidalia Planitia has revealed over 18,000 such features, and we estimate that more than 40,000 occur across the area. These domes and cones strongly resemble terrestrial mud volcanoes in size, shape, morphology, associated flow structures and geologic setting. Geologic and mineralogic arguments rule out alternative formation mechanisms involving lava, ice and impacts. We are studying terrestrial mud volcanoes from onshore and submarine locations. The largest concentration of onshore features is in Azerbaijan, near the western edge of the Caspian Sea. These features are typically hundreds of meters to several kilometers in diameter, and tens to hundreds of meters in height. Satellite images show spatial densities of 20 to 40 eruptive centers per 1000 square km. Many of the features remain active, and fresh mud flows as long as several kilometers are common. A large field of submarine mud volcanoes is located in the Gulf of Cadiz, off the Atlantic coasts of Morocco and Spain. High-resolution sonar bathymetry reveals numerous km-scale mud volcanoes, hundreds of meters in height. Seismic profiles demonstrate that the mud erupts from depths of several hundred meters. These submarine mud volcanoes are the closest morphologic analogs yet found to the features in Acidalia Planitia. We are also conducting

  6. Korean Red Ginseng Water Extract Restores Impaired Endothelial Function by Inhibiting Arginase Activity in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwanhoon; Yoon, Jeongyeon

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the prime cause of morbidity and mortality and the population ages that may contribute to increase in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Arginase upregulation is associated with impaired endothelial function in aged vascular system and thus may contribute to cardiovascular disease. According to recent research, Korean Red Ginseng water extract (KRGE) may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular system health. The purpose of this study was to examine mechanisms contributing to age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction and to determine whether KRGE improves these functions in aged mice. Young (10±3 weeks) and aged (55±5 weeks) male mice (C57BL/6J) were orally administered 0, 10, or 20 mg/mouse/day of KRGE for 4 weeks. Animals were sacrificed and the aortas were removed. Endothelial arginase activity, nitric oxide (NO) generation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, vascular tension, and plasma peroxynitrite production were measured. KRGE attenuated arginase activity, restored nitric oxide (NO) generation, reduced ROS production, and enhanced eNOS coupling in aged mice. KRGE also improved vascular tension in aged vessels, as indicated by increased acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation and improved phenylephrine-stimulated vasoconstriction. Furthermore, KRGE prevented plasma peroxynitrite formation in aged mice, indicating reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggest KRGE exerts vasoprotective effects by inhibiting arginase activity and augmenting NO signaling and may be a useful treatment for age-dependent vascular diseases. PMID:24757370

  7. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep. PMID:26284035

  8. Nanoencapsulation of Red Ginseng Extracts Using Chitosan with Polyglutamic Acid or Fucoidan for Improving Antithrombotic Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Suh; Lee, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2016-06-15

    The potential of nanoencapsulation using bioactive coating materials for improving antithrombotic activities of red ginseng extract (RG) was examined. RG-loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles were prepared using antithrombotic materials, polyglutamic acid (PGA) or fucoidan (Fu). Both CS-PGA (P-NPs, 360 ± 67 nm) and CS-Fu nanoparticles (F-NPs, 440 ± 44 nm) showed sustained ginsenoside release in an acidic environment and improved ginsenoside solubility by approximately 122.8%. Both in vitro rabbit and ex vivo rat platelet aggregation of RG (22.3 and 41.5%) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased within P-NPs (14.4 and 30.0%) and F-NPs (12.3 and 30.3%), respectively. Although RG exhibited no effect on in vivo carrageenan-induced mouse tail thrombosis, P-NPs and F-NPs demonstrated significant effects, likely the anticoagulation activity of PGA and Fu. Moreover, in the in vivo rat arteriovenous shunt model, P-NPs (156 ± 6.8 mg) and F-NPs (160 ± 3.2 mg) groups showed significantly lower thrombus formation than that of RG (190 ± 5.5 mg). Therefore, nanoencapsulation using CS, PGA, and Fu is a potential for improving the antithrombotic activity of RG. PMID:27181678

  9. Antihaemolytic activity of thirty herbal extracts in mouse red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masoumeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to haemolysis and eventually to diseases such as thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia. Their action can be counteracted by the antihaemolytic activity of therapeutic agents. The aim of our study was to identify plants that most efficiently counteract ROS-caused haemolysis. From ten plants known for their antioxidant activity (Orobanche orientalis G. Beck, Cucumis melo L., Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, Galium verum L., Scutellaria tournefortii Benth, Crocus caspius Fischer & Meyer, Sambucus ebulus L., Danae racemosa L., Rubus fruticsos L., and Artemisia absinthium L.) we prepared 30 extracts using three extraction methods (percolation, Soxhlet, and ultrasound-assisted extraction) to see whether the extraction method affects antihaemolytic efficiency, and one extraction method (polyphenol extraction) to see how much of this action is phenol-related. Extract antihaemolytic activity was determined in mice red blood cells and compared to that of vitamin C as a known antioxidant. Nine of our extracts were more potent than vitamin C, of which G. verum (aerial parts/percolation) and S. tournefortii (aerial parts/polyphenol) extracts were the most potent, with an IC50 of 1.32 and 2.08 μg mL⁻¹, respectively. Haemolysis inhibition depended on extract concentration and the method of extraction. These plants could provide accessible sources of natural antioxidants to the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25720027

  10. Microbial community changes along the active seepage site of one cold seep in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiluo; Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The active seepage of the marine cold seeps could be a critical process for the exchange of energy between the submerged geosphere and the sea floor environment through organic-rich fluids, potentially even affecting surrounding microbial habitats. However, few studies have investigated the associated microbial community changes. In the present study, 16S rRNA genes were pyrosequenced to decipher changes in the microbial communities from the Thuwal seepage point in the Red Sea to nearby marine sediments in the brine pool, normal marine sediments and water, and benthic microbial mats. An unexpected number of reads from unclassified groups were detected in these habitats; however, the ecological functions of these groups remain unresolved. Furthermore, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community structures were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene. Analysis of amoA showed that planktonic marine habitats, including seeps and marine water, hosted archaeal ammonia oxidizers that differed from those in microbial mats and marine sediments, suggesting modifications of the ammonia oxidizing archaeal (AOA) communities along the environmental gradient from active seepage sites to peripheral areas. Changes in the microbial community structure of AOA in different habitats (water vs. sediment) potentially correlated with changes in salinity and oxygen concentrations. Overall, the present results revealed for the first time unanticipated novel microbial groups and changes in the ammonia-oxidizing archaea in response to environmental gradients near the active seepages of a cold seep. PMID:26284035

  11. Teaching Ecological Concepts with Mud Dauber Nests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; Matthews, Janice R.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that mud dauber nests--which are widely available, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use--offer a novel and highly motivating way to teach ecological concepts to life science students at many grade levels. Presents background information for teachers, details classroom-tested methods for nest dissection, provides keys to nest contents, and…

  12. "Mud" + "Blood"--A Very Colorful Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which a bloodred-colored solution of hydrogen peroxide, sodium hydroxide, and phenolphthalein indicator is added to a mud-colored solution of potassium permanganate, hydrated manganous chloride, and sulfuric acid. The mixture turns clear when added together. Draws parallels between the demonstration and the Old…

  13. DRILLING MUD ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS REFERENCE VOLUME

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents concentrations of specific metals and hydrocarbons in eleven drilling fluids (muds) taken from operating gas and oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. Each drilling fluid was analyzed chemically for heavy metal and hydrocarbon content in three distinct phases: (1) ...

  14. Biogeochemistry of aragonite mud and oolites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitterer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    Amino acids were determined on an analyzer similar to that described by Hare (1969) in carbonate mud samples from locations in the Bahamas, Bermuda, Persian Gulf, and Florida Bay, and in oolites from the Gulf of Suez, the Abu Dhabi coast, the Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas. A histogram, tables, and chromatograms of the results are given.

  15. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  16. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR DREDGED OR FILL MATERIAL Potential Impacts on...

  17. Fluid Geochemistry of the Lusi Mud Volcano (east Java, Indonesia) and Implications for Eruption Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, H. E.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java, Indonesia, has been erupting mud and water since May 2006. It discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupting fluid is a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures that is accompanied by venting of hot gases, primarily H2O vapor, CO2, and CH4. The LUSI mud volcano has exhibited variations in flow rate and pulsating-to-cyclic activity since the beginning of the eruption; however, there are few published geochemical studies of the system and our knowlege of the evolution of the fluid and mud composition is poor. The solids in the mud can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the fluids are more difficult to interpret. An improved understanding of the fluid content and composition may provide insights that can help to constrain eruption mechanisms for this system. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and erpution behaviour at this complex and evolving mud volcano. We present geochemical results for dissolved (major ions, trace elements, water isotopes and Sr isotopes) and solid-phased (elemental and mineralogical composition) components of not only the LUSI fluids but also of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes). The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct from all the other sources we've measured to date, including some of the older mud volcanoes, suggesting either that the underlying water source for LUSI is different, or that it has changed over time. Our major and trace element data suggest the water and solids in the LUSI fluid may not originate from the same geologic formation, providing indirect evidence in support of

  18. Degradation of Active Brilliant Red X-3B by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp in the presence of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Wen, Teng; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Zeng, Qing-Fu; An, Shu-Qing; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Degradation of Active Brilliant Red X-3B (X-3B) in aqueous solution by a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) in the presence of activated carbon was investigated. The preliminary results proved this method could effectively degrade X-3B in aqueous solution. The removal percentages of colour and chemical oxygen demand were up to approximately 99% and 66%, respectively, at the conditions of 0.8 g/L dye concentration, 20 g/L activated carbon, pH 7.0 and 8 min microwave irradiation time. The degradation basically belonged to first-order reaction kinetics and its rate constant was 0.42 min(-1). No aromatic organics were detected in the final treated solution, indicating that the mineralization was relatively complete. By studying the change in solution properties, it could be concluded that MDEL-assisted oxidation was the dominant reaction mechanism. In addition, the influence of operational parameters and reuse of activated carbon were also discussed. PMID:20586239

  19. MODELING OF THE ENDOSOMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF HA2-TAT PEPTIDES WITH RED BLOOD CELLS AND GHOSTS†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Jung; Johnson, Gregory; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    HA2-TAT is a peptide-based delivery agent that combines the pH-sensitive HA2 fusion peptide from Influenza and the cell-penetrating peptide TAT from HIV. This chimeric peptide is engineered to induce the cellular uptake of macromolecules into endosomes via the TAT moiety and to respond to the acidifying lumen of endosomes to cause membrane leakage and release of macromolecules into cells via the HA2 moiety. The question of how HA2 and TAT affect the properties of one another remains, however, unanswered and the behavior of the peptide inside endosomes is mostly uncharacterized. To address these issues, the binding and membrane leakage activity of a glutamic acid-enriched analogue E5-TAT was assessed with red blood cells and giant unilamellar vesicles as membrane models for endosomes. Hemolysis and microscopy assays reveal that E5-TAT binds to membranes in a pH-dependent manner and causes membrane leakage by inducing the formation of pores through which macromolecules can escape. The TAT moiety contributes to this activity by causing a shift in the pH response of E5 and by binding to negatively charged phospholipids. On the other hand, TAT binding to glycosaminoglycans reduces the lytic activity of E5-TAT. Addition of TAT to the C-terminus of E5 can therefore either increase or inhibit the activity of E5 depending on the cellular components present at the membrane. Taken together, these results suggest a model for the endosomolytic activity of the peptide and provide the basis for the molecular design of future delivery agents. PMID:20704453

  20. Brazilian Red Propolis Attenuates Inflammatory Signaling Cascade in LPS-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S.; Alencar, Severino M.; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested an anti-inflammatory property of Brazilian red propolis (BRP), the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of BRP and its activity on macrophages were still not elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether BRP attenuates the inflammatory effect of LPS on macrophages and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. BRP was added to RAW 264.7 murine macrophages after activation with LPS. NO production, cell viability, cytokines profile were evaluated. Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and macrophage polarization were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot. BRP at 50 μg/ml inhibited NO production by 78% without affecting cell viability. Cd80 and Cd86 were upregulated whereas mrc1 was down regulated by BRP indicating macrophage polarization at M1. BRP attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-Ɣ, IL-1β in cell supernatants although levels of TNF- α and IL-6 were slightly increased after BRP treatment. Levels of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β were also reduced by BRP. BRP significantly reduced the up-regulation promoted by LPS of transcription of genes in inflammatory signaling (Pdk1, Pak1, Nfkb1, Mtcp1, Gsk3b, Fos and Elk1) and of Il1β and Il1f9 (fold-change rate > 5), which were further confirmed by the inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Furthermore, the upstream adaptor MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal), also known as TIRAP, involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, was down- regulated in BRP treated LPS-activated macrophages. Given that BRP inhibited multiple signaling pathways in macrophages involved in the inflammatory process activated by LPS, our data indicated that BRP is a noteworthy food-source for the discovery of new bioactive compounds and a potential candidate to attenuate exhacerbated inflammatory diseases. PMID:26660901

  1. Liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    This presentation examines liability issues surrounding oil drilling mud sumps and discusses them in relation to two recent cases that arose in Ventura County, California. Following a brief history of regulatory interest in oil drilling mud and its common hazardous substances, various cause of action arising from oil drilling mud deposits are enumerated, followed by defenses to these causes of action. Section 8002 (m) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is mentioned, as are constituents of oil and gas waste not inherent in petroleum and therefore not exempt from regulation under the petroleum exclusion in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act. Key legal words such as hazardous substance, release, public and private nuisance, trespass, responsible parties, joint and several liability, negligence, and strict liability are explained. The effects on liability of knowledge of the deposits, duty to restore land to its original condition, consent to the deposit of oil drilling mud, and noncompliance and compliance with permit conditions are analyzed. The state-of-the-art defense and research to establish this defense are mentioned. The newly created cause of action for fear of increased risk of cancer is discussed. Issues on transfer of property where oil drilling mud has been deposited are explored, such as knowledge of prior owners being imputed to later owners, claims of fraudulent concealment, and as is' clauses. The effects on the oil and gas industry of the California Court of Appeals for the Second District rulings in Dolan v. Humacid-MacLeod and Stevens v. McQueen are speculated.

  2. Structure and anti-metapneumovirus activity of sulfated galactans from the red seaweed Cryptonemia seminervis.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gabriella S; Duarte, Maria E R; Colodi, Franciely G; Noseda, Miguel D; Ferreira, Luciana G; Berté, Siliane D; Cavalcanti, Jéssica F; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria T V

    2014-01-30

    The anti-HMPV (human metapneumovirus) activity was determined for sulfated dl-hybrid galactans obtained from the red seaweed Cryptonemia seminervis and their depolymerized products obtained by reductive partial hydrolysis. Structural studies carried out in three homogeneous depolymerized fractions DS-1, DS-2e and DS-3 (Mw of 51.6-63.8 kDa) showed that these galactans present different chemical characteristics, as monosaccharide composition, content of sulfate groups (14.1-29.9%) and agaran:carrageenan molar ratio diads, 2.7:1 for DS-1 and DS-2e and 1:1 for DS-3. The sulfate groups are located principally on C-2 of β-d-galactopyranose and 4,6-O-(1'-carboxyethylidene)-β-d-galactopyranose residues and on C-6 of α-galactose residues. Sulfated dl-galactans and their depolymerized products exhibited antiviral activity at a very early stage of the viral infection cycle. All fractions, except DS-2e inhibited HMPV replication by binding to the viral particle. Besides depolymerized galactans DS-2e and DS-3 inhibited the recognition of cell receptor by HMPV and penetration to the host cell, respectively. PMID:24299779

  3. beta-Galactosidase activity assay using far-red-shifted fluorescent substrate DDAOG.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Zhang, Bin; Little, Garrick; Kovar, Joy; Chen, Huaxian; Xie, Wen; Schutz-Geschwender, Amy; Olive, D Michael

    2009-03-01

    beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) is commonly used as a reporter gene in biological research, and a wide variety of substrates have been developed to assay its activity. One substrate, 9H-(1,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one-7-yl) beta-d-galactopyranoside (DDAOG), can be cleaved by beta-gal to produce 7-hydroxy-9H(I,3-dichloro-9,9-dimethylacridin-2-one) (DDAO). On excitation, DDAO generates a far-red-shifted fluorescent signal. Using this substrate, we developed a beta-gal activity assay method. The DDAO signal was stable for at least 18h. The signal intensity was linearly related to both the enzyme amount and substrate concentration. An optimized buffer for the beta-gal/DDAOG assay was also formulated. When compared with the colorimetric substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG), the signal-to-background ratio of the DDAOG method was approximately 12-fold higher. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method was also tested in transiently transfected cells employing both pharmacologically and genetically inducible gene expression systems. The ability to detect signal induction is comparable to a similar assay using luciferase as the signal generating moiety. The beta-gal/DDAOG assay method should provide a fluorescent reporter assay system for the wide variety of beta-gal systems currently in use. PMID:19103143

  4. Radical scavenging activities of Rio Red grapefruits and Sour orange fruit extracts in different in vitro model systems.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Girennavar, Basavaraj; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2008-07-01

    Antioxidant fractions from two different citrus species such as Rio Red (Citrus paradise Macf.) and Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) were extracted with five different polar solvents using Soxhlet type extractor. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Ethyl acetate extract of Rio Red and Sour orange was found to contain maximum phenolics. The dried fractions were screened for their antioxidant activity potential using in vitro model systems such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction at different concentrations. The methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Rio Red showed the highest radical scavenging activity 42.5%, 77.8% and 92.1% at 250, 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively, while methanol:water (80:20) fraction of Sour orange showed the lowest radical scavenging activity at all the tested concentrations. All citrus fractions showed good antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex at 200 ppm. In addition, superoxide radical scavenging activity was assayed using non-enzymatic (NADH/phenaxine methosulfate) superoxide generating system. All the extracts showed variable superoxide radical scavenging activity. Moreover, methanol:water (80:20) extract of Rio Red and methanol extract of Sour orange exhibited marked reducing power in potassium ferricyanide reduction method. The data obtained using above in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potential of citrus fruit extracts. However, comprehensive studies need to be conducted to ascertain the in vivo bioavailability, safety and efficacy of such extracts in experimental animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antioxidant activity of different polar extracts from Rio Red and Sour oranges. PMID:17935981

  5. Induction of Fish Biomarkers by Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs. PMID:23894492

  6. MULTIPLE HYDROXYCINNAMOYL TRANSFERASES FROM RED CLOVER DIFFER IN SEQUENCE, EXPRESSION PATTERN, AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylpropanoid o-diphenols accumulate in tissues of many plants, functioning as defensive molecules and antioxidants. Red clover leaves accumulate high levels of two o-diphenols, phasalic acid [2-O-(caffeoyl)-L-malate, see Fig. 1] and clovamide [N-(caffeoyl)-L-DOPA]. In red clover, post-harvest oxi...

  7. Effect of Red Blood Cells on Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation in Tortuous Arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Chesnutt, Jennifer K. W.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding. PMID:25022613

  8. Diplomacy Through Earth Sciences: An Overview of US Geological Survey Technical Assistance Regarding the Ongoing LUSI Mud Eruption, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadevall, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    In June 2007, the US Department of State (DOS) requested assistance from the USGS to provide technical guidance and advice to the US Mission in Indonesia regarding the Lumpur Sidoarjo (LUSI) mud crisis. In May 2006, LUSI began as a mud eruption from a series of mud springs adjacent to an oil and gas exploration well being drilled near Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia. The production of mud and waters from the LUSI crater area has now continued for more than 3 years with no significant change in mud production rate (~110,000 cubic meters per day) nor in temperature of the mud (70-80 degrees C). Engineers suggest that mud production will continue at these rates for years to decades to come. Regardless of future activity at LUSI, the current mud accumulation of more than 100 million cubic meters poses a physical and environmental hazard which requires continuous monitoring and observation. The first response to the 2007 DOS request involved a site visit to Indonesia in September 2007. The result of that visit was to recommend to the Government of Indonesia (GOI) that they focus on long-term management of the mud rather than focus on the controversy as to the cause of the eruption or the debate about stopping the flow. Other recommendations from the initial 2007 technical visit included contracting for a US scientist to be co-located with engineers of the Sidoarjo Mud Management Board (BPLS) in Surabaya, East Java, to advise and consult on day-to-day developments at the site of the mud eruption. A second technical team visit by USGS scientists and an engineer from the US Army Corps of Engineers in October-November 2008 made additional recommendations on the long-term management of the mud and was followed in December by the start of a 6 month contract for the US mud adviser. From the start of activity in mid-2006 through late-2008, there was a clear sense of urgency at the US Mission in Indonesia to provide guidance and advice and included the personal intervention of

  9. Correlation of primate red nucleus discharge with muscle activity during free-form arm movements.

    PubMed

    Miller, L E; van Kan, P L; Sinkjaer, T; Andersen, T; Harris, G D; Houk, J C

    1993-09-01

    1. We recorded from 239 neurons located in the magnocellular division of the red nucleus of four alert macaque monkeys. At the same time, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals from as many as twenty electrodes chronically implanted on muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand. We recorded EMG signals for periods ranging from several months to a year. 2. The monkeys were trained to perform three free-form food retrieval tasks, each of which activated all of the recorded muscles and most of the neurons. The 'prehension' task required simply that the monkey grasp a piece of food from a fixed point in space. The 'barrier' task required the monkey to reach around a small barrier to obtain the food, and the 'Kluver' task required that food be removed from small holes. During the prehension task, we found approximately equal numbers of neurons that were strongly active while the hand was being moved toward the target (70% of units), and while the food was being grasped (60%). Relatively few units were active as the hand was returned to the mouth (15%). 3. Data files of 1-2 min duration were collected while the monkey performed a single behavioural task. Whenever possible, we recorded files for all three tasks from each neuron. For each file we calculated long time-span analog cross-correlations (+/- 1.28 s) between instantaneous neuronal firing rate and each of the full-wave rectified, low-pass filtered EMG signals. We used the peak correlation and the time of the peak as two summary measures of the functional relation between modulation of neuronal activity and EMG. 4. The magnitude of the strongest correlations was between 0.4 and 0.5 (normalized to a perfect correlation of +/- 1.0). Distal muscles were the most frequently correlated, and extensors were more frequently correlated than flexors. For all monkeys, the lags for well correlated muscles were distributed broadly about a uni-modal value near 0 ms. Eighty five per cent of the correlations larger than

  10. Nature of red luminescence band in research-grade ZnO single crystals: A "self-activated" configurational transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. N.; Xu, S. J.; Zheng, C. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Ling, F. C. C.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-07-01

    By implanting Zn+ ions into research-grade intentionally undoped ZnO single crystal for facilitating Zn interstitials (Zni) and O vacancies (VO) which is revealed by precise X-Ray diffraction rocking curves, we observe an apparent broad red luminescence band with a nearly perfect Gaussian lineshape. This red luminescence band has the zero phonon line at ˜2.4 eV and shows distinctive lattice temperature dependence which is well interpreted with the configurational coordinate model. It also shows a low "kick out" thermal energy and small thermal quenching energy. A "self-activated" optical transition between a shallow donor and the defect center of Zni-VO complex or VZnVO di-vacancies is proposed to be responsible for the red luminescence band. Accompanied with the optical transition, large lattice relaxation simultaneously occurs around the center, as indicated by the generation of multiphonons.

  11. Metabolomic Assessment of Induced and Activated Chemical Defence in the Invasive Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Göran M.; Weinberger, Florian; Rempt, Martin; Pohnert, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In comparison with terrestrial plants the mechanistic knowledge of chemical defences is poor for marine macroalgae. This restricts our understanding in the chemically mediated interactions that take place between algae and other organisms. Technical advances such as metabolomics, however, enable new approaches towards the characterisation of the chemically mediated interactions of organisms with their environment. We address defence responses in the red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla using mass spectrometry based metabolomics in combination with bioassays. Being invasive in the north Atlantic this alga is likely to possess chemical defences according to the prediction that well-defended exotics are most likely to become successful invaders in systems dominated by generalist grazers, such as marine macroalgal communities. We investigated the effect of intense herbivore feeding and simulated herbivory by mechanical wounding of the algae. Both processes led to similar changes in the metabolic profile. Feeding experiments with the generalist isopod grazer Idotea baltica showed that mechanical wounding caused a significant increase in grazer resistance. Structure elucidation of the metabolites of which some were up-regulated more than 100 times in the wounded tissue, revealed known and novel eicosanoids as major components. Among these were prostaglandins, hydroxylated fatty acids and arachidonic acid derived conjugated lactones. Bioassays with pure metabolites showed that these eicosanoids are part of the innate defence system of macroalgae, similarly to animal systems. In accordance with an induced defence mechanism application of extracts from wounded tissue caused a significant increase in grazer resistance and the up-regulation of other pathways than in the activated defence. Thus, this study suggests that G. vermiculophylla chemically deters herbivory by two lines of defence, a rapid wound-activated process followed by a slower inducible defence. By unravelling

  12. An antifungal peptide with antiproliferative activity toward tumor cells from red kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-06-01

    A 7.3-kDa antifungal peptide was purified from dried red kidney beans. The purification procedure entailed ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, followed by fast protein liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It exhibited a molecular mass of 7.3 kDa in gel filtration and also in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it is a single-chained protein. The N-terminal sequence of the peptide was DGVCFGGLANGDRT. The peptide exerted an antifungal action on Fusarium oxysporum with an IC₅₀ of 3.8±0.4 µM (mean±SD, n=3). It also inhibited mycelial growth in Mycosphaerella arachidicola. It suppressed growth of lymphoma MBL2 cells and leukemia L1210 cells with an IC₅₀ of 5.2±0.4 µM and 7.6±0.6 µM, respectively. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was inhibited with an IC₅₀ of 40±3.2 µM. However, no activity was demonstrated toward other viral enzymes. PMID:21309741

  13. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal. PMID:24292474

  14. Indolic Uremic Solutes Enhance Procoagulant Activity of Red Blood Cells through Phosphatidylserine Exposure and Microparticle Release

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-01-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  15. Indolic uremic solutes enhance procoagulant activity of red blood cells through phosphatidylserine exposure and microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunyan; Ji, Shuting; Dong, Weijun; Qi, Yushan; Song, Wen; Cui, Debin; Shi, Jialan

    2015-11-01

    Increased accumulation of indolic uremic solutes in the blood of uremic patients contributes to the risk of thrombotic events. Red blood cells (RBCs), the most abundant blood cells in circulation, may be a privileged target of these solutes. However, the effect of uremic solutes indoxyl sulfate (IS) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on procoagulant activity (PCA) of erythrocyte is unclear. Here, RBCs from healthy adults were treated with IS and IAA (mean and maximal concentrations reported in uremic patients). Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure of RBCs and their microparticles (MPs) release were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-lactadherin and detected by flow cytometer. Cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]) with Fluo 3/AM was analyzed by flow cytometer. PCA was assessed by clotting time and purified coagulation complex assays. We found that PS exposure, MPs generation, and consequent PCA of RBCs at mean concentrations of IS and IAA enhanced and peaked in maximal uremic concentrations. Moreover, 128 nM lactadherin, a PS inhibitor, inhibited over 90% PCA of RBCs and RMPs. Eryptosis or damage, by indolic uremic solutes was due to, at least partially, the increase of cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Our results suggest that RBC eryptosis in uremic solutes IS and IAA plays an important role in thrombus formation through releasing RMPs and exposing PS. Lactadherin acts as an efficient anticoagulant in this process. PMID:26516916

  16. Red wine polyphenolics increase LDL receptor expression and activity and suppress the secretion of ApoB100 from human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ho, Nerissa; Santos, Carlos; Dubois, Paul; Mamo, John; Croft, Kevin; Allister, Emma

    2003-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that the consumption of red wine may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cardioprotective effect of red wine has been attributed to the polyphenols present in red wine, particularly resveratrol (a stilbene, with estrogen-like activity), and the flavonoids, catechin, epicatechin, quercetin and phenolic acids such as gallic acid. At present, very little is known about the mechanisms by which red wine phenolic compounds benefit the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate whether red wine polyphenolics reduce lipoprotein production and clearance by the liver. Cultured HepG2 cells were incubated in the presence of dealcoholized red wine, alcohol-containing red wine and atorvastatin for 24 h. The apolipoprotien B100 (apoB100) protein (marker of hepatic lipoproteins) was quantified on Western blots with an anti-apoB100 antibody and the enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Apolipoprotein B100 levels in the cells and that secreted into the media were significantly reduced by 50% in liver cells incubated with alcohol-stripped red wine compared with control cells. This effect of dealcoholized red wine on apoB100 production in HepG2 cells was similar to the effect of atorvastatin. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 30% in cells incubated with alcoholized red wine, suggesting that the alcohol was masking the effect of red wine polyphenolics. Apo B100 production was significantly attenuated by 45% with the polyphenolic compounds resveratrol and quercertin. In addition, dealcoholized and alcoholized red wine and atorvastatin significantly increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA and LDL receptor binding activity relative to controls. Dealcoholized red wine also increased LDL receptor gene expression. Collectively, this study suggests that red wine polyphenolics regulate major pathways involved in lipoprotein metabolism. PMID:12612140

  17. Red Mexican grapefruit: a novel source for bioactive limonoids and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Mandadi, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Bhat, Narayan G; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2007-01-01

    Citrus limonoids have shown to inhibit the growth of cancer in colon, lung, mouth, stomach and breast in animal and cell culture studies. For the first time in the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate antioxidant fractions and five limonoids from red Mexican grapefruit seeds. Defatted seed powder was successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol (MeOH) and MeOH/water and the extracts were concentrated under vacuum. Radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total phenolic content were also measured for comparison with the antioxidant capacity in the phosphomolybdenum method for the above extracts. Acetone and MeOH extracts, respectively, showed the highest (85.7%) and lowest (53.3%) radical scavenging activity, at 500 ppm. The total phenolic contents were found to be highest in the acetone extract (15.94%) followed by the MeOH extract (5.92%), ethyl acetate extract (5.54%) and water extract (5.26%). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts as equivalents to ascorbic acid (micromol/g of the extract) was in the order, EtOAc extract > acetone extract > water extract > methanol extract. Furthermore, the EtOAC and acetone extracts were loaded onto silica gel columns to obtain four limonoid aglycons. MeOH fraction was loaded onto a dowex-50 and sepabeads resin column to obtain a limonoid glucoside. The purity of the isolated five compounds was analyzed by HPLC using a C18 column and UV detection at 210 nm. Finally, the structures of the compounds were identified as obacunone, nomilin, limonin, deacetylnomilin (DAN) and limonin-17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG) using 1H and 13C NMR studies. PMID:17542482

  18. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  19. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  20. {delta}-ALAD activity variations in red blood cells in response to lead accumulation in rock doves (Columba livia)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Tejedor, M.C.

    1992-10-01

    The enzyme {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD, E.C. 4.2.1.24), catalyses the second step of the haeme biosynthetic pathway and is required to maintain the haemoglobin and cytochrome content in red cells. {delta}-ALAD is not only found in bone marrow cells, the major site of haeme synthesis, but also in circulating erythrocytes and other tissues. An inverse correlation was found between {delta}-ALAD activity in red blood cells and lead concentration in the blood. The degree of {delta}-ALAD inhibition in erythrocytes has been widely accepted as a standard bioassay to detect acute and chronic lead exposure in humans and in avians. The value of this parameter as an indicator for environmental lead has been often reported in doves and Scanlon. In lead-treated rats, an increase in {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and in blood samples was shown by radioimmunoassay at 5 and 9 days after the treatment. Similarly, the amount of {delta}-ALAD seems to be more sensitive to lead in avian species than in mammals, the usefulness of blood {delta}-ALAD activity as an index of lead exposure has already been questioned by Hutton in the pigeon and by Jaffe et al. in humans. The present investigation studied the toxic effects of lead on rock dove red blood cell {delta}-ALAD activity in two situations: in doves treated with lead acetate in the laboratory and in doves exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares. The final lead blood concentrations were lower in the environmental than in the laboratory doves. {delta}-ALAD activity in bone marrow cells and the relationships between lead accumulation and enzyme activity in red cells, are examined. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2013-11-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the Western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocenter containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n-alkane-distributions and n-alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S + 22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotropic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and DGDs) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected GDGTs, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggest no recent active methane seepage has occurred at these sites. Moreover, the observed

  2. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  3. Origin of fluids and eruption dynamics at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, L.; Hartnett, H. E.; Clarke, A. B.; Burton, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The LUSI mud volcano near Sidoarjo in East Java (Indonesia) has been erupting mud, water and gases since May 2006. It is the most recent manifestation of mud volcanism in the Sunda back-arc region, part of a larger cluster of a dozen mud volcanoes scattered across East Java and Madura. LUSI discharged as much as 180,000 cubic meters of mud per day at the peak of its activity, destroyed thousands of homes, and displaced tens of thousands of people. The erupted fluids are a mixture of water, clays, and other minerals at near-boiling temperatures, accompanied by the bursting of gas bubbles on average every 1-3 minutes, which trigger mud fountains ~20 m in height. We have taken a multi-disciplinary approach to assess both the fluid provenance and eruption behavior at this complex and evolving mud volcano, by using a combination of absorption infrared spectrometry of the gases, X-Ray diffraction of the solid fraction, major and trace element analyses of solids and dissolved ions in liquids, and isotopic analyses of separated water (D/H and 87Sr/86Sr). Similar analyses of other regional fluid sources (hot springs, surface waters, sea water, and relict mud volcanoes) were also carried out for comparison. From open path FTIR measurements, we determine that the gases released during explosions at LUSI consist of 98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, and 0.5% methane, with corresponding fluxes of 2,300 t/yr of CH4, 30,000 t/yr of CO2 and 800,000 t/yr of water vapor. The methane flux is two orders of magnitude larger than estimates for any other single mud volcano on Earth. By comparing the mineral composition of solids present in the mud to rock outcrops of the local stratigraphy, the solids can be traced with some certainty to the blue-gray clays of the Upper Kalibeng formation, found 1600-1800 m beneath the LUSI main vent. However, the water content and chemical composition of the liquid phase are more difficult to interpret. The LUSI fluids are compositionally distinct

  4. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Crude Methanolic Extract of Red Alga Bryothamnion triquetrum

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; de Araújo, Morgana Vital; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Lira, Daysianne Pereira; de Oliveira Santos, Bárbara Viviana; de Miranda, George Emmanuel C.; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25–30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 106 leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need

  5. Extraction and PTP1B inhibitory activity of bromophenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Xiaoming; Gao, Lixin; Cui, Chuanming; Li, Chunshun; Li, Jia; Wang, Bingui

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we had characterized several structurally interesting brominated phenols from the marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula collected from various sites. However, Phytochemical investigations on this species collected from the Weihai coastline of Shandong Province remains blank. Therefore, we characterized the chemical constituents of individuals of this species collected from the region. Eight bromophenols were isolated and identified. Using detailed spectroscopic techniques and comparisons with published data, these compounds were identified as 2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 1), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxymethylbenzene ( 3), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde ( 4), 2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl methyl ether ( 5), bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)methane ( 6), 1,2-bis(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethane ( 7), and 1-(2,3,6-tribromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-pyrrolidin-2-one ( 8). Among these compounds, 1 and 2 were isolated for the first time from S. latiuscula. Each compound was evaluated on the ability to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Bromophenols 5, 6, and 7 showed strong activities with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.3, and 3.5 μmol/L, respectively. This study provides further evidence that bromophenols are predominant among the chemical constituents of Symphyocladia, and that some of these compounds may be candidates for the development of anti-diabetes drugs.

  6. Activity of red nucleus neurons in the cat during postural corrections

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, P. V.; Beloozerova, I. N.; Sirota, M. G.; Orlovsky, G. N.; Deliagina, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal-side-up body posture in standing quadrupeds is maintained by the postural system, which includes spinal and supraspinal mechanisms driven by somatosensory inputs from the limbs. A number of descending tracts can transmit suprasinal commands for postural corrections. The first aim of this study was to understand whether the rubrospinal tract participates in their transmission. We recorded activity of red nucleus neurons (RNNs) in the cat maintaining balance on the periodically tilting platform. Most neurons were identified as rubrospinal ones. It was found that many RNNs were profoundly modulated by tilts, suggesting that they transmit postural commands. The second aim of this study was to examine the contribution of sensory inputs from individual limbs to posture-related RNNs modulation. Each RNN was recorded during standing on all four limbs, as well as when two or three limbs were lifted from the platform and could not signal platform displacements. By comparing RNN responses in different tests, we found that the amplitude and phase of responses in the majority of RNNs were determined primarily by sensory input from the corresponding (fore or hind) contralateral limb, whereas inputs from other limbs made a much smaller contribution to RNNs modulation. These findings suggest that the rubrospinal system is primarily involved in the intra-limb postural coordination, i.e., in the feedback control of the corresponding limb and, to a lesser extent, in the inter-limb coordination. This study provides a new insight into the formation of supraspinal motor commands for postural corrections. PMID:20980611

  7. Habitat use and terrestrial activity by red tree voles (Arborimus longicaudus) in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Bury, R. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Several species of vertebrates may find optimal habitat for breeding, nesting, or foraging in old-growth (>200 years old) confierous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Old-growth forests are economically valuable, however, and most unprotected stands will be cut within 40 years (Franklin et al., 1981). Meslow et al. (1981) and Raphael (1984) identified a critical need to document habitat use and establish the relationship of wildlife species in these forests. In 1983, we operated arrays of pitfall traps for six months to investigate habitat use by terrestrial herpetofauna and small mammals in four age classes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in and near the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Linn and Lane counties, Oregon. Red tree voles, Arborimus longicaudus, were among the mammals captured. This species is considered to find optimum habitat in old-growth forests (Franklin et al., 1981; Meslow et al., 1981), but quantitative data on the local occurrence of the species are lacking. Here we report on habitat use by A. longicaudus and document terrestrial activity for this presumably arboreal species. A pitfall array was located in each of 18 stands dominated by Douglas-fir. Each array consisted of two sets of three 5-m aluminum drift fences each with pitfall traps (No. 10 tin cans; 6.4 l in volume) at the ends of the fences (see Bury and Raphael, 1983). The 18 stands represented four successional stages based on estimated age: 3 pre-canopy (clear cuts 5-9 years old), 3 young (30-69 years), 4 mature (76-150 years), and 8 old-growth (195-450 years). Additionally, old-growth stands were ranked on a general moisture gradient (wet, mesic, or dry) based on aspect, topographic position, and presence of indicator plant species. Pitfall traps were operated continuously for 180 days from late May to late November, 1983.

  8. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass

    PubMed Central

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami.; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M.; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems. PMID:26514102

  9. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass.

    PubMed

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems. PMID:26514102

  10. Influence of dust and mud on the optical, chemical, and mechanical properties of a pv protective glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami.; Ali, Haider; Khaled, Mazen M.; Al-Aqeeli, Nasser; Abu-Dheir, Numan; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in climate change have increased the frequency of dust storms in the Middle East. Dust storms significantly influence the performances of solar energy harvesting systems, particularly (photovoltaic) PV systems. The characteristics of the dust and the mud formed from this dust are examined using various analytical tools, including optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies, X-ray diffraction, energy spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adhesion, cohesion and frictional forces present during the removal of dry mud from the glass surface are determined using a microtribometer. Alkali and alkaline earth metal compounds in the dust dissolve in water to form a chemically active solution at the glass surface. This solution modifies the texture of the glass surface, thereby increasing the microhardness and decreasing the transmittance of the incident optical radiation. The force required to remove the dry mud from the glass surface is high due to the cohesive forces that result from the dried mud solution at the interface between the mud and the glass. The ability altering the characteristics of the glass surface could address the dust/mud-related limitations of protective surfaces and has implications for efficiency enhancements in solar energy systems.

  11. Mud handling improved with a constant-volume riser

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.J. )

    1990-09-24

    Marine risers currently deployed by floating drilling units incorporate a telescopic joint to accommodate vessel movement, primarily heave. This vertical telescopic movement changes the internal volume of the riser and causes fluctuations in the return-mud flow rate. Flow fluctuations make accurate measurement of the return mud difficult. The significance is that these measurements are vital for the early detection of well bore influx or downhole mud losses. Erratic mud flow also adversely affects the efficiency of the solids-removal equipment and potentially increases the risk of discharging whole mud to the environment. To overcome these adverse effects, a design for a telescopic joint is proposed (constant volume riser or CVR) in which the internal riser volume remains constant, irrespective of movement, thus permitting a uniform flow rate of mud returns.

  12. - and Syn-Eruptive Surface Movements of Azerbaijan Mud Volcanoes Detected Through Insar Analysis: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper; Aliyev, Chingiz

    2014-05-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that consists in the extrusion of mud, fragments or blocks of country rocks, saline waters and gases, mostly methane. This mechanism is typically linked to in-depth hydrocarbon traps, and it builds up a variety of conical edifices with dimension and morphology similar to those of magmatic volcanoes. Interferometry by Satellite Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques have been commonly used to monitor and investigate the ground deformation connected to the eruptive phases of magmatic volcanoes. InSAR techniques have also been employed to explore the ground deformation associated with the LUSI mud volcano in Java (Indonesia). We aim to carry out a study on the paroxysmal activities of the Azerbaijan mud volcanoes, among the largest on Earth, using similar techniques. In particular the deformations of the mud volcanic systems were analyzed through the technique of satellite differential interferometry (DInSAR), thanks to the acquisition of 16 descending and 4 ascending Envisat images, spanning about 4 years (October 2003-November 2007); these data were provided by the European Space Agency. The preliminary analysis of a set of 77 interferograms and the unwrapping process elaboration of some of them selected according to the best coherence values, allowed the detection of significant deformations in correspondence of Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara Zira Island mud volcanoes. This analysis has allowed to identify relevant ground deformations of the volcanic systems in connection with the main eruptive events in 2005 and in 2006 respectively, that are recorded by the catalogue of Azerbaijan mud volcano eruptions until 2007. The preliminary analysis of the interferograms of the Ayaz-Akhtarma and the Khara Zira mud volcanoes shows that the whole volcano edifice or part of it is subject to a ground displacement before or in coincidence with the eruption. Assuming that the movement is mainly vertical, we suppose that deformation is due to bulging of the volcanic

  13. Observations and Rock Analyses in a Kumano Mud Volcano in Nankai Accretionary Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Aoike, K.; Sawada, T.; Ashi, J.; Gulick, S. P.; Flemings, P. B.; Kuramoto, S.; Saito, S.; Mikada, H.; Kinoshita, M.

    2002-12-01

    Kumano Basin is a forearc basin on the eastern Nankai Accretionary Prism off southwest Japan. Recent bathymetric survey showed existence of small knolls in the Kumano Basin. Submersible and ROV dives, sidescan sonar and deep-towed camera investigations revealed so far that at least five of the small knolls are mud volcanoes erupted on the Kumano Basin floor. In June and August, 2002, Dive 677 and 681 by submersible SHINKAI 6500 (YK02-02: R/V Yokosuka) and Dive 267 by ROV KAIKO (KR02-10: R/V Kairei) were performed in one of the mud volcanoes, Kumano Knoll No.4, which is 100 m high and 800 m in diameter at the foot of the knoll. The knoll has a plateau of about 300 m diameter on the top, which shows bumpy surface where there are waves, steps and craters of several meters in diameter. The craters imply active or dead cold seeps and are occasionally accompanied by Calyptogena colonies. The plateau is mostly covered with mud. Rock gravels and boulders were observed mainly on outer slope of the knoll. Sidescan sonar and subbottom profiler data by KAIKO system show marked contrasts in sonic reflectivity and penetration between the Kumano Knoll No.4 and the Kumano Basin floor. The high sonic reflectivity and the low penetration on the knoll indicate that main body of the knoll is composed of clastic ejecta as a mud volcano. On the Kumano Knoll No.4, the dives obtained semi-consolidated mudstone, mud breccia, and biotite arkose sandstone. Chronological analysis on nannofossil indicates the sedimentary rocks are in the late Early Miocene through the Middle Miocene. According to this age and geological information on land, it is likely that the sedimentary rocks on the knoll were originally deposited at the beginning of formation of the Kumano Basin. Porosity of these sedimentary rocks is very low (< 18 %). Some mud breccias contain calcite veins that cut the angular mud gravels. These features lead to finding processes until when the sedimentary rocks reached to the seafloor

  14. Extreme efficiency of mud volcanism in dewatering accretionary prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, Achim; Klaeschen, Dirk; Mascle, Jean

    2001-07-01

    Drilling results from two mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary complex as well as bottom sampling and the wealth of geophysical data acquired recently have provided fundamental knowledge of the 3D geometry of mud extrusions. Mud volcanism is generally related to buoyancy (density inversion), and is triggered by the collision of the African and Eurasian blocks, forcing undercompacted clayey sediments to extrude along faults in the central and hinterlandward parts of the prism. Volumetric estimates of extruded mud in several well-studied areas were based on pre-stack depth-migrated seismic profiles across the entire, up to >150 km wide, prism. The resulting volumes of mud were combined with ages from mud dome drilling, so that rates of mud extrusion were obtained. Subtracting the solid rock mass from the bulk mud volume using physical property data, fluid flux as a function of mud volcanism alone has been quantified for the first time. The volume of fluid extruding with the mud is found to be variable, but reaches up to 15 km 3 fluid per km trench length and Ma along cross sections with abundant mud volcanoes. Such large fluid quantities in a region some 50-150 km behind the deformation front exceed estimates from those elsewhere (where undoubtedly the majority of the interstitial fluid is lost due to compaction). Such fluids near the backstop are likely to result predominantly from mineral dehydration and diagenetic reactions at depth, and consequently provide a window to understand deeper processes along the deep décollement. More importantly, the enormous rates with which such fluids and liquified mud escape along the out-of-sequence faults alter fluid budget calculations in subduction zones drastically.

  15. New water-based muds for tertiary shale control

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, P.I. ); Minton, R.C. )

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field assessments of a series of inhibitive water muds developed by BP. RCS 1 contains cationic starch to control fluid loss and to inhibit shale expansion further. RCS 2 is a highly inhibitive version of RCS 1 containing polyglycerol. RCS 3, the most inhibitive mud of the series, contains a phosphate salt and polyglycerol. Levels of inhibition appear close to those of oil-based mud.

  16. Microbiological and Geochemical Characterization of the Deep Subsurface Environment: Kumano Mud Volcano, Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, D. H.; Ijiri, A.; Morono, Y.; Orphan, V. J.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes play an important environmental role by delivering deep-sourced fluids, elements, and hydrocarbons to the seafloor. These fluxes in turn support chemosynthetic benthic communities. However, due to difficulty in accessing the deep biosphere most mud volcano samples only represent the top one to several meters below seafloor (mbsf) obtainable by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) or gravity cores. Thus, the geochemical and microbiological conditions, as well as vertical homogeneity, deep within mud volcanoes remains poorly constrained. In 2012, using the deep-sea drilling vessel Chikyu, we drilled one of the most active submarine mud volcanoes in the Kumano forearc basin of the Nankai Trough, off the Kii Peninsula of Japan (33°67.581'N, 136°56.8085'E: 1,986.7 m in water depth). Cores were obtained down to 200 mbsf. Cell counts indicate the presence of microorganisms at relatively low abundance (less than 105 cells/cm3) throughout the cored depth. Molecular analyses reveal vertical heterogeneity in the microbial community composition, including specific depth horizons harboring putative methanogenic and methanotrophic phylotypes at >100 mbsf. Geochemical profiles indicate the potential for microbial activity and rate measurements with radiotracers revealed active homoacetogenesis rates that were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than rates of homo- and acetoclastic methanogenesis. To assess active autotrophic, methanotrophic and heterotrophic populations, 13C- and 15N-amendment experiments with sediment samples collected from 15 and 115 mbsf were established and single cell stable isotope analyses with nanoSIMS are in progress. Our samples and analyses represent a unique observation of a subseafloor setting different from previously explored stratified sediments on continental margins and will allow further understanding of how submarine mud volcanoes contribute to geochemical and microbiological fluxes into the surface biosphere.

  17. Determination of contents and antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics compounds and in vitro digestibility of commercial black and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Sumczynski, Daniela; Kotásková, Eva; Družbíková, Helena; Mlček, Jiří

    2016-11-15

    Black and red rices (Oryza sativa L.) were analysed for total flavonoids and phenolics and the HPLC profile including both free and bound phenolic fractions. Moreover, antioxidant activity and in vitro digestibility was determined. Content of flavonoids and polyphenols as well as antioxidant activity was higher in free phenolic fractions. Bound flavonoids in black rices were not significant contributors to antioxidant activity. The main free phenolics in black rices were ferulic, protocatechuic and trans-p-coumaric acids, while the major free phenolics in red rices were catechin, protocatechuic and caffeic acids. The main bound phenolics in black rices were ferulic and vanillic acids and quercetin, in red rice types, they were ferulic, syringic, trans-p-coumaric acids and quercetin. Newly, the presence of m-coumaric acid in red rices was detected. Steam cooked rices showed very high levels of organic matter digestibility, whereas red rices were significantly more digestible than black rices (p<0.05). PMID:27283641

  18. Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Sachiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Yoneda, Hirotsugu; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers. PMID:17341828

  19. Organic chemical composition of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Campbell, P.; Lam, A.

    2009-12-01

    Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia is the site of LUSI, a terrestrial mud volcano that has been erupting since May 29, 2006. In response to a U.S. Department of State request, the U.S. Geological Survey has been assisting the Indonesian Government to describe the geological and geochemical aspects and potential health risk of the mud eruption. We report here on the organic chemical composition of the mud. Organic chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy following organic extraction by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and compound fractionation by adsorption chromatography. There is a petroliferous component in the mud that is fresh, immature, and nonbiodegraded. There is a complete suite of n-alkanes with a bell-shaped pattern typical of fresh petroleum with a Cmax around C20. The alkane content ranges from 0.12 to 1.01 mg/kg dry mud. The presence of certain hopanes (i.e. 17 α,21β(H)-30-norhopane and 17α,21β(H)-hopane) is also indicative of the presence of oil. The proportions of other biomarker compounds (pristane/phytane = 2.4) and the dominance of the C27 sterane (5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-chlolestane) suggest that oil formed under oxic conditions and has a likely coastal marine or terrigenous source. The presence of oleanane indicates a Cretaceous or younger age for the petrogenic material. These geochemical parameters are consistent with Indonesian oil derived from Tertiary marlstone source rocks that contained kerogen deposited under oxic conditions, probably the upper Miocene Klasafet Formation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present and range in content from 0.1 to 2.2 mg/kg dry mud. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, in particular, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalene are dominant except for perylene which is ubiquitous in the environment. The presence of both parent and higher homologue PAHs indicate a petrogenic rather than combustion source. PAHs are known carcinogens but toxicity data in sediments are

  20. Tracking hydrothermal feature changes in response to seismicity and deformation at Mud Volcano thermal area, Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefenbach, A. K.; Hurwitz, S.; Murphy, F.; Evans, W.

    2013-12-01

    The Mud Volcano thermal area in Yellowstone National Park comprises many hydrothermal features including fumaroles, mudpots, springs, and thermal pools. Observations of hydrothermal changes have been made for decades in the Mud Volcano thermal area, and include reports of significant changes (the appearance of new features, increased water levels in pools, vigor of activity, and tree mortality) following an earthquake swarm in 1978 that took place beneath the area. However, no quantitative method to map and measure surface feature changes through time has been applied. We present an analysis of aerial photographs from 1954 to present to track temporal changes in the boundaries between vegetated and thermally barren areas, as well as location, extent, color, clarity, and runoff patterns of hydrothermal features within the Mud Volcano thermal area. This study attempts to provide a detailed, long-term (>50 year) inventory of hydrothermal features and change detection at Mud Volcano thermal area that can be used to identify changes in hydrothermal activity in response to seismicity, uplift and subsidence episodes of the adjacent Sour Creek resurgent dome, or other potential causes.

  1. Secreted lipoxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits biomembrane oxygenase activity and induces hemolysis in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Banthiya, Swathi; Pekárová, Mária; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-10-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) expresses a secreted lipoxygenase (LOX), which oxygenates free arachidonic acid predominantly to 15S-H(p)ETE. The enzyme is capable of binding phospholipids at its active site and physically interacts with model membranes. However, its membrane oxygenase activity has not been quantified. To address this question, we overexpressed PA-LOX as intracellular his-tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified it to electrophoretic homogeneity and compared its biomembrane oxygenase activity with that of rabbit ALOX15. We found that both enzymes were capable of oxygenating mitochondrial membranes to specific oxygenation products and 13S-H(p)ODE and 15S-H(p)ETE esterified to phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were identified as major oxygenation products. When normalized to similar linoleic acid oxygenase activity, the rabbit enzyme exhibited a much more effective mitochondrial membrane oxygenase activity. In contrast, during long-term incubations (24 h) with red blood cells PA-LOX induced significant (50%) hemolysis whereas rabbit ALOX15 was more or less ineffective. These data indicate the principle capability of PA-LOX of oxygenating membrane bound phospholipids which is likely to alter the barrier function of the biomembranes. Although the membrane oxygenase activity was lower than the fatty acid oxygenase activity of PA-LOX red blood cell membrane oxygenation might be of biological relevance for P. aeruginosa septicemia. PMID:26361973

  2. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume.

  3. "RED" Matters When Naming "CAR": The Cascading Activation of Nontarget Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Seven experiments tested, whether when naming a colored object (e.g., "CAR"), its color (e.g., "red") is phonologically encoded. In the first experiment, adults had to say aloud the names of colored line drawings of objects that were each displayed among 3 black-and-white line drawings (Experiment 1a) or that were presented…

  4. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  5. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  6. Flume studies of mud deposition: Implications for shallow marine mud deposition and the stratigraphic record (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, J.

    2010-12-01

    Racetrack flumes with paddle-belt drives, designed to avoid destruction of floccules, were used to examine mud deposition from swift moving suspensions. At flow velocities that transport and deposit sand (20-35 cm/s, 5 cm flow depth) muddy suspensions produce deposition-prone floccules that form migrating floccule ripples. Mud beds that form as a consequence of floccule ripple accretion appear parallel laminated at first glance, but reveal internal low angle cross-lamination on closer inspection. In plan view, the observed pattern of ripple foresets is identical to rib and furrow structure in sandstones. In experiments at marine salinity, where clays were mixed with quartz silt, uniform as well as gradually decelerating currents produce deposits that show low relief coarser silt ripples at the base, followed by low angle inclined silty laminae and an increasing clay component upwards. Once examined with proper care, the clay-rich upper portion of the deposits shows internal laminae and cross-laminae. We also observed comparable sedimentary features in various ancient shallow marine mudstone successions. When examined at the hand specimen or drill core scale, above experimental deposits show the same features that have been widely reported from fluid-mud event layers in modern shelf settings. The latter have been attributed to gravity flows that are triggered by wave re-suspension of surficial muds. Whereas that model is consistent with the features attributed to the purported process, our experiments point to a potential alternative scenario. In addition to fluid muds, meaning high concentration sediment suspensions with mass concentrations > 10 g/l, the low concentration sediment suspensions (<10 g/l) from our experiments appear to be able to create equivalent deposits when given sufficient time for advective sediment transport. Graded muddy deposits on modern shelves and in ancient shelf successions thus may be of multiple origins. In addition to being the result

  7. Influence of the insecticides acetamiprid and carbofuran on arylamidase and myrosinase activities in the tropical black and red clay soils.

    PubMed

    Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Maddela, N R; Manjunatha, B; Rangaswamy, V; Koch Kaiser, Alma Rosel; Maisincho Asqui, Jessica Cristina; Darwin Rueda, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as β-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine β-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities. PMID:26024750

  8. The Onset of Channelling in a Fluidized Mud Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Billing, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Fluidization of a soil occurs when the drag force exerted on the soil grains by upwelling water equals the submerged weight of the soil grains, hence reducing the effective (or contact) stress between the soil grains to zero. In nature, fluidization is commonly encountered in localized portions of highly saturated mud layers found in tidal flats, estuaries and lakes, where upward flow is initiated by significant pore water pressure gradients triggered by wave or tidal action. The water propagates through the fluidized mud layer by forming channels (or vents), carrying the fluidized mud to the surface and forming mud volcano structures. The presence of these fluidization channels alters the mud layer structure with implications on its hydraulic and geotechnical properties, such as the hydraulic conductivity. Despite the importance of these channels, the conditions that lead to their formation and their effects on the mud layer structure still remain poorly documented. The present study couples experimental and theoretical methods aimed at quantifying the conditions, under which fluidization of a saturated mud layer is accompanied by the formation of channels, and assessing the effects of channeling on the mud layer structure. Fluidization and channel formation in a mud layer were reproduced in the laboratory using a carefully designed fluidization column attached to a pressurized vessel (plenum). To eliminate any effects of the material, the mud was produced from pure kaolin clay and deionized water. Local porosity measurements along the mud layer prior, during and after fluidization were conducted using an Americium-241 gamma source placed on a fully automated carriage. Different water inflow rates, q, were applied to the base of the mud layer and the plenum pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. These experiments revealed that for high q values, a single vertical channel formed and erupted at the center of the fluidization column. Instead for low q

  9. 3-D Seismic Images of Mud Volcano North Alex, West-Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Joerg; Klaeschen, Dirk; Papenberg, Cord; Gehrmann, Romina; Sommer, Malte

    2010-05-01

    Mud volcanoes within shelf areas are the bathymetric expression of mobilized overpressured sediments causing a feature of possible instability within the slope. Such a scene is given in the West-Nile Delta offshore Alexandria, Egypt at 700 m water depth, ,which was studied during a RWE Dea funded research project. The West Nile Delta forms part of the source of the large turbiditic Nile Deep Sea Fan. Since the late Miocene sediments have formed an up to 10 km thick pile, which includes about 1 - 3 km of Messinian evaporates. The sediment load of the overburden implies strong overpressures and salt-related tectonic deformation. Both are favourable for fluid migration towards the seafloor guided by the fractured margin. Deep-cutting channel systems like the Rosetta channel characterize the continental slope. Bathymetric expressions of slides and numerous mud volcanoes in the area are expressions of active processes, which contribute to the ongoing modification of the slope. The western deltaic system, Rosetta branch, has formed an 80 km wide continental shelf. Here at 700 m water depth the mud volcano North Alex developed his circular bathymetric feature, which proved to be an active gas and mud-expelling structure. A grid of 2-D seismic profiles did reveal a large set of faults located within the main mud volcano as well as surrounding the structure. Internal faults are mainly related to episodic mud expulsion processes and continuous gas and fluid production. Deep cutting external faults surround the structure in a half circle shape. They can be tracked up to the seafloor indicating ongoing tectonic activity of the slope area. A recently build 3-D acquisition system (funded by RWE Dea) suitable for mid-size research vessels was applied to collect an active seismic cube of the mud volcano. Based on the P-Cable design 11 parallel streamers (each 12.5 m long with 1.5 m group interval) were used to record shots of a single 210 cinch GI airgun. Based on GPS positions of

  10. Recovery of polyphenols from red grape pomace and assessment of their antioxidant and anti-cholesterol activities.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maura; Bin, Sofia; Vallini, Veronica; Fava, Fabio; Michelini, Elisa; Roda, Aldo; Minnucci, Giordano; Bucchi, Giacomo; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2016-05-25

    The present work aimed at the recovery and characterization of polyphenolic compounds extracted from red grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L.), a winemaking by-product. Polyphenolic compounds of wet (WP) and dried (DP) red pomace were recovered by enzymatic digestions and ethanol-based extractions. Fungamyl and Celluclast enzymes were found to be the most effective in enhancing polyphenol release from WP. WP samples showed the highest capacity of releasing polyphenols with 2h control 24°C and 2h 1% Celluclast resulting as the best treatments. A significantly lower amount of polyphenols was recovered from DP most probably as a consequence of the pomace drying. The best extracts contained high amounts of total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and anthocyanins and exerted antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering activities. The results support the possibility of exploiting the extracts coming from grape processing by-products as ingredients for functional and innovative products in the nutraceutical, pharmaceutical or cosmetic fields. PMID:26705904

  11. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S.; Farhi, Samouil L.; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E.

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. To develop FlicR1, we used directed protein evolution and rational engineering to screen libraries of thousands of variants. FlicR1 faithfully reports single action potentials (∼3% ΔF/F) and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. Furthermore, FlicR1 can be easily imaged with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin for all-optical electrophysiology, although blue light photoactivation of the FlicR1 chromophore presents a challenge for applications that require spatially overlapping yellow and blue excitation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fluorescent-protein-based voltage indicators enable imaging of the electrical activity of many genetically targeted neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we describe the engineering of a bright red fluorescent protein-based voltage indicator designated as FlicR1 (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red). FlicR1 has sufficient speed and sensitivity to report single action potentials and voltage fluctuations at frequencies up to 100 Hz in single-trial recordings with wide-field microscopy. Because it is excitable with yellow light, FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with blue-light-activated

  12. Search of CH4 around the mud volcanism areas on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Shohei

    2012-06-01

    We propose the first measurement of CH4 specialized in the mud volcanism areas on Mars. Although the small amount of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere is remarkable because its source is potentially geological (or biological) activity, it is still open question. The high spectral and spatial resolution with high sensitivity and wide spectral coverage of IRCS/Subaru enable us the first mapping of CH4 on the localized mud volcanism areas. In the terrestrial case, mud volcanism vents about 25% of CH4 released from geological sources to the atmosphere. In such locations, CH4 can potentially combine with the infiltrated H2O and generate CH4-hydrate. While in the Martian case, the mud volcanism is expected the mounds in Acidalia Planitia and the Utopia/Isidis pitted cones. However, the releases of CH4 on these locations have not been discovered yet. Since the CH4-hydrate suggests the correlation of CH4 and H2O, high spatial resolution with simultaneous measurements of CH4 and H2O lines are essential. IRCS/Subaru can provide this opportunity. In addition, our observation will override the past one with CSHELL/IRTF in the following aspects, (1) less uncertainty by simultaneous measurement of multiple CH4 lines with wider spectral coverage, and (2) better spatial resolution.

  13. Inactivation of DDT deposits on mud surfaces*†

    PubMed Central

    Bordas, E.; Downs, W. G.; Navarro, L.

    1953-01-01

    The problem of the inactivation of DDT deposits on dry mud surfaces is presented and its causes outlined. The phenomenon is found to be due to adsorption of the DDT crystals present on the surface; this adsorption appears to be the initial step in the catalytic decomposition of DDT by the iron oxides present in soils, since there is a direct relation between the amount of oxides present and their capacity to inactivate DDT deposits. The DDT-inactivating capacity of soils can be determined by testing them for catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of DDT. The adsorption of DDT by soil is influenced by environmental relative humidity. Inactivated deposits may be reactivated by increase of the atmospheric humidity. Several substances proposed for the protection of the DDT deposit from inactivation were tested without success. Reference is made, however, to the encouraging findings of some other workers. Limewashing is recommended for the protection of DDT deposits. PMID:13082389

  14. Gamma rays as an effective tool for removing undesirable color without adverse changes in biological activities of red beet extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, In Chul; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy root were used to investigate the removal of color and improvement of biological activity for enhanced industrial applications. The extracts were exposed to gamma rays ranging from 2.5 to 30 kGy. The red beet hairy root is composed of two major red-colorants, betanin and isobetanin. Gamma ray radiation at 5 kGy remarkably reduced the levels of the major colorants by 94% and the reddish color was eliminated by doses greater than 10 kGy. Color removal was likely due to the gamma ray radiolysis of ethanol. Although details on the mechanism responsible for the decay of the chromophore have not been entirely determined, our results suggest that the free radicals that are produced during this process are capable of destroying the chromophore group in isobetanin, thus bleaching the substrate solution. In spite of the degradation of the major colorants, the biological activities of constituents of the extract such as DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition were negligibly affected by the gamma ray radiation up to 20 kGy. The antioxidant activity was 92.7% in control samples and 90.0-92.0% in irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy), and a slight decrease to 87.5% was observed for gamma ray radiation at 30 kGy. In addition, tyrosinase inhibition activity has also the same pattern; the activity is slightly increased from 50.7% of control to 49.1-52.8% of irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy) with a 46.8% at 30 kGy.

  15. Arginine kinase: differentiation of gene expression and protein activity in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haichuan; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Lee; Lin, Qin; Liu, Nannan

    2009-02-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), a primary enzyme in cell metabolism and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-consuming processes, plays an important role in cellular energy metabolism and maintaining constant ATP levels in invertebrate cells. In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed between larvae and adults, queens and workers, and female alates (winged) and queens (wingless), AK cDNA was obtained from the red imported fire ant. The cDNA sequence of the gene has open reading frames of 1065 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 355 amino acid residues that includes the substrate recognition region, the signature sequence pattern of ATP:guanidino kinases, and an "actinin-type" actin binding domain. Northern blot analysis and protein activity analysis demonstrated that the expression of the AK gene and its protein activity were developmentally, caste specifically, and tissue specifically regulated in red imported fire ants with a descending order of worker> alate (winged adult) female> alate (winged adult) male> larvae> worker pupae approximately alate pupae. These results suggest a different demand for energy-consumption and production in the different castes of the red imported fire ant, which may be linked to their different missions and physiological activities in the colonies. The highest level of the AK gene expression and activity was identified in head tissue of both female alates and workers and thorax tissue of workers, followed by thorax tissue of female alates and abdomen tissue of male alates, suggesting the main tissues or cells in these body parts, such as brain, neurons and muscles, which have been identified as the major tissues and/or cells that display high and variable rates of energy turnover in other organisms, play a key role in energy production and its utilization in the fire ant. In contrast, in the male alate, the highest AK expression and activity were found in the abdomen, suggesting that here energy demand may relate to sperm formation

  16. Balamuthia mandrillaris therapeutic mud bath in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Todd, C D; Reyes-Batlle, M; Piñero, J E; Martínez-Carretero, E; Valladares, B; Lindo, J F; Lorenzo-Morales, J

    2015-07-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an emerging cause of encephalitis in humans. The transmission dynamics are poorly understood due to the high fatality rate and the sporadic nature of cases. Seventy-two soil samples were collected from beaches and the banks of lagoons, rivers, ponds, mineral springs and streams from across Jamaica and assayed for the presence of B. mandrillaris. Seventy-nine sites were sampled and the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene of B. mandrillaris was amplified and sequenced to confirm the presence of the amoeba. One isolate of B. mandrillaris was recovered from soil from mineral spring which hosts an informal therapeutic mud bath business. Although B. mandrillaris is less frequently isolated from soil than other free-living amoebae, rubbing mud containing the organism onto the skin increases the likelihood of exposure and infection. This first report on the isolation of B. mandrillaris in the Caribbean and its presence in soil where human contact is likely warrants further investigation using serological methods to elucidate exposure patterns. PMID:25335452

  17. Paleoenvironmental setting of Paleozoic mud mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wanless, H.R. . Dept. Geological Sciences); Tedesco, L.P. )

    1992-01-01

    Paleozoic carbonate mud mounds formed above storm wave base, which in many settings was in moderate to extremely shallow water. This is concluded by a comparative analysis of sedimentary structures, fabrics and small scale sequences occurring in Mississippian and Pennsylvanian mounds and in modern mud mounds and Halimeda bioherms. Most small mounds studied contain a shallowing sequence that represents shallowing into the zone of daily agitation. The bulk of each mound sequence is detrital deposition of layered mudstones to wackestones in the mound core and packstones to grainstones on the flanks and shoal cap. If macroskeletal fauna and flora are present, an autochthonous skeletal packstone may occur in the upper portion of the shallowing sequence beneath the detrital grainstone cap. Burrow excavations and grainy tubular tempestite infillings partially to completely modify the primary depositional fabric of all of these facies. Larger mounds studied are a composite of several to numerous smaller mound depositional sequences. High vertical relief of some larger mounds may be more the result of continued accommodation space provided by subsidence/downfaulting than be deposition in extremely deep water. Although the biotic components of carbonate mounds vary greatly through the Paleozoic, the contained sedimentary structures, fabrics and fundamental depositional sequences remain very similar. This suggests a general similarity in the mechanism and depositional setting of mound formation.

  18. Serpentinite mud volcanism: observations, processes, and implications.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth. PMID:22457979

  19. Serpentinite Mud Volcanism: Observations, Processes, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Large serpentinite mud volcanoes form on the overriding plate of the Mariana subduction zone. Fluids from the descending plate hydrate (serpentinize) the forearc mantle and enable serpentinite muds to rise along faults to the seafloor. The seamounts are direct windows into subduction processes at depths far too deep to be accessed by any known technology. Fluid compositions vary with distance from the trench, signaling changes in chemical reactions as temperature and pressure increase. The parageneses of rocks in the mudflows permits us to constrain the physical conditions of the decollement region. If eruptive episodes are related to seismicity, seafloor observatories at these seamounts hold the potential to capture a subduction event and trace the effects of eruption on the biological communities that the slab fluids support, such as extremophile Archaea. The microorganisms that inhabit this high-pH, extreme environment support their growth by utilizing chemical constituents present in the slab fluids. Some researchers now contend that the serpentinization process itself may hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.

  20. Mud volcanism at the Manihiki-Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorf, H. )

    1990-06-01

    In February 1987 a complex of mud volcanoes was discovered on the northeastern edge of the Manihiki-Plateau during a cruise of R/V MOANA WAVE. Forty out of about 100 cones coalesce to form an edifice about 25 km in diameter, 1,900 m high, rising from a plateau depth of 3,200 m. SeaMARC II side-scan images suggest radial fluid sediment flow from the center of this feature. Recent foraminiferal ooze was cored from a satellite cone. One dredge haul from the summit of the edifice recovered burrowed limestone with embedded Middle Eocene foraminifera. It suggests that parts of the sedimentary basement cover of the Manihiki Plateau have been mobilized together with pore fluids and moved upward. The causes of the movement as well as its mechanism, however, remain unknown because of the lack of direct measurements. There is a likelihood that overpressured methane, generated from organic carbon-rich sediments, acts as driving force. Therefore, BGR submitted a proposal to the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) to investigate the mud volcano complex and reference area with the most relevant outcropping sedimentary sequence of the northeastern Manihiki Plateau in detail. The preliminary results from these investigations carried out with R/V SONNE in spring of 1990 are presented.

  1. THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  2. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  3. Potential environmental benefits from regulatory consideration of synthetic drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, C.J.; Veil, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    When drilling exploration and production wells for oil and gas, drillers use specialized drilling fluids, referred to as muds, to help maintain well control and to remove drill cuttings from the hole. Historically, either water-based muds (WBMs) or oil-based muds (OBMs) have been used for offshore wells. Recently, in response to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations and drilling-waste discharge requirements imposed by North Sea nations, the drilling industry has developed several types of synthetic-based muds (SBMs) that combine the desirable operating qualities of OBMs with the lower toxicity and environmental impact qualities of WBMs. This report describes the operational, environmental, and economic features of all three types of muds and discusses potential EPA regulatory barriers to wider use of SBMs.

  4. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    PubMed

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  5. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik, J.

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  6. Peloid Mud: a multi-step maturation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redolfi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is understanding the process involved in the maturation of artificial peloid mud commonly use in thermal spa. I prepare a standard protocol for analysis: XRD, chemical, heat capacity and heavy metal sequential extraction . I also prepare 12 artificial peloid mud following the procedure describe in Veniale et al. (2004) mixing natural thermal waters form the Lazio region with a common clay also collected in Lazio Region with a ration of 1:1 in weight and put this mud in a sealed box at 40 °C for all the maturation process without remixing. Each peloid mud was sampled at one, three and six month of maturation, dried at 60 °C degree and milled for analysis. Each mud was compared with the result at one, three and six month to identify the major different of parameters at different time of maturation.

  7. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region. PMID:25370529

  8. A Bright and Fast Red Fluorescent Protein Voltage Indicator That Reports Neuronal Activity in Organotypic Brain Slices.

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed S; Farhi, Samouil L; Zhao, Yongxin; Brinks, Daan; Zou, Peng; Ruangkittisakul, Araya; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent A; Ballanyi, Klaus; Cohen, Adam E; Campbell, Robert E

    2016-02-24

    Optical imaging of voltage indicators based on green fluorescent proteins (FPs) or archaerhodopsin has emerged as a powerful approach for detecting the activity of many individual neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution. Relative to green FP-based voltage indicators, a bright red-shifted FP-based voltage indicator has the intrinsic advantages of lower phototoxicity, lower autofluorescent background, and compatibility with blue-light-excitable channelrhodopsins. Here, we report a bright red fluorescent voltage indicator (fluorescent indicator for voltage imaging red; FlicR1) with properties that are comparable to the best available green indicators. To develop FlicR1, we used directed protein evolution and rational engineering to screen libraries of thousands of variants. FlicR1 faithfully reports single action potentials (∼3% ΔF/F) and tracks electrically driven voltage oscillations at 100 Hz in dissociated Sprague Dawley rat hippocampal neurons in single trial recordings. Furthermore, FlicR1 can be easily imaged with wide-field fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that FlicR1 can be used in conjunction with a blue-shifted channelrhodopsin for all-optical electrophysiology, although blue light photoactivation of the FlicR1 chromophore presents a challenge for applications that require spatially overlapping yellow and blue excitation. PMID:26911693

  9. 3D Subsoil Model of the San Biagio `Salinelle' Mud Volcanoes (Belpasso, Sicily) derived from Geophysical Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imposa, S.; Grassi, S.; De Guidi, G.; Battaglia, F.; Lanaia, G.; Scudero, S.

    2016-07-01

    Mud volcanoes are common in active mountain fronts. At Mt. Etna, located just between the Apennine front in Sicily and its foredeep, there are some manifestations of mud volcanism in the lower border of the volcanic edifice. The activity of these mud volcanoes is characterized by persistent emission of muddy water mixed with salts, which rises to the surface due to the gas pressure in the subsoil. The San Biagio Salinelle is one of the three mud volcano fields located around the Paternò eruptive monogenic apparatus; this old volcanic structure was one of the first subaerial volcanic manifestations that formed in the pre-Etnean phase. It is not fully clear whether and how the activity of the mud fields is connected with the volcanic activity of Mt. Etna. Noninvasive geophysical surveys were carried out in the area of the active cone of the San Biagio Salinelle, in order to identify the probable ascent path of the emitted products. Seismic ambient noise records were collected at the nodes of a specially designed grid and, subsequently, the V s values were obtained from an active seismic survey. A digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was obtained by a topographic survey, carried out with the GNSS technique (global navigation satellite system), in real-time kinematic mode. The DEM and the topographic benchmark installed will represent the reference surface for future periodic monitoring of the ongoing deformation in the area. Our results provide an accurate and detailed 3D subsurface model showing the shallower feeding system of the investigated mud volcano.

  10. Natech events in mud flow prone areas. Methods and tools for risk prevention and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceudech, A.; Galderisi, A.; Profice, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of the present work, which is part of a National Research Project running between 2007 and 2009, is to develop methods and tools towards a better knowledge and mitigation of the Natech risk. The work grounds on the deeping of a case study: the Municipality of Siano, in the Campania Region (Italy), located in a valley area often subjected to hydro-geological events. More specifically the examined area is periodically affected by significant hydro-geological events that trigger rapidly evolving destructive phenomena (mud flows). A liquefied gas deposit (LPG), classified as a hazardous industrial plant (according to the Seveso II Directive and the Italian Law 334/99), is also localized in the town, in an area potentially affected by mud flows, next to a residential zone and to the main way of access and escape from town. In order to single out possible strategies of mitigation and emergency management, a scenario hypothesis of events, impacts and damages was outlined, starting from singling out possible mud flows triggering points. The complexity of the problem, characterised by simultaneous mud flow events and potential secondary technological hazards, required the implementation of a GIS capable of integrating not only data deriving from different disciplinary areas (geology, land use planning) but also automatic algorithms to estimate the possible impacts and damages of each chain generated from each mud flows and taking into account the potential of secondary hazards (technological accidents). Furthermore, because the evolution of these phenomena (mud flows) highly depends on the morphology of the territory and position of the buildings, it seemed appropriate to set up a tridimensional model of the area. The scenario is sketched as a logical-conceptual chain that, grounding on the characterisation of the primary event (mud flow) and on the tridimensional model of the site and buildings, leads to single out the possible impacts of the event on

  11. Tuning of silver cluster emission from blue to red using a bio-active peptide in water.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhasish; Baral, Abhishek; Banerjee, Arindam

    2014-03-26

    Blue, green, and red emitting silver quantum clusters have been prepared through green chemical approach by using a bio-active peptide glutathione (reduced) in a 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.46. This study describes fluorescence emission tuning of the silver clusters by making different sized Ag clusters using slightly different reaction conditions keeping the same stabilizing ligand, reducing agent, solvent system, and silver salt precursor. The preparation procedure of these silver quantum clusters is new and highly reproducible. Each of these clusters shows very interesting fluorescence properties with large stokes shifts, and the quantum yields of blue, green, and red clusters are 2.08%, 0.125%, and 1.39%, respectively. These silver quantum clusters have been characterized by using different techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, field-emission gun transmission electron microscopic (FEG-TEM) imaging and MALDI-TOF MS analyses. MALDI-TOF MS analyses show that the size of these blue, green and red emitting silver clusters are Ag5 (NC1, nanoclusters 1), Ag8 (NC2, nanoclusters 2) and Ag13 (NC3, nanoclusters 3), respectively, by using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as a matrix. These clusters are stable in broad ranges of pH. The NC3 (red emitting) has been successfully utilized for selective and sensitive detection of toxic Hg(II) ions in water by using even naked eyes, fluorometric, and calorimetric studies. The lower limit of detection of Hg(II) ions in water has been estimated to be 126 and 245 nM from fluorometric and UV-vis analyses, respectively. Enthalpy change (ΔH) during this Hg(II) sensing process is 2508 KJ mol(-1). PMID:24568193

  12. Engineered solutions to the hazards of oil based muds

    SciTech Connect

    Sweetsur, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the drilling process, mud performs a number of functions requiring different physical and chemical properties and it is useful to consider how these are affected by the use of an oil based fluid. The first function of the mud is to transport cuttings to the surface, which in general requires a velocity of around 100-200 ft/min and a viscosity of 30-50 secs/qt. The mud should have sufficient viscosity and gel strength to ensure that the cuttings are transported from the cutting surface and that they do no sink back to the bottom should circulation be interrupted. Secondly, the mud also works as a cutting fluid to lubricate and cool the bit and to ensure the at it is working on a clean formation, and to assist cutting via the energy of the fluid jets from the bit nozzles. The third essential function of the mud is as a primary means of pressure control. The hydrostatic head of the column of mud serves to counter-balance the formation pressure at any depth and must be amenable to adjust to compensate for variations in pressure. Also, by measuring flow rates in and out of the hole, the volume of mud in the tanks and by monitoring whether the mud contains gas, fluids or hydrocarbons, a large amount of information about what is happening at the bit can be obtained. The fourth property of mud is to provide a filter-cake that lines the bore of the well, helping to support is and preventing the loss of mud to the formation or the ingress of fluids form the formation into the hold.

  13. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  14. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  15. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Turner, R.J.W.; Ware, P.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (~200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor-hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (~100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  16. Boron-rich mud volcanoes of the Black Sea region: Modern analogues to ancient sea-floor tourmalinites associated with Sullivan-type Pb-Zn deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, John F.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Ware, Paul L. G.

    1998-05-01

    Large submarine mud volcanoes in the abyssal part of the Black Sea south of the Crimean Peninsula are similar in many respects to synsedimentary mud volcanoes in the Mesoproterozoic Belt-Purcell basin. One of the Belt-Purcell mud volcanoes directly underlies the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Footwall rocks to the Sullivan deposit comprise variably tourmalinized siltstone, conglomerate, and related fragmental rock; local thin pyrrhotite-rich and spessartine-quartz beds are interpreted as Fe and Fe-Mn exhalites, respectively. Analogous Fe- and Mn-rich sediments occur near the abyssal Black Sea mud volcanoes. Massive pyrite crusts and associated carbonate chimneys discovered in relatively shallow waters (˜200 m depth) west of the Crimean Peninsula indicate an active sea-floor hydrothermal system. Subaerial mud volcanoes on the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas (˜100 km north of the abyssal mud volcanoes) contain saline thermal waters that locally have very high B contents (to 915 mg/L). These data suggest that tourmalinites might be forming in or near submarine Black Sea mud volcanoes, where potential may also exist for Sullivan-type Pb-Zn mineralization.

  17. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  18. Phytochrome B-mediated activation of lipoxygenase modulates an excess red light-induced defence response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Jun; Xing, Da

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX), a non-haem-iron-containing dioxygenase, is activated under various biotic or abiotic stresses to trigger a series resistance response, but the molecular mechanism of LOX activation remains unclear. This work investigated the activation of LOX during the plant defence response induced by excess red light (RL). In conditions of RL-induced defence, Arabidopsis LOX activity and transcription levels of LOX2, LOX3, and LOX4 were both upregulated. Under RL, phytochrome B promoted the degradation of phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), a factor that inhibited the expression levels of LOXs, and thus the transcription levels of LOX2, LOX3, and LOX4 were increased. Upon pathogen infection, the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 was increased in plants pre-treated with RL. Moreover, experiments with the inhibitor PD98059 and mutants mpk3 and mpk6-2 demonstrated that MPK3 and MPK6 were both responsible for LOX activation. Further results showed that, in response to RL, an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration and upregulation of calmodulin 3 (CaM3) transcript level occurred upstream of MPK3 and MPK6 activation. Collectively, these results suggested that activation of LOX both at the transcript level and in terms of activity modulates the defence response induced by RL, providing a new insight into the mechanistic study of LOX during plant defences. PMID:24916071

  19. Metal-based netropsin mimics showing AT-selective DNA binding and DNA cleavage activity at red light.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ashis K; Bhowmick, Tuhin; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2007-10-29

    Copper(II) bis-arginate [Cu(l-arg)2](NO3)2 (1) and [Cu(l-arg)(phen)Cl]Cl (2) as mimics of the minor-groove-binding natural antibiotic netropsin show preferential binding to the AT-rich region of double-stranded DNA. The complexes with a d-d band near 600 nm display oxidative DNA cleavage activity on photoirradiation at UV-A light of 365 nm and at red light of 647.1 nm (Ar-Kr laser) in a metal-assisted photoexcitation process forming singlet oxygen (1O2) species in a type-2 pathway. PMID:17880211

  20. Terrestrial activity and conservation of adult California red-legged frogs Rana aurora draytonii in coastal forests and grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bulger, J.B.; Scott, N.J., Jr.; Seymour, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The federally threatened California red-legged frog Rana aurora draytonii occupies both aquatic and terrestrial habitats in its adult life stage. The terrestrial activities of this species are not well known and require documentation to assist in the development of appropriate levels of protection under the US Endangered Species Act. We studied the terrestrial activities of radio-tagged red-legged frogs (n = 8-26) inhabiting a coastal watershed in Santa Cruz County, California, during 1997-1998. In particular, we investigated (1) the use of terrestrial habitats by non-migrating adults in relation to season, breeding chronology, and precipitation, and (2) adult migration behavior, including seasonal timing, duration, distances traveled, and the use of corridors. Non-migrating red-legged frogs occupied terrestrial habitats briefly (median = 4-6 days) following infrequent summer rains, but resided nearly continuously on land (median = 20-30 days) from the onset of the winter wet-season until breeding activities commenced 1-2 months later. All of the non-migrating frogs remained within 130 m of their aquatic site of residence (median <25 m). Intervals spent on land were again brief during mid/late winter (median = 1-4 days), despite frequent and copious rainfall. Adult migration to and from breeding sites occurred from late October through mid-May (wet season). We monitored 25 migration events between aquatic sites that were 200-2800 m apart. Short distance movements ( <300 m) were completed in 1-3 days, longer movements required up to 2 months. Most migrating frogs moved overland in approximately straight lines to target sites without apparent regard to vegetation type or topography. Riparian corridors were neither essential nor preferred as migration routes. Frogs traveling overland occurred in upland habitats as far as 500 m from water. Approximately 11-22% of the adult population was estimated to migrate to and from breeding sites annually, whereas the bulk of the

  1. Low Power, Red, Green and Blue Carbon Nanotube Enabled Vertical Organic Light Emitting Transistors for Active Matrix OLED Displays

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, M. A.; Liu, B.; Donoghue, E. P.; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Kim, D. Y.; So, Franky; Rinzler, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Organic semiconductors are potential alternatives to polycrystalline silicon as the semiconductor used in the backplane of active matrix organic light emitting diode displays. Demonstrated here is a light-emitting transistor with an organic channel, operating with low power dissipation at low voltage, and high aperture ratio, in three colors: red, green and blue. The single-wall carbon nanotube network source electrode is responsible for the high level of performance demonstrated. A major benefit enabled by this architecture is the integration of the drive transistor, storage capacitor and light emitter into a single device. Performance comparable to commercialized polycrystalline-silicon TFT driven OLEDs is demonstrated.

  2. Geochemical surveys in the Lusi mud eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Mazzini, Adriano; Etiope, Giuseppe; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Hussein, Alwi; Hadi J., Soffian

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi mud eruption started in May 2006 following to a 6.3 M earthquake striking the Java Island. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we carried out geochemical surveys in the Sidoarjo district (Eastern Java Island, Indonesia) to investigate the gas bearing properties of the Watukosek fault system that crosses the Lusi mud eruption area. Soil gas (222Rn, CO2, CH4) concentration and flux measurements were performed 1) along two detailed profiles (~ 1km long), trending almost W-E direction, and 2) inside the Lusi embankment (about 7 km2) built to contain the erupted mud. Higher gas concentrations and fluxes were detected at the intersection with the Watukosek fault and the antithetic fault system. These zones characterized by the association of higher soil gas values constitute preferential migration pathways for fluids towards surface. The fractures release mainly CO2 (with peaks up to 400 g/m2day) and display higher temperatures (up to 41°C). The main shear zones are populated by numerous seeps that expel mostly CH4. Flux measurements in the seeping pools reveal that φCO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that measured in the fractures, and two orders of magnitude higher for φCH4. An additional geochemical profile was completed perpendicularly to the Watukosek fault escarpement (W-E direction) at the foots of the Penanngungang volcano. Results reveal CO2 and CH4 flux values significantly lower than those measured in the embankment, however an increase of radon and flux measurements is observed approaching the foots of the escarpment. These measurements are complemented with a database of ~350 CH4 and CO2 flux measurements and some soil gas concentrations (He, H2, CO2, CH4 and C2H6) and their isotopic analyses (δ13C-CH4, δD-CH4 and δ13C-CO2). Results show that the whole area is characterized by diffused gas release through seeps, fractures, microfractures and soil degassing. The collected results shed light on the origin of the

  3. Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion followed by FRET for the red light activation of a photodissociative ruthenium complex in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Askes, Sven H C; Kloz, Miroslav; Bruylants, Gilles; Kennis, John T M; Bonnet, Sylvestre

    2015-11-01

    Upconversion is a promising way to trigger high-energy photochemistry with low-energy photons. However, combining upconversion schemes with non-radiative energy transfer is challenging because bringing several photochemically active components in close proximity results in complex multi-component systems where quenching processes may deactivate the whole assembly. In this work, PEGylated liposomes were prepared that contained three photoactive components: a porphyrin dye absorbing red light, a perylene moiety emitting in the blue, and a light-activatable ruthenium prodrug sensitive to blue light. Time-dependent spectroscopic studies demonstrate that singlet perylene excited states are non-radiatively transferred to the nearby ruthenium complex by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Under red-light irradiation of the three-component membranes, triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTA-UC) occurs followed by FRET, which results in a more efficient activation of the ruthenium prodrug compared to a physical mixture of two-component upconverting liposomes and liposomes containing only the ruthenium complex. This work represents a rare example where TTA-UC and Förster resonance energy transfer are combined to achieve prodrug activation in the phototherapeutic window. PMID:26420663

  4. Hexose Oxidase-Mediated Hydrogen Peroxide as a Mechanism for the Antibacterial Activity in the Red Seaweed Ptilophora subcostata.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Kimi; Yamada, Kenji; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Imada, Chiaki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae have unique defense strategies against microbial infection. However, their mechanisms of immunity remain to be elucidated and little is known about the similarity of the immune systems of marine algae and terrestrial higher plants. Here, we suggest a possible mechanism underlying algal immunity, which involves hexose oxidase (HOX)-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We examined crude extracts from five different red algal species for their ability to prevent bacterial growth. The extract from one of these algae, Ptilophora subcostata, was particularly active and prevented the growth of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which was completely inhibited by treatment with catalase. The extract did not affect the growth of either a yeast or a filamentous fungus. We partially purified from P. subcostata an enzyme involved in its antibacterial activity, which shared 50% homology with the HOX of red seaweed Chondrus crispus. In-gel carbohydrate oxidase assays revealed that P. subcostata extract had the ability to produce H2O2 in a hexose-dependent manner and this activity was highest in the presence of galactose. In addition, Bacillus subtilis growth was strongly suppressed near P. subcostata algal fronds on GYP agar plates. These results suggest that HOX plays a role in P. subcostata resistance to bacterial attack by mediating H2O2 production in the marine environment. PMID:26867214

  5. Hexose Oxidase-Mediated Hydrogen Peroxide as a Mechanism for the Antibacterial Activity in the Red Seaweed Ptilophora subcostata

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Kimi; Yamada, Kenji; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Imada, Chiaki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Marine algae have unique defense strategies against microbial infection. However, their mechanisms of immunity remain to be elucidated and little is known about the similarity of the immune systems of marine algae and terrestrial higher plants. Here, we suggest a possible mechanism underlying algal immunity, which involves hexose oxidase (HOX)-dependent production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We examined crude extracts from five different red algal species for their ability to prevent bacterial growth. The extract from one of these algae, Ptilophora subcostata, was particularly active and prevented the growth of gram-positive and -negative bacteria, which was completely inhibited by treatment with catalase. The extract did not affect the growth of either a yeast or a filamentous fungus. We partially purified from P. subcostata an enzyme involved in its antibacterial activity, which shared 50% homology with the HOX of red seaweed Chondrus crispus. In-gel carbohydrate oxidase assays revealed that P. subcostata extract had the ability to produce H2O2 in a hexose-dependent manner and this activity was highest in the presence of galactose. In addition, Bacillus subtilis growth was strongly suppressed near P. subcostata algal fronds on GYP agar plates. These results suggest that HOX plays a role in P. subcostata resistance to bacterial attack by mediating H2O2 production in the marine environment. PMID:26867214

  6. Isolation and Identification of a Flavone Apigenin from Marine Red Alga Acanthophora spicifera with Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    El Shoubaky, Gihan A.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M.; Mansour, Mohamed H.; Salem, Essam A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2) solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H3BO3, AlCl3, and AlCl3 + HCl) were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids). The flavone compound was identified as apigenin bycomparing its physicochemical data with those in the literature. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of apigenin were evaluated. Apigenin showed promising analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the hot plate test and writhing test in mice as well as tail-immersion tests and carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It is concluded that apigenin possesses potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities, which might be due to the inhibition of PGE2 as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. PMID:26917974

  7. Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull© Energy Drink Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cavka, Ana; Stupin, Marko; Panduric, Ana; Plazibat, Ana; Cosic, Anita; Rasic, Lidija; Debeljak, Zeljko; Martinovic, Goran; Drenjancevic, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effect of Red Bull© on (1) blood glucose and catecholamine levels, (2) cardiovascular and respiratory function changes before, during, and after exercise, (3) reaction time, (4) cognitive functions, and (5) response to mental stress test and emotions in young healthy individuals (N=38). Methods. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), blood glucose, adrenaline, and noradrenalin plasma levels were measured before and after Red Bull© intake. Participants were subjected to 4 different study protocols by randomized order, before and 30 minutes after consumption of 500 mL of Red Bull©. Results. Mean ABP and HR were significantly increased at rest after Red Bull© intake. Blood glucose level and plasma catecholamine levels significantly increased after Red Bull© consumption. Heart rate, respiration rate, and respiratory flow rate were significantly increased during exercise after Red Bull© consumption compared to control condition. Intake of Red Bull© significantly improved reaction time, performance in immediate memory test, verbal fluency, and subject's attention as well as performance in mental stress test. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that Red Bull© has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:26124829

  8. Isolation of a homodimeric lectin with antifungal and antiviral activities from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ye, X Y; Ng, T B; Tsang, P W; Wang, J

    2001-07-01

    A homodimeric lectin adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose and possessing a molecular weight of 67 kDa was isolated from red kidney beans. The hemagglutinating activity of this lectin was inhibited by glycoproteins but not by simple sugars. The lectin manifested inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase and alpha-glucosidase. The N-terminal sequence of the lectin exhibited some differences from previously reported lectins from Phaseolus vulgaris but showed some similarity to chitinases. It exerted a suppressive effect on growth of the fungal species Fusarium oxysporum, Coprinus comatus, and Rhizoctonia solani. The lectin had low ribonuclease and negligible translation-inhibitory activities. PMID:11732688

  9. Record of complex scoria cone eruptive activity at Red Mountain, Arizona, USA, and implications for monogenetic mafic volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, N. R.; Duffield, W. A.

    2008-12-01

    for sealing fine-grained ash beds in the cone, and a pressurized system developed. Residual heat from a dike that was emplaced as part of the magmatic activity provided heat that drove groundwater along the regional fault up into the cone. Eventually the overpressurized system exploded in a phreatic eruption that created the amphitheatre, which has subsequently been enlarged by water and wind erosion. The combined sequence of events at Red Mountain illustrates some of the complexities in monogenetic scoria cone eruptions that have received little attention to date.

  10. Deformation and flow of red blood cells in a synthetic lattice: evidence for an active cytoskeleton.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, J P; Han, Y; Austin, R H; Bitensky, M

    1995-01-01

    We introduce the use of microfabrication techniques to construct on a silicon wafer a synthetic capillary bed with 2.5- to 4-micron (mu)-wide channels. Establishment of a fluid pressure gradient allowed us to observe simultaneously using optical microscopy hundreds of cells flowing through the bed at physiological speeds. We find a large distribution of mobilities among red cells flowing through the structure; smaller channels provide a greater impedance to flow than larger ones, indicating that kinetic drag variations provide the origin of the distribution. The mobility of a particular cell is not correlated with the cell diameter but appears to be inversely correlated with intracellular calcium concentration of the cell, as determined by fluorescence of the calcium-binding dye fluo-3 AM. Also, we are able to use the parallel processing nature of our arrays to observe isolated events where the rigidity of the red cell seems to change suddenly over several orders of magnitude as it blocks a channel in the array. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 PMID:7647230

  11. Bioerosion and carbonate mud production on high-latitude shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, George E.; Alan Fyfe, J.

    1988-11-01

    Low-latitude carbonate muds often are composed either of entire units of skeletons (e.g., algal muds) or of precipitates, whereas high-latitude carbonate muds are bioerosional or result from maceration. Bioerosion at high latitudes is most intense in the photic zone, particularly down to 25 m depth. Shelly substrata may be crushed, bitten, drilled, bored or scraped. Clionid sponges, endolithic algae, acmaeid gastropods and regular echinoids are the most significant agents. Clionids produce distinctive facetted carbonate silt chips when boring, which have been described from both high- and low-latitudes. Faecal pellets break down to yield mud-sized carbonate particles that are more irregular than those produced by maceration. Exhumed infaunal bivalves are often preferred to epifaunal organisms as substrata. Bioerosion occurs very rapidly; shells may be totally infested with boring algae in three months. A "moth-eaten" appearance therefore does not denote a relict grain. Reliable rates of fine sediment production are not yet available. The mud fraction of northwest European shelf sediment generally contains 10-20% CaCO 3, though an inshore and offshore belt with higher values may be identified. Some Holocene supratidal mud-flats exceed 50% CaCO 3. Much of the shelf represents a modern-day equivalent of the "calcareous shale" facies common in the geological record. Instances of synsedimentary cementation are not uncommon, particularly in association with heavily burrowed muds.

  12. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  13. Cloning and Characterization of Red Clover Polyphenol Oxidase cDNAs and Expression of Active Protein in Escherichia coli and Transgenic Alfalfa1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael L.; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Thoma, Sharon L.; Samac, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense) leaves contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and o-diphenol substrates. Wounding of leaves during harvest and ensiling results in browning of leaf tissues from activity of PPO on the o-diphenols. In association with browning, leaf proteins remain undegraded during ensiling, presumably due to PPO-generated o-quinone inhibition of leaf proteases. We cloned three red clover PPO cDNAs, PPO1, PPO2, and PPO3, from a leaf cDNA library. Sequence comparisons among the three red clover PPO clones indicated they are 87% to 90% identical at the nucleotide level (80%–83% amino acid identity). All three encode proteins predicted to localize to the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. RNA-blotting and immunoblotting experiments indicated PPO1 is expressed primarily in young leaves, PPO2 in flowers and petioles, and PPO3 in leaves and possibly flowers. We expressed mature PPO1 in Escherichia coli. A portion of the expressed protein was soluble and functional in an assay for PPO activity. We also expressed the red clover PPO cDNAs under the control of a constitutive promoter in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). The expressed red clover PPO proteins were active in alfalfa extracts as evidenced by o-diphenol-dependant extract browning and quantitative assays of PPO activity. Proteolysis in leaf extracts of alfalfa expressing red clover PPO1 was dramatically reduced in the presence of an o-diphenol compared to controls. Transgenic alfalfa expressing red clover PPO should prove an excellent model system to further characterize the red clover PPO enzymes and PPO-mediated inhibition of postharvest proteolysis in forage plants. PMID:15466227

  14. Mud volcano venting induced gas hydrate formation at the upper slope accretionary wedge, offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Saulwood; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Wan-Yen; Chou, Cheng-Tien; Chen, NeiChen; Hsieh, I.-Chih

    2016-04-01

    TsanYao Mud Volcano (TYMV) is the largest mud volcano cone in the Hengchun Mud Volcano Group (HCMVG), located at the upper slope of the accrretionary wedge, southwest of Taiwan. The region is under active tectonic activity with the Philippine Plate, moving northwestward at a rate of ~8 cm/year. This region also receives huge quantity of suspended particle load of ~100 mT/year at present time from adjacent small rivers of the Island of Taiwan. Large loads of suspended sediments influx become a major source of organic carbon and later gas and other hydrocarbon. Gas and fluid in the mud volcano are actively venting from deep to the sea floor on the upper slope of the accretionary wedge. In order to understand venting on the HCMVG, echo sounder, towcam and coring were carried out. Pore water sulfate, chloride, potassium, calcium, stable isotope O-18, gas compositions, dissolved sulfide were analysed. The HCMVG consists of 12 volcano cones of different sizes. Large quantity of gas and fluid are venting directly from deep to the TYMV structure high, as well as 50+ other vents as appeared as flares on the echo sounder. Some flares are reaching to the atmosphere and likely a source of green house gases to the atmosphere. Venting fluids include gas bubbles, suspended particle, mud, and breccia. Breccia size could reach more than 12 cm in diameter. Circular bands in different color appeared around the cone may represent stages of vent eruptions. Compositions of vent gas include methane, ethane and propane. High proportions of ethane and propane in the vent gas demonstrated that source of gas are thermogenic in origin. Patchy authigenic carbonate, bacterial mats, bivalves, tube worms and other chemosynthesis organisms were supported by venting gas AOM process near the sea floor. Pore water chloride concentrations show distinct variation pattern from center cone to the side of the volcano, with low in the center and high away from the cone. Pore water with higher than seawater

  15. Nanostructured AgBr loaded TiO2: An efficient sunlight active photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 120.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Rengasamy; Sreedhar, Bojja; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram

    2011-01-01

    The AgBr loaded TiO2 catalyst was prepared by a feasible approach with AgBr and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and characterized by BET surface area measurement, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. The results of characterization reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a nanostructure. Formation of the nanostructure in AgBr loaded TiO2 results in substantial shifting of the absorption edge of TiO2 to red and enhancement of visible light absorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a higher photoconductivity than prepared TiO2 due to higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal enhanced conductivity in AgBr loaded TiO2, which causes an increase in its photocatalytic activity. AgBr loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2-P25 and prepared TiO2 in the photodegradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120). PMID:21801445

  16. Kinetic modeling of liquid-phase adsorption of Congo red dye using guava leaf-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojedokun, Adedamola Titi; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2016-02-01

    Guava leaf, a waste material, was treated and activated to prepare adsorbent. The adsorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from guava leaf had appreciable carbon content (86.84 %). The adsorption of Congo red dye onto guava leaf-based activated carbon (GLAC) was studied in this research. Experimental data were analyzed by four different model equations: Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms and it was found to fit Freundlich equation most. Adsorption rate constants were determined using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion model equations. The results clearly showed that the adsorption of CR dye onto GLAC followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Intraparticle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process. The mean energy of adsorption calculated from D-R isotherm confirmed the involvement of physical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained and it was found that the adsorption of CR dye onto GLAC was an exothermic and spontaneous process at the temperatures under investigation. The maximum adsorption of CR dye by GLAC was found to be 47.62 mg/g. The study shows that GLAC is an effective adsorbent for the adsorption of CR dye from aqueous solution.

  17. Adsorption of Reactive Red M-2BE dye from water solutions by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernando M; Bergmann, Carlos P; Fernandes, Thais H M; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; Calvete, Tatiana; Fagan, Solange B

    2011-09-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and powdered activated carbon were used as adsorbents for the successful removal of Reactive Red M-2BE textile dye from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterised by infrared spectroscopy, N(2) adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of pH, shaking time and temperature on adsorption capacity were studied. In the acidic pH region (pH 2.0), the adsorption of the dye was favourable using both adsorbents. The contact time to obtain equilibrium at 298K was fixed at 1h for both adsorbents. The activation energy of the adsorption process was evaluated from 298 to 323K for both adsorbents. The Avrami fractional-order kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental data compared with pseudo-first-order or pseudo-second-order kinetic adsorption models. For Reactive Red M-2BE dye, the equilibrium data were best fitted to the Liu isotherm model. Simulated dyehouse effluents were used to check the applicability of the proposed adsorbents for effluent treatment. PMID:21724329

  18. Nanostructured AgBr loaded TiO2: An efficient sunlight active photocatalyst for degradation of Reactive Red 120

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The AgBr loaded TiO2 catalyst was prepared by a feasible approach with AgBr and tetraisopropyl orthotitanate and characterized by BET surface area measurement, diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectra (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis. The results of characterization reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a nanostructure. Formation of the nanostructure in AgBr loaded TiO2 results in substantial shifting of the absorption edge of TiO2 to red and enhancement of visible light absorption. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that AgBr loaded TiO2 has a higher photoconductivity than prepared TiO2 due to higher separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs. Cyclic voltammetric studies reveal enhanced conductivity in AgBr loaded TiO2, which causes an increase in its photocatalytic activity. AgBr loaded TiO2 exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity than TiO2-P25 and prepared TiO2 in the photodegradation of Reactive Red 120 (RR 120). PMID:21801445

  19. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  20. GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany)

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, approx. 3,000 Red Wood Ant (RWA; Formica rufa-group) mounds had been identified and correlated with tectonically active gas-permeable faults, mostly strike-slip faults. Linear alignment of RWA mounds and soil gas anomalies distinctly indicate the course of these faults, while clusters of mounds indicate crosscut zones of fault systems, which can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. This demonstrates that RWA are bioindicators for identifying active fault systems and useful where information on the active regime is incomplete or the resolution by technical means is insufficient. Abstract In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel

  1. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of a downslope accretion history: From coralgal-coralline sponge rubble to mud mound deposits (Eocene, Ainsa Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    In the Lutetian intraslope Ainsa sub-basin, small, sub-spherical, carbonate mud mounds occur associated with hemipelagic marls and mixed gravity flow deposits. The studied mud mounds consist of a mixture of allochthonous, parautochthonous and autochthonous components that show evidences of reworking, bioerosion, and accretion by different fossil assemblages at different growth stages. The crusts of microbial-lithistid sponges played an important role stabilizing the rubble of coralgal-coralline sponges and formed low-relief small benthic patches in a dominant marly soft slope environment. These accidental hard substrates turned into suitable initiation/nucleation sites for automicrite production (dense and peloidal automicrites) on which the small mud mounds dominated by opportunistic epi- and infaunal heterozoan assemblages grew. A detailed microfacies mapping and paleoenvironmental analysis reveals a multi-episodic downslope accretion history starred by demosponges (coralline and lithistid sponges), agariciid corals, calcareous red algae, putative microbial benthic communities and diverse sclerobionts from the upper slope to the middle slope. The analyzed mud mound microfacies are compared with similar fossil assemblages and growth fabrics described in many fossil mud mounds, and with recent deep-water fore reefs and cave environments.

  2. Utilizing the algicidal activity of aminoclay as a practical treatment for toxic red tides

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Chul; Jin, EonSeon; Jung, Seung Won; Kim, Yeon-Mi; Chang, Kwang Suk; Yang, Ji-Won; Kim, Si-Wouk; Kim, Young-Ok; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, harmful algal blooms (HABs) – commonly known as red tides – have increasingly impacted human health, caused significant economic losses to fisheries and damaged coastal environments and ecosystems. Here, we demonstrate a method to control and suppress HABs through selective algal lysis. The approach harnesses the algicidal effects of aminoclays, which are comprised of a high density of primary amine groups covalently bonded by metal cation backbones. Positively charged colloidals of aminoclays induce cell lysis in HABs within several minutes exposure but have negligible impact on non-harmful phytoplankton, zooplankton and farmed fish. This selective lysis is due to the ammonium characteristics of the aminoclay and the electrostatic attraction between the clay nanoparticles and the algal cells. In contrast, yellow loess clay, a recognized treatment for HABs, causes algal flocs with little cell lysis. Thus, the aminoclay loading can be effective for the mitigation of HABs. PMID:23416422

  3. Numerical investigation of fluid mud motion using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and two-dimensional fluid mud coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Hao, Linnan

    2015-03-01

    A water-fluid mud coupling model is developed based on the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate the fluid mud motion. The hydrodynamics and sediment transport of the overlying water column are solved using the original three-dimensional ocean model. A horizontal two-dimensional fluid mud model is integrated into the FVCOM model to simulate the underlying fluid mud flow. The fluid mud interacts with the water column through the sediment flux, current, and shear stress. The friction factor between the fluid mud and the bed, which is traditionally determined empirically, is derived with the assumption that the vertical distribution of shear stress below the yield surface of fluid mud is identical to that of uniform laminar flow of Newtonian fluid in the open channel. The model is validated by experimental data and reasonable agreement is found. Compared with numerical cases with fixed friction factors, the results simulated with the derived friction factor exhibit the best agreement with the experiment, which demonstrates the necessity of the derivation of the friction factor.

  4. Effects of UV-B irradiation on isoforms of antioxidant enzymes and their activities in red alga Grateloupia filicina (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiqiang; Li, Lixia

    2014-11-01

    Macroalgae in a littoral zone are inevitably exposed to UV-B irradiance. We analyzed the effects of UV-B on isoenzyme patterns and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) of red algae Grateloupia filicina (Lamour.) C. Agardh. The activities of SOD, CAT, and APX changed in response to UV-B in a time- and dose-dependent manner. POX activity increased significantly under all three UV-B treatments. The enzymatic assay showed three distinct bands of SODI (Mn-SOD), SODII (Fe-SOD), and SODIII (CuZn-SOD) under a low (Luv) and medium (Muv) dose of UV-B irradiation, while SODI and SODIII activities decreased significantly when exposed to a high dose of UV-B irradiation (Huv). The activity of POX isoenzymes increased significantly after exposure to UV-B, which is consistent with the total activity. In addition, a clear decrease in activity of CATIV was detected in response to all the three doses of UV treatments. Some bands of APX isoenzyme were also clearly influenced by UV-B irradiation. Correspondingly, the daily growth rate declined under all the three exposure doses, and was especially significant under Muv and Huv treatments. These data suggest that, although the protection mechanisms of antioxidant defense system are partly inducible by UV-B to prevent the damage, G. filicina has incomplete tolerance to higher UV-B irradiation stress.

  5. Nocturnal activity in the cathemeral red-fronted lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus), with observations during a lunar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Donati, G; Lunardini, A; Kappeler, P M; Borgognini Tarli, S M

    2001-02-01

    Several ecological and physiological factors have been suggested to structure circadian activity in cathemeral primates, i.e., those that are regularly active both day and night, but their relative importance remains controversial. We studied the nocturnal activity of a group of cathemeral redfronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus) in Kirindy Forest in Western Madagascar to examine its relationship with one environmental factor, ambient light levels, in detail. To this end, nightly travel distances and moon luminosity were determined between March and June 1996. During this transitional period between the wet and dry seasons these red-fronted lemurs were regularly active at night, and traveled significantly larger distances during full-moon nights compared to new-moon nights. The importance of ambient luminosity for nocturnal activity was highlighted by observations during a total lunar eclipse (i.e., during a full-moon night), which caused abrupt cessation of the animal's activity. Our results support the hypothesis that nocturnal activity of these cathemeral lemurs is regulated also by changes in ambient light levels. PMID:11170168

  6. The Amazon-influenced muddy coast of South America: A review of mud-bank-shoreline interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Edward J.; Gardel, Antoine; Gratiot, Nicolas; Proisy, Christophe; Allison, Mead A.; Dolique, Franck; Fromard, François

    2010-12-01

    The 1500 km-long coast of South America between the Amazon and the Orinoco river mouths is the world's muddiest. This is due to the huge suspended-sediment discharge of the Amazon River (10 6 × 754 tons yr - 1 ± 9%), part of which is transported alongshore as mud banks. Mud-bank formation is controlled by the physical oceanography of the continental shelf seaward of the Amazon River mouth, an initial seafloor storage area for much of the suspended sediment discharged from the river. In this area, rapid and sustained fluid-mud concentration and trapping are associated with fresh water-salt water interaction and estuarine front activity on the shelf due to the enormous Amazon water discharge (ca. 173,000 m 3 s - 1 at Obidos, 900 km upstream of the mouth). Fluid mud is transported shoreward and then along the coasts of the Guianas by a complex interaction of wave and tidal forcing, and wind-generated coastal currents. The mud banks, which may number up to 15 or more at any time, are up to 5 m-thick, 10 to 60 km-long, and 20 to 30 km-wide, and each may contain the equivalent mass of the annual mud supply of the Amazon. As the banks migrate alongshore, their interaction with waves results in complex and markedly fluctuating shorelines that are associated with space- and time-varying depositional 'bank' phases and erosional 'inter-bank' phases. Bank zones are protected from wave attack as a result of wave-energy dampening by mud, and undergo significant, albeit temporary, coastal accretion accompanied by rapid mangrove colonization. The dampening of waves in bank areas as they propagate onshore is accompanied by the shoreward recycling of mud, commonly in the form of individual mud bars. These bars progressively undergo desiccation and consolidation, and thus constitute a major pathway for rapid and massive colonization by mangroves. Erosion by waves propagating across relatively mud-deficient shoreface zones in inter-bank areas can lead to muddy shoreline retreat

  7. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatments on haemagglutination activity and structural conformations of phytohemagglutinin from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Liu, Cencen; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Ren, Jiaoyan

    2013-02-15

    Red kidney beans were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (50, 150, 250, 350, 450 MPa) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was then extracted by affinity chromatography. It appeared that HHP treatment could increase crude extract yield and decrease its haemagglutination activity. For purified samples, PHA yield was not affected at pressures <450 MPa while the haemagglutination activity was noticeably reduced at 450 MPa. The structural changes were investigated using electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC). Electrophoresis and SEC profiles revealed a new high molecular weight polymer after 450 MPa treatment. At pressures <450 MPa, FTIR showed an increase in β-sheet structure and a decrease in α-helix. At 450 MPa, the bands at 1688 cm(-1), representing aggregate strands and random coils, increased. The conclusions are that pressures <450 MPa can cause PHA unfolding and induce PHA aggregation at 450 MPa. PMID:23194535

  8. Sedimentology of a Mid-Late Ordovician carbonate mud-mound complex from the Kathmandu nappe in Central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pas, Damien; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Dhital, Megh Raj; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2011-08-01

    This sedimentological study of the Godavari quarry is the first relating to the Palaeozoic Tethyan sedimentary rocks of the Katmandu nappe (Central Nepal). Sedimentological analyses led to the identification of six microfacies belonging to a large carbonate mud-mound complex, which can be divided into mound, flank and off-mound main depositional settings. Identification of two dasycladaceans ( Dasyporell a cf. silurica ( Stolley, 1893) and Vermiporella sp.) in the mound facies gives a Mid-Late Ordovician age to this newly discovered Godavari carbonate mud-mound, which makes this mound one of the oldest ever described in the Asian continent. The mound microfacies are characterized by a high micritic content, the presence of stromatactis and the prevalence of red coloured sediments (the red pigmentation probably being related to organic precipitation of iron). The flank microfacies are characterized by a higher crinoid and argillaceous content and the presence of bio- and lithoclasts concentrated in argillaceous lenses. Finally, the off-mound microfacies show very few bioclasts and a high argillaceous content. Palaeoenvionmental interpretation of microfacies, in terms of bathymetry, leads us to infer that the Godavari mud-mound started to grow in a deep environment setting below the photic and wave action zones and that it evolved to occupy a location below the fair weather wave base. Cementation of cavities within the mound facies underlines a typical transition from a marine to a burial diagenetic environment characterized by: (1) a radiaxial non luminescent feroan calcite cement (marine) showing a bright orange luminescent band in its middle part; (2) a bright zoned orange fringe of automorphic feroan calcite (meteoric phreatic); (3) a dull orange xenomorphic feroan calcite cement in the centre of cavities (burial) and (4) a saddle dolomite within the centre of larger cavities. The faunal assemblage (diversity and relative proportion) of the Godavari mound facies

  9. Anthraquinone-based intramolecular charge-transfer compounds: computational molecular design, thermally activated delayed fluorescence, and highly efficient red electroluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qisheng; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Potscavage, William J; Huang, Shuping; Hatae, Yasuhiro; Shibata, Takumi; Adachi, Chihaya

    2014-12-31

    Red fluorescent molecules suffer from large, non-radiative internal conversion rates (k(IC)) governed by the energy gap law. To design efficient red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), a large fluorescence rate (k(F)) as well as a small energy difference between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states (ΔE(ST)) is necessary. Herein, we demonstrated that increasing the distance between donor (D) and acceptor (A) in intramolecular-charge-transfer molecules is a promising strategy for simultaneously achieving small ΔE(ST) and large k(F). Four D-Ph-A-Ph-D-type molecules with an anthraquinone acceptor, phenyl (Ph) bridge, and various donors were designed, synthesized, and compared with corresponding D-A-D-type molecules. Yellow to red TADF was observed from all of them. The k(F) and ΔE(ST) values determined from the measurements of quantum yield and lifetime of the fluorescence and TADF components are in good agreement with those predicted by corrected time-dependent density functional theory and are approximatively proportional to the square of the cosine of the theoretical twisting angles between each subunit. However, the introduction of a Ph-bridge was found to enhance k(F) without increasing ΔE(ST). Molecular simulation revealed a twisting and stretching motion of the N-C bond in the D-A-type molecules, which is thought to lower ΔE(ST) and k(F) but raise k(IC), that was experimentally confirmed in both solution and doped film. OLEDs containing D-Ph-A-Ph-D-type molecules with diphenylamine and bis(4-biphenyl)amine donors demonstrated maximum external quantum efficiencies of 12.5% and 9.0% with emission peaks at 624 and 637 nm, respectively. PMID:25469624

  10. Ascent velocity and dynamics of the Fiumicino mud eruption, Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vona, A.; Giordano, G.; De Benedetti, A. A.; D'Ambrosio, R.; Romano, C.; Manga, M.

    2015-08-01

    In August 2013 drilling triggered the eruption of mud near the international airport of Fiumicino (Rome, Italy). We monitored the evolution of the eruption and collected samples for laboratory characterization of physicochemical and rheological properties. Over time, muds show a progressive dilution with water; the rheology is typical of pseudoplastic fluids, with a small yield stress that decreases as mud density decreases. The eruption, while not naturally triggered, shares several similarities with natural mud volcanoes, including mud componentry, grain-size distribution, gas discharge, and mud rheology. We use the size of large ballistic fragments ejected from the vent along with mud rheology to compute a minimum ascent velocity of the mud. Computed values are consistent with in situ measurements of gas phase velocities, confirming that the stratigraphic record of mud eruptions can be quantitatively used to infer eruption history and ascent rates and hence to assess (or reassess) mud eruption hazards.

  11. Fault Activity, Seismicity and GPS Deformation of the Seismic Gap along the Red River Fault Zone (RRFZ) in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue-Ze, Wen; Shengli, Ma; Fang, Du; Feng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Along the middle segment of the NW-trending and dextral-slip Red River fault zone (RRFZ), also the Honghe fault zone, Yunnan, China, there has been little of modern seismicity since the 1970's. Some Chinese researchers believed that this fault segment is inactive in the late Quaternary. However, more and more evidence shows that the middle segment of RRFZ is geologically-active in the late Quaternary, even is a Holocene-active one with evidence of paleo-earthquakes occurring. Our study suggests that along the fault segment there has been no any major earthquake occurring for over 500 years at least, and a large-scale seismic gap, the Honghe seismic gap, have formed there. On the modern seismicity, the middle segment of RRFZ has presented as a fault portion without or with very few small earthquakes occurring since the 1980's, but surrounded by several areas with low b-values, suggesting relatively high stress having built-up there. Also, GPS deformation analysis suggests that this fault segment has tightly locked already. Such tight locking would be associated with the fault geometry: A large-scale restraining bend of about 30°over a distance of ~100 km exists along the main fault trace along RRFZ between Yuanjiang and Yuanyang. However, how such a restraining bend makes the middle segment of RRFZ have tightly locked? How much strain has built up there? Moreover, how about the long-term seismic potential of major earthquake on the middle segment of RRFZ, and on some secondary active faults of the two sides of the segment, especially on the parallel faults Chuxiong, Qujiang and Shiping. All these are issues we want to study further. Keywords: Red River Fault Zone, Seismic Gap, Fault Activity, Seismicity, GPS Deformation

  12. Composition and flux of explosive gas release at LUSI mud volcano (East Java, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkluysen, Loïc; Burton, Michael R.; Clarke, Amanda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Smekens, Jean-François

    2014-07-01

    LUSI mud volcano has been erupting since May 2006 in the densely populated Sidoarjo regency (East Java, Indonesia), forcing the evacuation of 40,000 people and destroying industry, farmland, and over 10,000 homes. Mud extrusion rates of 180,000 m3 d-1 were measured in the first few months of the eruption, decreasing to a loosely documented <20,000 m3 d-1 in 2012. The last few years of activity have been characterized by periodic short-lived eruptive bursts. In May and October 2011, we documented this activity using high-resolution time-lapse photography, open-path FTIR, and thermal infrared imagery. Gases (98% water vapor, 1.5% carbon dioxide, 0.5% methane) were periodically released by the bursting of bubbles approximately 3 m in diameter which triggered mud fountains to ˜10 m and gas plumes to hundreds of meters above the vent. During periods of quiescence (1-3 min), no appreciable gas seepage occurred. We estimate that LUSI releases approximately 2300 t yr-1 of methane, 30,000 t yr-1 of CO2, and 800,000 t yr-1 of water vapor. Gas bubble nucleation depths are >4000 m for methane and approximately 600 m for carbon dioxide; however, the mass fractions of these gases are insufficient to explain the observed dynamics. Rather, the primary driver of the cyclic bubble-bursting activity is decompressional boiling of water, which initiates a few tens of meters below the surface, setting up slug flow in the upper conduit. Our measured gas flux and conceptual model lead to a corresponding upper-bound estimate for the mud-water mass flux of 105 m3 d-1.

  13. Uplift revealed by LASER scanner surveys in Murono mud volcano, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and estimation of its source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, A.; Fukuda, Y.; Kusumoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    Since mud volcanoes spew out pressurized material, such as natural gas, oil, mud including water from a deeper ground, the activities of the mud volcanoes are good indicators of the stress conditions/orientations as well as the tectonic controls. The Murono mud volcano area located in Tokamachi City, Niigata prefecture, Japan, is one of the active ground deforming areas associated with mud, natural gas, oil and water eruptions. This area is famous because rapid ground deformation events were recorded corresponding to neighboring large earthquakes. For instance, associated with Naganoken-Hokubu Earthquake (Mw. 6.7) which occurred in 2011, the area recorded a sudden large uplift of about 50 cm. In order to reveal the source mechanism of the mud volcano, Toyama University has been conducting successive leveling surveys at 61 benchmarks. They revealed that the same area of the rapid uplift of 2011 has been still uplifting, even the amount of the uplift is much smaller (20 mm/yr). However, the source of the uplift could not be well identified due to the low spatial resolutions. Therefore, in order to obtain a high resolution land deformation pattern, we have conducted laser scanning surveys two times in June and October 2013, using TOPCON Imaging Station IS-301, which can obtain 3D point cloud data by the automatic laser scanning mode without reflector. The surface deformations obtained by comparing the June and October datasets indicate clear uplifts where the sudden uplift occurred. Since the uplift area show a clear concentric pattern, we estimated the source of the uplift assuming a Mogi source model. The obtained source parameters are, depth=14[m], Volume=14[m3], assuming the Poisson's ratio of 0.25. Then the calculated uplift at the nearest benchmark also shows good agreement with the uplift obtained by the leveling survey. The current uplift is much smaller than the 2011 uplift. Nevertheless both sources could be the same, because the areas of the uplifts are

  14. Pre-eruptive ground deformation of Azerbaijan mud volcanoes detected through satellite radar interferometry (DInSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico; Luzi, Guido; Feyzullayev, Akper A.; Aliyev, Chingiz S.

    2014-12-01

    Mud volcanism is a process that leads to the extrusion of subsurface mud, fragments of country rocks, saline waters and gases. This mechanism is typically linked to hydrocarbon traps, and the extrusion of this material builds up a variety of conical edifices with a similar morphology to those of magmatic volcanoes, though smaller in size. The Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been used to investigate the ground deformation related to the activity of the mud volcanoes of Azerbaijan. The analysis of a set of wrapped and unwrapped interferograms, selected according to their coherence, allowed the detection of significant superficial deformation related to the activity of four mud volcanoes. The ground displacement patterns observed during the period spanning from October 2003 to November 2005 are dominated by uplift, which reach a cumulative value of up to 20 and 10 cm at the Ayaz-Akhtarma and Khara-Zira Island mud volcanoes, respectively. However, some sectors of the mud volcano edifices are affected by subsidence, which might correspond to deflation zones that coexist with the inflation zones characterized by the dominant uplift. Important deformation events, caused by fluid pressure and volume variations, have been observed both (1) in connection with main eruptive events in the form of pre-eruptive uplift, and (2) in the form of short-lived deformation pulses that interrupt a period of quiescence. Both deformation patterns show important similarities to those identified in some magmatic systems. The pre-eruptive uplift has been observed in many magmatic volcanoes as a consequence of magma intrusion or hydrothermal fluid injection. Moreover, discrete short-duration pulses of deformation are also experienced by magmatic volcanoes and are repeated over time as multiple inflation and deflation events.

  15. Volcanic Environments Monitoring by Drones Mud Volcano Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amici, S.; Turci, M.; Giulietti, F.; Giammanco, S.; Buongiorno, M. F.; La Spina, A.; Spampinato, L.

    2013-08-01

    Volcanic activity has often affected human life both at large and at small scale. For example, the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption caused severe economic damage at continental scale due to its strong effect on air traffic. At a local scale, ash fall and lava flow emission can cause harm and disruption. Understanding precursory signals to volcanic eruptions is still an open and tricky challenge: seismic tremor and gas emissions, for example, are related to upcoming eruptive activity but the mechanisms are not yet completely understood. Furthermore, information related to gases emission mostly comes from the summit crater area of a volcano, which is usually hard to investigate with required accuracy. Although many regulation problems are still on the discussion table, an increasing interest in the application of cutting-edge technology like unmanned flying systems is growing up. In this sense, INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) started to investigate the possibility to use unmanned air vehicles for volcanic environment application already in 2004. A flight both in visual- and radio-controlled mode was carried out on Stromboli volcano as feasibility test. In this work we present the preliminary results of a test performed by INGV in collaboration with the University of Bologna (aerospace division) by using a multi-rotor aircraft in a hexacopter configuration. Thermal camera observations and flying tests have been realised over a mud volcano located on its SW flank of Mt. Etna and whose activity proved to be related to early stages of magma accumulation within the volcano.

  16. 5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF MUD INFILL (MIXED WITH STRAW), LATHS AND STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS (CORNER POST, SILL AND STUD), SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EAST SIDE OF ORIGINAL SECTION. - Thomas Threlkeld House, Benson Pike, Shelbyville, Shelby County, KY

  17. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    SciTech Connect

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz; Al-Khashman, Omar; Qutob, Hani

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  18. Constitutive Activation of an Anthocyanin Regulatory Gene PcMYB10.6 Is Related to Red Coloration in Purple-Foliage Plum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Lu; Deng, Xianbao; Han, Yuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Cherry plum is a popular ornamental tree worldwide and most cultivars are selected for purple foliage. Here, we report the investigation of molecular mechanism underlying red pigmentation in purple-leaf plum ‘Ziyeli’ (Prunus cerasifera Ehrhar f. atropurpurea (Jacq.) Rehd.), which shows red color pigmentation in fruit (flesh and skin) and foliage. Six anthocyanin-activating MYB genes, designated PcMYB10.1 to PcMYB10.6, were isolated based on RNA-Seq data from leaves of cv. Ziyeli. Of these PcMYB10 genes, five (PcMYB10.1 through PcMYB10.5) show distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns, while the PcMYB10.6 gene is highly expressed in all the purple-coloured organs of cv. Ziyeli. Constitutive activation of PcMYB10.6 is closely related to red pigmentation in the leaf, fruit (flesh and skin), and sepal. However, the PcMYB10.6 activation cannot induce red pigmentation in the petal of cv. Ziyeli during late stages of flower development due to due to a lack of expression of PcUFGT. The inhibition of red pigmentation in the petal of cherry plum could be attributed to the high-level expression of PcANR that directs anthocyanidin flux to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis. In addition, PcMYB10.2 is highly expressed in fruit and sepal, but its expression cannot induce red pigmentation. This suggests the PcMYB10 gene family in cherry plum may have diverged in function and PcMYB10.2 plays little role in the regulation of red pigmentation. Our study provides for the first time an example of constitutive activation of an anthocyanin-activating MYB gene in Prunus although its underlying mechanism remains unclear. PMID:26247780

  19. Red Clover Breeding Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. It has a long and varied history in agriculture. Active breeding efforts began at the end of the 19th century. Since this time significant improvement in red clover cultivar for a...

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (RAG1/2) in red snapper (Lutjanus sanguineus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Lu, Y S; Jian, J C; Wu, Z H

    2012-04-01

    Recombination activating genes (RAG1 and RAG2), involved in the V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. The expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. In this paper, the cDNA of RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper, Lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. Results showed the full length of RAG1 cDNA was 3944 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 200 bp, a 3'-UTR of 561 bp and an open reading frame of 3183 bp encoding 1060 amino acids. Three important structural motifs, a RING/U-box domain, a RING/FYVE/PHD-type domain and a RAG Nonamer-binding domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG1 by InterProScan analysis. The full length of RAG2 cDNA was 2200 bp, consisting of a 141 bp 5'-UTR, a 457 bp 3'-UTR and an open reading frame of 1602 bp encoding 533 amino acids. Two important structural motifs, a Galactose oxidase/kelch, beta-propeller domain and a kelch-type beta-propeller domain were detected in the deduced amino acid sequence of RAG2 by InterProScan analysis. BLAST analysis revealed that the RAG1 and RAG2 in red snapper shared a high homology with other known RAG1 and RAG2 genes, while the greatest degree of identity was observed with Hippoglossus hippoglossus RAG1 at 82% and Takifugu rubripes RAG2 at 87%, respectively. The differential expressions of RAG1 and RAG2 in various tissues of red snapper were analyzed by fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR. The overall expression pattern of the two genes was quite similar. In healthy red snappers, the RAGs transcripts were mainly detected in thymus, following head kidney, spleen, intestine, liver and brain. After vaccinated with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus 48 h later, the RAGs m

  1. Lysis of horse red blood cells mediated by antibody-independent activation of the alternative pathway of chicken complement.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, H; Yoshikawa, Y; Kai, C; Yamanouchi, K; Okada, H

    1984-01-01

    Horse red blood cells (HRBC) were found to be lysed when incubated with fresh normal chicken serum (NCS). By comparison of the properties of the lysis of HRBC with those of the complement-dependent lysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) sensitized with haemolytic antibody via the classical pathway, the following differences were observed between the two haemolytic phenomena. (i) The lysis of HRBC was independent on antibody in contrast to the antibody dependence of the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (ii) The lysis of HRBC was dependent on Mg but not on Ca ion, whereas the lysis of sensitized SRBC required both Mg and Ca ions. (iii) Treatment of NCS with carrageenan that acts as an inactivator of the first component of complement (C1) inhibited the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not the lysis of HRBC. (iv) C1 was consumed in the lysis of sensitized SRBC but not in the lysis of HRBC. (v) Cobra venom factor (CVF), C3 inactivator via the alternative complement pathway, inhibited the lysis of HRBC but not the lysis of sensitized SRBC. (vi) Minimal reaction times for the lysis of HRBC and for the lysis of sensitized SRBC were 90 and 60 min, respectively. These findings indicate that the lysis of HRBC was caused by the antibody-independent activation of complement via the alternative pathway. PMID:6430791

  2. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocentre containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n alkane distributions and n alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S+22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and dialkyl glycerol diethers) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggests that no recent active methane seepage

  3. Influence of Primary Glyoxal on Properties of Tested Drilling Mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaev, K.; Martynova, D.; Knyazev, A.; Zaharov, A.; Shenderova, I.

    2014-08-01

    The research was done to observe the influence of primary glyoxal on properties of tested drilling mud. Glyoxal was used as a reagent to reduce viscosity and stabilize shale. Drilling mud processing parameters were estimated before and after affecting by glyoxal. Suggested is the method of polysaccharide modification by glyoxal for improving its resistance to microorganisms; carried out the research of bio- and thermal resistance of starchy and xanthan reagents.

  4. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  5. Red Clover

    MedlinePlus

    ... 17):2057–2071. Red clover. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Red clover ( Trifolium pratense ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  6. Archaeal populations in hypersaline sediments underlying orange microbial mats in the Napoli mud volcano.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Cassandre Sara; L'haridon, Stéphane; Pignet, Patricia; Toffin, Laurent

    2011-05-01

    Microbial mats in marine cold seeps are known to be associated with ascending sulfide- and methane-rich fluids. Hence, they could be visible indicators of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) and methane cycling processes in underlying sediments. The Napoli mud volcano is situated in the Olimpi Area that lies on saline deposits; from there, brine fluids migrate upward to the seafloor. Sediments associated with a brine pool and microbial orange mats of the Napoli mud volcano were recovered during the Medeco cruise. Based on analysis of RNA-derived sequences, the "active" archaeal community was composed of many uncultured lineages, such as rice cluster V or marine benthic group D. Function methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes were affiliated with the anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) of the ANME-1, ANME-2a, and ANME-2c groups, suggesting that AOM occurred in these sediment layers. Enrichment cultures showed the presence of viable marine methylotrophic Methanococcoides in shallow sediment layers. Thus, the archaeal community diversity seems to show that active methane cycling took place in the hypersaline microbial mat-associated sediments of the Napoli mud volcano. PMID:21335391

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-01-01

    This closure report documents that the closure activities performed at Corrective Action Unit 358: Areas 18, 19, 20 Cellars/Mud Pits, were in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 358.

  8. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution and quantity of organic sulfur and iron sulfur species were determined in the
    Holocene sediments from Mud Lake, Florida. The sediments of this shallow, sinkhole lake are characterized by high sulfur and organic carbon contents as well as active sulfate reducti...

  9. Blood pressure-lowering effect of Korean red ginseng associated with decreased circulating Lp-PLA2 activity and lysophosphatidylcholines and increased dihydrobiopterin level in prehypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Cha, Tae Woong; Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Chae, Jey Sook; Lee, Jong Ho

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of red ginseng consumption on blood pressure (BP) and the fasting plasma metabolome. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included nonobese, nondiabetic, prehypertensive subjects consuming 10 capsules daily containing 5 g red ginseng (n=31) or placebo (n=31). Fasting plasma metabolome profiles were obtained using ultra performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole Orbitrap MS. After 12 weeks, participants consuming red ginseng showed reductions of 6.5 and 5.0 mm Hg in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Compared with controls, those consuming red ginseng showed greater reductions in changed values of systolic BP, diastolic BP and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, after adjusting for baseline values. In addition, the red ginseng group showed a greater increase in dihydrobiopterin levels and greater decrease in palmitic amide and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs). The change in diastolic BP positively correlated with changes in lysoPCs and Lp-PLA2 activity. The BP-lowering effect of red ginseng is associated with decreased Lp-PLA2 and lysoPCs and increased dihydrobiopterin levels in prehypertensive subjects (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02326766). PMID:26843120

  10. Biological Activities of Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and Its Pungent Principle Capsaicin: A Review.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent alkaloid of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) has been extensively studied for its biological effects which are of pharmacological relevance. These include: cardio protective influence, antilithogenic effect, antiinflammatory, and analgesia, thermogenic influence, and beneficial effects on gastrointestinal system. Therefore, capsaicinoids may have the potential clinical value for pain relief, cancer prevention and weight loss. It has been shown that capsaicinoids are potential agonists of capsaicin receptor (TRPV1). They could exert the effects not only through the receptor-dependent pathway but also through the receptor-independent one. The involvement of neuropeptide Substance P, serotonin, and somatostatin in the pharmacological actions of capsaicin has been extensively investigated. Topical application of capsaicin is proved to alleviate pain in arthritis, postoperative neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, psoriasis, etc. Toxicological studies on capsaicin administered by different routes are documented. Capsaicin inhibits acid secretion, stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and particularly gastric mucosal blood flow which helps in prevention and healing of gastric ulcers. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of capsaicin are established in a number of studies. Chemopreventive potential of capsaicin is evidenced in cell line studies. The health beneficial hypocholesterolemic influence of capsaicin besides being cardio protective has other implications, viz., prevention of cholesterol gallstones and protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes under conditions of hypercholesterolemia. Beneficial influences of capsaicin on gastrointestinal system include digestive stimulant action and modulation of intestinal ultrastructure so as to enhance permeability to micronutrients. PMID:25675368

  11. Nanotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to red blood cells: size dependent adsorption, uptake, and hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li Qiang; Fang, Li; Ling, Jian; Ding, Cheng Zhi; Kang, Bin; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-03-16

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs. PMID:25602487

  12. Nematicidal and Propagation Activities of Thyme Red and White Oil Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ok; Park, Il-Kwbon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Shin, Sang-Cheol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-09-01

    The toxic and propagation effects on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus of 28 Thymus vulgaris red oil and white oil compounds were examined using direct contact and cotton ball bioassays. Results were compared with those of the trunk-injection nematicides emmamectin benzoate, levamisol hydrochloride and morantel tartrate. In direct contact bioassays, geraniol (LC(50), 0.47 mg/ml) was the most toxic compound, followed by thymol (1.08 mg/ml), carvacrol (1.23 mg/ml) and terpinen-4-ol (2.61 mg/ml). In cotton ball tests with 20 inactive compounds at 2 mg/cotton ball, p-cymene significantly inhibited propagation (propagation ratio [PR] 8), compared with the castor oil-ethanol-treated control (PR 56). Propagation stimulation was observed with (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (+)-ledene, (+)- and (-)-limonene, linalool oxide, beta-myrcene, (-)-alpha-phellandrene, (+)-alpha-pinene and gamma-terpinene (PR 63-100). The other 10 compounds exhibited low to moderate levels of propagation inhibition (PR 36-56). At 0.1 mug/cotton ball, emmamectin benzoate and morantel tartrate exhibited complete suppression of propagation, whereas a very low level of propagation inhibition was obtained from levamisol hydrochloride (PR 6). In conclusion, propagation-stimulating compounds can exist in plants in addition to nematicidal compounds, and careful use of plant preparations containing high quantities of these compounds is mandatory. PMID:19259493

  13. Martian mud volcanism: Terrestrial analogs and implications for formational scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Mazzini, A.

    2009-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the stratigraphic characteristics of its uppermost crust (mega-regolith) suggest that some of the pervasively-occurring pitted cones, mounds, and flows may have formed through processes akin to terrestrial mud volcanism. A comparison of terrestrial mud volcanism suggests that equivalent Martian processes likely required discrete sedimentary depocenters, volatile-enriched strata, buried rheological instabilities, and a mechanism of destabilization to initiate subsurface flow. We outline five formational scenarios whereby Martian mud volcanism might have occurred: (A) rapid deposition of sediments, (B) volcano-induced destabilization, (C) tectonic shortening, (D) long-term, load-induced subsidence, and (E) seismic shaking. We describe locations within and around the Martian northern plains that broadly fit the geological context of these scenarios and which contain mud volcano-like landforms. We compare terrestrial and Martian satellite images and examine the geological settings of mud volcano provinces on Earth in order to describe potential target areas for piercement structures on Mars. Our comparisons help to evaluate not only the role of water as a functional component of geological processes on Mars but also how Martian mud volcanoes could provide samples of otherwise inaccessible strata, some of which could contain astrobiological evidence.

  14. Multibeam Bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Andreas; Rathlau, Rike; Schenke, Hans Werner

    2005-03-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano is a natural laboratory to study geological, geochemical, and ecological processes related to deep-water mud volcanism. High resolution bathymetry of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano was recorded during RV Polarstern expedition ARK XIX/3 utilizing the multibeam system Hydrosweep DS-2. Dense spacing of the survey lines and slow ship speed (5 knots) provided necessary point density to generate a regular 10 m grid. Generalization was applied to preserve and represent morphological structures appropriately. Contour lines were derived showing detailed topography at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano and generalized contours in the vicinity. We provide a brief introduction to the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano area and describe in detail data recording and processing methods, as well as the morphology of the area. Accuracy assessment was made to evaluate the reliability of a 10 m resolution terrain model. Multibeam sidescan data were recorded along with depth measurements and show reflectivity variations from light grey values at the centre of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano to dark grey values (less reflective) at the surrounding moat.

  15. Practical advantages of mud cooling systems for drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Maury, V.; Guenot, A.

    1995-03-01

    Field case studies of borehole stability have shown that some failures, previously unexplained, were due to thermal effects, such as heating the upper part of open hole sections by mud circulation when drilling deeper or reheating of the bottomhole when mud circulation is stopped. A complete analysis of the thermal regime in boreholes was performed and as a consequence, cooling of mud appeared as a means to mitigate these effects. A series of tests were then carried out to check the practicality of installing such mud cooling systems. Many other advantages then appeared: decrease of the temperature of the borehole allowing better operation of the logging tools, better control of the mud rheology with less additives, extended use of MWD/LWD devices. But the most significant advantage is for the oil based muds which can be maintained at surface below their flash point, improving the safety of operations. This paper recalls and summarizes the results of observations, measurements and studies performed to determine the feasibility of such systems. Operational results are given for several field cases with emphasis on safety. The use of these very simple devices, which have been field proven on normal and high temperature (BHCT = 150 C), is now contemplated for future HP-HT wells.

  16. Geochemistry of natural gases from mud volcanoes and surface gas seeps in NW-Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Beeunas, M.A. ); Schoell, M. ); Beroiz, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Mud volcanoes and natural gas seeps are common in the southwest-northeast-trending Sinu Atlantico basin (SAB) and San Jacinto Fold Belt (SJFB) of NW-Colombia. The structural subunits are part of a highly complex active continental margin where the sediments become increasingly younger to the west from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary in the SJFB to Late Tertiary in the SAB. Some of the mud volcanoes are permanently active and form huge structures and are often aligned along major faults. Both seep and mud volcano gases are with low C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} contents. Carbon and hydrogen isotope concentrations allow the subdivision into four groups of gas. These gases can be divided into four genetic based on their carbon and hydrocarbon isotope compositions. The isotopic variability of the different groups attests to the fact that very different gas-forming processes are or have been operating in the subsurface ranging from low-temperature thermogenesis. The various groups show, with few exceptions, a distinct regional distribution: Mud volcanoes and seeps with bacterial gases are restricted to the southern part of the SAB where the greatest thickness of young sediments is observed; gases of mixed thermogenic and bacterial origin are found in the coastal areas of the northern SAB; gases of thermogenic origin are predominantly observed in the SJFB; the thermogenic gases of Group 3 are restricted to two locations in the north of the SJFB. This regional association of genetic gas types with specific geotectonic units reflects different thermal histories of the respective tectonic areas and allowed the authors to delineate prospective areas for oil in NW-Colombia.

  17. Microbial community of a saline mud volcano at San Biagio-Belpasso, Mt. Etna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; Giuliano, Laura; Crisafi, Ermanno; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2002-05-01

    In San Biagio of Belpasso, approximately 20 km south of Mt. Etna, in the area of contact between volcanic and sedimentary formations, a number of small (3- 60 cm in diameter) active mud eruptions discharge CO2-rich gases, mud and NaCl brines. They can be described as mini-volcanoes owing to their typical conic shapes and continuously bubbling peak craters. Samples were collected from the active peak craters at a depth of 20 cm and DNA was immediately extracted and amplified with universal 16S rRNA gene-specific primers, followed by cloning procedure. A total of 140 bacterial clones obtained were screened and clustered by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The pool of 16S rRNA sequences representing each RFLP cluster was subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All of the 33 sequences analysed were affiliated with the kingdom of Eubacteria; 28 sequences (77% of all clones) affiliated with the Proteobacteria, two sequences (19% of all clones) were affiliated with Actinobacteria and three sequences (4% of all clones) were affiliated with the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides division. The data obtained suggest that the microorganisms phylogenetically affiliated to autotrophic methane oxidizers and heterotrophic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria are major constituents of the microbial communities of the saline volcanic muds. Overall, the composition of the microbial community of the San Biagio mud volcano resembles the compositions of marine microbial communities, which might indicate that wind-blown seawater vapour acted as an inoculum for microbial community described in present work. PMID:12030850

  18. Red clover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is an important forage legume grown on approximately 4 million hectares worldwide. An estimated 2.8 million kg of red clover seed per year was produced worldwide in 2005-2007. This amount of seed would be enough to maintain approximately 4 million hectares of red...

  19. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  20. Tectonic control on the distribution of onshore mud volcanoes in parts of the Upper Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Ojochenemi K.; Kurowska, Ewa E.; Schoeneich, Krzysztof; Alagbe, Solomon A.; Ayok, Jeremiah

    2016-06-01

    Onshore mud volcanoes are rare geological phenomena, which in Nigeria were reported for the first time few years ago in the Upper Benue Trough. In this study a detail geological mapping of the area of mud volcanoes occurrence was carried out, with the primary aim of defining their relationship, if any, to the structural geology there. The systematic field reconnaissance included field observations of the structural features, as well as analysis of the location and distribution of the onshore mud volcanoes, marking their locations on the topographic and geological maps, analysis of the aerial photographs and satellite images. The study area covered the central part of the Upper Benue Trough where the onshore mud volcanoes were found. The study area is the part of a sedimentary basin comprising Cretaceous clastic rocks that have been deformed intensively by a network of faults often embedded in the underlying Precambrian basement. This network of faults underwent a rejuvenation period from the Aptian to the Palaeocene. The most prominent tectonic structure in the study area is the NE - SW trending Kaltungo Fault Zone, however, there are other minor faults with N - S and NW - SE trends. This study shows that the mud volcanoes found in the study area are usually located near or within fault zones, within the outcropping Upper Cretaceous Yolde Formation and Upper Bima Sandstone, both of which were deformed by the Kaltungo faults, as well as by other minor faults. Worldwide, incidences of onshore mud volcano formation are usually attributed to areas of tectonic activity, rapid sedimentation or hydrocarbon occurrence. In this study, the interpretation of the field observations and mapping results, combined with information on the structural evolution of the study area and seismic pattern (very scarce), have led to the conclusion that the location of onshore mud volcanoes in the Upper Benue Trough, being located along the fault zones, is structurally controlled. The close

  1. Origin and burial depth of Médée-Hakuho Mud Volcano in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioka, A.; Ashi, J.; Muraoka, S.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Tokuyama, H.

    2012-04-01

    Present-day geodynamic framework in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the surroundings is characterized by a complex pattern of active thick-skin crustal tectonics resulting from various plate and microplate interactions. Moreover, thick impermeable barrier of the Messinian evaporates exists below the entire Eastern Mediterranean foredeeps exceeding 3 km in thickness. These geological frameworks result in the Mediterranean Ridge differing from other accretionary complexes around the world, coupled with formation of mud diapir or mud volcano and brine lake. Ten-day PENELOPE Cruise in January/February 2007 (KH-06-4 Leg06 survey of the R/V Hakuho-Maru) made significant results in detailed mapping and piston/multicores sampling of newly-discovered Médée brine lake and its westward neighboring Médée-Hakuho Mud Volcano (MHMV) in the western branch of the Mediterranean Ridge. The MHMV has an almost circular dome structure in diameter of ~7km and reaching ~130m high, standing on the backstop boundary thrust in water depths of 2260 m. It was initially roughly-recognized during Médée Cruise conducted in 1995 on the basis of its distinct backscattering characteristics. The MHMV is interpreted to be active because of existence of many pebbles in the obtained core samples and the high backscatter intensity. Little has been clarified the relationship between undergoing collisional tectonics and mud volcanism, although these processes are strongly associated. Mud volcanism in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is known to be present on contiguous belt along the Mediterranean Ridge, which is referred to as the Mediterranean Ridge mud diapiric belt, but mud fields in the western branch of the Mediterranean Ridge remain poorly solved. In this study, we measure vitrinite reflectance of the clasts from the obtained MHMV cores in order to evaluate the temperature history and thus burial depth of MHMV. Calculation of vitrinite reflectance is followed by using the ambient temperature at

  2. SHALON observations of Active Galactic Nuclei at red shift from z = 0.0179 to z = 2.979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Alaverdyan, A. Y.; Andreeva, M. S.; Balygin, K. A.; Borisov, S. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kirichenko, A. M.; Klimov, A. I.; Kozhukhova, I. P.; Mirzafatikhov, R. M.; Moseiko, N. I.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Ostashev, I. E.; Palamarchuk, A. I.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Volokh, I. G.

    2016-05-01

    The radio-loud active galactic nuclei having the radio emission arising from a core region rather than from lobes are often referred to as “blazars” and include Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQ) and BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. During the period 1992 - 2015, SHALON has been used for observations of the metagalactic sources NGC1275, Mkn421, Mkn501, Mkn180, 3c382, 4c+31.63, OJ 287, 3c454.3, 4c+55.17, 1739+522. We present results of long term observations of FSRQ: among them are known object 3c454.3, high-red shifted quasar 1739+522 as well as BL Lac type objects. The observation results are presented with integral spectra, images and spectral energy distributions for each of sources at energies > 800 GeV. A number of variability periods in different wavelengths including VHE γ-rays were found.

  3. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

    2013-06-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling

  4. Red light generation through the lead boro-telluro-phosphate glasses activated by Eu3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvi, S.; Marimuthu, K.; Suriya Murthy, N.; Muralidharan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Lead boro-te