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Sample records for activated stromal cells

  1. Immunocytochemical analysis of proliferative activity of endometrial and myometrial cell populations in focal and stromal adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchikh, L M; Lushnikova, E L; Molodykh, O P; Pichigina, A K

    2013-08-01

    Immunocytochemical study has shown that Ki-67 antigen is detected in adenomyosis in both endometrial and myometrial cell populations (in the eutopic and ectopic endometrial glandular epithelium, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and vascular endotheliocytes of the endometrium and myometrium), the label index differing significantly in different cell populations. The highest labeled cell index is found in the endometrial gland epitheliocytes in focal adenomyosis (23.2 ± 2.9%); in the stromal variant this index is by 2.8 times lower despite the fact that this variant is associated with endometrial glandular hyperplasia in the majority of cases. Proliferative activity of secretory epitheliocytes is significantly lower in both adenomyosis variants than in the normal eutopic endometrium. Stromal adenomyosis is characterized by 2-fold higher proliferative activity of the cytogenic stroma than that in focal adenomyosis. PMID:24143380

  2. Stromal Activation by Tumor Cells: An in Vitro Study in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Miodini, Patrizia; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Gennaro, Massimiliano; Dugo, Matteo; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Cappelletti, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tumor microenvironment participates in the regulation of tumor progression and influences treatment sensitivity. In breast cancer, it also may play a role in determining the fate of non-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive diseases, which is aggressively treated despite its indolent nature in many patients since no biomarkers are available to predict the progression of DCIS to invasive disease. In vitro models of stromal activation by breast tumor cells might provide clues as to specific stromal genes crucial for the transition from DCIS to invasive disease. Methods: normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were treated under serum-free conditions with cell culture media conditioned by breast cancer cell lines (SkBr3, MDA-MB-468, T47D) for 72 h and subjected to gene expression profiling with Illumina platform. Results: TGM2, coding for a tissue transglutaminase, was identified as candidate gene for stromal activation. In public transcriptomic datasets of invasive breast tumors TGM2 expression proved to provide prognostic information. Conversely, its role as an early biosensor of tumor invasiveness needs to be further investigated by in situ analyses. Conclusion: Stromal TGM2 might probably be associated with precancerous evolution at earlier stages compared to DCIS. PMID:27600076

  3. Fibroblast Activation Protein Expression by Stromal Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Tchou; Zhang Paul, J; Yingtao, Bi; Celine, Satija; Rajrupa, Marjumdar; Stephen, TL; Lo, A; Haiying, Chen; Carolyn, Mies; June, Carl H; Jose, Conejo-Garcia; Ellen, Puré

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has long been known to be expressed in the stroma of breast cancer. However, very little is known if the magnitude of FAP expression within the stroma may have prognostic value and reflect the heterogeneous biology of the tumor cell. An earlier study had suggested that stromal FAP expression in breast cancer was inversely proportional to prognosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that stromal FAP expression may correlate with clinicopathologic variables and may serve as an adjunct prognostic factor in breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of FAP in a panel of breast cancer tissues (n=52) using a combination of immunostain analyses at the tissue and single cell level using freshly frozen or freshly digested human breast tumor samples respectively. Our results showed that FAP expression was abundantly expressed in the stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without significant correlation with clinicopathologic factors. We further identified a subset of FAP positive or FAP+ stromal cells that also expressed CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker. Using freshly dissociated human breast tumor specimens (n=5), we demonstrated that some of these FAP+ CD45+ cells were CD11b+CD14+MHC-II+ indicating that they were likely tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Although FAP+CD45+ cells have been demonstrated in the mouse tumor stroma, our results demonstrating that human breast TAMs expressed FAP was novel and suggested that existing and future FAP directed therapy may have dual therapeutic benefits targeting both stromal mesenchymal cells and immune cells such as TAMs. More work is needed to explore the role of FAP as a potential targetable molecule in breast cancer treatment. PMID:24074532

  4. Different Procoagulant Activity of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Placental Decidua.

    PubMed

    Moll, Guido; Ignatowicz, Lech; Catar, Rusan; Luecht, Christian; Sadeghi, Behnam; Hamad, Osama; Jungebluth, Philipp; Dragun, Duska; Schmidtchen, Artur; Ringdén, Olle

    2015-10-01

    While therapeutic mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have usually been obtained from bone marrow, perinatal tissues have emerged as promising new sources of cells for stromal cell therapy. In this study, we present a first safety follow-up on our clinical experience with placenta-derived decidual stromal cells (DSCs), used as supportive immunomodulatory and regenerative therapy for patients with severe complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that DSCs are smaller, almost half the volume of MSCs, which may favor microvascular passage. DSCs also show different hemocompatibility, with increased triggering of the clotting cascade after exposure to human blood and plasma in vitro. After infusion of DSCs in HSCT patients, we observed a weak activation of the fibrinolytic system, but the other blood activation markers remained stable, excluding major adverse events. Expression profiling identified differential levels of key factors implicated in regulation of hemostasis, such as a lack of prostacyclin synthase and increased tissue factor expression in DSCs, suggesting that these cells have intrinsic blood-activating properties. The stronger triggering of the clotting cascade by DSCs could be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft reconstitution before infusion, for example, by use of low-dose heparin anticoagulant in the cell infusion buffer. We conclude that DSCs are smaller and have stronger hemostatic properties than MSCs, thus triggering stronger activation of the clotting system, which can be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft preparation before infusion. Our results highlight the importance of hemocompatibility safety testing for every novel cell therapy product before clinical use, when applied using systemic delivery. PMID:26192403

  5. Leptin as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions promotes breast cancer stem cell activity.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Cinzia; Chemi, Francesca; Panza, Salvatore; Barone, Ines; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Lanzino, Marilena; Cordella, Angela; Campana, Antonella; Hashim, Adnan; Rizza, Pietro; Leggio, Antonella; Győrffy, Balázs; Simões, Bruno M; Clarke, Robert B; Weisz, Alessandro; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-12

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play crucial roles in tumor initiation, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. A strict dependency between BCSCs and stromal cell components of tumor microenvironment exists. Thus, novel therapeutic strategies aimed to target the crosstalk between activated microenvironment and BCSCs have the potential to improve clinical outcome. Here, we investigated how leptin, as a mediator of tumor-stromal interactions, may affect BCSC activity using patient-derived samples (n = 16) and breast cancer cell lines, and determined the potential benefit of targeting leptin signaling in these model systems. Conditioned media (CM) from cancer-associated fibroblasts and breast adipocytes significantly increased mammosphere formation in breast cancer cells and depletion of leptin from CM completely abrogated this effect. Mammosphere cultures exhibited increased leptin receptor (OBR) expression and leptin exposure enhanced mammosphere formation. Microarray analyses revealed a similar expression profile of genes involved in stem cell biology among mammospheres treated with CM and leptin. Interestingly, leptin increased mammosphere formation in metastatic breast cancers and expression of OBR as well as HSP90, a target of leptin signaling, were directly correlated with mammosphere formation in metastatic samples (r = 0.68/p = 0.05; r = 0.71/p = 0.036, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that OBR and HSP90 expression were associated with reduced overall survival in breast cancer patients (HR = 1.9/p = 0.022; HR = 2.2/p = 0.00017, respectively). Furthermore, blocking leptin signaling by using a full leptin receptor antagonist significantly reduced mammosphere formation in breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived samples. Our results suggest that leptin/leptin receptor signaling may represent a potential therapeutic target that can block the stromal-tumor interactions driving BCSC-mediated disease progression. PMID:26556856

  6. Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Erythropoietin on Functional Activity of Fibroblasts and Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, N A; Nikonorova, Yu V; Surovtseva, M A; Lykov, A P; Poveshchenko, O V; Poveshchenko, A F; Pokushalov, E A; Romanov, A B; Konenkov, V I

    2016-02-01

    The study examined the effect of VEGF and erythropoietin on proliferative and migratory activities of skin fibroblasts and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of human adipose tissue. VEGF stimulated proliferation and migration of fi broblasts, but produced no significant effect on functional activity of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Erythropoietin stimulated proliferation of both cell types, but did not affect their migration. PMID:26899850

  7. Activity of neutral endopeptidase and aminopeptidase N in mouse thymic stromal cells which bind double-positive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    Small, M; Kaiser, M; Tse, W; Heimfeld, S; Blumberg, S

    1996-04-01

    The activity of two peptidases was determined in immortalized lines of thymic stromal cells. A line of total stromal cells (T-TG-St) was grown from transgenic mouse expressing temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen under the control of the regulatory elements of the mouse major histocompatibility complex class I gene. From these cells we isolated a subset (DP-TG-St) that binds thymocytes which are mainly CD4+8+. We also assayed a clone of fetal thymic epithelial cells (BA/10) that binds CD4+8+ thymocytes. Both lines of double -positive cell-binding stroma exhibited strong activity of two peptidases, neutral endopeptidase (NEP; EC 3.4.24.11) and aminopeptidase N (APN; EC 3.4.11.2). In contrast, the activity of both enzymes was very low in the total thymic stromal line. Use of the specific inhibitors confirmed that these two enzymes were responsible for the activity observed but also suggested the presence of additional unidentified aminopeptidase(s) in the same stromal cells. The high activity of the two peptidases on stromal cells that bind thymocytes at the double-positive stage raises the possibility that they might contribute to the microenvironment of the developing thymocytes. PMID:8625997

  8. Myeloma cells can corrupt senescent mesenchymal stromal cells and impair their anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa Burak; Toprak, Güler; Gönen, Zeynep Burcin; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete several molecules that help to prevent the progression of cancer. However, cancer cells can also misuse these secreted elements to survive and grow. Since the molecular and functional bases of these different elements remain poorly understood, we analyzed the effect of senescent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) secretome on the biology of ARH-77 myeloma cells. In addition to differentiating in mesodermal derivatives, MSCs have sustained interest among researchers by supporting hematopoiesis, contributing to tissue homeostasis, and modulating inflammatory response, all activities accomplished primarily by the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. Moreover, senescence profoundly affects the composition of MSC secretome. In this study, we induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. While the first two are considered to induce acute senescence, extensive proliferation triggers replicative (i.e., chronic) senescence. We cultivated cancer cells in the presence of acute and chronic senescent MSC-conditioned media and evaluated their proliferation, DNA damage, apoptosis, and senescence. Our findings revealed that senescent secretomes induced apoptosis or senescence, if not both, to different extents. This anti-tumor activity became heavily impaired when secretomes were collected from senescent cells previously in contact (i.e., primed) with cancer cells. Our analysis of senescent MSC secretomes with LC-MS/MS followed by Gene Ontology classification further indicated that priming with cancer profoundly affected secretome composition by abrogating the production of pro-senescent and apoptotic factors. We thus showed for the first time that compared with cancer-primed MSCs, naïve senescent MSCs can exert different effects on tumor progression. PMID:26498687

  9. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Promotes Fibrosis and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in MRC-5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Tang, Su; Tang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory disorder with high incidence and mortality. ALI usually manifests as widespread inflammation and lung fibrosis with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors and collagen. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has a significant role in regulation of inflammation but little is known about its roles in lung fibrosis or ALI. This study aimed to define the role and possible regulatory mechanism of TSLP in lung fibrosis. Material/Methods We cultured human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and overexpressed or inhibited TSLP by the vector or small interfering RNA transfection. Then, the pro-fibrotic factors skeletal muscle actin alpha (α-SMA) and collagen I, and the 4 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) – MAPK7, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) – were detected by Western blot. Results Results showed that TSLP promoted the production of α-SMA and collagen I (P<0.001), suggesting that it can accelerate MRC-5 cell fibrosis. It also activated the expression of MAPK7, p-p38, p-ERK1, and p-JNK1, but the total MAPK7, p-38, ERK1, and JNK1 protein levels were mostly unchanged, indicating the activated MAPK pathways that might contribute to the promotion of cell fibrosis. Conclusions This study shows the pro-fibrotic role of TSLP in MRC-5 cells, suggesting TSLP is a potential therapeutic target for treating lung fibrosis in ALI. It possibly functions via activating MAPKs. These findings add to our understanding of the mechanism of fibrosis. PMID:27385084

  10. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Promotes Fibrosis and Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in MRC-5 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Tang, Su; Tang, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening hypoxemic respiratory disorder with high incidence and mortality. ALI usually manifests as widespread inflammation and lung fibrosis with the accumulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors and collagen. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has a significant role in regulation of inflammation but little is known about its roles in lung fibrosis or ALI. This study aimed to define the role and possible regulatory mechanism of TSLP in lung fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We cultured human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells and overexpressed or inhibited TSLP by the vector or small interfering RNA transfection. Then, the pro-fibrotic factors skeletal muscle actin alpha (α-SMA) and collagen I, and the 4 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) - MAPK7, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) - were detected by Western blot. RESULTS Results showed that TSLP promoted the production of α-SMA and collagen I (P<0.001), suggesting that it can accelerate MRC-5 cell fibrosis. It also activated the expression of MAPK7, p-p38, p-ERK1, and p-JNK1, but the total MAPK7, p-38, ERK1, and JNK1 protein levels were mostly unchanged, indicating the activated MAPK pathways that might contribute to the promotion of cell fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS This study shows the pro-fibrotic role of TSLP in MRC-5 cells, suggesting TSLP is a potential therapeutic target for treating lung fibrosis in ALI. It possibly functions via activating MAPKs. These findings add to our understanding of the mechanism of fibrosis. PMID:27385084

  11. GPR30 Promotes Prostate Stromal Cell Activation via Suppression of ERα Expression and Its Downstream Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bona; Gao, Yu; Li, Mingming; Shi, Jiandang; Peng, Yanfei; Du, Xiaoling; Klocker, Helmut; Sampson, Natalie; Shen, Yongmei; Liu, Mengyang; Zhang, Ju

    2016-08-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a vital role in malignant transformation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and accumulating evidence suggests an enhancing effect of estrogens on PCa. The present study aimed to investigate the possible origin of prostate CAFs and the effects of estrogen receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and estrogen receptor (ER)-α, on stromal cell activation. High expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), CD44, and nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (SMemb) accompanied by low expression of smooth muscle differentiation markers was found in the stromal cells of PCa tissues and in cultured human prostate CAFs. Additionally, SMemb expression, which is coupled to cell phenotype switching and proliferation, was coexpressed with FAP, a marker of activated stromal cells, and with the stem cell marker CD44 in the stromal cells of PCa tissue. Prostate CAFs showed high GPR30 and low ERα expression. Moreover, GPR30 was coexpressed with FAP, CD44, and SMemb. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the overexpression of GPR30 or the knockdown of ERα in prostate stromal cells induced the up-regulation of FAP, CD44, Smemb, and the down-regulation of smooth muscle markers. The conditioned medium from these cells promoted the proliferation and migration of LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells. GPR30 knockdown or ERα overexpression showed opposite effects. Finally, we present a novel mechanism whereby GPR30 limits ERα expression via inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. These results suggest that stem-like cells within the stroma are a possible source of prostate CAFs and that the negative regulation of ERα expression by GPR30 is centrally involved in prostate stromal cell activation. PMID:27163843

  12. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kit Man; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Watkins, Tonya; Almeida, Madson Q; Harran, Michelle; Li, Andrew; Collins, Michael T; Cheadle, Christopher; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Robey, Pamela; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-05-11

    A population of stromal cells that retains osteogenic capacity in adult bone (adult bone stromal cells or aBSCs) exists and is under intense investigation. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, developed bone lesions that were derived from cAMP-responsive osteogenic cells and resembled fibrous dysplasia (FD). Prkar1a(+/-) mice were crossed with mice that were heterozygous for catalytic subunit Calpha (Prkaca(+/-)), the main PKA activity-mediating molecule, to generate a mouse model with double heterozygosity for prkar1a and prkaca (Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-)). Unexpectedly, Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-) mice developed a greater number of osseous lesions starting at 3 months of age that varied from the rare chondromas in the long bones and the ubiquitous osteochondrodysplasia of vertebral bodies to the occasional sarcoma in older animals. Cells from these lesions originated from an area proximal to the growth plate, expressed osteogenic cell markers, and showed higher PKA activity that was mostly type II (PKA-II) mediated by an alternate pattern of catalytic subunit expression. Gene expression profiling confirmed a preosteoblastic nature for these cells but also showed a signature that was indicative of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and increased Wnt signaling. These studies show that a specific subpopulation of aBSCs can be stimulated in adult bone by alternate PKA and catalytic subunit activity; abnormal proliferation of these cells leads to skeletal lesions that have similarities to human FD and bone tumors. PMID:20421483

  13. Isolation of Murine Lymph Node Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Nadège; Rossi, Simona W.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs including lymph nodes are composed of stromal cells that provide a structural environment for homeostasis, activation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Various stromal cell subsets have been identified by the expression of the adhesion molecule CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin (gp38), T zone reticular cells or fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, blood endothelial cells and FRC-like pericytes within the double negative cell population. For all populations different functions are described including, separation and lining of different compartments, attraction of and interaction with different cell types, filtration of the draining fluidics and contraction of the lymphatic vessels. In the last years, different groups have described an additional role of stromal cells in orchestrating and regulating cytotoxic T cell responses potentially dangerous for the host. Lymph nodes are complex structures with many different cell types and therefore require a appropriate procedure for isolation of the desired cell populations. Currently, protocols for the isolation of lymph node stromal cells rely on enzymatic digestion with varying incubation times; however, stromal cells and their surface molecules are sensitive to these enzymes, which results in loss of surface marker expression and cell death. Here a short enzymatic digestion protocol combined with automated mechanical disruption to obtain viable single cells suspension of lymph node stromal cells maintaining their surface molecule expression is proposed. PMID:25178108

  14. Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity.

    PubMed

    Michigami, T; Shimizu, N; Williams, P J; Niewolna, M; Dallas, S L; Mundy, G R; Yoneda, T

    2000-09-01

    Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960) PMID:10961900

  15. Oxysterol gradient generation by lymphoid stromal cells guides activated B cell movement during humoral responses

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tangsheng; Wang, Xiaoming; Kelly, Lisa M.; An, Jinping; Xu, Ying; Sailer, Andreas W.; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Russel, David W.; Cyster, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    Summary 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor EBI2 (GPR183); however, the cellular sources of this oxysterol are undefined. 7α,25-OHC is synthesized from cholesterol by the stepwise actions of two enzymes, CH25H and CYP7B1, and is metabolized to a 3-oxo derivative by HSD3B7. We show that all three enzymes control EBI2-ligand concentration in lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid stromal cells are the main CH25H and CYP7B1-expressing cells required for positioning of B cells and they also mediate 7α,25-OHC inactivation. CH25H and CYP7B1 are abundant at the follicle perimeter whereas CH25H expression by follicular dendritic cells is repressed. CYP7B1-, CH25H- and HSD3B7-deficiencies each result in defective T-cell dependent plasma cell responses. These findings establish that CYP7B1 and HSD3B7, as well as CH25H, have essential roles in controlling oxysterol production in lymphoid tissues and they suggest that differential enzyme expression in stromal cell subsets establishes 7α,25-OHC gradients required for B cell responses. PMID:22999953

  16. Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated From Type 2 Diabetic Patients Display Reduced Fibrinolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Lourdes; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Escacena, Natalia; Pérez-Camacho, Inmaculada; de la Cuesta, Antonio; Ruiz-Salmeron, Rafael; Gauthier, Benoit R.; Soria, Bernat

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have been successfully used for the treatment of critical limb ischemia (CLI). We conducted a clinical trial to determine the feasibility of using autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AdMSCs) for the treatment of CLI. Unexpectedly, two diabetic patients developed peripheral microthrombosis. This adverse effect, which contrasts with the reported antithrombotic properties of MSCs, may stem from the diabetic environment that alters the fibrinolytic activity of AdMSCs, thereby increasing the probability of developing thrombosis. Here, we confirm this premise by demonstrating that diabetic AdMSCs cultured in the presence of blood sera expressed and released higher levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, reduced levels of tissue plasminogen activator, and lower d-dimer formation compared with nondiabetic AdMSCs. Thus, to establish an appropriate cell therapy for diabetic patients, we recommend including new preclinical safety tests, such as the d-dimer and/or the tissue plasminogen activator-to-plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 ratio tests, to assess fibrinolytic activity of cells before implantation. PMID:24043757

  17. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  18. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Vinay K; Stawski, Lukasz; Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  19. Tracking mesenchymal stromal cells using an ultra-bright TAT-functionalized plasmonic-active nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Gomez, Jose A; Chien, Jennifer S; Zhang, Lunan; Wilson, Christy M; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tracking of stem cells remains a challenging task. An ultra-bright contrast agent with extended intracellular retention is suitable for in vivo high-resolution tracking of stem cells following the implantation. Here, a plasmonic-active nanoplatform was developed for tracking mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in mice. The nanoplatform consisted of TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars (TAT-GNS) that emit ultra-bright two-photon photoluminescence capable of tracking MSCs under high-resolution optical imaging. In vitro experiment showed TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs retained a similar differentiability to that of non-labeled MSCs controls. Due to their star shape, TAT-GNS exhibited greater intracellular retention than that of commercial Q-Tracker. In vivo imaging of TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs five days following intra-arterial injections in mice kidneys showed possible MSCs implantation in juxta-glomerular (JG) regions, but non-specifically in glomeruli and afferent arterioles as well. With future design to optimize GNS labeling specificity and clearance, plasmonic-active nanoplatforms may be a useful intracellular tracking tool for stem cell research. An ultra-bright intracellular contrast agent is developed using TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars (TAT-GNS). It poses minimal influence on the stem cell differentiability. It exhibits stronger two-photon photoluminescence and superior labeling efficiency than commercial Q-Tracker. Following renal implantation, some TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs permeate blood vessels and migrate to the juxta-glomerular region. PMID:27095616

  20. VDR Activity is Differentially Affected by Hic-5 in Prostate Cancer and Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua D; Heitzer, Marjet D; Liu, Teresa T; Beumer, Jan H; Parise, Robert A; Normolle, Daniel P; Leach, Damien A; Buchanan, Grant; DeFranco, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) eventually develop castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3/calcitriol) is a potential adjuvant therapy that confers anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation effects in vitro, but has had mixed results in clinical trials. The impact of the tumor microenvironment on 1,25D3 therapy in CRPC patients has not been assessed. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is associated with the development of tumorigenic “reactive stroma” in prostate cancer, induced VDR expression in the human WPMY-1 prostate stromal cell line. Similarly, TGF-β enhanced 1,25D3-induced up-regulation of CYP24A1, which metabolizes 1,25D3 and thereby limits VDR activity. Ablation of Hic-5, a TGF-β-inducible nuclear receptor co-regulator, inhibited basal VDR expression, 1,25D3-induced CYP24A1 expression and metabolism of 1,25D3 and TGF-β-enhanced CYP24A1 expression. A Hic-5-responsive sequence was identified upstream (392-451 bp) of the CYP24A1 transcription start site that is occupied by VDR only in the presence of Hic-5. Ectopic expression of Hic-5 sensitized LNCaP prostate tumor cells to growth-inhibitory effects of 1,25D3 independent of CYP24A1. The sensitivity of Hic-5-expressing LNCaP cells to 1,25D3-induced growth inhibition was accentuated in co-culture with Hic-5-ablated WPMY-1 cells. Therefore, these findings indicate that the search for mechanisms to sensitize prostate cancer cells to the anti-proliferative effects of VDR ligands needs to account for the impact of VDR activity in the tumor microenvironment. Implications Hic-5 acts as a co-regulator with distinct effects on VDR transactivation, in prostate cancer and stromal cells, and may exert diverse effects on adjuvant therapy designed to exploit VDR activity in prostate cancer. PMID:24825850

  1. Active control of the nucleation temperature enhances freezing survival of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lauterboeck, L; Hofmann, N; Mueller, T; Glasmacher, B

    2015-12-01

    Cryopreservation is a technique that has been extensively used for storage of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine. Therefore, improving current cryopreservation procedures in terms of increasing cell viability and functionality is important. In this study, we optimized the cryopreservation protocol of MSCs derived from the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus (cj), which can be used as a non-human primate model in various pathological and transplantation studies and have a great potential for regenerative medicine. We have investigated the effect of the active control of the nucleation temperature using induced nucleation at a broad range of temperatures and two different dimethylsulfoxide concentrations (Me2SO, 5% (v/v) and 10%, (v/v)) to evaluate the overall effect on the viability, metabolic activity and recovery of cells after thawing. Survival rate and metabolic activity displayed an optimum when ice formation was induced at -10 °C. Cryomicroscopy studies indicated differences in ice crystal morphologies as well as differences in intracellular ice formation with different nucleation temperatures. High subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in larger extracellular ice crystals and cellular dehydration, whereas low subzero nucleation temperatures resulted in smaller ice crystals and intracellular ice formation. PMID:26499840

  2. Release of platelet activating factor (PAF) and eicosanoids in UVC-irradiated corneal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y; Birkle, D L

    1995-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation provokes acute inflammation of the eye, and can be used to model processes that occur in response to damage to the anterior segment. This study characterized ultraviolet-C (UVC, 254 nm) irradiation-induced PAF synthesis, and arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosanoid release in rabbit corneal stromal cells maintained in vitro. PAF was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after exposing cultured corneal stromal cells to UVC irradiation (20 min, 2, 5, 10 mW/cm2). 14C-20:4-labeled stromal cells were also stimulated with UVC and radiolabeled phospholipids, neutral lipids and eicosanoids were measured. Synthesis of cell-associated and secreted PAF from corneal stromal cells was increased by UV irradiation. UV irradiation (254 nm, 5mW/cm2) enhanced 20:4 release from triacylglycerols, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and increased levels of 20:4-diacylglycerol and unesterified 20:4. The released 20:4 entered both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways after UVC irradiation. The PAF antagonist, BN52021 (10 microM) reduced UVC irradiation-induced stimulation of prostaglandin production, but failed to inhibit UVC-induced 20:4 release and synthesis of lipoxygenase products. Furthermore, exogenous PAF (1 microM) stimulated prostaglandin production, but did not increase the synthesis of lipoxygenase products from radiolabeled 20:4. The effects of PAF on prostaglandin synthesis were inhibited by BN52021. These findings indicate that responses to injury in cultured corneal stromal cells include PAF synthesis, release of 20:4 from glycerolipids, accumulation of diacylglycerol and synthesis of eicosanoids. The data further suggest that during UVC irradiation in vitro, PAF is not a primary or initial mediator of 20:4 release and synthesis of lipoxygenase products, but may mediate UVC-induced prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:7648859

  3. Stromal cell-based immunotherapy in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Ronald; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang; Fung, John J

    2012-01-01

    Organs are composed of parenchymal cells that characterize organ function and nonparenchymal cells that are composed of cells in transit, as well as tissue connective tissue, also referred to as tissue stromal cells. It was originally thought that these tissue stromal cells provided only structural and functional support for parenchymal cells and were relatively inert. However, we have come to realize that tissue stromal cells, not restricted to in the thymus and lymphoid organs, also play an active role in modulating the immune system and its response to antigens. The recognition of these elements and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action have provided valuable insight into peripheral immune regulation. Extrapolation of these principles may allow us to utilize their potential for clinical application. In this article, we will summarize a number of tissue stromal elements/cell types that have been shown to induce hyporesponsiveness to transplants. We will also discuss the mechanisms by which these stromal cells create a tolerogenic environment, which in turn results in long-term allograft survival. PMID:22091683

  4. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reprograms bone marrow stromal cells to actively suppress B lymphopoiesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan B.; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that mediate the shift from lymphopoiesis to myelopoiesis in response to infectious stress are largely unknown. We show that treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which is often induced during infection, results in marked suppression of B lymphopoiesis at multiple stages of B-cell development. Mesenchymal-lineage stromal cells in the bone marrow, including CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and osteoblasts, constitutively support B lymphopoiesis through the production of multiple B trophic factors. G-CSF acting through a monocytic cell intermediate reprograms these stromal cells, altering their capacity to support B lymphopoiesis. G-CSF treatment is associated with an expansion of CAR cells and a shift toward osteogenic lineage commitment. It markedly suppresses the production of multiple B-cell trophic factors by CAR cells and osteoblasts, including CXCL12, kit ligand, interleukin-6, interleukin-7, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Targeting bone marrow stromal cells is one mechanism by which inflammatory cytokines such as G-CSF actively suppress lymphopoiesis. PMID:25814527

  5. Stromal cell contribution to human follicular lymphoma pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mourcin, Frédéric; Pangault, Céline; Amin-Ali, Rada; Amé-Thomas, Patricia; Tarte, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the prototypical model of indolent B cell lymphoma displaying a strong dependence on a specialized cell microenvironment mimicking normal germinal center. Within malignant cell niches in invaded lymph nodes and bone marrow, external stimuli provided by infiltrating stromal cells make a pivotal contribution to disease development, progression, and drug resistance. The crosstalk between FL B cells and stromal cells is bidirectional, causing activation of both partners. In agreement, FL stromal cells exhibit specific phenotypic, transcriptomic, and functional properties. This review highlights the critical pathways involved in the direct tumor-promoting activity of stromal cells but also their role in the organization of FL cell niche through the recruitment of accessory immune cells and their polarization to a B cell supportive phenotype. Finally, deciphering the interplay between stromal cells and FL cells provides potential new therapeutic targets with the aim to mobilize malignant cells outside their protective microenvironment and increase their sensitivity to conventional treatment. PMID:22973275

  6. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingru; Ma, Xue; Wang, Ning; Jia, Min; Bi, Long; Wang, Yunying; Li, Mingkai; Zhang, Huinan; Xue, Xiaoyan; Hou, Zheng; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Zhibin; He, Gonghao; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Summary Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4) promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis. PMID:26947974

  7. Stromal cells control the epithelial residence of DCs and memory T cells by regulated activation of TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Javed; Beura, Lalit K; Bobr, Aleh; Astry, Brian; Chicoine, Brian; Kashem, Sakeen W; Welty, Nathan E; Igyártó, Botond Z; Wijeyesinghe, Sathi; Thompson, Emily A; Matte, Catherine; Bartholin, Laurent; Kaplan, Alesia; Sheppard, Dean; Bridges, Alina G; Shlomchik, Warren D; Masopust, David; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-04-01

    Cells of the immune system that reside in barrier epithelia provide a first line of defense against pathogens. Langerhans cells (LCs) and CD8(+) tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM cells) require active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) for epidermal residence. Here we found that integrins αvβ6 and αvβ8 were expressed in non-overlapping patterns by keratinocytes (KCs) and maintained the epidermal residence of LCs and TRM cells by activating latent TGF-β. Similarly, the residence of dendritic cells and TRM cells in the small intestine epithelium also required αvβ6. Treatment of the skin with ultraviolet irradiation decreased integrin expression on KCs and reduced the availability of active TGF-β, which resulted in LC migration. Our data demonstrated that regulated activation of TGF-β by stromal cells was able to directly control epithelial residence of cells of the immune system through a novel mechanism of intercellular communication. PMID:26901152

  8. miR-92a regulates angiogenic activity of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Natalia; Klink, Galina; Glukhanyuk, Eugeniy; Lopatina, Tatiana; Efimenko, Anastassia; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2015-11-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells including those from adipose tissue (MSCs) regulate angiogenesis in adult tissues. MicroRNAs (miRs), small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by binding to target mRNAs, reducing their stability and/or inhibiting translation, appear to be important regulators of blood vessel growth. In this study, we examined the impact of angio-miRs on paracrine activities of MSCs. Using Illumina microarrays we found that miR-92a is one of the most abundant angio-miRs in human MSCs. We transfected MSC with pre-miR-92a or anti-miR-92a which led to the coordinated changes of known miR-92a target mRNA levels. Then we tested the ability of conditioned medium from transfected cells to stimulate tube formation by HUVECs. MSC overexpressing miR-92a completely lost the ability to stimulate tubes formation by endothelial cells. However, knocking-out miR-92a by transfection with anti-miR-92a did not increase the ability of MSC to stimulate tube formation. Secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and angiopoetin-1 was significantly lower in the medium of miR-92a overexpressing MSC, whereas VEGF secretion did not change significantly. The replenishment of HGF but not angiopoietin-1 has restored the ability of conditioned medium from miR-92a overexpressing MSC to stimulate the tube formation. We conclude that overexpression of miR-92a in MSC suppresses angiogenic properties of these cells by down-regulation of HGF secretion. PMID:26477824

  9. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  10. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Luca; Brendolan, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  11. Advanced glycation end products suppress osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kaji, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-08-30

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that AGE2 or AGE3 inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of mouse stromal ST2 cells, and also induced apoptosis and decreased cell growth. Although quality management for synthesized proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for the maturation of osteoblasts, the effects of AGEs on ER stress in osteoblast lineage are unknown. We thus examined roles of ER stress in AGE2- or AGE3-induced suppression of osteoblastogenesis of ST2 cells. An ER stress inducer, thapsigargin (TG), induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells by increasing the levels of Osterix, type 1 collagen (Col1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA. AGE2 or AGE3 suppressed the levels of ER stress sensors such as IRE1α, ATF6 and OASIS, while they increased the levels of PERK and its downstream molecules, ATF4. A reduction in PERK level by siRNA did not affect the AGEs-induced suppression of the levels of Osterix, Col1 and OCN mRNA. In conclusion, AGEs inhibited the osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by suppressing ER stress sensors and accumulating abnormal proteins in the cells. This process might accelerate AGEs-induced suppression of bone formation found in diabetes mellitus. PMID:23933252

  12. Transforming growth factor-{beta} inhibits CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein expression and PPAR{gamma} activity in unloaded bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ahdjoudj, S.; Kaabeche, K.; Holy, X.; Fromigue, O.; Modrowski, D.; Zerath, E.; Marie, P.J. . E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr

    2005-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-{beta}2) on transcription factors involved in adipogenic differentiation induced by hind limb suspension in rat bone marrow stromal cells in vivo. Time course real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of gene expression showed that skeletal unloading progressively increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP){alpha} and C/EBP{beta} {alpha} at 5 days in bone marrow stromal cells resulting in increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}2) transcripts at 7 days. TGF-{beta}2 administration in unloaded rats corrected the rise in C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} transcripts induced by unloading in bone marrow stromal cells. This resulted in inhibition of PPAR{gamma}2 expression that was associated with increased Runx2 expression. Additionally, the inhibition of C/EBP{alpha} and C/EBP{beta} expression by TGF-{beta}2 was associated with increased PPAR{gamma} serine phosphorylation in bone marrow stromal cells, a mechanism that inhibits PPAR{gamma} transactivating activity. The sequential inhibitory effect of TGF-{beta}2 on C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma}2 resulted in reduced LPL expression and abolition of bone marrow stromal cell adipogenic differentiation, which contributed to prevent bone loss induced by skeletal unloading. We conclude that TGF-{beta}2 inhibits the excessive adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by skeletal unloading by inhibiting C/EBP{alpha}, C/EBP{beta}, and PPAR{gamma} expression and activity, which provides a sequential mechanism by which TGF-{beta}2 regulates adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vivo.

  13. Bone marrow stromal cells from multiple myeloma patients uniquely induce bortezomib resistant NF-κB activity in myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Components of the microenvironment such as bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are well known to support multiple myeloma (MM) disease progression and resistance to chemotherapy including the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. However, functional distinctions between BMSCs in MM patients and those in disease-free marrow are not completely understood. We and other investigators have recently reported that NF-κB activity in primary MM cells is largely resistant to the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and that further enhancement of NF-κB by BMSCs is similarly resistant to bortezomib and may mediate resistance to this therapy. The mediating factor(s) of this bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity is induced by BMSCs is not currently understood. Results Here we report that BMSCs specifically derived from MM patients are capable of further activating bortezomib-resistant NF-κB activity in MM cells. This induced activity is mediated by soluble proteinaceous factors secreted by MM BMSCs. Among the multiple factors evaluated, interleukin-8 was secreted by BMSCs from MM patients at significantly higher levels compared to those from non-MM sources, and we found that IL-8 contributes to BMSC-induced NF-κB activity. Conclusions BMSCs from MM patients uniquely enhance constitutive NF-κB activity in MM cells via a proteinaceous secreted factor in part in conjunction with IL-8. Since NF-κB is known to potentiate MM cell survival and confer resistance to drugs including bortezomib, further identification of the NF-κB activating factors produced specifically by MM-derived BMSCs may provide a novel biomarker and/or drug target for the treatment of this commonly fatal disease. PMID:20604947

  14. IL15 promotes growth and invasion of endometrial stromal cells and inhibits killing activity of NK cells in endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Jun; Sun, Hui-Ting; Zhang, Zhong-Fang; Shi, Ru-Xia; Liu, Li-Bing; Shang, Wen-Qing; Wei, Chun-Yan; Chang, Kai-Kai; Shao, Jun; Wang, Ming-Yan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Endometriosis (EMS) is associated with an abnormal immune response to endometrial cells, which can facilitate the implantation and proliferation of ectopic endometrial tissues. It has been reported that human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) express interleukin (IL)15. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether or not IL15 regulates the cross talk between ESCs and natural killer (NK) cells in the endometriotic milieu and, if so, how this regulation occurs. The ESC behaviors in vitro were verified by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Annexin/PI, and Matrigel invasion assays, respectively. To imitate the local immune microenvironment, the co-culture system between ESCs and NK cells was constructed. The effect of IL15 on NK cells in the co-culture unit was investigated by flow cytometry (FCM). In this study, we found that ectopic endometrium from patients with EMS highly expressed IL15. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, decreased the level of IL15 receptors (i.e. IL15Rα and IL2Rβ). IL15 inhibits apoptosis and promotes the invasiveness, viability, and proliferation of ESCs. Meanwhile, a co-culture with ESCs led to a decrease in CD16 on NK cells. In the co-culture system, IL15 treatment downregulated the levels of Granzyme B and IFN-γ in CD16(+)NK cells, NKG2D in CD56(dim)CD16(-)NK cells, and NKP44 in CD56(bright)CD16(-)NK cells. On the one hand, these results indicated that IL15 derived from ESCs directly stimulates the growth and invasion of ESCs. On the other hand, IL15 may help the immune escape of ESCs by suppressing the cytotoxic activity of NK cells in the ectopic milieu, thereby facilitating the progression of EMS. PMID:27190213

  15. Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Activated Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Induce the Generation of FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Human Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Hanabuchi, Shino; Ito, Tomoki; Park, Woon-Ryon; Watanabe, Norihiko; Shaw, Joanne L.; Roman, Eulogia; Arima, Kazuhiko; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Voo, Kui Shin; Cao, Wei; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Human thymus contains major dendritic cell (DC) subsets, myeloid DCs (mDCs), and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). We previously showed that mDCs, educated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) produced by the epithelial cells of the Hassall’s corpuscles, induced differentiation of CD4+CD25− thymocytes into Forkhead Box P3+ (FOXP3+) regulatory T cells (TR) within the medulla of human thymus. In this study, we show that pDCs expressed the TSLP receptor and IL-7 receptor a complexes upon activation and became responsive to TSLP. TSLP-activated human pDCs secrete macrophage-derived chemokine CCL-22 and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine CCL-17 but not Th1- or Th2-polarizing cytokines. TSLP-activated pDCs induced the generation of FOXP3+ TR from CD4+CD8−CD25− thymocytes, which could be strongly inhibited by Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 or Th2-polarizing cytokine IL-4. Interestingly, the FOXP3+ TR induced by the TSLP-pDCs expressed more IL-10 but less TGF-b than that induced by the TSLP-mDCs. These data suggest that TSLP expressed by thymic epithelial cells can activate mDCs and pDCs to positively select the FOXP3+ TR with different cytokine production potential in human thymus. The inability of TSLP to induce DC maturation without producing Th1- or Th2-polarizing cytokines may provide a thymic niche for TR development. PMID:20173030

  16. Stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of studies of neoplastic transformation have focused attention on events that occur within transformed cells. These cell autonomous events result in the disruption of molecular pathways that regulate basic activities of the cells such as proliferation, death, movement and genomic integrity. Other studies have addressed the microenvironment of tumor cells and documented its importance in supporting tumor progression. Recent work has begun to expand on these initial studies of tumor microenvironment and now provide novel insights into the possible initiation and progression of malignant cells. This review will address the transforming effect of stromal cells on epithelial components. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Hexon Modification to Improve the Activity of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors against Neoplastic and Stromal Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Tanja; Benihoud, Karim; Vigant, Frédéric; Schmidt, Christoph Q. Andreas; Simmet, Thomas; Kochanek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Primary pancreatic carcinoma has an unfavourable prognosis and standard treatment strategies mostly fail in advanced cases. Virotherapy might overcome this resistance to current treatment modalities. However, data from clinical studies with oncolytic viruses, including replicating adenoviral (Ad) vectors, have shown only limited activity against pancreatic cancer and other carcinomas. Since pancreatic carcinomas have a complex tumor architecture and frequently a strong stromal compartment consisting of non-neoplastic cell types (mainly pancreatic stellate cells = hPSCs) and extracellular matrix, it is not surprising that Ad vectors replicating in neoplastic cells will likely fail to eradicate this aggressive tumor type. Because the TGFβ receptor (TGFBR) is expressed on both neoplastic cells and hPSCs we inserted the TGFBR targeting peptide CKS17 into the hypervariable region 5 (HVR5) of the capsid protein hexon with the aim to generate a replicating Ad vector with improved activity in complex tumors. We demonstrated increased transduction of both pancreatic cancer cell lines and of hPSCs and enhanced cytotoxicity in co-cultures of both cell types. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated decreased binding of coagulation factor X to CKS17-modified Ad particles and in vivo biodistribution studies performed in mice indicated decreased transduction of hepatocytes. Thus, to increase activity of replicating Ad vectors we propose to relax tumor cell selectivity by genetic hexon-mediated targeting to the TGFBR (or other receptors present on both neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells within the tumor) to enable replication also in the stromal cell compartment of tumors, while abolishing hepatocyte transduction, and thereby increasing safety. PMID:25692292

  18. Activated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells suppress metastatic features of MDA-MB-231 cells by secreting IFN-β.

    PubMed

    Yoon, N; Park, M S; Shigemoto, T; Peltier, G; Lee, R H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study showed that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are activated to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by exposure to TNF-α and these activated hMSCs effectively induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further demonstrated that activated hMSCs not only induced apoptosis of MDA cells but also reduced metastatic features in MDA cells. These activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells showed reduced tumorigenicity and suppressed formation of lung metastasis when implanted in the mammary fat pad. Surprisingly, the activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells increased TRAIL expression, resulting in apoptosis in MDA cells. Interestingly, upregulation of TRAIL in MDA cells was mediated by interferon-beta (IFN-β) secreted from activated hMSCs. Furthermore, IFN-β in activated hMSCs was induced by RNA and DNA released from apoptotic MDA cells in absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and IFN induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1)-dependent manners. These observations were only seen in the TRAIL-sensitive breast cancer cell lines but not in the TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Consistent with these results, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis also showed that lack of innate sensors detecting DNA or RNA is strongly associated with poor survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. In addition, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) isolated from a breast cancer patient were also able to express TRAIL and IFN-β upon DNA and RNA stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that the crosstalk between TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells and stromal cells creates a tumor-suppressive microenvironment and further provide a novel therapeutic approach to target stromal cells within cancer microenvironment for TRAIL sensitive cancer treatment. PMID:27077807

  19. Activated human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells suppress metastatic features of MDA-MB-231 cells by secreting IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, N; Park, M S; Shigemoto, T; Peltier, G; Lee, R H

    2016-01-01

    Our recent study showed that human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are activated to express tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) by exposure to TNF-α and these activated hMSCs effectively induce apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (MDA) cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we further demonstrated that activated hMSCs not only induced apoptosis of MDA cells but also reduced metastatic features in MDA cells. These activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells showed reduced tumorigenicity and suppressed formation of lung metastasis when implanted in the mammary fat pad. Surprisingly, the activated hMSC-exposed MDA cells increased TRAIL expression, resulting in apoptosis in MDA cells. Interestingly, upregulation of TRAIL in MDA cells was mediated by interferon-beta (IFN-β) secreted from activated hMSCs. Furthermore, IFN-β in activated hMSCs was induced by RNA and DNA released from apoptotic MDA cells in absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and IFN induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1)-dependent manners. These observations were only seen in the TRAIL-sensitive breast cancer cell lines but not in the TRAIL-resistant breast cancer cell lines. Consistent with these results, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis also showed that lack of innate sensors detecting DNA or RNA is strongly associated with poor survival in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. In addition, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) isolated from a breast cancer patient were also able to express TRAIL and IFN-β upon DNA and RNA stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that the crosstalk between TRAIL-sensitive cancer cells and stromal cells creates a tumor-suppressive microenvironment and further provide a novel therapeutic approach to target stromal cells within cancer microenvironment for TRAIL sensitive cancer treatment. PMID:27077807

  20. Activated Hippo/Yes-Associated Protein Pathway Promotes Cell Proliferation and Anti-apoptosis in Endometrial Stromal Cells of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong; Fu, Jing; Zhou, Min; Xiao, Li; Feng, Xue; Chen, Hengxi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The imbalance in cell proliferation and apoptosis is considered an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, but the exact mechanisms remains unclear. A newly established signaling pathway–Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway plays a critical role in the proliferation and apoptosis processes. However, studies focusing on Hippo/YAP pathway and endometriosis are lacking. Objective: The objective was to explore the function of the Hippo/YAP pathway in endometriosis. Setting and Design: The expression of YAP was first investigated in endometrium of women with or without endometriosis. The role of YAP in cell proliferation and apoptosis is identified by transfection of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in vitro, subsequent Verteporfin treatments in eutopic ESCs in vitro, and endometriosis animal model of nude mice in vivo. Results: Our results revealed that increased expression of YAP and decreased expression of p-YAP in ectopic and eutopic endometrium compared with normal endometrium. YAP knockdown in eutopic ESCs decreased cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis companied with decreased expression of TEAD1, CTGF, and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia (BCL)-2; whereas overexpression of YAP resulted in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of normal ESCs with increased expression of TEAD1, CTGF, and BCL-2. By chromatin immunoprecipitation qPCR CTGF and BCL-2 were identified as directly downstream target genes of YAP-TEAD1 active complex. Eutopic ESCs treated with Verteporfin revealed decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis whereas in endometriosis animal models of nude mice treated with Verteporfin, the size of endometriotic lesions was significantly reduced. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the Hippo/YAP-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and should present a novel therapeutic method against endometriosis. PMID:26977530

  1. Immunomodulation of airway epithelium cell activation by mesenchymal stromal cells ameliorates house dust mite-induced airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Duong, Khang M; Arikkatt, Jaisy; Ullah, M Ashik; Lynch, Jason P; Zhang, Vivian; Atkinson, Kerry; Sly, Peter D; Phipps, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Allergic asthma is underpinned by T helper 2 (Th2) inflammation. Redundancy in Th2 cytokine function and production by innate and adaptive immune cells suggests that strategies aimed at immunomodulation may prove more beneficial. Hence, we sought to determine whether administration of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to house dust mite (HDM) (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus)-sensitized mice would suppress the development of Th2 inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after HDM challenge. We report that the intravenous administration of allogeneic donor MSCs 1 hour before allergen challenge significantly attenuated the features of allergic asthma, including tissue eosinophilia, Th2 cytokine (IL-5 and IL-13) levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and AHR. The number of infiltrating type 2 innate lymphoid cells was not affected by MSC transfer, suggesting that MSCs may modulate the adaptive arm of Th2 immunity. The effect of MSC administration was long lasting; all features of allergic airway disease were significantly suppressed in response to a second round of HDM challenge 4 weeks after MSC administration. Further, we observed that MSCs decreased the release of epithelial cell-derived alarmins IL-1α and high mobility group box-1 in an IL-1 receptor antagonist-dependent manner. This significantly decreased the expression of the pro-Th2 cytokine IL-25 and reduced the number of activated and antigen-acquiring CD11c(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes. Our findings suggest that MSC administration can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation by blunting the amplification of epithelial-derived inflammatory cytokines induced by HDM exposure and may offer long-term protection against Th2-mediated allergic airway inflammation and AHR. PMID:25789608

  2. Enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activation by Hexachlorobenzene in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Florencia; Bastón, Juan Ignacio; Vaccarezza, Agustina; Singla, José Javier; Pontillo, Carolina; Miret, Noelia; Farina, Mariana; Meresman, Gabriela; Randi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that induces toxic reproductive effects in laboratory animals. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Experimental studies indicate that exposure to organochlorines can interfere with both hormonal regulation and immune function to promote endometriosis. Altered expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with endometriosis, suggests that MMPs may play a critical role. In the endometriotic lesions, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), binds to its EP4 receptor (EP4), and via c-Src kinase induces MMPs activation, promoting endometriosis. We examined the HCB action on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expression, COX-2 levels, PGE2 signaling, and the AhR involvement in HCB-induced effects. We have used different in vitro models: (1) human endometrial stromal cell line T-HESC, (2) primary cultures of Human Uterine Fibroblast (HUF), and (3) primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells from eutopic endometrium of control (CESC) and subjects with endometriosis (EESC). Our results show that HCB enhances MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in T-HESC, HUF and ESC cells. The MMP-9 levels were elevated in all models, while the MMP-2 expression only increased in ESC cells. HCB enhanced COX-2 and EP4 expression, PGE2 secretion and the c-Src kinase activation in T-HESC. Besides, we observed that AhR is implicated in these HCB-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show that HCB exposure could contribute to endometriosis development, affecting inflammation and invasion parameters of human endometrial cells. PMID:27038655

  3. CAPN 7 promotes the migration and invasion of human endometrial stromal cell by regulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) has been reported to be an important regulator of cell migration and invasion through degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in many diseases, such as cancer and endometriosis. Here, we found calcium-activated neutral protease 7 (CAPN 7) expression was markedly upregulated in the eutopic endometrium and endometrial stromal cells of women diagnosed with endometriosis. Our studies were carried out to detect the effects of CAPN 7 on human endometrial stromal cell (hESC) migration and invasion. Methods Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of CAPN 7 in endometriosis patients and normal fertile women. Scratch-wound-healing and invasion chamber assay were used to investigate the role of CAPN 7 in hESC migration and invasion. Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR and zymography were carried out to detect the effect of CAPN 7 on the expressions and activity of MMP-2. Results CAPN 7 was markedly up-regulated in endometriosis, thereby promoting the migration and invasion of hESC. CAPN 7 overexpression led to increased expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2); CAPN 7 knockdown reversed these changes. CAPN 7 increased MMP-2 activity by increasing the ratio of MMP-2 to TIMP-2. We also found that OA-Hy (an MMP-2 inhibitor) decreased the effects of CAPN 7 overexpression on hESC migration and invasion by approximately 50% and 55%, respectively. Additionally, a coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that CAPN 7 interacted with activator protein 2α (AP-2α): an important transcription factor of MMP-2. Conclusions CAPN 7 promotes hESC migration and invasion by increasing the activity of MMP-2 via an increased ratio of MMP-2 to TIMP-2. PMID:23855590

  4. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    PubMed

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm). PMID:27219645

  5. Bizarre Stromal Cells in an Endometrial Polyp.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra; Barrett, Theodore

    2016-06-01

    Bizarre stromal cells have been reported in vulvovaginal polyps, as well as in nongynecologic sites, with caution not to mistake them for malignancy. Similar atypical stromal cells have only rarely been reported in the endometrium. We present a case found incidentally in a postmenopausal woman, and review the literature. PMID:26888957

  6. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  7. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells combined with pharmacologically active microcarriers transplanted in hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Delcroix, Gaëtan J-R; Garbayo, Elisa; Sindji, Laurence; Thomas, Olivier; Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Schiller, Paul C; Montero-Menei, Claudia N

    2011-02-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) raise great interest for brain cell therapy due to their ease of isolation from bone marrow, their immunomodulatory and tissue repair capacities, their ability to differentiate into neuronal-like cells and to secrete a variety of growth factors and chemokines. In this study, we assessed the effects of a subpopulation of human MSCs, the marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells, combined with pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). PAMs are biodegradable and non-cytotoxic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, coated by a biomimetic surface and releasing a therapeutic protein, which acts on the cells conveyed on their surface and on their microenvironment. In this study, PAMs were coated with laminin and designed to release neurotrophin 3 (NT3), which stimulate the neuronal-like differentiation of MIAMI cells and promote neuronal survival. After adhesion of dopaminergic-induced (DI)-MIAMI cells to PAMs in vitro, the complexes were grafted in the partially dopaminergic-deafferented striatum of rats which led to a strong reduction of the amphetamine-induced rotational behavior together with the protection/repair of the nigrostriatal pathway. These effects were correlated with the increased survival of DI-MIAMI cells that secreted a wide range of growth factors and chemokines. Moreover, the observed increased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase by cells transplanted with PAMs may contribute to this functional recovery. PMID:21074844

  8. Human Uterine Cervical Stromal Stem Cells (hUCESCs): Why and How they Exert their Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, José; Eiró, Noemí; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Martínez-Ordóñez, Anxo; Vizoso, Francisco

    Our research team has recently isolated and characterized a new stromal stem cell line (hUCESCs) obtained from cytological smears, as routinely performed for cervical cancer screening. We have, furthermore, described that both hUCESCs directly, as well as the secretome contained in the conditioned medium used for growing them (hUCESCs-CM) have potent antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antimycotic and re-epitheliasation-enhancing properties. The scientific explanation our team proposes for these pleiotropic effects are directly related to the site of origin of hUCESCs, the human cervical transition zone, which has unique features that biologically justify the different actions of hUCESCs and hUCESCs-CM. We, herein, expose our working theory for the biological activity of hUCESCs and hUCESCs-CM. PMID:27566652

  9. Isolation of hormone responsive uterine stromal cells: an in vitro model for stromal cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rider, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    The female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate proliferation and differentiation of human and rodent uterine cells. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a method for isolating hormone-responsive rat uterine stromal cell lines that can be used to study steroid control of the cell cycle. Uteri from ovariectomized rats are differentially digested with trypsin to separate epithelial and stromal cells. The stromal cells are cultured in a standard growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. After several passages, the purity of the stromal cell lines is determined using immunocytochemistry. Cell proliferation is studied by culturing the stromal cells in serum-free medium containing sex steroids and other mitogens. Cell cycle progression is assessed by flow cytometry, 3H-thymidine and BrdU incorporation, whereas proliferation is monitored using the MTT assay. Cell cycle regulators are visualized by Northern and Western blotting whereas cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase activity is monitored using immune complex kinase assays. Uterine stromal cell lines isolated using the methods reported in this chapter provide a suitable model system to investigate the signal transduction events that stimulate hormone-dependent control of the cell cycle. PMID:16251733

  10. The oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate activates NF-κB-dependent tumor-promoting stromal niche for acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Lai, You-Syuan; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Yen, B. Linju; Yeh, Su-Peng; Sun, H. Sunny; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue. This phosphorylation enhances the interaction of NF-κB and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1 and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. As a consequence, R-2HG enhances NF-κB-dependent expression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-8 and complement 5a to stimulate proliferation of AML cells. In addition, R-2HG also upregulates vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 and CXCR4 in stromal cells to enhance the contact between AML and stromal cells and attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. More importantly, we validated the R-2HG-activated gene signature in the primary bone marrow stromal cells isolated from IDH-mutated AML patients. Collectively, our results suggest that AML cell-derived R-2HG may be helpful for the establishment of a supportive bone marrow stromal niche to promote AML progression via paracrine stimulation. PMID:27577048

  11. The oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate activates NF-κB-dependent tumor-promoting stromal niche for acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Lai, You-Syuan; Tsai, Hui-Jen; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Yen, B Linju; Yeh, Su-Peng; Sun, H Sunny; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells produce the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) to induce epigenetic alteration and block hematopoietic differentiation. However, the effect of R-2HG released by IDH-mutated AML cells on the bone marrow microenvironment is unclear. Here, we report that R-2HG induces IκB kinase-independent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells. R-2HG acts via a reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway to phosphorylate NF-κB on the Thr254 residue. This phosphorylation enhances the interaction of NF-κB and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1 and increases the protein stability and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. As a consequence, R-2HG enhances NF-κB-dependent expression of cytokines including IL-6, IL-8 and complement 5a to stimulate proliferation of AML cells. In addition, R-2HG also upregulates vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 and CXCR4 in stromal cells to enhance the contact between AML and stromal cells and attenuates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. More importantly, we validated the R-2HG-activated gene signature in the primary bone marrow stromal cells isolated from IDH-mutated AML patients. Collectively, our results suggest that AML cell-derived R-2HG may be helpful for the establishment of a supportive bone marrow stromal niche to promote AML progression via paracrine stimulation. PMID:27577048

  12. SDF-1α stiffens myeloma bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells through the activation of RhoA-ROCK-Myosin II.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Soon; Stark, Daniel J; Raphael, Robert M; Wen, Jianguo; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo; Chang, Chung-Che; Zu, Youli

    2015-03-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B lymphocyte malignancy that remains incurable despite extensive research efforts. This is due, in part, to frequent disease recurrences associated with the persistence of myeloma cancer stem cells (mCSCs). Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) play critical roles in supporting mCSCs through genetic or biochemical alterations. Previously, we identified mechanical distinctions between BMSCs isolated from MM patients (mBMSCs) and those present in the BM of healthy individuals (nBMSCs). These properties of mBMSC contributed to their ability to preferentially support mCSCs. To further illustrate mechanisms underlying the differences between mBMSCs and nBMSCs, here we report that (i) mBMSCs express an abnormal, constitutively high level of phosphorylated Myosin II, which leads to stiffer membrane mechanics, (ii) mBMSCs are more sensitive to SDF-1α-induced activation of MYL2 through the G(i./o)-PI3K-RhoA-ROCK-Myosin II signaling pathway, affecting Young's modulus in BMSCs and (iii) activated Myosin II confers increased cell contractile potential, leading to enhanced collagen matrix remodeling and promoting the cell-cell interaction between mCSCs and mBMSCs. Together, our findings suggest that interfering with SDF-1α signaling may serve as a new therapeutic approach for eliminating mCSCs by disrupting their interaction with mBMSCs. PMID:25137150

  13. Changes in autophagy, proteasome activity and metabolism to determine a specific signature for acute and chronic senescent mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Squillaro, Tiziana; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Melone, Mariarosa A.; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    A sharp definition of what a senescent cell is still lacking since we do not have in depth understanding of mechanisms that induce cellular senescence. In addition, senescent cells are heterogeneous, in that not all of them express the same genes and present the same phenotype. To further clarify the classification of senescent cells, hints may be derived by the study of cellular metabolism, autophagy and proteasome activity. In this scenario, we decided to study these biological features in senescence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC). These cells contain a subpopulation of stem cells that are able to differentiate in mesodermal derivatives (adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes). In addition, they can also contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs, hence, their senescence could be very deleterious for human body functions. We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation and replicative exhaustion. The first three are considered inducers of acute senescence while extensive proliferation triggers replicative senescence also named as chronic senescence. In all conditions, but replicative and high IR dose senescence, we detected a reduction of the autophagic flux, while proteasome activity was impaired in peroxide-treated and irradiated cells. Differences were observed also in metabolic status. In general, all senescent cells evidenced metabolic inflexibility and prefer to use glucose as energy fuel. Irradiated cells with low dose of X-ray and replicative senescent cells show a residual capacity to use fatty acids and glutamine as alternative fuels, respectively. Our study may be useful to discriminate among different senescent phenotypes. PMID:26540573

  14. Changes in autophagy, proteasome activity and metabolism to determine a specific signature for acute and chronic senescent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Stefania; Alessio, Nicola; Squillaro, Tiziana; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Melone, Mariarosa A; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-11-24

    A sharp definition of what a senescent cell is still lacking since we do not have in depth understanding of mechanisms that induce cellular senescence. In addition, senescent cells are heterogeneous, in that not all of them express the same genes and present the same phenotype. To further clarify the classification of senescent cells, hints may be derived by the study of cellular metabolism, autophagy and proteasome activity. In this scenario, we decided to study these biological features in senescence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC). These cells contain a subpopulation of stem cells that are able to differentiate in mesodermal derivatives (adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes). In addition, they can also contribute to the homeostatic maintenance of many organs, hence, their senescence could be very deleterious for human body functions. We induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, doxorubicin treatment, X-ray irradiation and replicative exhaustion. The first three are considered inducers of acute senescence while extensive proliferation triggers replicative senescence also named as chronic senescence. In all conditions, but replicative and high IR dose senescence, we detected a reduction of the autophagic flux, while proteasome activity was impaired in peroxide-treated and irradiated cells. Differences were observed also in metabolic status. In general, all senescent cells evidenced metabolic inflexibility and prefer to use glucose as energy fuel. Irradiated cells with low dose of X-ray and replicative senescent cells show a residual capacity to use fatty acids and glutamine as alternative fuels, respectively. Our study may be useful to discriminate among different senescent phenotypes. PMID:26540573

  15. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guo-Yong; Zheng, Gui-Zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-Xiao; Lin, Fei-Xiang; Liu, De-Zhong; Wu, Chu-Cheng; Du, Shi-Xin; Li, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  16. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guo-yong; Zheng, Gui-zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-xiao; Lin, Fei-xiang; Liu, De-zhong; Wu, Chu-cheng; Du, Shi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  17. Exacerbation of acute kidney injury by bone marrow stromal cells from rats with persistent renin-angiotensin system activation.

    PubMed

    Kankuri, Esko; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Ahola, Aija M J; Levijoki, Jouko; Müller, Dominik N; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Eero M

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension and persistent activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are predisposing factors for the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Although bone-marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) have shown therapeutic promise in treatment of AKI, the impact of pathological RAS on BMSC functionality has remained unresolved. RAS and its local components in the bone marrow are involved in several key steps of cell maturation processes. This may also render the BMSC population vulnerable to alterations even in the early phases of RAS pathology. We isolated transgenic BMSCs (TG-BMSCs) from young end-organ-disease-free rats with increased RAS activation [human angiotensinogen/renin double transgenic rats (dTGRs)] that eventually develop hypertension and die of end-organ damage and kidney failure at 8 weeks of age. Control cells (SD-BMSCs) were isolated from wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats. Cell phenotype, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and respiration were assessed, and gene expression profiling was carried out using microarrays. Cells' therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in a rat model of acute ischaemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. Serum urea and creatinine were measured at 24 h and 48 h. Acute tubular damage was scored and immunohistochemistry was used for evaluation for markers of inflammation [monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), ED-1], and kidney injury [kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)]. TG-BMSCs showed distinct mitochondrial morphology, decreased cell respiration and increased production of ROS. Gene expression profiling revealed a pronounced pro-inflammatory phenotype. In contrast with the therapeutic effect of SD-BMSCs, administration of TG-BMSCs in the AKI model resulted in exacerbation of kidney injury and high mortality. Our results demonstrate that early persistent RAS activation can dramatically compromise therapeutic potential of BMSCs by causing a shift into a pro

  18. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induce Peculiar Alternatively Activated Macrophages Capable of Dampening Both Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Chiossone, Laura; Conte, Romana; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Serra, Martina; Romei, Cristina; Bellora, Francesca; Becchetti, Flavio; Andaloro, Antonio; Moretta, Lorenzo; Bottino, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) support hematopoiesis and exert immunoregulatory activities. Here, we analyzed the functional outcome of the interactions between MSCs and monocytes/macrophages. We showed that MSCs supported the survival of monocytes that underwent differentiation into macrophages, in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. However, MSCs skewed their polarization toward a peculiar M2-like functional phenotype (M(MSC) ), through a prostaglandin E2-dependent mechanism. M(MSC) were characterized by high expression of scavenger receptors, increased phagocytic capacity, and high production of interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β. These cytokines contributed to the immunoregulatory properties of M(MSC) , which differed from those of typical IL-4-induced macrophages (M2). In particular, interacting with activated natural killer (NK) cells, M(MSC) inhibited both the expression of activating molecules such as NKp44, CD69, and CD25 and the production of IFNγ, while M2 affected only IFNγ production. Moreover, M(MSC) inhibited the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells in response to allogeneic stimuli and induced the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Toll-like receptor engagement reverted the phenotypic and functional features of M(MSC) to those of M1 immunostimulatory/proinflammatory macrophages. Overall our data show that MSCs induce the generation of a novel type of alternatively activated macrophages capable of suppressing both innate and adaptive immune responses. These findings may help to better understand the role of MSCs in healthy tissues and inflammatory diseases including cancer, and provide clues for novel therapeutic approaches. Stem Cells 2016;34:1909-1921. PMID:27015881

  19. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity in reduced oxygen environment enhances the osteogenesis of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Hammerick, Kyle E; James, Aaron W; Carre, Antoine L; Leucht, Philipp; Giaccia, Amato J; Longaker, Michael T

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxygen tension has a great impact on the osteogenic differentiation capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from adipose tissue: reduced oxygen impedes osteogenesis. We have found that expansion of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs) in reduced oxygen tension (10%) results in increased cell proliferation along with induction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In this study, we utilized two HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), sodium butyrate (NaB) and valproic acid (VPA), and studied their effects on mASCs expanded in various oxygen tensions (21%, 10%, and 1% O(2)). Significant growth inhibition was observed with NaB or VPA treatment in each oxygen tension. Osteogenesis was enhanced by treatment with NaB or VPA, particularly in reduced oxygen tensions (10% and 1% O(2)). Conversely, adipogenesis was decreased with treatments of NaB or VPA at all oxygen tensions. Finally, NaB- or VPA-treated, reduced oxygen tension-exposed (1% O(2)) ASCs were grafted into surgically created mouse tibial defects and resulted in significantly increased bone regeneration. In conclusion, HDACi significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of mASCs exposed to reduced oxygen tension; HDACi may hold promise for future clinical applications of ASCs for skeletal regeneration. PMID:19505250

  20. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase Activity in Reduced Oxygen Environment Enhances the Osteogenesis of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Hammerick, Kyle E.; James, Aaron W.; Carre, Antoine L.; Leucht, Philipp; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that oxygen tension has a great impact on the osteogenic differentiation capacity of mesenchymal cells derived from adipose tissue: reduced oxygen impedes osteogenesis. We have found that expansion of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs) in reduced oxygen tension (10%) results in increased cell proliferation along with induction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In this study, we utilized two HDAC inhibitors (HDACi), sodium butyrate (NaB) and valproic acid (VPA), and studied their effects on mASCs expanded in various oxygen tensions (21%, 10%, and 1% O2). Significant growth inhibition was observed with NaB or VPA treatment in each oxygen tension. Osteogenesis was enhanced by treatment with NaB or VPA, particularly in reduced oxygen tensions (10% and 1% O2). Conversely, adipogenesis was decreased with treatments of NaB or VPA at all oxygen tensions. Finally, NaB- or VPA-treated, reduced oxygen tension–exposed (1% O2) ASCs were grafted into surgically created mouse tibial defects and resulted in significantly increased bone regeneration. In conclusion, HDACi significantly promote the osteogenic differentiation of mASCs exposed to reduced oxygen tension; HDACi may hold promise for future clinical applications of ASCs for skeletal regeneration. PMID:19505250

  1. Oncogenic Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Signet Ring Stromal Cell Tumor of the Ovary.

    PubMed

    Kopczynski, Janusz; Kowalik, Artur; Chłopek, Małgorzata; Wang, Zeng-Feng; Góźdź, Stanisław; Lasota, Jerzy; Miettinen, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Signet ring stromal cell tumor (SRSCT) of the ovary is a very rare benign ovarian neoplasm. To date, no underlying genetic mechanism has been identified. In this study, 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes were evaluated for mutations in a typical SRSCT using the next-generation DNA sequencing approach. An in-frame deletion of 30 nucleotides in the glycogen serine kinase-3 beta phosphorylation region of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) was identified, and the finding was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This deletion (c.68_97del) at the protein level would lead to a p.Ser23_Ser33delinsThr oncogenic-type mutation. Subsequent immunohistochemistry showed prominent nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and cyclin D1 in tumor cells. Thus, mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway could be a crucial event in the molecular pathogenesis of SRSCT of the ovary. These findings may also assist in the diagnosis of this rare tumor. PMID:26509912

  2. Disordered IL-33/ST2 activation in decidualizing stromal cells prolongs uterine receptivity in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Salker, Madhuri S; Nautiyal, Jaya; Steel, Jennifer H; Webster, Zoe; Sućurović, Sandra; Nicou, Marilena; Singh, Yogesh; Lucas, Emma S; Murakami, Keisuke; Chan, Yi-Wah; James, Sean; Abdallah, Yazan; Christian, Mark; Croy, B Anne; Mulac-Jericevic, Biserka; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Decidualization renders the endometrium transiently receptive to an implanting blastocyst although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) rapidly release IL-33, a key regulator of innate immune responses, upon decidualization. In parallel, differentiating HESCs upregulate the IL-33 transmembrane receptor ST2L and other pro-inflammatory mediators before mounting a profound anti-inflammatory response that includes downregulation of ST2L and increased expression of the soluble decoy receptor sST2. We demonstrate that HESCs secrete factors permissive of embryo implantation in mice only during the pro-inflammatory phase of the decidual process. IL-33 knockdown in undifferentiated HESCs was sufficient to abrogate this pro-inflammatory decidual response. Further, sequential activation of the IL-33/ST2L/sST2 axis was disordered in decidualizing HESCs from women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Signals from these cultures prolonged the implantation window but also caused subsequent pregnancy failure in mice. Thus, Il-33/ST2 activation in HESCS drives an autoinflammatory response that controls the temporal expression of receptivity genes. Failure to constrain this response predisposes to miscarriage by allowing out-of-phase implantation in an unsupportive uterine environment. PMID:23300625

  3. Central Nervous System Stromal Cells Control Local CD8(+) T Cell Responses during Virus-Induced Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Cupovic, Jovana; Onder, Lucas; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Weiler, Elke; Caviezel-Firner, Sonja; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Rülicke, Thomas; Bechmann, Ingo; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-03-15

    Stromal cells generate a complex cellular scaffold that provides specialized microenvironments for lymphocyte activation in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we assessed whether local activation of stromal cells in the central nervous system (CNS) is mandatory to transfer immune recognition from secondary lymphoid organs into the infected tissue. We report that neurotropic virus infection in mice triggered the establishment of such stromal cell niches in the CNS. CNS stromal cell activation was dominated by a rapid and vigorous production of CC-motif chemokine receptor (CCR) 7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 by vascular endothelial cells and adjacent fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC)-like cells in the perivascular space. Moreover, CCR7 ligands produced by CNS stromal cells were crucial to support recruitment and local re-activation of antiviral CD8(+) T cells and to protect the host from lethal neuroinflammatory disease, indicating that CNS stromal cells generate confined microenvironments that control protective T cell immunity. PMID:26921107

  4. Dimethyloxaloylglycine Improves Angiogenic Activity of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in the Tissue-Engineered Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Chen, Song; Song, Wen-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Guan, Jun-Jie; Wang, Yang; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    One of the big challenges in tissue engineering for treating large bone defects is to promote the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone regeneration, and can activate a broad array of angiogenic factors. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG) can activate HIF-1α expression in cells at normal oxygen tension. In this study, we explored the effect of DMOG on the angiogenic activity of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the tissue-engineered bone. The effect of different concentrations of DMOG on HIF-1a expression in BMSCs was detected with western blotting, and the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in DMOG-treated BMSCs were respectively analyzed using qRT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The tissue-engineered bone constructed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and DMOG-treated BMSCs were implanted into the critical-sized calvarial defects to test the effectiveness of DMOG in improving the angiogenic activity of BMSCs in the tissue-engineered bone. The results showed DMOG significantly enhanced the mRNA expression and secretion of related angiogenic factors in BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α. More newly formed blood vessels were observed in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs than in other groups. And there were also more bone regeneration in the group treated with β-TCP and DMOG-treated BMSCs. Therefore, we believed DMOG could enhance the angiogenic activity of BMSCs by activating the expression of HIF-1α, thereby improve the angiogenesis of the tissue-engineered bone and its bone healing capacity. PMID:25013382

  5. Structurally-diverse, PPARγ-activating environmental toxicants induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Watt, James; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental obesogens are a newly recognized category of endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been implicated in contributing to the rising rates of obesity in the United States. While obesity is typically regarded as an increase in visceral fat, adipocyte accumulation in the bone has been linked to increased fracture risk, lower bone density, and osteoporosis. Exposure to environmental toxicants that activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a critical regulator of the balance of differentiation between adipogenesis and osteogenesis, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis. However, induction of adipogenesis and suppression of osteogenesis are separable activities of PPARγ, and ligands may selectively alter these activities. It currently is unknown whether suppression of osteogenesis is a common toxic endpoint of environmental PPARγ ligands. Using a primary mouse bone marrow culture model, we tested the hypothesis that environmental toxicants acting as PPARγ agonists divert the differentiation pathway of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells towards adipogenesis and away from osteogenesis. The toxicants tested included the organotins tributyltin and triphenyltin, a ubiquitous phthalate metabolite (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHP), and two brominated flame retardants (tetrabromobisphenol-a, TBBPA, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, METBP). All of the compounds activated PPARγ1 and 2. All compounds increased adipogenesis (lipid accumulation, Fabp4 expression) and suppressed osteogenesis (alkaline phosphatase activity, Osx expression) in mouse primary bone marrow cultures, but with different potencies and efficacies. Despite structural dissimilarities, there was a strong negative correlation between efficacies to induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis, with the organotins being distinct in their exceptional ability to suppress osteogenesis. As human exposure to a mixture of

  6. Structurally-diverse, PPARγ-activating environmental toxicants induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Watt, James; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2015-05-01

    Environmental obesogens are a newly recognized category of endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been implicated in contributing to the rising rates of obesity in the United States. While obesity is typically regarded as an increase in visceral fat, adipocyte accumulation in the bone has been linked to increased fracture risk, lower bone density, and osteoporosis. Exposure to environmental toxicants that activate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a critical regulator of the balance of differentiation between adipogenesis and osteogenesis, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis. However, induction of adipogenesis and suppression of osteogenesis are separable activities of PPARγ, and ligands may selectively alter these activities. It currently is unknown whether suppression of osteogenesis is a common toxic endpoint of environmental PPARγ ligands. Using a primary mouse bone marrow culture model, we tested the hypothesis that environmental toxicants acting as PPARγ agonists divert the differentiation pathway of bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells towards adipogenesis and away from osteogenesis. The toxicants tested included the organotins tributyltin and triphenyltin, a ubiquitous phthalate metabolite (mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHP), and two brominated flame retardants (tetrabromobisphenol-a, TBBPA, and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, METBP). All of the compounds activated PPARγ1 and 2. All compounds increased adipogenesis (lipid accumulation, Fabp4 expression) and suppressed osteogenesis (alkaline phosphatase activity, Osx expression) in mouse primary bone marrow cultures, but with different potencies and efficacies. Despite structural dissimilarities, there was a strong negative correlation between efficacies to induce adipogenesis and suppress osteogenesis, with the organotins being distinct in their exceptional ability to suppress osteogenesis. As human exposure to a mixture of

  7. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  8. Bone marrow stromal/stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles regulate osteoblast activity and differentiation in vitro and promote bone regeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yunhao; Wang, Lian; Gao, Zhengliang; Chen, Genyin; Zhang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted by diverse tissues and play important roles in cell-cell communication, organ interactions and tissue homeostasis. Studies have reported the use of EVs to stimulate tissue regeneration, such as hepatic cell regeneration, and to treat diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension. However, little is known about the osteogenic effect of EVs. In this study, we explore the role of bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs in the regulation of osteoblast activity and bone regeneration. We isolated bone marrow stromal/stem cell (BMSC)-derived EVs through gradient ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration, and tested the influence of the EVs on osteogenesis both in vivo and in vitro. The results indicated that EVs positively regulated osteogenic genes and osteoblastic differentiation but did not inhibit proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, we constructed an EVs delivery system to stimulate bone formation in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with calvarial defects. We found that BMSC-derived EVs led to more bone formation in the critical-size calvarial bone defects. Moreover, we found that miR-196a plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblastic differentiation and the expression of osteogenic genes. We anticipate that our assay using bone marrow stromal cell-derived EVs will become a valuable tool for promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26911789

  9. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    PubMed

    Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities. Pre-clinical models have shown beneficial effects of MSCs in multiple immunological diseases and a number of phase 1/2 clinical trials carried out so far have reported signs of immune modulation after MSC infusion. These data indicate that MSCs play a central role in the immune response. This raises the academic question whether MSCs are immune cells or whether they are tissue precursor cells with immunoregulatory capacity. Correct understanding of the immunological properties and origin of MSCs will aid in the appropriate and safe use of the cells for clinical therapy. In this review the whole spectrum of immunological properties of MSCs is discussed with the aim of determining the position of MSCs in the immune system. PMID:25880839

  10. Salt restriction leads to activation of adult renal mesenchymal stromal cell-like cells via prostaglandin E2 and E-prostanoid receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanqiang; Gomez, Jose A; Herrera, Marcela; Perez-Marco, Romelia; Repenning, Peter; Zhang, Zhiping; Payne, Alan; Pratt, Richard E; Koller, Beverly; Beierwaltes, William H; Coffman, Thomas; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

    2015-05-01

    Despite the importance of juxtaglomerular cell recruitment in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, the mechanisms that underlie renin production under conditions of chronic stimulation remain elusive. We have previously shown that CD44+ mesenchymal-like cells (CD44+ cells) exist in the adult kidney. Under chronic sodium deprivation, these cells are recruited to the juxtaglomerular area and differentiate to new renin-expressing cells. Given the proximity of macula densa to the juxtaglomerular area and the importance of macula densa released prostanoids in renin synthesis and release, we hypothesized that chronic sodium deprivation induces macula densa release of prostanoids, stimulating renal CD44+ cell activation and differentiation. CD44+ cells were isolated from adult kidneys and cocultured with the macula densa cell line, MMDD1, in normal or low-sodium medium. Low sodium stimulated prostaglandin E2 production by MMDD1 and induced migration of CD44+ cells. These effects were inhibited by addition of a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor (NS398) or an E-prostanoid receptor 4 antagonist (AH23848) to MMDD1 or CD44+ cells, respectively. Addition of prostaglandin E2 to CD44+ cells increased cell migration and induced renin expression. In vivo activation of renal CD44+ cells during juxtaglomerular recruitment was attenuated in wild-type mice subjected to salt restriction in the presence of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor rofecoxib. Similar results were observed in E-prostanoid receptor 4 knockout mice subjected to salt restriction. These results show that the prostaglandin E2/E-prostanoid receptor 4 pathway plays a key role in the activation of renal CD44+ mesenchymal stromal cell-like cells during conditions of juxtaglomerular recruitment; highlighting the importance of this pathway as a key regulatory mechanism of juxtaglomerular recruitment. PMID:25776075

  11. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. PMID:26378073

  12. P21-Activated Kinase Inhibitors FRAX486 and IPA3: Inhibition of Prostate Stromal Cell Growth and Effects on Smooth Muscle Contraction in the Human Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiming; Gratzke, Christian; Tamalunas, Alexander; Wiemer, Nicolas; Ciotkowska, Anna; Rutz, Beata; Waidelich, Raphaela; Strittmatter, Frank; Liu, Chunxiao; Stief, Christian G.; Hennenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate smooth muscle tone and hyperplastic growth are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Available drugs are characterized by limited efficacy. Patients’ adherence is particularly low to combination therapies of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, which are supposed to target contraction and growth simultaneously. Consequently, molecular etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and new compounds interfering with smooth muscle contraction or growth in the prostate are of high interest. Here, we studied effects of p21-activated kinase (PAK) inhibitors (FRAX486, IPA3) in hyperplastic human prostate tissues, and in stromal cells (WPMY-1). In hyperplastic prostate tissues, PAK1, -2, -4, and -6 may be constitutively expressed in catecholaminergic neurons, while PAK1 was detected in smooth muscle and WPMY-1 cells. Neurogenic contractions of prostate strips by electric field stimulation were significantly inhibited by high concentrations of FRAX486 (30 μM) or IPA3 (300 μM), while noradrenaline- and phenylephrine-induced contractions were not affected. FRAX486 (30 μM) inhibited endothelin-1- and -2-induced contractions. In WPMY-1 cells, FRAX486 or IPA3 (24 h) induced concentration-dependent (1–10 μM) degeneration of actin filaments. This was paralleled by attenuation of proliferation rate, being observed from 1 to 10 μM FRAX486 or IPA3. Cytotoxicity of FRAX486 and IPA3 in WPMY-1 cells was time- and concentration-dependent. Stimulation of WPMY-1 cells with endothelin-1 or dihydrotestosterone, but not noradrenaline induced PAK phosphorylation, indicating PAK activation by endothelin-1. Thus, PAK inhibitors may inhibit neurogenic and endothelin-induced smooth muscle contractions in the hyperplastic human prostate, and growth of stromal cells. Targeting prostate smooth muscle contraction and stromal growth at once by a single compound is principally possible, at least under

  13. A stromal cell niche for human and mouse type 3 innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R.; Coles, Mark C.; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells (MRC). Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mouse to human and co-localize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult MRC and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. PMID:26378073

  14. Airway epithelial cells activate Th2 cytokine production in mast cells via IL-1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Poposki, Julie A.; Comeau, Michael R.; Biyasheva, Assel; Avila, Pedro C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Background Airway epithelial cells are important regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Although mast cells are known to play a central role in manifestations of allergic inflammation and are found in the epithelium in Th2-related diseases, their role is incompletely understood. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the role of airway epithelial cells in production of Th2 cytokines in mast cells. Methods Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) were stimulated with TNF, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL -17A and dsRNA alone or in combination. Human mast cells were stimulated with epithelial cell-derived supernatants, or co-cultured with NHBE. Th2 cytokine responses were blocked with neutralizing antibodies. Results Supernatants from IL-4 and dsRNA stimulated NHBE significantly enhanced Th2 cytokine production from mast cells. The combination of IL-4 and dsRNA itself or supernatants from NHBE stimulated with other cytokines did not activate mast cells, suggesting that mast cell responses were induced by epithelial cell factors that were only induced by IL-4 and dsRNA. Epithelial supernatant-dependent Th2 cytokine production in mast cells was suppressed by anti-IL-1 and anti-TSLP, and was enhanced by anti-IL-1Ra. Similar results were observed in co-culture experiments. Finally, we found dsRNA-dependent production of IL-1, TSLP, and IL-1Ra in NHBE was regulated by Th cytokines, and their ratio in NHBE correlated with Th2 cytokine production in mast cells. Conclusions Pathogens producing dsRNA, such as respiratory viral infections, may amplify local Th2 inflammation in asthmatics via the production of TSLP and IL-1 by epithelial cells and subsequent activation of Th2 cytokine production by mast cells in the airways. PMID:22633328

  15. MHC-compatible bone marrow stromal/stem cells trigger fibrosis by activating host T cells in a scleroderma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Yoko; Morikawa, Satoru; Okano, Hideyuki; Mabuchi, Yo; Suzuki, Sadafumi; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Sato, Yukio; Mukai, Shin; Yaguchi, Saori; Inaba, Takaaki; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yutaka; Tsubota, Kazuo; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis of organs is observed in systemic autoimmune disease. Using a scleroderma mouse, we show that transplantation of MHC compatible, minor antigen mismatched bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Removal of donor BMSCs rescued mice from disease. Freshly isolated PDGFRα+ Sca-1+ BMSCs expressed MHC class II following transplantation and activated host T cells. A decrease in FOXP3+ CD25+ Treg population was observed. T cells proliferated and secreted IL-6 when stimulated with mismatched BMSCs in vitro. Donor T cells were not involved in fibrosis because transplanting T cell-deficient RAG2 knock out mice bone marrow still caused disease. Once initially triggered by mismatched BMSCs, the autoimmune phenotype was not donor BMSC dependent as the phenotype was observed after effector T cells were adoptively transferred into naïve syngeneic mice. Our data suggest that minor antigen mismatched BMSCs trigger systemic fibrosis in this autoimmune scleroderma model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09394.001 PMID:26809474

  16. Nkx2-5+Islet1+ mesenchymal precursors generate distinct spleen stromal cell subsets and participate in restoring stromal network integrity

    PubMed Central

    Castagnaro, Laura; Lenti, Elisa; Maruzzelli, Sara; Spinardi, Laura; Migliori, Edoardo; Farinello, Diego; Sitia, Giovanni; Harrelson, Zachary; Evans, Sylvia; Guidotti, Luca G.; Harvey, Richard P.; Brendolan, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid organ stromal cells comprise different subsets whose origin remains unknown. Herein, we exploit a genetic lineage-tracing approach to show that splenic fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), marginal reticular cells (MRCs), and mural cells, but not endothelial cells, originated from embryonic mesenchymal progenitors of the Nkx2-5+Islet1+ lineage. This lineage included embryonic mesenchymal cells with lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) activity capable of supporting ectopic lymphoid-like structures, and a subset of resident spleen stromal cells that proliferated and regenerated the splenic stromal microenvironment following resolution of a viral infection. These findings identify progenitor cells that generate stromal diversity in spleen development and repair, and suggest the existence of multipotent stromal progenitors in the adult spleen with regenerative capacity. PMID:23601687

  17. Stimulation of cell proliferation by glutathione monoethyl ester in aged bone marrow stromal cells is associated with the assistance of TERT gene expression and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Aminizadeh, Najmeh; Tiraihi, Taki; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Taheri, Taher

    2016-08-01

    The proliferation and differentiation potential of aged bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are significantly reduced. In order to improve the performance of the aged BMSCs, these cells were treated with 2 mM glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE) for 24 h. Proliferation rate, telomerase activity, telomere length, and differentiation to cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLCs) were observed to increase. Though, the expression level of telomerase reverse transcriptase gene increased, but CTC1 and TEN1 genes from Ctc1-Stn1-Ten1 complex encoding proteins with regulatory function significantly decreased. Trypan blue exclusion assay was used to analyze the proliferation and, while telomere length, its several related gene expressions, and telomerase activity were measured using the real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques, respectively. CNLCs differentiation potential was evaluated by estimating the percentage of choline acetyltransferase immunereactive cells.The results suggested that GSH-MEE could improve aged rat BMSC properties and would be of potential benefit for enhancing the performance of aged people's BMSCs. PMID:27251157

  18. Human umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate remodeling after myocardial infarction by proangiogenic, antiapoptotic, and endogenous cell-activation mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Among the plethora of cells under investigation to restore a functional myocardium, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been granted considerable interest. However, whereas the beneficial effects of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) in the context of the diseased heart are widely reported, data are still scarce on MSCs from the umbilical cord matrix (UCM-MSCs). Herein we report on the effect of UCM-MSC transplantation to the infarcted murine heart, seconded by the dissection of the molecular mechanisms at play. Methods Human umbilical cord tissue-derived MSCs (UCX®), obtained by using a proprietary technology developed by ECBio, were delivered via intramyocardial injection to C57BL/6 females subjected to permanent ligation of the left descending coronary artery. Moreover, medium produced by cultured UCX® preconditioned under normoxia (CM) or hypoxia (CMH) was collected for subsequent in vitro assays. Results Evaluation of the effects upon intramyocardial transplantation shows that UCX® preserved cardiac function and attenuated cardiac remodeling subsequent to myocardial infarction (MI). UCX® further led to increased capillary density and decreased apoptosis in the injured tissue. In vitro, UCX®-conditioned medium displayed (a) proangiogenic activity by promoting the formation of capillary-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and (b) antiapoptotic activity in HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia. Moreover, in adult murine cardiac Sca-1+ progenitor cells (CPCs), conditioned medium enhanced mitogenic activity while activating a gene program characteristic of cardiomyogenic differentiation. Conclusions UCX® preserve cardiac function after intramyocardial transplantation in a MI murine model. The cardioprotective effects of UCX® were attributed to paracrine mechanisms that appear to enhance angiogenesis, limit the extent of the apoptosis, augment proliferation, and activate a pool of resident CPCs. Overall, these results

  19. Hypoxia Promotes Invasion of Endometrial Stromal Cells via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Upregulation-Mediated β-Catenin Activation in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenqian; Zhang, Ling; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Liu, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism underlying hypoxia-induced increases in invasive ability of human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Herein, we show that the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor lα (HIF-1α) and β-catenin were greater in ectopic endometriotic tissue compared with eutopic tissue from controls. Exposure of eutopic endometrial stromal cells under hypoxic conditions or treated with desferrioxamine (DFO, chemical hypoxia) resulted in a time-dependent increase in β-catenin expression and its dephosphorylation. Hypoxia/HIF-1α also activated the β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) signaling pathway and the expression of target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9, and knockdown of HIF-1α or β-catenin abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in HESC invasiveness. These results suggest that HIF-1α interacting with β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway, which is activated by hypoxia, may provide new insights into the etiology of endometriosis. PMID:26482209

  20. Estrogen Receptor (ER) β Regulates ERα Expression in Stromal Cells Derived from Ovarian Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Trukhacheva, Elena; Lin, Zhihong; Reierstad, Scott; Cheng, You-Hong; Milad, Magdy; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Estradiol and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, play critical roles in endometrium and endometriosis. Levels of ERβ, due to pathological hypomethylation of its promoter, are significantly higher in endometriotic vs. endometrial tissue and stromal cells, whereas ERα levels are lower in endometriosis. Estradiol regulates ERα gene expression via its alternatively used promoters A, B, and C. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether high levels of ERβ in endometriotic stromal cells from ovarian endometriomas regulate ERα gene expression. Results: ERβ knockdown significantly increased ERα mRNA and protein levels in endometriotic stromal cells. Conversely, ERβ overexpression in endometrial stromal cells decreased ERα mRNA and protein levels. ERβ knockdown significantly decreased proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that estradiol enhanced ERβ binding to nonclassical activator protein 1 and specificity protein 1 motifs in the ERα gene promoters A and C and a classic estrogen response element in promoter B in endometriotic stromal cells. Conclusions: High levels of ERβ suppress ERα expression and response to estradiol in endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells via binding to classic and nonclassic DNA motifs in alternatively used ERα promoters. ERβ also regulates cell cycle progression and might contribute to proliferation of endometriotic stromal cells. We speculate that a significantly increased ratio of ERβ:ERα in endometriotic tissues may also suppress progesterone receptor expression and contribute to progesterone resistance. Thus, ERβ may serve as a significant therapeutic target for endometriosis. PMID:19001520

  1. Tumor-associated stromal cells as key contributors to the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Mutkus, Lysette; Stumpf, Kristina; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Marini, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous population of cells consisting of the tumor bulk plus supporting cells. It is becoming increasingly evident that these supporting cells are recruited by cancer cells from nearby endogenous host stroma and promote events such as tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, as well as mediate mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. In addition, recruited stromal cells range in type and include vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. During normal wound healing and inflammatory processes, local stromal cells change their phenotype to become that of reactive stroma. Under certain conditions, however, tumor cells can co-opt these reactive stromal cells and further transition them into tumor-associated stromal cells (TASCs). These TASCs express higher levels of proteins, including alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activating protein, and matrix metalloproteinases, compared with their normal, non-reactive counterparts. TASCs are also known to secrete many pro-tumorigenic factors, including IL-6, IL-8, stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others, which recruit additional tumor and pro-tumorigenic cells to the developing microenvironment. Here, we review the current literature pertaining to the origins of recruited host stroma, contributions toward tumor progression, tumor-associated stromal cells, and mechanisms of crosstalk between endogenous host stroma and tumor cells. PMID:27515302

  2. Cell-cell interaction promotes rat marrow stromal cell differentiation into endothelial cell via activation of TACE/TNF-alpha signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Xinfeng; Chen, Jieli; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Xu; Savant-Bhonsale, Smita; Chopp, Michael; Liu, Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into various cell types including endothelial cells. Microenvironment is important in cell fate determination. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a well characterized “sheddase”, participates in the differentiation process of multiple lineages by the proteolytic release of membrane-bound proteins such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Methods and Results We investigated the endothelial differentiation of MSCs under two co-culture conditions: 1) direct MSCs-rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) contact co-culture; and 2) indirect co-culture of MSCs and rBMECs. Also, we examined the role of TACE/TNF-alpha signaling in the process of differentiation under direct co-culture condition. We found that endothelial differentiation of MSCs was substantially enhanced in MSCs-rBMECs direct contact co-culture, but not in indirect transwell co-culture condition. Transcript levels of TACE and TNF-alpha as well as TACE protein expression were significantly upregulated in direct, but not in indirect co-culture condition. Addition of human recombinant TACE promoted gene expression of endothelial specific markers including vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin, Flk-1 and Flt-1 in the differentiating MSCs. Furthermore, inhibition of TACE with TAPI-2 or inhibition of TNF-alpha with Etanercept attenuated endothelial differentiation of MSCs in the direct co-culture condition. Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that direct MSCs-rBMECs interaction stimulated the endothelial differentiation of MSCs via TACE/TNF alpha signaling. PMID:19796498

  3. Targeted Proapoptotic Peptides Depleting Adipose Stromal Cells Inhibit Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Florez, Fernando; Dadbin, Ali; Zhang, Tao; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-02-01

    Progression of many cancers is associated with tumor infiltration by mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Adipose stromal cells (ASC) are MSC that serve as adipocyte progenitors and endothelium-supporting cells in white adipose tissue (WAT). Clinical and animal model studies indicate that ASC mobilized from WAT are recruited by tumors. Direct evidence for ASC function in tumor microenvironment has been lacking due to unavailability of approaches to specifically inactivate these cells. Here, we investigate the effects of a proteolysis-resistant targeted hunter-killer peptide D-WAT composed of a cyclic domain CSWKYWFGEC homing to ASC and of a proapoptotic domain KLAKLAK2. Using mouse bone marrow transplantation models, we show that D-WAT treatment specifically depletes tumor stromal and perivascular cells without directly killing malignant cells or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. In several mouse carcinoma models, targeted ASC cytoablation reduced tumor vascularity and cell proliferation resulting in hemorrhaging, necrosis, and suppressed tumor growth. We also validated a D-WAT derivative with a proapoptotic domain KFAKFAK2 that was found to have an improved cytoablative activity. Our results for the first time demonstrate that ASC, recruited as a component of tumor microenvironment, support cancer progression. We propose that drugs targeting ASC can be developed as a combination therapy complementing conventional cancer treatments. PMID:26316391

  4. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From a Reproductive Tissue Niche Under Oxidative Stress Have High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Gina D; Abumaree, Mohamed H; Pertile, Mark D; Perkins, Anthony V; Brennecke, Shaun P; Kalionis, Bill

    2016-06-01

    The use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) in regenerative medicine often requires MSC to function in environments of high oxidative stress. Human pregnancy is a condition where the mother's tissues, and in particular her circulatory system, are exposed to increased levels of oxidative stress. MSC in the maternal decidua basalis (DMSC) are in a vascular niche, and thus would be exposed to oxidative stress products in the maternal circulation. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a large family of enzymes which detoxify aldehydes and thereby protect stem cells against oxidative damage. A subpopulation of MSC express high levels of ALDH (ALDH(br)) and these are more potent in repairing and regenerating tissues. DMSC was compared with chorionic villous MSC (CMSC) derived from the human placenta. CMSC reside in vascular niche and are exposed to the fetal circulation, which is in lower oxidative state. We screened an ALDH isozyme cDNA array and determined that relative to CMSC, DMSC expressed high levels of ALDH1 family members, predominantly ALDH1A1. Immunocytochemistry gave qualitative confirmation at the protein level. Immunofluorescence detected ALDH1 immunoreactivity in the DMSC and CMSC vascular niche. The percentage of ALDH(br) cells was calculated by Aldefluor assay and DMSC showed a significantly higher percentage of ALDH(br) cells than CMSC. Finally, flow sorted ALDH(br) cells were functionally potent in colony forming unit assays. DMSC, which are derived from pregnancy tissues that are naturally exposed to high levels of oxidative stress, may be better candidates for regenerative therapies where MSC must function in high oxidative stress environments. PMID:26880140

  5. Development of an early estimation method for predicting later osteogenic differentiation activity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells from their attachment areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kan; Hirose, Motohiro; Wang, Xiupeng; Sogo, Yu; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Atsuo

    2012-12-01

    Cell morphology has received considerable attention in recent years owing to its possible relationship with cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular environments can also mediate cell functions, particularly cell adhesion. The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation between osteogenic differentiation activity and the morphology of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and to develop a method of estimating osteogenic differentiation capability of MSCs on biomaterials. We measured the attachment areas of MSCs on substrates with various types of surface after 2 h of seeding, and quantified the amount of osteocalcin secreted from MSCs after 3 weeks of culture under osteogenic differentiation conditions. MSCs with small attachment areas showed a high osteogenic differentiation activity. These findings indicate that cell attachment areas correlate well with the osteogenic differentiation activity of MSCs. They also suggest that the measurement of cell attachment areas is useful for estimating the osteogenic differentiation activity of MSCs and is a practical tool for applications of MSCs in regenerative medicine.

  6. Benign Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Human Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Morozov, Alexei; Downey, Robert J.; Healey, John; Moreira, Andre L.; Lou, Emil; Leung, Roland; Edgar, Mark; Singer, Samuel; LaQuaglia, Michael; Maki, Robert G.; Moore, Malcolm A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests that at least some sarcomas arise through aberrant differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but MSCs have never been isolated directly from human sarcoma specimens. Experimental Design We examined human sarcoma cell lines and primary adherent cultures derived from human sarcoma surgical samples for features of MSCs. We further characterized primary cultures as either benign or malignant by the presence of tumor-defining genetic lesions and tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. Results We show that a dedifferentiated liposarcoma cell line DDLS8817 demonstrates fat, bone and cartilage trilineage differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Primary sarcoma cultures have the morphology, surface immunophenotype and differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. Surprisingly, many of these cultures are benign as they do not form tumors in mice and lack sarcoma-defining genetic lesions. Consistent with the recently proposed pericyte origin of MSCs in normal human tissues, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs express markers of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. In human sarcoma specimens, a subset of CD146-positive microvascular pericytes express CD105, an MSC marker, while malignant cells largely do not. In an in vitro co-culture model, sarcoma-derived benign MSCs as well as normal human pericytes markedly stimulate the growth of sarcoma cell lines. Conclusions Sarcoma-derived benign MSCs/pericytes represent a previously undescribed stromal cell type in sarcoma which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:21138865

  7. Magnetic stromal layers for enhanced and unbiased recovery of co-cultured hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Savvateeva, Maria V; Demin, Alexander M; Krasnov, Victor P; Belyavsky, Alexander V

    2016-09-15

    Cell co-culture systems have a long history of application in hematology and hold promise for successful hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Here we report that various types of stromal cells used in such co-cultures can be rapidly and efficiently labeled with l-lysine-modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. Hematopoiesis-supporting activity does not seem to be compromised after magnetic labeling of stromal cells, and the loss of the label by stromal layers during extended culturing is negligible. Magnetic labeling allows for simple and efficient removal of stromal component, yielding unbiased hematopoietic cell populations. When Lin(-) bone mouse marrow fraction was co-cultured with magnetic stromal layers and resulting cell populations were harvested by trypsinization, the yields of total nucleated cells, colony forming cells, and phenotypically primitive Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) subset were substantially higher as compared with nonadherent cell fractions harvested after conventional stromal co-culture. The advantage offered by the magnetic stroma approach over the traditional one was even more significant after a second round of co-culture and was more dramatic for more primitive hematopoietic cells. We conclude that magnetic stromal layers represent a simple, efficient, and convenient tool for co-culturing and subsequent recovery of sufficiently pure unbiased populations of hematopoietic cells. PMID:27318238

  8. T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Robert W.; Ghert, Michelle; Singh, Gurmit

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two T cell lines stimulate PTHrP, RANKL, MMP13 gene expression in GCT cell cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD40 expressed by stromal cells; CD40L detected in whole tumor but not cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of CD40L treatment on GCT cells increased PTHrP and MMP13 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTHrP treatment increased MMP13 expression, while inhibition decreased expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells may stimulate GCT stromal cells and promote the osteolysis of the tumor. -- Abstract: The factors that promote the localized bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) are not fully understood. We investigated whether T cells could contribute to bone resorption by stimulating expression of genes for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and the receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Two cell lines, Jurkat clone E6-1 and D1.1, were co-cultured with isolated GCT stromal cells. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated a significant increase of all three genes following 48 h incubation, and PTHrP and MMP-13 gene expression was also increased at 24 h. Further, we examined the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a protein expressed by activated T cells, and its receptor, CD40, in GCT. Immunohistochemistry results revealed expression of the CD40 receptor in both the stromal cells and giant cells of the tumor. RNA collected from whole GCT tissues showed expression of CD40LG, which was absent in cultured stromal cells, and suggests that CD40L is expressed within GCT. Stimulation of GCT stromal cells with CD40L significantly increased expression of the PTHrP and MMP-13 genes. Moreover, we show that inhibition of PTHrP with neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased MMP13 expression by the stromal cells compared to IgG-matched controls, whereas stimulation with PTHrP (1-34) increased MMP-13 gene expression. These

  9. Stromal cells and stem cells in clinical bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Martin, Elizabeth; Frazier, Trivia; Hung, Ben P.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Stem-cell-mediated bone repair has been used in clinical trials for the regeneration of large craniomaxillofacial defects, to slow the process of bone degeneration in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and for prophylactic treatment of distal tibial fractures. Successful regenerative outcomes in these investigations have provided a solid foundation for wider use of stromal cells in skeletal repair therapy. However, employing stromal cells to facilitate or enhance bone repair is far from being adopted into clinical practice. Scientific, technical, practical and regulatory obstacles prevent the widespread therapeutic use of stromal cells. Ironically, one of the major challenges lies in the limited understanding of the mechanisms via which transplanted cells mediate regeneration. Animal models have been used to provide insight, but these models largely fail to reproduce the nuances of human diseases and bone defects. Consequently, the development of targeted approaches to optimize cell-mediated outcomes is difficult. In this Review, we highlight the successes and challenges reported in several clinical trials that involved the use of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal or adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells. We identify several obstacles blocking the mainstream use of stromal cells to enhance skeletal repair and highlight technological innovations or areas in which novel techniques might be particularly fruitful in continuing to advance the field of skeletal regenerative medicine. PMID:25560703

  10. An improved method for isolation of epithelial and stromal cells from the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    MASUDA, Ayako; KATOH, Noriko; NAKABAYASHI, Kazuhiko; KATO, Kiyoko; SONODA, Kenzo; KITADE, Mari; TAKEDA, Satoru; HATA, Kenichiro; TOMIKAWA, Junko

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to improve the efficiency of isolating endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (EMECs and EMSCs) from the human endometrium. We revealed by immunohistochemical staining that the large tissue fragments remaining after collagenase treatment, which are usually discarded after the first filtration in the conventional protocol, consisted of glandular epithelial and stromal cells. Therefore, we established protease treatment and cell suspension conditions to dissociate single cells from the tissue fragments and isolated epithelial (EPCAM-positive) and stromal (CD13-positive) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Four independent experiments showed that, on average, 1.2 × 106 of EMECs and 2.8 × 106 EMSCs were isolated from one hysterectomy specimen. We confirmed that the isolated cells presented transcriptomic features highly similar to those of epithelial and stromal cells obtained by the conventional method. Our improved protocol facilitates future studies to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. PMID:26853786

  11. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1α Activation of Tissue Engineered Endothelial Progenitor Cell Matrix Enhances Ventricular Function after Myocardial Infarction by Inducing Neovasculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, John R.; Fitzpatrick, J. Raymond; McCormick, Ryan C.; Harris, David A.; Kim, Ah-Young; Muenzer, Jeffrey R.; Marotta, Nicole; Smith, Maximilian J.; Cohen, Jeffrey E.; Hiesinger, William; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background Myocardial ischemia causes cardiomyocyte death, adverse ventricular remodeling, and ventricular dysfunction. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) have been shown to ameliorate this process, particularly when activated with stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF). We hypothesized that implantation of a tissue engineered extracellular matrix scaffold seeded with EPCs primed with SDF could induce neovasculogenesis, prevent adverse remodeling, and preserve ventricular function after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results Lewis rats (n=82) underwent left anterior descending artery ligation to induce MI. EPCs were cultured on a vitronectin/collagen scaffold, and primed with SDF to generate the activated EPC matrix (EPCM). EPCM was sutured to the anterolateral left ventricular (LV) wall including the region of ischemia.. At four weeks, when compared to controls, borderzone myocardial tissue demonstrated increased levels of VEGF in the EPCM group. Vessel density as assessed by immunohistochemical microscopy was significantly increased in the EPCM group (4.1 vs 6.2 vessels/high-powered field, p<0.001), and microvascular perfusion measured by lectin microangiography was enhanced four-fold (0.7 vs. 2.7% vessel volume/section volume, p=0.04). Ventricular geometry and scar fraction assessed by analysis of sectioned hearts exhibited significantly preserved LV internal diameter (9.7mm vs. 8.6mm, p=0.005) and decreased infarct scar expressed as percent of total section area (16% vs. 7%, p=0.002) when compared to all other groups. In addition, EPCM animals showed a significant preservation of function as measured by echocardiography, pressure volume-conductance, and Doppler flow. Conclusions Extracellular matrix seeded with EPCs primed with SDF induces borderzone neovasculogenesis, attenuates adverse ventricular remodeling, and preserves ventricular function after MI. PMID:20837901

  12. Characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in aplastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, Edita; Whiting, Karen; Gordon Smith, Edward; Pettengell, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    In aplastic anaemia (AA), haemopoietic activity is significantly reduced and generally attributed to failure of haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) within the bone marrow (BM). The regulation of haemopoiesis depends on the interaction between HSC and various cells of the BM microenvironment, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). MSC involvement in the functional restriction of HSC in AA is largely unknown and therefore, the physical and functional properties of AA MSC were studied in vitro. MSC were characterized by their phenotype and ability to form adherent stromal layers. The functional properties of AA MSC were assessed through proliferative, clonogenic and cross-over culture assays. Results indicate that although AA MSC presented typical morphology and distinctive mesenchymal markers, stromal formation was reduced, with 50% of BM samples failing to produce adherent layers. Furthermore, their proliferative and clonogenic capacity was markedly decreased (P = 0·03 and P = 0·04 respectively) and the ability to sustain haemopoiesis was significantly reduced, as assessed by total cell proliferation (P = 0·032 and P = 0·019 at Week 5 and 6, respectively) and clonogenic potential of HSC (P = 0·02 at Week 6). It was concluded that the biological characteristics of AA MSC are different from those of control MSC and their in vitro haemopoiesis-supporting ability is significantly reduced. PMID:25819548

  13. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Stromal Evolution and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Francesca; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2016-01-01

    The study of cancer biology has mainly focused on malignant epithelial cancer cells, although tumors also contain a stromal compartment, which is composed of stem cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs), endothelial cells, immune cells, adipocytes, cytokines, and various types of macromolecules comprising the extracellular matrix (ECM). The tumor stroma develops gradually in response to the needs of epithelial cancer cells during malignant progression initiating from increased local vascular permeability and ending to remodeling of desmoplastic loosely vascularized stromal ECM. The constant bidirectional interaction of epithelial cancer cells with the surrounding microenvironment allows damaged stromal cell usage as a source of nutrients for cancer cells, maintains the stroma renewal thus resembling a wound that does not heal, and affects the characteristics of tumor mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although MSCs have been shown to coordinate tumor cell growth, dormancy, migration, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, recently they have been successfully used in treatment of hematopoietic malignancies to enhance the effect of total body irradiation-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy. Hence, targeting the stromal elements in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics and usage of MSCs to attenuate graft-versus-host disease may offer new strategies to overcome cancer treatment failure and relapse of the disease. PMID:26798356

  14. Effect of Short-Term Stimulation with Interleukin-1β and Differentiation Medium on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Paracrine Activity in Coculture with Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Jan O.; Loebel, Claudia; Bara, Jennifer J.; Fussinger, Marc Anton; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) exhibit the potential to accelerate bone healing by enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Interleukin-1β is highly expressed during fracture healing and has been demonstrated to exert a significant impact on the differentiation behaviour of hMSCs. Here, we investigate the effect of 2-hour IL-1β stimulation on the differentiation and paracrine activity of hMSCs in coculture with osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Methods. hMSCs from 3 donors were incubated for 2 hours with 10 ng/mL IL-1β and subsequently cocultured with MG63-GFP cells either in control or in differentiation medium in a transwell system for 28 days. Genetic and functional effects were investigated. Results. hMSCs cultured in control medium exhibited a regulatory effect on cocultured MG63-GFP cells, resulting in upregulation of osteogenic gene expression in combination with increased ALP activity. However, while stimulated hMSCs cultured under differentiation conditions exhibit signs of osteogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation also caused an impaired regulatory effect on the cocultured MG63-GFP cells. Conclusion. Short stimulation of hMSCs has the potential to modify their long-term behaviour. In addition, undifferentiated hMSCs are able to regulate osteoblast differentiation; however, this regulatory function is lost upon osteogenic differentiation in vitro. This offers a novel approach for clinical cell therapy protocols. PMID:26798640

  15. Paracrine Factors Produced by Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Induce Apoptosis and Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chu; Soori, Mehrnoosh; Miles, Fayth; Sikes, Robert A.; Carson, Daniel D.; Chung, Leland L.W.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Preferential bony metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells contributes to disease mortality and morbidity. Local factors in bone stromal extracellular matrix microenvironment affect tumor growth through paracrine interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Methods Using co-culture and medium transfer, we used several methods to assess interactions between PCa and bone stromal cells using three PCa cell lines: PC3, LNCaP, and the LNCaP derivative, C4-2B. Results Co-culture of LNCaP and C4-2B cells with bone marrow stromal cell lines, HS27a and HS5, decreased cell number, as did culture with conditioned medium (CM) harvested from these two cell lines suggesting a soluble paracrine factor was responsible. PC3 cell growth was unaffected. CM harvested from bone stromal cell lines triggered apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not in PC3 cells. Surviving C4-2B cells grown in bone stromal cell CM over several days were growth arrested, suggesting presence of a growth inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by CM was dose-dependent. Flow cytometry demonstrated that over a five day culture period in stromal cell CM, LNCaP and C4-2B cell lines, but not PC3 cells, underwent greater apoptosis than parallel cultures in SF medium. The LNCaP and C4-2B cells showed morphology and biomarker expression consistent with transdifferentiation towards a neuroendocrine phenotype after exposure to stromal cell CM. Conclusions The reactive bone stromal microenvironment initially is hostile to PCa cells producing widespread apoptosis. Activation of transdifferentiation in a subset of apoptotic resistant cells may support phenotypic adaptation during disease progression in bone, eventually favoring lethal disease. PMID:20665531

  16. Effect of 5-azacytidine on gene expression in marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, D F; Nemunaitis, J; Tompkins, C; Singer, J W

    1989-01-01

    When exposed to 5-azacytidine, marrow stromal cells from active long-term marrow cultures and cell lines derived from simian virus 40-transformed stromal cells rapidly upregulated c-abl and interleukin-6 transcripts while downregulating the expression of collagen I, a major matrix protein. Similar effects occurred with interleukin-1 alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha, although the time course was considerably prolonged. Images PMID:2474760

  17. Functional role of the Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel DOG1/TMEM16A in gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Erik; Akcakaya, Pinar; Berglund, David; Karlsson, Fredrik; Vukojević, Vladana; Lee, Linkiat; Bogdanović, Darko; Lui, Weng-Onn; Larsson, Catharina; Zedenius, Jan; Fröbom, Robin; Bränström, Robert

    2014-08-15

    DOG1, a Ca{sup 2+}-activated Cl{sup −} channel (CaCC), was identified in 2004 to be robustly expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). It was rapidly included as a tumor marker in routine diagnostics, but the functional role remained unknown. CaCCs are important regulators of normal physiological functions, but also implicated in tumorigenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, cell migration, apoptosis, proliferation and viability in several malignancies. We therefore investigated whether DOG1 plays a role in the three latter in GIST by utilizing in vitro cell model systems. Confocal microscopy identified different subcellular localizations of DOG1 in imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant cells. Electrophysiological studies confirmed that DOG1-specific pharmacological agents possess potent activating and inhibiting properties. Proliferation assays showed small effects up to 72 h, and flow cytometric analysis of adherent cells with 7-AAD/Annexin V detected no pharmacological effects on viable GIST cells. However, inhibition of DOG1 conveyed pro-apoptotic effects among early apoptotic imatinib-resistant cells. In conclusion, DOG1 generates Cl{sup −} currents in GIST that can be regulated pharmacologically, with small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. Inhibition of DOG1 might act pro-apoptotic on some early apoptotic GIST cell populations. Further studies are warranted to fully illuminate the function of DOG1 and its potential as therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Subcellular DOG1 localization varies between GIST cells. • DOG1 in GIST is voltage- and Ca{sup 2+}-activated. • Known TMEM16A modulators, like A01 and Eact, modulate DOG1. • DOG1 has small effects on cell viability and proliferation in vitro. • DOG1 impact early apoptotic GIST cells to undergo late apoptosis.

  18. Stromal TGF-β signaling induces AR activation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Chen, Yizhen; Shen, Tao; Guo, Dan; Dakhova, Olga; Ittmann, Michael M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Zhang, Yiqun; Dang, Truong D.; Rowley, David R.

    2014-01-01

    AR signaling is essential for the growth and survival of prostate cancer (PCa), including most of the lethal castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). We previously reported that TGF-β signaling in prostate stroma promotes prostate tumor angiogenesis and growth. By using a PCa/stroma co-culture model, here we show that stromal TGF-β signaling induces comprehensive morphology changes of PCa LNCaP cells. Furthermore, it induces AR activation in LNCaP cells in the absence of significant levels of androgen, as evidenced by induction of several AR target genes including PSA, TMPRSS2, and KLK4. SD-208, a TGF-β receptor 1 specific inhibitor, blocks this TGF-β induced biology. Importantly, stromal TGF-β signaling together with DHT induce robust activation of AR. MDV3100 effectively blocks DHT-induced, but not stromal TGF-β signaling induced AR activation in LNCaP cells, indicating that stromal TGF-β signaling induces both ligand-dependent and ligand-independent AR activation in PCa. TGF-β induces the expression of several growth factors and cytokines in prostate stromal cells, including IL-6, and BMP-6. Interestingly, BMP-6 and IL-6 together induces robust AR activation in these co-cultures, and neutralizing antibodies against BMP-6 and IL-6 attenuate this action. Altogether, our study strongly suggests tumor stromal microenvironment induced AR activation as a direct mechanism of CRPC. PMID:25333263

  19. Metformin inhibits growth of eutopic stromal cells from adenomyotic endometrium via AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of AKT phosphorylation: a possible role in the treatment of adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Wei; Liu, Ming; Shi, Min; Wen, Zeqing; Li, Changzhong

    2013-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a finding that is associated with dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding, associated with PI3K/AKT signaling overactivity. To investigate the effect of metformin on the growth of eutopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from patients with adenomyosis and to explore the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PI3K/AKT pathways. Primary cultures of human ESCs were derived from normal endometrium (normal endometrial stromal cells (N-ESCs)) and adenomyotic eutopic endometrium (adenomyotic endometrial stroma cells (A-ESCs)). Expression of AMPK was determined using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays were used to determine the effects of metformin and compound C on ESCs and also to detect growth and proliferation of ESCs. AMPK and PI3K/AKT signaling was determined by western blotting. A-ECSs exhibited greater AMPK expression than N-ESCs. Metformin inhibited proliferation of ESCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 2.45 mmol/l for A-ESCs and 7.87 mmol/l for N-ESCs. Metformin increased AMPK activation levels (p-AMPK/AMPK) by 2.0±0.3-fold in A-ESCs, 2.3-fold in A-ESCs from the secretory phase, and 1.6-fold in the proliferation phase. The average reduction ratio of 17β-estradiol on A-ESCs was 2.1±0.8-fold in proliferative phase and 2.5±0.5-fold in secretory phase relative to the equivalent groups not treated with 17β-estradiol. The inhibitory effects of metformin on AKT activation (p-AKT/AKT) were more pronounced in A-ESCs from the secretory phase (3.2-fold inhibition vs control) than in those from the proliferation phase (2.3-fold inhibition vs control). Compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor, abolished the effects of metformin on cell growth and PI3K/AKT signaling. Metformin inhibits cell growth via AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling in A-ESCs, particularly during the secretory phase, suggesting a greater

  20. Inhibition of miR-21 restores RANKL/OPG ratio in multiple myeloma-derived bone marrow stromal cells and impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Pitari, Maria Rita; Rossi, Marco; Amodio, Nicola; Botta, Cirino; Morelli, Eugenio; Federico, Cinzia; Gullà, Annamaria; Caracciolo, Daniele; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2015-09-29

    miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) with an emerging role as therapeutic target in human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here we investigated whether miR-21 is involved in MM-related bone disease (BD). We found that miR-21 expression is dramatically enhanced, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is strongly reduced, in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) adherent to MM cells. On this basis, we validated the 3'UTR of OPG mRNA as miR-21 target. Constitutive miR-21 inhibition in lentiviral-transduced BMSCs adherent to MM cells restored OPG expression and secretion. Interestingly, miR-21 inhibition reduced RANKL production by BMSCs. Overexpression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), which is a direct and validated target of miR-21, antagonized STAT3-mediated RANKL gene activation. Finally, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of miR-21 inhibitors in BMSCs restores RANKL/OPG balance and dramatically impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-concept that miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, supporting the design of innovative miR-21 inhibition-based strategies for MM-related BD. PMID:26160841

  1. Inhibition of miR-21 restores RANKL/OPG ratio in multiple myeloma-derived bone marrow stromal cells and impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Pitari, Maria Rita; Rossi, Marco; Amodio, Nicola; Botta, Cirino; Morelli, Eugenio; Federico, Cinzia; Gullà, Annamaria; Caracciolo, Daniele; Di Martino, Maria Teresa; Arbitrio, Mariamena; Giordano, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Tassone, Pierfrancesco

    2015-01-01

    miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) with an emerging role as therapeutic target in human malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM). Here we investigated whether miR-21 is involved in MM-related bone disease (BD). We found that miR-21 expression is dramatically enhanced, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) is strongly reduced, in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) adherent to MM cells. On this basis, we validated the 3′UTR of OPG mRNA as miR-21 target. Constitutive miR-21 inhibition in lentiviral-transduced BMSCs adherent to MM cells restored OPG expression and secretion. Interestingly, miR-21 inhibition reduced RANKL production by BMSCs. Overexpression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), which is a direct and validated target of miR-21, antagonized STAT3-mediated RANKL gene activation. Finally, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of miR-21 inhibitors in BMSCs restores RANKL/OPG balance and dramatically impairs the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Taken together, our data provide proof-of-concept that miR-21 overexpression within MM-microenviroment plays a crucial role in bone resorption/apposition balance, supporting the design of innovative miR-21 inhibition-based strategies for MM-related BD. PMID:26160841

  2. Ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Pagliara, Daria; Vinti, Luciana; Rossi, Francesca; Cristantielli, Rosaria; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are adult multipotent cells that can be isolated from several human tissues. MSCs represent a novel and attractive tool in strategies of cellular therapy. For in vivo use, MSCs have to be ex vivo expanded in order to reach the numbers suitable for their clinical application. Despite being efficacious, the use of fetal calf serum for MSC ex vivo expansion for clinical purposes raises concerns related to immunization and transmission of zoonoses; the standardization of expansion methods, possibly devoid of animal components, such as those based on platelet lysate, are discussed in this paper. Moreover, this review focuses on the search of novel markers for the prospective identification/isolation of MSCs and on the potential risks connected with ex vivo expansion of MSCs, in particular that of their malignant transformation. Available tests to study the genetic stability of ex vivo expanded MSCs are also analyzed. PMID:21396595

  3. Human mesenchymal stromal cells attenuate graft-versus-host disease and maintain graft-versus-leukemia activity following experimental allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Auletta, Jeffery J; Eid, Saada K; Wuttisarnwattana, Patiwet; Silva, Ines; Metheny, Leland; Keller, Matthew D; Guardia-Wolff, Rocio; Liu, Chen; Wang, Fangjing; Bowen, Theodore; Lee, Zhenghong; Solchaga, Luis A; Ganguly, Sudipto; Tyler, Megan; Wilson, David L; Cooke, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    We sought to define the effects and underlying mechanisms of human, marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) on graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) activity. Irradiated B6D2F1 mice given C57BL/6 BM and splenic T cells and treated with hMSCs had reduced systemic GvHD, donor T-cell expansion, and serum TNFα and IFNγ levels. Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that hMSCs redistributed from lungs to abdominal organs within 72 hours, and target tissues harvested from hMSC-treated allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) mice had less GvHD than untreated controls. Cryoimaging more precisely revealed that hMSCs preferentially distributed to splenic marginal zones and regulated T-cell expansion in the white pulp. Importantly, hMSCs had no effect on in vitro cytotoxic T-cell activity and preserved potent GvL effects in vivo. Mixed leukocyte cultures containing hMSCs exhibited decreased T-cell proliferation, reduced TNFα, IFNγ, and IL-10 but increased PGE2 levels. Indomethacin and E-prostanoid 2 (EP2) receptor antagonisms both reversed while EP2 agonism restored hMSC-mediated in vitro T-cell suppression, confirming the role for PGE2 . Furthermore, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition following alloBMT abrogated the protective effects of hMSCs. Together, our data show that hMSCs preserve GvL activity and attenuate GvHD and reveal that hMSC biodistribute to secondary lymphoid organs wherein they attenuate alloreactive T-cell proliferation likely through PGE2 induction. PMID:25336340

  4. Manufacturing mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick J; Mei, Zhuyong; da Graca Cabreira-Hansen, Maria; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Durett, April G; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Yongping; Gee, Adrian P; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus-host disease and Crohn's disease as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. We report our method of generating clinical-grade MSCs together with suggestions gathered from manufacturing experience in our Good Manufacturing Practices facility. PMID:23480951

  5. Effect of angiotensin-(1-7) and angiotensin II on the proliferation and activation of human endometrial stromal cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Tieying; Shang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Chunfang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Guiying

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that angiotensin II (Ang II) or angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] has effect on the proliferation and activation of a variety of cells, however, the exact mechanisms that the role of Ang II or Ang-(1-7) in human endometrial stromal cell (ESCs) remains elusive. Here we demonstrated that Ang II could promote proliferation and activation of ESCs, up-regulated the expression of a-SMA, TGF-β1 and IGF-I, increased the secretion of extracellular matrix [Type I collagen (Col I) and fibronectin (FN)] of ESCs; Ang-(1-7) could inhibit Ang II induced the proliferation and activation of ESCs, down-regulated the expression of a-SMA, TGF-β1 and IGF-I, decreased the secretion of extracellular matrix (Col I and FN) of ESCs. These findings suggest that Ang-(1-7) can inhibits Ang II induced the proliferation of ESCs, Ang-(1-7) can inhibits the Ang II induced activation of ESCs and decreases secretion of Col I and FN by suppressing TGF-β1 and IGF-I expression. PMID:26464636

  6. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  7. Stromal influences on breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    van Roozendaal, C. E.; van Ooijen, B.; Klijn, J. G.; Claassen, C.; Eggermont, A. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Foekens, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the growth of the steroid-receptor positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR 75.1. The proliferation index (PI) on MCF-7 cells with CM from fibroblasts derived from breast tumour tissue was significantly higher than that obtained with fibroblasts derived from adjacent normal breast tissue (2p less than 0.05, n = 8). The PI obtained with CM from normal fibroblast cultures from reduction mammoplasty tissue, like normal tissue adjacent to the tumour, fell in the lower range of values. Skin fibroblast, like tumour tissue derived fibroblast, CM caused a high range PI. MDA-MB-231 and Evsa-T, two steroid-receptor negative cell lines, showed only a minor growth stimulatory responses with some of the fibroblast CM's. Evsa-T was occasionally inhibited by CM's. In conclusion, stromal factors play a role in the growth regulation of human breast cancer cells. The effects on cancer cell growth are, however, varying depending on the source of the stroma and the characteristics of the epithelial tumour cells. PMID:1733444

  8. Stromal miR-200s contribute to breast cancer cell invasion through CAF activation and ECM remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Hou, Y; Yang, G; Wang, X; Tang, S; Du, Y-E; Yang, L; Yu, T; Zhang, H; Zhou, M; Wen, S; Xu, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    The activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) is a key event in tumor progression, and alternative extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins derived from CAFs induce ECM remodeling and cancer cell invasion. Here we found that miR-200 s, which are generally downregulated in activated CAFs in breast cancer tissues and in normal fibroblasts (NFs) activated by breast cancer cells, are direct mediators of NF reprogramming into CAFs and of ECM remodeling. NFs with downregulated miR-200 s displayed the traits of activated CAFs, including accelerated migration and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-200 s in CAFs at least partially restored the phenotypes of NFs. CAF activation may be governed by the targets of miR-200 s, Fli-1 and TCF12, which are responsible for cell development and differentiation; Fli-1 and TCF12 were obviously elevated in CAFs. Furthermore, miR-200 s and their targets influenced collagen contraction by CAFs. The upregulation of fibronectin and lysyl oxidase directly by miR-200 or indirectly through Fli-1 or TCF12 contributed to ECM remodeling, triggering the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and vivo. Thus, these data provide important and novel insights into breast CAF activation and ECM remodeling, which trigger tumor cell invasion. PMID:26068592

  9. Stromal miR-200s contribute to breast cancer cell invasion through CAF activation and ECM remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Tang, X; Hou, Y; Yang, G; Wang, X; Tang, S; Du, Y-E; Yang, L; Yu, T; Zhang, H; Zhou, M; Wen, S; Xu, L; Liu, M

    2016-01-01

    The activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) is a key event in tumor progression, and alternative extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins derived from CAFs induce ECM remodeling and cancer cell invasion. Here we found that miR-200 s, which are generally downregulated in activated CAFs in breast cancer tissues and in normal fibroblasts (NFs) activated by breast cancer cells, are direct mediators of NF reprogramming into CAFs and of ECM remodeling. NFs with downregulated miR-200 s displayed the traits of activated CAFs, including accelerated migration and invasion. Ectopic expression of miR-200 s in CAFs at least partially restored the phenotypes of NFs. CAF activation may be governed by the targets of miR-200 s, Fli-1 and TCF12, which are responsible for cell development and differentiation; Fli-1 and TCF12 were obviously elevated in CAFs. Furthermore, miR-200 s and their targets influenced collagen contraction by CAFs. The upregulation of fibronectin and lysyl oxidase directly by miR-200 or indirectly through Fli-1 or TCF12 contributed to ECM remodeling, triggering the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells both in vitro and vivo. Thus, these data provide important and novel insights into breast CAF activation and ECM remodeling, which trigger tumor cell invasion. PMID:26068592

  10. Prostate Cancer Cell–Stromal Cell Cross-Talk via FGFR1 Mediates Antitumor Activity of Dovitinib in Bone Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinhai; Corn, Paul G.; Yang, Jun; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Starbuck, Michael W.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Li-Ning Tapia, Elsa M.; Zurita, Amado J.; Aparicio, Ana; Ravoori, Murali K.; Vazquez, Elba S.; Robinson, Dan R.; Wu, Yi-Mi; Cao, Xuhong; Iyer, Matthew K.; McKeehan, Wallace; Kundra, Vikas; Wang, Fen; Troncoso, Patricia; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Navone, Nora M.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is the most common site of prostate cancer (PCa) progression to a therapy-resistant, lethal phenotype. We found that blockade of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) with the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor dovitinib has clinical activity in a subset of men with castration-resistant PCa and bone metastases. Our integrated analyses suggest that FGF signaling mediates a positive feedback loop between PCa cells and bone cells and that blockade of FGFR1 in osteoblasts partially mediates the antitumor activity of dovitinib by improving bone quality and by blocking PCa cell–bone cell interaction. These findings account for clinical observations such as reductions in lesion size and intensity on bone scans, lymph node size, and tumor-specific symptoms without proportional declines in prostate-specific antigen concentration. Our findings suggest that targeting FGFR has therapeutic activity in advanced PCa and provide direction for the development of therapies with FGFR inhibitors. PMID:25186177

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells for sphincter regeneration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gerd; Hart, Melanie L; Brinchmann, Jan E; Rolauffs, Bernd; Stenzl, Arnulf; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2015-03-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), defined as the involuntary loss of considerable amounts of urine during increased abdominal pressure (exertion, effort, sneezing, coughing, etc.), is a severe problem to the individuals affected and a significant medical, social and economic challenge. SUI is associated with pelvic floor debility, absence of detrusor contraction, or a loss of control over the sphincter muscle apparatus. The pathology includes an increasing loss of muscle cells, replacement of muscular tissue with fibrous tissue, and general aging associated processes of the sphincter complex. When current therapies fail to cure or improve SUI, application of regeneration-competent cells may be an alternative therapeutic option. Here we discuss different aspects of the biology of mesenchymal stromal cells, which are relevant to their clinical applications and for regenerating the sphincter complex. However, there are reports in favor of and against cell-based therapies. We therefore summarize the potential and the risks of cell-based therapies for the treatment of SUI. PMID:25451135

  12. Stromal COX-2 signaling activated by deoxycholic acid mediates proliferation and invasiveness of colorectal epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yingting; Tissue Tech Inc., Miami, FL 33173 ; Zhu, Min; Lance, Peter

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human colonic cancer associated fibroblasts are major sources of COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibroblasts interact with human colonic epithelial cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation of COX-2 signaling in the fibroblasts affects behavior of the epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein Kinase C controls the activation of COX-2 signaling. -- Abstract: COX-2 is a major regulator implicated in colonic cancer. However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated whether activation of COX-2 signaling by deoxycholic acid (DCA) in primary human normal and cancer associated fibroblasts play a significant role in regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of colonic epithelial cancer cells. Our results demonstrated while COX-2 signaling can be activated by DCA in both normal and cancer associated fibroblasts, the level of activation of COX-2 signaling is significantly greater in cancer associated fibroblasts than that in normal fibroblasts. In addition, we discovered that the proliferative and invasive potential of colonic epithelial cancer cells were much greater when the cells were co-cultured with cancer associated fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA than with normal fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA. Moreover, COX-2 siRNA attenuated the proliferative and invasive effect of both normal and cancer associate fibroblasts pre-treated with DCA on the colonic cancer cells. Further studies indicated that the activation of COX-2 signaling by DCA is through protein kinase C signaling. We speculate that activation of COX-2 signaling especially in cancer associated fibroblasts promotes progression of colonic cancer.

  13. B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and stromal cells communicate through Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Joo, Eun Ji; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Schiffer, Isabelle; Paz, Helicia; Fabbri, Muller; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The molecular interactions between B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) cells and stromal cells in the bone marrow that provide microenvironmentally-mediated protection against therapeutic drugs are not well-defined. Galectin-3 (Lgals3) is a multifunctional galactose-binding lectin with reported location in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular space in different cell types. We previously reported that ALL cells co-cultured with stroma contain high levels of Galectin-3. We here establish that, in contrast to more mature B-lineage cancers, Galectin-3 detected in and on the ALL cells originates from stromal cells, which express it on their surface, secrete it as soluble protein and also in exosomes. Soluble and stromal-bound Galectin-3 is internalized by ALL cells, transported to the nucleus and stimulates transcription of endogenous LGALS3 mRNA. When human and mouse ALL cells develop tolerance to different drugs while in contact with protective stromal cells, Galectin-3 protein levels are consistently increased. This correlates with induction of Galectin-3 transcription in the ALL cells. Thus Galectin-3 sourced from stroma becomes supplemented by endogenous Galectin-3 production in the pre-B ALL cells that are under continuous stress from drug treatment. Our data suggest that stromal Galectin-3 may protect ALL cells through auto-induction of Galectin-3 mRNA and tonic NFκB pathway activation. Since endogenously synthesized Galectin-3 protects pre-B ALL cells against drug treatment, we identify Galectin-3 as one possible target to counteract the protective effects of stroma. PMID:25869099

  14. RelB-Dependent Stromal Cells Promote T-Cell Leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Nuno R.; Williame, Maryvonne; Gachet, Stéphanie; Cormier, Françoise; Janin, Anne; Weih, Debra; Weih, Falk; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Background The Rel/NF-κB transcription factors are often activated in solid or hematological malignancies. In most cases, NF-κB activation is found in malignant cells and results from activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, leading to RelA and/or c-Rel activation. Recently, NF-κB activity in inflammatory cells infiltrating solid tumors has been shown to contribute to solid tumor initiation and progression. Noncanonical NF-κB activation, which leads to RelB activation, has also been reported in breast carcinoma, prostate cancer, and lymphoid leukemia. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a novel role for RelB in stromal cells that promote T-cell leukemogenesis. RelB deficiency delayed leukemia onset in the TEL-JAK2 transgenic mouse model of human T acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow chimeric mouse experiments showed that RelB is not required in the hematopoietic compartment. In contrast, RelB plays a role in radio-resistant stromal cells to accelerate leukemia onset and increase disease severity. Conclusions/Significance The present results are the first to uncover a role for RelB in the crosstalk between non-hematopoietic stromal cells and leukemic cells. Thus, besides its previously reported role intrinsic to specific cancer cells, the noncanonical NF-κB pathway may also play a pro-oncogenic role in cancer microenvironmental cells. PMID:18596915

  15. Induction of miR-146a by multiple myeloma cells in mesenchymal stromal cells stimulates their pro-tumoral activity.

    PubMed

    De Veirman, Kim; Wang, Jinheng; Xu, Song; Leleu, Xavier; Himpe, Eddy; Maes, Ken; De Bruyne, Elke; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Vanderkerken, Karin; Menu, Eline; Van Riet, Ivan

    2016-07-10

    Mutual communication between multiple myeloma (MM) cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) plays a pivotal role in supporting MM progression. In MM, MSC exhibit a different genomic profile and dysregulated cytokine secretion compared to normal MSC, however the mechanisms involved in these changes are not fully understood. Here, we examined the miRNA changes in human MSC after culture with conditioned medium of MM cells and found 19 dysregulated miRNAs, including upregulated miR-146a. Moreover, exosomes derived from MM cells contained miR-146a and could be transferred into MSC. After overexpressing miR-146a in MSC, secretion of several cytokines and chemokines including CXCL1, IL6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, and CCL-5 was elevated, resulting in the enhancement of MM cell viability and migration. DAPT, an inhibitor of the endogenous Notch pathway, was able to abrogate the miR-146a-induced increase of cytokines in MSC, suggesting the involvement of the Notch pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between MM cells and MSC: MM cells promote the increase of miR146a in MSC which leads to more cytokine secretion, which in turn favors MM cell growth and migration. PMID:27102001

  16. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  17. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R.P.; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I.; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  18. Comparison between 8-prenylnarigenin and narigenin concerning their activities on promotion of rat bone marrow stromal cells' osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ming, L G; Ge, B F; Wang, M G; Chen, K M

    2012-12-01

    A number of recent studies have suggested that flavonols (a class of phytochemical with many biological activities), might exert protective effects against post-menopausal bone loss. In the present study, we compared naringenin (NG) and 8-prenylnaringenin (PNG), two major naturally occurring flavonols, on in vitro differentiation of osteoblasts and bone resorbing activity, of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Our results indicated that both compounds, at 10(-6)  m, enhanced BMSCs' differentiation. Then effects of the two compounds at 10(-6)  m on ALP activity, osteocalcin secretion and calcium deposition, were compared over a time course. Numbers and areas of colonies stained for ALP (CFU-F(ALP) ) expression, and mineralized bone nodules, were histochemically analysed after 12 days and 16 days osteogenic induction, respectively. Expression of BMP-2, OPG, OSX, RUNX-2 genes and p38MAPK protein were examined using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The data presented indicate that PNG, significantly enhanced the rat BMSCs' differentiation and mineralization through the BMP-2/p38MAPK/Runx2/Osterix signal pathway, greater than did NG. In conclusion, PNG has a more pronounced ability to enhance osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, than NG. PMID:23106298

  19. Immunological hallmarks of stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Turley, Shannon J; Cremasco, Viviana; Astarita, Jillian L

    2015-11-01

    A dynamic and mutualistic interaction between tumour cells and the surrounding stroma promotes the initiation, progression, metastasis and chemoresistance of solid tumours. Far less understood is the relationship between the stroma and tumour-infiltrating leukocytes; however, emerging evidence suggests that the stromal compartment can shape antitumour immunity and responsiveness to immunotherapy. Thus, there is growing interest in elucidating the immunomodulatory roles of the stroma that evolve within the tumour microenvironment. In this Review, we discuss the evidence that stromal determinants interact with leukocytes and influence antitumour immunity, with emphasis on the immunological attributes of stromal cells that may foster their protumorigenic function. PMID:26471778

  20. Anchored and soluble gangliosides contribute to myelosupportivity of stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ziulkoski, Ana L.; Santos, Aline X.S. dos; Andrade, Claudia M.B.; Trindade, Vera M.T.; Daniotti, Jose Luis; Borojevic, Radovan; Guma, Fatima C.R.

    2009-10-09

    Stroma-mediated myelopoiesis depends upon growth factors and an appropriate intercellular microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated that gangliosides, produced by hepatic stromal cell types, are required for optimal myelosupportive function. Here, we compared the mielossuportive functions of a bone marrow stroma (S17) and skin fibroblasts (SF) regarding their ganglioside pattern of synthesis and shedding. The survival and proliferation of a myeloid precursor cell (FDC-P1) were used as reporter. Although the ganglioside synthesis of the two stromal cells was similar, their relative content and shedding were distinct. The ganglioside requirement for mielossuportive function was confirmed by the decreased proliferation of FDC-P1 cells in ganglioside synthesis-inhibited cultures and in presence of an antibody to GM3 ganglioside. The distinct mielossuportive activities of the S17 and SF stromata may be related to differences on plasma membrane ganglioside concentrations or to differences on the gangliosides shed and their subsequent uptake by myeloid cells, specially, GM3 ganglioside.

  1. Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether Induces Adipogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells through a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Gamma-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro-García, Raquel; Kirchner, Séverine; Li, Xia; Janesick, Amanda; Casey, Stephanie C.; Chow, Connie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), used in manufacturing coatings and resins, leach from packaging materials into food. Numerous studies suggested that BPA and BADGE may have adverse effects on human health, including the possibility that exposure to such chemicals can be superimposed on traditional risk factors to initiate or exacerbate the development of obesity. BPA is a suspected obesogen, whereas BADGE, described as a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) antagonist, could reduce weight gain. Objectives: We sought to test the adipogenic effects of BADGE in a biologically relevant cell culture model. Methods: We used multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) to study the adipogenic capacity of BADGE and BPA and evaluated their effects on adipogenesis, osteogenesis, gene expression, and nuclear receptor activation. Discussion: BADGE induced adipogenesis in human and mouse MSCs, as well as in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In contrast, BPA failed to promote adipogenesis in MSCs, but induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. BADGE exposure elicited an adipogenic gene expression profile, and its ability to induce adipogenesis and the expression of adipogenic genes was not blocked by known PPARγ antagonists. Neither BADGE nor BPA activated or antagonized retinoid “X” receptor (RXR) or PPARγ in transient transfection assays. Conclusions: BADGE can induce adipogenic differentiation in both MSCs and in preadipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations comparable to those that have been observed in limited human biomonitoring. BADGE probably acts through a mechanism that is downstream of, or parallel to, PPARγ. PMID:22763116

  2. Zfp423 Promotes Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Stromal Vascular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Das, Arun Kr; Yang, Qi-Yuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05) in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis

  3. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang; Qin, Tao; Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen; Liu, Sanguang; Song, Zifang

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  4. Thymic stromal cell subsets for T cell development.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Takeshi; Suzuki, Harumi

    2016-03-01

    The thymus provides a specialized microenvironment in which a variety of stromal cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin regulate development and repertoire selection of T cells. Recent studies have been unraveling the inter- and intracellular signals and transcriptional networks for spatiotemporal regulation of development of thymic stromal cells, mainly thymic epithelial cells (TECs), and the molecular mechanisms of how different TEC subsets control T cell development and selection. TECs are classified into two functionally different subsets: cortical TECs (cTECs) and medullary TECs (mTECs). cTECs induce positive selection of diverse and functionally distinct T cells by virtue of unique antigen-processing systems, while mTECs are essential for establishing T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens and cooperation with dendritic cells. In addition to reviewing the role of the thymic stroma in conventional T cell development, we will discuss recently discovered novel functions of TECs in the development of unconventional T cells, such as natural killer T cells and γδT cells. PMID:26825337

  5. Response of hemopoietic, progenitor, and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to administration of ketanserin during pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Skurikhin, E G; Pershina, O V; Stepanova, I E; Khmelevskaya, E S; Ermakova, N N; Reztsova, A M; Krupin, V A; Reikhart, D V; Goldberg, V E

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effect of ketanserin on hemopoietic progenitor cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34- and Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34(+)), progenitor hemopoietic cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+)), and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CD45(-)CD73(+)CD106(+)) in C57Bl/6 mice during pulmonary fibrosis. It was shown that the blocker of 5-HT2A receptors lowers the activity of bleomycin-induced inflammation in the lungs and prevents the infiltration of alveolar interstitium and alveolar ducts by hemopoietic stem and hemopoietic progenitor cells; in this case, they are more numerous in the bone marrow of sick animals. Ketanserin reduces the capacity for self-renewal of lung multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the fibrotic phase of the disease and inhibits their differentiation into stromal cell lines (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts) simultaneously with the decrease in the percentage of connective tissue in the lung parenchyma. PMID:25403389

  6. Comparing the immunosuppressive potency of naïve marrow stromal cells and Notch-transfected marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background SB623 cells are expanded from marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transfected with a Notch intracellular domain (NICD)-expressing plasmid. In stroke-induced animals, these cells reduce infarct size and promote functional recovery. SB623 cells resemble the parental MSCs with respect to morphology and cell surface markers despite having been in extended culture. MSCs are known to have immunosuppressive properties; whether long-term culture of MSCs impact their immunomodulatory activity has not been addressed. Methods To assess the possible senescent properties of SB623 cells, we performed cell cycle related assays and beta-galactosidase staining. To assess the immunomodulatory activity of these expanded NICD-transfected MSCs, we performed co-cultures of SB623 cells or MSCs with either enriched human T cells or monocytes and assessed cytokine production by flow cytometry. In addition, we monitored the immunosuppressive activity of SB623 cells in both allogenic and xenogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Results Compared to MSCs, we showed that a small number of senescent-like cells appear in each lot of SB623 cells. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that these cells suppress human T cell proliferation in both the allogeneic and xenogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in a manner comparable to MSCs. IL-10 producing T cells were generated and monocyte-dendritic cell differentiation was dampened by co-culture with SB623 cells. Compared to the parental MSCs, SB623 cells appear to exert a greater inhibitory impact on the maturation of dendritic cells as demonstrated by a greater reduction in the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD86. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the immunosuppressive activity of the expanded NICD-transfected MSCs is comparable to the parental MSCs, in spite of the appearance of a small number of senescent-like cells. PMID:21982515

  7. Epithelial and Stromal Cell Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Expression Differentially Correlates with Survival in Rectal Cancer Stages B and C Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Seong Beom; Chan, Charles; Dent, Owen F.; Mohamedali, Abidali; Kwun, Sun Young; Clarke, Candice; Fletcher, Julie; Chapuis, Pierre H.; Nice, Edouard C.; Baker, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been proposed as a potential prognostic factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) patient survival. However, CRC uPAR expression remains controversial, especially regarding cell types where uPAR is overexpressed (e.g., epithelium (uPARE) or stroma-associated cells (uPARS)) and associated prognostic relevance. In this study, two epitope-specific anti-uPAR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) could discriminate expression of uPARE from uPARS and were used to examine this association with survival of stages B and C rectal cancer (RC) patients. Using immunohistochemistry, MAbs #3937 and R4 were used to discriminate uPARE from uPARS respectively in the central and invasive frontal regions of 170 stage B and 179 stage C RC specimens. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to determine association with survival. uPAR expression occurred in both epithelial and stromal compartments with differential expression observed in many cases, indicating uPARE and uPARS have different cellular roles. In the central and invasive frontal regions, uPARE was adversely associated with overall stage B survival (HR = 1.9; p = 0.014 and HR = 1.5; p = 0.031, respectively) reproducing results from previous studies. uPARS at the invasive front was associated with longer stage C survival (HR = 0.6; p = 0.007), reflecting studies demonstrating that macrophage peritumoural accumulation is associated with longer survival. This study demonstrates that different uPAR epitopes should be considered as being expressed on different cell types during tumour progression and at different stages in RC. Understanding how uPARE and uPARS expression affects survival is anticipated to be a useful clinical prognostic marker of stages B and C RC. PMID:25692297

  8. Dicer1 activity in the stromal compartment regulates nephron differentiation and vascular patterning during mammalian kidney organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Xin, Cuiyan; Roach, Allie M; Naiman, Natalie; Shankland, Stuart J; Ligresti, Giovanni; Ren, Shuyu; Szak, Suzanne; Gomez, Ivan G; Duffield, Jeremy S

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs, activated by the enzyme Dicer1, control post-transcriptional gene expression. Dicer1 has important roles in the epithelium during nephrogenesis, but its function in stromal cells during kidney development is unknown. To study this, we inactivated Dicer1 in renal stromal cells. This resulted in hypoplastic kidneys, abnormal differentiation of the nephron tubule and vasculature, and perinatal mortality. In mutant kidneys, genes involved in stromal cell migration and activation were suppressed as were those involved in epithelial and endothelial differentiation and maturation. Consistently, polarity of the proximal tubule was incorrect, distal tubule differentiation was diminished, and elongation of Henle's loop attenuated resulting in lack of inner medulla and papilla in stroma-specific Dicer1 mutants. Glomerular maturation and capillary loop formation were abnormal, whereas peritubular capillaries, with enhanced branching and increased diameter, formed later. In Dicer1-null renal stromal cells, expression of factors associated with migration, proliferation, and morphogenic functions including α-smooth muscle actin, integrin-α8, -β1, and the WNT pathway transcriptional regulator LEF1 were reduced. Dicer1 mutation in stroma led to loss of expression of distinct microRNAs. Of these, miR-214, -199a-5p, and -199a-3p regulate stromal cell functions ex vivo, including WNT pathway activation, migration, and proliferation. Thus, Dicer1 activity in the renal stromal compartment regulates critical stromal cell functions that, in turn, regulate differentiation of the nephron and vasculature during nephrogenesis. PMID:25651362

  9. Dicer1 activity in the stromal compartment regulates nephron differentiation and vascular patterning during mammalian kidney organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Naoki; Xin, Cuiyan; Roach, Allie M.; Naiman, Natalie; Shankland, Stuart J.; Ligresti, Giovanni; Ren, Shuyu; Szak, Suzanne; Gomez, Ivan G.; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs, activated by the enzyme Dicer1, control post-transcriptional gene expression. Dicer1 has important roles in the epithelium during nephrogenesis, but its function in stromal cells during kidney development is unknown. To study this we inactivated Dicer1 in renal stromal cells. This resulted in hypoplastic kidneys, abnormal differentiation of the nephron tubule and vasculature, and perinatal mortality. In mutant kidneys, genes involved in stromal cell migration and activation were suppressed as were those involved in epithelial and endothelial differentiation and maturation. Consistently, polarity of the proximal tubule was incorrect, distal tubule differentiation was diminished, and elongation of Henle’s loop attenuated resulting in lack of inner medulla and papilla in stroma-specific Dicer1 mutants. Glomerular maturation and capillary loop formation were abnormal while peritubular capillaries, with enhanced branching and increased diameter, formed later. In Dicer1-null renal stromal cells, expression of factors associated with migration, proliferation and morphogenic functions including α-smooth muscle actin, integrin-α8, -β1, and the WNT pathway transcriptional regulator LEF1 were reduced. Dicer1 mutation in stroma led to loss of expression of distinct microRNAs. Of these, miR-214, -199a-5p and -199a-3p regulate stromal cell functions ex vivo, including WNT pathway activation, migration and proliferation. Thus, Dicer1 activity in the renal stromal compartment regulates critical stromal cell functions that, in turn, regulate differentiation of the nephron and vasculature during nephrogenesis. PMID:25651362

  10. Human Adipose Stromal Vascular Cell Delivery in a Fibrin Spray

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Rubin, J. Peter; Pfeifer, Melanie E.; Moore, L.R.; Donnenberg, Vera S.; Donnenberg, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue represents a practical source of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and vascular-endothelial progenitor cells, available for regenerative therapy without in vitro expansion. One of the problems confronting the therapeutic application of such cells is how to immobilize them at the wound site. Here, we evaluated in vitro the growth and differentiation of human adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells after delivery using a fibrin spray system. Methods SVF cells were harvested from four human adult patients undergoing elective abdominoplasty using the LipiVage™ system. After collagenase digestion, mesenchymal and endothelial progenitor cells (pericytes, supra-adventitial stromal cells, endothelial progenitors) were quantified by flow cytometry before culture. SVF cells were applied to culture vessels using the Tisseel™ fibrin spray system. SVF cell growth and differentiation was documented by immunofluorescence staining and photomicrography. Results SVF cells remained viable following application and were expanded up to three weeks, when they reached confluence and adipogenic differentiation. Under angiogenic conditions, SVF cells formed endothelial (vWF+, CD31+ and CD34+) tubules surrounded by CD146+ and α-SMA+ perivascular/stromal cells. Discussion Human adipose tissue is a rich source of autologous stem cells, which are readily available for regenerative applications such as wound healing, without in vitro expansion. Our results indicate that mesenchymal and endothelial progenitor cells, prepared in a closed system from unpassaged lipoaspirate samples, retain their growth and differentiation capacity when applied and immobilized on a substrate using a clinically approved fibrin sealant spray system. PMID:23260090

  11. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-01-01

    Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular level and introduce the application to mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) therapies. Finally, our recent research results that LLLT enhanced the MSCs differentiation to osteoblast will also be described. PMID:26273309

  12. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells with CD47 high expression via the signal transducer and activators of transcription signaling pathway preventing myocardial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Chen, Qing-Wei; Li, Xing-Sheng; Yuan, Zhong-Ming; Li, Gui-Qiong; Ke, Da-Zhi; Wang, Li; Wu, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Shi-Lan

    2015-01-01

    This study was initiated to investigate the efficacy of myocardial fibrosis intervention via signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling using bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) in which being over-expressed with the aid of bispecific antibody (BiAb) and ultrasound-mediated microbubbles (MB). BiAb was prepared and combined with isolated MSC with CD47 overexpression from male mice and trans-fused into female mice with isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis via the tail vein, followed by MB. This study included five groups. Five weeks after treatment, expression levels of the sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in myocardium were detected by fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The protein expression of signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) 1 and STAT 3 was detected by Western blot. Results: The highest homing number of MSC was in the CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB group, second highest in the CD47 + MSC + BiAb group, and lowest in MSC alone. Compared with the Control group, CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB, CD47 + MSC + BiAb, CD47 + MSC and MSC groups had decreased levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, STAT 1 and collagen deposition, and increased levels of STAT 3. Up regulated STAT 3 and down regulated TIMP-1 were significantly different in CD47 + MSC + BiAb + MB compared with CD47 + MSC or CD47 + MSC + BiAb. Conclusion: CD47 can enhance the homing rate and repairing efficacy of MSC. MSC can improve MMP-TIMP expression in injured myocardium and interfere with myocardial fibrosis after homing, a mechanism that may be related to the STAT-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:26617765

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, RI; YUAN, ZHI; LIU, JIERONG; LIU, JIAN

    2016-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c-myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β-catenin as well as β-catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β-catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled-related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP- and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes the expression of osteoblastic genes and activates the WNT signal transduction pathway in bone marrow stromal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ri; Yuan, Zhi; Liu, Jierong; Liu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is known to induce osteoblastic differentiation and alkaline phosphatase activity in bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). However, it has remained elusive whether this effect is mediated by CGRP receptors directly or whether other signaling pathways are involved. The present study assessed the possible involvement of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway in the activation of CGRP signaling during the differentiation of BMSCs. First, the differentiation of BMSCs was induced in vitro and the expression of CGRP receptors was examined by western blot analysis. The effects of exogenous CGRP and LiCl, a stimulator of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs were assessed; furthermore, the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway was assessed using quantitative PCR and western blot analyses. The results revealed that CGRP receptors were expressed throughout the differentiation of BMSCs, at days 7 and 14. Incubation with CGRP and LiCl led to the upregulation of the expression of osteoblastic genes associated with the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway, including the mRNA of c‑myc, cyclin D1, Lef1, Tcf7 and β‑catenin as well as β‑catenin protein. However, the upregulation of these genes and β‑catenin protein was inhibited by CGRP receptor antagonist or secreted frizzled‑related protein, an antagonist of the Wnt/β‑catenin pathway. The results of the present study therefore suggested that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may be involved in CGRP‑ and LiCl-promoted osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:27082317

  15. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa; Nagai, Mami; Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Asano, Shigetaka; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1{sup +/+} MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1{sup +/+} and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

  16. Inactivation of Rb in stromal fibroblasts promotes epithelial cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Adam; Cichon, Ann-Christin; Barry, Anna; Kieran, Declan; Patel, Daksha; Hamilton, Peter; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; James, Jacqueline; McCance, Dennis J

    2012-07-18

    Stromal-derived growth factors are required for normal epithelial growth but are also implicated in tumour progression. We have observed inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), through phosphorylation, in cancer-associated fibroblasts in oro-pharyngeal cancer specimens. Rb is well known for its cell-autonomous effects on cancer initiation and progression; however, cell non-autonomous functions of Rb are not well described. We have identified a cell non-autonomous role of Rb, using three-dimensional cultures, where depletion of Rb in stromal fibroblasts enhances invasive potential of transformed epithelia. In part, this is mediated by upregulation of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is produced by the depleted fibroblasts. KGF drives invasion of epithelial cells through induction of MMP1 expression in an AKT- and Ets2-dependent manner. Our data identify that stromal fibroblasts can alter the invasive behaviour of the epithelium, and we show that altered expression of KGF can mediate these functions. PMID:22643222

  17. Ex vivo expanded SSEA-4+ human limbal stromal cells are multipotent and do not express other embryonic stem cell markers

    PubMed Central

    Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon; Umapathy, Thiageswari; Baharuddin, Puteri; Jamal, Rahman; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated. Methods Limbal stromal cells were derived from corneoscleral rims. The SSEA-4+ and SSEA-4- limbal stromal cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cells sorting (FACS). Isolated cells were expanded and reanalyzed for their expression of SSEA-4. Expression of MSC and ESC markers on these cells were also analyzed by FACS. In addition, expression of limbal epithelial and corneal stromal proteins such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), tumour protein p63 (p63), paired box 6 (Pax6), cytokeratin 3 (AE5), cytokeratin 10, and keratocan sulfate were evaluated either by immunofluorecence staining or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Appropriate induction medium was used to differentiate these cells into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Results Expanded limbal stromal cells expressed the majority of mesenchymal markers. These cells were negative for ABCG2, p63, Pax6, AE-5, and keratocan sulfate. After passaged, a subpopulation of these cells showed low expression of SSEA-4 but were negative for other important ESC surface markers such as Tra-1–60, Tra-1–81, and transcription factors like octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY(sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), and Nanog. Early passaged cells when induced were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Conclusions The expanded limbal stromal cells showed features

  18. Angiotensin II enhances epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through the interaction between activated hepatic stellate cells and the stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCR4 axis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Koichi; Tajima, Hidehiro; Nakanuma, Shinichi; Sakai, Seisho; Makino, Isamu; Kinoshita, Jun; Hayashi, Hironori; Nakamura, Keishi; Oyama, Katsunobu; Nakagawara, Hisatoshi; Fujita, Hideto; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Itasu; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Harada, Shinichi; Wakayama, Tomohiko; Iseki, Shoichi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2012-08-01

    We previously reported that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activated by angiotensin II (AngII) facilitate stromal fibrosis and tumor progression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). AngII has been known as a growth factor which can promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal epithelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells and peritoneal mesothelial cells. However, in the past, the relationship between AngII and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the microenvironment around cancer and the role of AngII on EMT of cancer cells has not been reported in detail. SDF-1 and its specific receptor, CXCR4, are now receiving attention as a mechanism of cell progression and metastasis. In this study, we examined whether activated HSCs promote tumor fibrogenesis, tumor progression and distant metastasis by mediating EMT via the AngII/AngII type 1 receptor (AT-1) and the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Two human ICC cell lines and a human HSC line, LI-90, express CXCR4. Significantly higher concentration of SDF-1α was released into the supernatant of LI-90 cells to which AngII had been added. SDF-1α increased the proliferative activity of HSCs and enhanced the activation of HSCs as a growth factor. Furthermore, addition of SDF-1α and AngII enhanced the increase of the migratory capability and vimentin expression, reduced E-cadherin expression, and translocated the expression of β-catenin into the nucleus and cytoplasm in ICC cells. Co-culture with HSCs also enhanced the migratory capability of ICC cells. These findings suggest that SDF-1α, released from activated HSCs and AngII, play important roles in cancer progression, tumor fibrogenesis, and migration in autocrine and paracrine fashion by mediating EMT. Our mechanistic findings may provide pivotal insights into the molecular mechanism of the AngII and SDF-1α-initiated signaling pathway that regulates fibrogenesis in cancerous stroma, tumor progression and meta-stasis of tumor cells expressing AT-1 and CXCR4

  19. Prostate stromal cell proteomics analysis discriminates normal from tumour reactive stromal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jason P.; Spary, Lisa K.; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Brewis, Ian A.; Clayton, Aled

    2016-01-01

    Changes within interstitial stromal compartments often accompany carcinogenesis, and this is true of prostate cancer. Typically, the tissue becomes populated by myofibroblasts that can promote progression. Not all myofibroblasts exhibit the same negative influence, however, and identifying the aggressive form of myofibroblast may provide useful information at diagnosis. A means of molecularly defining such myofibroblasts is unknown. We compared protein profiles of normal and diseased stroma isolated from prostate cancer patients to identify discriminating hallmarks of disease-associated stroma. We included the stimulation of normal stromal cells with known myofibroblast inducers namely soluble TGFβ and exosome-associated-TGFβ and compared the function and protein profiles arising. In all 6-patients examined, diseased stroma exhibited a pro-angiogenic influence on endothelial cells, generating large multicellular vessel-like structures. Identical structures were apparent following stimulation of normal stroma with exosomes (5/6 patients), but TGFβ-stimulation generated a non-angiogenic stroma. Proteomics highlighted disease-related cytoskeleton alterations such as elevated Transgelin (TAGLN). Many of these were also changed following TGFβ or exosome stimulation and did not well discriminate the nature of the stimulus. Soluble TGFβ, however triggered differential expression of proteins related to mitochondrial function including voltage dependent ion channels VDAC1 and 2, and this was not found in the other stromal types studied. Surprisingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1A1), a stem-cell associated protein was detected in normal stromal cells and found to decrease in disease. In summary, we have discovered a set of proteins that contribute to defining disease-associated myofibroblasts, and emphasise the similarity between exosome-generated myofibroblasts and those naturally arising in situ. PMID:26934553

  20. Culture perfusion schedules influence the metabolic activity and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production rates of human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J; Palsson, B O; Locey, B; Emerson, S G

    1991-05-01

    The metabolic function and GM-CSF production rates of adherent human bone marrow stromal cells were investigated as functions of medium and serum feeding rates. A range of medium exchange schedules was studied, ranging from a typical Dexter culture protocol of one weekly medium exchange to a full media exchange daily, which more closely approximates what bone marrow cells experience in situ. Glucose consumption was found to be significantly higher at full daily exchange rate than at any other exchange schedule examined. However, the lactate yield on glucose was a constant, at 1.8 mol/mol, under all conditions considered. Differential serum vs. medium exchange experiment showed that both serum supply and medium nutrients were responsible for the altered behavior at high exchange rates. Glutamine consumption was found to be insignificant under all culture conditions examined. A change in exchange schedule from 50% daily medium exchange to full daily medium exchange after 14 days of culture was found to result in a transient production of GM-CSF and a change in metabolic behavior to resemble that of cultures which had full daily exchange from day one. These results suggest that both stromal cell metabolism and GM-CSF production are sensitive to medium exchange schedules. Taken together, the data presented indicate that attempts to model the function of human bone marrow in vitro may be well served by beginning with medium exchange schedules that more closely mimic the in vivo physiologic state of bone marrow. PMID:2040665

  1. Kinetic analysis of thymocyte attachment to thymus stromal cells in culture by using phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    LaRochelle, G.G.; Jones, K.H.

    1989-05-01

    Direct cellular contact between thymocytes and thymus stromal cells within the thymus appears to contribute to the maturation of thymocytes. Thymocyte-stromal cell complexes, formed in vivo, have been isolated by others and postulated to play a role in T-cell differentiation. These previous studies have been hampered, however, by a time-consuming isolation procedure from which only small numbers of these complexes are recovered. We have examined a model to study thymocyte-stromal cell complexes in vitro in which thymocytes are added to primary cultures of thymus stromal cells. In the present study, we found that thymocytes were histotypically selective in their attachment to thymus stromal cells. We also investigated the kinetics of thymocyte attachment to these thymus stromal cells. Cultures were examined at selected time intervals from 5 min through 3 days of incubation. Thymocyte attachment to stromal cells was a biphasic interaction, with maximum surface attachment at 15 min of cocultivation, followed by migration of thymocytes into the cultures. Morphological studies were confirmed by using /sup 3/H-leucine-labeled thymocytes and liquid scintigraphy. With increased time in culture, thymocytes became amoeboid and migrated between the layers of stromal cells where thymocyte mitotic figures were seen at 4 and 8 hr. In some cases it appeared that stromal cells, which often grew two to three cell layers deep, played an active role in enclosing thymocytes within the cultures. Large numbers of viable thymocytes were observed in the cultures at 24 hr. The number of thymocytes then decreased progressively on days 2 and 3, when relatively few were found within the layers of the culture.

  2. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  3. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  4. Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function.

    PubMed

    Spees, Jeffrey L; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Gregory, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell-cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics. PMID:27581859

  5. Hsp90 and PKM2 Drive the Expression of Aromatase in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Breast Adipose Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Brown, Kristy A; Zahid, Heba; Balmus, Gabriel; Weiss, Robert S; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-07-29

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients harbor germ line mutations in the TP53 gene and are at increased risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Recently, elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, were found in the breast tissue of LFS patients. Although p53 down-regulates aromatase expression, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that LFS stromal cells expressed higher levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity and aromatase compared with wild-type stromal cells. Inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase suppressed aromatase expression. Silencing Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), a co-chaperone of Hsp90 required for its ATPase activity, led to both inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity and reduced aromatase expression. In comparison with wild-type stromal cells, increased levels of the Hsp90 client proteins, HIF-1α, and PKM2 were found in LFS stromal cells. A complex comprised of HIF-1α and PKM2 was recruited to the aromatase promoter II in LFS stromal cells. Silencing either HIF-1α or PKM2 suppressed aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. CP-31398, a p53 rescue compound, suppressed levels of Aha1, Hsp90 ATPase activity, levels of PKM2 and HIF-1α, and aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. Consistent with these in vitro findings, levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity, Aha1, HIF-1α, PKM2, and aromatase were increased in the mammary glands of p53 null versus wild-type mice. PKM2 and HIF-1α were shown to co-localize in the nucleus of stromal cells of LFS breast tissue. Taken together, our results show that the Aha1-Hsp90-PKM2/HIF-1α axis mediates the induction of aromatase in LFS. PMID:27467582

  6. Regulation of CXCL12 expression by canonical Wnt signaling in bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Sato, Mari M; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2011-05-01

    CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1), produced by stromal and endothelial cells including cells of the bone marrow, binds to its receptor CXCR4 and this axis regulates hematopoietic cell trafficking. Recently, osteoclast precursor cells were found to express CXCR4 and a potential role for the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis during osteoclast precursor cell recruitment/retention and development was proposed as a regulator of bone resorption. We examined the role of canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the expression of CXCL12 in bone marrow stromal cells. In mouse stromal ST2 cells, CXCL12 mRNA was expressed, while its expression was reduced in Wnt3a over-expressing ST2 (Wnt3a-ST2) cells or by treatment with lithium chloride (LiCl). Wnt3a decreased CXCL12 levels in culture supernatants from mouse bone marrow stromal cells. The culture supernatant from Wnt3a-ST2 cells also reduced migratory activity of bone marrow-derived cells in a Transwell migration assay. Silencing of glycogen synthase kinase-3β decreased CXCL12 expression, suggesting that the canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates CXCL12 expression. In a transfection assay, LiCl down-regulated the activity of a reporter gene, a 1.8kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region of the CXCL12 gene. These results show that canonical Wnt signaling regulates CXCL12 gene expression at the transcriptional level, and this is the first study linking chemokine expression to canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:21296678

  7. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms responsible for their immunomodulatory effects, which could be influenced by both the cell source and culture conditions. Design and Methods We tested the ability of a 5% platelet lysate-supplemented medium to support isolation and ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from full-term umbilical-cord blood. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells, in comparison with platelet lysate-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results The success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood was in the order of 20%. These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. Although they have a low clonogenic efficiency, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells may possess high proliferative potential. The genetic stability of these cells from umbilical cord blood was demonstrated by a normal molecular karyotype; in addition, these cells do not express hTERT and telomerase activity, do express p16ink4a protein and do not show anchorage-independent cell growth. Concerning alloantigen-specific immune responses, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells were able to: (i) suppress T- and NK-lymphocyte proliferation, (ii) decrease cytotoxic activity and (iii) only slightly increase interleukin-10, while decreasing interferon-γ secretion, in mixed lymphocyte culture supernatants. While an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-specific inhibitor did not reverse mesenchymal stromal cell-induced suppressive effects, a prostaglandin E2-specific inhibitor hampered the suppressive effect of both umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells on alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity. Mesenchymal stromal cells from both sources expressed HLA

  8. Epithelial and stromal-specific immune pathway activation in the murine endometrium post-coitum.

    PubMed

    Field, S L; Cummings, M; Orsi, N M

    2015-08-01

    The endometrium is a dynamic tissue, demonstrating cyclical growth/remodelling in preparation for implantation. In mice, seminal constituents trigger mechanisms to prepare the endometrium, a process dubbed 'seminal priming' that modifies immune system components and mediates endometrial remodelling in preparation for pregnancy. An array of cytokines has been reported to mediate this interaction, although much of the literature relates to in vitro studies on isolated endometrial epithelial cells. This study measured changes in immune-related gene expression in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in vivo following natural mating. CD1 mice were naturally mated and sacrificed over the first 4 days post-coitum (n=3 each day). Endometrial epithelial and stromal compartments were isolated by laser capture microdissection. Labelled cRNA was generated and hybridised to genome-wide expression microarrays. Pathway analysis identified several immune-related pathways active within epithelial and stromal compartments, in particular relating to cytokine networks, matrix metalloproteinases and prostaglandin synthesis. Cluster analysis demonstrated that the expression of factors involved in immunomodulation/endometrial remodelling differed between the epithelial and stromal compartments in a temporal fashion. This study is the first to examine the disparate responses of the endometrial epithelial and stromal compartments to seminal plasma in vivo in mice, and demonstrates the complexity of the interactions between these two compartments needed to create a permissive environment for implantation. PMID:26015594

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  10. Rapid Selection of Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Primary Prostate Stromal Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Kisteman, L. Nelleke; Isaacs, John T.

    2016-01-01

    considering their overlapping properties. The lack of adipogenesis in stromal cultures derived from normal prostates suggests they have a lineage-restricted progenitor phenotype. The retention of adipogenic differentiation in cultures from a subset of prostate cancer patients suggests the active recruitment of less committed progenitors or MSCs from the bone marrow as a function of disease progression. This recruitment can potentially be exploited for prognostic purposes or a cell-based platform for the systemic delivery of cytotoxic agents to sites of prostate cancer. PMID:26732992

  11. Therapy Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xinchun; Hu, Jinxia; Cui, Guiyun

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve functional outcome after stroke. In this review, we will focus on the protective effects of BMSCs on ischemic brain and the relative molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs on stroke. PMID:27069533

  12. Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NFκB signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells. Results Human gastric cancer cell lines were exposed to doses of resistin; SDF-1 expression and secretion levels were then determined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to clarify molecular changes. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by a competitive antagonist inhibited resistin-induced SDF-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNA (siRNA) demonstrated that activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is critical for resistin-induced SDF-1 expression mediated by TLR4. The promoter activity and transcription factor enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that resistin induced expression of SDF-1 mediated by NF-κB in gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of p38 MARK activation blocked the SDF-1-induced expression and the SDF-1 promoter activity in the cancer gastric cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that inhibition of p38 MARK activation also blocked the resistin-increased NF-κB-DNA-binding activity. Conclusions Resistin-induced SDF-1 upregulation by activation of TLR4, p38 MARK and NF-κB may explain a new role of resistin in the link of obesity and gastric cancer. PMID:24929539

  13. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    PubMed

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-01-01

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity. PMID:27609467

  14. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stromal cells-derived exosome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wancheng; Huang, Yukai; Han, Jiaochan; Yu, Lili; Li, Yanli; Lu, Ziyuan; Li, Hongbo; Liu, Zenghui; Shi, Chenyan; Duan, Fengqi; Xiao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remain unknown. Recently, studies suggested that the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs is largely mediated by paracrine factors. Among which, exosome is considered to play a major role in the communication between MSCs and target tissue. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of MSCs-derived exosome on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially T cells. We find that the MSCs-derived exosome extracted from healthy donors' bone marrow suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-1β, but increased the concentration of anti-inflammatory factor TGF-β during in vitro culture. In addition, exosome may induce conversion of T helper type 1 (Th1) into T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and reduced potential of T cells to differentiate into interleukin 17-producing effector T cells (Th17). Moreover, the level of regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 were also increased. These results suggested that MSC-derived exosome possesses the immunomodulatory properties. However, it showed no effects on the proliferation of PBMCs or CD3+ T cells, but increases the apoptosis of them. In addition, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was previously shown to mediate the immunoregulation of MSCs, which was increased in PBMCs co-cultured with MSCs. In our study, IDO showed no significant changes in PBMCs exposed to MSCs-derived exosome. We conclude that exosome and MSCs might differ in their immune-modulating activities and mechanisms. PMID:27115513

  16. Cell mates: paracrine and stromal targets for prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sluka, Pavel; Davis, Ian D

    2013-08-01

    After many years of limited treatment options for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), multiple systemic therapies are now available, providing patients with significant improvements in survival, symptom control and bone health. Most of the recent advances in this area have been based on better understanding of mCRPC biology, particularly with respect to the key role of androgen receptor signalling. However, most therapies are targeted towards the malignant epithelial cell component of the cancer and it should not be forgotten that cancer cells exist in close and symbiotic relationships with other components of the tumour. Paracrine and stromal signals are often critical to the growth of the cancer and represent new potential therapeutic targets that are separate from the malignant epithelial cells. The stroma produces numerous growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor family members, platelet-derived growth factors and fibroblast growth factors, which are all critical for tumour growth. Targeting prostate-cancer-associated fibroblasts in order to destroy the physical and functional scaffold of a cancer is also a logical approach. The interaction between prostate cancer and the immune system remains an active topic of basic and clinical research, with cytokines, chemokines and growth factors being potential targets for therapy. The biology of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and of circulating tumour cells might also provide insight into new therapeutic targets. PMID:23857181

  17. Characterization of the interactions between stromal and haematopoietic progenitor cells in expansion cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Bilko, N M; Votyakova, I A; Vasylovska, S V; Bilko, D I

    2005-01-01

    Development of the long-term culture models of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is one of the important tasks in modern biotechnology. It has been suggested that stromal presence is important for haematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo, but the question remains: whether diffusible factors produced by stromal cells are sufficient for the regeneration of primitive and definitive haematopoietic cells, or direct cell-to-cell contacts of the cultured material with underlying stromal base would be required. During present studies, influence of various feeder layers and feeder layer conditioned media on proliferative, differentiative and clonogenic activity of human AC133+ derived from human umbilical cord blood was investigated. Cell extracts for feeder layers were prepared from 4-6 weeks old human embryos and co-cultured feeder cells. Effects of the conditioned media were also determined. Culture and feeder layer media were additionally supplemented with commonly implemented factors such as GM-CSF, IL-3 and LIF. Estimation of morpho-functional properties of AC133+ cultivated suspension cultures was performed in subculture experiments using semisolid agar culture conditions. Multipotential CFU-MIX (CFU-GEMM) and unipotential progenitor cells CFU-GM, BFU-E and CFU-E were observed and analyzed. Our data suggest that haematopoiesis can be sustained for prolonged cultivation periods in the presence of feeder layer cells or conditioned media supported culture models. Prolonged support of primitive haematopoietic cells and their clonogenic capacity and functional characteristics in feeder layer positive cultures, indicates that diffusible factors are sufficient for haematopoiesis and suggests that direct cell-to-cell contacts may not be exclusively required for successful long-term in vitro haematopoiesis. PMID:15763504

  18. Ex Vivo Propagation of Human Corneal Stromal "Activated Keratocytes" for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Yam, Gary Hin-Fai; Yusoff, Nur Zahirah Binte M; Kadaba, Aishwarya; Tian, Dechao; Myint, Htoon Hla; Beuerman, Roger W; Zhou, Lei; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus is a corneal disorder characterized by a thinning of stromal tissue, and the affected patients have induced astigmatism and visual impairment. It is associated with a loss of corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs). Hence, reconstructing stromal tissue with autologous CSK replacement can be a viable alternative to corneal transplantation, which is restricted by the global donor material shortage and graft rejection. Human CSKs are normally quiescent and express unique markers, like aldehyde dehydrogenases and keratocan. In serum culture, they proliferate, but lose their characteristic phenotype and become stromal fibroblasts. Here we report a novel culture cocktail to ex vivo propagate and maintain CSKs. Primary human CSKs were obtained from adult donors and cultured with soluble human amnion stromal extract (ASE), rho-associated coiled-coil-forming protein serine/threonine kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (collectively named as ERI). Protein profiling using mass spectrometry followed by MetaCore™ pathway analysis predicted that ASE proteins might participate in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling and fibroblast development, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodeling, and immune response. In culture with 0.5% fetal bovine serum and ERI, the population of "activated keratocytes" was expanded. They had much lowered expression of both keratocyte and fibroblast markers, suppressed TGF-β-mediated Smad2/3 activation, and lacked fibroblast-mediated collagen contractibility. These "activated keratoctyes" could be propagated for six to eight passages ex vivo, and they regained CSK-specific dendritic morphology and gene marker expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenases, lumican, and keratocan biosynthesis, expression, and secretion when returned to serum-depleted ERI condition. This novel cocktail maintained human CSKs in both adherent and suspension cultures with proper keratocyte features and without the

  19. Rapidly Self-Renewing Human Multipotent Marrow Stromal Cells (hMSC) Express Sialyl Lewis X and Actively Adhere to Arterial Endothelium in a Chick Embryo Model System

    PubMed Central

    McFerrin, Harris E.; Olson, Scott D.; Gutschow, Miriam V.; Semon, Julie A.; Sullivan, Deborah E.; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been conflicting observations regarding the receptors utilized by human multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stromal cells (hMSC) to adhere to endothelial cells (EC). To address the discrepancies, we performed experiments with cells prepared with a standardized, low-density protocol preserving a sub-population of small cells that are rapidly self-renewing. Methods Sialyl Lewis X (SLeX) and α4 integrin expression were determined by flow cytometry. Fucosyltransferase expression was determined by quantitative realtime RT-PCR. Cell adhesion assays were carried out with a panel of endothelial cells from arteries, veins and the microvasculature in vitro. In vivo experiments were performed to determine single cell interactions in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The CAM is a well-characterized respiratory organ allowing for time-lapse image acquisition of large numbers of cells treated with blocking antibodies against adhesion molecules expressed on hMSC. Results hMSC expressed α4 integrin, SLeX and fucosyltransferase 4 and adhered to human EC from arteries, veins and the microvasculature under static conditions in vitro. In vivo, hMSC rolled on and adhered to arterioles in the chick embryo CAM, whereas control melanoma cells embolized. Inhibition of α4 integrin and/or SLeX with blocking antibodies reduced rolling and adhesion in arterioles and increased embolism of hMSC. Conclusions The results demonstrated that rapidly self-renewing hMSC were retained in the CAM because they rolled on and adhered to respiratory arteriolar EC in an α4 integrin- and SLeX-dependent manner. It is therefore important to select cells based on their cell adhesion receptor profile as well as size depending on the intended target of the cell and the injection route. PMID:25144321

  20. Leptin Receptor Promotes Adipogenesis and Reduces Osteogenesis by Regulating Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yue, Rui; Zhou, Bo O; Shimada, Issei S; Zhao, Zhiyu; Morrison, Sean J

    2016-06-01

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) that are the major source of osteoblasts and adipocytes in adult bone marrow express leptin receptor (LepR). To test whether LepR regulates SSC function, we conditionally deleted Lepr from limb bone marrow stromal cells, but not from the axial skeleton or hypothalamic neurons, using Prx1-Cre. Prx1-Cre;Lepr(fl/fl) mice exhibited normal body mass and normal hematopoiesis. However, limb bones from Prx1-Cre;Lepr(fl/fl) mice exhibited increased osteogenesis, decreased adipogenesis, and accelerated fracture healing. Leptin increased adipogenesis and reduced osteogenesis by activating Jak2/Stat3 signaling in bone marrow stromal cells. A high-fat diet increased adipogenesis and reduced osteogenesis in limb bones from wild-type mice, but not from Prx1-Cre;Lepr(fl/fl) mice. This reflected local effects of LepR on osteogenesis and adipogenesis by bone marrow stromal cells and systemic effects on bone resorption. Leptin/LepR signaling regulates adipogenesis and osteogenesis by mesenchymal stromal cells in the bone marrow in response to diet and adiposity. PMID:27053299

  1. Isolation and characterization of primary bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhe; Ghazanfari, Roshanak; Zacharaki, Dimitra; Lim, Hooi Ching; Scheding, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Bone marrow (BM) contains a rare population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which have been characterized as nonhematopoietic skeletal progenitor cells with central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. Classically, MSCs are isolated by plastic adherence and subsequent culture. However, as cultured stromal cells differ from their in vivo progenitors, it is important to identify the phenotype of the primary MSCs to study these cells in more detail. In the past years, several surface markers have been reported to be suitable for effective enrichment of BM-MSCs, and recent data indicate that the putative MSC stem/progenitor cell population in human adult BM is highly enriched in Lin(-) CD45(-) CD271(+) CD140a (PDGFRα)(low/-) cells. Moreover, surface marker combinations have been described for the isolation of MSCs from murine BM. On the basis of these findings, the role of primary MSCs can now be studied in normal and, importantly, diseased BM. Furthermore, genetically engineered mouse models have been developed as powerful tools to investigate well-defined BM stromal cell populations in vivo. Our discussion aims to provide a concise overview of the current state of the art in BM-MSC isolation in humans and briefly present murine MSC isolation approaches and genetic models. PMID:27270495

  2. Expression of the E-cadherin repressors Snail, Slug and Zeb1 in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: relation to stromal fibroblast activation and invasive behaviour of carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Julia; Weidig, Michaela; Balzer, Philipp; Richter, Petra; Franz, Marcus; Junker, Kerstin; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Wunderlich, Heiko; Östman, Arne; Petersen, Iver; Berndt, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by interaction of carcinoma and stromal cells and crucial for progression of urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC). Therefore, the influence of activated fibroblasts on the expression of E-cadherin repressors as well as EMT and invasion in UBC was investigated. A correlative analysis of the immunohistochemical expression of fibroblast (ASMA, S100A4, FAP, SDF1, PDGFRβ) and EMT (Snail, Slug, Zeb1, E-cadherin) markers was performed on 49 UBC cases of different stages. The impact of distinguishable growth factor stimulated fibroblasts on invasion, EMT, and E-cadherin repressor expression was investigated in an invasion model. In situ, invasiveness was significantly correlated to the loss of membranous E-cadherin (E-cad_m) and increased Snail, Slug, Zeb1 in tumour cells, as well as to increased ASMA, S100A4, and PDGFRβ in stromal cells. A significant correlation to nodal metastasis could be evidenced for the loss of E-Cad_m, and for an increase in S100A4 and PDGFRβ. Comparison of stromal and EMT markers revealed significant correlations of ASMA to Snail and Slug; of S100A4 to the loss of E-cad_m and Zeb1; and of PDGFRβ to the loss of E-Cad_m, Slug and Zeb1. In vitro, TGFβ1 induced myofibroblasts were the strongest attractants, while aFGF or TGFβ1/aFGF stimulated fibroblasts were the most potent EMT inductors. As shown here for the first time, distinct sub-populations of fibroblasts are to various extents associated with EMT and tumour progression in UBC. These relevant findings might be the basis for the identification of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets selectively affecting tumour supporting CAF effects. PMID:22820858

  3. Influence of Cancer-Associated Endometrial Stromal Cells on Hormone-Driven Endometrial Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M. J.; Lu, Z.; Cao, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts have been shown to inhibit or stimulate tumor growth depending on stage, grade, and tumor type. It remains unclear, however, the effect of endometrial-cancer-associated fibroblasts on hormone-driven responses in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of normal and cancer-associated stromal cells from patients with and without endometrial cancer on endometrial tumor growth in response to estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). Compared to benign endometrial stromal cells, the low-grade and high-grade cancer-associated stromal cells exhibited a blunted hormone response for proliferation as well as IGFBP1 secretion. Additional analysis of the influence of stromal cells on hormone-driven tumor growth was done by mixing stromal cells from benign, low-grade, or high-grade tumors, with Ishikawa cells for subcutaneous tumor formation. The presence of both benign and high-grade cancer-associated stromal cells increased estradiol-driven xenografted tumor growth compared to Ishikawa cells alone. Low-grade cancer-associated stromal cells did not significantly influence hormone-regulated tumor growth. Addition of P4 attenuated tumor growth in Ishikawa + benign or high-grade stromal cells, but not in Ishikawa cells alone or with low-grade stromal cells. Using an angiogenesis focused real-time array TGFA, TGFB2 and TGFBR1 and VEGFC were identified as potential candidates for hormone-influenced growth regulation of tumors in the presence of benign and high-grade stromal cells. In summary, endometrial-cancer-associated cells responded differently to in vitro hormone treatment compared to benign endometrial stromal cells. Additionally, presence of stromal cells differentially influenced hormone-driven xenograft growth in vivo depending on the disease status of the stromal cells. PMID:25976290

  4. Two Methods for Establishing Primary Human Endometrial Stromal Cells from Hysterectomy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Amir; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as “the scraping method” and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed “the trypsin method.” This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF). PMID:24894444

  5. Two methods for establishing primary human endometrial stromal cells from hysterectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Jividen, Kasey; Movassagh, Mercedeh Javanbakht; Jazaeri, Amir; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as "the scraping method" and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed "the trypsin method." This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF). PMID:24894444

  6. Analysis of thymic stromal cell subpopulations grown in vitro on extracellular matrix in defined medium. III. Growth conditions of human thymic epithelial cells and immunomodulatory activities in their culture supernatant.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, L; Eshel, I; Meilin, A; Sharabi, Y; Shoham, J

    1991-01-01

    We report here on a new approach to the cultivation of human thymic epithelial (HTE) cells, which apparently allows more faithful preservation of cell function. This approach, previously developed by us for mouse thymic epithelial (MTE) cells, is based on the use of culture plates coated with extracellular matrix (ECM), and on the use of serum-free, growth factor-supplemented medium. The nutritional requirements of HTE and MTE are somewhat different. Although both are critically dependent on ECM and insulin, they differ in their dependency on other growth factors: selenium and transferrin are much more important for HTE cells, whereas epidermal growth factor and hydrocortisone play a more essential role in MTE cultures. The epithelial nature of the cultured cells is indicated by positive staining with anti-keratin antibodies and by the presence of desmosomes and tonofilaments. The ultrastructural appearance of the cells further suggests high metabolic and secretory activities, not usually found in corresponding cell lines. The culture supernatant (CS) of HTE cells exhibited a strong enhancing effect on thymocyte response to Con A stimulation, as measured by cell proliferation and lymphokine production. The effect was observed on both human and mouse thymocytes, but was much stronger in the homologous combination. Thymic factors tested in parallel did not have such a differential effect. The dose-effect relationships were in the form of a bell-shaped curve, with fivefold enhancement of response at the peak and a measurable effect even with 1:1000 dilution, when human thymocytes were used. The responding thymocytes were those which do not bind peanut agglutinin and are resistant to hydrocortisone. The culture system described here may have advantages for the in vitro study of thymic stromal cell function. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1783421

  7. DNA Damage Response in Neonatal and Adult Stromal Cells Compared With Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, Stefanie; Biebernick, Sophie; Radke, Teja Falk; Stapelkamp, Daniela; Coenen, Carolin; Zaehres, Holm; Fritz, Gerhard; Kogler, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses comparing individual DNA damage response (DDR) of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with neonatal stromal cells with respect to their developmental age are limited. The imperative necessity of providing developmental age-matched cell sources for meaningful toxicological drug safety assessments in replacement of animal-based testing strategies is evident. Here, DDR after radiation or treatment with N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU) was determined in iPSCs compared with neonatal and bone marrow stromal cells. Neonatal and adult stromal cells showed no significant morphologically detectable cytotoxicity following treatment with 1 Gy or 1 mM MNU, whereas iPSCs revealed a much higher sensitivity. Foci analyses revealed an effective DNA repair in stromal cell types and iPSCs, as reflected by a rapid formation and disappearance of phosphorylated ATM and γH2AX foci. Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed the highest basic expression level of DDR and repair-associated genes in iPSCs, followed by neonatal stromal cells and adult stromal cells with the lowest expression levels. In addition, the influence of genotoxic stress prior to and during osteogenic differentiation of neonatal and adult stromal cells was analyzed applying common differentiation procedures. Experiments presented here suggest a developmental age-dependent basic expression level of genes involved in the processing of DNA damage. In addition a differentiation-dependent downregulation of repair genes was observed during osteogenesis. These results strongly support the requirement to provide adequate cell sources for toxicological in vitro drug testing strategies that match to the developmental age and differentiation status of the presumptive target cell of interest. Significance The results obtained in this study advance the understanding of DNA damage processing in human neonatal stromal cells as compared with adult stromal cells and induced pluripotent

  8. Simvastatin modulates mesenchymal stromal cell proliferation and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Dalila Lucíola; Lorenzi, Julio Cesar Cetrulo; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Palma, Patricia Vianna Bonini; Dos Santos, Daiane Fernanda; Prata, Karen Lima; Silva, Wilson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used hypocholesterolemic drugs that block the mevalonate pathway, responsible for the biosysnthesis of cholesterol. However, statins also have pleiotropic effects that interfere with several signaling pathways. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a heterogeneous mixture of cells that can be isolated from a variety of tissues and are identified by the expression of a panel of surface markers and by their ability to differentiate in vitro into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC were isolated from amniotic membranes and bone marrows and characterized based on ISCT (International Society for Cell Therapy) minimal criteria. Simvastatin-treated cells and controls were directly assayed by CFSE (Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) staining to assess their cell proliferation and their RNA was used for microarray analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR). These MSC were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) proliferation. We show here that simvastatin negatively modulates MSC proliferation in a dose-dependent way and regulates the expression of proliferation-related genes. Importantly, we observed that simvastatin increased the percentage of a subset of smaller MSC, which also were actively proliferating. The association of MSC decreased size with increased pluripotency and the accumulating evidence that statins may prevent cellular senescence led us to hypothesize that simvastatin induces a smaller subpopulation that may have increased ability to maintain the entire pool of MSC and also to protect them from cellular senescence induced by long-term cultures/passages in vitro. These results may be important to better understand the pleiotropic effects of statins and its effects on the biology of cells with regenerative potential. PMID:25874574

  9. Stromal vascular cells and adipogenesis: Cells within adipose depots regulate adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue stromal/stem cells to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis. Early in development the stromal-vascular (S-V) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis in a depot dependent manner. For instance, the...

  10. Regeneration of cartilage and bone by defined subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells--potential and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Aicher, Wilhelm K; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Hart, Melanie; Rolauffs, Bernd; Badke, Andreas; Klein, Gerd

    2011-04-30

    Mesenchymal stromal cells, also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, can be obtained from various tissues. Today the main source for isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells in mammals is the bone marrow. Mesenchymal stromal cells play an important role in tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Moreover, they provide the cellular and humoral basis for many processes of tissue regeneration and wound healing in infancy, adolescence and adulthood as well. There is increasing evidence that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow and other sources including term placenta or adipose tissue are not a homogenous cell population. Only a restricted number of appropriate stem cells markers have been explored so far. But routine preparations of mesenchymal stromal cells contain phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of stromal cells. Knowledge on the phenotypical characteristics and the functional consequences of such subsets will not only extend our understanding of stem cell biology, but might allow to develop improved regimen for regenerative medicine and wound healing and novel protocols for tissue engineering as well. In this review we will discuss novel strategies for regenerative medicine by specific selection or separation of subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells in the context of osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Mesenchymal stromal cells, which express the specific cell adhesion molecule CD146, also known as MCAM or MUC18, are prone for bone repair. Other cell surface proteins may allow the selection of chondrogenic, myogenic, adipogenic or other pre-determined subsets of mesenchymal stromal cells for improved regenerative applications as well. PMID:21184789

  11. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Christopher J.; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M.; Worboys, Jonathan D.; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C.; Miller, Crispin J.; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRASG12D) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRASG12D signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRASG12D engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRASG12D. Consequently, reciprocal KRASG12D produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRASG12D alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. Video Abstract PMID:27087446

  12. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Tape, Christopher J; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M; Worboys, Jonathan D; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C; Miller, Crispin J; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRAS(G12D)) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRAS(G12D) signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRAS(G12D) engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D). Consequently, reciprocal KRAS(G12D) produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRAS(G12D) alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27087446

  13. [Mammary hamartoma with atypical stromal cells: a potential diagnostic dilemma].

    PubMed

    Agabiti, S; Gurrera, A; Amico, P; Vasquez, E; Magro, G

    2007-12-01

    Hamartoma of the breast is a pseudotumoural lesion that does not usually pose diagnostic problems for the pathologist. Although atypical stromal cell (ASCs) can be encountered in several benign and malignant breast lesions, their occurrence in hamartoma has not been reported to date. The authors report a case of breast hamartoma containing numerous atypical mono- or multinucleated stromal cells within the fibro-fatty component. This unusual feature raised differential diagnostic problems with pleomorphic lipoma, well-differentiated liposarcoma and malignant phylloid tumour with a lipomatous heterologous component. Immunohistochemistry, showing positivity to vimentin and CD34, revealed that ASCs are fibroblastic in nature, and thus are likely to represent a morphological variant of the fibroblasts of the native mammary stroma. PMID:18416336

  14. Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immune signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells

    PubMed Central

    Bascones, Sabrina; Mortha, Arthur; Puga, Irene; Cassis, Linda; Barra, Carolina M.; Comerma, Laura; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Gentile, Maurizio; Llige, David; Cols, Montserrat; Serrano, Sergi; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Juan, Manel; Yagüe, Jordi; Merad, Miriam; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal, epithelial and immune cells, but their impact on B cells remains unclear. We identified RORγt+ ILCs nearby the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment containing innate-like B cells that respond to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Spenic ILCs established a bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1+ marginal reticular cells by providing tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and activated MZ B cells via BAFF, CD40 ligand and the Notch ligand, Delta-like 1. Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma cell progeny by co-opting neutrophils through the release of GM-CSF. Consequently, ILC depletion impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune and circulatory systems. PMID:24562309

  15. Antigen Presenting Cells and Stromal Cells Trigger Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes to Autoreactivity: Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR) and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes should not damage autologous cells due to the engagement of inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS) members by HLA-I. Nevertheless, NK cells kill self cells expressing low levels or lacking HLA-I, as it may occur during viral infections (missing-self hypothesis). Herein, we show that human NK cells can be activated upon binding with self antigen presenting cells or stromal cells despite the expression of HLA-I. Indeed, NK cells can kill and produce pro-inflammatory and regulating cytokines as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL10 during interaction with autologous dendritic cells or bone marrow stromal cells or skin fibroblasts. The killing of antigen presenting and stromal cells is dependent on LFA1/ICAM1 interaction. Further, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) NKp30 and NKp46 are responsible for the delivery of lethal hit to DC, whereas NKG2D activating receptor, the ligand of the MHC-related molecule MIC-A and the UL16 binding protein, is involved in stromal cell killing. These findings indicate that different activating receptors are involved in cell to self cell interaction. Finally, NK cells can revert the veto effect of stromal cells on mixed lymphocyte reaction further supporting the idea that NK cells may alter the interaction between T lymphocytes and microenvironment leading to autoreactivity. PMID:17162374

  16. Shaping of the tumor microenvironment: Stromal cells and vessels.

    PubMed

    Blonska, Marzenna; Agarwal, Nitin K; Vega, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Lymphomas develop and progress in a specialized tissue microenvironment such as bone marrow as well as secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node and spleen. The lymphoma microenvironment is characterized by a heterogeneous population of stromal cells, including fibroblastic reticular cells, nurse-like cells, mesenchymal stem cells, follicular dendritic cells, and inflammatory cells such as macrophages, T- and B-cells. These cell populations interact with the lymphoma cells to promote lymphoma growth, survival and drug resistance through multiple mechanisms. Angiogenesis is also recognized as an important factor associated with lymphoma progression. In recent years, we have learned that the interaction between the malignant and non-malignant cells is bidirectional and resembles, at least in part, the pattern seen between non-neoplastic lymphoid cells and the normal microenvironment of lymphoid organs. A summary of the current knowledge of lymphoma microenvironment focusing on the cellular components will be reviewed here. PMID:25794825

  17. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1–5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  18. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis; Klovins, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1-5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  19. Stromal cell contributions to the homeostasis and functionality of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Scott N.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2009-01-01

    A defining characteristic of the immune system is the constant movement of many of its constituent cells through the secondary lymphoid tissues, mainly the spleen and lymph nodes, where crucial interactions that underlie homeostatic regulation, peripheral tolerance, and effective development of adaptive immunity take place. What has only recently been recognized is the role that non-haematopoietic stromal elements have in multiple aspects of immune cell migration, activation and survival. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of lymphoid compartment stromal cells, examine their possible heterogeneity, discuss how these cells contribute to immune homeostasis and the efficient initiation of adaptive immunity, and highlight how targeting of these elements by some pathogens can influence the host response. PMID:19644499

  20. Loss-of-Function of HtrA1 Abrogates All-Trans Retinoic Acid-Induced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mouse Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Through Deficiencies in p70S6K Activation.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Stephan; Mirsaidi, Ali; López-Fagundo, Cristina; Filliat, Gladys; Tiaden, André N; Richards, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a potent inducer of osteogenic differentiation in mouse adipose-derived stromal cells (mASCs), although the underlying mechanisms responsible for its mode of action have yet to be completely elucidated. High temperature requirement protease A1 (HtrA1) is a newly recognized modulator of human multipotent stromal cell (MSC) osteogenesis and as such, may play a role in regulating ATRA-dependent osteogenic differentiation of mASCs. In this study, we assessed the influence of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced repression of HtrA1 production on mASC osteogenesis and examined its effects on ATRA-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Inhibition of HtrA1 production in osteogenic mASCs resulted in a significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation. Western blot analyses revealed the rapid activation of Akt (Ser473) and p70S6K (Thr389) in ATRA-treated mASCs, and that levels of phosphorylated p70S6K were noticeably reduced in HtrA1-deficient mASCs. Further studies using mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and siRNA specific for the p70S6K gene Rps6kb1 confirmed ATRA-mediated mASC osteogenesis as being dependent on p70S6K activation. Finally, transfection of cells with a constitutively active rapamycin-resistant p70S6K mutant could restore the mineralizing capacity of HtrA1-deficient mASCs. These findings therefore lend further support for HtrA1 as a positive mediator of MSC osteogenesis and provide new insights into the molecular mode of action of ATRA in regulating mASC lineage commitment. PMID:26950191

  1. Very late antigen-5 facilitates stromal progenitor cell differentiation into myofibroblast.

    PubMed

    Sen, Namita; Weingarten, Mark; Peter, Yakov

    2014-11-01

    Fibrotic disease is associated with abrogated stromal cell proliferation and activity. The precise identity of the cells that drive fibrosis remains obscure, in part because of a lack of information on their lineage development. To investigate the role of an early stromal progenitor cell (SPC) on the fibrotic process, we selected for, and monitored the stages of, fibroblast development from a previously reported free-floating anchorage-independent cell (AIC) progenitor population. Our findings demonstrate that organotypic pulmonary, cardiac, and renal fibroblast commitment follows a two-step process of attachment and remodeling in culture. Cell differentiation was confirmed by the inability of SPCs to revert to the free-floating state and functional mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblast, adipocyte, chondrocyte, and fibroblastic lineages. The myofibroblastic phenotype was reflected by actin stress-fiber formation, α-smooth muscle production, and a greater than threefold increase in proliferative activity compared with that of the progenitors. SPC-derived pulmonary myofibroblasts demonstrated a more than 300-fold increase in fibronectin-1 (Fn1), collagen, type 1, α1, integrin α-5 (Itga5), and integrin β-1 (Itgb1) transcript levels. Very late antigen-5 (ITGA5/ITGB1) protein cluster formations were also prevalent on the differentiated cells. Normalized SPC-derived myofibroblast expression patterns reflected those of primary cultured lung myofibroblasts. Intratracheal implantation of pulmonary AICs into recipient mouse lungs resulted in donor cell FN1 production and evidence of epithelial derivation. SPC derivation into stromal tissue in vitro and in vivo and the observation that MSC and fibroblast lineages share a common ancestor could potentially lead to personalized antifibrotic therapies. PMID:25273539

  2. Stromal cells as trend-setters for cells migrating into the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Buettner, M; Dittrich-Breiholz, O; Falk, C S; Lochner, M; Smoczek, A; Menzel, F; Bornemann, M; Bode, U

    2015-05-01

    Lymph node stromal cells are known to be immunorelevant during inflammation and tolerance. Differences between peripheral lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes are important for an efficient and effective immune defense. Stromal cells were considered to be perfectly adapted to their draining area and not changeable concerning their expression pattern. Here we show that stromal cells can change their profile after isolation and transplantation into a different draining area. Subsequently, these newly organized lymph nodes are able to induce not only a region-specific but also an antigen-specific immune response. Thus, stromal cells are trend-setters for immune cells in producing a microenvironment that allows an optimized immune defense. PMID:25354321

  3. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yue; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Zhen, Xin; Yan, Guijun; Sun, Haixiang

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Decidually produced PRL plays a key role during pregnancy. {yields} Overexpression of Nur77 increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter activity. {yields} Knockdown of Nur77 decreased decidual PRL secretion induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. {yields} Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression. -- Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells. Despite the important role of decidual PRL during pregnancy, little is understood about the factors involved in the proper regulation of decidual PRL expression. Here we present evidence that the transcription factor Nur77 plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs). Nur77 mRNA expression in hESCs was significantly increased after decidualization stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 in hESCs markedly increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter (dPRL/-332Luc) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nur77 in hESCs significantly decreased decidual PRL promoter activation and substantially attenuated PRL mRNA expression and PRL secretion (P < 0.01) induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. These results demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that contributes significantly to the regulation of prolactin gene expression in human endometrial stromal cells.

  4. Luman recruiting factor is involved in stromal cell proliferation during decidualization in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Lin, Pengfei; Chen, Fenglei; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Fan; Wang, Aihua; Jin, Yaping

    2016-08-01

    Decidualization is crucial for successful pregnancy in mice and humans. Although many essential molecular modulators have been identified during decidualization, the precise molecular mechanism of uterine decidualization remains largely unknown. Our previous research indicates that luman recruiting factor (LRF) is strongly expressed in decidual uteri of mice on days 6-8 of pregnancy. In this study, our aim is to determine the biological functions of LRF during decidualization in mice. We used the shLRF lentivirus to attenuate the expression of LRF, which significantly reduced the weight and size of implantation sites on days 7-8 of pregnancy. In a stromal cell culture model, LRF mRNA and protein levels increased significantly during stromal cell decidualization induced by estrogen and progesterone. LRF silencing resulted in the decidual markers decidual prolactin-related protein, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 and progesterone receptor being dramatically reduced, and the decidual process was significantly inhibited. Cell-cycle analysis and cell apoptosis analysis revealed that, although no obvious apoptosis occurred in shLRF-lentivirus-infected stromal cells during decidualization, proliferation was inhibited via S-phase cell-cycle arrest, and the mitotic activity of uterine stromal cells was inhibited. An examination of cell-cycle regulatory factors indicated that the mRNA expression levels of cyclin A and cyclin B1 were significantly down-regulated after treatment with shLRF lentivirus. Thus, LRF seems to be involved in the regulation of decidualization during pregnancy by modulating the expression of the key cell-cycle regulatory factors cyclin A and cyclin B1. PMID:27053244

  5. Stromal inhibition of prostatic epithelial cell proliferation not mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, A.; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, A. J.; Klaij, I. A.; Romijn, J. C.; Schröder, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The paracrine influence of prostatic stroma on the proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells was investigated. Stromal cells from the human prostate have previously been shown to inhibit anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent growth of the prostatic tumour epithelial cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Antiproliferative activity, mediated by a diffusible factor in the stromal cell conditioned medium, was found to be produced specifically by prostatic stromal cells. In the present study the characteristics of this factor were examined. It is demonstrated that prostate stroma-derived inhibiting factor is an acid- and heat-labile, dithiothreitol-sensitive protein. Although some similarities with type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta)-like inhibitors are apparent, evidence is presented that the factor is not identical to TGF-beta or to the TGF-beta-like factors activin and inhibin. Absence of TGF-beta activity was shown by the lack of inhibitory response of the TGF-beta-sensitive mink lung cell line CCL-64 to prostate stromal cell conditioned medium and to concentrated, partially purified preparations of the inhibitor. Furthermore, neutralising antibodies against TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 did not cause a decline in the level of PC-3 growth inhibition caused by partially purified inhibitor. Using Northern blot analyses, we excluded the involvement of inhibin or activin. It is concluded that the prostate stroma-derived factor may be a novel growth inhibitor different from any of the currently described inhibiting factors. Images Figure 5 PMID:7543773

  6. Decidualization and syndecan-1 knock down sensitize endometrial stromal cells to apoptosis induced by embryonic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boeddeker, Sarah Jean; Baston-Buest, Dunja Maria; Fehm, Tanja; Kruessel, Jan; Hess, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human embryo invasion and implantation into the inner wall of the maternal uterus, the endometrium, is the pivotal process for a successful pregnancy. Whereas disruption of the endometrial epithelial layer was already correlated with the programmed cell death, the role of apoptosis of the subjacent endometrial stromal cells during implantation is indistinct. The aim was to clarify whether apoptosis plays a role in the stromal invasion and to characterize if the apoptotic susceptibility of endometrial stromal cells to embryonic stimuli is influenced by decidualization and Syndecan-1. Therefore, the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 was used to first generate a new cell line with a stable Syndecan-1 knock down (KdS1), and second to further decidualize the cells with progesterone. As a replacement for the ethically inapplicable embryo all cells were treated with the embryonic factors and secretion products interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1 and anti-Fas antibody to mimic the embryo contact. Detection of apoptosis was verified via Caspase ELISAs, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were investigated via antibody arrays and underlying signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Non-decidualized endometrial stromal cells showed a resistance towards apoptosis which was rescinded by decidualization and Syndecan-1 knock down independent of decidualization. This was correlated with an altered expression of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and connected to a higher activation of pro-survival Akt in non-differentiated St-T1 as an upstream mediator of apoptotis-related proteins. This study provides insight into the largely elusive process of implantation, proposing an important role for stromal cell apoptosis to successfully establish a pregnancy. The impact of Syndecan-1 in attenuating the apoptotic signal is particularly interesting in the light of an already

  7. [Multipotent mesenchymal stromal and immune cells interaction: reciprocal effects].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, E R; Buravkova, L B

    2012-12-01

    Adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) are considered now as one of the key players in physiological and pathological tissue remodeling. Clarification of the mechanisms that mediate MMSC functions, is one of the most intriguing issues in modern cell physiology. Present Review summarizes current understanding of the MMSC effects on different types of immune cells. The realization of MMSC immunomodulatory capacity is considered as a contribution of direct cell-to-cell contacts, soluble mediators and of local microenvironmental factors, the most important of which is the partial pressure of oxygen. MMSCs and immune cells interaction is discussed in the terms of reciprocal effects, modifying properties of all "partner cells". Special attention is paid to the influence of immune cells on the MMSCs. "Immunosuppressive" phenomenon of MMSCs is considered as the integral part of the "response to injury" mechanism. PMID:23461191

  8. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Takam Kamga, Paul; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Nwabo Kamdje, Armel Hervé; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-04-19

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB.These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  9. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB. These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  10. Visualizing stromal cell dynamics in different tumor microenvironments by spinning disk confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Egeblad, Mikala; Ewald, Andrew J.; Askautrud, Hanne A.; Truitt, Morgan L.; Welm, Bryan E.; Bainbridge, Emma; Peeters, George; Krummel, Matthew F.; Werb, Zena

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor microenvironment consists of stromal cells and extracellular factors that evolve in parallel with carcinoma cells. To gain insights into the activities of stromal cell populations, we developed and applied multicolor imaging techniques to analyze the behavior of these cells within different tumor microenvironments in the same live mouse. We found that regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) migrated in proximity to blood vessels. Dendritic-like cells, myeloid cells and carcinoma-associated fibroblasts all exhibited higher motility in the microenvironment at the tumor periphery than within the tumor mass. Since oxygen levels differ between tumor microenvironments, we tested if acute hypoxia could account for the differences in cell migration. Direct visualization revealed that Tregs ceased migration under acute systemic hypoxia, whereas myeloid cells continued migrating. In the same mouse and microenvironment, we experimentally subdivided the myeloid cell population and revealed that uptake of fluorescent dextran defined a low-motility subpopulation expressing markers of tumor-promoting, alternatively activated macrophages. In contrast, fluorescent anti-Gr1 antibodies marked myeloid cells patrolling inside tumor vessels and in the stroma. Our techniques allow real-time combinatorial analysis of cell populations based on spatial location, gene expression, behavior and cell surface molecules within intact tumors. The techniques are not limited to investigations in cancer, but could give new insights into cell behavior more broadly in development and disease. PMID:19048079

  11. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  12. Stromal uptake and transmission of acid is a pathway for venting cancer cell-generated acid.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Black, Nicholas; Hsia, Lin-Ting; Wilding, Jennifer; Bodmer, Walter F; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    Proliferation and invasion of cancer cells require favorable pH, yet potentially toxic quantities of acid are produced metabolically. Membrane-bound transporters extrude acid from cancer cells, but little is known about the mechanisms that handle acid once it is released into the poorly perfused extracellular space. Here, we studied acid handling by myofibroblasts (colon cancer-derived Hs675.T, intestinal InMyoFib, embryonic colon-derived CCD-112-CoN), skin fibroblasts (NHDF-Ad), and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116, HT29) grown in monoculture or coculture. Expression of the acid-loading transporter anion exchanger 2 (AE2) (SLC4A2 product) was detected in myofibroblasts and fibroblasts, but not in CRC cells. Compared with CRC cells, Hs675.T and InMyoFib myofibroblasts had very high capacity to absorb extracellular acid. Acid uptake into CCD-112-CoN and NHDF-Ad cells was slower and comparable to levels in CRC cells, but increased alongside SLC4A2 expression under stimulation with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), a cytokine involved in cancer-stroma interplay. Myofibroblasts and fibroblasts are connected by gap junctions formed by proteins such as connexin-43, which allows the absorbed acid load to be transmitted across the stromal syncytium. To match the stimulatory effect on acid uptake, cell-to-cell coupling in NHDF-Ad and CCD-112-CoN cells was strengthened with TGFβ1. In contrast, acid transmission was absent between CRC cells, even after treatment with TGFβ1. Thus, stromal cells have the necessary molecular apparatus for assembling an acid-venting route that can improve the flow of metabolic acid through tumors. Importantly, the activities of stromal AE2 and connexin-43 do not place an energetic burden on cancer cells, allowing resources to be diverted for other activities. PMID:27543333

  13. Mesenchymal stromal cells and fibroblasts: a case of mistaken identity?

    PubMed

    Hematti, Peiman

    2012-05-01

    The plastic-adherent fibroblast-looking cells that can be isolated and culture-expanded from bone marrow and many other tissues are widely known as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). In addition to their fibroblast-like morphology, they are characterized by a panel of cell-surface markers and their potential to differentiate into bone, fat and cartilage. Based on their intriguing immunomodulatory and regenerative properties, MSC are being investigated as cellular therapeutics for a variety of clinical indications. However, many questions regarding the true identity and functionality of these cells in vivo remain unanswered. Fibroblasts, known for a much longer time but still poorly characterized, are also considered to be a ubiquitous stromal element of almost all tissues and are believed to play a role in tissue homeostasis. Despite the presence of MSC and fibroblasts in almost all tissues, similar morphology and other shared characteristics, the exact relationship between MSC and fibroblasts has remained undetermined. In this review, based on recent and old, but often neglected, literature it is suggested that ex vivo culture-expanded MSC and fibroblasts are indistinguishable by morphology, cell-surface markers, differentiation potential and immunologic properties. PMID:22458957

  14. Melanoma educates mesenchymal stromal cells towards vasculogenic mimicry

    PubMed Central

    VARTANIAN, AMALIA; KARSHIEVA, SAIDA; DOMBROVSKY, VLADISLAV; BELYAVSKY, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited to the tumor, and promote tumor development and growth. The present study was performed to investigate the communication between aggressive melanoma and MSCs in vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Normal human MSCs plated on Matrigel were unable to form capillary-like structures (CLSs). By contrast, MSCs co-cultured with aggressive melanoma cell lines, namely, Mel Cher, Mel Kor and Mel P, generated CLSs. Significantly, MSCs co-cultured with poorly aggressive melanoma cells, namely, Mel Me, failed to form CLSs. To identify factors responsible for VM, the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), pro-epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor 1α on the formation of CLSs by MSCs were tested. VM was induced by the addition of VEGFA, whereas other cytokines were inefficient. To confirm the hypothesis that aggressive tumor cells can increase the vasculogenic ability of MSCs, a standard B16/F10 mouse melanoma test system was used. MSCs isolated from the adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice with melanoma formed a vascular-like network on Matrigel, whereas MSCs from healthy mice failed to form such structures. This study provides the first direct evidence that melanoma tumors educate MSCs to engage in VM. The education may occur distantly. These findings offer promise for novel therapeutic directions in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27313776

  15. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate. PMID:26184166

  16. [Transplantation of adipose tissue multipotent stromal cells in the treatment of chronic ischemia of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Saliutin, R V; Palianytsia, S S; Sirman, V M; Panchenko, L A; Komarova, L S

    2014-07-01

    The expediency of the stromal cells application, obtained from adipose tissue, was determined in a frame of preclinical investigations conduction, concerning experimental works on laboratory rats, in whom the extremity ischemia was simulated. Histologic and immunohistochemical changes were studied in muscular tissue after transplantation of multipotent stromal cells of own adipose tissue in patients, suffering ischemia of the lower extremity. Reduction of severity of the myofibrills ischemic damage, rapid activation of the muscles regenerative power, accurate stimulation of the angiogenesis processes in 3 mo after transplantation of the cells were demonstrated. PMID:25252413

  17. Transit of normal rat uterine stromal cells through G1 phase of the cell cycle requires progesterone-growth factor interactions.

    PubMed

    Jones, S R; Kimler, B F; Justice, W M; Rider, V

    2000-02-01

    both cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and cyclin dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6). Cyclin D1-Cdk complexes and kinase activity correlated temporally with increased cyclin D1 expression in cells cultured with MPA plus FGF. Taken together, these results show that progesterone-FGF interactions increase cyclin D1 expression, correlating with accelerated stromal cell entry into S phase compared with cells treated with FGF alone. Moreover, progesterone plus FGF sustains the timing of stimulation for transit of uterine stromal cells through G1 into S phase compared with FGF alone. PMID:10650945

  18. [Therapeutic Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells after Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, N V; Alexandrova, S A

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are now considered to be a perspective multifunctional treatment option for radiation side effects. At present.a great number of sufficient evidence has been collected in favor of therapeutic effects of MSCs in acute radiation reactions. It has been shown that MSC-based products injected locally or systemically have therapeutic effects on irradiated organs and tissues. This review presents summarized experimental and clinical data about protective and regenerative effects of MSCs on different radiation-injured organs and tissues; the main probable therapeutic mechanisms of their action are also discussed. PMID:27534063

  19. Stromal fibroblasts facilitate cancer cell invasion by a novel invadopodia-independent matrix degradation process.

    PubMed

    Cao, H; Eppinga, R D; Razidlo, G L; Krueger, E W; Chen, J; Qiang, L; McNiven, M A

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic invasion of tumors into peripheral tissues is known to rely upon protease-mediated degradation of the surrounding stroma. This remodeling process uses complex, actin-based, specializations of the plasma membrane termed invadopodia that act both to sequester and release matrix metalloproteinases. Here we report that cells of mesenchymal origin, including tumor-associated fibroblasts, degrade substantial amounts of surrounding matrix by a mechanism independent of conventional invadopodia. These degradative sites lack the punctate shape of conventional invadopodia to spread along the cell base and are reticular and/or fibrous in character. In marked contrast to invadopodia, this degradation does not require the action of Src kinase, Cdc42 or Dyn2. Rather, inhibition of Dyn2 causes a marked upregulation of stromal matrix degradation. Further, expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases are differentially regulated between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts. This matrix remodeling by fibroblasts increases the invasive capacity of tumor cells, thereby illustrating how the tumor microenvironment can contribute to metastasis. These findings provide evidence for a novel matrix remodeling process conducted by stromal fibroblasts that is substantially more effective than conventional invadopodia, distinct in structural organization and regulated by disparate molecular mechanisms. PMID:25982272

  20. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    PubMed

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-01-01

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions. PMID:19918332

  1. Adenosinergic Immunosuppression by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Requires Co-Operation with T cells.

    PubMed

    Kerkelä, Erja; Laitinen, Anita; Räbinä, Jarkko; Valkonen, Sami; Takatalo, Maarit; Larjo, Antti; Veijola, Johanna; Lampinen, Milla; Siljander, Pia; Lehenkari, Petri; Alfthan, Kaija; Laitinen, Saara

    2016-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to counteract excessive inflammatory responses. MSCs possess a range of immunomodulatory mechanisms, which can be deployed in response to signals in a particular environment and in concert with other immune cells. One immunosuppressive mechanism, not so well-known in MSCs, is mediated via adenosinergic pathway by ectonucleotidases CD73 and CD39. In this study, we demonstrate that adenosine is actively produced from adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) by CD73 on MSCs and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Our results indicate that although MSCs express CD39 at low level and it colocalizes with CD73 in bulge areas of membranes, the most efficient adenosine production from adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) requires co-operation of MSCs and activated T cells. Highly CD39 expressing activated T cells produce AMP from ATP and MSCs produce adenosine from AMP via CD73 activity. Furthermore, adenosinergic signaling plays a role in suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. In conclusion, this study shows that adenosinergic signaling is an important immunoregulatory mechanism of MSCs, especially in situations where ATP is present in the extracellular environment, like in tissue injury. An efficient production of immunosuppressive adenosine is dependent on the concerted action of CD39-positive immune cells with CD73-positive cells such as MSCs or their EVs. Stem Cells 2016;34:781-790. PMID:26731338

  2. Characterization of corneal stromal stem cells with the potential for epithelial transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The corneal stroma is being increasingly recognized as a repository for stem cells. Like the limbal and endothelial niches, stromal stem cells often reside in the peripheral cornea and limbus. These peripheral and limbal corneal stromal cells (PLCSCs) are known to produce mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Recently, a common corneal stromal and epithelial progenitor was hinted at. This study aims to examine the stem cell potential of corneal stromal cells and to investigate their epithelial transdifferentiation ability. Methods PLCSCs were grown in traditional Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM)-based keratocyte culture medium and an M199-based medium and analyzed for a profile of cell-surface markers by using flow cytometry and differentiated into mesenchymal phenotypes analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and histologic staining. PLCSCs in M199 were subsequently divided into subpopulations based on CD34 and CD105 expression by using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS). Subpopulations were characterized by marker profile and mesenchymal differentiation ability. Both whole PLCSCs and subpopulations were also cultured for epithelial transdifferentiation. Results Cells cultured in M199 demonstrated a more stem-like cell-surface marker profile, and the keratocyte marker CD34 was retained for several passages but absent in cells cultured in DMEM. Cells cultured in M199 also exhibited a greater mesenchymal differentiation potential, compared with DMEM. PLCSCs could be divided into CD34+CD105+, CD34-CD105+, and CD34-CD105- subpopulations, of which CD34+CD105+ cells were the most stemlike with regard to marker expression and mesenchymal differentiation potential. Subpopulations of PLCSCs exhibited differing abilities to transdifferentiate into epithelial phenotypes. Cells that were initially CD34+CD105+ showed the greatest differentiation potential, producing CK3+ and CK19+ cells, and expressed a range of both epithelial

  3. The Role of the Transcriptional Regulation of Stromal Cells in Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Valin, Alvaro; Pablos, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a common process connecting pathologies that vary in their etiology and pathogenesis such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infections. The response of the immune system to tissue damage involves a carefully choreographed series of cellular interactions between immune and non-immune cells. In recent years, it has become clear that stromal resident cells have an essential role perpetuating the inflammatory environment and dictating in many cases the outcome of inflammatory based pathologies. Signal transduction pathways remain the main focus of study to understand how stimuli contribute to perpetuating the inflammatory response, mainly due to their potential role as therapeutic targets. However, molecular events orchestrated in the nucleus by transcription factors add additional levels of complexity and may be equally important for understanding the phenotypic differences of activated stromal components during the chronic inflammatory process. In this review, we focus on the contribution of transcription factors to the selective regulation of inducible proinflammatory genes, with special attention given to the regulation of the stromal fibroblastic cell function and response. PMID:26501341

  4. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  5. A molecular classification of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Mason, Elizabeth A.; Matigian, Nicholas; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Chen, Tyrone; Butcher, Suzanne; Patel, Jatin; Atkinson, Kerry; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Fisk, Nicholas M.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are widely used for the study of mesenchymal tissue repair, and increasingly adopted for cell therapy, despite the lack of consensus on the identity of these cells. In part this is due to the lack of specificity of MSC markers. Distinguishing MSC from other stromal cells such as fibroblasts is particularly difficult using standard analysis of surface proteins, and there is an urgent need for improved classification approaches. Transcriptome profiling is commonly used to describe and compare different cell types; however, efforts to identify specific markers of rare cellular subsets may be confounded by the small sample sizes of most studies. Consequently, it is difficult to derive reproducible, and therefore useful markers. We addressed the question of MSC classification with a large integrative analysis of many public MSC datasets. We derived a sparse classifier (The Rohart MSC test) that accurately distinguished MSC from non-MSC samples with >97% accuracy on an internal training set of 635 samples from 41 studies derived on 10 different microarray platforms. The classifier was validated on an external test set of 1,291 samples from 65 studies derived on 15 different platforms, with >95% accuracy. The genes that contribute to the MSC classifier formed a protein-interaction network that included known MSC markers. Further evidence of the relevance of this new MSC panel came from the high number of Mendelian disorders associated with mutations in more than 65% of the network. These result in mesenchymal defects, particularly impacting on skeletal growth and function. The Rohart MSC test is a simple in silico test that accurately discriminates MSC from fibroblasts, other adult stem/progenitor cell types or differentiated stromal cells. It has been implemented in the www.stemformatics.org resource, to assist researchers wishing to benchmark their own MSC datasets or data from the public domain. The code is available from the CRAN

  6. A molecular classification of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Rohart, Florian; Mason, Elizabeth A; Matigian, Nicholas; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Chen, Tyrone; Butcher, Suzanne; Patel, Jatin; Atkinson, Kerry; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Fisk, Nicholas M; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Wells, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are widely used for the study of mesenchymal tissue repair, and increasingly adopted for cell therapy, despite the lack of consensus on the identity of these cells. In part this is due to the lack of specificity of MSC markers. Distinguishing MSC from other stromal cells such as fibroblasts is particularly difficult using standard analysis of surface proteins, and there is an urgent need for improved classification approaches. Transcriptome profiling is commonly used to describe and compare different cell types; however, efforts to identify specific markers of rare cellular subsets may be confounded by the small sample sizes of most studies. Consequently, it is difficult to derive reproducible, and therefore useful markers. We addressed the question of MSC classification with a large integrative analysis of many public MSC datasets. We derived a sparse classifier (The Rohart MSC test) that accurately distinguished MSC from non-MSC samples with >97% accuracy on an internal training set of 635 samples from 41 studies derived on 10 different microarray platforms. The classifier was validated on an external test set of 1,291 samples from 65 studies derived on 15 different platforms, with >95% accuracy. The genes that contribute to the MSC classifier formed a protein-interaction network that included known MSC markers. Further evidence of the relevance of this new MSC panel came from the high number of Mendelian disorders associated with mutations in more than 65% of the network. These result in mesenchymal defects, particularly impacting on skeletal growth and function. The Rohart MSC test is a simple in silico test that accurately discriminates MSC from fibroblasts, other adult stem/progenitor cell types or differentiated stromal cells. It has been implemented in the www.stemformatics.org resource, to assist researchers wishing to benchmark their own MSC datasets or data from the public domain. The code is available from the CRAN

  7. Multiple Functions of MSCA-1/TNAP in Adult Mesenchymal Progenitor/Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Estève, David; Galitzky, Jean; Bouloumié, Anne; Fonta, Caroline; Buchet, René; Magne, David

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge about mesenchymal stem cells has considerably grown in the last years. Since the proof of concept of the existence of such cells in the 70s by Friedenstein et al., a growing mass of reports were conducted for a better definition of these cells and for the reevaluation from the term “mesenchymal stem cells” to the term “mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs).” Being more than a semantic shift, concepts behind this new terminology reveal the complexity and the heterogeneity of the cells grouped in MSC family especially as these cells are present in nearly all adult tissues. Recently, mesenchymal stromal cell antigen-1 (MSCA-1)/tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) was described as a new cell surface marker of MSCs from different tissues. The alkaline phosphatase activity of this protein could be involved in wide range of MSC features described below from cell differentiation to immunomodulatory properties, as well as occurrence of pathologies. The present review aims to decipher and summarize the role of TNAP in progenitor cells from different tissues focusing preferentially on brain, bone marrow, and adipose tissue. PMID:26839555

  8. IL-6 originated from breast cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells may contribute to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Ünal, Zehra Seda; Subaşı, Cansu; Ulukaya, Engin; Karaöz, Erdal

    2015-07-01

    Tumor microenvironment is an important factor, which sustains and promotes the tumors by inflammatory signals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known as a multifunctional cytokine, which is a major activator of the signaling pathway of Janus kinases (JAKs)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 in the tumor microenvironment on carcinogenesis. For this purpose, healthy breast tissue-derived stromal cells (HBT-SCs) and malign breast tissue-derived stromal cells (MBT-SCs) were co-cultured with MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) cells using semipermeable membranes. The cell proliferation was monitored with water-soluble tetrazolium (WST) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assays. Protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot hybridization, while gene expressions were measured by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that IL-6 protein levels increased significantly in the supernatants of MBT-SCs when they were co-cultured with MCF-7 cells. In accordance with this, the expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in MBT-SCs. Additionally, the expression of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells increased slightly when they were co-cultured with MBT-SCs. Considering together, there is an important interaction between tumor microenvironment and tumor cells mediated by IL-6 signaling. Thereby, the targeting on IL-6 signaling in the treatment of cancer might effectively prevent the tumor progression. PMID:25697898

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation leads to transient depletion of the mouse thymic medulla and persistent abnormalities among medullary stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, B.; Gandour, D.; Strober, S.; Weissman, I.

    1988-05-15

    Mice given multiple doses of sublethal irradiation to both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid tissues showed major transient, and some persistent disruptions in general thymic architecture and in thymic stromal components. At 2 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the thymus lacked identifiable medullary regions by immunohistochemical analyses. Medullary stromal cells expression MHC Ag or a medullary epithelial cell Ag, as well as medullary macrophages, were undetectable. Instead, the processes of cortical epithelial cells were observed throughout the entire thymus. Strikingly, thymocyte subsets with mature phenotypes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) were present in the apparent absence of a medulla. This early, gross effect was rapidly reversed such that by 1 to 2 mo after TLI, medullary areas with MHC Ag-positive cells were evident. However, abnormalities in a subset of medullary stromal cells appeared to be more persistent. Medullary epithelial cells, identified by the MD1 mAb, were greatly reduced in number and abnormally organized for at least 4 mo after TLI. In addition, macrophages containing endogenous peroxidase activity, normally abundant in medullary regions, were undetectable at all times examined after TLI. Therefore, this irradiation regimen induced both transient and long term effects in the thymus, primarily in medullary regions. These results suggest that TLI may be used as an experimental tool for studying the impact of selective depletion of medullary stromal cells on the development of specific T cell functions.

  10. Tumor-Promoting Desmoplasia Is Disrupted by Depleting FAP-Expressing Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lo, Albert; Wang, Liang-Chuan S; Scholler, John; Monslow, James; Avery, Diana; Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Evans, Rebecca A; Bajor, David J; Clendenin, Cynthia; Durham, Amy C; Buza, Elizabeth L; Vonderheide, Robert H; June, Carl H; Albelda, Steven M; Puré, Ellen

    2015-07-15

    Malignant cells drive the generation of a desmoplastic and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Cancer-associated stromal cells (CASC) are a heterogeneous population that provides both negative and positive signals for tumor cell growth and metastasis. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is a marker of a major subset of CASCs in virtually all carcinomas. Clinically, FAP expression serves as an independent negative prognostic factor for multiple types of human malignancies. Prior studies established that depletion of FAP(+) cells inhibits tumor growth by augmenting antitumor immunity. However, the potential for immune-independent effects on tumor growth have not been defined. Herein, we demonstrate that FAP(+) CASCs are required for maintenance of the provisional tumor stroma because depletion of these cells, by adoptive transfer of FAP-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, reduced extracellular matrix proteins and glycosaminoglycans. Adoptive transfer of FAP-CAR T cells also decreased tumor vascular density and restrained growth of desmoplastic human lung cancer xenografts and syngeneic murine pancreatic cancers in an immune-independent fashion. Adoptive transfer of FAP-CAR T cells also restrained autochthonous pancreatic cancer growth. These data distinguish the function of FAP(+) CASCs from other CASC subsets and provide support for further development of FAP(+) stromal cell-targeted therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:25979873

  11. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chun-E; Zhu, Xueqiong; Li, Jinping; Lyle, Christian; Dowdy, Sean; Podratz, Karl C.; Byck, David; Chen, Hai-Bin; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies. PMID:25782154

  12. BST-1, a surface molecule of bone marrow stromal cell lines that facilitates pre-B-cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    Kaisho, T; Ishikawa, J; Oritani, K; Inazawa, J; Tomizawa, H; Muraoka, O; Ochi, T; Hirano, T

    1994-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells are essential for B-lymphocyte development. However, how stromal cells regulate B lymphopoiesis is not clear. In this paper, we report the molecular cloning of a stromal cell line-derived glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule, BST-1, that facilitates pre-B-cell growth. The deduced amino acid sequence of BST-1 exhibited 33% identity with CD38. BST-1 was expressed in a wide range of tissues and in umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas it was scarcely expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cell lines. The gene for BST-1 was assigned to chromosome 14q32.3, where immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes are clustered. BST-1 expression was enhanced in rheumatoid arthritis patient-derived bone marrow stromal cell lines that were previously shown to have an enhanced ability to support the growth of a pre-B-cell line as compared with stromal cell lines derived from healthy donors. Images PMID:8202488

  13. Andrographolide suppresses thymic stromal lymphopoietin in phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated mast cells and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like mice model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-xiao; Li, Hua-guo; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Ru-hong; Li, Ming; Liang, Jian-ying; Gu, Yan; Ling, Bo; Yao, Zhi-rong; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous diseases. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has been demonstrated to be an important immunologic factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The production of TSLP can be induced by a high level of intracellular calcium concentration and activation of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway. Andrographolide (ANDRO), a natural bicyclic diterpenoid lactone, has been found to exert anti-inflammatory effects in gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders through suppressing the NF-κB pathway. Objective To explore the effect of ANDRO on the production of TSLP in human mast cells and AD mice model. Methods We utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining assay to investigate the effects of ANDRO on AD. Results ANDRO ameliorated the increase in the intracellular calcium, protein, and messenger RNA levels of TSLP induced by phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187, through the blocking of the receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/NF-κB pathway in human mast cell line 1 cells. ANDRO, via oral or local administration, also attenuated clinical symptoms in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD mice model and suppressed the levels of TSLP in lesional skin. Conclusion Taken together, ANDRO may be a potential therapeutic agent for AD through suppressing the expression of TSLP. PMID:26929603

  14. Marginal reticular cells: a stromal subset directly descended from the lymphoid tissue organizer

    PubMed Central

    Katakai, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    The architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is supported by several non-hematopoietic stromal cells. Currently it is established that two distinct stromal subsets, follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, play crucial roles in the formation of tissue compartments within SLOs, i.e., the follicle and T zone, respectively. Although stromal cells in the anlagen are essential for SLO development, the relationship between these primordial cells and the subsets in adulthood remains poorly understood. In addition, the roles of stromal cells in the entry of antigens into the compartments through some tissue structures peculiar to SLOs remain unclear. A recently identified stromal subset, marginal reticular cells (MRCs), covers the margin of SLOs that are primarily located in the outer edge of follicles and construct a unique reticulum. MRCs are closely associated with specialized endothelial or epithelial structures for antigen transport. The similarities in marker expression profiles and successive localization during development suggest that MRCs directly descend from organizer stromal cells in the anlagen. Therefore, MRCs are thought to be a crucial stromal component for the organization and function of SLOs. PMID:22807928

  15. Pre-diagnostic obesity and physical inactivity are associated with shorter telomere length in prostate stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshu, Corinne E; Peskoe, Sarah B; Heaphy, Christopher M; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Yun, GhilSuk; Lee, Thomas K; Hicks, Jessica L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and inactivity have been with associated advanced stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine if telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically treated for prostate cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we measured telomere length in cancer and benign cells using a telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Adiposity and activity were assessed via questionnaire within 2 years of diagnosis. Adjusting for age, pathologic stage and grade, the median and standard deviation of the per cell telomere signals were determined for each man for stromal cells and cancer cells by adiposity and activity categories. Overweight/obese men (54%) were similar to normal weight men on most factors, but had higher Gleason sum and lower activity levels. Overweight/obese men had 7.4% shorter telomeres in stromal cells than normal weight men (P=0.06). The least active men had shorter telomeres in stromal cells than more active men (P-trend=0.002). Men who were overweight/obese and the least active had the shortest telomeres in stromal cells (20.7% shorter; P=0.0005) compared to normal weight men who were the most active. Cancer cell telomere length and telomere length variability did not differ by measures of adiposity or activity. Telomere shortening in prostate cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences prostate cancer risk and outcomes. PMID:25990087

  16. Monitoring live human mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation and subsequent selection using fluorescent RNA-based probes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bojun; Menzel, Ursula; Loebel, Claudia; Schmal, Hagen; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Investigating mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation requires time and multiple samples due to destructive endpoint assays. Osteogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) has been widely studied for bone tissue engineering. Recent studies show that the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs can be assessed by quantifying the ratio of two important transcription factors (Runx2/Sox9). We demonstrate a method to observe mRNA expression of two genes in individual live cells using fluorescent probes specific for Runx2 and Sox9 mRNA. The changes of mRNA expression in cells can be observed in a non-destructive manner. In addition, the osteogenic hBMSCs can be prospectively identified and obtained based on the relative intracellular fluorescence of Sox9 in relation to Runx2 using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Relatively homogeneous cell populations with high osteogenic potential can be isolated from the original heterogeneous osteogenically induced hBMSCs within the first week of induction. This offers a more detailed analysis of the effectiveness of new therapeutics both at the individual cell level and the response of the population as a whole. By identifying and isolating differentiating cells at early time points, prospective analysis of differentiation is also possible, which will lead to a greater understanding of MSC differentiation. PMID:27198236

  17. Monitoring live human mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation and subsequent selection using fluorescent RNA-based probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojun; Menzel, Ursula; Loebel, Claudia; Schmal, Hagen; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Investigating mesenchymal stromal cell differentiation requires time and multiple samples due to destructive endpoint assays. Osteogenesis of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) has been widely studied for bone tissue engineering. Recent studies show that the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs can be assessed by quantifying the ratio of two important transcription factors (Runx2/Sox9). We demonstrate a method to observe mRNA expression of two genes in individual live cells using fluorescent probes specific for Runx2 and Sox9 mRNA. The changes of mRNA expression in cells can be observed in a non-destructive manner. In addition, the osteogenic hBMSCs can be prospectively identified and obtained based on the relative intracellular fluorescence of Sox9 in relation to Runx2 using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Relatively homogeneous cell populations with high osteogenic potential can be isolated from the original heterogeneous osteogenically induced hBMSCs within the first week of induction. This offers a more detailed analysis of the effectiveness of new therapeutics both at the individual cell level and the response of the population as a whole. By identifying and isolating differentiating cells at early time points, prospective analysis of differentiation is also possible, which will lead to a greater understanding of MSC differentiation. PMID:27198236

  18. Isolation of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Cryopreserved Human Umbilical Cord Tissue.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Yu A; Balashova, E E; Volgina, N E; Kabaeva, N V; Dugina, T N; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord stroma is an easily available, convenient, and promising source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine. Cryogenic storage of umbilical cord tissue provides more possibilities for further isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for autologous transplantation or scientific purposes. Here we developed a protocol for preparation of the whole umbilical cord tissue for cryogenic storage that in combination with the previously described modified method of isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells allowed us to isolate cells with high proliferative potential, typical phenotype, and preserved differentiation potencies. PMID:26902359

  19. Expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrial stromal and decidual cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shiokawa, Shigetatsu; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Nakamura, Yukio

    1996-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Fluorescence-activated flow cytometry demonstrated the greater expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, and {alpha}{sub 5} subunits of the {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured stromal cells from the midsecretory phase, than in those of the early proliferative phase. The addition of estradiol (E{sub 2}) and progesterone (P) to cultured stromal cells in the early proliferative phase increased the expression of {beta}{sub 1} integrins in vitro. Flow cytometry also demonstrated the expression of the {beta}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 1}, {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {alpha}{sub 6} subunits of {beta}{sub 1} integrin family in cultured decidual cells, and the enriched-fraction of prolactin (PRL)-producing decidual cells isolated by Percoll gradients showed high levels of {beta}{sub 1} integrins expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the {beta}{sub 1} integrin cell surface phenotypes in cultured decidual cells observed by flow cytometry. In summary, the present study demonstrated that endometrial stromal and decidual cells expressed {beta}{sub 1} integrin subunits at their surfaces. The expression exhibited a variability throughout the menstrual cycles, being predominantly detected in the secretory phase, and was maintained highly in the decidua. Thus, {beta}{sub 1} integrins in human endometrium and decidua may be important in mediating the organization of extracellular matrix proteins derived from embryos during the early stage of implantation. 43 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. CONCISE REVIEW Micro RNA Expression in Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Hart, Ronald P.

    2009-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) isolated from various adult tissue sources have the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple lineages. Both of these processes are tightly regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Emerging evidence indicates that the class of single-stranded non-coding RNAs known as “microRNAs” also plays a critical role in this process. First described in nematodes and plants, microRNAs have been shown to modulate major regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotic cells involved in a broad array of cellular functions. Studies with various types of embryonic as well as adult stem cells indicate an intricate network of microRNAs regulating key transcription factors and other genes which in turn determine cell fate. In addition, expression of unique microRNAs in specific cell types serves as a useful diagnostic marker to define a particular cell type. MicroRNAs are also found to be regulated by extracellular signaling pathways that are important for differentiation into specific tissues, suggesting that they play a role in specifying tissue identity. In this review we describe the importance of microRNAs in stem cells focusing on our current understanding of microRNAs in MSC and their derivatives. PMID:17991914

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cells and chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Algeri, M; Conforti, A; Pitisci, A; Starc, N; Tomao, L; Bernardo, M E; Locatelli, F

    2015-12-01

    Recent experimental findings have shown the ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to home to damaged tissues and to produce paracrine factors with anti-inflammatory properties, potentially resulting in reduction of inflammation and functional recovery of the damaged tissues. Prompted by these intriguing properties and on the basis of encouraging preclinical data, MSCs are currently being studied in several immune-mediated disorders. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a setting in which MSCs-based therapy has been extensively investigated. Phase I and II studies have documented the safety and feasibility of MSCs. However, efficacy results have so far been conflicting. In this review, we will discuss the biologic rationale that makes MSCs a promising therapeutic tool for IBD, and analyze recent experimental and clinical findings, highlighting current limitations and future perspectives of MSCs-related immunotherapy for IBD. PMID:26170204

  2. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Steven J.; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  3. NACA deficiency reveals the crucial role of somite-derived stromal cells in haematopoietic niche formation.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Emi; Sarris, Milka; Redd, Michael; Le Guyader, Dorothée; Vivier, Catherine; Horsley, Wyatt; Trede, Nikolaus; Herbomel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The ontogeny of haematopoietic niches in vertebrates is essentially unknown. Here we show that the stromal cells of the caudal haematopoietic tissue (CHT), the first niche where definitive haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) home in zebrafish development, derive from the caudal somites through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The resulting stromal cell progenitors accompany the formation of the caudal vein sinusoids, the other main component of the CHT niche, and mature into reticular cells lining and interconnecting sinusoids. We characterize a zebrafish mutant defective in definitive haematopoiesis due to a deficiency in the nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit (NACA). We demonstrate that the defect resides not in HSPCs but in the CHT niche. NACA-deficient stromal cell progenitors initially develop normally together with the sinusoids, and HSPCs home to the resulting niche, but stromal cell maturation is compromised, leading to a niche that is unable to support HSPC maintenance, expansion and differentiation. PMID:26411530

  4. Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Fibroblast-Derived Extracellular Matrix Synergistically Activate Apoptosis in a p21-Dependent Mechanism in WHCO1 and MDA MB 231 Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dzobo, Kevin; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dandara, Collet; Kallmeyer, Karlien; Pepper, Michael S.; Parker, M. Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment plays a crucial role in tumour progression and comprises tumour stroma which is made up of different cell types and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are part of the tumour stroma and may have conflicting effects on tumour growth. In this study we investigated the effect of Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) and a fibroblast-derived ECM (fd-ECM) on esophageal (WHCO1) and breast (MDA MB 231) cancer cells in vitro. Both WJ-MSCs and the fd-ECM, alone or in combination, downregulate PCNA, cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and MMPs and upregulate p53 and p21. p21 induction resulted in G2 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in vitro. Our data suggest that p21 induction is via p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms in WHCO1 and MDA MB 231 cells, respectively. Vascular endothelial growth factor, Akt, and Nodal pathways were downregulated in cancer cells cocultured with WJ-MSCs. We also demonstrate that WJ-MSCs effects on cancer cells appear to be short-lived whilst the fd-ECM effect is long-lived. This study shows the influence of tumour microenvironment on cancer cell behaviour and provides alternative therapeutic targets for potential regulation of tumour cells. PMID:26880967

  5. [Effect of bone marrow stromal cells on the apoptotic sensitivity of HL-60 and HL-60/VCR cells].

    PubMed

    Liang, Rong; Huang, Gao-Sheng; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Xie-Qun; Bai, Qing-Xian; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Wang, Juan-Hong; Wang, Wen-Qing; Guo, Ying

    2005-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of human bone marrow fibroblastoid stromal cell line (HFCL) on chemosensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia sensitive HL-60 cell line and multidrug-resistant (MDR) HL-60/VCR cell line in vitro co-culture. Setting up co-culture system of HL-60 or HL-60/VCR cells in direct contact with HFCL cells, or with HFCL cells separated by transwell, and exposing HL-60 or HL-60/VCR cells to different concentrations of topotecon (TPT), morphologic evidence for apoptosis was determined by staining with Wright-Giemsa stain and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB). Cell cycle, sub-G(1) and annexin V FITC staining were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of active caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Pgp was detected by Western blot. The results showed that HL-60 or HL-60/VCR cells treated by TPT revealed characteristic apoptotic morphological changes by Wright-Giemsa and AO/EB staining. The percentage of annexin V-positive cells and apoptotic cells decreased when they were cocultured with HFCL cells. The proportion of G(0)/G(1) HL-60 or HL-60/VCR cells treated by TPT increased and the sub-G(1) appeared significantly, but apoptotic and sub-G cells reduced after direct contact with HFCL cells. Meanwhile, although HL-60 or HL-60/VCR cells treated by TPT expressed activated caspase-3, and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, the expression of activated caspase-3 decreased and Bcl-2 increased after direct contact with HFCL cells. In conclusion, HFCL stromal cells can prevent TPT-induced apoptosis in HL-60 and HL-60/VCR cells via modulation of Bcl-2 and active caspase-3. PMID:15854294

  6. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors is required for elevated α1A-adrenoreceptors expression and signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A; Fadeeva, Julia I; Kanareikina, Margarita A; Kalinina, Natalia I; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu; Dyikanov, Daniyar T; Stambolsky, Dmitriy V; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons are important components of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) niche and noradrenaline regulates biological activities of these cells. Here we examined the mechanisms of regulation of MSCs responsiveness to noradrenaline. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that α1A adrenergic receptors isoform was the most abundant in adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Using calcium imaging in single cells, we demonstrated that only 6.9 ± 0.8% of MSCs responded to noradrenaline by intracellular calcium release. Noradrenaline increases MSCs sensitivity to catecholamines in a transitory mode. Within 6 hrs after incubation with noradrenaline the proportion of cells responding by Ca(2+) release to the fresh noradrenaline addition has doubled but declined to the baseline after 24 hrs. Increased sensitivity was due to the elevated quantities of α1A-adrenergic receptors on MSCs. Such elevation depended on the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activation. The data for the first time clarify mechanisms of regulation of MSCs sensitivity to noradrenaline. PMID:27596381

  7. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors is required for elevated α1A-adrenoreceptors expression and signaling in mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tyurin-Kuzmin, Pyotr A.; Fadeeva, Julia I.; Kanareikina, Margarita A.; Kalinina, Natalia I.; Sysoeva, Veronika Yu.; Dyikanov, Daniyar T.; Stambolsky, Dmitriy V.; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic neurons are important components of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) niche and noradrenaline regulates biological activities of these cells. Here we examined the mechanisms of regulation of MSCs responsiveness to noradrenaline. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that α1A adrenergic receptors isoform was the most abundant in adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Using calcium imaging in single cells, we demonstrated that only 6.9 ± 0.8% of MSCs responded to noradrenaline by intracellular calcium release. Noradrenaline increases MSCs sensitivity to catecholamines in a transitory mode. Within 6 hrs after incubation with noradrenaline the proportion of cells responding by Ca2+ release to the fresh noradrenaline addition has doubled but declined to the baseline after 24 hrs. Increased sensitivity was due to the elevated quantities of α1A-adrenergic receptors on MSCs. Such elevation depended on the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activation. The data for the first time clarify mechanisms of regulation of MSCs sensitivity to noradrenaline. PMID:27596381

  8. Cryopreservation and Revival of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising and innovative new treatment for different degenerative and autoimmune diseases, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow have demonstrated great therapeutic potential due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative capacities.The establishment of methods for large-scale expansion of clinical-grade MSCs in vitro has paved the way for their therapeutic use in clinical trials. However, the clinical application of MSCs also requires cryopreservation and banking of the cell products. To preserve autologous or allogeneic MSCs for future clinical applications, a reliable and effective cryopreservation method is required.Developing a successful cryopreservation protocol for clinical stem cell products, cryopreservation media, cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the freezing container, the freezing temperature, and the cooling and warming rate are all aspects which should be considered.A major challenge is the selection of a suitable cryoprotectant which is able to penetrate the cells and yet has low toxicity.This chapter focuses on recent technological developments relevant for the cryopreservation of MSCs using the most commonly used cryopreservation medium containing DMSO and animal serum or human-derived products for research use and the animal protein-free cryopreservation media CryoStor (BioLife Solutions) for clinical use. PMID:27236683

  9. Musculoskeletal tissue engineering with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Ott, Lindsey; Seshareddy, Kiran; Weiss, Mark L; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, yet with so many sources of MSCs, what are the primary criteria for selecting leading candidates? Ideally, the cells will be multipotent, inexpensive, lack donor site morbidity, donor materials should be readily available in large numbers, immunocompatible, politically benign and expandable in vitro for several passages. Bone marrow MSCs do not meet all of these criteria and neither do embryonic stem cells. However, a promising new cell source is emerging in tissue engineering that appears to meet these criteria: MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cord MSCs. Exposed to appropriate conditions, umbilical cord MSCs can differentiate in vitro along several cell lineages such as the chondrocyte, osteoblast, adipocyte, myocyte, neuronal, pancreatic or hepatocyte lineages. In animal models, umbilical cord MSCs have demonstrated in vivo differentiation ability and promising immunocompatibility with host organs/tissues, even in xenotransplantation. In this article, we address their cellular characteristics, multipotent differentiation ability and potential for tissue engineering with an emphasis on musculoskeletal tissue engineering. PMID:21175290

  10. Immunomodulation of endothelial differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells: impact on T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    El Omar, Reine; Xiong, Yu; Dostert, Gabriel; Louis, Huguette; Gentils, Monique; Menu, Patrick; Stoltz, Jean-François; Velot, Émilie; Decot, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering, as their immunomodulatory activity allows them to escape immune recognition and to suppress several immune cell functions. To date, however, few studies have investigated the effect of differentiation of the MSCs on this immunomodulation. To address this question, we sought to determine the impact of differentiation toward endothelial cells on immunoregulation by WJ-MSCs. Following differentiation, the endothelial-like cells (ELCs) were positive for CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and able to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. The expression of HLA-DR and CD86, which contribute to MSCs immunoprivilege, was still weak after differentiation. We then co-cultured un- and differentiated MSCs with immune cells, under conditions of both direct and indirect contact. The proliferation and phenotype of the immune cells were analyzed and the mediators secreted by both ELCs and WJ-MSCs quantified. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 and in particular indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression were upregulated in ELCs on stimulation by T and NK cells, suggesting the possible involvement of these factors in allosuppression. ELCs co-cultured with T cells were able to generate CD25(+) T cells, which were shown to be of the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory subset. Direct contact between NK cells and ELCs or WJ-MSCs decreased the level of NK-activating receptor natural-killer group 2, member D. Moreover, direct co-culturing with ELCs stimulates CD73 acquisition on NK cells, a mechanism which may induce adenosine secretion by the cells and lead to an immunosuppressive function. Taken together, our results show that ELCs obtained following differentiation of WJ-MSCs remain largely immunosuppressive. PMID:26510892

  11. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-01

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca²⁺ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  12. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C.; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  13. Am80 inhibits stromal cell-derived factor-1-induced chemotaxis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taichi; Jimi, Shiro; Hara, Shuuji; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Suzumiya, Junji; Tamura, Kazuo

    2010-03-01

    C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) play a potent role in metastasis and infiltration of many types of tumors, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), into the central nervous system or lymph nodes. Although higher levels of CXCR4 expression have been shown to correlate with shorter survival of patients, effective drugs affecting cell surface CXCR4 expression are still unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid Am80 on CXCR4 expression of cultured T-ALL cells, such as Jurkat. Am80 inhibited surface CXCR4 expression and SDF-1-induced chemotaxis by the acceleration of CXCR4 internalization via activation of conventional PKC. Am80 may be an effective drug to inhibit the extramedullary infiltration of T-ALL cells. PMID:20141446

  14. Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Magri, Giuliana; Miyajima, Michio; Bascones, Sabrina; Mortha, Arthur; Puga, Irene; Cassis, Linda; Barra, Carolina M; Comerma, Laura; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Gentile, Maurizio; Llige, David; Cols, Montserrat; Serrano, Sergi; Aróstegui, Juan Ignacio; Juan, Manel; Yagüe, Jordi; Merad, Miriam; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified RORγt(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1(+) marginal reticular cells by providing tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and they stimulated MZ B cells via B cell-activation factor (BAFF), the ligand of the costimulatory receptor CD40 (CD40L) and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma-cell progeny by coopting neutrophils through release of the cytokine GM-CSF. Consequently, depletion of ILCs impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune system and circulatory system. PMID:24562309

  15. Demineralized bone promotes chondrocyte or osteoblast differentiation of human marrow stromal cells cultured in collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuanhu; Yates, Karen E; Eid, Karim; Glowacki, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Demineralized bone implants have been used for many types of craniomaxillofacial, orthopedic, periodontal, and hand reconstruction procedures. In previous studies, we showed that demineralized bone powder (DBP) induces chondrogenesis of human dermal fibroblasts in a DBP/collagen sponge system that optimized interactions between particles of DBP and target cells in cell culture. In this study, we test the hypothesis that DBP promotes chondrogenesis or osteogenesis of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) in 3-D collagen sponge culture, depending upon the culture conditions. We first confirmed that hMSCs have chondrogenic potential when treated with TGF-beta, either in 2-D monolayer cultures or in 3-D porous collagen sponges. Second, we found that DBP markedly enhanced chondrogenesis in hMSCs in 3-D sponges, as assessed by metachromasia and expression of chondrocyte-specific genes AGGRECAN, COL II, and COL X. Human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) were used to define mechanisms of chondroinduction because unlike hMSCs they have no inherent chondrogenic potential. In situ hybridization revealed that hDFs vicinal to DBPs express chondrocyte-specific genes AGGRECAN or COL II. Macroarray analysis showed that DBP activates TGF-beta/BMP signaling pathway genes in hDFs. Finally, DBP induced hMSCs to express the osteoblast phenotype when cultured with osteogenic supplements. These studies show how culture conditions can influence the differentiation pathway that human marrow stromal cells follow when stimulated by DBP. These results support the potential to engineer cartilage or bone in vitro by using human bone marrow stromal cells and DBP/collagen scaffolds. PMID:15735899

  16. Stromal cell migration precedes hemopoietic repopulation of the bone marrow after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Werts, E.D.; Gibson, D.P.; Knapp, S.A.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Circulation of hemopoietic stem cells into an irradiated site has been thoroughly documented, but migration of stromal cells to repair radiation damage has not. We determined the radiosensitivity of mouse bone marrow stroma and evaluated stromal and hemopoietic repopulation in x-irradiated marrow. The D/sub 0/ for growth of colonies of marrow stromal cells (MSC) was 215 to 230 rad. Total-body irradiation (TB) obliterated marrow stromal and hemopoietic cells within 3 days. In contrast, 1 day after 1000 rad leg irradiation (LI), MSC rose to 80% of normal, but fell to 34% by 3 days and recovered to 72% by 30 days. However, femoral nucleated cells diminished to 20% by 3 days and recovered to 74% of normal by 30 days. Likewise, differentiated marrow cells and hemopoietic stem cells were initially depleted. With 1000 rad LI followed 3 h later by 1000 rad to the body while shielding the leg, MSC and femoral nucleated cells recovered to values intermediate between 1000 rad TB and 1000 rad LI. We concluded that: (1) the D/sub 0/ for MSC was 215 to 230 rad, (2) stromal repopulation preceded hemopoietic recovery, and (3) immigration of stromal cells from an unirradiated sanctuary facilitated hemopoietic repopulation of a heavily irradiated site.

  17. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  18. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  19. Doxazosin treatment alters stromal cell behavior and increases elastic system fibers deposition in rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Delella, Flávia Karina; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis

    2010-10-01

    Doxazosin (DOX), an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, induces the relaxation of smooth muscle cell tonus and reduces the clinical symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the effects of DOX in the prostate stromal microenvironment are not fully known. In a previous study, we showed that DOX treatment for 30 days increased deposition of collagen fibers in the three rat prostatic lobes. Herein, we investigated the effects of DOX on stromal cell ultrastructure and elastic fiber deposition. Adult Wistar rats were treated with DOX (25 mg/kg/day); and the ventral, dorsal, and anterior prostates were excised at 30 days of treatment. The prostatic lobes were submitted to histochemical and stereological-morphometric analyze and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histochemical staining plus stereological analysis of the elastic fiber system showed that DOX-treated prostatic lobes presented more elaunin and elastic fibers than controls, mainly in the ventral lobe. Ultrastructural analysis showed that fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells from DOX-treated prostates presented active synthetic phenotypes, evidenced by enlarged rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus cisterns, and confirmed the observation of thickened elaunin fibers. Our findings suggest that, under α-adrenergic blockade by DOX, the fibroblasts become more active and smooth muscle cells shift from a predominantly contractile to a more synthetic phenotype. The deposition of collagen and elastic system fibers in the prostatic stroma may counterbalance the absence of smooth muscle tone during α-blockers treatment. PMID:20155861

  20. Brief report: The potential role of epigenetics on multipotent cell differentiation capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yannarelli, Gustavo; Pacienza, Natalia; Cuniberti, Luis; Medin, Jeffrey; Davies, John; Keating, Armand

    2013-01-01

    Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) are a readily available source of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy. We were interested in understanding how differences from human bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs might yield insights into MSC biology. We found that HUCPVCs exhibited increased telomerase activity and longer telomeres compared with BM-MSCs. We also observed enhanced expression of the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG in HUCPVCs. The methylation of OCT4 and NANOG promoters was similar in both cell types, indicating that differences in the expression of pluripotency factors between the MSCs were not associated with epigenetic changes. MSC methylation at these loci is greater than reported for embryonic stem cells but less than in dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that multipotentiality of MSCs is epigenetically restricted. These results are consistent with the notion that the MSC population (whether BM- or HUCPV-derived) exhibits higher proliferative capacity and contains more progenitor cells than do dermal fibroblasts. PMID:23097343

  1. Diesel Exhaust Particle-Exposed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Polarization via Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Bertram; Tse, Doris B.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.; Zhang, Feijie

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants, including ambient particulate matter, has been proposed as a mechanism for the rise in allergic disorders. Diesel exhaust particles, a major component of ambient particulate matter, induce sensitization to neoallergens, but the mechanisms by which sensitization occur remain unclear. We show that diesel exhaust particles upregulate thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human bronchial epithelial cells in an oxidant-dependent manner. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced by diesel exhaust particles was associated with maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, which was blocked by anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibodies or silencing epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Dendritic cells exposed to diesel exhaust particle-treated human bronchial epithelial cells induced Th2 polarization in a thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent manner. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which diesel exhaust particles modify human lung mucosal immunity. PMID:18049884

  2. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bieback, Karen; Kinzebach, Sven; Karagianni, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed. PMID:21318154

  3. Mesenchymal stromal cells for cartilage repair in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mamidi, M K; Das, A K; Zakaria, Z; Bhonde, R

    2016-08-01

    Treatment for articular cartilage damage is quite challenging as it shows limited repair and regeneration following injury. Non-operative and classical surgical techniques are inefficient in restoring normal anatomy and function of cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, investigating new and effective strategies for OA are necessary to establish feasible therapeutic solutions. The emergence of the new discipline of regenerative medicine, having cell-based therapy as its primary focus, may enable us to achieve repair and restore the damaged articular cartilage. This review describes progress and development of employing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy as a promising alternative for OA treatment. The objective of this review is to first, discuss how in vitro MSC chondrogenic differentiation mimics in vivo embryonic cartilage development, secondly, to describe various chondrogenic differentiation strategies followed by pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrating their feasibility and efficacy. However, several challenges need to be tackled before this research can be translated to the clinics. In particular, better understanding of the post-transplanted cell behaviour and learning to enhance their potency in the disease microenvironment is essential. Final objective is to underscore the importance of isolation, storage, cell shipment, route of administration, optimum dosage and control batch to batch variations to realise the full potential of MSCs in OA clinical trials. PMID:26973328

  4. Focal adhesion protein abnormalities in myelodysplastic mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Aanei, Carmen Mariana; Eloae, Florin Zugun; Flandrin-Gresta, Pascale; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Carasevici, Eugen; Guyotat, Denis; Campos, Lydia

    2011-11-01

    Direct cell-cell contact between haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and their cellular microenvironment is essential to maintain 'stemness'. In cancer biology, focal adhesion (FA) proteins are involved in survival signal transduction in a wide variety of human tumours. To define the role of FA proteins in the haematopoietic microenvironment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), CD73-positive mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were immunostained for paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and p130CAS, and analysed for reactivity, intensity and cellular localisation. Immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to identify qualitative and quantitative differences, and subcellular localisation analysis revealed that in pathological MSCs, paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} formed nuclear molecular complexes. Increased expression of paxillin, pFAK [Y{sup 397}], and HSP90{alpha}/{beta} and enhanced nuclear co-localisation of these proteins correlated with a consistent proliferative advantage in MSCs from patients with refractory anaemia with excess blasts (RAEB) and negatively impacted clonogenicity of HPCs. These results suggest that signalling via FA proteins could be implicated in HPC-MSC interactions. Further, because FAK is an HSP90{alpha}/{beta} client protein, these results suggest the utility of HSP90{alpha}/{beta} inhibition as a target for adjuvant therapy for myelodysplasia.

  5. Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Malecka, Anna; Wang, Qunwei; Shah, Sabaria; Sutavani, Ruhcha V; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M; Greensmith, Julie; Franks, Hester A; Gough, Michael J; Saalbach, Anja; Patel, Poulam M; Jackson, Andrew M

    2016-08-01

    Dendritic cell function is modulated by stromal cells, including fibroblasts. Although poorly understood, the signals delivered through this crosstalk substantially alter dendritic cell biology. This is well illustrated with release of TNF-α/IL-1β from activated dendritic cells, promoting PGE2 secretion from stromal fibroblasts. This instructs dendritic cells to up-regulate IL-23, a key Th17-polarizing cytokine. We previously showed that ionizing radiation inhibited IL-23 production by human dendritic cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that dendritic cell-fibroblast crosstalk overcomes the suppressive effect of ionizing radiation to support appropriately polarized Th17 responses. Radiation (1-6 Gy) markedly suppressed IL-23 secretion by activated dendritic cells (P < 0.0001) without adversely impacting their viability and consequently, inhibited the generation of Th17 responses. Cytokine suppression by ionizing radiation was selective, as there was no effect on IL-1β, -6, -10, and -27 or TNF-α and only a modest (11%) decrease in IL-12p70 secretion. Coculture with fibroblasts augmented IL-23 secretion by irradiated dendritic cells and increased Th17 responses. Importantly, in contrast to dendritic cells, irradiated fibroblasts maintained their capacity to respond to TNF-α/IL-1β and produce PGE2, thus providing the key intermediary signals for successful dendritic cell-fibroblasts crosstalk. In summary, stromal fibroblasts support Th17-polarizing cytokine production by dendritic cells that would otherwise be suppressed in an irradiated microenvironment. This has potential ramifications for understanding the immune response to local radiotherapy. These findings underscore the need to account for the impact of microenvironmental factors, including stromal cells, in understanding the control of immunity. PMID:27049023

  6. Mesenchymal stromal cells in renal transplantation: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Federica; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Lifelong immunosuppressive therapy is essential to prevent allograft rejection in transplant recipients. Long-term, nonspecific immunosuppression can, however, result in life-threatening complications and fail to prevent chronic graft rejection. Bone marrow (BM)-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as a potential candidate for cell-based therapy to modulate the immune response in organ transplantation. These cells can repair tissue after injury and downregulate many of the effector functions of immune cells that participate in the alloimmune response, converting them into regulatory cells. The findings of preclinical and initial clinical studies support the potential tolerance-inducing effects of MSCs and highlight the unanticipated complexity of MSC therapy in kidney transplantation. In animal models of transplantation MSCs promote donor-specific tolerance through the generation of regulatory T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In some settings, however, MSCs can acquire proinflammatory properties and contribute to allograft dysfunction. The available data from small clinical studies suggest that cell infusion is safe and well tolerated by kidney transplant recipients. Ongoing and future trials will provide evidence regarding the long-term safety of MSC therapy and determine the optimum cell source (either autologous or allogeneic) and infusion protocol to achieve operational tolerance in kidney transplant recipients. These studies will also provide additional evidence regarding the risks and benefits of MSC infusion and will hopefully offer definitive answers to the important questions of when, where, how many and which types of MSCs should be infused to fully exploit their immunomodulatory, pro-tolerogenic and tissue-repairing properties. PMID:26853275

  7. Intermittent parathyroid hormone (1–34) application regulates cAMP-response element binding protein activity to promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stromal cells, via the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, BAILING; LIN, TAO; YANG, XIAOXI; LI, YIQIANG; XIE, DENGHUI; CUI, HAOWEN

    2016-01-01

    The potential effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (1–34) [PTH (1–34)] administration on bone formation have previously been investigated. A number of studies have suggested that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway is associated with PTH-induced osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise signaling pathways and molecular mechanism by which PTH (1–34) induces the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) remain elusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of intermittent PTH (1–34) application on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. BMSCs were randomly divided into four groups, as follows: Osteogenic medium (control group); osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1–34); osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1–34) plus the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin; and osteogenic medium and intermittent PTH (1–34) plus the PKA inhibitor H-89. A cell proliferation assay revealed that PTH (1–34) stimulates BMSC proliferation via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Furthermore, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, alkaline phosphatase activity testing and cell examination using Alizarin Red S staining demonstrated that PTH (1–34) administration promotes osteogenic differentiation and mineralization, mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway. Crucially, the results of western blot analyses suggested that PTH (1–34) treatment and, to a greater degree, PTH (1–34) plus forskolin treatment caused an increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) expression, but the effect of PTH on p-CREB expression was blocked by H-89. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that intermittent PTH (1–34) administration regulates downstream proteins, particularly p-CREB, in the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, to enhance the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of BMSCs

  8. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in stromal cells from human bone marrow long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Snjezana; Mazic, Sanja; Kisic, Veronika; Basic, Nikolina; Jakic-Razumovic, Jasminka; Borovecki, Fran; Batinic, Drago; Simic, Petra; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Labar, Boris; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2004-09-01

    Highly purified primitive hemopoietic stem cells express BMP receptors but do not synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, exogenously added BMPs regulate their proliferation, differentiation, and survival. To further explore the mechanism by which BMPs might be involved in hemopoietic differentiation, we tested whether stromal cells from long-term culture (LTC) of normal human bone marrow produce BMPs, BMP receptors, and SMAD signaling molecules. Stromal cells were immunohistochemically characterized by the presence of lyzozyme, CD 31, factor VIII, CD 68, S100, alkaline phosphatase, and vimentin. Gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR and the presence of BMP protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The supportive role of the stromal cell layer in hemopoiesis in vitro was confirmed by a colony assay of clonogenic progenitors. Bone marrow stromal cells express mRNA and protein for BMP-3, -4, and -7 but not for BMP-2, -5, and -6 from the first to the eighth week of culture. Furthermore, stromal cells express the BMP type I receptors, activin-like kinase-3 (ALK-3), ALK-6, and the downstream transducers SMAD-1, -4, and -5. Thus, human bone marrow stromal cells synthesize BMPs, which might exert their effects on hemopoietic stem cells in a paracrine manner through specific BMP receptors. PMID:15314083

  9. Activation of Notch1 signaling in stromal fibroblasts inhibits melanoma growth by upregulating WISP-1.

    PubMed

    Shao, H; Cai, L; Grichnik, J M; Livingstone, A S; Velazquez, O C; Liu, Z-J

    2011-10-20

    The tumor microenvironment is emerging as an important target for cancer therapy. Fibroblasts (Fbs) within the tumor stroma are critically involved in promoting tumor growth and angiogenesis through secretion of soluble factors, synthesis of extracellular matrix and direct cell-cell interaction. In this work, we aim to alter the biological activity of stromal Fbs by modulating the Notch1 signaling pathway. We show that Fbs engineered to constitutively activate the Notch1 pathway significantly inhibit melanoma growth and tumor angiogenesis. We determine that the inhibitory effect of 'Notch-engineered' Fbs is mediated by increased secretion of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1 (WISP-1) as the effects of Notch1 activation in Fbs are reversed by shRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1. When 'Notch-engineered' Fbs are co-grafted with melanoma cells in SCID mice, shRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1 reverses the tumor-suppressive phenotype of the 'Notch-engineered' Fbs, significantly increases melanoma growth and tumor angiogenesis. Consistent with these findings, supplement of recombinant WISP-1 protein inhibits melanoma cell growth in vitro. In addition, WISP-1 is modestly expressed in melanoma-activated Fbs but highly expressed in inactivated Fbs. Evaluation of human melanoma skin biopsies indicates that expression of WISP-1 is significantly lower in melanoma nests and surrounding areas filled with infiltrated immune cells than in the adjacent dermis unaffected by the melanoma. Overall, our study shows that constitutive activation of the Notch1 pathway confers Fbs with a suppressive phenotype to melanoma growth, partially through WISP-1. Thus, targeting tumor stromal Fbs by activating Notch signaling and/or increasing WISP-1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanoma. PMID:21516124

  10. In vivo therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells depends on the source and the isolation procedure.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Francesca; Ukovich, Laura; Razban, Vahid; Martinelli, Valentina; Ruozi, Giulia; Pelos, Barbara; Dore, Franca; Giacca, Mauro; Zacchigna, Serena

    2015-03-10

    Over the last several years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been isolated from different tissues following a variety of different procedures. Here, we comparatively assess the ex vivo and in vivo properties of MSCs isolated from either adipose tissue or bone marrow by different purification protocols. After MSC transplantation into a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, clinical and histological analysis revealed that bone marrow MSCs purified on adhesive substrates exerted the best therapeutic activity, preserving tissue viability and promoting formation of new arterioles without directly transdifferentiating into vascular cells. In keeping with these observations, these cells abundantly expressed cytokines involved in vessel maturation and cell retention. These findings indicate that the choice of MSC source and purification protocol is critical in determining the therapeutic potential of these cells and warrant the standardization of an optimal MSC isolation procedure in order to select the best conditions to move forward to more effective clinical experimentation. PMID:25660405

  11. Generation of clinical grade human bone marrow stromal cells for use in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Robey, Pamela G; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Ren, Jiaqiang; Klein, Harvey G; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F

    2015-01-01

    In current orthopaedic practice, there is a need to increase the ability to reconstruct large segments of bone lost due to trauma, resection of tumors and skeletal deformities, or when normal regenerative processes have failed such as in non-unions and avascular necrosis. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), when used in conjunction with appropriate carriers, represent a means by which to achieve bone regeneration in such cases. While much has been done at the bench and in pre-clinical studies, moving towards clinical application requires the generation of clinical grade cells. What is described herein is an FDA-approved cell manufacturing procedure for the ex vivo expansion of high quality, biologically active human BMSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem Cells and Bone. PMID:25064527

  12. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  13. Variability of the Phenotype and Proliferation and Migration Characteristics of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from the Deciduous Teeth Pulp of Different Donors.

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, I V; Vdovin, A S; Strukova, L A; Yarygin, K N

    2016-02-01

    We performed a comparative study of cell phenotype and proliferation and migration activities in vitro of mesenchymal stromal cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED cells) from three donors. In the primary cultures, the cells of different donors had the same morphology and cytophenotype, but differed by proliferative and migration capacities. The results indicate that individual mesenchymal stromal cells cultures can differ considerably by important cell properties, and this should be considered when evaluating their potential therapeutic efficacy and in experimental studies. PMID:26899847

  14. Characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells: potency assay development.

    PubMed

    Hematti, Peiman

    2016-04-01

    Based on their many different mechanisms of action, presumed immune-privileged status, and relative ease of production, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are under intensive clinical investigation for treating a wide range of degenerative, inflammatory, and immunologic disorders. Identification of relevant and robust potency assays is not only a regulatory requirement, but it is also the basis for producing and delivering a product that is consistent, safe, and ultimately an effective therapy. Although development of an appropriate potency assay is one of the most challenging issues in cell-based therapies, it is of paramount importance in the process of developing and testing cellular products. Regardless of the many different tissue sources and methods used in culture expansion of MSCs, they possess many of the same morphologic, cell surface markers, and differentiation characteristics. However, MSC products with similar phenotypic characteristics could still have major differences in their biologic and functional attributes. Understanding the different mechanisms of action and establishment of relevant potency assays is of pivotal importance in allowing investigators and regulatory agencies to compare MSCs used in different clinical trials. PMID:27079322

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics vary depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Wegmeyer, Heike; Bröske, Ann-Marie; Leddin, Mathias; Kuentzer, Karin; Nisslbeck, Anna Katharina; Hupfeld, Julia; Wiechmann, Kornelius; Kuhlen, Jennifer; von Schwerin, Christoffer; Stein, Carsten; Knothe, Saskia; Funk, Jürgen; Huss, Ralf; Neubauer, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are rare progenitor cells that can be isolated from various tissues. They exhibit multilineage differentiation potential, support regenerative processes, and interact with various immune cells. Therefore, MSCs represent a promising tool for regenerative medicine. However, source-dependent and donor-dependent differences of MSC properties, including implications on their clinical application are still largely unknown. We evaluated MSCs derived from perinatal tissues umbilical cord (UC) and amniotic membrane (AM) in comparison to adult MSCs from bone marrow (BM), which were used as gold standard. We found genetic background-independent differences between MSCs from UC and AM. While AM- and UC-MSCs were closer to each other than to BM-MSCs, they also exhibited differences between each other. AM-MSCs from different donors but not UC-MSCs displayed high interdonor variability. In addition, we show that although all MSCs expressed similar surface markers, MSC populations from UC and AM showed differential profiles of gene expression and paracrine factor secretion to BM-derived MSCs. Notably, pathway analysis of gene expression data revealed intriguing differences between MSCs suggesting that MSCs from UC and AM possess in general a higher potential of immunomodulatory capacity, whereas BM-MSCs showed a higher potential of supporting regenerative processes as exemplified by neuronal differentiation and development. These differences between perinatal and BM-derived MSCs may be relevant for clinical applications. PMID:23676112

  16. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Possible Culprits in Solid Tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Pascal David; Müller, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in different settings ranging from tissue engineering to immunotherapies has prompted investigations on the properties of these cells in a variety of other tissues. Particularly the role of MSCs in solid tumors has been the subject of many experimental approaches. While a clear phenotypical distinction of tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and MSCs within the tumor microenvironment is still missing, the homing of bone marrow MSCs in tumor sites has been extensively studied. Both, tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs have been described in this context. This ambiguity requires a reappraisal of the different studies and experimental methods employed. Here, we review the current literature on tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs with a particular emphasis on their interplay with components of the immune system and also highlight a potential role of MSCs as cell of origin for certain mesenchymal tumors. PMID:26273308

  17. Delivery of improved oncolytic adenoviruses by mesenchymal stromal cells for elimination of tumorigenic pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaczorowski, Adam; Hammer, Katharina; Liu, Li; Villhauer, Sabine; Nwaeburu, Clifford; Fan, Pei; Zhao, Zhefu; Gladkich, Jury; Groß, Wolfgang; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.; Herr, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies and has poor therapeutic options. We evaluated improved oncolytic adenoviruses (OAds), in which the adenoviral gene E1B19K was deleted or a TRAIL transgene was inserted. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) served as carriers for protected and tumor-specific virus transfers. The infection competence, tumor migration, and oncolysis were measured in cancer stem cell (CSC) models of primary and established tumor cells and in tumor xenografts. All OAds infected and lysed CSCs and prevented colony formation. MSCs migrated into PDA spheroids without impaired homing capacity. Xenotransplantation of non-infected PDA cells mixed with infected tumor cells strongly reduced the tumor volume and the expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 along with a necrotic morphology. Adenoviral capsid protein was detected in tumor xenograft tissue after intravenous injection of infected MSCs, but not in normal tissue, implying tumor-specific migration. Likewise, direct in vivo treatment correlated with a strongly reduced tumor volume, lower expression of Ki67 and CD24, and enhanced activity of caspase 3. These data demonstrate that the improved OAds induced efficient oncolysis with the OAd-TRAIL as most promising candidate for future clinical application. PMID:26824985

  18. Essential components for ex vivo proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Natalie; Rojewski, Markus Thomas; Lotfi, Ramin; Schrezenmeier, Hubert

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are highly interesting candidates for clinical applications in regenerative medicine. Due to their low occurrence in human tissues, extensive in vitro expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient cell numbers applicable as a clinical dose in the context of cellular therapy. Current cell culture media formulations for the isolation and expansion of MSCs include fetal calf serum (FCS), human AB serum (ABS), or human platelet lysate (PL) as a supplement. However, these established supplements are inherently ill-defined formulations that contain a variety of bioactive molecules in varying batch-to-batch compositions and the risk of transmitting pathogens that escape routine screening procedures. In this study, we have comparatively characterized the capacity of commonly used basal media, such as the Minimum Essential Medium alpha (αMEM), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM), and RPMI 1640 as well as human- and animal-derived supplements, that is, PL, ABS, and FCS to stimulate cell proliferation. MSC proliferation was observed to be optimal in the PL-supplemented αMEM. Using a combinatorial approach, we then assessed a library of soluble factors, including mitogens (TGF-β1, Activin A, bFGF, EGF, IGF-I, PDGF-BB, and VEGF), chemokines (CCL21, CCL25, CXCL12, and RANTES), proteins (human serum albumin), lipids (e.g., oleic acid, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid), and hormones (dexamethasone, insulin, and TSH), to create a defined medium as well as coating of cell culture surfaces to promote robust MSC proliferation in vitro. A combination of recombinant human factors partially met the nutritional requirements of bone marrow-derived MSCs, and was able to promote cell proliferation comparable to about 5% PL if supplemented with auxiliary 0.6%-1.2% PL. Maximal MSC proliferation was achieved by combining 5% PL with a cocktail of recombinant factors and did not depend on coating of cell

  19. The Importance of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway in the Porcine Endometrial Stromal Stem/Progenitor Cells: Implications for Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukowska, Joanna; Ziecik, Adam Janusz; Laguna, Joanna; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative ability of the endometrium is strongly associated with the presence of adult stem/progenitor cells. Purposes of the present study were (1) to establish the presence of stem/progenitor cells in porcine endometrial stroma using a clonogenic assay and (2) to investigate whether the canonical Wnt pathway affects the potential of stem/progenitor cells to undergo self-renewal or differentiation. The utility of endometrial stromal clones as a model for stem/progenitor studies was evaluated based on these cells' increased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker genes, including CD29, CD73, CD90, and CD105, compared with primary cultured cells. Small molecules were introduced to activate (BIO) or inhibit (XAV939) the canonical Wnt pathway during stromal clone formation. Cloning efficiency assays revealed that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway promoted formation of more differentiated small clones. Moreover, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway decreased, whereas inhibition of the pathway increased MSC marker expression. Additionally, we confirmed the importance of canonical Wnt pathway stimulation in endometrial stromal cells through observing the appropriate changes in β-catenin cellular localization. These data indicate that modulation of the canonical Wnt pathway effects the process of regeneration in the porcine endometrium during the course of the estrous cycle. PMID:26414529

  20. TLR4 Activation Enhances the PD-L1-Mediated Tolerogenic Capacity of Colonic CD90+ Stromal Cells1,2

    PubMed Central

    Beswick, Ellen J.; Johnson, Jameel R.; Saada, Jamal I.; Humen, Martin; House, Jenifer; Dann, Sara; Qiu, Suimin; Brasier, Allan R.; Powell, Don W.; Reyes, Victor E.; Pinchuk, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Signaling via Programmed Death Ligand (PD-L)-1 and PD-L2 is crucial for maintaining peripheral tolerance. CD90+ myofibroblasts/fibroblasts (CMFs) are major PD-1 ligands -expressing cells in normal human colonic mucosa. CMFs suppress activated CD4+ T cell proliferation via PD-1 ligands. It is not known whether signaling through TLRs contribute to the regulation PD-1 ligands on CMFs upon colonic mucosal tolerance. Herein, we demonstrated that stimulation of TLR4 on human CMFs upregulates PD-L1, but not PD-L2, and reinforces CMF-mediated suppression of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production. TLR4-mediated upregulation of PD-L1 on CMFs involved NF-κB pathways and was JAK2- and MyD88-dependent. MyD88-dependent stimulation of TLR1/2 and TLR 5 also upregulated PD-L1 expression on CMFs in culture. PD-L1 expression was drastically decreased in vivo in the colonic mucosa of mice devoid of MyD88. Induction of MyD88 deficiency in CMFs in fibroblast-specific MyD88 conditional knockout mice resulted in a strong increase in a mucosal IFN-γ expression concomitantly with the abrogation of PD-L1 expression in CMFs under homeostasis and epithelial injury induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Together these data suggest that MyD88-dependent TLR stimulation of CMFs in the normal colonic mucosa may reinforce these cells' anti-inflammatory capacity, and thus contribute to the maintenance of mucosal tolerance. PMID:25070848

  1. Immune cells in primary and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Silke; Gieselmann, Marieke; Blaschke, Martina; Ramadori, Giuliano; Füzesi, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously described immune cells in untreated primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Here we compare immune cells in metastatic and primary GIST, and describe their chemoattractants. For this purpose, tissue microarrays from 196 patients, 188 primary and 51 metastasized GIST were constructed for paraffin staining. Quantitative analysis was performed for cells of macrophage lineage (Ki-M1P, CD68), T-cells (CD3, CD56) and B-cells (CD20). Chemokine gene-expression was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Immuno-localisation was verified by immunofluorescence. Ki-M1P+ cells were the predominant immune cells in both primary and metastatic GIST (2 8.8% ± 7.1, vs. 26.7% ± 6.3). CD68+ macrophages were significantly fewer, with no significant difference between primary GIST (3.6% ± 2.1) and metastases (4.6% ± 1.5). CD3+ T-cells were the most dominant lymphocytes with a significant increase in metastases (7.3% ± 2.3 vs. 2.2% ± 1.8 in primary GIST, P < 0.01). The percentage of CD56+ NK-cells was 1.1% ± 0.9 in the primary, and 2.4 ± 0.7 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. The number of CD20+ B-cells was generally low with 0.6% ± 0.7 in the primary and 1.8% ± 0.3 (P < 0.05) in the metastases. Analysis of the metastases showed significantly more Ki-M1P+ cells in peritoneal metastases (31.8% ± 7.4 vs. 18.2% ± 3.7, P < 0.01), whilst CD3+ T-cells were more common in liver metastases (11.7% ± 1.8 vs. 4.4% ± 2.6, P < 0.01). The highest transcript expression was seen for monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1/CCL2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α/CCL3) and the pro-angiogenic growth-related oncoprotein 1 (Gro-α/CXCL-1). Whilst the ligands were predominantly expressed in tumor cells, their receptors were mostly present in immune cells. This locally specific microenvironment might influence neoplastic progression of GIST at the different metastatic sites. PMID:25120735

  2. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies. PMID:25636587

  3. Platelet lysate from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis-derived platelet concentrates for the isolation and expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: production process, content and identification of active components

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Natalie; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fürst, Daniel; Maurer, Caroline; Dausend, Julia; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Mailänder, Volker; Lotfi, Ramin; Ignatius, Anita; Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background aims The clinical use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires ex vivo expansion in media containing supplements such as fetal bovine serum or, alternatively, human platelet lysate (PL). Methods Platelet concentrates were frozen, quarantine stored, thawed and sterile filtered to obtain PL. PL content and its effect on fibroblast-colony-forming unit (CFU-F) formation, MSC proliferation and large-scale expansion were studied. Results PL contained high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), soluble CD40L (sCD40L), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), chemokine (C-C) ligand 5 (CCL5; RANTES) transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1/2/3 (GRO), with low batch-to-batch variability, and most were stable for up to 14 days. Inhibition of PDGF-BB and bFGF decreased MSC proliferation by about 20% and 50%, respectively. The strongest inhibition (about 75%) was observed with a combination of anti-bFGF + anti-PDGF-BB and anti-bFGF + anti-TGF-β1 + anti-PDGF-BB. Interestingly, various combinations of recombinant PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGF-β1 were not sufficient to promote cell proliferation. PL from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates did not differ significantly in their growth-promoting activity on MSC. Conclusions PL enhances MSC proliferation and can be regarded as a safe tool for MSC expansion for clinical purposes. \\in particular, PDGF-BB and bFGF are essential components for the growth-promoting effect of PL, but are not sufficient for MSC proliferation. PMID:22296115

  4. Early wound healing of laser in situ keratomileusis–like flaps after treatment with human corneal stromal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Siân R.; Dooley, Erin P.; Kamma-Lorger, Christina; Funderburgh, James L.; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Meek, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To use a well-established organ culture model to investigate the effects of corneal stromal stem cells on the optical and biomechanical properties of corneal wounds after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)–like flap creation. Setting School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom. Design Experimental study. Methods The LASIK-like flaps were produced in sheep corneas. The flap beds were treated with corneal stromal stem cells and were then replaced and allowed to heal for different periods of up to 3 weeks in organ culture. The optical transmission of the cornea, the force required to detach the flap, and the presence of myofibroblasts near the flap bed were measured. Results Corneal stromal stem cell–treated flap beds were statistically significantly more transparent after 3 weeks in culture than the untreated controls. At 3 weeks, the mean force necessary to detach the flap was more than twice the force required for the respective control samples. Concurrently, there were 44% activated cells immediately below the flap margin of the controls compared with 29% in the same region of the corneal stromal stem cell–treated flaps. Conclusions In this system, the presence of corneal stromal stem cells at the wound margin significantly increased the adherence of LASIK-like flaps while maintaining corneal transparency. It is postulated that this is achieved by the deposition of extracellular connective tissue similar to that found in the normal cornea and by the paucity of activated keratocytes (myofibroblasts), which are known to scatter a significant amount of the incident light. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. PMID:27026456

  5. Management of Fibrosis: The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Breakthrough

    PubMed Central

    Usunier, Benoît; Benderitter, Marc; Tamarat, Radia; Chapel, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is the endpoint of many chronic inflammatory diseases and is defined by an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix components. Despite its slow progression, it leads to organ malfunction. Fibrosis can affect almost any tissue. Due to its high frequency, in particular in the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys, many studies have been conducted to find satisfactory treatments. Despite these efforts, current fibrosis management therapies either are insufficiently effective or induce severe adverse effects. In the light of these facts, innovative experimental therapies are being investigated. Among these, cell therapy is regarded as one of the best candidates. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The value of their immunomodulatory effects and their ability to act on profibrotic factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and the transforming growth factor-β1 pathway has already been highlighted in preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, their propensity to act depending on the microenvironment surrounding them enhances their curative properties. In this paper, we review a large range of studies addressing the use of MSCs in the treatment of fibrotic diseases. The results reported here suggest that MSCs have antifibrotic potential for several organs. PMID:25132856

  6. T cell subsets differently regulate osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Francesco; Cattini, Luca; Gambari, Laura; Manferdini, Cristina; Piacentini, Anna; Gabusi, Elena; Facchini, Andrea; Lisignoli, Gina

    2016-04-01

    T lymphocytes play a key role in the regulation of bone homeostasis and bone healing. The inflammatory response at the site of bone injury is essential to the initiation of the bone repair program; however, an uncontrolled exposure to inflammatory environment has a negative effect on tissue regeneration - indeed, activated T cells were shown to inhibit osteogenic differentiation on human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Whether resting T cells can induce osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and what role specific T cells subset play in this process is still elusive. In this study, we sought to analyse the osteogenic gene expression profile of whole T cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells isolated from healthy donors and investigated whether secreted factors from each group modulate osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs. Gene expression profiling identified a pool of 51 genes involved at various stages in bone growth which are expressed above detectable levels in CD4 and CD8 T cells. Most genes of this pool were expressed at higher levels in the CD4 subset. In vitro mineralization assays revealed that conditioned medium from CD4 T cells, but not from CD8 cells, significantly increased mineralization in osteogenic cultures of human MSCs; furthermore, mRNA expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MSCs was significantly upregulated in the presence of CD4-conditioned medium but not with that obtained from CD8. The results show a differential role for CD4 and CD8 T cells in supporting bone formation and identify an osteogenic gene signature of each subset. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23653421

  7. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Protect Endothelial Cells from Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Induced Lysis.

    PubMed

    Cahill, E F; Sax, T; Hartmann, I; Haffner, S; Holler, E; Holler, B; Huss, R; Günther, C; Parolini, O; Kolch, W; Eissner, G

    2016-09-01

    The integrity of the vasculature plays an important role in the success of allogeneic organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Endothelial cells (EC) have previously been shown to be the target of activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) resulting in extensive cell lysis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells which can be isolated from multiple sites, each demonstrating immunomodulatory capabilities. They are explored herein for their potential to protect EC from CTL-targeted lysis. CD8(+) T cells isolated from human PBMC were stimulated with mitotically inactive cells of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (CDC/EU.HMEC-1, further referred to as HMEC) for 7 days. Target HMEC were cultured in the presence or absence of MSC for 24 h before exposure to activated allogeneic CTL for 4 h. EC were then analysed for cytotoxic lysis by flow cytometry. Culture of HMEC with MSC in the efferent immune phase (24 h before the assay) led to a decrease in HMEC lysis. This lysis was determined to be MHC Class I restricted linked and further analysis suggested that MSC contact is important in abrogation of lysis, as protection is reduced where MSC are separated in transwell experiments. The efficacy of multiple sources of MSC was also confirmed, and the collaborative effect of MSC and the endothelium protective drug defibrotide were determined, with defibrotide enhancing the protection provided by MSC. These results support the use of MSC as an adjuvant cellular therapeutic in transplant medicine, alone or in conjunction with EC protective agents such as defibrotide. PMID:27384426

  8. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  9. Integration of Th17- and Lymphotoxin-Derived Signals Initiates Meningeal-Resident Stromal Cell Remodeling to Propagate Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Pikor, Natalia B; Astarita, Jillian L; Summers-Deluca, Leslie; Galicia, Georgina; Qu, Joy; Ward, Lesley A; Armstrong, Susan; Dominguez, Claudia X; Malhotra, Deepali; Heiden, Brendan; Kay, Robert; Castanov, Valera; Touil, Hanane; Boon, Louis; O'Connor, Paul; Bar-Or, Amit; Prat, Alexandre; Ramaglia, Valeria; Ludwin, Samuel; Turley, Shannon J; Gommerman, Jennifer L

    2015-12-15

    Tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) have been observed in the meninges of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, but the stromal cells and molecular signals that support TLTs remain unclear. Here, we show that T helper 17 (Th17) cells induced robust TLTs within the brain meninges that were associated with local demyelination during experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). Th17-cell-induced TLTs were underpinned by a network of stromal cells producing extracellular matrix proteins and chemokines, enabling leukocytes to reside within, rather than simply transit through, the meninges. Within the CNS, interactions between lymphotoxin αβ (LTαβ) on Th17 cells and LTβR on meningeal radio-resistant cells were necessary for the propagation of de novo interleukin-17 responses, and activated T cells from MS patients expressed elevated levels of LTβR ligands. Therefore, input from both Th17 cells and the lymphotoxin pathway induce the formation of an immune-competent stromal cell niche in the meninges. PMID:26682987

  10. Induced differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells into myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guizhu; Zheng, Xiu; Jiang, Zhongqing; Wang, Jinhua; Song, Yanfeng

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) into myoblasts, which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). ADSCs, isolated and cultured ex vivo, were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), 5% FBS, and 5% horse serum. Cellular morphology was observed under an inverted microscope. Ultrastructural changes occurring during the differentiation were observed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cellular immunohistochemical staining was applied to determine the expression of desmin protein in cells with and without induced differentiation. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression, respectively, of sarcomeric and desmin smooth muscle proteins. The results showed that ADSCs were mainly of a spindle or polygon shape. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ADSCs did not express CD34, CD45, and CD106 but high levels of CD44 and CD90, which confirmed that the cultured cells were indeed ADSCs. After induction with a 5-aza-containing solution, morphological changes in ADSCs, including irregular cell size, were observed. Cells gradually changed from long spindles to polygons and star-shaped cells with microvilli on the cell surface. Many organelles were observed and the cytoplasm was found to contain many mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and myofilament-like structures. Cell immunohistochemical staining revealed different levels of desmin expression in each phase of the induction process, with the highest expression level found on day 28 of induction. RT-PCR and Western blot results confirmed significantly higher desmin gene expression in induced cells compared with control cells, but no

  11. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Promote Allograft Tolerance Induction

    PubMed Central

    Anam, Khairul; Lazdun, Yelena; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Elster, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Amputations and unsalvageable injuries with devastating tissue loss are common in the combat wounded. Reconstructive transplantation in the civilian setting using vascular composite allotransplants (VCAs) with multiple tissues (skin, muscle, nerve, bone) combined with long-term multidrug immunosuppression has been encouraging. However, skin rejection remains a critical complication. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are easily obtained from normal individuals in high numbers, precluding ex vivo expansion. The reparative function and paracrine immunomodulatory capacity of ASCs has gained considerable attention. The present study investigated whether ASCs facilitate long-term skin allograft survival. ASCs were isolated from fresh human subcutaneous adipose lipoaspirate. Full-thickness skin grafts from BALB/c mice were transplanted onto the dorsal flanks of C57BL/6 mice treated with five doses of anti-CD4/CD8 monoclonal antibodies (10 mg/kg) on days 0, +2, +5, +7, and +14 relative to skin grafting. A single nonmyeloablative low dose of busulfan (5 mg/kg) was given on day +5. Seven days after skin transplantation, ASCs (3 × 106) were infused i.v. with or without donor bone marrow cells (BMCs; 5 × 105). ASC+BMC coinfusion with minimal conditioning led to stable lymphoid and myeloid macrochimerism, deletion of alloreactive T cells, expansion of regulatory T cells, and long-term allograft survival (>200 days). ASCs constitutively produced high levels of anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, APO-1/Fas (CD95), and programmed cell death-1 ligand-2. These findings serve as a foundation for developing a translational advanced VCA protocol, embodying both ASCs and low-dose donor BMCs, in nonhuman primates, with the goal of enhancing functional outcomes and eliminating the complications associated with long-term immunosuppression. PMID:25411475

  12. [Effects of growth factors on multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, E A; Paiushina, O V; Starostin, V I

    2008-01-01

    Multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells are progenitors of various cell types capable of long-term self-maintenance. These cells are an adequate model for studying the most important problems in cell biology, such as self-maintenance of stem cells and regulation of their differentiation. Moreover, these cells are a promising resource for regenerative medicine. In this context, isolation of the earliest multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, their in vitro maintenance in an undifferentiated state, and stimulation of their differentiation in a desired direction appear to be most important. To successfully use the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells both in fundamental studies and in therapy, it is necessary to modify and standardize the composition of culture medium, replacing blood serum with certain growth factors. These factors have influence on the proliferation and differentiation of most cell types, including multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. This paper is a review of available data concerning the effects of some growth factors on the multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells of the bone marrow. PMID:19198070

  13. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  14. BAG3 promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma growth by activating stromal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alessandra; Basile, Anna; D'Auria, Raffaella; d'Avenia, Morena; De Marco, Margot; Falco, Antonia; Festa, Michelina; Guerriero, Luana; Iorio, Vittoria; Parente, Roberto; Pascale, Maria; Marzullo, Liberato; Franco, Renato; Arra, Claudio; Barbieri, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Menichini, Giulio; Hahne, Michael; Bijlsma, Maarten; Barcaroli, Daniela; Sala, Gianluca; di Mola, Fabio Francesco; di Sebastiano, Pierluigi; Todoric, Jelena; Antonucci, Laura; Corvest, Vincent; Jawhari, Anass; Firpo, Matthew A; Tuveson, David A; Capunzo, Mario; Karin, Michael; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and death rate of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have increased in recent years, therefore the identification of novel targets for treatment is extremely important. Interactions between cancer and stromal cells are critically involved in tumour formation and development of metastasis. Here we report that PDAC cells secrete BAG3, which binds and activates macrophages, inducing their activation and the secretion of PDAC supporting factors. We also identify IFITM-2 as a BAG3 receptor and show that it signals through PI3K and the p38 MAPK pathways. Finally, we show that the use of an anti-BAG3 antibody results in reduced tumour growth and prevents metastasis formation in three different mouse models. In conclusion, we identify a paracrine loop involved in PDAC growth and metastatic spreading, and show that an anti-BAG3 antibody has therapeutic potential. PMID:26522614

  15. Defining Essential Stem Cell Characteristics in Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Extracted from Distinct Anatomical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Patrick C.; Francis, Michael P.; Zhao, Min; Brumelle, Jenni; Rao, Raj R.; Elmore, Lynne W.; Holt, Shawn E.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has created many opportunities for the development of patient-specific cell-based replacement therapies. We have isolated multiple cell strains of ASCs from various anatomical sites (abdomen, arms/legs, breast, buttocks), indicating wide-spread distribution of ASCs throughout the body. Unfortunately, there exists a general lack of agreement in the literature as to their “stem cell” characteristics. We find that telomerase activity and expression of its catalytic subunit in ASCs are both below the levels of detection, independent of age and culturing conditions. ASCs also undergo telomere attrition and eventually senesce, while maintaining a stable karyotype without the development of spontaneous tumor-associated abnormalities. Using a set of cell surface markers that have been promoted to identify ASCs, we find that they failed to distinguish ASCs from normal fibroblasts, as both are positive for CD29, CD73, and CD105 and negative for CD14, CD31, and CD45. All of the ASC isolates are multipotent, capable of differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, while fibroblasts show no differentiation potential. Our ASC strains also show elevated expression of genes associated with pluripotent cells, Oct-4, SOX2, and NANOG when compared to fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), although the levels were lower than induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Together, our data suggest that while the cell surface profile of ASCs does not distinguish them from normal fibroblasts, their differentiation capacity and the expression of genes closely linked to pluripotency clearly define ASCs as multipotent stem cells, regardless of tissue isolation location. PMID:22628159

  16. Property of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Derived From Bone Fragments Removed in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Abe, Shigehiro; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering is in the process of making the shift from bench to bed. Organ as a cell source is important for tissue engineering. The appropriate cells should be harvested without invasiveness and ethical problems. The authors focused on mandibular cortex bone fragments removed in sagittal split ramus osteotomy as a cell source for bone tissue engineering. These bone fragments were discarded after surgery until now. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested from inside of bone fragments, which is an endosteal region. Endosteal region is known to be a hematopoietic stem cell niche and harbors osteoblasts, preosteoblasts, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Bone marrow stromal cells could be cultured easily, and grew rapidly in vitro under ordinary serum-supplemented culture condition. The expression pattern of surface markers of BMSCs was the same as that of MSCs. Bone marrow stromal cells could differentiated into multiple mesenchymal lineages (osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and smooth muscle cells). These results indicated the existence of MSCs in BMSCs. The osteoblastic characters of BMSCs were examined more closely. Bone marrow stromal cells showed a high alkaline phosphatase activity, and expressed osteoblastic markers (PTHr, bone sialoprotein, Type I collagen, Rnut-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin). In transplantation experiments, BMSCs generated ectopic bone tissues on the border of hydroxyapatite scaffold without osteogenic differentiation-inducing agents such as dexamethasone (Dex) or bone morphogenetic protein. The results of this study suggest that mandibular cortex bone fragments removed in sagittal split ramus osteotomy are a good cell source for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27171960

  17. Dependency of colorectal cancer on a TGF-beta-driven programme in stromal cells for metastasis initiation

    PubMed Central

    Calon, Alexandre; Espinet, Elisa; Palomo-Ponce, Sergio; Tauriello, Daniele V. F.; Iglesias, Mar; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Sevillano, Marta; Nadal, Cristina; Jung, Peter; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Byrom, Daniel; Riera, Antoni; Rossell, David; Mangues, Ramón; Massague, Joan; Sancho, Elena; Batlle, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A large proportion of colorectal cancers (CRCs) display mutational inactivation of the TGF-beta pathway yet paradoxically, they are characterized by elevated TGF-beta production. Here, we unveil a prometastatic programme induced by TGF-beta in the microenvironment that associates with a high-risk of CRC relapse upon treatment. The activity of TGF-beta on stromal cells increases the efficiency of organ colonization by CRC cells whereas mice treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of TGFBR1 are resilient to metastasis formation. Secretion of IL11 by TGF-beta-stimulated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) triggers GP130/STAT3 signalling in tumour cells. This crosstalk confers a survival advantage to metastatic cells. The dependency on the TGF-beta stromal programme for metastasis initiation could be exploited to improve the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. PMID:23153532

  18. Oncologic Trogocytosis of an Original Stromal Cells Induces Chemoresistance of Ovarian Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Arash; Mirshahi, Pejman; Poupot, Mary; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Simon, Anne; Ducros, Elodie; Mery, Eliane; Couderc, Bettina; Lis, Raphael; Capdet, Jerome; Bergalet, Julie; Querleu, Denis; Dagonnet, Francoise; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Favre, Gilles; Soria, Jeanine; Mirshahi, Massoud

    2008-01-01

    Background The microenvironment plays a major role in the onset and progression of metastasis. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tends to metastasize to the peritoneal cavity where interactions within the microenvironment might lead to chemoresistance. Mesothelial cells are important actors of the peritoneal homeostasis; we determined their role in the acquisition of chemoresistance of ovarian tumours. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated an original type of stromal cells, referred to as “Hospicells” from ascitis of patients with ovarian carcinosis using limiting dilution. We studied their ability to confer chemoresistance through heterocellular interactions. These stromal cells displayed a new phenotype with positive immunostaining for CD9, CD10, CD29, CD146, CD166 and Multi drug resistance protein. They preferentially interacted with epithelial ovarian cancer cells. This interaction induced chemoresistance to platin and taxans with the implication of multi-drug resistance proteins. This contact enabled EOC cells to capture patches of the Hospicells membrane through oncologic trogocytosis, therefore acquiring their functional P-gp proteins and thus developing chemoresistance. Presence of Hospicells on ovarian cancer tissue micro-array from patients with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy was also significantly associated to chemoresistance. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of trogocytosis occurring between a cancer cell and an original type of stromal cell. This interaction induced autonomous acquisition of chemoresistance. The presence of stromal cells within patient's tumour might be predictive of chemoresistance. The specific interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells might be targeted during chemotherapy. PMID:19079610

  19. Expression of glypican-4 in haematopoietic-progenitor and bone-marrow-stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Siebertz, B; Stöcker, G; Drzeniek, Z; Handt, S; Just, U; Haubeck, H D

    1999-01-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans and the extracellular matrix of bone-marrow-stromal cells are important components of the microenvironment of haematopoietic tissues and are involved in the interaction of haematopoietic stem and stromal cells. Previous studies have emphasized the role of heparan sulphate proteoglycan synthesis by bone-marrow-stromal cells. In the present study we describe the expression of glypican-4 (GPC-4), belonging to the glypican family, in bone-marrow-stromal cells and haematopoietic-progenitor cells of human and murine origin. Expression of GPC-4 was shown on the mRNA-level by reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Amplification products were cloned and sequenced, to confirm these results. To analyze the expression of GPC-4 on the protein level, polyclonal antibodies against selected peptides were raised in rabbits. Western blot analysis showed expression of GPC-4 as a heparan sulphate proteoglycan in the human haematopoietic-progenitor cell line TF-1 and normal human bone marrow. These results were confirmed by FACS analysis of TF-1 cells. Furthermore, GPC-4-positive progenitor cells and stromal cells were enriched from normal human bone marrow by magnetic-cell sorting and analysed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. PMID:10585884

  20. Identification of Predictive Gene Markers for Multipotent Stromal Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bellayr, Ian H; Marklein, Ross A; Lo Surdo, Jessica L; Bauer, Steven R; Puri, Raj K

    2016-06-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are known for their distinctive ability to differentiate into different cell lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. They can be isolated from numerous tissue sources, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and others. Because of their differentiation potential and secretion of growth factors, MSCs are believed to have an inherent quality of regeneration and immune suppression. Cellular expansion is necessary to obtain sufficient numbers for use; however, MSCs exhibit a reduced capacity for proliferation and differentiation after several rounds of passaging. In this study, gene markers of MSC proliferation were identified and evaluated for their ability to predict proliferative quality. Microarray data of human bone marrow-derived MSCs were correlated with two proliferation assays. A collection of 24 genes were observed to significantly correlate with both proliferation assays (|r| >0.70) for eight MSC lines at multiple passages. These 24 identified genes were then confirmed using an additional set of MSCs from eight new donors using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The proliferative potential of the second set of MSCs was measured for each donor/passage for confluency fraction, fraction of EdU+ cells, and population doubling time. The second set of MSCs exhibited a greater proliferative potential at passage 4 in comparison to passage 8, which was distinguishable by 15 genes; however, only seven of the genes (BIRC5, CCNA2, CDC20, CDK1, PBK, PLK1, and SPC25) demonstrated significant correlation with MSC proliferation regardless of passage. Our analyses revealed that correlation between gene expression and proliferation was consistently reduced with the inclusion of non-MSC cell lines; therefore, this set of seven genes may be more strongly associated with MSC proliferative quality. Our results pave the way to determine the quality of an MSC population for a

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Renovascular Function in Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Federico; Peterson, Karen M; Xu, Rende; Miller, Brent; Psaltis, Peter J; Harris, Peter C; Lerman, Lilach O; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common cause of end-stage renal failure, for which there is no accepted treatment. Progenitor and stem cells have been shown to restore renal function in a model of renovascular disease, a disease that shares many features with PKD. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of adult stem cells to restore renal structure and function in PKD. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, 2.5 × 10(5)) were intrarenally infused in 6-week-old PCK rats. At 10 weeks of age, PCK rats had an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) versus controls (126.22 ± 2.74 vs. 116.45 ± 3.53 mmHg, p < 0.05) and decreased creatinine clearance (3.76 ± 0.31 vs. 6.10 ± 0.48 µl/min/g, p < 0.01), which were improved in PKD animals that received MSCs (SBP: 114.67 ± 1.34 mmHg, and creatinine clearance: 4.82 ± 0.24 µl/min/g, p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 vs. PKD, respectively). MSCs preserved vascular density and glomeruli diameter, measured using microcomputed tomography. PCK animals had increased urine osmolality (843.9 ± 54.95 vs. 605.6 ± 45.34 mOsm, p < 0.01 vs. control), which was improved after MSC infusion and not different from control (723.75 ± 56.6 mOsm, p = 0.13 vs. control). Furthermore, MSCs reduced fibrosis and preserved the expression of proangiogenic molecules, while cyst size and number were unaltered by MSCs. Delivery of exogenous MSCs improved vascular density and renal function in PCK animals, and the benefit was observed up to 4 weeks after a single infusion. Cell-based therapy constitutes a novel approach in PKD. PMID:25290249

  2. Serotonin augments smooth muscle differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Nobuaki; McCuaig, Sarah; O'Sullivan, Michael J; Martin, James G

    2014-05-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contain a subset of multipotent stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that serotonin, a biogenic amine released by platelets and mast cells, can induce the smooth muscle differentiation of BMSCs. Brown Norway rat BMSCs stimulated with serotonin had increased expression of the smooth muscle markers smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) and α actin (α-SMA) by qPCR and Western blot, indicating smooth muscle differentiation. This was accompanied by a concomitant down-regulation of the microRNA miR-25-5p, which was found to negatively regulate smooth muscle differentiation. Serotonin upregulated serum response factor (SRF) and myocardin, transcription factors known to induce contractile protein expression in smooth muscle cells, while it down-regulated Elk1 and Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), known to induce proliferation. Serotonin increased SRF binding to promoter regions of the MHC and α-SMA genes, assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Induction of smooth muscle differentiation by serotonin was blocked by the knock-down of SRF and myocardin. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was constitutively expressed by BMSCs and serotonin triggered its release. Inhibition of miR-25-5p augmented TGF-β1 expression, however the differentiation of BMSCs was not mediated by TGF-β1. These findings demonstrate that serotonin promotes a smooth muscle-like phenotype in BMSCs by altering the balance of SRF, myocardin, Elk1 and KLF4 and miR-25-5p is involved in modulating this balance. Therefore, serotonin potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by tissue remodeling with increased smooth muscle mass. PMID:24595007

  3. Characteristics of a human prostate stromal cell line related to its use in a stromal-epithelial coculture model for the study of cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Diaw, Lena; Roth, Mark; Schwinn, Debra A; d'Alelio, Mary E; Green, Lisa J; Tangrea, Joseph A

    2005-01-01

    An immortalized human prostate stromal cell line (PS30) was previously established using recombinant retrovirus encoding human papillomavirus 16 gene products. In this study, we further characterize this stromal cell line for its potential use in a stromal-epithelial coculture model for prostate cancer prevention. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunocytochemistry, we examined expression of androgen receptor (AR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and insulin-like growth factors (IGF) families and their receptors, metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as the cells' ability to respond to the synthetic androgen R1881. The PS30 stromal cells do not express PSA, confirming their stromal origin. They are positive for both AR messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein; however, they do not respond to growth stimulation by the synthetic androgen R1881. The PS30 cells express mRNA for VDR, TGF-betas, IGFs and their receptors, as well as the MMPs. Moreover, they produce significant amounts of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, IGFBP-3, and MMP-2 proteins. Our observations confirm the use of PS30 for the study of stromal-epithelial interactions in the modulation of prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:16153146

  4. LPS/TLR4-mediated stromal cells acquire an invasive phenotype and are implicated in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Li, Caixia; Chen, Rong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mingmin; Kang, Le; Cheng, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested whether the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway in endometrial stromal cells is essential for the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. We tested the expression of TLR4, MD2 in the endometrium without adenomyosis (CE), the eutopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EuE) and the ectopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EE). We isolated the stromal cells from CE, EuE and EE (CESC, EuESC, EESC), treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR4 antagonist and detected the cell viability. And we also measured the key protein of the TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells. We found that the viability of experimental cells treated with LPS was significantly greater than that of the non-treated cells, blocked by the TLR4 antagonist VIPER. TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells stimulated by LPS, and it was inhibited by VIPER. This study suggested that stromal cells were activated by the TLR4 signalling pathway, which processed the cellular inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth involved in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. PMID:26898650

  5. LPS/TLR4-mediated stromal cells acquire an invasive phenotype and are implicated in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Li, Caixia; Chen, Rong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mingmin; Kang, Le; Cheng, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested whether the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway in endometrial stromal cells is essential for the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. We tested the expression of TLR4, MD2 in the endometrium without adenomyosis (CE), the eutopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EuE) and the ectopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EE). We isolated the stromal cells from CE, EuE and EE (CESC, EuESC, EESC), treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR4 antagonist and detected the cell viability. And we also measured the key protein of the TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells. We found that the viability of experimental cells treated with LPS was significantly greater than that of the non-treated cells, blocked by the TLR4 antagonist VIPER. TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells stimulated by LPS, and it was inhibited by VIPER. This study suggested that stromal cells were activated by the TLR4 signalling pathway, which processed the cellular inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth involved in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. PMID:26898650

  6. Multicomponent Coculture System of Cancer Cells and Two Types of Stromal Cells for In Vitro Evaluation of Anticancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Kobayashi, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs using cancer cells has long been performed for the development of novel drugs and the selection of effective drugs for different patients. Recent studies have suggested that tumor stromal cells affect the drug sensitivity of cancer cells; however, most conventional culture systems for drug evaluation lack stromal cells. In this study, we fabricated a multicomponent coculture system that takes account of cancer-stroma interactions for drug evaluation. In this system, small-cell and nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells embedded in collagen gel were cocultured with two types of stromal cells, including stromal fibroblasts and proinflammatory cytokine-secreting monocytes, thus recreating the in vivo cancer microenvironment. Cancer drug sensitivity was significantly altered by the presence of stromal cells. Fibroblasts induced resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drugs. Monocytes induced the upregulation of thymidine phosphorylase in cancer cells, promoting the conversion of an anticancer prodrug to a cytotoxic drug, and consequently enhanced the sensitivity of cancer cells to the anticancer prodrug. These results clearly show the importance of incorporating stromal cells into culture systems for drug evaluation. Our system will help to improve the accuracy of in vitro drug evaluation and provide useful information for the in vitro recreation of cancer microenvironments. PMID:26421875

  7. A relativity concept in mesenchymal stromal cell manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ivan; De Boer, Jan; Sensebe, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being experimentally tested in several biological systems and clinical settings with the aim of verifying possible therapeutic effects for a variety of indications. MSCs are also known to be heterogeneous populations, with phenotypic and functional features that depend heavily on the individual donor, the harvest site, and the culture conditions. In the context of this multidimensional complexity, a recurrent question is whether it is feasible to produce MSC batches as "standard" therapeutics, possibly within scalable manufacturing systems. Here, we provide a short overview of the literature on different culture methods for MSCs, including those employing innovative technologies, and of some typically assessed functional features (e.g., growth, senescence, genomic stability, clonogenicity, etc.). We then offer our perspective of a roadmap on how to identify and refine manufacturing systems for MSCs intended for specific clinical indications. We submit that the vision of producing MSCs according to a unique standard, although commercially attractive, cannot yet be scientifically substantiated. Instead, efforts should be concentrated on standardizing methods for characterization of MSCs generated by different groups, possibly covering a vast gamut of functionalities. Such assessments, combined with hypotheses on the therapeutic mode of action and associated clinical data, should ultimately allow definition of in-process controls and measurable release criteria for MSC manufacturing. These will have to be validated as predictive of potency in suitable pre-clinical models and of therapeutic efficacy in patients. PMID:27059199

  8. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential.

    PubMed

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-05-26

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential

    PubMed Central

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  10. Retroviral interleukin 1alpha gene transfer in bone marrow stromal cells in a primate model: induction of myelopoiesis stimulation.

    PubMed

    de Revel, Thierry; Becard, Nicolas; Sorg, Tania; Rousseau, Sandrine; Spano, Jean Philippe; Thiebot, Hugues; Methali, Magid; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Dormont, Dominique

    2002-09-01

    Effects of interleukin 1-alpha (IL-1alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic activity, in the myelopoietic setting, is mainly linked to its ability to increase haematopoietic growth factor production by bone marrow stromal cells. In order to minimize systemic effects of IL-1alpha therapy, we proposed a model of retroviral IL-1alpha gene transfer within bone marrow stromal cells in the macaque cynomolgus. Invitro, 10-15% of bone marrow stromal cells was effectively transduced by retroviral vector (murine Moloney leukaemia virus-derived) expressing IL-1alpha/LacZ, or LacZ alone as control marker, as assessed by betaGal staining. IL-1alpha gene expression was upregulated [semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)] within the transduced cells and the cell supernatant showed an increased production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and an increased clonogenic activity (colony-forming cell assay). Ex vivo autologous expanded IL-1alpha/LacZ transduced bone marrow stromal cells were reinfused in two macaques (and two control animals for LacZ alone as controls), without clinical systemic toxicity; LacZ expression by RT-PCR was detected in one animal of each group between d 4 and 9. A slight increase of the peripheral blood leucocyte counts (both polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes) of the two animals transduced with IL-1alpha/LacZ was observed within 10 d, indicating stimulation of myelopoiesis. PMID:12181061

  11. Differential effects of peripheral and transitional prostatic stromal cells on tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao; Peng, Yu-Bing; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hao; Li, Wen-Ji; Da, Jun; Wang, Zhong; Gao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The human prostate contains two types of stromal cells, peripheral stromal cells (PSCs) and transitional stromal cells (TSCs). Here, we demonstrate the effects of PSCs and TSCs on tumorigenesis in prostate cancer (PCa) and identify the mechanisms underlying these effects. Using microarray analysis, we identified 3,643 differentially expressed genes in cocultures of TSCs, PSCs, and DU145 cells, a human prostate cancer cell line. Expression of cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) was lower and that of tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 (TACSTD2) was higher in TSCs than in PSCs. Additionally, increased CDC25A expression or decreased TACSTD2 expression modulated the survival, growth, and migration of DU145 cells. These data suggest that PSCs promote and TSCs inhibit tumorigenesis by regulating the expression of CDC25A and TACSTD2. PMID:25553474

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing Heme Oxygenase-1 Reverse Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Olin D.; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Chang, Mun Seog; Vergadi, Eleni; Lee, Changjin; Aslam, Muhammad; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Liu, Xianlan; Baveja, Rajiv; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a serious disease, and, while current treatments may prolong and improve quality of life, search for novel and effective therapies is warranted. Using genetically-modified mouse lines, we tested the ability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs), to treat chronic hypoxia-induced PAH. Recipient mice were exposed for five weeks to normobaric hypoxia (8%–10% O2), MSC preparations were delivered through jugular vein injection and their effect on PAH was assessed after two additional weeks in hypoxia. Donor MSCs derived from wild-type (WT) mice or Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) null mice (Hmox1KO) conferred partial protection from PAH when transplanted into WT or Hmox1KO recipients, whereas treatment with MSCs isolated from transgenic mice harboring a human HO-1 transgene under the control of surfactant protein C promoter (SHO1 line) reversed established disease in WT recipients. SH01-MSC treatment of Hmox1KO animals, which develop right ventricular (RV) infarction under prolonged hypoxia, resulted in normal RV systolic pressure, significant reduction of RV hypertrophy and prevention of RV infarction. Donor MSCs isolated from a bitransgenic mouse line with doxycycline-inducible, lung-specific expression of HO-1 exhibited similar therapeutic efficacy only upon doxycycline treatment of the recipients. In vitro experiments indicate that potential mechanisms of MSC action include modulation of hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Cumulative, our results demonstrate that MSCs ameliorate chronic hypoxia – induced PAH and their efficacy is highly augmented by lung-specific HO-1 expression in the transplanted cells, suggesting an interplay between HO-1 dependent and HO-1 independent protective pathways. PMID:20957739

  13. T Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts in Human Tumor Microenvironments Represent Potential Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Barnas, Jennifer L.; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Yokota, Sandra J.; Kelleher, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    The immune system of cancer patients recognizes tumor-associated antigens expressed on solid tumors and these antigens are able to induce tumor-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Diverse immunotherapeutic strategies have been used in an attempt to enhance both antibody and T cell responses to tumors. While several tumor vaccination strategies significantly increase the number of tumor-specific lymphocytes in the blood of cancer patients, most vaccinated patients ultimately experience tumor progression. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an effector memory phenotype infiltrate human tumor microenvironments, but most are hyporesponsive to stimulation via the T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 under conditions that activate memory T cells derived from the peripheral blood of the cancer patients or normal donors. Attempts to identify cells and molecules responsible for the TCR signaling arrest of tumor-infiltrating T cells have focused largely upon the immunosuppressive effects of tumor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Here we review potential mechanisms by which human T cell function is arrested in the tumor microenvironment with a focus on the immunomodulatory effects of stromal fibroblasts. Determining in vivo which cells and molecules are responsible for the TCR arrest in human tumor-infiltrating T cells will be necessary to formulate and test strategies to prevent or reverse the signaling arrest of the human T cells in situ for a more effective design of tumor vaccines. These questions are now addressable using novel human xenograft models of tumor microenvironments. PMID:21209773

  14. MCM2 mediates progesterone-induced endometrial stromal cell proliferation and differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shuangbo; Han, Xue; Cui, Tongtong; Zhou, Chan; Jiang, Yufei; Zhang, Hangxiao; Wang, Bingyan; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shuang

    2016-08-01

    Uterine decidualization characterized by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation is critical to the establishment of pregnancy in many species. Progesterone is a key factor in regulating endometrial cell decidualization, however, the molecular basis involved in mediating the effects of progesterone during decidualization remains largely unknown. We report here that the DNA replication licensing factor MCM2, one of the conserved set of six-related proteins (MCM complex: MCM2-7) essential for eukaryotic DNA replication, is dynamically expressed in both proliferative and differentiated stromal cells during mouse periimplantation uterus. Applying PR-knockout mouse model and pharmacological strategy, we further found that the expression of Mcm2 is induced by progesterone action in the mouse uterine stroma. Employing a primary cell culture system, we further demonstrated that siRNA-mediated silencing of MCM2 arrests the cell cycle at G1-S transition during stromal cell proliferation. Moreover, the downregulation of Mcm2 could also compromise stromal cell differentiation. Collectively, our studies uncovered the role of a unique DNA replication licensing molecule MCM2 in mediating Progesterone-induced stromal cell decidualization in mouse uterus. PMID:26910396

  15. The role of stromal cells in the persistence of chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, A J; Filer, A; Buckley, C D

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is an unstable state; it either resolves or persists. Inflammatory reactions often have a propensity for specific anatomical sites. Why inflammation persists with specific tissue tropism remains obscure. Increasing evidence suggests that stromal cells which define tissue architecture are the key cells involved, and therefore make attractive therapeutic targets. Research on stromal cells in general and fibroblasts in particular has so far been hampered by a lack of fibroblast-specific cell markers. This review highlights our increasing understanding of the role of fibroblasts in inflammation, and suggests that these cells provide the cellular basis for site specific chronic inflammation. PMID:23199320

  16. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:27227960

  17. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells are a source of adipocytes in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sommariva, E.; Brambilla, S.; Carbucicchio, C.; Gambini, E.; Meraviglia, V.; Dello Russo, A.; Farina, F.M.; Casella, M.; Catto, V.; Pontone, G.; Chiesa, M.; Stadiotti, I.; Cogliati, E.; Paolin, A.; Ouali Alami, N.; Preziuso, C.; d'Amati, G.; Colombo, G.I.; Rossini, A.; Capogrossi, M.C.; Tondo, C.; Pompilio, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a genetic disorder mainly due to mutations in desmosomal genes, characterized by progressive fibro-adipose replacement of the myocardium, arrhythmias, and sudden death. It is still unclear which cell type is responsible for fibro-adipose substitution and which molecular mechanisms lead to this structural change. Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (C-MSC) are the most abundant cells in the heart, with propensity to differentiate into several cell types, including adipocytes, and their role in ACM is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether C-MSC contributed to excess adipocytes in patients with ACM. Methods and results We found that, in ACM patients' explanted heart sections, cells actively differentiating into adipocytes are of mesenchymal origin. Therefore, we isolated C-MSC from endomyocardial biopsies of ACM and from not affected by arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (NON-ACM) (control) patients. We found that both ACM and control C-MSC express desmosomal genes, with ACM C-MSC showing lower expression of plakophilin (PKP2) protein vs. controls. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy C-MSC cultured in adipogenic medium accumulated more lipid droplets than controls. Accordingly, the expression of adipogenic genes was higher in ACM vs. NON-ACM C-MSC, while expression of cell cycle and anti-adipogenic genes was lower. Both lipid accumulation and transcription reprogramming were dependent on PKP2 deficiency. Conclusions Cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells contribute to the adipogenic substitution observed in ACM patients' hearts. Moreover, C-MSC from ACM patients recapitulate the features of ACM adipogenesis, representing a novel, scalable, patient-specific in vitro tool for future mechanistic studies. PMID:26590176

  18. Transcriptome analysis of individual stromal cell populations identifies stroma-tumor crosstalk in mouse lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyejin; Sheng, Jianting; Gao, Dingcheng; Li, Fuhai; Durrans, Anna; Ryu, Seongho; Lee, Sharrell B; Narula, Navneet; Rafii, Shahin; Elemento, Olivier; Altorki, Nasser K; Wong, Stephen T C; Mittal, Vivek

    2015-02-24

    Emerging studies have begun to demonstrate that reprogrammed stromal cells play pivotal roles in tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. However, the contribution of stromal cells to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has remained underexplored. We used an orthotopic model of Kras-driven NSCLC to systematically dissect the contribution of specific hematopoietic stromal cells in lung cancer. RNA deep-sequencing analysis of individually sorted myeloid lineage and tumor epithelial cells revealed cell-type-specific differentially regulated genes, indicative of activated stroma. We developed a computational model for crosstalk signaling discovery based on ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signaling networks and identified known and novel tumor-stroma paracrine and tumor autocrine crosstalk-signaling pathways in NSCLC. We provide cellular and molecular insights into components of the lung cancer microenvironment that contribute to carcinogenesis. This study has the potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target tumor-stroma interactions and may complement conventional anti-cancer treatments. PMID:25704820

  19. Bone marrow stromal cells as an inducer for cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengming; Johkura, Kohei; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Nagai, Mika; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2010-09-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) secrete soluble factors and display varied cell-biological functions. To confirm the ability and efficiency of BMSCs to induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiomyocytes, mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were co-cultured with rat BMSCs. After about 10 days, areas of rhythmically contracting cells in more solid aggregates became evident with bundle-like structures formed along borders between EB outgrowth and BMSC layer. ESC-derived cardiomyocytes exhibited sarcomeric striations when stained with troponin I (Trop I), organized in separated bundles. Besides, the staining for connexin 43 was detected in cell-cell junctions, which demonstrated that ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled by gap junction in culture. The related genes of cardiomyocytes were found in these beating and no-beating EBs co-cultured with BMSCs. In addition, an improved efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESC-BMSC co-culture was found in the serum-free medium: 5-fold up-regulation in the number of beating area compared with the serum medium. Effective cardiac differentiation was also recognized in transfer filter assay and in condition medium obtained from BMSC culture. A clear increase in the expression of cardiac genes and TropI protein confirmed further cardiac differentiation by BMP4 and Retinoic Acid (RA) treatment. These results demonstrate that BMSCs can induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESCs through soluble factors and enhance it with BMP4 or RA treatment. Serum-free ESC-BMSC co-culture represents a defined in vitro model for identifying the cardiomyocyte-inducing activity from BMSCs and, in addition, a straightforward experimental system for assessing clinical applications. PMID:20801009

  20. The influence of hypoxia on the differentiation capacities and immunosuppressive properties of clonal mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines.

    PubMed

    Prado-Lòpez, Sonia; Duffy, Michelle M; Baustian, Claas; Alagesan, Senthilkumar; Hanley, Shirley A; Stocca, Alessia; Griffin, Matthew D; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2014-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into different mesodermal cell types. Enigmatically, mesenchymal stromal cells present in the bone marrow support early lymphopoiesis yet can inhibit mature lymphocyte growth. Critical features of the bone marrow microenvironment, such as the level of oxygen, play an important role in mesenchymal stromal cell biology. Herein, we show that a panel of continuously growing mouse mesenchymal stromal cell lines, namely OP9, MS5, PA6, ST2 and B16-14, exhibit mesenchymal stromal cell characteristic phenotypes and respond physiologically to oxygen deprivation. Culturing freshly isolated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells or cell lines at 5% O2 resulted in a dramatic increase in expression of hypoxia-inducible factor family members and of key genes involved in their differentiation. Phenotypically, their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity was generally improved in hypoxia, whereas their inhibitory effects on in vitro T-cell proliferation were preserved. Taken together, we conclude that these continuously growing mouse cell lines behave as canonical mesenchymal stromal cells and respond physiologically to hypoxia, thereby providing a potent tool for the study of different aspects of mesenchymal stromal cell biology. PMID:24777310

  1. The clock protein period 2 synchronizes mitotic expansion and decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Muter, Joanne; Lucas, Emma S.; Chan, Yi-Wah; Brighton, Paul J.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Lacey, Lauren; Quenby, Siobhan; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Brosens, Jan J.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation requires coordinated interactions between the conceptus and surrounding decidual cells, but the involvement of clock genes in this process is incompletely understood. Circadian oscillations are predicated on transcriptional-translational feedback loops, which balance the activities of the transcriptional activators CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and brain muscle arnt-like 1 and repressors encoded by PER (Period) and Cryptochrome genes. We show that loss of PER2 expression silences circadian oscillations in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Down-regulation occurred between 12 and 24 hours following differentiation and coincided with reduced CLOCK binding to a noncanonical E-box enhancer in the PER2 promoter. RNA sequencing revealed that premature inhibition of PER2 by small interfering RNA knockdown leads to a grossly disorganized decidual response. Gene ontology analysis highlighted a preponderance of cell cycle regulators among the 1121 genes perturbed upon PER2 knockdown. Congruently, PER2 inhibition abrogated mitotic expansion of differentiating HESCs by inducing cell cycle block at G2/M. Analysis of 70 midluteal endometrial biopsies revealed an inverse correlation between PER2 transcript levels and the number of miscarriages in women suffering reproductive failure (Spearman rank test, ρ = −0.3260; P = 0.0046). Thus, PER2 synchronizes endometrial proliferation with initiation of aperiodic decidual gene expression; uncoupling of these events may cause recurrent pregnancy loss.—Muter, J., Lucas, E. S., Chan, Y.-W., Brighton, P. J., Moore, J. D., Lacey, L., Quenby, S., Lam, E. W.-F., Brosens, J. J. The clock protein period 2 synchronizes mitotic expansion and decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells. PMID:25573754

  2. Normal peripheral prostate stromal cells stimulate prostate cancer development: roles of c-kit signal

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Peng-Yue; Yao, Hai-Jun; Da, Jun; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Chen, Qi; Peng, Yu-Bing; Wang, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigated the peripheral stromal cell conditioned medium (CM) -stimulated c-kit-JAK2-STAT1 pathway in prostate cancer. Methods: CM harvested from normal prostate peripheral stromal cells was added to DU145 cells. DU145 cell viability and migration were measured by cell counting kit-8 reagent and Transwell analysis respectively. Colony and sphere formation efficiencies of DU145 cells co-cultured with CM from human prostate stromal cells were also measured. DU145cells were stably transfected with lentivirus-mediated shRNA for c-kit silencing. Results: C-kit expression in prostate cancer was found to be significantly higher than in benign prostatic hyperplasia and positively associated with Gleason scores. The growth, migration and capacity of clonogenic property of DU145 cells significantly increased upon exposure to peripheral stromal CM and then were inhibited after silencing the expression of c-kit. The levels of c-kit, pJAK2 and pSTAT1 were significantly induced by peripheral zone stromal CM compared with controls in serum free medium and the levels of pJAK2 and pSTAT1 decreased after c-kit silencing. Conclusions: C-kit hyper-expression promotes the development of prostate cancer. The peripheral stromal cell CM stimulated c-kit-JAK2-STAT1 pathway in prostate cancer cell viability, migration, and capacity of clonogenic property. This may lead to a greater understanding of the role of c-kit in prostate cancer and provide a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. PMID:26045890

  3. Mechanisms of tumor escape from immune system: role of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Alessandro; Musso, Alessandra; Dapino, Irene; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment represents the site where the tumor tries to survive and escape from immune system-mediated recognition. Indeed, to proliferate tumor cells can divert the immune response inducing the generation of myeloid derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells which can limit the efficiency of effector antitumor lymphocytes in eliminating neoplastic cells. Many components of the tumor microenvironment can serve as a double sword for the tumor and the host. Several types of fibroblast-like cells, which herein we define mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), secrete extracellular matrix components and surrounding the tumor mass can limit the expansion of the tumor. On the other hand, MSC can interfere with the immune recognition of tumor cells producing immunoregulatory cytokines as transforming growth factor (TGF)ß, releasing soluble ligands of the activating receptors expressed on cytolytic effector cells as decoy molecules, affecting the correct interaction among lymphocytes and tumor cells. MSC can also serve as target for the same anti-tumor effector lymphocytes or simply impede the interaction between these lymphocytes and neoplastic cells. Thus, several evidences point out the role of MSC, both in epithelial solid tumors and hematological malignancies, in regulating tumor cell growth and immune response. Herein, we review these evidences and suggest that MSC can be a suitable target for a more efficient anti-tumor therapy. PMID:24657523

  4. Identification of Factors Produced and Secreted by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with the SILAC Method.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz; Calamia, Valentina; Blanco, Francisco J; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete a large variety of proteins and factors, which shape the secretome. These proteins participate in multiple cellular functions, including the promotion of regenerative processes in the damaged tissue. Secretomes derived from either undifferentiated MSCs or these cells undergoing osteogenic, chondrogenic, or adipogenic differentiation have been characterized using different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantitative proteomic approaches. In this chapter, we describe the use of the Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell culture (SILAC) strategy for the identification and relative quantification of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome, specifically during chondrogenesis. PMID:27236695

  5. Intrathymic lymphopoiesis: stromal cell-associated proliferation of T cells is independent of lymphocyte genotype.

    PubMed

    Kyewski, B A; Travis, M; Kaplan, H S

    1984-09-01

    We analyzed the genetic restriction of direct cell-cell interactions between thymocytes and a) cortical epithelial cells, b) macrophages, and c) medullary dendritic cells in the mouse thymus. Thymectomized (C3H X C57BL/Ka)F1 hybrid mice were doubly grafted with P1 and P2 neonatal thymus grafts, were lethally irradiated, and were reconstituted with a mixture of P1 and P2 bone marrow cells which differed in the Thy-1 locus. The contributions of both parental inocula to the composition of the free and stromal cell-associated T cell compartments were analyzed separately in thymic grafts of each parental strain. The lymphoid composition in both compartments essentially reflected the peripheral T cell-chimerism in the host. The development of lymphostromal complexes was not restricted by the genotype of the partner cells. Statistical analysis of the distributions of P1 and P2 T cells among free thymocytes and within individual lymphostromal complexes, however, suggests that the T cells of an individual complex are the progeny of oligoclonal proliferation. Thus, both epithelial cells and bone marrow-derived stromal cells seem to be involved in different stages of intrathymic lymphopoiesis. PMID:6611364

  6. Bacterial Infection of endometrial stromal cells influences bovine herpersvirus 4 immediate early gene activation: a new insight into bacterial and viral interaction for uterine disease

    PubMed Central

    Donofrio, Gaetano; Ravanetti, Lara; Cavirani, Sandro; Herath, Shan; Capocefalo, Antonio; Sheldon, Iain Martin

    2009-01-01

    Experimental infection with the gammaherpesvirus Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) rarely establishes disease, yet BoHV-4 is commonly associated with uterine disease in cattle. Uterine disease involves co-infection with bacteria such as Escherichia coli, which stimulate the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by endometrial cells. BoHV-4 replication depends on Immediate Early 2 (IE2) gene transactivation, and in the present study, PGE2, E. coli or its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), up-regulated the IE2 gene promoter in uterine cells. Bacterial co-infection is important for BoHV-4 uterine disease. PMID:18577555

  7. Clonal analysis of multipotent stromal cells derived from CD271+ bone marrow mononuclear cells: functional heterogeneity and different mechanisms of allosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Kuçi, Zyrafete; Seiberth, Julia; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Wehner, Sibylle; Stein, Stefan; Grez, Manuel; Bönig, Halvard; Köhl, Ulrike; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Kuçi, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports demonstrated a relationship between proliferation potential and trilineage differentiation in mesenchymal stromal cell-derived clones generated using plastic adherence (PA-MSCs). However, there are no reports presenting a clonal analysis of the proliferative potential, differentiation potential and allosuppressive effects of human mesenchymal stromal cell subsets. In this study, we performed a clonal analysis of mesenchymal stromal cells generated from human CD271+ bone marrow mononuclear cells (CD271-MSCs). After transfection with the gene encoding green fluorescent protein, the cells were single-cell sorted and cultured for 2–4 weeks. A population doubling analysis demonstrated that 25% of CD271-MSC clones are fast-proliferating clones compared to only 10% of PA-MSC clones. Evaluation of the allosuppressive potential demonstrated that 81.8% of CD271-MSC clones were highly allosuppressive compared to only 58% of PA-MSC clones. However, no consistent correlation was observed between allosuppression and proliferative potential. Prostaglandin E2 levels were positively correlated with the allosuppressive activity of individual clones, suggesting that this molecule may be a useful predictive biomarker for the allosuppressive potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. In contrast, inhibitory studies of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase indicated that none of the clones used this enzyme to mediate their allosuppressive effect. Differentiation studies revealed the presence of tripotent, bipotent and unipotent CD271-MSC and PA-MSC clones which suppressed the allogeneic reaction to differing extents in vitro. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate differences between CD271-MSCs and PA-MSCs and indicate that neither proliferation potential nor differentiation potential represents a consistent predictive parameter for the immunomodulatory effects of either type of mesenchymal stromal cells. PMID:23975178

  8. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with multinucleated stromal giant cells is neither exceptional in gynecomastia nor characteristic of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Pižem, Jože; Velikonja, Mojca; Matjašič, Alenka; Jerše, Maja; Glavač, Damjan

    2015-04-01

    Six cases of gynecomastia with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) and multinucleated stromal giant cells (MSGC) associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have been reported, and finding MSGC within PASH in gynecomastia has been suggested as being a characteristic of NF1. The frequency of PASH with MSGC in gynecomastia and its specificity for NF1 have not, however, been systematically studied. A total of 337 gynecomastia specimens from 215 patients, aged from 8 to 78 years (median, 22 years) were reevaluated for the presence of PASH with MSGC. Breast tissue samples of 25 patients were analyzed for the presence of an NF1 gene mutation using next generation sequencing. Rare MSGC, usually in the background of PASH, were noted at least unilaterally in 27 (13 %) patients; and prominent MSGC, always in the background of PASH, were noted in 8 (4 %) patients. The NF1 gene was mutated in only 1 (an 8-year-old boy with known NF1 and prominent MSGC) of the 25 tested patients, including 6 patients with prominent MSGC and 19 patients with rare MSGC. MSGC, usually in the background of PASH, are not characteristic of NF1. PMID:25586494

  9. The phytoestrogen genistein enhances osteogenesis and represses adipogenic differentiation of human primary bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Frank, O; Kampmann, G; Sochocky, N; Pennimpede, T; Fuchs, P; Hunziker, W; Weber, P; Martin, I; Bendik, I

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the phytoestrogen genistein and 17beta-estradiol in human bone marrow stromal cells, undergoing induced osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation. Profiling of estrogen receptors (ERs)-alpha, -beta1, -beta2, -beta3, -beta4, -beta5, and aromatase mRNAs revealed lineage-dependent expression patterns. During osteogenic differentiation, the osteoblast-determining core binding factor-alpha1 showed a progressive increase, whereas the adipogenic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was sequentially decreased. This temporal regulation of lineage-determining marker genes was strongly enhanced by genistein during the early osteogenic phase. Moreover, genistein increased alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels and activity, the osteoprotegerin:receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand gene expression ratio, and the expression of TGFbeta1. During adipogenic differentiation, down-regulation in the mRNA levels of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha at d 3 and decreased lipoprotein lipase and adipsin mRNA levels at d 21 were observed after genistein treatment. This led to a lower number of adipocytes and a reduction in the size of their lipid droplets. At d 3 of adipogenesis, TGFbeta1 was strongly up-regulated by genistein in an ER-dependent manner. Blocking the TGFbeta1 pathway abolished the effects of genistein on PPARgamma protein levels and led to a reduction in the proliferation rate of precursor cells. Overall, genistein enhanced the commitment and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to the osteoblast lineage but did not influence the late osteogenic maturation markers. Adipogenic differentiation and maturation, on the other hand, were reduced by genistein (and 17beta-estradiol) via an ER-dependent mechanism involving autocrine or paracrine TGFbeta1 signaling. PMID:14605006

  10. Human corneal stromal stem cells support limbal epithelial cells cultured on RAFT tissue equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Kureshi, Alvena K; Dziasko, Marc; Funderburgh, James L; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    Human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) reside in close proximity in vivo in the corneal limbal stem cell niche. However, HLE are typically cultured in vitro without supporting niche cells. Here, we re-create the cell-cell juxtaposition of the native environment in vitro, to provide a tool for investigation of epithelial-stromal cell interactions and to optimize HLE culture conditions for potential therapeutic application. RAFT (Real Architecture For 3D Tissue) tissue equivalents (TEs) were used as a 3-dimensional substrate for co-culturing HLE and CSSC. Our results demonstrate that a monolayer of HLE that maintained expression of p63α, ABCB5, CK8 and CK15 (HLE markers), formed on the surface of RAFT TEs within 13 days of culture. CSSC remained in close proximity to HLE and maintained expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers. This simple technique has a short preparation time of only 15 days with the onset of HLE layering and differentiation observed. Furthermore, co-cultivation of HLE with another niche cell type (CSSC) directly on RAFT TEs, eliminates the requirement for animal-derived feeder cells. RAFT TEs may be useful for future therapeutic delivery of multiple cell types to restore the limbal niche following ocular surface injury or disease. PMID:26531048

  11. Stromal Cells in Dense Collagen Promote Cardiomyocyte and Microvascular Patterning in Engineered Human Heart Tissue.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Meredith A; Tran, Dominic; Coulombe, Kareen L K; Razumova, Maria; Regnier, Michael; Murry, Charles E; Zheng, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering is a strategy to replace damaged contractile tissue and model cardiac diseases to discover therapies. Current cardiac and vascular engineering approaches independently create aligned contractile tissue or perfusable vasculature, but a combined vascularized cardiac tissue remains to be achieved. Here, we sought to incorporate a patterned microvasculature into engineered heart tissue, which balances the competing demands from cardiomyocytes to contract the matrix versus the vascular lumens that need structural support. Low-density collagen hydrogels (1.25 mg/mL) permit human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) to form a dense contractile tissue but cannot support a patterned microvasculature. Conversely, high collagen concentrations (density ≥6 mg/mL) support a patterned microvasculature, but the hESC-CMs lack cell-cell contact, limiting their electrical communication, structural maturation, and tissue-level contractile function. When cocultured with matrix remodeling stromal cells, however, hESC-CMs structurally mature and form anisotropic constructs in high-density collagen. Remodeling requires the stromal cells to be in proximity with hESC-CMs. In addition, cocultured cardiac constructs in dense collagen generate measurable active contractions (on the order of 0.1 mN/mm(2)) and can be paced up to 2 Hz. Patterned microvascular networks in these high-density cocultured cardiac constructs remain patent through 2 weeks of culture, and hESC-CMs show electrical synchronization. The ability to maintain microstructural control within engineered heart tissue enables generation of more complex features, such as cellular alignment and a vasculature. Successful incorporation of these features paves the way for the use of large scale engineered tissues for myocardial regeneration and cardiac disease modeling. PMID:26955856

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Like Cells Set the Balance of Stimulatory and Inhibitory Signals in Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Bacskai, Ildikó; Mázló, Anett; Kis-Tóth, Katalin; Szabó, Attila; Panyi, György; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Rajnavölgyi, Éva

    2015-08-01

    The major reservoir of human multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) is the bone marrow (BM) with the capability to control hematopoietic stem cell development. The regenerative potential of MSCs is associated with enhanced endogenous repair and healing mechanisms that modulate inflammatory responses. Our previous results revealed that MSC-like (MSCl) cells derived from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells resemble BM-derived MSCs in morphology, phenotype, and differentiating potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of MSCl cells on the phenotype and functions of dendritic cells (DCs). To assess how antiviral immune responses could be regulated by intracellular pattern recognition receptors of DCs in the presence of MSCl cells, we activated DCs with the specific ligands of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) helicases and found that activated DCs cocultured with MSCl cells exhibited reduced expression of CD1a and CD83 cell surface molecules serving as phenotypic indicators of DC differentiation and activation, respectively. However, RIG-I-mediated stimulation of DCs through specific ligands in the presence of MSCl cells resulted in significantly higher expression of the costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86, than in the presence of BM-MSCs. In line with these results, the concentration of IL-6, IL-10, and CXCL8 was increased in the supernatant of the DC-MSCl cocultures, while the secretion of TNF-α, CXCL10, IL-12, and IFNγ was reduced. Furthermore, the concerted action of mechanisms involved in the regulation of DC migration resulted in the blockade of cell migration, indicating altered DC functionality mediated by MSCl cell-derived signals and mechanisms resulting in a suppressive microenvironment. PMID:25808140

  13. Large-scale gene expression profiling data of bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors.

    PubMed

    Stiehler, Maik; Rauh, Juliane; Bünger, Cody; Jacobi, Angela; Vater, Corina; Schildberg, Theresa; Liebers, Cornelia; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Bretschneider, Henriette

    2016-09-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, "in vitro characterization of bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors" [1]. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents the main indication for total joint arthroplasty and is one of the most frequent degenerative joint disorders. However, the exact etiology of OA remains unknown. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be easily isolated from bone marrow aspirates and provide an excellent source of progenitor cells. The data shows the identification of pivotal genes and pathways involved in osteoarthritis by comparing gene expression patterns of BMSCs from osteoarthritic versus healthy donors using an array-based approach. PMID:27508214

  14. Is it really an abscess? An unusual case of metastatic stromal cell sarcoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasinghe, Shehan; Beenen, Edwin; He, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prostatic stromal sarcomas account for about 0.1% of all prostatic malignancies. Local recurrence into bladder, seminal vesicles and rectum has been documented. Distal metastasis, has so far only been reported in lung and bone. Presentation of case We report the case of a 42 year old man with a subcutaneous metastatic deposit of a prostatic stromal cell sarcoma 5 years after radical prostatectomy. Additional staging with CT- and PET-scan showed lymph node involvement in the neck and left axilla. A core biopsy of the skin lesion was undertaken, of which the histology revealed a low grade spindle cell tumour that was morphologically identical to a previously diagnosed prostatic stromal sarcoma. Discussion In literature distant metastases to the lung and bone have been documented before. This is the first documented case of a subcutaneous metastasis of prostatic stromal cell sarcoma. Conclusion The preferred treatment for prostatic stromal cell sarcoma is surgery by radical prostatectomy or cystoprostatectomy. There is currently not enough literature on the topic to elucidate the role of chemo- or radiotherapy in loco-regional or distant spread. PMID:26581082

  15. Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kangning; Cao, Weipeng; Hao, Xiaohong; Xue, Xue; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Meng, Jie; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33575a

  16. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells are more beneficial cell sources for tooth regeneration compared with adipose-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lanfeng; Chen, Lin; Feng, Fan; Cui, Junhui; Li, Kaide; Li, Zhiyong; Liu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Tooth loss is presently a global epidemic and tooth regeneration is thought to be a feasible and ideal treatment approach. Choice of cell source is a primary concern in tooth regeneration. In this study, the odontogenic differentiation potential of two non-dental-derived stem cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs), were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. ADSCs and BMSCs were induced in vitro in the presence of tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (TGC-CM) prior to implantation into the omentum majus of rats, in combination with inactivated dentin matrix (IDM). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of odontogenic-related genes. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical assays were used to detect the protein levels of odontogenic-specific genes, such as DSP and DMP-1 both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that both ADSCs and BMSCs have odontogenic differentiation potential. However, the odontogenic potential of BMSCs was greater compared with ADSCs, showing that BMSCs are a more appropriate cell source for tooth regeneration. PMID:25965323

  17. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long; Liu, Xue-Qin; Song, Wen-Hui; Yan, Ba-Yi; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Yang, Wu-Lin

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limiting catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5.

  18. Gap-junctional communication of bone marrow stromal cells is resistant to irradiation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, A.; Harigaya, K.; Abe, H.; Watanabe, Y. )

    1990-10-01

    Bone marrow is one of the most radiosensitive organs. Irradiation causes a marked decrease in the total number of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. The reticular meshwork structure of marrow stromal cells, however, is relatively resistant to irradiation. Unimpaired stromal cell structure has been thought to be a prerequisite for the repopulation of hematopoietic cells during recovery from the effects of irradiation. The reticular framework is maintained by cell adhesion apparatuses such as gap junctions. The in vitro radiobiologic survival values of a cloned stromal cell line, H-1/A, were studied (n = 1.8, D0 = 138 cGy). Radiation doses of up to 4000 cGy had no detectable effects on the production of colony-stimulating factor 1. H-1/A cells communicate with each other via gap junctions as determined by the sensitive dye-transfer method. Gap-junctional communication between H-1/A cells was resistant to different levels of irradiation (500 to 10,000 cGy), but it was lost during adipocyte differentiation of H-1/A cells. Marrow stromal cells, which are important in the recovery of hematopoiesis, seemed capable of coordination with each other through gap junctions even when exposed to radiation.

  19. Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Keiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hara, Akitoshi; Asai, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takuya; Ando, Kenju; Weng, Liang; Mii, Shinji; Asai, Masato; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo. PMID:26924503

  20. Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hara, Akitoshi; Asai, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takuya; Ando, Kenju; Weng, Liang; Mii, Shinji; Asai, Masato; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo. PMID:26924503

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cells support the viability and differentiation of thymocytes through direct contact in autologous co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Azghadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Suciu, Maria; Gruia, Alexandra Teodora; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Cristea, Mirabela Iustina; Mic, Ani Aurora; Muntean, Danina; Nica, Dragos Vasile; Mic, Felix Aurel

    2016-08-01

    The development of thymocytes and generation of mature T cells is a complex process that requires spatio-temporal interactions of thymocytes with the other cells of the thymus microenvironment. Recently, mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from the neonatal human thymus and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages, just like their bone marrow counterparts. However, their function in thymocyte homeostasis is unknown. In our autologous co-cultures of rat mesenchymal stromal cells and thymocytes, the stromal cells preserve the viability of cultured thymocytes and stimulate the development of CD4-CD8- double-negative and the maturation of mainly CD4+ single-positive thymocytes. Thymocytes also influence the stemness of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, as their expression of CD44, a marker associated with cellular proliferation and migration, is reduced in co-cultures. Mesenchymal stromal cells' influence on thymocyte development requires direct physical contact between the two cells and is not mediated by a soluble factor. When the two types of cells were physically separated, the stimulative effects of mesenchymal stromal cells on thymocytes did not occur. Electron microscopy confirmed the close contact between the membranes of thymocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. Our experiments suggest that membrane exchanges could occur between mesenchymal stromal cells and thymocytes, such as the transfer of CD44 from mesenchymal stromal cells to the thymocytes, but its functional significance for thymocytes development remains to be established. These results suggest that mesenchymal stromal cells could normally be a part of the in vivo thymic microenvironment and form a niche that could sustain and guide the development of thymocytes. PMID:27085705

  2. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

  3. Stromal cells differentially regulate neutrophil and lymphocyte recruitment through the endothelium

    PubMed Central

    McGettrick, Helen M; Buckley, Christopher D; Filer, Andrew; Ed Rainger, G; Nash, Gerard B

    2010-01-01

    Stromal fibroblasts modify the initial recruitment of leucocytes by endothelial cells (EC), but their effects on subsequent transendothelial migration remain unclear. Here, EC and dermal or synovial fibroblasts were cultured on opposite surfaces of 3-μm pore filters and incorporated in static or flow-based migration assays. Fibroblasts had little effect on tumour necrosis factor-α-induced transendothelial migration of neutrophils, but tended to increase the efficiency of migration away from the endothelium. Surprisingly, similar close contact between EC and fibroblasts strongly reduced lymphocyte migration in static assays, and nearly abolished stable lymphocyte adhesion from flow. Fibroblasts did not alter endothelial surface expression of adhesion molecules or messenger RNA for chemokines. Inhibition of attachment did not occur when EC-fibroblast contact was restricted by using 0·4-μm pore filters, but under these conditions pre-treatment with heparinase partially inhibited adhesion. In the 3-μm pore co-cultures, inhibition of metalloproteinase activity partially recovered lymphocyte adhesion, but addition of CXCL12 (SDF-1α) to the endothelial surface did not. Hence, the ability of EC to present activating chemokines for lymphocytes may have been enzymatically inhibited by direct contact with fibroblasts. To avoid contact, we cultured EC and fibroblasts on separate 3-μm pore filters one above the other. Here, fibroblasts promoted the transendothelial migration of lymphocytes. Fibroblasts generate CXCL12, but blockade of CXCL12 receptor had no effect on lymphocyte migration. While stromal cells can provide signal(s) promoting leucocyte migration away from the sub-endothelial space, direct cell contact (which might occur in damaged tissue) may cause disruption of chemokine signalling, specifically inhibiting lymphocyte rather than neutrophil recruitment. PMID:20518822

  4. CD271 antigen defines a subset of multipotent stromal cells with immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting properties

    PubMed Central

    Kuçi, Selim; Kuçi, Zyrafete; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Deak, Erika; Pütsch, Kathrin; Huenecke, Sabine; Amara, Chandrasekhar; Koller, Stefanie; Rettinger, Eva; Grez, Manuel; Koehl, Ulrike; Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Henschler, Reinhard; Tonn, Torsten; von Laer, Dorothee; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background In vitro proliferative and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stromal cells generated from CD271+ bone marrow mononuclear cells (CD271-mesenchymal stromal cells) has been demonstrated in several earlier and recent reports. In the present study we focused, in addition to proliferative and differentiation potential, on in vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive and lymphohematopoietic engraftment-promoting potential of these mesenchymal stromal cells compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells generated by plastic adherence (plastic adherence-mesenchymal stromal cells). Design and Methods We set up a series of experimental protocols in order to determine the phenotype of CD271-mesenchymal stromal cells, and their clonogenic, proliferative, differentiation and immunosuppressive potential. The potential of CD271-mesenchymal stromal cells to improve the engraftment of CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells at co-transplantation was evaluated in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-IL2Rγnull mice. Results In vitro studies demonstrated that CD271-mesenchymal stromal cells differentiate along adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages (trilineage potential), produce significantly higher levels of cytokines than plastic adherence-mesenchymal stromal cells, and significantly inhibit the proliferation of allogeneic T-lymphocytes in mixed lymphocyte reaction assays. Elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, but not nitric monoxide, mediated the majority of this immunosuppressive effect. In vivo studies showed that CD271-mesenchymal stromal cells promoted significantly greater lymphoid engraftment than did plastic adherence-mesenchymal stromal cells when co-transplanted with CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells at a ratio of 8:1 in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-IL2Rγnull mice. They induced a 10.4-fold increase in the number of T cells, a 2.5-fold increase in the number of NK cells, and a 3.6-fold increase in the number of B cells, indicating a major qualitative difference

  5. The monitoring of gene functions on a cell-defined siRNA microarray in human bone marrow stromal and U2OS cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hi Chul; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Shum, David; Cho, Ssang-Goo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kwon, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we developed a cell defined siRNA microarray (CDSM) for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) designed to control the culture of cells inside the spot area without reducing the efficiency of siRNA silencing, “Development of a cell-defined siRNA microarray for analysis of gene functionin human bone marrow stromal cells” (Kim et al., 2016 [1]). First, we confirmed that p65 protein inhibition efficiency was maintained when hBMSCs were culture for 7 days on the siRNA spot, and siRNA spot activity remained in spite of long term storage (10 days and 2 months). Additionally, we confirmed p65 protein inhibition in U2OS cells after 48 h reverse transfection. PMID:27054175

  6. Neutrophils trigger a NF-κB dependent polarization of tumor-supportive stromal cells in germinal center B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Murielle; Guilloton, Fabien; Pangault, Céline; Mourcin, Frédéric; Sok, Phaktra; Latour, Maelle; Amé-Thomas, Patricia; Flecher, Erwan; Fest, Thierry; Tarte, Karin

    2015-06-30

    Both tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) display specific phenotypic and functional features and contribute to tumor cell niche. However, their bidirectional crosstalk has been poorly studied, in particular in the context of hematological malignancies. Follicular lymphomas (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are two germinal center-derived lymphomas where various cell components of infiltrating microenvironment, including TAN and CAFs, have been demonstrated to favor directly and indirectly malignant B-cell survival, growth, and drug resistance. We show here that, besides a direct and contact-dependent supportive effect of neutrophils on DLBCL B-cell survival, mediated through the BAFF/APRIL pathway, neutrophils and stromal cells cooperate to sustain FL B-cell growth. This cooperation relies on an overexpression of IL-8 by lymphoma-infiltrating stromal cells that could thereafter efficiently promote neutrophil survival and prime them to neutrophil extracellular trap. Conversely, neutrophils are able to activate stromal cells in a NF-κB-dependent manner, inducing their commitment towards an inflammatory lymphoid stroma phenotype associated with an increased capacity to trigger malignant B-cell survival, and to recruit additional monocytes and neutrophils through the release of CCL2 and IL-8, respectively. Altogether, a better understanding of the lymphoma-supporting effects of neutrophils could be helpful to design new anti-tumor therapeutic strategies. PMID:26158216

  7. Characterizing natural hydrogel for reconstruction of three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network to model T-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Wu, Biming; Niedzielski, Steven M; Hill, Matthew T; Coleman, Rhima M; Ono, Akira; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogels have been used in regenerative medicine because they provide a three-dimensional environment similar to soft tissues, allow diffusion of nutrients, present critical biological signals, and degrade via endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. Herein, we developed in vitro system mimicking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Existing in vitro culture systems cannot accurately represent the complex interactions happening between T-cells and stromal cells in immune response. To model T-cell interaction in SLOs in vitro, we encapsulated stromal cells in fibrin, collagen, or fibrin-collagen hydrogels and studied how different mechanical and biological properties affect stromal network formation. Overall, fibrin supplemented with aprotinin was superior to collagen and fibrin-collagen in terms of network formation and promotion of T-cell penetration. After 8 days of culture, stromal networks formed through branching and joining with other adjacent cell populations. T-cells added to the newly formed stromal networks migrated and attached to stromal cells, similar to the T-cell zones of the lymph nodes in vivo. Our results suggest that the constructed three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network can mimic the in vivo environment and allow the modeling of T-cell interaction in SLOs. PMID:25649205

  8. Elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host macrophages in different models of regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arutyunyan, Irina; Elchaninov, Andrey; Fatkhudinov, Timur; Makarov, Andrey; Kananykhina, Evgeniya; Usman, Natalia; Bolshakova, Galina; Glinkina, Valeria; Goldshtein, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic multipotent stromal cells were previously thought to be poorly recognized by host immune system; the prolonged survival in host environments was explained by their immune privileged status. As long as the concept is currently reconsidered, the routes of elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host immunity must be taken into account. This is necessary for correct comprehension of their therapeutic action. The study was focused upon survival of umbilical cord-derived allogeneic multipotent stromal cells in different rat models of tissue regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy or by critical limb ischemia. The observations were carried out by means of vital labeling of the cells with PKH26 prior to injection, in combination with differential immunostaining of host macrophages with anti-CD68 antibody. According to the results, allogeneic multipotent stromal cells are specifically eliminated by host immune system; the efficacy can reach 100%. Massive clearance of transplanted cells by host macrophages is accompanied by appropriation of the label by the latter, and this is a pronounced case of misleading presentation of exogenous label by host cells. The study emphasizes the role of macrophages in host response and also the need of additional criteria for correct data interpretation. PMID:26191137

  9. Elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host macrophages in different models of regeneration.

    PubMed

    Arutyunyan, Irina; Elchaninov, Andrey; Fatkhudinov, Timur; Makarov, Andrey; Kananykhina, Evgeniya; Usman, Natalia; Bolshakova, Galina; Glinkina, Valeria; Goldshtein, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic multipotent stromal cells were previously thought to be poorly recognized by host immune system; the prolonged survival in host environments was explained by their immune privileged status. As long as the concept is currently reconsidered, the routes of elimination of allogeneic multipotent stromal cells by host immunity must be taken into account. This is necessary for correct comprehension of their therapeutic action. The study was focused upon survival of umbilical cord-derived allogeneic multipotent stromal cells in different rat models of tissue regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy or by critical limb ischemia. The observations were carried out by means of vital labeling of the cells with PKH26 prior to injection, in combination with differential immunostaining of host macrophages with anti-CD68 antibody. According to the results, allogeneic multipotent stromal cells are specifically eliminated by host immune system; the efficacy can reach 100%. Massive clearance of transplanted cells by host macrophages is accompanied by appropriation of the label by the latter, and this is a pronounced case of misleading presentation of exogenous label by host cells. The study emphasizes the role of macrophages in host response and also the need of additional criteria for correct data interpretation. PMID:26191137

  10. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  11. Notch signaling is required for the formation of mesangial cells from a stromal mesenchyme precursor during kidney development

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Scott C.; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Mesangial cells are specialized pericyte/smooth muscle cells that surround and constrain the vascular network within the glomerulus of the kidney. They are derived from the stromal mesenchyme, a progenitor population distinct from nephron stem cells. Whether mesangial cells have a distinct origin from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the pathways that govern their specification are unknown. Here we show that Notch signaling in stromal progenitors is essential for mesangial cell formation but is dispensable for the smooth muscle and interstitial cell lineages. Deletion of RBPjk, the common DNA-binding partner of all active Notch receptors, with Foxd1tgCre results in glomerular aneurysm and perinatal death from kidney failure. This defect occurs early in glomerular development as stromal-derived, desmin-positive cells fail to coalesce near forming nephrons and thus do not invade the vascular cleft of the S-shaped body. This is in contrast to other mutants in which the loss of the mesangium was due to migration defects, and suggests that loss of Notch signaling results in a failure to specify this population from the stroma. Interestingly, Pdgfrb-positive VSMCs do not enter the vascular cleft and cannot rescue the mesangial deficiency. Notch1 and Notch2 act redundantly through γ-secretase and RBPjk in this process, as individual mutants have mesangial cells at birth. Together, these data demonstrate a unique origin of mesangial cells and demonstrate a novel, redundant function for Notch receptors in mesangial cell specification, proliferation or survival during kidney development. PMID:24353058

  12. Stromal CD4/CD25 positive T-cells are a strong and independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer patients, especially with adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Gian; Schulte-Uentrop, Luzie; Sienel, Wulf; Werner, Martin; Fisch, Paul; Passlick, Bernward; Zur Hausen, Axel; Stremmel, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Within the concert of immune reactions against tumour cells cytotoxic and regulatory T-cells are of utmost importance. Several studies revealed contradictory results on this issue. We therefore focused on functional expression patterns and localization of tumour-infiltrating T-lymphocytes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and their impact on patient's survival. 232 curatively operated NSCLC patients were included. After histological reevaluation and construction of tissue-multi-arrays immunohistochemical doublestains for CD3/CD8 and CD4/CD25 were performed to evaluate the total number of T-cells and their subsets of cytotoxic and activated T-cells. Additionally, the localization of the lymphocytes was included in the analysis. Hereby, T-cells within the tumour stroma were regarded as stromal, those among cancer cells as intraepithelial. The number of lymphocytes differed significantly between the histological subtypes being most prominent in large cell carcinomas. Survival analysis showed that high numbers of stromal T-lymphocytes are of beneficial prognostic influence in NSCLC patients. This also proved to be an independent prognostic factor in adenocarcinomas. Thus, in a large and well characterized cohort of NSCLC this is the first study to determine the prognostic value of stromal T-lymphocytes, as these are an independent prognosticator in NSCLC especially in adenocarcinomas whereas intraepithelial T-cells are not. PMID:22300751

  13. Human mesenchymal and murine stromal cells support human lympho-myeloid progenitor expansion but not maintenance of multipotent haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Stefan; Görgens, André; Liu, Bing; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

    2016-02-16

    A major goal in haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) research is to define conditions for the expansion of HSCs or multipotent progenitor cells (MPPs). Since human HSCs/MPPs cannot be isolated, NOD/SCID repopulating cell (SRC) assays emerged as the standard for the quantification of very primitive haematopoietic cell. However, in addition to HSCs/MPPs, lympho-myeloid primed progenitors (LMPPs) were recently found to contain SRC activities, challenging this assay as clear HSC/MPP readout. Because our revised model of human haematopoiesis predicts that HSCs/MPPs can be identified as CD133(+)CD34(+) cells containing erythroid potentials, we investigated the potential of human mesenchymal and conventional murine stromal cells to support expansion of HSCs/MPPs. Even though all stromal cells supported expansion of CD133(+)CD34(+) progenitors with long-term myeloid and long-term lymphoid potentials, erythroid potentials were exclusively found within erythro-myeloid CD133(low)CD34(+) cell fractions. Thus, our data demonstrate that against the prevailing assumption co-cultures on human mesenchymal and murine stromal cells neither promote expansion nor maintenance of HSCs and MPPs. PMID:26818432

  14. Human resident CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes have progenitor capacity and are a source of αSMA+ cells during repair.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, L; Gutiérrez, R; García, M P; González, M; Sáez, F J; Aparicio, F; Díaz-Flores, L; Madrid, J F

    2015-05-01

    We studied the progenitor capacity of human resident CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (SC/TCs) in the enteric wall affected by inflammatory/repair processes (appendicitis, diverticulitis of large bowel and Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum) at different stages of evolution (inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling). In these conditions, CD34+ SC/TCs are activated, showing changes, which include the following overlapping events: 1) separation from adjacent structures (e.g., from vascular walls) and location in oedematous spaces, 2) morphological modifications (in cell shape and size) with presence of transitional cell forms between quiescent and activated CD34+ SC/TCs, 3) rapid proliferation and 4) loss of CD34 expression and gain of αSMA expression. These events mainly occur in the inflammatory and proliferative stages. During the loss of CD34 expression, the following findings are observed: a) irregular cell labelling intensity for anti-CD34, b) co-localization of CD34 and actin, c) concurrent irregular labelling intensity for αSMA and d) αSMA expression in all stromal cells, with total loss of CD34 expression. While CD34 expression was conserved, a high proliferative capacity (Ki-67 expression) was observed and vice versa. In the segments of the ileum affected by Crohn's disease, the stromal cells around fissures were αSMA+ and, in the transitional zones with normal enteric wall, activated CD34+ SC/TCs were observed. In conclusion, human resident CD34+ SC/TCs in the enteric wall have progenitor capacity and are activated with or without differentiation into αSMA+ stromal cells during inflammatory/repair processes. PMID:25500909

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the motility of human decidual endometrial stromal cells: possible effect on embryo implantation and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei; Leung, Peter C K; Wang, Hsin-Shih

    2015-04-01

    Invasion of the maternal decidua by extravillous trophoblast is an important process for embryo implantation and placentation in humans. Motile behavior of decidual endometrial stromal cells has been considered of critical importance for embryo implantation and programming of human pregnancy. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) effects in endometrium have raised concerns in reproduction. In the present study, we examined the action of GnRH-II agonist-promoted motility of human decidual endometrial stromal cells and the mechanisms of the action, indicating the role of GnRH-II agonist in embryo implantation and early pregnancy. Human decidual endometrial stromal cells were isolated from the decidual tissue from healthy women undergoing elective pregnancy termination of a normal pregnancy at 6- to 12-wk gestation, after informed consent. Cell motility was estimated by invasion and migration assay. Zymography and immunoblot analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of the GnRH-II action. The GnRH-I receptor (GnRH-IR) was expressed in human decidual tissue and endometrial stromal cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors abolished GnRH-II agonist-induced cell motility and activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. GnRH-II agonist-mediated cell motility was suppressed by knockdown of endogenous GnRH-IR, MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-2, and MMP-9 with small interfering RNA and MMP inhibitors. Our study demonstrates that the GnRH-II agonist promoted the cell motility of human decidual endometrial stromal cells through the GnRH-IR and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 and JNK-dependent activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanisms of GnRH-II-promoted cell motility, suggesting that GnRH-II agonist has strong effects on embryo implantation and decidual programming of human pregnancy. PMID:25761596

  16. In vitro osteogenic induction of bone marrow stromal cells with encapsulated gene-modified bone marrow stromal cells and in vivo implantation for orbital bone repair.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yuan; Zhou, Huifang; Yan, Chenxi; Wang, Yefei; Xiao, Caiwen; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun

    2014-07-01

    Osteogenic induction with either growth factors or genetic modification has limitations due to the short half-life and cost of the former, or safety concerns regarding the latter. The objective of this study was to employ a microcapsulation technique to separate genetically modified and nonmodified bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to establish a cost-effective and biosafe osteogenic induction methodology with functional evaluation in vitro and in vivo in a canine model. Autologous BMSCs were isolated and transduced with adenoviral vectors containing either BMP-2 or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or were dual transduced followed by encapsulation in alginate microcapsules using an electrostatic bead generator. After cocultured with encapsulated cells, normal autologous BMSCs were analyzed for osteogenic differentiation and seeded onto tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds for in vivo implantation to repair orbital wall bone defects (12 mm in diameter) in a canine model. In vitro assays showed that the expression of the transduced genes was significantly upregulated, with significantly more transduced proteins released from the transduced cells compared with control cells. Importantly, examination of the BMSCs induced by soluble factors released from the encapsulated cells revealed a significant upregulation of expression of osteogenic markers Runx2, BSP, OPN, and OCN in dual-transduction or induction groups. In addition, dual transduction and induction resulted in the highest increase of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization compared with other experimental groups. In vivo assays using CT, micro-CT, and histology further supported the qPCR and western blot findings. In conclusion, encapsulation of genetically modified BMSCs was able to release a sufficient amount of BMP-2 and VEGF, which effectively induced osteogenic differentiation of normal-cultured BMSCs and demonstrated bone repair of the orbital wall defect after implantation with

  17. In vitro evaluation of textile chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering using human bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Christiane; Heinemann, Sascha; Lode, Anja; Bernhardt, Anne; Worch, Hartmut; Hanke, Thomas

    2009-05-11

    Textile chitosan fiber scaffolds were developed and tested in terms of biocompatibility for human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). A part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to biologize the surface. hBMSCs of two donors were used for cell culture experiments in vitro. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fast attachment and morphological adaptation of the cells on both the raw chitosan fibers and the collagen-coated scaffolds. Cells were osteogenically induced after 3 days and cultivated for up to 28 days on the scaffolds. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was analyzed to evaluate proliferation as well as osteogenic differentiation. We found a 3.5-6-fold increase in the cell number, whereas the collagen coating did not noticeably influence these factors. Osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the course of ALP activity and immunostaining of osteocalcin. The feature of the collagen-coated as well as the raw chitosan fiber scaffolds to support attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of hBMSCs suggests a potential application of chitosan fibers and textile chitosan scaffolds for the tissue engineering of bone. PMID:19344120

  18. Melanoma-Derived BRAFV600E Mutation in Peritumoral Stromal Cells: Implications for in Vivo Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos V.; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Oláh, Judit; Jakab, Ádám; Polyánka, Hilda; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma often recurs in patients after the removal of the primary tumor, suggesting the presence of recurrent tumor-initiating cells that are undetectable using standard diagnostic methods. As cell fusion has been implicated to facilitate the alteration of a cell’s phenotype, we hypothesized that cells in the peritumoral stroma having a stromal phenotype that initiate recurrent tumors might originate from the fusion of tumor and stromal cells. Here, we show that in patients with BRAFV600E melanoma, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART1)-negative peritumoral stromal cells express BRAFV600E protein. To confirm the presence of the oncogene at the genetic level, peritumoral stromal cells were microdissected and screened for the presence of BRAFV600E with a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, cells carrying the BRAFV600E mutation were not only found among cells surrounding the primary tumor but were also present in the stroma of melanoma metastases as well as in a histologically tumor-free re-excision sample from a patient who subsequently developed a local recurrence. We did not detect any BRAFV600E mutation or protein in the peritumoral stroma of BRAFWT melanoma. Therefore, our results suggest that peritumoral stromal cells contain melanoma-derived oncogenic information, potentially as a result of cell fusion. These hybrid cells display the phenotype of stromal cells and are therefore undetectable using routine histological assessments. Our results highlight the importance of genetic analyses and the application of mutation-specific antibodies in the identification of potentially recurrent-tumor-initiating cells, which may help better predict patient survival and disease outcome. PMID:27338362

  19. Human cadaver multipotent stromal/stem cells isolated from arteries stored in liquid nitrogen for 5 years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regenerative medicine challenges researchers to find noncontroversial, safe and abundant stem cell sources. In this context, harvesting from asystolic donors could represent an innovative and unlimited reservoir of different stem cells. In this study, cadaveric vascular tissues were established as an alternative source of human cadaver mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hC-MSCs). We reported the successful cell isolation from postmortem arterial segments stored in a tissue-banking facility for at least 5 years. Methods After thawing, hC-MSCs were isolated with a high efficiency (12 × 106) and characterized with flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, molecular and ultrastructural approaches. Results In early passages, hC-MSCs were clonogenic, highly proliferative and expressed mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, HLA-G), stemness (Stro-1, Oct-4, Notch-1), pericyte (CD146, PDGFR-β, NG2) and neuronal (Nestin) markers; hematopoietic and vascular markers were negative. These cells had colony and spheroid-forming abilities, multipotency for their potential to differentiate in multiple mesengenic lineages and immunosuppressive activity to counteract proliferation of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated blood mononuclear cells. Conclusions The efficient procurement of stem cells from cadaveric sources, as postmortem vascular tissues, demonstrates that such cells can survive to prolonged ischemic insult, anoxia, freezing and dehydration injuries, thus paving the way for a scientific revolution where cadaver stromal/stem cells could effectively treat patients demanding cell therapies. PMID:24429026

  20. Modes of Antigen Presentation by Lymph Node Stromal Cells and Their Immunological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hirosue, Sachiko; Dubrot, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is no longer the exclusive domain of cells of hematopoietic origin. Recent works have demonstrated that lymph node stromal cell (LNSC) populations, such as fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic and blood endothelial cells, not only provide a scaffold for lymphocyte interactions but also exhibit active immunomodulatory roles that are critical to mounting and resolving effective immune responses. Importantly, LNSCs possess the ability to present antigens and establish antigen-specific interactions with T cells. One example is the expression of peripheral tissue antigens, which are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecules with tolerogenic consequences on T cells. Additionally, exogenous antigens, including self and tumor antigens, can be processed and presented on MHC-I complexes, which result in dysfunctional activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. While MHC-I is widely expressed on cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins, antigen presentation via MHC-II is more precisely regulated. Nevertheless, LNSCs are capable of endogenously expressing, or alternatively, acquiring MHC-II molecules. Transfer of antigen between LNSC and dendritic cells in both directions has been recently suggested to promote tolerogenic roles of LNSCs on the CD4+ T cell compartment. Thus, antigen presentation by LNSCs is thought to be a mechanism that promotes the maintenance of peripheral tolerance as well as generates a pool of diverse antigen-experienced T cells for protective immunity. This review aims to integrate the current and emerging literature to highlight the importance of LNSCs in immune responses, and emphasize their role in antigen trafficking, retention, and presentation. PMID:26441957

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chiabotto, Giulia; Bruno, Stefania; Collino, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs. PMID:27409796

  2. Platelet lysate as replacement for fetal bovine serum in mesenchymal stromal cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen

    2013-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) emerged as highly attractive in cell-based regenerative medicine. Initially thought to provide cells capable of differentiation towards mesenchymal cell types (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes etc.), by and by potent immunoregulatory and pro-regenerative activities have been discovered, broadening the field of potential applications from bone and cartilage regeneration to wound healing and treatment of autoimmune diseases. Due to the limited frequency in most tissue sources, ex vivo expansion of MSC is required compliant with good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines to yield clinically relevant cell doses. Though, still most manufacturing protocols use fetal bovine serum (FBS) as cell culture supplement to isolate and to expand MSC. However, the high lot-to-lot variability as well as risk of contamination and immunization call for xenogenic-free culture conditions. In terms of standardization, chemically defined media appear as the ultimate achievement. Since these media need to maintain all key cellular and therapy-relevant features of MSC, the development of chemically defined media is still - albeit highly investigated - only in its beginning. The current alternatives to FBS rely on human blood-derived components: plasma, serum, umbilical cord blood serum, and platelet derivatives like platelet lysate. Focusing on quality aspects, the latter will be addressed within this review. PMID:24273486

  3. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) inhibits human colon tumor growth by promoting apoptosis of tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuguang; Li, Bingji; Liu, Jie; He, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has recently been suggested in several epithelial cancers, either pro-tumor or anti-tumor. However, the role of TSLP in colon cancer remains unknown. We here found significantly decreased TSLP levels in tumor tissues compared with tumor-surrounding tissues of patients with colon cancer and TSLP levels negatively correlated with the clinical staging score of colon cancer. TSLPR, the receptor of TSLP, was expressed in all three colon cancer cell lines investigated and colon tumor tissues. The addition of TSLP significantly enhanced apoptosis of colon cancer cells in a TSLPR-dependent manner. Interestingly, TSLP selectively induced the apoptosis of colon cancer cells, but not normal colonic epithelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TSLP induced JNK and p38 activation and initiated apoptosis mainly through the extrinsic pathway, as caspase-8 inhibitor significantly reversed the apoptosis-promoting effect of TSLP. Finally, using a xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that peritumoral administration of TSLP greatly reduced tumor growth accompanied with extensive tumor apoptotic response, which was abolished by tumor cell-specific knockdown of TSLPR. Collectively, our study reveals a novel anti-tumor effect of TSLP via direct promotion of the apoptosis of colon cancer cells, and suggests that TSLP could be of value in treating colon cancer. PMID:26919238

  4. Pharmacological inhibition of KIT activates MET signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noah A.; Zeng, Shan; Seifert, Adrian M.; Kim, Teresa S.; Sorenson, Eric C.; Greer, Jonathan B.; Beckman, Michael J.; Santamaria-Barria, Juan A.; Crawley, Megan H.; Green, Benjamin L.; Rossi, Ferdinand; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common adult sarcomas and the oncogenic driver is usually a KIT or PDGFRA mutation. While GIST are often initially sensitive to imatinib or other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, resistance generally develops necessitating backup strategies for therapy. In this study, we determined that a subset of human GIST specimens that acquired imatinib resistance acquired expression of activated forms of the MET oncogene. MET activation also developed after imatinib therapy in a mouse model of GIST (KitV558del/+ mice), where it was associated with increased tumor hypoxia. MET activation also occurred in imatinib-sensitive human GIST cell lines after imatinib treatment in vitro. MET inhibition by crizotinib or RNA interference was cytotoxic to an imatinib-resistant human GIST cell population. Moreover, combining crizotinib and imatinib was more effective than imatinib alone in imatinib-sensitive GIST models. Lastly, cabozantinib, a dual MET and KIT small molecule inhibitor, was markedly more effective than imatinib in multiple preclinical models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST. Collectively, our findings showed that activation of compensatory MET signaling by KIT inhibition may contribute to tumor resistance. Furthermore, our work offered a preclinical proof of concept for MET inhibition by cabozantinib as an effective strategy for GIST treatment. PMID:25836719

  5. Isolation and Culture of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells and Stromal Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Joseph C.; Roan, Nadia R.

    2016-01-01

    Purification and culture of endometrial epithelial cells (eEC) and stromal fibroblasts (eSF) from endometrial biopsies allows for downstream cell-specific in vitro studies. The utility of this protocol is the ease with which cells are purified without contamination from unwanted cell types, and the ability to use patient-paired eEC and eSF in experiments. These methods have been previously published, but here the protocol has been updated for maximum efficiency. PMID:27347495

  6. The clock protein period 2 synchronizes mitotic expansion and decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Muter, Joanne; Lucas, Emma S; Chan, Yi-Wah; Brighton, Paul J; Moore, Jonathan D; Lacey, Lauren; Quenby, Siobhan; Lam, Eric W-F; Brosens, Jan J

    2015-04-01

    Implantation requires coordinated interactions between the conceptus and surrounding decidual cells, but the involvement of clock genes in this process is incompletely understood. Circadian oscillations are predicated on transcriptional-translational feedback loops, which balance the activities of the transcriptional activators CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and brain muscle arnt-like 1 and repressors encoded by PER (Period) and Cryptochrome genes. We show that loss of PER2 expression silences circadian oscillations in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Down-regulation occurred between 12 and 24 hours following differentiation and coincided with reduced CLOCK binding to a noncanonical E-box enhancer in the PER2 promoter. RNA sequencing revealed that premature inhibition of PER2 by small interfering RNA knockdown leads to a grossly disorganized decidual response. Gene ontology analysis highlighted a preponderance of cell cycle regulators among the 1121 genes perturbed upon PER2 knockdown. Congruently, PER2 inhibition abrogated mitotic expansion of differentiating HESCs by inducing cell cycle block at G2/M. Analysis of 70 midluteal endometrial biopsies revealed an inverse correlation between PER2 transcript levels and the number of miscarriages in women suffering reproductive failure (Spearman rank test, ρ = -0.3260; P = 0.0046). Thus, PER2 synchronizes endometrial proliferation with initiation of aperiodic decidual gene expression; uncoupling of these events may cause recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:25573754

  7. Effects of continuous and pulsatile PTH treatments on rat bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chiming; Frei, Hanspeter Burt, Helen M.; Rossi, Fabio

    2009-03-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) differentiation and proliferation are controlled by numerous growth factors and hormones. Continuous parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment has been shown to decrease osteoblast differentiation, whereas pulsatile PTH increases osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of PTH treatments on MSCs have not been investigated. This study showed continuous PTH treatment in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs in vitro, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, number of ALP expressing cells, and up-regulation of PTH receptor-1, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA expressions. In contrast, pulsatile PTH treatment was found to suppress osteogenesis of rat MSCs, possibly by promoting the maintenance of undifferentiated cells. Additionally, the observed effects of PTH were strongly dependent on the presence of DEX. MSC proliferation however was not influenced by PTH independent of treatment regimen and presence or absence of DEX. Furthermore, our work raised the possibility that PTH treatment may modulate stem/progenitor cell activity within MSC cultures.

  8. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with giant cells in the female breast. No association with neurofibromatosis?

    PubMed

    Zámecník, M; Dubac, V

    2011-04-01

    A simultaneous finding of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) and stromal multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in mammary tissue was previously observed in patients with type-1 neurofibromatosis, indicating that it can represent a morphologic marker for this syndrome. Here, we present PASH with MGC occurring in the left breast of a 39-years-old woman who does not have neurofibromatosis. This case, along with two additional ones reported previously, indicates that PASH with MGC in the female breast may not be associated with neurofibromatosis. PMID:21598761

  9. Malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by the brain glioma niche in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Qiuping; Zou, Xifeng; Duan, Deyi; Liu, Yujun; Xu, Qunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Normal human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can develop neoplastic cancer stem cell (CSC) properties after coculture with transformed hESCs in vitro. In the present study, the influence of the tumor microenvironment on malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was studied after allografting a mixture of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled BMSCs and C6 glioma cells into the rat brain to understand the influence of the cellular environment, especially the tumor environment, on the transformation of grafted BMSCs in the rat brain. We performed intracerebral transplantation in the rat brain using EGFP-labeled BMSCs coinjected with C6 tumor cells. After transplantation, the EGFP-labeled cells were isolated from the tumor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the characteristics of the recovered cells were investigated. Glioma-specific biomarkers of the sorted cells and the biological characteristics of the tumors were analyzed. The BMSCs isolated from the cografts were transformed into glioma CSCs, as indicated by the marked expression of the glioma marker GFAP in glioma cells, and of Nestin and CD133 in neural stem cells and CSCs, as well as rapid cell growth, decreased level of the tumor suppressor gene p53, increased level of the oncogene murine double minute gene 2 (MDM2), and recapitulation of glioma tissues in the brain. These data suggest that BMSCs can be transformed into CSCs, which can be further directed toward glioma formation under certain conditions, supporting the notion that the tumor microenvironment is involved in transforming normal BMSCs into glial CSCs. PMID:26590986

  10. [Bone marrow stromal damage mediated by immune response activity].

    PubMed

    Vojinović, J; Kamenov, B; Najman, S; Branković, Lj; Dimitrijević, H

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate influence of activated immune response on hematopoiesis in vitro, using the experimental model of BCG immunized BALB/c mice and in patients with chronic immunoactivation: long-lasting infections, autoimmunity or malignancy. We correlated changes in long term bone marrow cultures (Dexter) and NBT reduction with appearance of anemia in patients and experimental model of immunization by BCG. Increased spontaneous NBT reduction pointed out role of macrophage activation in bone marrow stroma damage. Long-term bone marrow cultures showed reduced number of hematopoietic cells, with predomination of fibroblasts and loss of fat cells. This results correlated with anemia and leucocytosis with stimulated myelopoiesis in peripheral blood. Activation of immune response, or acting of any agent that directly changes extracellular matrix and cellularity of bone marrow, may result in microenviroment bone marrow damage that modify hematopoiesis. PMID:18173180

  11. Bisphosphonate- and statin-induced enhancement of OPG expression and inhibition of CD9, M-CSF, and RANKL expressions via inhibition of the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway and activation of p38MAPK in mouse bone marrow stromal cell line ST2.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Satou, Takao; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Yanae, Masashi; Kato, Chisato; Takagoshi, Risa; Komai, Makiko; Nishida, Shozo

    2012-09-25

    Osteoclast differentiation is influenced by receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand (RANKL), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and CD9, which are expressed on bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts. In addition, osteoprotegerin (OPG) is known as an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor. In this study, we investigated whether bisphosphonates and statins increase OPG expression and inhibit the expression of CD9, M-CSF, and RANKL in the bone marrow-derived stromal cell line ST2. We found that bisphosphonates and statins enhanced OPG mRNA expression and inhibited the expression of CD9, M-CSF, and RANKL mRNA. Futhermore, bisphosphonates and statins decreased the membrane localization of Ras and phosphorylated ERK1/2, and activated the p38MAPK. This indicates that bisphosphonates and statins enhanced OPG expression, and inhibited the expression of CD9, M-CSF, and RANKL through blocking the Ras/ERK pathway and activating p38MAPK. Accordingly, we believe that its clinical applications will be investigated in the future for the development of osteoporosis therapy. PMID:22579611

  12. Crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 Promotes Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Cell Growth and Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Javidi-Sharifi, Nathalie; Traer, Elie; Martinez, Jacqueline; Gupta, Anu; Taguchi, Takehiro; Dunlap, Jennifer; Heinrich, Michael C; Corless, Christopher L; Rubin, Brian P; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2015-03-01

    Kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but many patients develop resistance to these treatments. Although in some patients this event corresponds with mutations in the GIST driver oncogenic kinase KIT, other patients develop resistance without KIT mutations. In this study, we address this patient subset in reporting a functional dependence of GIST on the FGF receptor FGFR3 and its crosstalk with KIT in GIST cells. Addition of the FGFR3 ligand FGF2 to GIST cells restored KIT phosphorylation during imatinib treatment, allowing sensitive cells to proliferate in the presence of the drug. FGF2 expression was increased in imatinib-resistant GIST cells, the growth of which was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of FGFR3. Moreover, combining KIT and FGFR3 inhibitors synergized to block the growth of imatinib-resistant cells. Signaling crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 activated the MAPK pathway to promote resistance to imatinib. Clinically, an IHC analysis of tumor specimens from imatinib-resistant GIST patients revealed a relative increase in FGF2 levels, with a trend toward increased expression in imatinib-naïve samples consistent with possible involvement in drug resistance. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate existing FGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors that target FGFR3 as promising strategies to improve treatment of patients with GIST with de novo or acquired resistance to imatinib. PMID:25432174

  13. Current Opinion of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation for Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    KURODA, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews recent advancement and perspective of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation for ischemic stroke, based on current information of basic and translational research. The author would like to emphasize that scientific approach would enable us to apply BMSC transplantation into clinical situation in near future. PMID:26984453

  14. Screening for Stromal and Matrix Effects in 3D Microenvironments of Breast Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.

    Breast cancer progression ensures through the acquisition of genetic mutations, the uncontrollable growth of cells, and their progression to invasion. Studies have shown that the surrounding three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment can also influence breast cancer cell progression by controlling the morphology, differentiation, proliferation, and migration of cells. However, most of the currently available in vitro screening platforms are based on the two-dimensional (2D) culture of cells, and do not provide cells with the complex 3D microenvironment that exists in vivo. Therefore, there is a need for more biologically relevant in vitro platforms to help decipher the complexity of the microenvironment and its influence in breast cancer. In this dissertation we present an automated microfluidic platform that allows to efficiently screen for the effect of multiple matrix and stromal microenvironment in 3D cultures of breast cancer cells. Several extracellular matrix (ECM) compositions and stromal cells are included in the 3D microenvironments to examine their influence on breast cancer cell behavior. The screening results suggest that collagen gels with fibronectin might be influencing paracrine signals between breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The ability of the platform to culture and treat cells in 3D microenvironments offers a powerful screening tool for the identification of compounds and interactions using more in vivo-like 3D microenvironments. The identification of these mechanisms will increase our current understanding of breast cancer, and will aid in the identification of potential therapeutics.

  15. Gene expression down-regulation in CD90+ prostate tumor-associated stromal cells involves potential organ-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prostate stroma is a key mediator of epithelial differentiation and development, and potentially plays a role in the initiation and progression of prostate cancer. The tumor-associated stroma is marked by increased expression of CD90/THY1. Isolation and characterization of these stromal cells could provide valuable insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment. Methods Prostate CD90+ stromal fibromuscular cells from tumor specimens were isolated by cell-sorting and analyzed by DNA microarray. Dataset analysis was used to compare gene expression between histologically normal and tumor-associated stromal cells. For comparison, stromal cells were also isolated and analyzed from the urinary bladder. Results The tumor-associated stromal cells were found to have decreased expression of genes involved in smooth muscle differentiation, and those detected in prostate but not bladder. Other differential expression between the stromal cell types included that of the CXC-chemokine genes. Conclusion CD90+ prostate tumor-associated stromal cells differed from their normal counterpart in expression of multiple genes, some of which are potentially involved in organ development. PMID:19737398

  16. Androgen receptors expressed by prostatic stromal cells obtained from younger versus older males exhibit opposite roles in prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, You-Yi; Jiang, Bo; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Cui, Di; Jiang, Qi; Yu, Jun-Jie; Li, En-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Hai; Han, Bang-Min; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa), and prostatic stromal cells may also promote PCa progression. Accordingly, stromal cells do not equally promote PCa in older males and younger males. Therefore, it is also possible that the expression of androgen receptors (ARs) by prostatic stromal cells in older versus younger males plays different roles in PCa progression. Using a gene knockdown technique and coculture system, we found that the knockdown of the AR in prostatic stromal cells obtained from younger males could promote the invasiveness and metastasis of cocultured PC3/LNCaP cells in vitro. By contrast, the invasiveness and metastasis of LNCaP cells was inhibited when cocultured with prostatic stromal cells from older males that when AR expression was knocked down. Moreover, after targeting AR expression with small hairpin RNA (shRNA), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in stromal cells was observed to increase in the younger group, but decreased or remained unchanged in the older group. One exception, however, was observed with MMP9. In vivo, after knocking down AR expression in prostatic stromal cells, the incidence of metastatic lymph nodes was observed to increase in the younger age group, but decreased in the older age group. Together, these data suggest that the AR in prostatic stromal cells played opposite roles in PCa metastasis for older versus younger males. Therefore, collectively, the function of the AR in prostatic stromal cells appears to change with age, and this may account for the increased incidence of PCa in older males. PMID:23792338

  17. Clonal analysis of human dendritic cell progenitor using a stromal cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeyop; Breton, Gaëlle; Aljoufi, Arafat; Zhou, Yu Jerry; Puhr, Sarah; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Liu, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Different dendritic cell (DC) subsets co-exist in humans and coordinate the immune response. Having a short life, DCs must be constantly replenished from their progenitors in the bone marrow through hematopoiesis. Identification of a DC-restricted progenitor in mouse has improved our understanding of how DC lineage diverges from myeloid and lymphoid lineages. However, identification of the DC-restricted progenitor in humans has not been possible because a system that simultaneously nurtures differentiation of human DCs, myeloid and lymphoid cells, is lacking. Here we report a cytokine and stromal cell culture that allows evaluation of CD34+ progenitor potential to all three DC subsets as well as other myeloid and lymphoid cells, at a single cell level. Using this system, we show that human granulocyte–macrophage progenitors are heterogeneous and contain restricted progenitors to DCs. PMID:26056939

  18. Cytotoxicity of pilocarpine to human corneal stromal cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Wen, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the cytotoxic effect of pilocarpine, an anti-glaucoma drug, on human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCS cells. METHODS After HCS cells were treated with pilocarpine at a concentration from 0.15625 g/L to 20.0 g/L, their morphology and viability were detected by light microscopy and MTT assay. The membrane permeability, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructure were examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double-staining. DNA electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cell cycle, phosphatidylserine (PS) orientation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). And the activation of caspases was checked by ELISA. RESULTS Morphology observations and viability assay showed that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and viability decline of HCS cells. AO/EB double-staining, DNA electrophoresis and TEM noted that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and/or time-dependent membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of the cells. Moreover, FCM and ELISA assays revealed that 2.5 g/L pilocarpine also induced S phase arrest, PS externalization, MTP disruption, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation of the cells. CONCLUSION Pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L (1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing apoptosis in these cells, which is most probably regulated by a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27162720

  19. Lactate is a mediator of metabolic cooperation between stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts and glycolytic tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Rattigan, Yanique I.; Patel, Brijesh B.; Ackerstaff, Ellen; Sukenick, George; Koutcher, Jason A.; Glod, John W.; and others

    2012-02-15

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are bone marrow-derived stromal cells, which play a role in tumor progression. We have shown earlier that breast cancer cells secrete higher levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under hypoxia, leading to the recruitment of hMSCs towards hypoxic tumor cells. We found that (i) MDA-MB-231 cells secrete significantly higher levels of lactate (3-fold more) under hypoxia (1% O{sub 2}) than under 20% O{sub 2} and (ii) lactate recruits hMSCs towards tumor cells by activating signaling pathways to enhance migration. The mRNA and protein expression of functional MCT1 in hMSCs is increased in response to lactate exposure. Thus, we hypothesized that hMSCs and stromal carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment have the capacity to take up lactate expelled from tumor cells and use it as a source of energy. Our {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic measurements indicate that {sup 13}C-lactate is converted to {sup 13}C-alpha ketoglutarate in hMSCs and CAFs supporting this hypothesis. To our knowledge this is the first in vitro model system demonstrating that hMSCs and CAFs can utilize lactate produced by tumor cells.

  20. Capture and printing of fixed stromal cell membranes for bioactive display on PDMS surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungwoo; Wang, Jennifer B.; Bersani, Francesca; Parekkadan, Biju

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has emerged as an extremely useful polymer for various biological applications. The conjugation of PDMS with bioactive molecules to create functional surfaces is feasible, yet limited to single molecule display with imprecise localization of the molecules on PDMS. Here we report a robust technique that can transfer and print the membrane surface of glutaraldehyde-fixed stromal cells intact to a PDMS substrate using an intermediate polyvinylalcohol (PVA) film as a transporter system. The cell-PVA film capturing the entirety of surface molecules can be peeled off and subsequently printed onto PDMS while maintaining the spatial display of the original cell surface molecules. Proof-of-concept studies are described using human bone marrow stromal cell membranes, including the demonstration of bioactivity of transferred membranes to capture and adhere hematopoietic cells. The presented process is applicable to virtually any adherent cell and can broaden the functional display of biomolecules on PDMS for biotechnology applications. PMID:23927769

  1. Mesenchymal stromal cells transiently alter the inflammatory milieu post-transplant to delay graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Melinda E.; Turner, Brie E.; Sinfield, Laura J.; Kollar, Katarina; Cullup, Hannah; Waterhouse, Nigel J.; Hart, Derek N.J.; Atkinson, Kerry; Rice, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells suppress T-cell function in vitro, a property that has underpinned their use in treating clinical steroid-refractory graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However the potential of mesenchymal stromal cells to resolve graft-versus-host disease is confounded by a paucity of pre-clinical data delineating their immunomodulatory effects in vivo. Design and Methods We examined the influence of timing and dose of donor-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on the kinetics of graft-versus-host disease in two murine models of graft-versus-host disease (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched: UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB/c [H-2d] and the sibling transplant mimic, UBI-GFP/BL6 [H-2b]→BALB.B [H-2b]) using clinically relevant conditioning regimens. We also examined the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell infusion on bone marrow and spleen cellular composition and cytokine secretion in transplant recipients. Results Despite T-cell suppression in vitro, mesenchymal stromal cells delayed but did not prevent graft-versus-host disease in the major histocompatibility complex-mismatched model. In the sibling transplant model, however, 30% of mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice did not develop graft-versus-host disease. The timing of administration and dose of the mesenchymal stromal cells influenced their effectiveness in attenuating graft-versus-host disease, such that a low dose of mesenchymal stromal cells administered early was more effective than a high dose of mesenchymal stromal cells given late. Compared to control-treated mice, mesenchymal stromal cell-treated mice had significant reductions in serum and splenic interferon-γ, an important mediator of graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells appear to delay death from graft-versus-host disease by transiently altering the inflammatory milieu and reducing levels of interferon-γ. Our data suggest that both the

  2. 2', 3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase cells derived from transplanted marrow stromal cells and host tissue contribute to perineurial compartment formation in injured rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qiong; Ding, Peng; Lu, Jia; Dheen, S Thameem; Moochhala, Shabbir; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2007-01-01

    Transdifferentiation of transplanted marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and reactive changes of glial cells in a completely transected rat spinal cord were examined. Marrow stromal cells exhibited 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) at the plasma membrane and this has allowed their identification after transplantation by immunoelectron microscopy. In the control rats, the lesion site showed activated microglia/neural macrophages and some elongated cells, whose cytoplasm was immunoreactive for CNP. Cells designated as CNP1 and apparently host-derived expressed CXCR4. In experimental rats receiving MSCs transplantation, CNP1 cells were increased noticeably. This was coupled with the occurrence of a different subset of CNP cells whose plasma membrane was CNP-immunoreactive and expressed CXCR4. These cells, designated as CNP2, enclosed both myelinated and unmyelinated neurites thus assuming a spatial configuration resembling that of Schwann cells. A remarkable feature was the extensive ramifications of CNP1 cells with long filopodia processes delineating the CNP2 cells and their associated neurites, forming many perineurial-like compartments. Present results have shown that CNP2 cells considered to be MSCs-derived can transform into cells resembling Schwann cells based on their spatial relation with the regenerating nerve fibers, whereas the CNP1 glial cells participate in formation of perineurial compartments, probably serving as conduits to guide the nerve fiber growth. The chemotactic migration of CNP cells either derived from host tissue or MSCs bearing CXCR4 may be attracted by stromal derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) produced locally. The coordinated cellular interaction between transplanted MSCs and local glial cells may promote the growth of nerve fibers through the lesion site. PMID:17061258

  3. Chemical nanoroughening of Ti40Nb surfaces and its effect on human mesenchymal stromal cell response.

    PubMed

    Helth, A; Gostin, P F; Oswald, S; Wendrock, H; Wolff, U; Hempel, U; Arnhold, S; Calin, M; Eckert, J; Gebert, A

    2014-01-01

    Samples of low modulus beta-type Ti40Nb and cp2-Ti were chemically treated with 98% H2 SO4 + 30% H2 O2 (vol. ratio 1:1) solution. Surface analytical studies conducted with HR-SEM, AFM, and XPS identified a characteristic nanoroughness of the alloy surface related with a network of nanopits of ∼25 nm diameter. This is very similar to that obtained for cp2-Ti. The treatment enhances the oxide layer growth compared to mechanically ground states and causes a strong enrichment of Nb2 O5 relative to TiO2 on the alloy surface. The in vitro analyses clearly indicated that the chemical treatment accelerates the adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), increases the metabolic activity, and the enzyme activity of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Surface structures which were generated mimic the cytoplasmic projections of the cells on the nanoscale. Those effects are more pronounced for the Ti40Nb alloy than for cp2-Ti. The relation between alloy surface topography and chemistry and cell functions is discussed. PMID:23846980

  4. Ezrin expression in stromal cells of capillary hemangioblastoma. An immunohistochemical survey of brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Böhling, T.; Turunen, O.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Carpen, O.; Sainio, M.; Wahlström, T.; Vaheri, A.; Haltia, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ezrin is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that appears to link actin filaments to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies suggest that ezrin is expressed in epithelial cells but not in mesenchymal cells. In addition, ezrin is expressed by certain epithelial tumors, such as renal cell adenocarcinomas. Ezrin serves as a tyrosine kinase substrate, and is phosphorylated in epidermal growth factor-stimulated cells. Ezrin may thus mediate regulatory signals in different cell functions. We studied the distribution of ezrin in 104 cases of primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) by immunocytochemistry. Special interest was focused on capillary hemangioblastoma, owing to its resemblance to renal cell adenocarcinoma, and on malignant gliomas, owing to their frequent epidermal growth factor receptor amplification. The stromal cells of hemangioblastomas were found to be strongly positive for ezrin. No expression was detected in gliomas and, except for hemangioblastomas, ezrin expression was restricted to those few CNS tumors that show epithelial differentiation, ie, choroid plexus papillomas, craniopharyngiomas, ependymomas, and cysts. The diffuse cytoplasmic expression of ezrin in the stromal cells of capillary hemangioblastoma may indicate that stromal cells overexpress ezrin or express ezrin with deficient binding properties. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8579099

  5. Disparate osteogenic response of mandible and iliac crest bone marrow stromal cells to pamidronate

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, D.; Sarin, J.; Lam, T.; Levin, L.; Leboy, PS; Akintoye, SO.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Long-term administration of intravenous bisphosphonates like pamidronate is associated with jaw osteonecrosis but axial and appendicular bones are unaffected. Pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-associated jaw osteonecrosis may relate to skeletal-site specific effects of bisphosphonates on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of orofacial and axial/appendicular bones. This study evaluated and compared skeletal site-specific osteogenic response of mandible (orofacial bone) and iliac crest (axial bone) human BMSCs to pamidronate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Mandible and iliac crest BMSCs from six normal healthy volunteers were established in culture and tested with pamidronate to evaluate and compare cell survival, osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase, osteoclast differentiation in co-cultures with CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, gene expression of receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin, and in vivo bone regeneration. BRESULTS Mandible BMSCs were more susceptible to pamidronate than iliac crest BMSCs based on decreased cell survival, lower alkaline phosphatase production and structurally less organized in vivo bone regeneration. Pamidronate promoted higher RANKL gene expression and osteoclast recruitment by mandible BMSCs. CONCLUSION Mandible and iliac crest BMSC survival and osteogenic differentiation are disparately affected by pamidronate to favor dysregulated mandible bone homeostasis. PMID:18938273

  6. Extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stromal cells: a therapeutic option in respiratory diseases?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Soraia C; Weiss, Daniel J; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are plasma membrane-bound fragments released from several cell types, including mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), constitutively or under stimulation. EVs derived from MSCs and other cell types transfer molecules (such as DNA, proteins/peptides, mRNA, microRNA, and lipids) and/or organelles with reparative and anti-inflammatory properties to recipient cells. The paracrine anti-inflammatory effects promoted by MSC-derived EVs have attracted significant interest in the regenerative medicine field, including for potential use in lung injuries. In the present review, we describe the characteristics, biological activities, and mechanisms of action of MSC-derived EVs. We also review the therapeutic potential of EVs as reported in relevant preclinical models of acute and chronic respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Finally, we discuss possible approaches for potentiating the therapeutic effects of MSC-derived EVs so as to enable use of this therapy in clinical practice. PMID:27075363

  7. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  8. O-GlcNAcylation Negatively Regulates Cardiomyogenic Fate in Adult Mouse Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Zafir, Ayesha; Bradley, James A; Long, Bethany W; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Li, Qianhong; Hill, Bradford G; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    In both preclinical and clinical studies, cell transplantation of several cell types is used to promote repair of damaged organs and tissues. Nevertheless, despite the widespread use of such strategies, there remains little understanding of how the efficacy of cell therapy is regulated. We showed previously that augmentation of a unique, metabolically derived stress signal (i.e., O-GlcNAc) improves survival of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells; however, it is not known whether enhancing O-GlcNAcylation affects lineage commitment or other aspects of cell competency. In this study, we assessed the role of O-GlcNAc in differentiation of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells. Exposure of these cells to routine differentiation protocols in culture increased markers of the cardiomyogenic lineage such as Nkx2.5 and connexin 40, and augmented the abundance of transcripts associated with endothelial and fibroblast cell fates. Differentiation significantly decreased the abundance of O-GlcNAcylated proteins. To determine if O-GlcNAc is involved in stromal cell differentiation, O-GlcNAcylation was increased pharmacologically during the differentiation protocol. Although elevated O-GlcNAc levels did not significantly affect fibroblast and endothelial marker expression, acquisition of cardiomyocyte markers was limited. In addition, increasing O-GlcNAcylation further elevated smooth muscle actin expression. In addition to lineage commitment, we also evaluated proliferation and migration, and found that increasing O-GlcNAcylation did not significantly affect either; however, we found that O-GlcNAc transferase--the protein responsible for adding O-GlcNAc to proteins--is at least partially required for maintaining cellular proliferative and migratory capacities. We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation contributes significantly to cardiac mesenchymal stromal cell lineage and function. O-GlcNAcylation and pathological conditions that may affect O-GlcNAc levels (such as diabetes) should be

  9. Isolation and differentiation of stromal vascular cells to beige/brite cells.

    PubMed

    Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Ruiz, Lauren; Kajimura, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipocytes have the ability to uncouple the respiratory chain in mitochondria and dissipate chemical energy as heat. Development of UCP1-positive brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues (so called beige or brite cells) is highly induced by a variety of environmental cues such as chronic cold exposure or by PPARγ agonists, therefore, this cell type has potential as a therapeutic target for obesity treatment. Although most immortalized adipocyte lines cannot recapitulate the process of "browning" of white fat in culture, primary adipocytes isolated from stromal vascular fraction in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) provide a reliable cellular system to study the molecular control of beige/brite cell development. Here we describe a protocol for effective isolation of primary preadipocytes and for inducing differentiation to beige/brite cells in culture. The browning effect can be assessed by the expression of brown fat-selective markers such as UCP1. PMID:23568137

  10. Could cancer and infection be adverse effects of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Arango-Rodriguez, Martha L; Ezquer, Fernando; Ezquer, Marcelo; Conget, Paulette

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are a heterogeneous subset of stromal cells. They can be isolated from bone marrow and many other types of tissue. MSCs are currently being tested for therapeutic purposes (i.e., improving hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, managing inflammatory diseases and regenerating damaged organs). Their tropism for tumors and inflamed sites and their context-dependent potential for producing trophic and immunomodulatory factors raises the question as to whether MSCs promote cancer and/or infection. This article reviews the effect of MSCs on tumor establishment, growth and metastasis and also susceptibility to infection and its progression. Data published to date shows a paradoxical effect regarding MSCs, which seems to depend on isolation and expansion, cells source and dose and the route and timing of administration. Cancer and infection may thus be adverse or therapeutic effects arising form MSC administration. PMID:25815124

  11. Members of the thrombospondin gene family bind stromal interaction molecule 1 and regulate calcium channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Mark; Nadler, Monica; Okuhara, Dayne; Thompson, Jill; Shuttleworth, Trevor; Lawler, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of matricellular proteins that regulate cellular phenotype through interactions with a myriad of other proteins and proteoglycans. We have identified a novel interaction of the members of the TSP gene family with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). This association is robust since it is preserved in Triton X-100, can be detected with multiple anti-TSP-1 and anti-STIM1 antibodies, and is detected in a wide range of cell types. We have also found that STIM1 co-immunoprecipitates with TSP-4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and that a recombinant version of the N-terminal domain of STIM1 binds to the signature domain of TSP-1 and COMP. The association of the TSPs with STIM1 is observed in both the presence and absence of calcium indicating that the calcium-dependent conformation of the signature domain of TSPs is not required for binding. Thus, this interaction could occur in the ER under conditions of normal or low calcium concentration. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of COMP in HEK 293 cells decreases STIM1-mediated calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channel currents and increases arachidonic acid calcium (ARC) channel currents. These data indicate that the TSPs regulate STIM1 function and participate in the reciprocal regulation of two channels that mediate calcium entry into the cell. PMID:24845346

  12. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin activity is increased in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkar, Deepti R.; Poposki, Julie A.; Tan, Bruce K.; Comeau, Michael R.; Peters, Anju T.; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Suh, Lydia A.; Norton, James; Harris, Kathleen E.; Grammer, Leslie C.; Chandra, Rakesh K.; Conley, David B.; Kern, Robert C.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is associated with Th2-dominant inflammation. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that triggers dendritic cell-mediated Th2 inflammatory responses and that enhances IL-1-dependent Th2 cytokine production in mast cells. Although elevated levels of TSLP mRNA have been found in nasal polyps (NPs), expression of TSLP protein and its function in CRS have not been fully explored. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the role of TSLP in CRS. Methods We investigated the presence and stability of TSLP protein in NPs by ELISA and western blot, and the function of TSLP in nasal tissue extracts with a bioassay based upon activation of human mast cells. Results Although TSLP mRNA was significantly increased in NP tissue from patients with CRSwNP compared to uncinate tissue from patients with CRS or control subjects, TSLP protein was significantly decreased in NP tissue as detected by the commercial ELISA kit. We found that recombinant TSLP was time-dependently degraded by NP extracts and this degradation was completely inhibited by a protease inhibitor cocktail, suggesting that TSLP is sensitive to tissue proteases. Interestingly, NP extract-treated TSLP had higher activity in mast cells, although the amount of full length TSLP was reduced up to 85%. NP extracts significantly enhanced IL-1β-dependent IL-5 production in mast cells compared with uncinate tissue homogenates, and responses were significantly inhibited by anti-TSLP, suggesting that NP contain biologically relevant levels of TSLP activity. Conclusion TSLP and its metabolic products may play an important role in the inflammation in CRSwNP. PMID:23688414

  13. Stromal niche communalities underscore the contribution of the matricellular protein SPARC to B-cell development and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Portararo, Paola; Dugo, Matteo; Vitali, Caterina; Botti, Laura; Guarnotta, Carla; Cappetti, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Torselli, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Colombo, Mario P

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic B-cell clones commonly arise within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, during disease progression, lymphomatous cells may also colonize the bone marrow (BM), where they localize within specialized stromal niches, namely the osteoblastic and the vascular niche, according to their germinal center- or extra-follicular-derivation, respectively. We hypothesized the existence of common stromal motifs in BM and SLO B-cell lymphoid niches involved in licensing normal B-cell development as well as in fostering transformed B lymphoid cells. Thus, we tested the expression of prototypical mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers and regulatory matricellular proteins in human BM and SLO under physiologically unperturbed conditions and during B-cell lymphoma occurrence. We identified common stromal features in the BM osteoblastic niche and SLO germinal center (GC) microenvironments, traits that were also enriched within BM infiltrates of GC-associated B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that stromal programs involved in central and peripheral B-cell lymphopoiesis are also involved in malignant B-cell nurturing. Among factors co-expressed by stromal elements within these different specialized niches, we identified the pleiotropic matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). The actual role of stromal SPARC in normal B-cell lymphopoiesis, investigated in Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras retaining the Sparc(-/-) genotype in host stroma, demonstrated defective BM and splenic B-cell lymphopoiesis. Moreover, in the Trp53 knockout (KO) lymphoma model, p53(-/-)/Sparc(-/-) double-KO mice displayed impaired spontaneous splenic B-cell lymphomagenesis and reduced neoplastic clone BM infiltration in comparison with their p53(-/-)/Sparc(+/+) counterparts. Our results are among the first to demonstrate the existence of common stromal programs regulating both the BM osteoblastic niche and the SLO GC lymphopoietic functions potentially fostering the genesis

  14. Co-culture with endometrial stromal cells enhances the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endometrium-like cells

    PubMed Central

    YU, WENZHU; NIU, WENBIN; WANG, SHUNA; CHEN, XUEMEI; SUN, BO; WANG, FANG; SUN, YINGPU

    2015-01-01

    In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into endometrium-like cells may provide a useful tool for clinical treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differentiation potential of hESCs into endometrium-like cells using three methods, which included induction by feeder cells, co-culture with endometrial stromal cells and induction with embryoid bodies. Following differentiation, the majority of cells positively expressed cytokeratin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM). Factors associated with endometrium cell function, namely the estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR), were also detected. At day 21 following the induction of differentiation, the expression levels of cytokeratin, EPCAM, ER and PR were significantly increased in the co-culture method group, as compared with the other two methods. Furthermore, these cells became decidualized in response to progesterone and prolactin. In addition, the number of cytokeratin-positive or EPCAM-positive cells significantly increased following the induction of differentiation using the co-culture method, as compared with the other two methods. The mRNA expression levels of Wnt members that are associated with endometrial development were subsequently examined, and Wnt5a was found to be significantly upregulated in the differentiated cells induced by feeder cells and co-culture with endometrial stromal cells; however, Wnt4 and Wnt7a expression levels were unaffected. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of Wnt5a in the differentiated cells co-cultured with endometrial stromal cells were higher when compared with those induced by feeder cells. In conclusion, the present findings indicated that the co-culture system is the optimal protocol for the induction of hESC differentiation into endometrium-like cells, and Wnt5a signaling may be involved in this process. PMID:26170910

  15. Human alternatives to fetal bovine serum for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Hecker, Andrea; Kocaömer, Asli; Lannert, Heinrich; Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk; Klüter, Harald

    2009-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for novel cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing, human factors from serum or platelets have been suggested as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS). We have previously shown that pooled human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Contradictory results with bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs have initiated a comprehensive comparison of HS, tPRP, and pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and FBS in terms of their impact on MSC isolation, expansion, differentiation, and immunomodulatory activity. In addition to conventional Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, depletion of lineage marker expressing cells (RosetteSep) and CD271+ sorting were used for BM-MSC enrichment. Cells were cultured in medium containing either 10% FBS, HS, tPRP, or pHPL. Colony-forming units and cumulative population doublings were determined, and MSCs were maximally expanded. Although both HS and tPRP comparable to FBS supported isolation and expansion, pHPL significantly accelerated BM-MSC proliferation to yield clinically relevant numbers within the first two passages. MSC quality and functionality including cell surface marker expression, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and immunosuppressive action were similar in MSCs from all culture conditions. Importantly, spontaneous cell transformation was not observed in any of the culture conditions. Telomerase activity was not detected in any of the cultures at any passage. In contrast to previous data from adipose tissue-derived MSCs, pHPL was found to be the most suitable FBS substitute in clinical scale BM-MSC expansion. PMID:19544413

  16. The Murine Bladder Supports a Population of Stromal Sca-1+/CD34+/lin- Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Meredith A; Kulkulka, Natalie A; Firmiss, Paula R; Ross, Michael J; Flum, Andrew S; Santos, Grace B Delos; Bowen, Diana K; Dettman, Robert W; Gong, Edward M

    2015-01-01

    Bladder fibrosis is an undesired end point of injury of obstruction and often renders the smooth muscle layer noncompliant. In many cases, the long-term effect of bladder fibrosis is renal failure. Despite our understanding of the progression of this disease, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that lead to a remodeled bladder wall. Resident stem (progenitor) cells have been identified in various organs such as the brain, heart and lung. These cells function normally during organ homeostasis, but become dysregulated after organ injury. Here, we aimed to characterize a mesenchymal progenitor cell population as a first step in understanding its role in bladder fibrosis. Using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we identified a Sca-1+/ CD34+/ lin- (PECAM-: CD45-: Ter119-) population in the adult murine bladder. These cells were localized to the stromal layer of the adult bladder and appeared by postnatal day 1. Cultured Sca-1+/ CD34+/ lin- bladder cells self-renewed, formed colonies and spontaneously differentiated into cells expressing smooth muscle genes. These cells differentiated into other mesenchymal lineages (chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteocytes) upon culture in induction medium. Both acute and partial obstruction of the bladder reduced expression of CD34 and changed localization of Sca-1 to the urothelium. Partial obstruction resulted in upregulation of fibrosis genes within the Sca-1+/CD34+/lin- population. Our data indicate a resident, mesenchymal stem cell population in the bladder that is altered by bladder obstruction. These findings provide new information about the cellular changes in the bladder that may be associated with bladder fibrosis. PMID:26540309

  17. The Murine Bladder Supports a Population of Stromal Sca-1+/CD34+/lin- Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Meredith A.; Kulkulka, Natalie A.; Firmiss, Paula R.; Ross, Michael J.; Flum, Andrew S.; Santos, Grace B. Delos; Bowen, Diana K.; Dettman, Robert W.; Gong, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder fibrosis is an undesired end point of injury of obstruction and often renders the smooth muscle layer noncompliant. In many cases, the long-term effect of bladder fibrosis is renal failure. Despite our understanding of the progression of this disease, little is known about the cellular mechanisms that lead to a remodeled bladder wall. Resident stem (progenitor) cells have been identified in various organs such as the brain, heart and lung. These cells function normally during organ homeostasis, but become dysregulated after organ injury. Here, we aimed to characterize a mesenchymal progenitor cell population as a first step in understanding its role in bladder fibrosis. Using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we identified a Sca-1+/ CD34+/ lin- (PECAM-: CD45-: Ter119-) population in the adult murine bladder. These cells were localized to the stromal layer of the adult bladder and appeared by postnatal day 1. Cultured Sca-1+/ CD34+/ lin- bladder cells self-renewed, formed colonies and spontaneously differentiated into cells expressing smooth muscle genes. These cells differentiated into other mesenchymal lineages (chondrocytes, adipocytes and osteocytes) upon culture in induction medium. Both acute and partial obstruction of the bladder reduced expression of CD34 and changed localization of Sca-1 to the urothelium. Partial obstruction resulted in upregulation of fibrosis genes within the Sca-1+/CD34+/lin- population. Our data indicate a resident, mesenchymal stem cell population in the bladder that is altered by bladder obstruction. These findings provide new information about the cellular changes in the bladder that may be associated with bladder fibrosis. PMID:26540309

  18. Making surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stromal cells: perspectives and future endeavors.

    PubMed

    Bhonde, Ramesh R; Sheshadri, Preethi; Sharma, Shikha; Kumar, Anujith

    2014-01-01

    Generation of surrogate β-cells is the need of the day to compensate the short supply of islets for transplantation to diabetic patients requiring daily shots of insulin. Over the years several sources of stem cells have been claimed to cater to the need of insulin producing cells. These include human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, human perinatal tissues such as amnion, placenta, umbilical cord and postnatal tissues involving adipose tissue, bone marrow, blood monocytes, cord blood, dental pulp, endometrium, liver, labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts and pancreas. Despite the availability of such heterogonous sources, there is no substantial breakthrough in selecting and implementing an ideal source for generating large number of stable insulin producing cells. Although the progress in derivation of β-cell like cells from embryonic stem cells has taken a greater leap, their application is limited due to controversy surrounding the destruction of human embryo and immune rejection. Since multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are free of ethical and immunological complications, they could provide unprecedented opportunity as starting material to derive insulin secreting cells. The main focus of this review is to discuss the merits and demerits of MSCs obtained from human peri- and post-natal tissue sources to yield abundant glucose responsive insulin producing cells as ideal candidates for prospective stem cell therapy to treat diabetes. PMID:24275096

  19. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchigami, Takao; Kibe, Toshiro; Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio; Nishizawa, Yoshiaki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Ueda, Masahiro; Nakamura, Norifumi; Kiyono, Tohru; Kishida, Michiko

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  20. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) as a target in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Anke; Tacke, Frank

    2016-08-01

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) or CXCL12 is constitutively expressed in healthy liver. However, its expression increases following acute or chronic liver injury. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC), hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and malignant hepatocytes are important sources of SDF-1/CXCL12 in liver diseases. CXCL12 is able to activate two chemokine receptors with different downstream signaling pathways, CXCR4 and CXCR7. CXCR7 expression is relevant on LSEC, while HSC, mesenchymal stem cells, and tumor cells mainly respond via CXCR4. Here, we summarize recent developments in the field of liver diseases involving this chemokine and its receptors. SDF-1-dependent signaling contributes to modulating acute liver injury and subsequent tissue regeneration. By activating HSC and recruiting mesenchymal cells from bone marrow, CXCL12 can promote liver fibrosis progression, while CXCL12-CXCR7 interactions endorse proregenerative responses in chronic injury. Moreover, the SDF-1 pathway is linked to development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by promoting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and HCC metastasis. High hepatic CXCR4 expression has been suggested as a biomarker indicating poor prognosis of HCC patients. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) also express CXCR4 and migrate toward CXCL12. Thus CXCL12 inhibition might not only directly block HCC growth but also modulate the tumor microenvironment (angiogenesis, MDSC), thereby sensitizing HCC patients to conventional or emerging novel cancer therapies (e.g., sorafenib, regorafenib, nivolumab, pembrolizumab). We herein summarize the current knowledge on the complex interplay between CXCL12 and CXCR4/CXCR7 in liver diseases and discuss approaches on the therapeutic targeting of these axes in hepatitis, fibrosis, and liver cancer. PMID:27313175

  1. Stromal-cell and cytokine-dependent lymphocyte clones which span the pre-B- to B-cell transition.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Medina, K; Hayashi, S; Pietrangeli, C; Namen, A E; Miyake, K; Kincade, P W

    1991-01-01

    Five stromal-cell-dependent lymphocyte clones are described that correspond to late pre-B or early B-cell stages of differentiation. They are useful for determining the molecular requirements for pre-B replication, for studying the stromal cells that supply those factors, and for delineating the final sequence of differentiation events as newly formed lymphocytes prepare to exit the bone marrow. The efficiency of lymphocyte growth at limiting dilution varied substantially on different stromal-cell clones and may reflect functional heterogeneity of stromal cells. Most lymphocyte clones were similar to uncloned lymphocytes from Whitlock-Witte cultures in that they responded only transiently to interleukin-7 (IL-7) and then died, unless maintained on a stromal-cell clone. One unusual lymphocyte clone (2E8) was propagated for more than 1 year in IL-7 alone and was selectively responsive to that cytokine. Most of the lymphocyte clones were not tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. However, one pre-B clone (1A9) grew autonomously in culture when held at high density, responded to conditioned medium from a number of cell lines, and was tumorigenic. Tumors derived from this clone were infiltrated by stromal cells and lymphocytes taken from the tumors' retained characteristics of the original clone. Ly-6 antigens were inducible on 2E8 and 1A9 cells, but the lymphocytes were otherwise arrested in differentiation. The 2E8 cells had rearranged and expressed kappa light-chain genes but displayed them on the surface along with surrogate light chains and mu heavy chains. Thus, expression of authentic light chain need not coincide with termination of surrogate light-chain utilization in newly formed B cells. Several glycoproteins have recently been demonstrated to be associated with surface immunoglobulin (Ig) on mature B-lineage cells and plasma-cell tumors. We now show that one member of this family (approximately 33 kD) was associated with the mu+surrogate light-chain complex on

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Increased Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Expression Enhanced Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chih-Yuan; Hua, Jia; Coathup, Melanie; Kalia, Priya; Blunn, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of critical size bone defects pose a challenge in orthopedics. Stem cell therapy together with cytokines has the potential to improve bone repair as they cause the migration and homing of stem cells to the defect site. However, the engraftment, participation, and recruitment of other cells within the regenerating tissue are important. To enhance stem cell involvement, this study investigated overexpression of stem cells with stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) using an adenovirus. We hypothesized that these engineered cells would effectively increase the migration of native cells to the site of fracture, enhancing bone repair. Before implantation, we showed that SDF-1 secreted by transfected cells increased the migration of nontransfected cells. In a rat defect bone model, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing SDF-1 showed significantly (p=0.003) more new bone formation within the gap and less bone mineral loss at the area adjacent to the defect site during the early bone healing stage. In conclusion, SDF-1 was shown to play an important role in accelerating fracture repair and contributing to bone repair in rat models, by recruiting more host stem cells to the defect site and encouraging osteogenic differentiation and production of bone. PMID:25251779

  3. Formation and differentiation of three-dimensional rat marrow stromal cell culture on microcarriers in a rotating-wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Q.; Ducheyne, P.; Gao, H.; Ayyaswamy, P.

    1998-01-01

    Using a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV), this study investigated the formation of 3-D rat marrow stromal cell culture on microcarriers and the expression of bone-related biochemical markers under conditions of simulated microgravity. In addition, it calculated the shear stresses imparted on the surface of microcarriers of different densities by the medium fluid in an HARV. Secondary rat marrow stromal cells were cultured on two types of microcarriers, Cytodex-3 beads and modified bioactive glass particles. Examination of cellular morphology by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of three-dimensional multicellular aggregates consisting of multiple cell-covered Cytodex-3 microcarriers bridged together. Mineralization was observed in the aggregates. Spherical cell-bead aggregates were observed in an HARV, while cell-bead assemblies were mostly loosely packed in a chain-like or branched structure in a cell bag. The expressions of alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen type I, and osteopontin were shown via the use of histochemical staining, immunolabeling, and confocal scanning electron microscopy. Using a numerical approach, it was found that at a given rotational speed and for a given culture medium, a larger density difference between the microcarrier and the culture medium (e.g., a modified bioactive glass particle) imparted a higher maximum shear stress on the microcarrier.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-1/2 Triggering of Multiple Myeloma Cells Modulates Their Adhesion to Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Enhances Bortezomib-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jahangir; Mutis, Tuna; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    In multiple myeloma (MM), the malignant plasma cells usually localize to the bone marrow where they develop drug resistance due to adhesion to stromal cells and various environmental signals. Hence, modulation of this interaction is expected to influence drug sensitivity of MM cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have displayed heterogeneous effects on B-cell malignancies and also on MM cells in a few recent studies, but effects on adhesion and drug sensitivity of myeloma cells in the context of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have never been investigated. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of TLR1/2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) on adhesion of human myeloma cells to BMSCs. It is shown that TLR1/2 triggering has opposite effects in different HMCLs on their adhesion to BMSCs. Fravel, L363, UM-6, UM-9 and U266 showed increased adhesion to BMSC in parallel with an increased surface expression of integrin molecules α4 and αVβ3. OPM-1, OPM-2 and NCI-H929 showed a dose-dependent decrease in adhesion upon TLR activation following a downregulation of β7 integrin expression. Importantly, TLR1/2 triggering increased cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of bortezomib in myeloma cells independent of the effect on stromal cell adhesion. Moreover, the apoptosis-enhancing effect of Pam3CSK4 paralleled induction of cleaved caspase-3 protein in FACS analysis suggesting a caspase-dependent mechanism. Our findings uncover a novel role of TLR activation in MM cells in the context of bone marrow microenvironment. Stimulation of TLR1/2 bypasses the protective shield of BMSCs and may be an interesting strategy to enhance drug sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells. PMID:24794258

  5. Distinct effects of SIRT1 in cancer and stromal cells on tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Yong-Joon; Jin, Peng; Yoon, Haejin; Chun, Yang-Sook; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Ja-Eun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-04-26

    The lysyl deacetylase SIRT1 acts as a metabolic sensor in adjusting metabolic imbalance. To explore the role of SIRT1 in tumor-stroma interplay, we designed an in vivo tumor model using SIRT1-transgenic mice. B16F10 mouse melanoma grew more quickly in SIRT1-transgenic mice than in wild-type mice, whereas SIRT1-overexpressing one grew slowly in both mice. Of human tumors, SIRT1 expression in stromal fibroblasts was found to correlate with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. B16F10 and human ovarian cancer (SKOV3 and SNU840) cells were more proliferative in co-culture with SIRT1-overexpressiong fibroblasts. In contrast, SIRT1 within cancer cells has a negative effect on cell proliferation. In conditioned media from SIRT1-overexpressing fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) was identified in cytokine arrays to be secreted from fibroblasts SIRT1-dependently. Fibroblast-derived MMP3 stimulated cancer cell proliferation, and such a role of MMP3 was also demonstrated in cancer/fibroblast co-grafts. In conclusion, SIRT1 plays differential roles in cancer and stromal cells. SIRT1 in stromal cells promotes cancer growth by producing MMP3, whereas SIRT1 in cancer cells inhibits growth via an intracellular event. The present study provides a basis for setting new anticancer strategies targeting SIRT1. PMID:26992208

  6. Histological Study of Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Stromal Cell Transplantation in Regenerating Rat Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Zarbakhsh, Sam; Goudarzi, Nasim; Shirmohammadi, Maryam; Safari, Manouchehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow and umbilical cord stromal cells are multipotential stem cells that have the ability to produce growth factors that play an important role in survival and generation of axons. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the two different mesenchymal stem cells on peripheral nerve regeneration. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a 10 mm segment of the left sciatic nerve of male Wistar rats (250-300 g) was removed with a silicone tube interposed into this nerve gap. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) were respectively obtained from rat and human. The cells were sepa- rately cultured and transplanted into the nerve gap. The sciatic nerve regeneration was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and light and electron microscopy. Moreover, histo- morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle was observed. Results The nerve regeneration in the BMSCs and HUCSCs groups that had received the stem cells was significantly more favorable than the control group. In addition, the BM- SCs group was significantly more favorable than the HUCSCs group (P<0.05). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that both homograft BMSCs and het- erograft HUCSCs may have the potential to regenerate peripheral nerve injury and transplantation of BMSCs may be more effective than HUCSCs in rat. PMID:26862526

  7. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs): potential role in healing cutaneous chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ji-Ping; Huang, Sha; Peng, Yan; Liu, Hong-Wei; Cheng, Biao; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Xiang, Xiao-Fei

    2012-12-01

    Chronic wounds remain a major challenge in modern medicine and represent a significant health care burden. Several treatments have been suggested, but without a full understanding of the exact mechanism by which chronic wound occurs. Numerous studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may have therapeutic potential in healing cutaneous chronic wounds through various mechanisms. So far, a series of hypotheses have been proposed, but a holistic image of them is lacking. This review provides a systematic analysis of recent research in animal models and preclinical or clinic trails to evaluate the potential role of MSCs in chronic cutaneous wound healing. Most important, we highlight how mesenchymal stem cells could potentially revolutionize our approach to treating cutaneous chronic wounds. Special attention should be focused on ongoing research regarding the challenges in using and prospects of MSCs in clinical settings. PMID:23222159

  9. Effects of extracellular calcium on viability and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaowen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qingyu; Kou, Dongquan; Ying, Xiaozhou; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Yu, Ziming; Peng, Lei; Lu, Chuanzhu

    2013-09-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been extensively used for tissue engineering. However, the effect of Ca(2+) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs has yet to be evaluated. To determine the dose-dependent effect of Ca(2+) on viability and osteogenesis of BMSCs in vitro, BMSCs were cultured in calcium-free DMEM medium supplemented with various concentrations of Ca(2+) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mM) from calcium citrate. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, Von Kossa staining, and real-time PCR. Ca(2+) stimulated BMSCs viability in a dose-dependent manner. At slightly higher concentrations (4 and 5 mM) in the culture, Ca(2+) significantly inhibited the activity of ALP on days 7 and 14 (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly suppressed collagen synthesis (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and significantly elevated calcium deposition (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels of osteocalcin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) and osteopontin (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Therefore, elevated concentrations of extracellular calcium may promote cell viability and late-stage osteogenic differentiation, but may suppress early-stage osteogenic differentiation in BMSCs. PMID:23749732

  10. Localization of mesenchymal stromal cells dictates their immune or proinflammatory effects in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, F; Azzollini, N; Todeschini, M; Cavinato, R A; Cassis, P; Solini, S; Rota, C; Morigi, M; Introna, M; Maranta, R; Perico, N; Remuzzi, G; Noris, M

    2012-09-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have recently emerged as promising candidates for cell-based immunotherapy in solid-organ transplantation. However, optimal conditions and settings for fully harnessing MSC tolerogenic properties need to be defined. We recently reported that autologous MSC given posttransplant in kidney transplant patients was associated with transient renal insufficiency associated with intragraft recruitment of neutrophils and complement C3 deposition. Here, we moved back to a murine kidney transplant model with the aim to define the best timing of MSC infusion capable of promoting immune tolerance without negative effects on early graft function. We also investigated the mechanisms of the immunomodulatory and/or proinflammatory activities of MSC according to whether cells were given before or after transplant. Posttransplant MSC infusion in mice caused premature graft dysfunction and failed to prolong graft survival. In this setting, infused MSC localized mainly into the graft and associated with neutrophils and complement C3 deposition. By contrast, pretransplant MSC infusion induced a significant prolongation of kidney graft survival by a Treg-dependent mechanism. MSC-infused pretransplant localized into lymphoid organs where they promoted early expansion of Tregs. Thus, pretransplant MSC infusion may be a useful approach to fully exploit their immunomodulatory properties in kidney transplantation. PMID:22642544

  11. Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karube-Harada, A; Sugino, N; Kashida, S; Takiguchi, S; Takayama, H; Yamagata, Y; Nakamura, Y; Kato, H

    2001-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and to determine whether there is a difference in responsiveness to TNFalpha between ESC and decidualized ESC. TNFalpha increased manganese-SOD (Mn-SOD) mRNA level and Mn-SOD activity in a dose-dependent manner in ESC. The concentration of TNFalpha required for an effect was lower for decidualized ESC than for non-decidualized ESC. TNFalpha had no effect on copper-zinc-SOD (Cu,Zn-SOD) expression in either type of cell. Incubation of ESC with actinomycin D, an RNA synthesis inhibitor, blocked TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD mRNA expression, but cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, had no effect. H7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), also inhibited TNFalpha-stimulated Mn-SOD mRNA expression in both types of cells. These findings suggest that TNFalpha-induced Mn-SOD expression is regulated at the transcription level and mediated by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and that de-novo protein synthesis is not required for the TNFalpha effect. In summary, TNFalpha induces Mn-SOD expression in human ESC. This phenomenon may be important for protection of ESC from cytokine-mediated oxidative stress. PMID:11675473

  12. Extracellular calcium and CaSR drive osteoinduction in mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    González-Vázquez, Arlyng; Planell, Josep A; Engel, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Bone is the main store of calcium and progenitor cells in the body. During the resorption process, the local calcium concentration reaches 8-40mM, and the surrounding cells are exposed to these fluctuations in calcium. This stimulus is a signal that is detected through the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which modulates chemotactic and proliferative G protein-dependent signaling pathways. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the roles of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) and the CaSR in osteoinduction. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs) were stimulated with 10mM of Ca(2+). Several experiments were conducted to demonstrate the effect of [Ca(2+)]o on chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation on the osteoblastic lineage. It was found that [Ca(2+)]o induces rBMSCs to migrate and proliferate in a concentration-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence also revealed that 10mM Ca(2+) stimulates overexpression of osteogenic markers in rBMSCs, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein, collagen Ia1 and osteocalcin. Functional assays determining ALP activity and mineralization tests both corroborate the increased expression of these markers in rBMSCs stimulated with Ca(2+). Moreover, CaSR blockage inhibited the cellular response to stimulation with high concentrations of [Ca(2+)]o, revealing that the CaSR is a key modulator of these cellular responses. PMID:24525034

  13. Current Perspectives in Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapies for Airway Tissue Defects

    PubMed Central

    Petrella, Francesco; Rizzo, Stefania; Borri, Alessandro; Casiraghi, Monica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and respiratory diseases are the third cause of death in industrialized countries; for this reason the airways and cardiopulmonary system have been the focus of extensive investigation, in particular of the new emerging branch of regenerative medicine. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a population of undifferentiated multipotent adult cells that naturally reside within the human body, which can differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages when cultured in specific inducing media. MSCs have the ability to migrate and engraft at sites of inflammation and injury in response to cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors at a wound site and they can exert local reparative effects through transdifferentiation and differentiation into specific cell types or via the paracrine secretion of soluble factors with anti-inflammatory and wound-healing activities. Experimental and clinical evidence exists regarding MSCs efficacy in airway defects restoration; although clinical MSCs use, in the daily practice, is not yet completely reached for airway diseases, we can argue that MSCs do not represent any more merely an experimental approach to airway tissue defects restoration but they can be considered as a “salvage” therapeutic tool in very selected patients and diseases. PMID:26167186

  14. Multiple myeloma mesenchymal stromal cells: Contribution to myeloma bone disease and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Gomez, Antonio; Sanchez-Guijo, Fermin; del Cañizo, M Consuelo; San Miguel, Jesus F; Garayoa, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy in which clonal plasma cells proliferate and accumulate within the bone marrow. The presence of osteolytic lesions due to increased osteoclast (OC) activity and suppressed osteoblast (OB) function is characteristic of the disease. The bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play a critical role in multiple myeloma pathophysiology, greatly promoting the growth, survival, drug resistance and migration of myeloma cells. Here, we specifically discuss on the relative contribution of MSCs to the pathophysiology of osteolytic lesions in light of the current knowledge of the biology of myeloma bone disease (MBD), together with the reported genomic, functional and gene expression differences between MSCs derived from myeloma patients (pMSCs) and their healthy counterparts (dMSCs). Being MSCs the progenitors of OBs, pMSCs primarily contribute to the pathogenesis of MBD because of their reduced osteogenic potential consequence of multiple OB inhibitory factors and direct interactions with myeloma cells in the bone marrow. Importantly, pMSCs also readily contribute to MBD by promoting OC formation and activity at various levels (i.e., increasing RANKL to OPG expression, augmenting secretion of activin A, uncoupling ephrinB2-EphB4 signaling, and through augmented production of Wnt5a), thus further contributing to OB/OC uncoupling in osteolytic lesions. In this review, we also look over main signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and/or OB activity, highlighting amenable therapeutic targets; in parallel, the reported activity of bone-anabolic agents (at preclinical or clinical stage) targeting those signaling pathways is commented. PMID:25126382

  15. Cell Injury-Induced Release of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: Relevance to Intracerebral Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantations.

    PubMed

    Aizman, Irina; Vinodkumar, Deepti; McGrogan, Michael; Bates, Damien

    2015-07-15

    Beneficial effects of intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and their derivatives are believed to be mediated mostly by factors produced by engrafted cells. However, the mesenchymal cell engraftment rate is low, and the majority of grafted cells disappear within a short post-transplantation period. Here, we hypothesize that dying transplanted cells can affect surrounding tissues by releasing their active intracellular components. To elucidate the type, amounts, and potency of these putative intracellular factors, freeze/thaw extracts of MSC or their derivatives were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and bioassays. We found that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF1, but not vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels were high in extracts despite being low in conditioned media. Extracts induced concentration-dependent proliferation of rat cortical neural progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells; these proliferative responses were specifically blocked by FGF2-neutralizing antibody. In the neuropoiesis assay with rat cortical cells, both MSC extracts and killed cells induced expression of nestin, but not astrocyte differentiation. However, suspensions of killed cells strongly potentiated the astrogenic effects of live MSC. In transplantation-relevant MSC injury models (peripheral blood cell-mediated cytotoxicity and high cell density plating), MSC death coincided with the release of intracellular FGF2. The data showed that MSC contain a major depot of active FGF2 that is released upon cell injury and is capable of acutely stimulating neuropoiesis and angiogenesis. We therefore propose that both dying and surviving grafted MSC contribute to tissue regeneration. PMID:25873141

  16. The current landscape of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome: A new paradigm for cell-free regeneration

    PubMed Central

    KONALA, VIJAY BHASKAR REDDY; MAMIDI, MURALI KRISHNA; BHONDE, RAMESH; DAS, ANJAN KUMAR; POCHAMPALLY, RADHIKA; PAL, RAJARSHI

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to self-renew and their multipotentiality have rendered them attractive to researchers and clinicians. In addition to the differentiation potential, the broad repertoire of secreted trophic factors (cytokines) exhibiting diverse functions such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory activity, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic, commonly referred to as the MSC secretome, has gained immense attention in the past few years. There is enough evidence to show that the one important pathway by which MSCs participate in tissue repair and regeneration is through its secretome. Concurrently, a large body of MSC research has focused on characterization of the MSC secretome; this includes both soluble factors and factors released in extracellular vesicles, for example, exosomes and microvesicles. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the MSC secretome with respect to their potential clinical applications. PMID:26631828

  17. The current landscape of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome: A new paradigm for cell-free regeneration.

    PubMed

    Konala, Vijay Bhaskar Reddy; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Bhonde, Ramesh; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pochampally, Radhika; Pal, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) to self-renew and their multipotentiality have rendered them attractive to researchers and clinicians. In addition to the differentiation potential, the broad repertoire of secreted trophic factors (cytokines) exhibiting diverse functions such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory activity, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic, commonly referred to as the MSC secretome, has gained immense attention in the past few years. There is enough evidence to show that the one important pathway by which MSCs participate in tissue repair and regeneration is through its secretome. Concurrently, a large body of MSC research has focused on characterization of the MSC secretome; this includes both soluble factors and factors released in extracellular vesicles, for example, exosomes and microvesicles. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the MSC secretome with respect to their potential clinical applications. PMID:26631828

  18. Gastrospheres of human gastric mucosa cells: an in vitro model of stromal and epithelial stem cell niche reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos A N; Andrade, Leonardo R; Costa, Márcia H M; Souza, Heitor S P; Granjeiro, José M; Takiya, Christina M; Borojevic, Radovan; Nasciutti, Luiz E

    2016-08-01

    The molecular characterization of mechanisms involved in the gastrointestinal tract disorders needs an in vitro 3D culture model able to mimic the in vivo gastric microenvironment. Herein, we propose a 3D coculture system where gastric epithelial and stromal cells are grown together building spherical and solid structures using the NASA bioreactor - cell culture system (RCCS), a bioreactor. Epithelial and stromal cells from human antral gastric mucosa were isolated from endoscopic gastric biopsies. Thereafter, these cells were mechanically and enzymatically dispersed by treatment with dispase and collagenase, respectively. Using specific culture procedures, these cells formed 3D structures by using a RCCS, named "gastrospheres". Briefly, gastrospheres were obtained by initial seeding of 2.5x10⁴ cells/well in 96 well culture plates. At 24 h after their formation, they were transferred into RCCS, and maintained for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The gastrospheres were morphologically characterized by immunocytochemisty to evaluate extracellular matrix (ECM), and by electron microscopy. These analysis of gastrospheres revealed that the epithelial cells were cytokeratin (CK) and lectin reactive and were arranged in the outer layer; stromal cells presented long cytoplasmic processes and were localized inside the gastrosphere. They were vimentin (VIM) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive and expressed ECM components such as laminin (LN), fibronectin (FN), and type IV collagen (CIV). Electron microscopy revealed groups of cohesive gastric cells surrounded by complex stromal structures, with multiple microvilli, and tight cellular junctions interspersed with extracellular matrix fibrils and fibers. The presence of some nestin-positive cells was observed in the inner region of the gastrospheres, suggesting an intermediary localization between epithelial and stromal cells. Altogether, our data suggest that in vitro gastrospheres recapitulate the in vivo gastric niche

  19. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y.; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed+ perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317+ IL-7hi cells, identified at ∼1%–3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  20. Round cell pattern of prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential: a subtle newly recognized variant.

    PubMed

    Sadimin, Evita T; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-06-01

    Prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a distinct entity which includes several different patterns. Four patterns of STUMP have been described including stroma with (1) degenerative atypia, (2) hypercellular spindle cells, (3) myxoid spindle cells, and (4) phyllodes-like pattern. The current study identified a novel round cell pattern. We searched our database from 1999 to 2015 and identified 7 patients with round cell pattern out of a total number of 98 patients with STUMP. All 7 cases showed mildly increased stromal cellularity with rounded nuclei, diagnosed on core biopsies in 5 cases, transurethral resection in 1 case, and radical prostatectomy in 1 case. Some degree of glandular displacement was observed in 4 cases. In 2 of the cases, STUMP was not recognized histologically by the referring pathologists and was initially diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. As has been described with other patterns of STUMP, several cases showed associated epithelial proliferations that in some instances masked the neoplastic stromal process. The round cell pattern of STUMP is a new deceptively subtle pattern that may not be recognized as a neoplasm and may be misdiagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although there was no direct evidence in our study that the round cell pattern of STUMP has the same behavior as other variants of STUMPs, increased recognition of this entity will hopefully lead to additional studies to further understand its malignant potential. PMID:26980017

  1. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Protect Intervertebral Disc Cells in Compression: Implications for Stem Cell Regenerative Disc Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Luo, Beier; Liu, Zhi-Heng; Samartzis, Dino; Liu, Zhongyang; Gao, Bo; Huang, Liangliang; Luo, Zhuo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal biomechanics plays a role in intervertebral disc degeneration. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have been implicated in disc integrity; however, their role in the setting of mechanical stimuli upon the disc's nucleus pulposus (NP) remains unknown. As such, the present study aimed to evaluate the influence of ADSCs upon NP cells in compressive load culture. Methods: Human NP cells were cultured in compressive load at 3.0MPa for 48 hours with or without ADSCs co-culture (the ratio was 50:50). We used flow cytometry, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate cell death, and determined the expression of specific apoptotic pathways by characterizing the expression of activated caspases-3, -8 and -9. We further used real-time (RT-) PCR and immunostaining to determine the expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM), mediators of matrix degradation (e.g. MMPs, TIMPs and ADAMTSs), pro-inflammatory factors and NP cell phenotype markers. Results: ADSCs inhibited human NP cell apoptosis via suppression of activated caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, ADSCs protected NP cells from the degradative effects of compressive load by significantly up-regulating the expression of ECM genes (SOX9, COL2A1 and ACAN), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) genes (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) protein expression. Alternatively, ADSCs showed protective effect by inhibiting compressive load mediated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; MMP-3 and MMP-13), disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs; ADAMTS-1 and 5), and pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1beta, IL-6, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha). Conclusions: Our study is the first in vitro study assessing the impact of ADSCs on NP cells in an un-physiological mechanical stimulation culture environment. Our study noted that ADSCs protect compressive load induced NP cell death and degradation by inhibition of activated caspase-9 and -3

  2. Autologous transplants of Adipose-Derived Adult Stromal (ADAS) cells afford dopaminergic neuroprotection in a model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Melissa K; Martinez, Terina N; Ruhn, Kelly A; Wrage, Philip C; Keefer, Edward W; Botterman, Barry R; Tansey, Keith E; Tansey, Malú G

    2008-03-01

    Adult adipose contains stromal progenitor cells with neurogenic potential. However, the stability of neuronal phenotypes adopted by Adipose-Derived Adult Stromal (ADAS) cells and whether terminal neuronal differentiation is required for their consideration as alternatives in cell replacement strategies to treat neurological disorders is largely unknown. We investigated whether in vitro neural induction of ADAS cells determined their ability to neuroprotect or restore function in a lesioned dopaminergic pathway. In vitro-expanded naïve or differentiated ADAS cells were autologously transplanted into substantia nigra 1 week after an intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injection. Neurochemical and behavioral measures demonstrated neuroprotective effects of both ADAS grafts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuron death, suggesting that pre-transplantation differentiation of the cells does not determine their ability to survive or neuroprotect in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether equivalent protection by naïve and neurally-induced ADAS grafts resulted from robust in situ differentiation of both graft types into dopaminergic fates. Immunohistological analyses revealed that ADAS cells did not adopt dopaminergic cell fates in situ, consistent with the limited ability of these cells to undergo terminal differentiation into electrically active neurons in vitro. Moreover, re-exposure of neurally-differentiated ADAS cells to serum-containing medium in vitro confirmed ADAS cell phenotypic instability (plasticity). Lastly, given that gene expression analyses of in vitro-expanded ADAS cells revealed that both naïve and differentiated ADAS cells express potent dopaminergic survival factors, ADAS transplants may have exerted neuroprotective effects by production of trophic factors at the lesion site. ADAS cells may be ideal for ex vivo gene transfer therapies in Parkinson's disease treatment. PMID:18061169

  3. Effects of Cryopreservation on Canine Multipotent Stromal Cells from Subcutaneous and Infrapatellar Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Lopez, Mandi J

    2016-04-01

    Adipose derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) isolated from brown versus white adipose tissues, may have distinct in vitro properties, including response to cryopreservation, due to differences in tissue physiology. This study was designed to determine the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, in vitro expansion capabilities and multipotentiality of paired canine ASCs harvested from subcutaneous (SUB) and infrapatellar (IFP) adipose tissue up to cell passage (P) 3 before and after cryopreservation. Adipocyte and ASC ultrastructure from the same tissue were distinct, and morphologies of both differed between tissue sources and with cryopreservation. Cell expansion and colony forming unit frequencies were similar between ASCs from both tissue sources before and after cryopreservation. Most fresh cells were CD29+, CD44+, CD90+ and CD34- up to P3. Cryopreserved P1 and P3 cells had lower percentages of CD29+ and 44+ cells, respectively, compared to fresh. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) gene expression and sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), CD29 and CD44 protein expression was lower in cryopreserved versus fresh P3 ASCs. Both PPAR-γ and osteopontin (OPN) protein expression increased in fresh and cryopreserved P3 ASCs cultured in adipogenic and osteogenic induction medium, respectively, while SOX2 decreased. Based on the study findings, in vitro expansion and multipotentiality are not distinct among canine SUB and IFP ASCs before or after cryopreservation. However, cryopreservation alters ASC ultrastructure, immunophenotype and transcription factor expression from both tissue sources. Future studies are necessary to determine the impact of cryopreservation on cell potential for therapy and de novo tissue generation. PMID:26537238

  4. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  5. Forskolin enhances in vivo bone formation by human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Joyce; Siddappa, Ramakrishnaiah; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; de Boer, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (db-cAMP) was recently shown to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The major drawback of this compound is its inhibitory effect on proliferation of hMSCs. Therefore, we investigated whether fine-tuning of the dose and timing of PKA activation could enhance bone formation even further, with minimum effects on proliferation. To test this, we selected two different PKA activators (8-bromo-cAMP (8-br-cAMP) and forskolin) and compared their effects on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation with those of db-cAMP. We found that all three compounds induced alkaline phosphatase levels, bone-specific target genes, and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, although 8-br-cAMP induced adipogenic differentiation in long-term cultures and was thus considered unsuitable for further in vivo testing. All three compounds inhibited proliferation of hMSCs in a dose-dependent manner, with forskolin inhibiting proliferation most. The effect of forskolin on in vivo bone formation was tested by pretreating hMSCs before implantation, and we observed greater amounts of bone using forskolin than db-cAMP. Our data show forskolin to be a novel agent that can be used to increase bone formation and also suggests a role for PKA in the delicate balance between adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. PMID:21942968

  6. Targeting Human Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour Cells with a Quadruplex-binding Small Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratnam, Mekala; Beltran, Monica; Galesa, Katja; Haider, Shozeb M.; Reszka, Anthony P.; Cuenca, Francisco; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Neidle, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The majority of human gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are driven by activating mutations in the proto-oncogene KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor. Clinical treatment with imatinib targets the kinase domain of KIT, but tumour regrowth occurs as a result of the development of resistant mutations in the kinase active site. An alternative small-molecule approach to GIST therapy is described, in which the KIT gene is directly targeted, and thus kinase resistance may be circumvented. A naphthalene dimiide derivative has been used to demonstrate the concept of dual quadruplex targeting. This compound strongly stabilises both telomeric quadruplex DNA and quadruplex sites in the KIT promoter in vitro. It is shown here that the compound is a potent inducer of growth arrest in a patient-derived GIST cell line at a concentration (ca 1μM) that also results in effective inhibition of telomerase activity and almost complete suppression of KIT mRNA and KIT protein expression. Molecular modelling studies with a telomeric quadruplex have been used to rationalise aspects of the experimental quadruplex melting data. PMID:19469547

  7. Endometrial Stromal Cells and Immune Cell Populations Within Lymph Nodes in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Fazleabas, A. T.; Braundmeier, A. G.; Markham, R.; Fraser, I. S.; Berbic, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that immunological responses may be altered in endometriosis. The baboon (Papio anubis) is generally considered the best model of endometriosis pathogenesis. The objective of the current study was to investigate for the first time immunological changes within uterine and peritoneal draining lymph nodes in a nonhuman primate baboon model of endometriosis. Paraffin-embedded femoral lymph nodes were obtained from 22 normally cycling female baboons (induced endometriosis n = 11; control n = 11). Immunohistochemical staining was performed with antibodies for endometrial stromal cells, T cells, immature and mature dendritic cells, and B cells. Lymph nodes were evaluated using an automated cellular imaging system. Endometrial stromal cells were significantly increased in lymph nodes from animals with induced endometriosis, compared to control animals (P = .033). In animals with induced endometriosis, some lymph node immune cell populations including T cells, dendritic cells and B cells were increased, suggesting an efficient early response or peritoneal drainage. PMID:21617251

  8. Transforming growth factor-β synthesized by stromal cells and cancer cells participates in bone resorption induced by oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kayamori, Kou; Oue, Erika; Sakamoto, Kei; Harada, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2015-03-20

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a significant role in the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. To explore the role of TGF-β in oral cancer-induced bone destruction, we investigated the immunohistochemical localization of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad2 (p-Smad2) in 12 surgical specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). These studies revealed TGF-β and p-Smad2 expression in cancer cells in all tested cases. Several fibroblasts located between cancer nests and resorbing bone expressed TGF-β in 10 out of 12 cases and p-Smad2 in 11 out of 12 cases. Some osteoclasts also exhibited p ∼ Smad2 expression. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, and the bone marrow-derived fibroblastic cell line, ST2, synthesized substantial levels of TGF-β. Culture media derived from HSC3 cells could stimulate Tgf-β1 mRNA expression in ST2 cells. Recombinant TGF-β1 could stimulate osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in RAW264 cells. TGF-β1 could upregulate the expression of p-Smad2 in RAW264 cells, and this action was suppressed by the addition of a neutralizing antibody against TGF-β or by SB431542. Transplantation of HSC3 cells onto the calvarial region of athymic mice caused bone destruction, associated with the expression of TGF-β and p-Smad2 in both cancer cells and stromal cells. The bone destruction was substantially inhibited by the administration of SB431542. The present study demonstrated that TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC-induced bone destruction. - Highlights: • Cancer cell, fibroblastic cells, and osteoclasts at bone resorbing area by oral cancer exhibited TGF-β and p-Smad2. • TGF-β1 stimulated osteoclastogenesis induced by RAKL in RAW264 cell. • Xenograft model of oral cancer-induced bone resorption was substantially inhibited by SB431542. • TGF-β synthesized by both cancer cells and stromal cells participates in the OSCC

  9. Stromal cell–derived factor 2 is critical for Hsp90-dependent eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Siragusa, Mauro; Fröhlich, Florian; Park, Eon Joo; Schleicher, Michael; Walther, Tobias C.; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine and molecular oxygen into l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous second messenger that influences cardiovascular physiology and disease. Several mechanisms regulate eNOS activity and function, including phosphorylation at Ser and Thr residues and protein-protein interactions. Combining a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry, we identified stromal cell–derived factor 2 (SDF2) as a component of the eNOS macromolecular complex in endothelial cells. SDF2 knockdown impaired agonist-stimulated NO synthesis and decreased the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, a key event required for maximal activation of eNOS. Conversely, SDF2 overexpression dose-dependently increased NO synthesis through a mechanism involving Akt and calcium (induced with ionomycin), which increased the phosphorylation of Ser1177 in eNOS. NO synthesis by iNOS (inducible NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) was also enhanced upon SDF2 overexpression. We found that SDF2 was a client protein of the chaperone protein Hsp90, interacting preferentially with the M domain of Hsp90, which is the same domain that binds to eNOS. In endothelial cells exposed to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), SDF2 was required for the binding of Hsp90 and calmodulin to eNOS, resulting in eNOS phosphorylation and activation. Thus, our data describe a function for SDF2 as a component of the Hsp90-eNOS complex that is critical for signal transduction in endothelial cells. PMID:26286023

  10. CDC2 mediates progestin initiated endometrial stromal cell proliferation: a PR signaling to gene expression independently of its binding to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Griselda; La Greca, Alejandro D; Tarifa-Reischle, Inti C; Mestre-Citrinovitz, Ana C; Ballaré, Cecilia; Beato, Miguel; Saragüeta, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Although non-genomic steroid receptor pathways have been studied over the past decade, little is known about the direct gene expression changes that take place as a consequence of their activation. Progesterone controls proliferation of rat endometrial stromal cells during the peri-implantation phase of pregnancy. We showed that picomolar concentration of progestin R5020 mimics this control in UIII endometrial stromal cells via ERK1-2 and AKT activation mediated by interaction of Progesterone Receptor (PR) with Estrogen Receptor beta (ERb) and without transcriptional activity of endogenous PR and ER. Here we identify early downstream targets of cytoplasmic PR signaling and their possible role in endometrial stromal cell proliferation. Microarray analysis of global gene expression changes in UIII cells treated for 45 min with progestin identified 97 up- and 341 down-regulated genes. The most over-represented molecular functions were transcription factors and regulatory factors associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle, a large fraction of which were repressors down-regulated by hormone. Further analysis verified that progestins regulate Ccnd1, JunD, Usf1, Gfi1, Cyr61, and Cdkn1b through PR-mediated activation of ligand-free ER, ERK1-2 or AKT, in the absence of genomic PR binding. ChIP experiments show that progestin promoted the interaction of USF1 with the proximal promoter of the Cdc2 gene. Usf1 knockdown abolished Cdc2 progestin-dependent transcriptional regulation and cell proliferation, which also blocked Cdc2 knockdown. We conclude that progestin-induced proliferation of endometrial stromal cells is mediated by ERK1-2 and AKT dependent early regulation of USF1, which directly induces Cdc2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of early target genes of progestin-activated classical PR via crosstalk with protein kinases and independently of hormone receptor binding to the genomic targets. PMID:24859236

  11. In Vivo Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Depends on the Source and the Isolation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Bortolotti, Francesca; Ukovich, Laura; Razban, Vahid; Martinelli, Valentina; Ruozi, Giulia; Pelos, Barbara; Dore, Franca; Giacca, Mauro; Zacchigna, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Over the last several years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been isolated from different tissues following a variety of different procedures. Here, we comparatively assess the ex vivo and in vivo properties of MSCs isolated from either adipose tissue or bone marrow by different purification protocols. After MSC transplantation into a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia, clinical and histological analysis revealed that bone marrow MSCs purified on adhesive substrates exerted the best therapeutic activity, preserving tissue viability and promoting formation of new arterioles without directly transdifferentiating into vascular cells. In keeping with these observations, these cells abundantly expressed cytokines involved in vessel maturation and cell retention. These findings indicate that the choice of MSC source and purification protocol is critical in determining the therapeutic potential of these cells and warrant the standardization of an optimal MSC isolation procedure in order to select the best conditions to move forward to more effective clinical experimentation. PMID:25660405

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Samir; Hu, Michael S.; Marshall, Clement D.; Leavitt, Tripp; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Gonzalez, Jennifer G.; Kaur, Harleen; Lorenz, H. Peter; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a source of substantial morbidity for patients and are a major financial burden for the healthcare system. There are no current therapies that reliably improve nonhealing wounds or reverse pathological scarring. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process. Recent work has addressed the problems of loss of plasticity and off-target delivery through use of modern bioengineering techniques. Here we describe the applications of MSCs harvested from different sources to the wound healing process and recent advances in delivery of MSCs to targeted sites of injury. PMID:26966438

  13. [Nonadhesive populations in cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells from hemat