Science.gov

Sample records for activated thp-1 cells

  1. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated. Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells by Western blotting and the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis were observed at 3 h after cocultivation. In addition, the increased expression of ASC and NLRP3, which make up an inflammasome complex, was also observed at 3 h after cocultivation. To confirm the caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production via the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells triggered by N. fowleri trophozoites, THP-1 cells were pretreated with several inhibitors. The inhibition assay showed that CA-074 (a cathepsin B inhibitor), glybenclamide (an NLRP3 molecule inhibitor), and N-benzyloxycarbony-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-1 inhibitor) reduced the levels of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells. This study suggests that N. fowleri infection induces the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 and subsequently produces IL-1β, thus resulting in inflammation. PMID:27297387

  2. NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Yoo, Jong-Kyun; Kang, Heekyoung; Seong, Gi-Sang; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. To investigate what kinds of inflammasome molecules are expressed in target cells due to N. fowleri infection, human macrophage cells (THP-1 cells) were cocultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a noncontact system, and consequently, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production was estimated. Caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells by Western blotting and the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis were observed at 3 h after cocultivation. In addition, the increased expression of ASC and NLRP3, which make up an inflammasome complex, was also observed at 3 h after cocultivation. To confirm the caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production via the NLRP3 inflammasome in THP-1 cells triggered by N. fowleri trophozoites, THP-1 cells were pretreated with several inhibitors. The inhibition assay showed that CA-074 (a cathepsin B inhibitor), glybenclamide (an NLRP3 molecule inhibitor), and N-benzyloxycarbony-Val-Ala-Asp(O-methyl)-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK; a caspase-1 inhibitor) reduced the levels of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production from THP-1 cells. This study suggests that N. fowleri infection induces the NLRP3 inflammasome, which activates caspase-1 and subsequently produces IL-1β, thus resulting in inflammation.

  3. Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 Cells Activate Expression of Immunomodulatory Genes in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    YANAGIHARA, Sae; GOTO, Hiroaki; HIROTA, Tatsuhiko; FUKUDA, Shinji; OHNO, Hiroshi; YAMAMOTO, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    To understand the immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 cells suggested from our previous study of in vivo anti-allergy and anti-virus effects, host immune responses in macrophage-like THP-1 cells after 4 h (the early phase) and 24 h (the late phase) of cocultivation with L-92 cells were investigated by transcriptome analysis. In the early phase of L-92 treatment, various transcription regulator genes, such as, NFkB1, NFkB2, JUN, HIVEP2 and RELB, and genes encoding chemokines and cytokines, such as CCL4, CXCL11, CCL3 and TNF, were upregulated. Two transmembrane receptor genes, TLR7 and ICAM1, were also upregulated in the early phase of treatment. In contrast, many transmembrane receptor genes, such as IL7R, CD80, CRLF2, CD86, CD5, HLA-DQA1, IL2RA, IL15RA and CSF2RA, and some cytokine genes, including IL6, IL23A and CCL22, were significantly upregulated in the late phase after L-92 exposure. Some genes encoding cytokines, such as IL1A, IL1B and IL8, and the enzyme IDO1 were upregulated at both the early and the late phases of treatment. These results suggest that probiotic L-92 might promote Th1 and regulatory T-cell responses by activation of the MAPK signaling pathway, followed by the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway in THP-1 cells. PMID:25379363

  4. The role of HSP27 in RACK1-mediated PKC activation in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Galbiati, Valentina; Papale, Angela; Kummer, Elena; Pinto, Antonella; Guaita, Antonio; Racchi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) pseudosubstrate is a commercially available peptide that directly activates protein kinase C-β (PKCβ). We have recently shown that RACK1 pseudosubstrate, alone or in combination with classical immune activators, results in increased cytokine production and CD86 upregulation in primary leukocytes. Furthermore, we demonstrated a role of PKCβ and RACK1 in chemical allergen-induced CD86 expression and IL-8 production in both THP-1 cells and primary human dendritic cells. Aim of this study was to shed light on the mechanisms underlying RACK1 pseudosubstrate-induced immune activation and to compare it to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 was used throughout the study. RACK1 pseudosubstrate induced rapid (5 min) and dose-related PKCβ activation as assessed by its membrane translocation. Among the proteins phosphorylated, we identified Hsp27. Both RACK1 pseudosubstrate and LPS induce its phosphorylation and release in culture medium. The release of Hsp27 induced by RACK1 pseudosubstrate was also confirmed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To evaluate the role of Hsp27 in RACK1 pseudosubstrate or LPS-induced cell activation, we conducted Hsp27 silencing and neutralization experiments. Both strategies confirmed the central role of Hsp27 in RACK1 pseudosubstrate or LPS-induced cell activation, as assessed by IL-8 production and upregulation of CD86. PMID:27178349

  5. Cobalt protoporphyrin induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells through regulation of cytoplasmic Ref-1-related NADPH oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Dong; Lee, Sang Kwon; Park, Si Eun; Kim, Kang Mi; Kim, Koanhoi; Park, Yeong Min; Park, Young Chul

    2011-11-01

    Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) is a potent and effective metalloporphyrin inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity in many tissues. Here, we report that CoPP induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. CoPP induced a marked growth inhibition with a slight reduction in viability, and increased adhesion and spreading of THP-1 cells. However, other protoporphyrins did not. CoPP also resulted in expression of CD11b, MMP9, MSR1, CD14 and ICAM-1, which are differentiation markers for macrophages. Interestingly, we observed a decrease of cytoplasmic redox factor-1 (Ref-1) levels in the process of CoPP-induced differentiation of THP-1 cells. In addition, knockdown of Ref-1 by siRNA enhanced cell adhesion induced by CoPP. Furthermore, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), completely abolished CoPP-induced adhesion of Ref-1-deficient cells using an siRNA. A cytosolic factor for NADPH oxidase activity, p47phox, was significantly increased in THP-1 cells by CoPP treatment. Κnockdown of Ref-1 increased CoPP-induced p47phox expression in THP-1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CoPP induces differentiation of monocytic THP-1 cells, and that the CoPP-induced differentiation is associated with cytoplasmic Ref-1-related NADPH oxidase activity.

  6. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Induce Macrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia THP-1 Cells via Caspase and p53 Activation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jia-Wei; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Chen, Shui-Tein; Wong, Chi-Huey; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation therapy by induction of tumor cells is an important method in the treatment of hematological cancers such as leukemia. Tumor cell differentiation ends cancer cells' immortality, thus stopping cell growth and proliferation. In our previous study, we found that fucose-containing polysaccharide fraction F3 extracted from Ganoderma lucidum can bring about cytokine secretion and cell death in human leukemia THP-1 cells. This prompted us to further investigate on how F3 induces the differentiation in human leukemia cells. We integrated time-course microarray analysis and network modeling to study the F3-induced effects on THP-1 cells. In addition, we determined the differentiation effect using Liu's staining, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, flow cytometer, western blotting and Q-PCR. We also examined the modulation and regulation by F3 during the differentiation process. Dynamic gene expression profiles showed that cell differentiation was induced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, F3-treated THP-1 cells exhibited enhanced macrophage differentiation, as demonstrated by changes in cell adherence, cell cycle arrest, NBT reduction and expression of differentiation markers including CD11b, CD14, CD68, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myeloperoxidase. In addition, caspase cleavage and p53 activation were found to be significantly enhanced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. We unraveled the role of caspases and p53 in F3-induced THP-1 cells differentiation into macrophages. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the differentiation effect of F3 on human leukemia THP-1 cells and offer a prospect for a potential leukemia differentiation therapy.

  7. Antigen activation of THP-1 human monocytic cells after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide from oral microorganisms and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Baqui, A A; Meiller, T F; Kelley, J I; Turng, B F; Falkler, W A

    1999-05-01

    A human THP-1 monocyte cell line culture system has been utilized to evaluate the morphological changes in THP-1 cells and to measure expression of activation antigens (CD-11b, CD-11c, CD-14, CD-35, CD-68, CD-71 and HLA-DR) as evidence of maturation of THP-1 cells in response to stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the oral microorganisms, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. THP-1 cells were stimulated with LPS (1 microgram/ml) of P. gingivalis or F. nucleatum for different time periods (1, 2, 4 and 7 d). Detection of different activation antigens on THP-1 cells was performed by indirect immunohistochemical staining followed by light microscopy. Confirmational studies were performed in parallel using indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy for detection of the corresponding activation antigens. Expression of different activation antigens by resting THP-1 cells revealed HLA-DR to be on 3% of the cells; CD-11b, 9%; CD-11c, 8%; CD-14, 22%; CD-35, 9% and CD-68, 7%. The CD-71 activation antigen was not expressed in untreated THP-1 cells. LPS stimulation increased expression of all activation antigens. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in expression of CD-11b, CD-11c, CD-14, CD-35, CD-68 and CD-71 was observed when GM-CSF (50 IU/ml) was supplemented during the treatment of THP-1 cells with LPS of F. nucleatum or P. gingivalis. Activation and differentiation of THP-1 cells by LPS from oral microorganisms in the presence of GM-CSF supports a role for human macrophages in acute and chronic periodontal diseases and may explain the clinically observable periodontal exacerbations in some patients after GM-CSF therapy.

  8. Anticancer activity of chemically prepared shrimp low molecular weight chitin evaluation with the human monocyte leukaemia cell line, THP-1.

    PubMed

    Salah, R; Michaud, P; Mati, F; Harrat, Z; Lounici, H; Abdi, N; Drouiche, N; Mameri, N

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, anticancer activities of chitin, chitosan and low molecular weight chitin were evaluated using a human tumour cell line, THP-1. A molecular weight-activity relationship and an electrostatic interaction-activity relationship were determined. The cytotoxic effects of chitin and derivatives were also evaluated using a normal human foetal lung fibroblastic cell line, MRC-5 and the specific cytotoxicity of chitin and derivatives to tumour cell lines was demonstrated. The high antitumour effect of low molecular weight of chitin was established.

  9. Puerarin Inhibits oxLDL-Induced Macrophage Activation and Foam Cell Formation in Human THP1 Macrophage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhai, Zhenhua; Zhou, Hongyu; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Yuhan; Li, Weihong; Shi, Yueping; Zhou, Ming-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Puerarin, an isoflavone derived from Kudzu roots, has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebral vascular diseases in China and other Asian countries. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether puerarin inhibited atherogenic lipid oxLDL-mediated macrophage activation and foam cell formation in human THP1 macrophage. Treatment with oxLDL significantly increased the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, 160%) and interleukin (IL) 1β (13 fold) accompanied by upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, 165%) and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα in THP1 macrophage. Puerarin dose-dependently prevented an increase in oxLDL-induced proinflammatory gene expression with downregulation of TLR4 and the ratio of phospho-IκBα/IκBα. Furthermore, puerarin prevented oxLDL-mediated lipid deposition and foam cell formation associated with downregulation of scavenger receptor CD36. Flow cytometry analysis showed that puerarin reduced the number of early apoptotic cells of macrophages induced by oxLDL. Our results show that puerarin has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in vitro; the underlying mechanisms may involve the inhibition of TLR4/NFκB pathway and downregulation of CD36 expression. The results from the present study provide scientific evidence and may expand our armamentarium to use puerarin for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:26576421

  10. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer’s disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1–42 (Aβ1−42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1−42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1−42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26853104

  11. Citrus bergamia Juice Extract Attenuates β-Amyloid-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Activation of THP-1 Cells Through MAPK and AP-1 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Currò, Monica; Risitano, Roberto; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Gangemi, Chiara; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been shown to be effective in protecting against age-related cognitive and motor decline in both in vitro and in vivo models. Recently, a flavonoid-rich extract of Citrus bergamia juice (BJe) has been shown to display anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties against LPS-induced activation of human THP-1 monocytes. In the light of these observations, we wondered whether BJe may be beneficial against neuroinflammatory processes, such as those observed in Alzheimer's disease. To this aim we used THP-1 monocytes to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial potential of BJe against amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ1-42) -mediated inflammation. Exposure of THP-1 cells to Aβ1-42 significantly induced the expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-1β in THP-1 cells and increased the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as p46 and p54 members of JNK family. Moreover, Aβ1-42 raises AP-1 DNA binding activity in THP-1-treated cells. Interestingly, all these effects were reduced in the presence of BJe. Our data indicate that BJe may effectively counteract the pro-inflammatory activation of monocytes/microglial cells exposed to amyloid fibrils, suggesting a promising role as a natural drug against neuroinflammatory processes.

  12. Early activation of MyD88-mediated autophagy sustains HSV-1 replication in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Siracusano, Gabriel; Venuti, Assunta; Lombardo, Daniele; Mastino, Antonio; Esclatine, Audrey; Sciortino, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that exerts numerous functions in vital biological processes. Among these, it contributes to both innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own advantage. By monitoring autophagic markers, we showed that HSV-1 transiently induced autophagosome formation during early times of the infection of monocytic THP-1 cells and human monocytes. Autophagy is induced in THP-1 cells by a mechanism independent of viral gene expression or viral DNA accumulation. We found that the MyD88 signaling pathway is required for HSV-1-mediated autophagy, and it is linked to the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by pharmacological modulators or siRNA knockdown impaired viral replication in both THP-1 cells and human monocytes, suggest that the virus exploits the autophagic machinery to its own benefit in these cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the early autophagic response induced by HSV-1 exerts a proviral role, improving viral production in a semi-permissive model such as THP-1 cells and human monocytes. PMID:27509841

  13. Infection of human THP-1 cells with dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Iona, Elisabetta; Pardini, Manuela; Gagliardi, Maria Cristina; Colone, Marisa; Stringaro, Anna Rita; Teloni, Raffaela; Brunori, Lara; Nisini, Roberto; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Giannoni, Federico

    2012-09-01

    Dormant, non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain cultured in hypoxic conditions was used to infect THP-1 cells. CFUs counting, Kinyoun staining and electron microscopy showed that dormant bacilli infected THP-1 cells at a rate similar to replicating M. tuberculosis, but failed to grow during the first 6 days of infection. The absence of growth was specific to the intracellular compartment, as demonstrated by efficient growth in liquid medium. Quantification of β-actin mRNA recovered from infected cells showed that, in contrast with log-phase bacteria, infection with dormant bacilli determined a reduced THP-1 cell death. Gene expression of intracellular non-replicating bacteria showed a pattern typical of a dormant state. Intracellular dormant bacteria induced the activation of genes associated to a proinflammatory response in THP-1 cells. Though, higher levels of TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs compared to aerobic H37Rv infected cells were not paralleled by increased cytokine accumulation in the supernatants. Moreover, dormant bacilli induced a higher expression of inducible cox-2 gene, accompanied by increased PGE2 secretion. Overall, our data describe a new model of in vitro infection using dormant M. tuberculosis that could provide the basis for understanding how non-replicating bacilli survive intracellularly and influence the maintenance of the hypoxic granuloma.

  14. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta is required for the differentiation of THP-1 monocytic cells by phorbol ester.

    PubMed

    Vosper, Helen; Khoudoli, Guennadi A; Palmer, Colin NA

    2003-12-11

    BACKGROUND: PPARdelta (NR1C2) promotes lipid accumulation in human macrophages in vitro and has been implicated in the response of macrophages to vLDL. We have investigated the role of PPARdelta in PMA-stimulated macrophage differentiation.The THP-1 monocytic cell line which displays macrophage like differentiation in response to phorbol esters was used as a model system. We manipulated the response to PMA using a potent synthetic agonist of PPARdelta, compound F. THP-1 sub-lines that either over-expressed PPARdelta protein, or expressed PPARdelta anti-sense RNA were generated. We then explored the effects of these genetic modulations on the differentiation process. RESULTS: The PPARdelta agonist, compound F, stimulated differentiation in the presence of sub-nanomolar concentrations of phorbol ester. Several markers of differentiation were induced by compound F in a synergistic fashion with phorbol ester, including CD68 and IL8. Over-expression of PPARdelta also sensitised THP-1 cells to phorbol ester and correspondingly, inhibition of PPARdelta by anti-sense RNA completely abolished this response. CONCLUSIONS: These data collectively demonstrate that PPARdelta plays a fundamental role in mediating a subset of cellular effects of phorbol ester and supports observations from mouse knockout models that PPARdelta is involved in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.

  15. Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and inflammatory cytokine production through β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Ming; Zhang, You-Yi; He, Bei

    2015-06-26

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is involved in regulating inflammation in several cell lines. We reported that fenoterol, a β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (β{sub 2}-AR) agonist, had anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, a monocytic cell line. Whether the fenoterol anti-inflammatory effect involves the AMPK pathway is unknown. In this study, we explored the mechanism of β{sub 2}-AR stimulation with fenoterol in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion in THP-1 cells. We studied whether fenoterol and β-arrestin-2 or AMPKα1 subunit knockdown could affect LPS-induced AMPK activation, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release were reduced with fenoterol pretreatment of THP-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of β-arrestin-2 abolished the fenoterol inhibition of LPS-induced AMPK activation and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) release, thus β-arrestin-2 mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of fenoterol on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. In addition, siRNA knockdown of AMPKα1 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β release, so AMPKα1 was a key signaling molecule involved in LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggested the β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol inhibited LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β release via β-arrestin-2 in THP-1 cells. The exploration of these mechanisms may help optimize therapeutic agents targeting these pathways in inflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • β{sub 2}-AR agonist fenoterol exerts its protective effect on LPS-treated THP-1 cells. • Fenoterol inhibits LPS-induced AMPK activation and IL-1β production. • β-arrestin2 mediates fenoterol-inhibited AMPK activation and IL-1β release. • AMPKα1 is involved in LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IL-1β production.

  16. Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, PPAR-alpha dependently inhibits LPS-induced tissue factor expression and activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Van Hoan Tran; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is involved not only in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, but is also associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis and hence may be an attractive target for directed cancer therapeutics. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, as well as cancers. Gypenoside (Gyp) XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is one of the prominent components in GP. We have recently reported Gyp XLIX to be a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator. Here we demonstrate that Gyp XLIX (0-300 {mu}M) concentration dependently inhibited TF promoter activity after induction by the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with promoter reporter constructs pTF-LUC. Furthermore, Gyp XLIX inhibited LPS-induced TF mRNA and protein overexpression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Its inhibition of LPS-induced TF hyperactivity was further confirmed by chromogenic enzyme activity assay. The activities of Gyp XLIX reported in this study were similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, the Gyp XLIX-induced inhibitory effect on TF luciferase activity was completely abolished in the presence of the PPAR-alpha selective antagonist MK-886. The present findings suggest that Gyp XLIX inhibits LPS-induced TF overexpression and enhancement of its activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells via PPAR-alpha-dependent pathways. The data provide new insights into the basis of the use of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine G. pentaphyllum for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancers.

  17. LPS-induced NF-{kappa}B expression in THP-1Blue cells correlates with neopterin production and activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Jenny, Marcel; Kurz, Katharina; Klein, Angela; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Uberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} LPS induces NF-{kappa}B, neopterin formation and tryptophan degradation in THP-1 cells. {yields} Close dose- and time-dependent correlations exist between these biochemical events. {yields} Data provides some evidence for a parallel induction of them upon TLR stimulation. {yields} Results can be of considerable relevance also in vivo. -- Abstract: Neopterin production is induced in human monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells upon stimulation with Th1-type cytokine interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}). In parallel, IFN-{gamma} induces the tryptophan-(trp)-degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and triggers the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Translocation of the signal transduction element nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is induced by ROS and accelerates the pro-inflammatory response by activation of other pro-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, a close relationship between NF-{kappa}B expression, the production of neopterin and the degradation of trp can be assumed, although this has not been demonstrated so far. In the present in vitro study we compared the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin formation and the degradation of trp in THP-1Blue cells, which represent the human myelomonocytic cell line THP-1 stably transfected with an NF-{kappa}B inducible reporter system. In cells stimulated with LPS, a significant induction of NF-{kappa}B was observed, and this was paralleled by an increase of kynureunine (kyn) and neopterin concentrations and a decline of trp. The increase of the kyn to trp quotient indicates accelerated IDO activity. Higher LPS concentrations and longer incubation of cells were associated with higher activities of all three biochemical pathways and significant correlations existed between NF-{kappa}B activation, neopterin release and trp degradation (all p < 0.001). We conclude that there is a parallel induction of NF-{kappa}B, neopterin

  18. Protein kinase C-alpha and -beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dieter, P; Schwende, H

    2000-05-01

    The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells are investigated. Inhibition of PKC by RO 31-8220 reduces the phagocytosis of latex particles and the release of superoxide, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The proliferation of THP-1 cells is slightly enhanced by RO 31-8220. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-alpha, and incubation of THP-1 cells with antisense (as) PKC-alpha oligodeoxynucleotides reduces PKC-alpha levels and PKC activity. asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis and a decreased release of superoxide, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. The proliferation of asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells is enhanced. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta, and incubation of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta oligodeoxynucleotides, reduces PKC-beta levels and PKC activity. asPKC-beta-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis, a decreased TNF-alpha release, and a decreased proliferation. However, no difference is measured in the release of superoxide and PGE(2). These results suggest that: (1) PKC-alpha but not PKC-beta is involved in the release of superoxide and PGE(2); (2) TNF-alpha release and the phagocytosis of latex particles are mediated by PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and other PKC isoenzymes; and (3) PKC-alpha and PKC-beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells. PKC-alpha promotes the differentiation process of THP-1 cells, PKC-beta retards the differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. PMID:10822170

  19. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dinesh C; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  20. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh C.; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  1. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  2. Autocrine motility factor receptor promotes the proliferation of human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YINGCHAO; MA, LINA; WANG, CHUNMEI; SHENG, GUANGYAO; FENG, LEI; YIN, CHUYUN

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant activation of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) has been implicated in several types of human cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of AMFR on the regulation of proliferation in an acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. THP-1 cells were transfected with AMFR-targeted small interfering (si)RNA and a plasmid encoding a truncated AMFR, AMFR-C, (pcDNA3.1-AMFR-C). The mRNA and protein levels of AMFR and the downstream targets, rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), cyclin D1, and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, were measured using reverse transcription-quantitatibe polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. The effects on cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The present study successfully established the knockdown of AMFR and expression of AMFR-C in the THP-1 cells. Downregulation of AMFR induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptosis of the THP-1 cells (all P<0.05). The AMFR siRNA increased the percentage of early apoptotic cells between 3.88±1.43 and 19.58±4.29% (P<0.05). The expression levels of ROCK2, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 were reduced by the downregulation of AMFR and enhanced by overexpression of AMFR-C. In conclusion, AMFR appears to be crucial for the proliferation of the THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia cell line. Therefore, AMFR may represent a potential target for the treatment of acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:26136223

  3. Capsaicin attenuates palmitate-induced expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 and interleukin 8 by increasing palmitate oxidation and reducing c-Jun activation in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung-E; Kim, Tae Ho; Yi, Sang-A; Hwang, Yun Cheong; Hwang, Won Sun; Choe, Sun Jung; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Kang, Yup; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2011-06-01

    Capsaicin, a spicy component of hot peppers, has been shown to improve inflammatory disease and obesity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory activity of capsaicin can be used to improve free fatty acid (FFA)-induced inflammation by reducing gene expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP-1) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell) macrophages. To investigate whether capsaicin ameliorates palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we treated THP-1 cells with palmitate in the presence or absence of capsaicin and measured MIP-1 and IL-8 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To elucidate the mechanism by which capsaicin effects on palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions, we performed immunoblotting with stress kinase-related antibodies and measured palmitate oxidation and palmitate oxidation-related gene expression. Palmitate and stearate but not the unsaturated FFA oleate significantly increased MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Treatment with capsaicin or FFA oxidation stimulators inhibited palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 expressions in THP-1 macrophages. Capsaicin increased the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and the β-oxidation of palmitate. Furthermore, capsaicin significantly reduced palmitate-stimulated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38. Our data suggest that the attenuation of palmitate-induced MIP-1 and IL-8 gene expressions by capsaicin is associated with reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38 and preserved β-oxidation activity.

  4. In vitro and in vivo studies of the antineoplastic activity of copper (II) compounds against human leukemia THP-1 and murine melanoma B16-F10 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Borges, Layla J H; Bull, Érika S; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Azeredo, Nathalia F; Resende, Jackson A L C; Freitas, William R; Carvalho, Eulógio C Q; Lemos, Luciana S; Jerdy, Hassan; Kanashiro, Milton M

    2016-11-10

    We investigated the antineoplastic activities of a previously reported copper (II) coordination compound, [Cu(BMPA)Cl2]CH3OH (1), and a new compound, [Cu(HBPA)Cl2]H2O (2), where BMPA is bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amine and HBPA is (2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, using various cellular models of human leukemia (THP-1, U937, HL60, Molt-4, JURKAT) and human colon cancer (COLO 205), as well as a murine highly metastatic melanoma (B16-F10) cell line. Compound (2) was characterized using several physical and chemical techniques, including X-ray diffraction studies. The IC50 values of the copper coordination complexes in the human leukemia cell lines ranged from 87.63 ± 1.02 to ≥400 μM at high cell concentrations and from 19.17 ± 1.06 to 97.67 ± 1.23 μM at low cell concentrations. Both compounds induced cell death, which was determined by cell cycle analyses and phosphatidylserine exposure studies. THP-1 cells released cytochrome c to the cytoplasm 12 h after treatment with 400 μM of compound (2). To evaluate the apoptosis pathway induced by compound (2), we measured the activities of initiator caspases 8 and 9 and executioner caspases 3 and 6. The results were suggestive of the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways. To investigate the activities of the compounds in vivo, we selected two sensitive cell lines from leukemia (THP-1) and solid tumor (B16-F10) lineages. BALB/c nude bearing THP-1 tumors treated with 12 mg·kg(-1) of compound (2) showed a 92.4% inhibition of tumor growth compared with the control group.

  5. Serum Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 in Patients Undergoing Carotid Artery Stenting and Regulation of MMP-9 in a New In Vitro Model of THP-1 Cells Activated by Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rongrong; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Cindy Si; Wang, Tianzhu; Feng, Jinzhou; Tao, Tao; Qin, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiological process after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Monocyte is a significant source of inflammatory cytokines in vascular remodeling. Telmisartan could reduce inflammation. In our study, we first found that, after CAS, the serum IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 levels were significantly increased, but only MMP-9 level was elevated no less than 3 months. Second, we established a new in vitro model, where THP-1 monocytes were treated with the supernatants of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were scratched by pipette tips, which mimics monocytes activated by mechanical injury of stenting. The treatment enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, migration and invasion ability, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 and MMP-9 expression were significantly increased. THP-1 cells pretreated with PD98095 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1 and upregulation of MMP-9, while pretreatment with telmisartan merely decreased the phosphorylation of Elk-1 and MMP-9 expression. These results suggested that IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and MMP-9 participate in the pathophysiological process after CAS. Our new in vitro model mimics monocytes activated by stenting. MMP-9 expression could be regulated through ERK1/2/Elk-1 pathway, and the protective effects of telmisartan after stenting are partly attributed to its MMP-9 inhibition effects via suppression of Elk-1. PMID:26113783

  6. SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Bonifati, Serena; Daly, Michele B; St Gelais, Corine; Kim, Sun Hee; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Shepard, Caitlin; Kennedy, Edward M; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek; Wu, Li

    2016-08-01

    SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 infection in non-dividing myeloid cells by decreasing intracellular dNTP pools. HIV-1 restriction by SAMHD1 in these cells likely prevents activation of antiviral immune responses and modulates viral pathogenesis, thus highlighting a critical role of SAMHD1 in HIV-1 physiopathology. Here, we explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout. We found that silencing of SAMHD1 in cycling cells stimulates cell proliferation, redistributes cell cycle population in the G1/G0 phase and reduces apoptosis. These alterations correlated with increased dNTP levels and more efficient HIV-1 infection in dividing SAMHD1 knockout cells relative to control. Our results suggest that SAMHD1, through its dNTPase activity, affects cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, and emphasize a key role of SAMHD1 in the interplay between cell cycle regulation and HIV-1 infection. PMID:27183329

  7. RNA Interference of Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 Gene Expression in THP-1 Cell Line Leads to Toll-Like Receptor-4 Overexpression/Activation As Well As Up-modulation of Annexin-II1

    PubMed Central

    Maratheftis, Christos I; Giannouli, Stavroula; Spachidou, Maria P; Panayotou, George; Voulgarelis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a candidate transcription factor for the regulation of the Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene. Using a small interfering RNA-based (siRNA) process to silence IRF-1 gene expression in the leukemic monocytic cell line THP-1, we investigated whether such a modulation would alter TLR-4 expression and activation status in these cells. The siIRF-1 cells expressed elevated levels of TLR-4 mRNA and protein compared to controls by 90% and 77%, respectively. ICAM.1 protein expression and apoptosis levels were increased by 8.35- and 4.25-fold, respectively. The siIRF-1 cells overexpressed Bax mRNA compared to controls. Proteomic analysis revealed upmodulation of the Annexin-II protein in siIRF-1 THP-1 cells. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with an absence of full-length IRF-1 mRNA also overexpressed Annexin-II. It is plausible that this overexpression may lead to the activation of TLR-4 contributing to the increased apoptosis characterizing MDS. PMID:18084608

  8. Positive Feedback Cycle of TNFα Promotes Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced THP-1 Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Shang, Weilong; Yuan, Jizhen; Hu, Zhen; Peng, Huagang; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Yinan; Li, Shu; Hu, Xiaomei; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been demonstrated to be of importance in Staphylococcus aureus related diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Dysregulated apoptosis in AD is remarkable, and SEB can induce apoptosis of various cell types. However, the mechanisms by which SEB induces apoptosis and influences disease processes remain unclear. In this study, the recombinant SEB-induced THP-1 monocyte apoptosis was demonstrated in the absence of preliminary cell activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. SEB could up-regulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in THP-1 cells and induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. TNFα could in turn increase the expression of HLA-DRa, the SEB receptor on the cell surface. As a result, a positive feedback cycle of TNFα was established. TNFα expression and SEB-induced apoptosis were decreased by knocking down the expression of either HLA-DRa or TNFR1. Therefore, the feedback cycle of TNFα is crucial for SEB functions. This work provides insights into the mechanisms of SEB-induced monocyte apoptosis and emphasizes the major role of TNFα in future related studies. PMID:27709104

  9. Protective effect of thioredoxin upon NO-mediated cell injury in THP1 monocytic human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ferret, P J; Soum, E; Negre, O; Wollman, E E; Fradelizi, D

    2000-01-01

    Although NO has been postulated to play important roles in host defences, it is potentially damaging for exposed cells, including for the macrophages producing the NO. Thus a network of radical acceptors and enzymes is thought to play an important redox-buffering role to protect cells against NO-mediated injury. We examined the properties of the redox systems superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase, glutathione (GSH) and thioredoxin (Trx), in regulating the viability of two human monocytic cell lines (THP1 and U937) exposed to the NO-generating compound diethylene triamine-nitric oxide (DETA-NO). We observed that NO-induced cytotoxic effects were time- and dose-dependent towards the two cell lines. After vitamin-induced differentiation in vitro with retinoic acid (RA) and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3) (VD), termed RA/VD, we observed that THP1 RA/VD cells became more resistant to NO-mediated cytotoxicity whereas the susceptibility of U937 cells was not modified. Using Western blotting and reverse-transcriptase PCR methods, we observed that gene transcription and protein expression of Trx and thioredoxin reductase were significantly increased upon RA/VD treatment and differentiation in THP1 cells. By contrast, SOD/catalase and GSH redox state remained unmodified. Finally, a stable transfectant THP1 line overexpressing Trx was found to be more resistant than THP1 control cells that were untransfected or transfected with an empty plasmid, when exposed to DETA-NO in vitro. In conclusion, we observed an inverse correlation between cell susceptibility to NO damaging effects and Trx expression, suggesting that the Trx system may have important preventative capacities towards NO-mediated cellular injury in monocytic macrophage cells. PMID:10698704

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 polarizes THP-1 cells into M2 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Crystal; Singla, Reetu; Singal, Pawan K; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Singla, Dinender K

    2012-07-01

    It was hypothesized that monocyte treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) would significantly enhance monocyte polarization into M2 macrophages as well as increasing the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In a cell culture system using monocytes (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1), we studied the effects of BMP7 on monocytes polarizing into M2 macrophages. The data demonstrate that THP-1 cells contain a BMP type II receptor (BMPR2), and that its activation is significantly (p < 0.05) increased following treatment with BMP7. Furthermore, there was an increase of M2 macrophages, BMPR2, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra compared with the respective controls. Moreover, treatment with BMP7 caused a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), compared with the controls. In conclusion, we suggest for the first time that BMP7 has a unique potential to polarize monocytes into M2 macrophages, required for tissue repair, which will have significant applications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:22720873

  11. SIRT1 inactivation induces inflammation through the dysregulation of autophagy in human THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kitada, Munehiro; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation decreases autophagy in THP-1 cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of autophagy induces inflammation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation induces inflammation through NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p62/Sqstm1 accumulation by impairment of autophagy is related to NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inactivation is involved in the activation of mTOR and decreased AMPK activation. -- Abstract: Inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Monocytes/macrophages are some of the cells involved in the inflammatory process in atherogenesis. Autophagy exerts a protective effect against cellular stresses like inflammation, and it is regulated by nutrient-sensing pathways. The nutrient-sensing pathway includes SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent histone deacetylase, which is implicated in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes including inflammation and autophagy. The mechanism through which the dysfunction of SIRT1 contributes to the regulation of inflammation in relation to autophagy in monocytes/macrophages is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that treatment with 2-[(2-Hydroxynaphthalen-1-ylmethylene)amino]-N-(1-phenethyl)benzamide (Sirtinol), a chemical inhibitor of SIRT1, induces the overexpression of inflammation-related genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6 through nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B signaling activation, which is associated with autophagy dysfunction, as shown through p62/Sqstm1 accumulation and decreased expression of light chain (LC) 3 II in THP-1 cells. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, also induces inflammation-related NF-{kappa}B activation. In p62/Sqstm1 knockdown cells, Sirtinol-induced inflammation through NF-{kappa}B activation is blocked. In addition, inhibition of SIRT1 is involved in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of individual and combined mycotoxins in the THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Solhaug, A; Karlsøen, L M; Holme, J A; Kristoffersen, A B; Eriksen, G S

    2016-10-01

    Mycotoxins commonly contaminate food and may pose a risk for disease in humans and animals. As they frequently co-occur, mixed exposures often take place. Monocyte function, including differentiation into active macrophages, is a central part of the immune response. Here we studied effects of naturally co-occurring mycotoxins in grain on monocyte function, and effects of individual and combined exposure on the differentiation process from monocytes into macrophages. The THP-1 cell line was used as a model system. The mycotoxins 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (AOD), alternariol (AOH), enniatin B (ENNB), deoxynivalenol (DON), sterigmatocystin (ST) and zearalenone (ZEA) differently affected cell viability in THP-1 monocytes, with DON as the most potent. AOH, ZEA and DON inhibited differentiation from monocytes into macrophages. Using this differentiation model, combined exposure of AOH, ZEA and DON were mainly found to be additive. However, the combination AOH+ZEA had somewhat synergistic effect at lower concentrations. Furthermore, alterations in macrophage functionality were found, as single exposure of AOH and ZEA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced TNF-α secretion, while DON increased this response. Overall, the mycotoxins affected monocyte viability and differentiation into macrophages differently. Combined exposures affected the differentiation process mainly additively. PMID:27453131

  13. Nicotinate-Curcumin Impedes Foam Cell Formation from THP-1 Cells through Restoring Autophagy Flux.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hong-Feng; Li, Hai-Zhe; Tang, Ya-Ling; Tang, Xiao-Qing; Zheng, Xi-Long; Liao, Duan-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that a novel curcumin derivate nicotinate-curcumin (NC) has beneficial effects on the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanisms are not fully understood. Given that autophagy regulates lipid metabolism, the present study was designed to investigate whether NC decreases foam cell formation through restoring autophagy flux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated THP-1 cells. Our results showed that ox-LDL (100 μg/ml) was accumulated in THP-1 cells and impaired autophagy flux. Ox-LDL-induced impairment of autophagy was enhanced by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) and rescued by the autophagy inducer rapamycin. The aggregation of ox-LDL was increased by CQ, but decreased by rapamycin. In addition, colocalization of lipid droplets with LC3-II was remarkably reduced in ox-LDL group. In contrast, NC (10 μM) rescued the impaired autophagy flux by significantly increasing level of LC3-II, the number of autophagolysosomes, and the degradation of p62 in ox-LDL-treated THP-1 cells. Inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling was required for NC-rescued autophagy flux. Notably, our results showed that NC remarkably promoted the colocalization of lipid droplets with autophagolysosomes, increased efflux of cholesterol, and reduced ox-LDL accumulation in THP-1 cells. However, treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or CQ reduced the protective effects of NC on lipid accumulation. Collectively, the findings suggest that NC decreases lipid accumulation in THP-1 cells through restoring autophagy flux, and further implicate that NC may be a potential therapeutic reagent to reverse atherosclerosis.

  14. Reactive oxygen species enhance TLR10 expression in the human monocytic cell line THP-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Kim, Yeon Ju; Koh, Hyun Sook; Jang, Tae Yang; Park, Hyo Eun; Kim, Jae Young

    2010-01-01

    We investigated TLR10 expression in human monocytes, THP-1 cells, cultured in hypoxia (3% O(2)). Levels of both TLR10 mRNA and protein in THP-1 cells cultured in hypoxia were significantly higher than those cultured in normoxia (20% O(2)). We examined intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in hypoxic cells, and TLR10 expression in cells treated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), to determine whether the increase in TLR10 expression observed with hypoxia was due to an increase in intracellular ROS levels. We found that the level of intracellular ROS in cells subject to hypoxia was significantly higher than in normoxia. Experiments with ROS synthesis inhibitors revealed that hypoxia induced ROS production is mainly due to NADPH oxidase activity. TLR10 mRNA expression was increased by treatment with H(2)O(2) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 μM. We screened the TLR10 promoter and found putative binding sites for transcription factors (TFs), such as NF-κB, NF-AT and AP-1. Next, we examined TF activities using a luciferase reporter assay. Activities of NF-κB, NF-AT and AP-1 in the cells treated with H(2)O(2) were significantly higher than in untreated cells. The experiment with TF inhibitors revealed that ROS-induced upregulation of TLR10 expression is mainly due to NF-κB activation. Overall, our results suggest that hypoxia or ROS increase TLR10 expression in human monocytes and the transcriptional activities of NF-κB are involved in this process. Therefore, it is suggested that ROS produced by various exogenous stimuli may play a crucial role in the regulation of expression and function of TLR10 as second messengers.

  15. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  16. Unequivocal identification of intracellular aluminium adjuvant in a monocytic THP-1 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Matthew; Eriksson, Håkan; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium-based adjuvants (ABA) are the predominant adjuvants used in human vaccinations. While a consensus is yet to be reached on the aetiology of the biological activities of ABA several studies have identified shape, crystallinity and size as critical factors affecting their adjuvanticity. In spite of recent advances, the fate of ABA following their administration remains unclear. Few if any studies have demonstrated the unequivocal presence of intracellular ABA. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the unequivocal identification of ABA within a monocytic T helper 1 (THP-1) cell line, using lumogallion as a fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium. Use of these new methods revealed that particulate ABA was only found in the cell cytoplasm. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ABA were contained within vesicle-like structures of approximately 0.5–1 μm in diameter. PMID:25190321

  17. [Anti-inflammatory activity of olive seed polyphenolic extract in the THP1-XBLUE-CD14 human monocytes cell line].

    PubMed

    Cortés Castell, Ernesto; Veciana Galindo, C; Torro Montell, L; Sirvent Segura, E; Rizo Baeza, M M; Gil Guillén, V

    2014-07-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de un extracto de naturaleza polifenólica de huesos de oliva. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se incubó la línea celular THP1- XBlue-CD14 (invivogen), 80.000 células/pocillo, provocando inflamación (activación de NF-kb) mediante 0.1 μg/ml LPS (lipopolisacárido de E. coli) durante 24 horas. Se evaluó la presencia del extracto (10 y 50 mg/l, concentraciones bioseguras) durante 2 horas a 37 ºC, previa (efecto preventivo) y posterior a la activación proinflamatoria (efecto terapéutico) y se cuantificó colorimétricamente la actividad de fosfatasa alcalina, que se expresa bajo el control del promotor del factor transcripcional de NF-kb. Se evalúa el % actividad de NF-kb en efecto preventivo y terapéutico respecto a cultivos control de células con LPS y sin extracto añadido, que se consideran 100% de NF-kb.

  18. Effects of Ferumoxides – Protamine Sulfate Labeling on Immunomodulatory Characteristics of Macrophage-like THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janic, Branislava; Iskander, A. S. M.; Rad, Ali M.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Arbab, Ali S.

    2008-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) complexed with cationic transfection agent is used to label various mammalian cells. Labeled cells can then be utilized as an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. However, certain number of in vivo administered labeled cells may be cleared from tissues by the host's macrophages. For successful translation to routine clinical application of SPIO labeling method it is important that this mode of in vivo clearance of iron does not elicit any diverse immunological effects. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that SPIO agent ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FePro) incorporation into macrophages does not alter immunological properties of these cells with regard to differentiation, chemotaxis, and ability to respond to the activation stimuli and to modulate T cell response. We used THP-1 cell line as a model for studying macrophage cell type. THP-1 cells were magnetically labeled with FePro, differentiated with 100 nM of phorbol ester, 12-Myristate-13-acetate (TPA) and stimulated with 100 ng/ml of LPS. The results showed 1) FePro labeling had no effect on the changes in morphology and expression of cell surface proteins associated with TPA induced differentiation; 2) FePro labeled cells responded to LPS with slightly higher levels of NFκB pathway activation, as shown by immunobloting; TNF-α secretion and cell surface expression levels of CD54 and CD83 activation markers, under these conditions, were still comparable to the levels observed in non-labeled cells; 3) FePro labeling exhibited differential, chemokine dependent, effect on THP-1 chemotaxis with a decrease in cell directional migration to MCP-1; 4) FePro labeling did not affect the ability of THP-1 cells to down-regulate T cell expression of CD4 and CD8 and to induce T cell proliferation. Our study demonstrated that intracellular incorporation of FePro complexes does not alter overall immunological properties of THP-1 cells. The described experiments provide

  19. Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL) induces phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages in THP-1 cells and human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Radha; Kumar, Natesh; Ballal, Suhas; Eligar, Sachin M; Anupama, S; Bhat, Ganapati; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Shastry, Padma

    2015-02-01

    We have previously reported that a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), stimulates proliferation and secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the present study, we evaluated the ability of RBL to differentiate human monocytes to macrophages. RBL induced morphological changes indicative of differentiation in primary monocytes and THP-1 cells. Stimulation with RBL resulted in significant up-regulation of differentiation markers - CD54, HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines - IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Functionally, RBL profoundly increased phagocytic activity in monocytes. In THP-1 cells, RBL-induced phagocytosis was higher compared to the effect induced by combination of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RBL induced a significant increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in comparison with a combined treatment of PMA+LPS. Mechanistic studies revealed the involvement of the NF-κB pathway in RBL-induced differentiation of monocytes. The data suggest that RBL mimics the combined action of PMA and LPS to induce morphological and functional differentiation in human monocytes and monocytic cell line - THP-1 to macrophages. Human monocytes differentiated to macrophages with RBL have the potential as an in vitro model to study macrophage biology. PMID:25555439

  20. Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL) induces phenotypic and functional characteristics of macrophages in THP-1 cells and human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Radha; Kumar, Natesh; Ballal, Suhas; Eligar, Sachin M; Anupama, S; Bhat, Ganapati; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R; Shastry, Padma

    2015-02-01

    We have previously reported that a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), stimulates proliferation and secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the present study, we evaluated the ability of RBL to differentiate human monocytes to macrophages. RBL induced morphological changes indicative of differentiation in primary monocytes and THP-1 cells. Stimulation with RBL resulted in significant up-regulation of differentiation markers - CD54, HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines - IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Functionally, RBL profoundly increased phagocytic activity in monocytes. In THP-1 cells, RBL-induced phagocytosis was higher compared to the effect induced by combination of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RBL induced a significant increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in comparison with a combined treatment of PMA+LPS. Mechanistic studies revealed the involvement of the NF-κB pathway in RBL-induced differentiation of monocytes. The data suggest that RBL mimics the combined action of PMA and LPS to induce morphological and functional differentiation in human monocytes and monocytic cell line - THP-1 to macrophages. Human monocytes differentiated to macrophages with RBL have the potential as an in vitro model to study macrophage biology.

  1. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Gatti, Rita; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  2. Gene expression profile of THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-De; Wei, Ting-Ting; Tang, Qing-Qin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Li-Li; Qin, Bao-Dong; Yin, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanisms under immune response against Candida albicans (C. albicans) remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms of innate immune response against C. albicans, we analyzed the gene expression profile of THP-1 cells stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans. Methods THP-1 cells were stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans for 9 hours at a ratio of 1:1, and gene expression profile of the cells was analyzed using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were defined as change folds more than 2 and with statistical significance. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were used to systematically identify biological connections of differentially expressed genes, as well as the pathways associated with the immune response against C. albicans. Results A total of 355 genes were up-regulated and 715 genes were down-regulated significantly. The up-regulated genes were particularly involved in biological process of RNA processing and pathway of the spliceosome. In case of down-regulated genes, the particularly involved immune-related pathways were G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and Ras pathway. Conclusions We depict the gene expression profile of heat-killed C. albicans stimulated THP-1 cells, and identify the major pathways involved in immune response against C. albicans. These pathways are potential candidate targets for developing anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:27275483

  3. IM-133N modulates cytokine secretion by RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, R Sandeep; Guruprasad, Kanive P; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, U Venkanna; Patki, S Pralhad

    2016-01-01

    An indigenous herbal extract IM-133N containing extracts of Prosopis glandulosa Torr and Symplocos racemosa Roxb were evaluated for potential immunomodulatory effects using RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The incubation of the cells for 24 h with IM-133N over a dose range 0-125 µg/ml did not cause cytotoxicity that exceeded 10%. The results indicated that non-cytotoxic doses of IM-133N effectively up-regulated iNOS, TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and IFNγ gene expression in both the RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells. The results also indicated IM-133N elicited dose-related increases in nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by RAW264.7 or THP-1 cells. These results demonstrated that IM-133N could stimulate NO and induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by monocytes/macrophages. As clinical studies have shown IM-133N to be an effective immunomodulator without any adverse effects, the results of the present study provide further support for the potential use of this agent as an immunostimulant or as an immunotherapy adjuvant.

  4. Orostachys japonicus Inhibits Expression of the TLR4, NOD2, iNOS, and COX-2 Genes in LPS-Stimulated Human PMA-Differentiated THP-1 Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hong-Jung; Kim, Youngchul

    2015-01-01

    Orostachys japonicus is traditionally used as an inflammatory agent. In this report, we investigated the effects of O. japonicus extract on the expression of genes encoding pathogen-recognition receptors (TLR2, TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2) and proinflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, and cytokines) in LPS-stimulated PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells and the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. O. japonicus induced toxicity at high concentrations but had no effect at concentrations lower than 25 μg/mL. O. japonicus inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA levels, suppressed LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 transcription and translocation, and downregulated LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) mRNA levels. In addition, O. japonicus inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and IκBα degradation and suppressed LPS-induced JNK, p38 MAPK, and ERK phosphorylation. Overall, our results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effects of O. japonicus are mediated by suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signaling, resulting in reduced TLR4, NOD2, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression. PMID:25810745

  5. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects of Fractions of Artemisia nilagirica on THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Gul, Mir Zahoor; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; K, Manjulatha; Bhat, Mohd Yasin; Maurya, Radheshyam; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    ABSTACT Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) is a widely used medicinal herb in Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. nilagirica extracts/fractions on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell line. The crude extracts (A. nilagirica ethyl acetate extract [ANE] and A. nilagirica methanolic extract [ANA]) showed cytotoxic activity toward THP-1 cells with the IC50 values of 38.21 ± 7.37 and 132.41 ± 7.19 µg/ml, respectively. However, the cytotoxic activity of active fractions (ANE-B and ANM-9) obtained after column chromatography was found to be much more pronounced than their parent extracts. The IC50 values of ANE-B and ANM-9 were found to be 27.04 ± 2.54 µg/ml and 12.70 ± 4.79 µg/ml, respectively, suggesting greater susceptibility of the malignant cells. Cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed that inhibition of cell growth by A. nilagirica fractions on THP-1 cells was mediated by apoptosis. Active fractions of A. nilagirica increased the expression levels of caspase-3, -7, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. These results suggested that active fractions of A. nilagirica may play a promising role in growth suppression by inducing apoptosis in human monocytic leukemic cells via mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:27618154

  6. A novel PPARα agonist propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide inhibits inflammation in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Yan, Lu; Luo, Xiu-Mei; Peng, Lu; Guo, Han; Jing, Zuo; Yang, Li-Chao; Hu, Rong; Wang, Xuan; Huang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qing; Jin, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Our group synthesized propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), a novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist. Because PPARα activation is associated with inflammation control, we hypothesize that N15 may have anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of N15 on the regulation of inflammation in THP-1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In particular, we assessed the production of chemokines, adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, three important types of cytokines that are released from monocytes and are involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The results showed that N15 remarkably reduced the mRNA expression of chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 or CCL2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). N15 also decreased the protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. The reduction in the expression of cytokine mRNAs observed following N15 treatment was abrogated in THP-1 cells treated with PPARα siRNA, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of N15 are dependent on PPARα activation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibition, which are dependent on PPARα activation, were also involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of N15. In conclusion, the novel PPARα agonist, N15, exerts notable anti-inflammatory effects, which are mediated via PPARα activation and TLR4/NF-κB and STAT3 inhibition, in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. In our study, N15 exhibits promise for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. A novel PPARα agonist propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide inhibits inflammation in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Yan, Lu; Luo, Xiu-Mei; Peng, Lu; Guo, Han; Jing, Zuo; Yang, Li-Chao; Hu, Rong; Wang, Xuan; Huang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qing; Jin, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Our group synthesized propane-2-sulfonic acid octadec-9-enyl-amide (N15), a novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonist. Because PPARα activation is associated with inflammation control, we hypothesize that N15 may have anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effect of N15 on the regulation of inflammation in THP-1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In particular, we assessed the production of chemokines, adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines, three important types of cytokines that are released from monocytes and are involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The results showed that N15 remarkably reduced the mRNA expression of chemokines, such as monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 or CCL2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10 or CXCL10), and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). N15 also decreased the protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9. The reduction in the expression of cytokine mRNAs observed following N15 treatment was abrogated in THP-1 cells treated with PPARα siRNA, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effects of N15 are dependent on PPARα activation. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibition, which are dependent on PPARα activation, were also involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of N15. In conclusion, the novel PPARα agonist, N15, exerts notable anti-inflammatory effects, which are mediated via PPARα activation and TLR4/NF-κB and STAT3 inhibition, in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. In our study, N15 exhibits promise for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27318324

  8. Leptin induces the phagocytosis and protective immune response in Leishmania donovani infected THP-1 cell line and human PBMCs.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Veronica, Jalaja; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease responsible for several deaths in malnourished children due to impaired cell-mediated immunity, which is accompanied by low circulating leptin levels. The cytokine function of leptin is implicated for several immune regulation activities such as hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, innate and adaptive immunity. Its deficiency associated with polarization of Th2 response, which coincides with VL pathogenesis. To determine the cytokine role of leptin in case of experimental VL, we tested the leptin associated Th1/Th2 type cytokine profile at mRNA level from Leishmania donovani infected human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested the effect of leptin on macrophages activation (viz. studying the phosphorylation of signaling moieties), phagocytic activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during infection. We observed that leptin induced Th1 specific response by upregulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α in THP-1 and IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-2 in PBMCs. We also observed the downregulation of Th2 type cytokine i.e. IL-10 in THP-1 and unaltered expression of cytokines i.e. TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-4 in PBMCs. In addition, leptin stimulates the macrophages by inducing phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt which are usually dephosphorylated in L. donovani infection. In concordance, leptin also induces the macrophage phagocytic activity by enhancing the intracellular ROS generation which helps in phagolysosome formation and oxidative killing of the parasite. In compilation, leptin is able to maintain the defensive environment against L. donovani infection through the classical macrophage activity.

  9. Vitamin D₃ metabolites enhance the NLRP3-dependent secretion of IL-1β from human THP-1 monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Tulk, Sarah E; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Muruve, Daniel A; Li, Yan; Beck, Paul L; MacDonald, Justin A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D3 has emerged as an important regulator of the immune system. With metabolic enzymes for vitamin D3 activation and vitamin D receptors (VDR) now identified in a variety of immune cells, the active vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3, is thought to possess immunomodulatory properties. We examined whether 1,25(OH)2D3 might also enhance the NLRP3-dependent release of mature IL-1β from macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were stimulated with vitamin D3 metabolites and assessed for CYP27, CYP24, NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 expression by western blot and real-time qPCR as well as inflammasome activation with pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β release measured by ELISA. Exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on the basal expression levels of VDR; however, CYP27A1 transcript was suppressed and CYP24A1 transcript was substantively elevated. Both 1,25(OH)2D3 - and 25(OH)D3 induced IL-1β release from THP-1 cells, and these effects were blocked with application of the caspase-1 inhibitor YVAD and the NLRP3 inhibitors glyburide and Bay 11-7082. Interestingly, 1,25 (OH)2D3 exposure reduced NLRP3 protein expression but had no effect on ASC or pro-caspase-1 protein levels. The increase in mature IL-1β elicited by 1,25(OH)2D3 was modest compared to that found for ATP or C. difficile toxins. However, co-treatment of THP-1 cells with ATP and 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in more IL-1β secretion than ATP or 1,25(OH)2D3 alone. PMID:25639477

  10. Vitamin D₃ metabolites enhance the NLRP3-dependent secretion of IL-1β from human THP-1 monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Tulk, Sarah E; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Muruve, Daniel A; Li, Yan; Beck, Paul L; MacDonald, Justin A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D3 has emerged as an important regulator of the immune system. With metabolic enzymes for vitamin D3 activation and vitamin D receptors (VDR) now identified in a variety of immune cells, the active vitamin D3 metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3, is thought to possess immunomodulatory properties. We examined whether 1,25(OH)2D3 might also enhance the NLRP3-dependent release of mature IL-1β from macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were stimulated with vitamin D3 metabolites and assessed for CYP27, CYP24, NLRP3, ASC, pro-caspase-1 expression by western blot and real-time qPCR as well as inflammasome activation with pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β release measured by ELISA. Exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3 had no effect on the basal expression levels of VDR; however, CYP27A1 transcript was suppressed and CYP24A1 transcript was substantively elevated. Both 1,25(OH)2D3 - and 25(OH)D3 induced IL-1β release from THP-1 cells, and these effects were blocked with application of the caspase-1 inhibitor YVAD and the NLRP3 inhibitors glyburide and Bay 11-7082. Interestingly, 1,25 (OH)2D3 exposure reduced NLRP3 protein expression but had no effect on ASC or pro-caspase-1 protein levels. The increase in mature IL-1β elicited by 1,25(OH)2D3 was modest compared to that found for ATP or C. difficile toxins. However, co-treatment of THP-1 cells with ATP and 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in more IL-1β secretion than ATP or 1,25(OH)2D3 alone.

  11. Optimization of the THP-1 activation assay to detect pharmaceuticals with potential to cause immune mediated drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Corti, Daniele; Galbiati, Valentina; Gatti, Nicolò; Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Corsini, Emanuela

    2015-10-01

    Despite important impacts of systemic hypersensitivity induced by pharmaceuticals, for such endpoint no reliable preclinical approaches are available. We previously established an in vitro test to identify contact and respiratory allergens based on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in THP-1 cells. Here, we challenged it for identification of pharmaceuticals associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions, with the idea that drug sensitizers share common mechanisms of cell activation. Cells were exposed to drugs associated with systemic hypersensitivity reactions (streptozotocin, sulfamethoxazole, neomycin, probenecid, clonidine, procainamide, ofloxacin, methyl salicylate), while metformin was used as negative drug. Differently to chemicals, drugs tested were well tolerated, except clonidine and probenecid, with no signs of cytotoxicity up to 1-2mg/ml. THP-1 activation assay was adjusted, and conditions, that allow identification of all sensitizing drugs tested, were established. Next, using streptozotocin and selective inhibitors of PKC-β and p38 MAPK, two pathways involved in chemical allergen-induced cell activation, we tested the hypothesis that similar pathways were also involved in drug-induced IL-8 production and CD86 upregulation. Results indicated that drugs and chemical allergens share similar activation pathways. Finally, we made a structure-activity hypothesis related to hypersensitivity reactions, trying to individuate structural requisite that can be involved in immune mediated adverse reactions. PMID:26028146

  12. C1q binding to dengue virus decreases levels of infection and inflammatory molecules transcription in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Douradinha, Bruno; McBurney, Sean P; Soares de Melo, Klecia M; Smith, Amanda P; Krishna, Neel K; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M; Evans, Jared D; Nascimento, Eduardo J M; Marques, Ernesto T A

    2014-01-22

    Dengue virus infection elicits a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic to severe disease. The mechanisms leading to severe dengue are not known, however it has been reported that the complement system is hyper-activated in severe dengue. Screening of complement proteins demonstrated that C1q, a pattern recognition molecule, can bind directly to dengue virus envelope protein and to whole dengue virus serotype 2. Incubation of dengue virus serotype 2 with C1q prior to infection of THP-1 cells led to decreased virus infectivity and modulation of mRNA expression of immunoregulatory molecules suggesting reduced inflammatory responses.

  13. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 contributes to survival of Mycobacterium abscessus in human macrophages-like THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Maher Y.; Ahmad, Iman M.; Switzer, Barbara; Britigan, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abs) is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species that infects macrophages, and is an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. We studied the early stages of M.abs infection of macrophages, with emphasis on the role of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in this infection. THP-1 cells were activated using TPA into macrophage-like cells and infected with M.abs for different time points. M.abs infection robustly induced HO-1 expression in the THP-1 cells. Production of HO-1 was p38 MAPK-dependent, as p38 inhibitors suppressed HO-1 induction. Pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitors tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP) significantly inhibited M.abs growth inside macrophages. Furthermore, inhibiting HO-1 using HO-1 siRNA or the HO-1 upstream signaling molecule; Nrf2 using Nrf2 siRNA resulted in similar inhibition of M.abs. In contrast, inducing HO-1 did not increase M.abs intracellular growth above control. Products of HO-1 metabolism of heme are bilirubin, biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO) and iron. The addition of either bilirubin or biliverdin, but not CO, completely restored the SnPP inhibitory effect and partially that with HO-1 siRNA. To understand the mechanisms, we used Syto-62 labeled M.abs to infect macrophages. Interestingly, HO-1 inhibition promoted M.abs-containing phagosome fusion with lysosomes, which should enhance M.abs killing. M.abs infection enhanced THP-1 ROS production as demonstrated by increased DHE, DCF fluorescence, and EPR signal. HO-1 inhibition further increased ROS production in infected macrophages. Our results indicate that HO-1 induction is important for M.abs growth during the early stages of infection, and that the HO-1 products bilirubin and biliverdin, perhaps through modulation of intracellular ROS levels, may be involved. PMID:25638774

  14. Scavenger receptor of human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and murine macrophages for nonenzymatically glycosylated proteins.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Horiuchi, S; Araki, N; Shiga, M; Saitoh, M; Morino, Y

    1989-11-17

    Long-term incubation of proteins with glucose undergo a series of nonenzymatic reactions to form advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) with fluorescence and brown color. The receptor for AGE-proteins was demonstrated in murine macrophages (Vlassara et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82. 5588). Our recent study with rat macrophages revealed that the receptor also recognized proteins modified with aliphatic aldehydes such as formaldehyde or glycolaldehyde, indicating its close identity to a scavenger receptor for aldehyde-modified proteins (Takata, K. et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263. 14819). This notion was tested in the present study with human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1 cells), human monocyte macrophages and murine peritoneal macrophages. Endocytic uptake of AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins was inhibited in a cross-competitive fashion. The receptor activities of THP-1 cells for AGE-albumin and aldehyde-modified proteins were induced synchronously by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Furthermore, upon reduction by NaBH4 of the Schiff base formed between proteins and glucose or aldehydes, no ligand activity was generated. However, once the ligand activity was generated, NaBH4 was no longer effective for the ligand activity. Thus, a structure in common between AGE-proteins and aldehyde-modified proteins may be crucial for recognition by the human macrophage receptor.

  15. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, Katrin; Ott, Hagen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F.; Baron, Jens Malte

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides – which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions – were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte‐derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. -- Highlights: ► We tested the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs in vitro. ► In vitro assays were performed with moDCs and THP-1 cells. ► Beta-lactam antibiotics can be recognized as sensitizing compounds. ► They affect the expression of metabolic enzymes, cytokines and transcription factors. ► Sulfamethoxazole has no measurable effect on THP-1 cells and moDCs.

  16. Prolactin modulates cytokine production induced by culture filtrate proteins of M. bovis through different signaling mechanisms in THP1 cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Neri, Priscila A; López-Rincón, Gonzalo; Mancilla-Jiménez, Raúl; del Toro-Arreola, Susana; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Bueno-Topete, Miriam Ruth; Estrada-Chávez, Ciro; Pereira-Suárez, Ana Laura

    2015-01-01

    The immunomodulatory functions of prolactin (PRL) are well recognized. Augmented PRL plasma levels were observed in patients with advanced tuberculosis (TB). Recently, we have reported that LPS and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) induced differential expression of PRL receptor (PRLR) isoforms in THP-1 cells and bovine macrophages, respectively. The aim of this work was to determine whether PRL should be considered as a potential modulator of the signaling pathways and cytokine synthesis, induced by culture filtrate protein (CFP) from M. bovis in THP-1 monocytes. The THP-1 cells were stimulated with PRL (20ng/mL), M. bovis CFP (50μg/mL). PRLR as well as phosphorylated STAT3, STAT5, Akt1/2/3, ERK1/2 and p38 expression were evaluated by Western blot. IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-8, and IL-10 concentrations were measured by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the expression pattern of PRLR short isoforms is induced by M. bovis CFP. M bovis CFP induced phosphorylation of Akt2, ERK1/2, p38, STAT3, and STAT5 pathways. In turn, PRL only activated the JAK2/STAT3-5 signaling pathway. However, when combined both stimuli, PRL significantly increased STAT3-5 phosphorylation and downregulated Akt2, ERK1/2, and p38 phosphorylation. As expected, M. bovis CFP induced substantial amounts of IL1-β, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12, and IL-10. However, the PRL costimulation considerably decreased IL1-β, TNF-α, and IL-12 secretion, and increased IL-10 production. This results suggest that up-regulation of IL-10 by PRL might be modulating the pro-inflammatory response against mycobacterial antigens through the MAPK pathway.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor 21 enhances cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Yu, Xuejing; Wang, Honglian; Chen, Tielin; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xianggui; Zhou, Puhui; Nie, Fang; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) A1 and G1 in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of the liver X receptor (LXR) α in this process. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cells from human THP-1 cells was established. The effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux was analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. FGF21 was found to enhance apolipoprotein A1- and high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. FGF21 was also observed to increase the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Furthermore, LXRα-short interfering RNA attenuated the stimulatory effects induced by FGF21. These findings suggest that FGF21 may have a protective effect against atherosclerosis by enhancing cholesterol efflux through the induction of LXRα-dependent ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor 21 enhances cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei; Yu, Xuejing; Wang, Honglian; Chen, Tielin; Fang, Ying; Yang, Xianggui; Zhou, Puhui; Nie, Fang; Zhou, Qin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux and the expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) A1 and G1 in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Furthermore, the present study aimed to investigate the role of the liver X receptor (LXR) α in this process. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cells from human THP-1 cells was established. The effect of FGF21 on cholesterol efflux was analyzed using a liquid scintillation counter. The expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. FGF21 was found to enhance apolipoprotein A1- and high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. FGF21 was also observed to increase the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Furthermore, LXRα-short interfering RNA attenuated the stimulatory effects induced by FGF21. These findings suggest that FGF21 may have a protective effect against atherosclerosis by enhancing cholesterol efflux through the induction of LXRα-dependent ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. PMID:25334019

  19. Virulent Mycobacterium bovis Beijing Strain Activates the NLRP7 Inflammasome in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Yang, Lifeng; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in a wide range of mammals, including humans. Macrophages are the first line of host defense. They secrete proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), in response to mycobacterial infection, but the underlying mechanisms by which human macrophages are activated and release IL-1β following M. bovis infection are poorly understood. Here we show that the ‘nucleotide binding and oligomerization of domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 7 protein’ (NLRP7) inflammasome is involved in IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation induced by M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages. NLRP7 inflammasome activation promotes the induction of pyroptosis as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and IL-1β mRNAs. Thus, the NLRP7 inflammasome contributes to IL-1β secretion and induction of pyroptosis in response to M. bovis infection in THP-1 macrophages. PMID:27043315

  20. Evaluation of the sensitizing potential of antibiotics in vitro using the human cell lines THP-1 and MUTZ-LC and primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Katrin; Ott, Hagen; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, Gabriele; Skazik-Voogt, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Merk, Hans F; Baron, Jens Malte

    2012-08-01

    Since the 7th amendment to the EU cosmetics directive foresees a complete ban on animal testing, alternative in vitro methods have been established to evaluate the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight compounds. To find out whether these novel in vitro assays are also capable to predict the sensitizing potential of small molecular weight drugs, model compounds such as beta-lactams and sulfonamides - which are the most frequent cause of adverse drug reactions - were co-incubated with THP-1, MUTZ-LC, or primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells for 48 h and subsequent expression of selected marker genes (IL-8, IL-1β, CES1, NQO1, GCLM, PIR and TRIM16) was studied by real time PCR. Benzylpenicillin and phenoxymethylpenicillin were recognized as sensitizing compounds because they are capable to induce the mRNA expression of these genes in moDCs and, except for IL-8, in THP-1 cells but not in MUTZ-LC. Ampicillin stimulated the expression of some marker genes in moDCs and THP-1 cells. SMX did not affect the expression of these genes in THP-1, however, in moDCs, at least PIR was enhanced and there was an increase of the release of IL-8. These data reveal that novel in vitro DC based assays might play a role in the evaluation of the allergenic potential of novel drug compounds, but these systems seem to lack the ability to detect the sensitizing potential of prohaptens that require metabolic activation prior to sensitization and moDCs seem to be superior with regard to the sensitivity compared with THP-1 and MUTZ-3 cell lines. PMID:22609641

  1. The role of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in immune tolerance: focus on macrophage polarization of THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Feng; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Ke-Fang; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Ge; Cai, Shao-Hui; Du, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages can be divided into two groups as M1 and M2 phenotype. Our results and other groups revealed that IFN-γ can up-regulate the IDO expression and differentiate THP-1 cells to M1 phenotype. Therefore we hypothesized that IDO may play potential roles in macrophage differentiation. Interesting, our results indicated that the ectopic IDO increases the expression of M2 markers such as IL-10 and CXCR4 while decreases the M1 markers such as CCR7 and IL-12p35. In contrast, the knockdown of IDO expression in THP-1 cells resulted in increased M1 markers and lower M2 markers. Our results suggested that the expression intensity of IDO modulates macrophages differentiation. These finding support the counter-regulatory role for IDO with regarding to the polarization of macrophages to restrain excessive or inappropriate immune activation in inflammatory or tumor microenvironment. It throws new light on the mechanisms about the immunosuppressive effect of IDO in tumor or inflammatory diseases.

  2. Royal Jelly Constituents Increase the Expression of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase through Histone Acetylation in Monocytic THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Makino, Junya; Ogasawara, Rie; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Mitsugi, Yukari; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Itoh, Akichika; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-22

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is one of the main SOD isozymes and plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases by accelerating the dismutation reaction of superoxide. Royal jelly includes 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA, 2), which regulates the expression of various types of genes in epigenetics through the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) antagonism. The expression of EC-SOD was previously reported to be regulated epigenetically through histone acetylation in THP-1 cells. Therefore, we herein evaluated the effects of the royal jelly constituents 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDA, 1), sebacic acid (SA, 3), and 4-hydroperoxy-2-decenoic acid ethyl ester (4-HPO-DAEE, 4), which is a derivative of 2, on the expression of EC-SOD in THP-1 cells. The treatment with 1 mM 1, 2, or 3 or 100 μM 4 increased EC-SOD expression and histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Moreover, the enrichment of acetylated histone H4 was observed in the proximal promoter region of EC-SOD and was caused by the partial promotion of ERK phosphorylation (only 4) and inhibition of HDAC activities, but not by the expression of HDACs. Overall, 4 exerted stronger effects than 1, 2, or 3 and has potential as a candidate or lead compound against atherosclerosis.

  3. Phospholipidomic Profile Variation on THP-1 Cells Exposed to Skin or Respiratory Sensitizers and Respiratory Irritant.

    PubMed

    Martins, João D; Maciel, Elisabete A; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Ricardo, Fernando; Domingues, Pedro; Neves, Bruno M; Domingues, Maria Rosário M; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2016-12-01

    Occupational exposure to low molecular weight reactive chemicals often leads to development of allergic reactions such as allergic contact dermatitis and respiratory allergies. Further insights into the interaction of these chemicals with physiopathological relevant cellular models might provide the foundations for novel non-animal approaches to safety assessment. In this work we used the human THP-1 cell line to determine phospholipidome changes induced by the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), and the irritant methyl salicylate (MESA). We detected that these chemicals differently induce lipid peroxidation and modulate THP-1 IL-1β, IL-12B, IL-8, CD86, and HMOX1 transcription. Decreased phosphatidylethanolamine content was detected in cells exposed to MESA, while profound alterations in the relative abundance of cardiolipin species were observed in cells exposed to DNFB. All chemicals tested induced a decrease in the relative abundance of plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine species PC (O-16:0e/18:1) and phosphatidylinositol species PI (34:1), while increasing PI (38:4). An increased abundance of oleic acid was observed in the phospholipids of cells exposed to DNFB while a decreased abundance of palmitic acid was detected in cells treated with MESA or DNFB. We conclude that both specific and common alterations at phospholipidome levels are triggered by the different chemicals, while not allowing a complete distinction between them using a Canonical Analysis of Principal Coordinates (CAP). The common effects observed at phospholipids level with all the chemicals tested might be related to unspecific cell cytotoxic mechanisms that nevertheless may contribute to the elicitation of specific immune responses. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2639-2651, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946329

  4. Observation of phagocytosis of fullerene nanowhiskers by PMA-treated THP-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudejima, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Okuda-Shimazaki, J.; Taniguchi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells (macrophage-like cells) were exposed to the C60 fullerene nanowhiskers (C60 NWs) with an average length of about 6.0 μm and an average diameter of about 660 run and observed with an inverted optical phase-contrast microscope for 48 h. The C60 NWs were well and stably dispersed onto the dishes of culture medium during the observation. The number of cells that internalised C60 NWs gradually increased after the exposure to C60 NWs. But no alteration of cellular morphology was observed compared to the control group without exposure to C60 NWs during this period in this pilot study.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Chikusetsusaponin IVa on lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Qi, J; Li, L; Wu, T; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Ning, Q

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of Chikusetsusaponin IVa (Chi IVa), one of the main bioactive components in saponins from Panacis japonica (SPJ), which is used in traditional Tujia and Hmong Chinese medicine. To this end, changes in the inflammatory profiles of lipopolysacchride (LPS)-stimulated phrobol 12-myristate 13-acetate(PMA)-differented THP-1 macrophages were evaluated following Chi IVa treatment. The results showed that Chi IVa markedly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both the mRNA and protein level, which proved to be dose-dependent. Further studies revealed that Chi IVa strongly suppressed NF-κB activation and downregulated the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK. Our present study demonstrates that Chi IVa suppresses the production of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells likely by inhibiting NF-κB activation and ERK, JNK, and p38 signal pathway phosphorylation.

  6. Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived superantigen induces proinflammatory monokine gene expression in the THP-1 human monocytic cell line.

    PubMed Central

    al-Daccak, R; Mehindate, K; Hébert, J; Rink, L; Mecheri, S; Mourad, W

    1994-01-01

    Soluble factors produced by Mycoplasma arthritidis play an important role in the pathology of arthritis in rodents, which closely resembles human rheumatoid arthritis. At least one of the products of these microorganisms, M. arthritidis-T cell mitogen (MAM), has biological activities in common with superantigens. These superantigens activate T cells in a V beta-restricted fashion, and this response is strictly dependent on the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-positive cells. In the present study, we have examined the ability of MAM to induce proinflammatory monokine (interleukin 1 beta [IL-1 beta] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha]) gene expression in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. Treatment of these cells (which express a very low level of HLA-DR molecules) with gamma interferon (INF-gamma) induced HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP molecules and enabled them to respond to MAM in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in an increase in the level of steady-state mRNA for IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. Stimulation of the U937 monocytic cell line (MHC class II-negative even after INF-gamma treatment) with MAM did not induce either IL-1 beta or TNF-alpha transcription. Moreover, MAM adsorption on Raji (MHC class II-positive) cells resulted in the loss of its cytokine-inducing activity to induce monokine gene expression. These findings demonstrate clearly that MAM induces monokine gene expression following interaction with MHC class II molecules. Pretreatment of INF-gamma-treated THP-1 cells with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D prevented the induction of monokine mRNA, whereas cycloheximide superinduced mRNA after stimulation with MAM. Finally, our results, obtained with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antiphosphotyrosine Western blotting (immunoblotting), indicate that protein tyrosine kinase is involved in MAM-induced IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha gene expression in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The capacity of MAM to induce proinflammatory

  7. Toxicity of nickel ions and comprehensive analysis of nickel ion-associated gene expression profiles in THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YING; ZHANG, ZHI-WEI; XIE, YU-MEI; WANG, SHU-SHUI; QIU, QING-HUAN; ZHOU, YING-LING; ZENG, GUO-HONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of nickel ions during therapeutic nickel-based alloy-treatment in congenital heart disease by investigating the metal-induced cytotoxicity to the human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line THP-1. THP-1 cells were treated with NiCl2·6H2O (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT was applied to detect THP-1 cell proliferation following NiCl2 treatment. Apoptosis of THP-1 cells was quantified using flow cytometry. Illumina sequencing was used for screening the associated genes, whose mRNA expression levels were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. High concentrations of nickel ions had a significant suppressive effect on cell proliferation at the three concentrations investigated (200, 400 and 800 µM). Treatment with nickel ions (25–400 µM) for 48 h reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of RELB, FIGF, SPI-1, CXCL16 and CRLF2 were significantly increased following nickel treatment. The results of the present study suggested that nickel ions exert toxic effects on THP-1 cell growth, which may indicate toxicity of the nickel ion during treatment of congenital heart disease. The identification of genes modified by the toxic effects of nickel on THP-1 cells (EPOR, RELB, FIGF, SPI-1, TGF-β1, CXCL16 and CRLF2) may aid in the development of interventional measures for the treatment/prevention of nickel ion-associated toxic effects during the treatment of congenital heart disease. PMID:26044615

  8. Fumaric acid esters prevent the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated and ATP-triggered pyroptosis of differentiated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Gianluca; Veglia, Eleonora; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) exert therapeutic effects in patients with psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, however their mode of action remains elusive. Pyroptosis is a caspase-1-dependent pro-inflammatory form of programmed cell death, mediated by the activation of inflammasomes. To understand the pharmacological basis of the therapeutic effects of FAEs, the anti-pyroptotic activity of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its hydrolysis metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) was studied in a model of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis of human macrophages. Phorbol myristate acetate-differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (5 μg/ml; 4h), then pulsed with ATP (5mM; 1h). MMF, DMF, or parthenolide (positive control) were added 1h before the ATP pulse. The pyroptotic cell death was evaluated by morphological examination and quantified by measuring the lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The ATP-triggered death of THP-1 cells (60.4 ± 4.0%) was significantly (P<0.01) prevented by DMF, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner (pIC50 and maximal effect were 6.6 and 67.6 ± 1.2%, respectively). MMF was less efficacious than DMF. These effects were accompanied by a decreased intracellular activation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β release from ATP-treated cells, thus suggesting that FAEs antagonise the effects of ATP by preventing the activation of the pyroptotic molecular cascade leading to cell death. These results indicate that FAEs are endowed with anti-pyroptotic activity, which may contribute to their therapeutic effects. PMID:26096886

  9. Role of protein haptenation in triggering maturation events in the dendritic cell surrogate cell line THP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Megherbi, Rym; Kiorpelidou, Evanthia; Foster, Brian; Rowe, Cliff; Naisbitt, Dean J.; Goldring, Christopher E.; Park, B. Kevin

    2009-07-15

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation in response to contact sensitizers is a crucial step in the induction of sensitization reactions; however the underlying mechanism of activation remains unknown. To test whether the extent of protein haptenation is a determinant in DC maturation, we tested the effect of five dinitrophenyl (DNP) analogues of different reactivity, on maturation markers in the cell line, THP-1. The potencies of the test compounds in upregulating CD54 levels, inducing IL-8 release and triggering p38 MAPK phosphorylation did not correlate with their ability to deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels or cause cell toxicity. However, the compounds' potency at inducing p38 phosphorylation was significantly associated with the amount of intracellular protein adducts formed (p < 0.05). Inhibition experiments show that, at least for DNFB, p38 MAP kinase signalling controls compound-specific changes in CD54 expression and IL-8 release. 2D-PAGE analysis revealed that all the DNP analogues appeared to bind similar proteins. The analogues failed to activate NFkB, however, they activated Nrf2, which was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Neither GSH depletion, by use of buthionine sulfoximine, nor treatment with the strongly lysine-reactive hapten penicillin elicited maturation. We conclude that protein haptenation, probably through reactive cysteine residues may be a trigger for maturation events in this in vitro model and that p38 activation may be a discriminatory marker for the classification of potency of chemical sensitizers.

  10. Curcumin enhanced cholesterol efflux by upregulating ABCA1 expression through AMPK-SIRT1-LXRα signaling in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-long; Liu, Mi-Hua; Hu, Hui-Jun; Feng, Hong-ru; Fan, Xiao-Juan; Zou, Wei-wen; Pan, Yong-quan; Hu, Xue-mei; Wang, Zuo

    2015-09-01

    Curcumin, a traditional Chinese derivative from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is beneficial to health by modulating lipid metabolism and suppressing atherogenesis. A key part of atherosclerosis is the failure of macrophages to restore their cellular cholesterol homeostasis and the formation of foam cells. In this study, results showed that curcumin dramatically increased the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), promoted cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and reduced cellular cholesterol levels. Curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1, and then activated LXRα in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Inhibiting AMPK/SIRT1 activity by its specific inhibitor or by small interfering RNA could inhibit LXRα activation and abolish curcumin-induced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. Thus, curcumin enhanced cholesterol efflux by upregulating ABCA1 expression through activating AMPK-SIRT1-LXRα signaling in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. This study describes a possible mechanism for understanding the antiatherogenic effects of curcumin on attenuating the progression of atherosclerosis.

  11. Catalase potentiates retinoic acid-induced THP-1 monocyte differentiation into macrophage through inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Ding, Qiurong; Jin, Ting; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yan

    2007-06-01

    Macrophage differentiation plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases and many other physiological processes. However, the role of reaction oxygen species in macrophage differentiation has not been elucidated. Here, we report functional characterization of catalase, an enzyme that degrades hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), in THP-1 monocyte differentiation. Treatment of THP-1 cells with catalase was able to synergize with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to enhance macrophage differentiation, demonstrated by changes of cell adherence, cell cycle arrest, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, and expression of differentiation markers including CD68, CD11b, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). ATRA could stimulate retinoic acid (RA) receptor-mediated transcription, but this was not affected by catalase. However, ATRA and catalase were capable of reducing transcriptional activity mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Consistently, PPARgamma antagonists enhanced, and PPARgamma agonists inhibited MMP9 expression stimulated by ATRA and catalase in THP-1 cells. Therefore, these data indicate that catalase is able to potentiate ATRA-induced macrophage differentiation by inhibition of PPARgamma activity, underscoring an important interplay between H(2)O(2), RA, and PPARgamma in macrophages.

  12. Proteome analysis of human monocytic THP-1 cells primed with oxidized low-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Han; Kim, Hyun Tae; Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Won Ha; Huh, Tae-Lin; Park, Yong Bok; Moon, Byung Jo; Kwon, Oh-Shin

    2006-02-01

    Native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) possess a wide variety of biological properties, and play a central role in atherogenesis. In this study, we used a proteomic analysis of human monocyte THP-1 cells induced with oxLDL or with LDL, to identify proteins potentially involved in atherosclerotic processes. Of the 2500 proteins detected, 93 were differentially expressed as a result of priming with LDL or oxLDL. The proteins were unambiguously identified by comparing the masses of their tryptic peptides with those of all known proteins using MALDI-TOF MS and the NCBI database. The largest differences in expression were observed for vimentin (94-fold increase), meningioma-expressed antigen 6 (48-fold increase), serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (40-fold increase), and beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (15-fold increase). In contrast, the abundance of an unnamed protein product and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase decreased 30-fold and 25-fold, respectively. The expression of some selected proteins was confirmed by Western blot and RT-PCR analyses. The proteins identified in this study are attractive candidates for further biomarker research. This description of the altered protein profiles induced by oxLDL in human monocytes will support functional studies of the macrophage-derived foam cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:16402358

  13. Folic Acid Represses Hypoxia-Induced Inflammation in THP-1 Cells through Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α Pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; He, Zhiying; Jiang, Xinwei; Hou, Mengjun; Tang, Zhihong; Zhen, Xiaozhou; Liang, Yuming; Ma, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Though hypoxia has been implicated as a cause of inflammation, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Folic acid has been shown to provide protection against oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease and various models approximating insult to tissue via inflammation. It has been reported that hypoxia-induced inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Whether folic acid protects human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells) against hypoxia-induced damage, however, remains unknown. We used THP-1 cells to establish a hypoxia-induced cellular injury model. Pretreating THP-1 cells with folic acid attenuated hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses, including a decrease in protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), coupled with increased levels of IL-10. Folic acid also reduced hypoxia-induced Akt phosphorylation and decreased nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Both LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, PI3K) and KC7F2 (a HIF-1α inhibitor) reduced levels of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines. We also found that insulin (an Akt activator) and dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α activator) induced over-expression of inflammatory cytokines, which could be blocked by folic acid. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how folic acid attenuates the hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses of THP-1 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway.

  14. Human beta casein fragment (54-59) modulates M. bovis BCG survival and basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) expression in THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Dharamsheela; Saxena, Reshu; Singh, Vandana; Haq, Wahajul; Katti, S B; Singh, Bhupendra Narain; Tripathi, Raj Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Immunostimulatory peptides potentiate the immune system of the host and are being used as a viable adjunct to established therapeutic modalities in treatment of cancer and microbial infections. Several peptides derived from milk protein have been reported to induce immunostimulatory activity. Human β -casein fragment (54-59), natural sequence peptide (NS) carrying the Val-Glu-Pro-Ile-Pro-Tyr amino acid residues, was reported to activate the macrophages and impart potent immunostimulatory activity. In present study, we found that this peptide increases the clearance of M. bovis BCG from THP-1 cell line in vitro. The key biomolecules, involved in the clearance of BCG from macrophage like, nitric oxide, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, were not found to be significantly altered after peptide treatment in comparison to the untreated control. Using proteomic approach we found that BTF3a, an isoform of the Basic Transcription Factor, BTF3, was down regulated in THP-1 cell line after peptide treatment. This was reconfirmed by real time RT-PCR and western blotting. We report the BTF3a as a novel target of this hexapeptide. Based on the earlier findings and the results from the present studies, we suggest that the down regulation of BTF3a following the peptide treatment may augment the M. bovis BCG mediated apoptosis resulting in enhanced clearance of M. bovis BCG from THP-1 cell line.

  15. Piceatannol and its metabolite, isorhapontigenin, induce SIRT1 expression in THP-1 human monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Shinpei; Kinoshita, Yosuke; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Yanae, Koji; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2014-11-01

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical that is present in large amounts in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds, and is an analog of resveratrol. Recently, the absorption and metabolism of piceatannol were investigated in rats, and isorhapontigenin, O-methyl piceatannol, was detected as a piceatannol metabolite in rat plasma. To elucidate the function of piceatannol and its metabolites, we investigated the expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in THP-1 monocytic cells after treatment with piceatannol and its metabolites, and compared their effects with those of resveratrol and its metabolites. Piceatannol and resveratrol upregulated the expression levels of SIRT1 mRNA and SIRT1 protein. An extract of passion fruit seeds, which contained high levels of piceatannol, also upregulated SIRT1 mRNA expression. As for the metabolites, isorhapontigenin upregulated SIRT1 mRNA expression, whereas resveratrol glucuronides and sulfate did not affect SIRT1 expression. These findings indicate that after intake of piceatannol, not only piceatannol itself, but also its metabolite, isorhapontigenin, contributed to the upregulation of SIRT1 expression. PMID:25360511

  16. Single and combined genotoxicity effects of six pollutants on THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Daxiong

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the single and combined genotoxic effects of six food pollutants (Chrysoidine G, Sudan I, acid orange II, malachite green, acrylamide, and potassium bromate) on THP-1 cells through comet assay. The results of the single tests indicated that the pollutants increased the percentage of tail DNA (% tail DNA) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the % tail DNA values induced by synthetic colorants (Chrysoidine G, Sudan I, acid orange II, and malachite green) were significantly higher than those by acrylamide or potassium bromate at most concentrations. In the combined tests, Chrysoidine G (422 μmol/L) or acrylamide (400 μmol/L) was mixed with different concentrations of the other five pollutants respectively. In the first combined tests, most mixtures significantly increased the % tail DNA values with the exception of Chrysoidine G and acid orange II. In the second tests, there were no significant differences in the % tail DNA values between the single and combined tests at most cases. PMID:27375233

  17. Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) induces AKT hyperphosphorylation, bortezomib-resistance and GLUT-1 plasma membrane exposure in THP-1 monocytic cell line

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes such as cell proliferation, evasion from apoptosis, migration, glucose metabolism, protein synthesis and proper differentiation in immune cells. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic virus associated with several human malignancies, expresses a variety of latent and lytic proteins able to activate PI3K/AKT pathway, promoting the growth of infected cells and a successful viral infection. Results We found that KSHV latent infection of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient, resulted in an increase of AKT phoshorylation, not susceptible to bortezomib-induced dephosphorylation, compared to the mock-infected THP-1. Accordingly, THP-1-infected cells displayed increased resistance to the bortezomib cytotoxic effect in comparison to the uninfected cells, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with AKT-specific inhibitors. Finally, AKT hyperactivation by KSHV infection correlated with plasma membrane exposure of glucose transporter GLUT1, particularly evident during bortezomib treatment. GLUT1 membrane trafficking is a characteristic of malignant cells and underlies a change of glucose metabolism that ensures the survival to highly proliferating cells and render these cells highly dependent on glycolysis. GLUT1 membrane trafficking in KSHV-infected THP-1 cells indeed led to increased sensitivity to cell death induced by the glycolysis inhibitor 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), further potentiated by its combination with bortezomib. Conclusions KSHV confers to the THP-1 infected cells an oncogenic potential by altering the phosphorylation, expression and localization of key molecules that control cell survival and metabolism such as AKT and GLUT1. Such modifications in one hand lead to resistance to cell death induced by some chemotherapeutic drugs such as bortezomib

  18. Urotensin II increases foam cell formation by repressing ABCA1 expression through the ERK/NF-κB pathway in THP-1 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Jian-Feng; Tang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuan; Chen, Kong; Zeng, Meng-Ya; Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei; Zheng, Xi-Long; Zeng, Gao-Feng; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • U II reduces cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. • U II decreases the expression of ABCA1. • Inhibition of the ERK/NF-κB pathway reduces U II effects on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. - Abstract: Objective: Foam cell formation in the arterial wall plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies showed that Urotensin II (U II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of human U II on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the underlying mechanism in THP-1 macrophages. Methods and results: Cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with U II, followed by measuring the intracellular lipid contents, cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 levels. The results showed that U II dramatically decreased ABCA1 levels and impaired cholesterol efflux. However, the effects of U II on ABCA1 protein expression and cellular cholesterol efflux were partially reversed by inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, suggesting the potential roles of ERK1/2 and NF-κB in ABCA1 expression, respectively. Conclusion: Our current data indicate that U II may have promoting effects on the progression of atherosclerosis, likely through suppressing ABCA1 expression via activation of the ERK/NF-κB pathway and reducing cholesterol efflux to promote macrophage foam cell formation.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Seok, Jin Kyung; Kwak, Jun Yup; Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10). PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). PPE at 10-100 μg mL(-1) attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL(-1)). PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter. PMID:27247608

  1. Zn(II)-Chlorido complexes of phytohormone kinetin and its derivatives modulate expression of inflammatory mediators in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hošek, Jan; Novotná, Radka; Babula, Petr; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) belongs to a group of plant growth hormones involved in cell division, differentiation and other physiological processes. One of the possible ways to obtain biologically active compounds is to complex biologically relevant natural compounds to suitable metal atoms. In this work, two structural groups of Zn(II) complexes [Zn(L(n))2Cl2]·Solv (1-5) and [Zn(HL(n))Cl3] · xL(n) (6-7); n=1-5, Solv=CH3OH for 1 and 2H2O for 2; x =1 for 6 and 2 for 7; involving a phytohormone kinetin and its derivatives (L(n)) were evaluated for their ability to modulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The penetration of the complexes to cells was also detected. The mechanism of interactions of the zinc(II) complexes with a fluorescent sensor N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-p-toluene sulphonamide (TSQ) and sulfur-containing biomolecules (l-cysteine and reduced glutathione) was studied by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and flow-injection analysis with fluorescence detection. The present study showed that the tested complexes exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on the THP-1 cell line (IC50>40 µM), apart from complex 4, with an IC50=10.9 ± 1.1 µM. Regarding the inflammation-related processes, the Zn(II) complexes significantly decreased IL-1β production by a factor of 1.47-2.22 compared with the control (DMSO), but did not affect TNF-α and MMP-2 secretions. However, application of the Zn(II) complexes noticeably changed the pro-MMP-2/MMP-2 ratio towards a higher amount of maturated MMP-2, when they induced a 4-times higher production of maturated MMP-2 in comparison with the vehicle-treated cells under LPS stimulation. These results indicated that the complexes are able to modulate an inflammatory response by influencing secretion and activity of several inflammation-related cytokines and enzymes. PMID:23755195

  2. Zn(II)-Chlorido Complexes of Phytohormone Kinetin and Its Derivatives Modulate Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hošek, Jan; Novotná, Radka; Babula, Petr; Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) belongs to a group of plant growth hormones involved in cell division, differentiation and other physiological processes. One of the possible ways to obtain biologically active compounds is to complex biologically relevant natural compounds to suitable metal atoms. In this work, two structural groups of Zn(II) complexes [Zn(Ln)2Cl2]·Solv (1–5) and [Zn(HLn)Cl3]·xLn (6–7); n = 1–5, Solv = CH3OH for 1 and 2H2O for 2; x = 1 for 6 and 2 for 7; involving a phytohormone kinetin and its derivatives (Ln) were evaluated for their ability to modulate secretion of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The penetration of the complexes to cells was also detected. The mechanism of interactions of the zinc(II) complexes with a fluorescent sensor N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-p-toluene sulphonamide (TSQ) and sulfur-containing biomolecules (l-cysteine and reduced glutathione) was studied by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry and flow-injection analysis with fluorescence detection. The present study showed that the tested complexes exhibited a low cytotoxic effect on the THP-1 cell line (IC50>40 µM), apart from complex 4, with an IC50 = 10.9±1.1 µM. Regarding the inflammation-related processes, the Zn(II) complexes significantly decreased IL-1β production by a factor of 1.47–2.22 compared with the control (DMSO), but did not affect TNF-α and MMP-2 secretions. However, application of the Zn(II) complexes noticeably changed the pro-MMP-2/MMP-2 ratio towards a higher amount of maturated MMP-2, when they induced a 4-times higher production of maturated MMP-2 in comparison with the vehicle-treated cells under LPS stimulation. These results indicated that the complexes are able to modulate an inflammatory response by influencing secretion and activity of several inflammation-related cytokines and enzymes

  3. Lipoteichoic Acid Isolated from Weissella cibaria Increases Cytokine Production in Human Monocyte-Like THP-1 Cells and Mouse Splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi-Fan; Lee, Yoon-Doo; Park, Jae-Yeon; Kim, Seongjae; Lee, Youn-Woo; Jeon, Boram; Jagdish, Deepa; Kim, Hangeun; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2016-07-28

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have beneficial effects on intestinal health and skin diseases. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria, is known to induce the production of several cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 and affect the intestinal microflora, anti-aging, sepsis, and cholesterol level. In this study, Weissella cibaria was isolated from Indian dairy products, and we examined its immune-enhancing effects. Live and heatkilled W. cibaria did not induce the secretion of immune-related cytokines, whereas LTA isolated from W. cibaria (cLTA) significantly increased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. cLTA increased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappalight-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and c-Jun N-terminal kinases in THP-1 cells. The secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 was also increased in the cLTA-treated mouse splenocytes. These results suggest that cLTA, but not W. cibaria whole cells, has immune-boosting potential and can be used to treat immunosuppression diseases. PMID:27012236

  4. Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis (1→6)-β-D-glucans show immunostimulatory activity on human THP-1 derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Alquini, Giovana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Iacomini, Marcello; Wichers, Harry J; Van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2013-04-15

    The (1→6)-β-D-glucans from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis were purified to evaluate their effects on the innate immune system. THP-1 macrophages were used to investigate the induction of the expression of TNF-α, IL1β, and COX-2 by RT-PCR. The purification of the polysaccharides gave rise to fractions containing 96-98% of glucose. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS, HPSEC and (13)C NMR, which confirmed the presence of homogeneous (1→6)-β-D-glucans. The β-glucans were incubated with THP-1 derived macrophages, for 3 h and 6 h to evaluate their effects on the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Both β-glucans stimulated the expression of such genes as much as the pro-inflammatory control (LPS). When the cells were incubated with LPS+β-glucan, a significant inhibition of the expression of IL-1β and COX-2 was observed for both treatments after 3 h of incubation. By the results, we conclude that the (1→6)-β-D-glucans present an immunostimulatory activity when administered to THP-1 derived macrophages.

  5. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Inhibits RIPK1/RIPK3-Dependent Necroptosis in THP-1-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fang; Yao, Jianting; Yan, Meng; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wei; Gao, Weiwei; Tian, Zhen; Guo, Shuyuan; Dong, Zengxiang; Li, Bicheng; Gao, Tielei; Shan, Peng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Haiyang; Cheng, Jiali; Gao, Qianping; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis, or programmed necrosis, contributes to the formation of necrotic cores in atherosclerotic plaque in animal models. However, whether inhibition of necroptosis ameliorates atherosclerosis is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that necroptosis occurred in clinical atherosclerotic samples, suggesting that it may also play an important role in human atherosclerosis. We established an in vitro necroptotic model in which necroptosis was induced in THP-1-derived foam cells by serum deprivation. With this model, we demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT) inhibited necroptosis while promoting apoptosis. ALA-SDT activated the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways in foam cells, which is responsible for the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis. The inhibition of either caspase-8 or caspase-3 abolished the anti-necroptotic effect of ALA-SDT. In addition, we found that caspase-3 activation peaked 4 hours after ALA-SDT treatment, 2 hours earlier than maximal caspase-8activation. Taken together, our data indicate that ALA-SDT mediates the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis by activating the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways and may improve the prognosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26911899

  6. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy Inhibits RIPK1/RIPK3-Dependent Necroptosis in THP-1-Derived Foam Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fang; Yao, Jianting; Yan, Meng; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wei; Gao, Weiwei; Tian, Zhen; Guo, Shuyuan; Dong, Zengxiang; Li, Bicheng; Gao, Tielei; Shan, Peng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Haiyang; Cheng, Jiali; Gao, Qianping; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis, or programmed necrosis, contributes to the formation of necrotic cores in atherosclerotic plaque in animal models. However, whether inhibition of necroptosis ameliorates atherosclerosis is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that necroptosis occurred in clinical atherosclerotic samples, suggesting that it may also play an important role in human atherosclerosis. We established an in vitro necroptotic model in which necroptosis was induced in THP-1-derived foam cells by serum deprivation. With this model, we demonstrated that 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT) inhibited necroptosis while promoting apoptosis. ALA-SDT activated the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways in foam cells, which is responsible for the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis. The inhibition of either caspase-8 or caspase-3 abolished the anti-necroptotic effect of ALA-SDT. In addition, we found that caspase-3 activation peaked 4 hours after ALA-SDT treatment, 2 hours earlier than maximal caspase-8activation. Taken together, our data indicate that ALA-SDT mediates the switch from necroptosis to apoptosis by activating the caspase-3 and caspase-8 pathways and may improve the prognosis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26911899

  7. Zerumbone suppresses phorbol ester-induced expression of multiple scavenger receptor genes in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ai; Kaneko, Yuki; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2007-04-01

    Unregulated uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) via macrophage scavenger receptors (SRs), such as lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), is a key event in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we used differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestine to evaluate the suppressive effects of 16 traditional food items selected from Okinawa on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced LOX-1 mRNA expression in THP-1 human monocyte-like cells. Three Zingiberaceae plants, Curcuma aromatica Salisbury, Curcuma longa L., and Zingiber zerumbet Smith, markedly suppressed that expression. When added to the apical sides of Caco-2 monolayers, zerumbone, a sesquiterpene from Z. zerumbet Smith, was found to permeate into the basolateral medium as an intact structure in a time-dependent manner. alpha-Humulene, a structural analog of zerumbone lacking the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group, did not suppress LOX-1 mRNA expression, indicating that its electrophilic moiety might play pivotal roles in its activities. Further, zerumbone attenuated the expression of SR-A, SR-PSOX, and CD36, but not that of CD68 or CLA-1, leading to a blockade of DiI-acLDL uptake, while it also inhibited the transcriptional activities of activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Together, our results indicate that zerumbone is a potential phytochemical for regulating atherosclerosis with reasonable action mechanisms.

  8. [Production of recombinant human interleukin-38 and its inhibitory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells].

    PubMed

    Yuan, X L; Li, Y; Pan, X H; Zhou, M; Gao, Q Y; Li, M C

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38 is the latest member of the IL-1 cytokine family. However, as a result of lacking efficient method to generate relatively large quantity of IL-38, its precise functions are poorly understood. In the present study, the cloning, expression, purification, and activity analysis of recombinant human IL-38 was described. Human IL-38 cDNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-44. The recombinant IL-38 containing a C-hexahistidine tag was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. IL-38 protein was largely found in the soluble fraction. The purified IL-38 appeared a single band on SDS-PAGE, the yield of IL-38 was 4 mg from 1 L of bacterial culture, and the purity was more than 98% with low endotoxin level (<0.1 EU/μg). Western blotting confirmed the identity of the purified protein. Activity analysis showed that IL-38 can inhibit effectively the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 cells. The production and characterization of biologically active IL-38 will be beneficial for its potential role in clinical applications. PMID:27414784

  9. The toxicity of rifampicin polylactic acid nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and human macrophage THP-1 cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erokhina, M.; Rybalkina, E.; Barsegyan, G.; Onishchenko, G.; Lepekha, L.

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is rapidly becoming a major health problem. The rise in tuberculosis incidence stimulates efforts to develop more effective delivery systems for the existing antituberculous drugs while decreasing the side effects. The nanotechnology may provide novel drug delivery tools allowing controlled drug release. Rifampicin is one of the main antituberculous drugs, characterized by high toxicity, and Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer used for the preparation of encapsulated drugs. The aim of our work was to evaluate the toxicity of rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG using human macrophage THP-1 cell line. Our data demonstrate that rifampicin-PLLA is effective against M. bovis BCG in the infected macrophages. The drug is inducing the dysfunction of mitochondria and apoptosis in the macrophages and is acting as a potential substrate of Pgp thereby modulating cell chemosensitivity. The severity of the toxic effects of the rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles is increasing in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that free rifampicin induces death of M. bovis BCG after PLLA degradation and diffusion from phago-lysosomes to cytoplasm causing mitochondria dysfunction and affecting the Pgp activity.

  10. The influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion and cell adhesion molecule mRNA-expression in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Schopohl, P; Grüneberg, P; Melzig, M F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation does not only lead to pain and functio laesa in the affected tissue but is also implicated in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many medicinal plants show anti-inflammatory properties yet plant-constituents and their effect on molecular pathways involved in the attenuation of inflammation as well as cell migration are only poorly understood. Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex MEISN. is a potent plant used as an immune modulator in traditional herbal medicine. Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion in undifferentiated and differentiated THP-1 cells under inflammatory conditions as well as their implication in cellular migration into inflamed tissue. We found that both iridoids decrease TNFα-secretion in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells whereas undifferentiated cells were poorly affected. Yet, in undifferentiated cells harpagoside and harpagide induced mRNA-expression of certain proteins involved in leukocyte transmigration. Especially TNFα and ICAM-1 mRNA-expression was positively affected after 3h and expression could be maintained on high levels even after 48h. L-selectin and PSGL-1 were strongly induced after 48h of stimulation. This ambiguous effect of harpagoside and harpagide highlights their immune modulatory function by facilitating cell migration into the inflamed tissue, whereby in consequence the anti-inflammatory activity of the resident macrophages was also found to be promoted.

  11. The influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion and cell adhesion molecule mRNA-expression in IFNγ/LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Schopohl, P; Grüneberg, P; Melzig, M F

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation does not only lead to pain and functio laesa in the affected tissue but is also implicated in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Many medicinal plants show anti-inflammatory properties yet plant-constituents and their effect on molecular pathways involved in the attenuation of inflammation as well as cell migration are only poorly understood. Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex MEISN. is a potent plant used as an immune modulator in traditional herbal medicine. Aim of this study was to investigate the influence of harpagoside and harpagide on TNFα-secretion in undifferentiated and differentiated THP-1 cells under inflammatory conditions as well as their implication in cellular migration into inflamed tissue. We found that both iridoids decrease TNFα-secretion in PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells whereas undifferentiated cells were poorly affected. Yet, in undifferentiated cells harpagoside and harpagide induced mRNA-expression of certain proteins involved in leukocyte transmigration. Especially TNFα and ICAM-1 mRNA-expression was positively affected after 3h and expression could be maintained on high levels even after 48h. L-selectin and PSGL-1 were strongly induced after 48h of stimulation. This ambiguous effect of harpagoside and harpagide highlights their immune modulatory function by facilitating cell migration into the inflamed tissue, whereby in consequence the anti-inflammatory activity of the resident macrophages was also found to be promoted. PMID:26979254

  12. Visfatin contributes to the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages through the differential regulation of inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi Ran; Seo, Jeong Mi; Park, Hyun Young

    2014-04-01

    Visfatin is a novel multifunctional adipocytokine with inflammatory properties. Although a link between visfatin and atherosclerosis has recently been suggested, its actions in the development of atherosclerosis remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated a potential role and underlying mechanism(s) of visfatin in monocytes/macrophages differentiation, a critical early step in atherogenesis, using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cell models. The co-incubation of PMA with visfatin-induced CD36 expression with a concomitant increase in the phagocytosis of latex beads compared with PMA alone treatment. Moreover, visfatin markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion by enhancing IL-1β mRNA stability in a short-term incubation. Visfatin also significantly elevated the secretion of IL-6 as well as IL-1β in a longer incubation period, which was partially suppressed by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125. Furthermore, silencing IL-1β successfully blocked IL-6 secretion, CD36 expression, and NF-κB activation in response to visfatin. Collectively, these results suggest that visfatin enhances the IL-1β-dependent induction of IL-6 and CD36 via distinct signaling pathways mediated by JNK and NF-κB, respectively, and consequently, leading to the acceleration of monocytes/macrophages differentiation. PMID:24378536

  13. Visfatin contributes to the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages through the differential regulation of inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi Ran; Seo, Jeong Mi; Park, Hyun Young

    2014-04-01

    Visfatin is a novel multifunctional adipocytokine with inflammatory properties. Although a link between visfatin and atherosclerosis has recently been suggested, its actions in the development of atherosclerosis remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated a potential role and underlying mechanism(s) of visfatin in monocytes/macrophages differentiation, a critical early step in atherogenesis, using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cell models. The co-incubation of PMA with visfatin-induced CD36 expression with a concomitant increase in the phagocytosis of latex beads compared with PMA alone treatment. Moreover, visfatin markedly increased interleukin (IL)-1β secretion by enhancing IL-1β mRNA stability in a short-term incubation. Visfatin also significantly elevated the secretion of IL-6 as well as IL-1β in a longer incubation period, which was partially suppressed by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125. Furthermore, silencing IL-1β successfully blocked IL-6 secretion, CD36 expression, and NF-κB activation in response to visfatin. Collectively, these results suggest that visfatin enhances the IL-1β-dependent induction of IL-6 and CD36 via distinct signaling pathways mediated by JNK and NF-κB, respectively, and consequently, leading to the acceleration of monocytes/macrophages differentiation.

  14. Evaluation of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals using expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, on the naive THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Sakaguchi, H; Ito, Y; Okuda, M; Suzuki, H

    2003-04-01

    It has been known that dendritic cells (DCs) including Langerhans cells (LCs) play a critical role in the skin sensitization process. Many attempts have been made to develop in vitro sensitization tests that employ DCs derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-DC) or CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34+ HPC) purified from cord blood or bone marrow. However, the use of the DCs in in vitro methods has been difficult due to the nature of these cells such as low levels in the source and/or donor-to-donor variability. In our studies, we employed the human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, in order to avoid some of these difficulties. At the start, we examined whether treatment of the cells with various cytokines could produce DCs from THP-1. Treatment of THP-1 cells with cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and/or PMA did induce some phenotypic changes in THP-1 cells that were characteristic of DCs. Subsequently, responses to a known sensitizer, dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and a non-sensitizer, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on the expression of co-stimulatory molecules, CD54 and CD86, were examined between the naive cells and the cytokine-treated cells. Interestingly, the naive THP-1 cells responded only to DNCB and the response to the sensitizer was more distinct than cytokine-treated THP-1 cells. Similar phenomena were also observed in the human myeloid leukemia cell line, KG-1. Furthermore, with treatment of DNCB, naive THP-1 cells showed augmented expression of HLA, CD80 and secretion of IL-1 beta. The response of THP-1 cells to a sensitizer was similar to that of LCs/DCs. Upon demonstrating the differentiation of monocyte cells in our system, we then evaluated a series of chemicals, including known sensitizers and non-sensitizers, for their potential to augment CD54 and CD86 expression on naive THP-1 cells. Indeed, known sensitizers such as PPD and 2-MBT significantly augmented CD54 and CD86 expression in a

  15. Role of interferon-gamma against invasion by Toxoplasma gondii in a human monocytic cell line (THP1): involvement of the parasite's secretory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Gómez Marín, J E; Bonhomme, A; Guenounou, M; Pinon, J M

    1996-05-01

    We examined the role of IFN gamma in protection against Toxoplasma gondii in the monocytoid cell line THP1. The addition of IFN gamma to cultured infected THP1 cells reduced the number of parasitized cells without altering intracellular multiplication during the first 24 hr. This reduction was potentiated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also examined the role of an enzyme important for T. gondii cellular invasion, secretory phospholipase-A2 (sPLA2) and its relation with IFN gamma-induced protection. Treatment of cells or parasites with a specific inhibitor of sPLA2 significantly reduced the number of infected cells at 6 hr. The addition of exogenous sPLA2 from Naja naja venom did not interfere with the protective effect of IFN gamma and conferred protection when used alone. PLA2 activity was measured in supernatants of parasites maintained in the presence of IFN gamma, and the results suggested that IFN gamma opposes cell invasion by T. gondii by suppressing parasite production of PLA2.

  16. Effects of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds, Alone or in Combination, on Human Macrophage-Like THP-1 Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Couleau, N.; Falla, J.; Beillerot, A.; Battaglia, E.; D’Innocenzo, M.; Plançon, S.; Laval-Gilly, P.; Bennasroune, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunological effects on human macrophages of four endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) using the differentiated human THP-1 cell line as a model. We studied first the effects of these EDCs, including Bisphenol A (BPA), di-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP), either alone or in combination, on cytokine secretion, and phagocytosis. We then determined whether or not these effects were mediated by estrogen receptors via MAPK pathways. It was found that all four EDCs studied reduced strongly the phagocytosis of the differentiated THP-1 cells and that several of these EDCs disturbed also TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-8 cytokine secretions. Furthermore, relative to control treatment, decreased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was always associated with EDCs treatments—either alone or in certain combinations (at 0.1 μM for each condition). Lastly, as treatments by an estrogen receptor antagonist suppressed the negative effects on ERK 1/2 phosphorylation observed in cells treated either alone with BPA, DEHP, 4-OP or with the combined treatment of BPA and DEHP, we suggested that estrogen receptor-dependent pathway is involved in mediating the effects of EDCs on human immune system. Altogether, these results advocate that EDCs can disturb human immune response at very low concentrations. PMID:26133781

  17. Genomic Profiling of a Human Leukemic Monocytic Cell-Line (THP-1) Exposed to Alpha Particle Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined alpha (α-) particle radiation effects on global changes in gene expression in human leukemic monocytic cells (THP-1) for the purposes of mining for candidate biomarkers that could be used for the development of a biological assessment tool. THP-1 cells were exposed to α-particle radiation at a dose range of 0 to 1.5 Gy. Twenty-four hours and three days after exposure gene expression was monitored using microarray technology. A total of 16 genes were dose responsive and classified as early onset due to their expression 24 h after exposure. Forty-eight transcripts were dose responsive and classified as late-onset as they were expressed 72 h after exposure. Among these genes, 6 genes were time and dose responsive and validated further using alternate technology. These transcripts were upregulated and associated with biological processes related to immune function, organelle stability and cell signalling/communication. This panel of genes merits further validation to determine if they are strong candidate biomarkers indicative of α-particle exposure. PMID:23097634

  18. Hydrolysis products generated by lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase differentially impact THP-1 macrophage cell signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Essaji, Yasmin; Yang, Yanbo; Albert, Carolyn J; Ford, David A; Brown, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Macrophages express lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL) within atherosclerotic plaques; however, little is known about how lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by these lipases might affect macrophage cell signalling pathways. We hypothesized that hydrolysis products affect macrophage cell signalling pathways associated with atherosclerosis. To test our hypothesis, we incubated differentiated THP-1 macrophages with products from total lipoprotein hydrolysis by recombinant LPL or EL. Using antibody arrays, we found that the phosphorylation of six receptor tyrosine kinases and three signalling nodes--most associated with atherosclerotic processes--was increased by LPL derived hydrolysis products. EL derived hydrolysis products only increased the phosphorylation of tropomyosin-related kinase A, which is also implicated in playing a role in atherosclerosis. Using electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, we identified the species of triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines that were hydrolyzed by LPL and EL, and we identified the fatty acids liberated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To determine if the total liberated fatty acids influenced signalling pathways, we incubated differentiated THP-1 macrophages with a mixture of the fatty acids that matched the concentrations of liberated fatty acids from total lipoproteins by LPL, and we subjected cell lysates to antibody array analyses. The analyses showed that only the phosphorylation of Akt was significantly increased in response to fatty acid treatment. Overall, our study shows that macrophages display potentially pro-atherogenic signalling responses following acute treatments with LPL and EL lipoprotein hydrolysis products. PMID:23794138

  19. The Effect of Cadmium on COX-1 and COX-2 Gene, Protein Expression, and Enzymatic Activity in THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Korbecki, Jan; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadmium in concentrations relevant to those detected in human serum on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression at mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity levels in THP-1 macrophages. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM, and 2 μM CdCl2. The mRNA expression and protein levels of COXs were analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and stable metabolite of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentrations in culture media were determined using ELISA method. Our study demonstrates that cadmium at the highest tested concentrations modulates COX-1 and COX-2 at mRNA level in THP-1 macrophages; however, the lower tested cadmium concentrations appear to inhibit COX-1 protein expression. PGE2 and TXB2 production is not altered by all tested Cd concentrations; however, the significant stimulation of PGE2 and TXB2 production is observed when macrophages are exposed to both cadmium and COX-2 selective inhibitor, NS-398. The stimulatory effect of cadmium on COXs at mRNA level is not reflected at protein and enzymatic activity levels, suggesting the existence of some posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational events that result in silencing of those genes' expression.

  20. Induction of interleukin-1 production by ligands binding to the scavenger receptor in human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Palkama, T

    1991-01-01

    Foam cell formation via lipid accumulation through the scavenger receptor in human monocyte/macrophages is believed to be one of the earliest events in atherogenesis. In this study we demonstrate that stimulation of the scavenger receptor activates monocytes to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1). Polyinosinic acid (poly I) and fucoidan, both ligands known to bind to the scavenger receptor, induced IL-1 beta production in human monocytes. Polycytidylic acid, a structurally related compound to poly I, which does not bind to the scavenger receptor, was used as a negative control and had virtually no effect on IL-1 production. THP-1 cells, which normally do not express scavenger receptors, were almost unresponsive to poly I and fucoidan. PMA priming, which has been reported to up-regulate scavenger receptor expression in THP-1 cells, significantly enhanced IL-1 production by fucoidan and poly I. IL-1 produced by scavenger receptor stimulation was shown to be secreted extracellularly, and biologically active. Scavenger receptor-mediated IL-1 production was inhibited by H7, a protein kinase C inhibitor, and enhanced by IBMX, an inhibitor of cyclic AMP degradation, suggesting a synergistic effect of protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-mediated signal transduction pathways in scavenger receptor-mediated IL-1 production. Due to the potentially deleterious effects of IL-1 on the vessel wall, IL-1 produced by ligand binding to the scavenger receptor in human monocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 3 PMID:1663075

  1. Diverse HLA-I Peptide Repertoires of the APC Lines MUTZ3-Derived Immature and Mature Dendritic Cells and THP1-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nyambura, Lydon Wainaina; Jarmalavicius, Saulius; Baleeiro, Renato Brito; Walden, Peter

    2016-09-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are specialized APCs that process and present self-Ags for induction of tolerance and foreign Ags to initiate T cell-mediated immunity. Related to differentiation states they have specific phenotypes and functions. However, the impact of these differentiations on Ag processing and presentation remains poorly defined. To gain insight into this, we analyzed and compared the HLA-I peptidomes of MUTZ3-derived human immature and mature DC lines and THP1-derived macrophages by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found that the HLA-I peptidomes were heterogeneous and individualized and were dominated by nonapeptides with similar HLA-I binding affinities and anchor residues. MUTZ3-derived DCs and THP1-derived macrophages were able to sample peptides from source proteins of almost all subcellular locations and were involved in various cellular functions in similar proportion, with preference to proteins involved in cell communication, signal transduction, protein metabolism, and transcription factor/regulator activity. PMID:27543614

  2. Use of the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line and co-incubation with microsomes to identify and differentiate hapten and prohapten sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Chipinda, Itai; Ruwona, Tinashe B; Templeton, Steven P; Siegel, Paul D

    2011-02-27

    Consumer and medical products can contain leachable chemical allergens which can cause skin sensitization. Recent efforts have been directed at the development of non-animal based tests such as in vitro cell activation assays for the identification of skin sensitizers. Prohapten identification by in vitro assays is still problematic due to the lack of prohapten bioactivation. The present study evaluated the effect of hapten and prohapten exposure on cell surface markers expression (CD86, CD54 and CD40) in the human monocytic leukemia, THP-1, cell line. Upregulation of activation and costimulatory markers are key events in the allergic sensitization process and have been reported to serve as indicators of skin sensitization. Cells were exposed to the prohaptens benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), carvone oxime (COx), cinnamic alcohol (CA) and isoeugenol (IEG) at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μM for 24 and 48 h. The direct-binding haptens dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), benzoquinone (BQ), hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) and benzylbromide (BB) were used as positive controls. Cells were also exposed to the irritants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sulfanilamide (SFA). Bioactivation of prohaptens was achieved by adding aroclor-induced rat liver microsomes (S9) to the cell cultures. Consistent upregulation of surface expressions of CD86, CD54 (ICAM-1) and CD40 was observed in THP-1 cells treated with direct-acting haptens (±S9) or prohapten (+S9). Upregulation of these markers was not observed after exposure to skin irritants or prohaptens in the absence of exogenously added S9. In conclusion, modification of in vitro cell culture assays to include co-incubation with microsomes enhances identification of prohaptens and allows them to be clearly distinguished from direct-binding haptens. PMID:21163322

  3. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide augments febrile-range hyperthermia-induced heat shock protein 70 expression and extracellular release in human THP1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Ramarathnam, Aparna; Hasday, Jeffrey D; Singh, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis, a devastating and often lethal complication of severe infection, is characterized by fever and dysregulated inflammation. While infections activate the inflammatory response in part through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), fever can partially activate the heat shock response with generation of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Since extracellular HSPs, especially HSP70 (eHSP70), are proinflammatory TLR agonists, we investigated how exposure to the TLR4 agonist, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and febrile range hyperthermia (FRH; 39.5°C) modify HSP70 expression and extracellular release. Using differentiated THP1 cells, we found that concurrent exposure to FRH and LPS as well as TLR2 and TLR3 agonists synergized to activate expression of inducible HSP72 (HSPA1A) mRNA and protein via a p38 MAP kinase-requiring mechanism. Treatment with LPS for 6 h stimulated eHSP70 release; levels of eHSP70 released at 39.5°C were higher than at 37°C roughly paralleling the increase in intracellular HSP72 in the 39.5°C cells. By contrast, 6 h exposure to FRH in the absence of LPS failed to promote eHSP70 release. Release of eHSP70 by LPS-treated THP1 cells was inhibited by glibenclamide, but not brefeldin, indicating that eHSP70 secretion occurred via a non-classical protein secretory mechanism. Analysis of eHSP70 levels in exosomes and exosome-depleted culture supernatants from LPS-treated THP1 cells using ELISA demonstrated similar eHSP70 levels in unfractionated and exosome-depleted culture supernatants, indicating that LPS-stimulated eHSP70 release did not occur via the exosome pathway. Immunoblot analysis of the exosome fraction of culture supernatants from these cells showed constitutive HSC70 (HSPA8) to be the predominant HSP70 family member present in exosomes. In summary, we have shown that LPS stimulates macrophages to secrete inducible HSP72 via a non-classical non-exosomal pathway while synergizing with FRH exposure to increase both intracellular and secreted levels

  4. Influence of a static magnetic field (250 mT) on the antioxidant response and DNA integrity in THP1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Salem; Douki, Thery; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Garrel, Catherine; Guiraud, Pascale; Favier, Alain; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rhouma, Khémais; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of static magnetic field (SMF) exposure in antioxidant enzyme activity, the labile zinc fraction and DNA damage in THP1 cells (monocyte line). Cell culture flasks were exposed to SMF (250 mT) during 1 h (group 1), 2 h (group 2) and 3 h (group 3). Our results showed that cell viability was slightly lower in SMF-exposed groups compared to a sham exposed group. However, SMF exposure failed to alter malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (+6%, p > 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (-5%, p > 0.05), catalase (CAT) (-6%, p > 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (+38%, p > 0.05) in group 3 compared to the sham exposed group. DNA analysis by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) revealed that SMF exposure did not exert any DNA damage in groups 1 and 2. However, it induced a low level of DNA single strand breaks in cells of group 3. To further explore the oxidative DNA damage, cellular DNA for group 3 was isolated, hydrolyzed and analysed by HPLC-EC. The level of 8-oxodGuo in this group remained unchanged compared to the sham exposed group (+6.5%, p > 0.05). Cells stained with zinc-specific fluorescent probes zinpyr-1 showed a decrease of labile zinc fraction in all groups exposed to SMF. Our data showed that SMF exposure (250 mT, during 3 h) did not cause oxidative stress and DNA damage in THP1 cells. However, SMF could alter the intracellular labile zinc fraction.

  5. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell apoptosis induced by supernatant from Aβ1-40-stimulated THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chu, Yanqi; Zhang, Lan; Yin, Linlin; Li, Lin

    2012-08-01

    Excessive accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) has been proposed as a pivotal event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Possible mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced neurotoxicity include inflammation and apoptosis. Here, the protective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1) on neuronal damage was examined in an in vitro inflammatory neurodegeneration model. Supernatant from Aβ(1-40)-stimulated THP-1 monocytes was added to SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell culture medium. Incubation of SK-N-SH cells with cell-free supernatant from Aβ(1-40) (125nM)-treated THP-1 monocytes for 24 h significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, cell apoptosis, Bax and caspase-3 expression in SK-N-SH cells. However, pretreating THP-1 monocytes with GRg1 (50, 100 or 150 μM) for 30 min markedly reduced IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α levels in Aβ(1-40)-stimulated supernatant. LDH release, cell apoptosis, Bax and caspase-3 expression in SK-N-SH cells were significantly decreased when cultured with cell-free supernatant from Aβ(1-40)-stimulated THP-1 monocytes that were pretreated with GRg1. The results suggest that Aβ(1-40)-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis may be mediated by inflammatory monocyte reactions, and GRg1 exerts a protective effect against Aβ(1-40)-induced neuronal injury and apoptosis, likely through its anti-inflammatory mechanism.

  6. Stable Toll-Like Receptor 10 Knockdown in THP-1 Cells Reduces TLR-Ligand-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hai Van; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) is the only orphan receptor whose natural ligand and function are unknown among the 10 human TLRs. In this study, to test whether TLR10 recognizes some known TLR ligands, we established a stable TLR10 knockdown human monocytic cell line THP-1 using TLR10 short hairpin RNA lentiviral particle and puromycin selection. Among 60 TLR10 knockdown clones that were derived from each single transduced cell, six clones were randomly selected, and then one of those clones, named E7, was chosen for the functional study. E7 exhibited approximately 50% inhibition of TLR10 mRNA and protein expression. Of all the TLRs, only the expression of TLR10 changed significantly in this cell line. Additionally, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced macrophage differentiation of TLR10 knockdown cells was not affected in the knockdown cells. When exposed to TLR ligands, such as synthetic diacylated lipoprotein (FSL-1), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin, significant induction of proinflammatory cytokine gene expression including Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Chemokine (C–C Motif) Ligand 20 (CCL20) expression, was found in the control THP-1 cells, whereas the TLR10 knockdown cells exhibited a significant reduction in the expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and CCL20. TNF-α was the only cytokine for which the expression did not decrease in the TLR10 knockdown cells from that measured in the control cells. Analysis of putative binding sites for transcription factors using a binding-site-prediction program revealed that the TNF-α promoter does not have putative binding sites for AP-1 or c-Jun, comprising a major transcription factor along with NF-κB for TLR signaling. Our results suggest that TLR10 is involved in the recognition of FSL-1, LPS, and flagellin and TLR-ligand-induced expression of TNF-α does not depend on TLR10. PMID:27258267

  7. A parasite rescue and transformation assay for antileishmanial screening against intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Jain, Surendra K; Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2012-12-30

    Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly(1). Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited (2);current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance (3). The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes (4) and axenic amastigotes assays(5) are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2

  8. A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Surendra K.; Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A.; Tekwani, Babu L.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly1. Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited 2;current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance 3. The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes 4 and axenic amastigotes assays5 are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2) infection of

  9. A parasite rescue and transformation assay for antileishmanial screening against intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Jain, Surendra K; Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases, largely affecting the poorest of the poor, mainly in developing countries. Over 350 million people are considered at risk of contracting leishmaniasis, and approximately 2 million new cases occur yearly(1). Leishmania donovani is the causative agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most fatal form of the disease. The choice of drugs available to treat leishmaniasis is limited (2);current treatments provide limited efficacy and many are toxic at therapeutic doses. In addition, most of the first line treatment drugs have already lost their utility due to increasing multiple drug resistance (3). The current pipeline of anti-leishmanial drugs is also severely depleted. Sustained efforts are needed to enrich a new anti-leishmanial drug discovery pipeline, and this endeavor relies on the availability of suitable in vitro screening models. In vitro promastigotes (4) and axenic amastigotes assays(5) are primarily used for anti-leishmanial drug screening however, may not be appropriate due to significant cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular differences in comparison to intracellular amastigotes. Assays with macrophage-amastigotes models are considered closest to the pathophysiological conditions of leishmaniasis, and are therefore the most appropriate for in vitro screening. Differentiated, non-dividing human acute monocytic leukemia cells (THP1) (make an attractive) alternative to isolated primary macrophages and can be used for assaying anti-leishmanial activity of different compounds against intracellular amastigotes. Here, we present a parasite-rescue and transformation assay with differentiated THP1 cells infected in vitro with Leishmania donovani for screening pure compounds and natural products extracts and determining the efficacy against the intracellular Leishmania amastigotes. The assay involves the following steps: (1) differentiation of THP1 cells to non-dividing macrophages, (2

  10. Walnut oil increases cholesterol efflux through inhibition of stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Walnuts significantly decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normo- and hypercholesterolemic individuals. No study to date has evaluated the effects of walnuts on cholesterol efflux, the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport, in macrophage-derived foam cells (MDFC). The present study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which walnut oil affects cholesterol efflux. Methods The extract of English walnuts (walnut oil) was dissolved in DMSO and applied to cultured THP-1 MDFC cells (0.5 mg/mL). THP-1 MDFC also were treated with human sera (10%, v:v) taken from subjects in a walnut feeding study. Cholesterol efflux was examined by liquid scintillation counting. Changes in gene expression were quantified by real time PCR. Results Walnut oil treatment significantly increased cholesterol efflux through decreasing the expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) in MDFC. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in walnuts, recaptured SCD1 reduction in MDFC, a mechanism mediated through activation of nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). Postprandial serum treatment also increased cholesterol efflux in MDFC. When categorized by baseline C-reactive protein (CRP; cut point of 2 mg/L), subjects in the lower CRP sub-group benefited more from dietary intervention, including a more increase in cholesterol efflux, a greater reduction in SCD1, and a blunted postprandial lipemia. Conclusion In conclusion, walnut oil contains bioactive molecules that significantly improve cholesterol efflux in MDFC. However, the beneficial effects of walnut intake may be reduced by the presence of a pro-inflammatory state. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00938340 PMID:21871057

  11. Effects of antidepressants on IP-10 production in LPS-activated THP-1 human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Kuo, Chang-Hung; Yang, Pinchen; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Hung, Chih-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease are common serious illnesses worldwide. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors may reduce the mortality of cardiovascular disease patients with comorbid depression. Interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a type 1 T helper cell (Th1)-related chemokine, contributes to manifestations of atherosclerosis during cardiovascular inflammations; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms linking cardiovascular disease and effective antidepressants have remained elusive. We investigated the in vitro effects of six different classes of antidepressants on the IP-10 chemokine expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes, and their detailed intracellular mechanisms. The human monocytes were pretreated with antidepressants (10⁻⁸-10⁻⁵ M) before LPS-stimulation. IP-10 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then intracellular signaling was investigated using Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Fluoxetine and bupropion suppressed LPS-induced IP-10 expression in monocytes, and they had no cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, fluoxetine inhibited LPS-induced IP-10 expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway. Fluoxetine and bupropion could not only treat depression but also reduce Th1-related chemokine IP-10 production in human monocytes. Our results may indicate a possible mechanism related to how particular antidepressants reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  12. A CRE/ATF-like site in the upstream regulatory sequence of the human interleukin 1 beta gene is necessary for induction in U937 and THP-1 monocytic cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J G; Chandra, G; Clay, W C; Stinnett, S W; Haneline, S A; Lorenz, J J; Patel, I R; Wisely, G B; Furdon, P J; Taylor, J D

    1993-01-01

    Transfection of U937 and THP-1 cells with a recombinant plasmid, pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT, containing 4 kb of the interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) gene upstream regulatory sequence resulted in inducer-dependent expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. Treatment of the transfected cells with various combinations of the inducers lipopolysaccharide, phorbol myristate acetate, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP upregulated the IL-1 beta promoter. In U937 and THP-1 cells, maximum stimulation of both the endogenous IL-1 beta gene and pIL1(4.0kb)-CAT transfectants was observed following treatment with the combination of inducing agents lipopolysaccharide-phorbol myristate acetate-dibutyryl cyclic AMP. This combination of inducing agents was used to identify and study, at the molecular level, some of the regulatory elements necessary for induction of the IL-1 beta gene. A series of 5' deletion derivatives of the upstream regulatory sequence were used in transient transfection assays to identify an 80-bp fragment located between -2720 and -2800 bp upstream of the mRNA start site that was required for induction. Exonuclease III mapping, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), and DNA sequence analysis of this region were used to identify a transcription factor binding sequence which contained a potential cyclic AMP response element (CRE/ATF)- and NF-kappa B-like binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/ATF-like site resulted in the loss of binding of a specific factor or factors as determined by EMSA. The loss of binding activity directly correlated with a loss of approximately 75% of promoter activity as determined in transient transfection assays. As determined by EMSA, the factor binding to the CRE/ATF-like site was present in nuclear extracts prepared from both uninduced and induced THP-1 and U937 cells. However, the intensity of the band appeared to be increased when nuclear extracts from induced cells were used. In contrast to the CRE/ATF mutation, which

  13. Evaluation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the human TREM-1 gene in vitamin D3-matured THP-1 macrophage-like cells.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Hiroshi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) plays a role in inflammation by augmenting inflammatory responses through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. TREM-1 is expressed in mature macrophages, and is upregulated by stimulation with bacterial components, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the transcription of the human TREM-1 gene were examined using a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that TREM-1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a low level in resting cells, and that its expression was upregulated by treatment with vitamin D3 (VitD3), but not by LPS. Importantly, TREM-1 mRNA expression was further upregulated by stimulation of the VitD3‑treated THP-1 cells with LPS. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay revealed that the serum response element (SRE) was involved in VitD3-induced promoter activity, whereas the activator protein-1 (AP-1) sites participated in the VitD3- and LPS-induced promoter activity. Of note, the CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) site contributed not only to basal, but also to VitD3- and LPS-induced promoter activity. Transfection with transcription factor oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) decoys indicated that transcription factors of the C/EBP and AP-1 families are likely involved in the basal, as well as in the VitD3- and LPS-induced TREM-1 transcription. Western blot analysis indicated that, of the members of the C/EBP family, C/EBPα was constitutively expressed in resting cells; its expression was enhanced by treatment with VitD3 and was further increased by treatment with VitD3 and LPS. Moreover, the expression of c-Fos and c-Jun (members of the AP-1 family) was augmented by treatment with both VitD3 and LPS. These observations indicate that members of the C/EBP family participate not only in basal, but also in the VitD3- and LPS-induced promoter activity of the human

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M

    1996-01-01

    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  15. Nucleophosmin Mutants Promote Adhesion, Migration and Invasion of Human Leukemia THP-1 Cells through MMPs Up-regulation via Ras/ERK MAPK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Jingrong; Shao, Huiyuan; Chen, Xianchun; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Quan, Jing; Zou, Qin; Jin, Hongjun; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mutated nucleophosmin (NPM1) has been defined as a unique subgroup in the new classification of myeloid neoplasm, and the AML patients with mutated NPM1 frequently present extramedullary infiltration, but how NPM1 mutants regulate this process remains elusive. In this study, we found that overexpression of type A NPM1 gene mutation (NPM1-mA) enhanced the adhesive, migratory and invasive potential in THP-1 AML cells lacking mutated NPM1. NPM1-mA had up-regulated expression and gelatinolytic matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2)/MMP-9 activity, as assessed by real-time PCR, western blotting and gelatin zymography. Following immunoprecipitation analysis to identify the interaction of NPM1-mA with K-Ras, we focused on the effect of NPM1-mA overexpression on the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling axis and showed that NPM1-mA increased the MEK and ERK phosphorylation levels, as evaluated by western blotting. Notably, a specific inhibitor of the ERK/MAPK pathway (PD98059), but not p38/MAPK, JNK/MAPK or PI3-K/AKT inhibitors, markedly decreased the cell invasion numbers in a transwell assay. Further experiments demonstrated that blocking the ERK/MAPK pathway by PD98059 resulted in reduced MMP-2/9 protein levels and MMP-9 activity. Additionally, NPM1-mA overexpression had down-regulated gene expression and protein production of tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2) in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, evaluation of gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset revealed that MMP-2 was overexpressed in AML patient samples with NPM1 mutated and high MMP-2 expression associated with leukemic skin infiltration. Taken together, our results reveal that NPM1 mutations contribute to the invasive potential of AML cells through MMPs up-regulation via Ras/ERK MAPK signaling pathway activation and offer novel insights into the potential role of NPM1 mutations in leukemogenesis. PMID:26884713

  16. THP-1 monocytes but not macrophages as a potential alternative for CD34{sup +} dendritic cells to identify chemical skin sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrechts, Nathalie Verstraelen, Sandra Lodewyckx, Hanne; Felicio, Ana; Hooyberghs, Jef; Witters, Hilda; Tendeloo, Viggo van; Cauwenberge, Paul van; Nelissen, Inge; Heuvel, Rosette van den; Schoeters, Greet

    2009-04-15

    Early detection of the sensitizing potential of chemicals is an emerging issue for chemical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In our institute, an in vitro classification model for prediction of chemical-induced skin sensitization based on gene expression signatures in human CD34{sup +} progenitor-derived dendritic cells (DC) has been developed. This primary cell model is able to closely mimic the induction phase of sensitization by Langerhans cells in the skin, but it has drawbacks, such as the availability of cord blood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human in vitro cultured THP-1 monocytes or macrophages display a similar expression profile for 13 predictive gene markers previously identified in DC and whether they also possess a discriminating capacity towards skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers based on these marker genes. To this end, the cell models were exposed to 5 skin sensitizers (ammonium hexachloroplatinate IV, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, eugenol, para-phenylenediamine, and tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and 5 non-sensitizers (L-glutamic acid, methyl salicylate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, tributyltin chloride, and zinc sulfate) for 6, 10, and 24 h, and mRNA expression of the 13 genes was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. The transcriptional response of 7 out of 13 genes in THP-1 monocytes was significantly correlated with DC, whereas only 2 out of 13 genes in THP-1 macrophages. After a cross-validation of a discriminant analysis of the gene expression profiles in the THP-1 monocytes, this cell model demonstrated to also have a capacity to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. However, the DC model was superior to the monocyte model for discrimination of (non-)sensitizing chemicals.

  17. Inhibitory effect of miR-125b on hepatitis C virus core protein-induced TLR2/MyD88 signaling in THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Jie, Sheng-Hua; Tong, Qiao-Xia; Lu, Meng-Ji; Yang, Dong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of miR-125b in regulating monocyte immune responses induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. METHODS: Monocytic THP-1 cells were treated with various concentrations of recombinant HCV core protein, and cytokines and miR-125b expression in these cells were analyzed. The requirement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88 gene for HCV core protein-induced immune responses was determined by the transfection of THP-1 cells with gene knockdown vectors expressing either TLR2 siRNA or MyD88 siRNA. The effect of miR-125b overexpression on TLR2/MyD88 signaling was examined by transfecting THP-1 cells with miR-125b mimic RNA oligos. RESULTS: In response to HCV core protein stimulation, cytokine production was up-regulated and miR-125b expression was down-regulated in THP-1 cells. The modulatory effect of HCV core protein on cellular events was dose-dependent and required functional TLR2 or MyD88 gene. Forced miR-125b expression abolished the HCV core protein-induced enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 expression by 66%, 54%, and 66%, respectively (P < 0.001), by inhibiting MyD88-mediated signaling, including phosphorylation of NF-κBp65, ERK, and P38. CONCLUSION: The inverse correlation between miR-125b and cytokine expression after HCV core challenge suggests that miR-125b may negatively regulate HCV-induced immune responses by targeting TLR2/MyD88 signaling in monocytes. PMID:27158204

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gusman, Grasielle S.; Campana, Priscilla R. V.; Castro, Luciano C.; Castilho, Rachel O.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Braga, Fernão C.

    2015-01-01

    Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25878716

  19. Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts differentially regulates the expression if IL-1beta and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Allen-Hall, Lisa; Cano, Pablo; Arnason, John T; Rojas, Rosario; Lock, Olga; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2007-01-19

    Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as cat's claw, is a medicinal plant native to Peru, which has been used for decades in the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Uncaria tomentosa can be used as an antioxidant, has anti-apoptotic properties, and can enhance DNA repair, however it is best know for its anti-inflammatory properties. Treatment with Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibits the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, which is a critical mediator of the immune response. In this paper, we showed that treatment of THP-1 monocyte-like cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibited the MAP kinase signaling pathway and altered cytokine expression. Using ELISA assays, we showed that treatment with Uncaria tomentosa extracts augmented LPS-dependent expression of IL-1beta by 2.4-fold, while inhibiting the LPS-dependent expression of TNF-alpha by 5.5-fold. We also showed that treatment of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts blocked ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts has opposite effects on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha secretion, and that these changes may involve effects on the MAP kinase pathway.

  20. Site-specific protein adducts of 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal in human THP-1 monocytic cells: Protein carbonylation is diminished by ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Juan; Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Singhal, Mudita; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2010-01-01

    The protein targets and sites of modification by 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE) in human monocytic THP-1 cells after exogenous exposure to HNE were examined using a multi-pronged proteomic approach involving electrophoretic, immunoblotting and mass spectrometric methods. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal anti-HNE antibodies showed several proteins as targets of HNE adduction. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with ascorbic acid resulted in reduced levels of HNE-protein adducts. Biotinylation of Michael-type HNE adducts using an aldehyde-reactive hydroxylamine-functionalized probe (aldehyde-reactive probe, ARP) and subsequent enrichment facilitated the identification and site-specific assignment of the modifications by LC-MS/MS analysis. Sixteen proteins were unequivocally identified as targets of HNE adduction and eighteen sites of HNE modification at Cys and His residues were assigned. HNE exposure of THP-1 cells resulted in the modification of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and regulation, proteins associated with stress responses and enzymes of the glycolytic and other metabolic pathways. This study yielded the first evidence of site-specific adduction of HNE to Cys-295 in tubulin α-1B chain, Cys-351 and Cys-499 in α-actinin-4, Cys-328 in vimentin, Cys-369 in D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and His-246 in aldolase A. PMID:20043646

  1. Site-Specific Protein Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-Nonenal in Human THP-1 Monocytic Cells: Protein Carbonylation Is Diminished by Ascorbic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Juan; Chung, Woon-Gye; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Singhal, Mudita; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2010-01-18

    The protein targets and sites of modification by 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE) in human monocytic THP-1 cells after exogenous exposure to HNE were examined using a multipronged proteomic approach involving electrophoretic, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometric methods. Immunoblot analysis using monoclonal anti-HNE antibodies showed several proteins as targets of HNE adduction. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with ascorbic acid resulted in reduced levels of HNE-protein adducts. Biotinylation of Michael-type HNE adducts using an aldehyde-reactive hydroxylamine-functionalized probe (aldehyde-reactive probe, ARP) and subsequent enrichment facilitated the identification and site-specific assignment of the modifications by LC-MS/MS analysis. Sixteen proteins were unequivocally identified as targets of HNE adduction, and eighteen sites of HNE modification at Cys and His residues were assigned. HNE exposure of THP-1 cells resulted in the modification of proteins involved in cytoskeleton organization and regulation, proteins associated with stress responses, and enzymes of the glycolytic and other metabolic pathways. Finally, this study yielded the first evidence of site-specific adduction of HNE to Cys-295 in tubulin α-1B chain, Cys-351 and Cys-499 in α-actinin-4, Cys-328 in vimentin, Cys-369 in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, and His-246 in aldolase A.

  2. Interferon-γ enhances phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell attachment and tumor necrosis factor production via the NF-κB pathway in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    During inflammation, activated macrophages express adhesion molecules and produce cytokines that interact with other hematopoietic and stromal cells. THP-1 non-adherent human monocytic cells differentiate into plastic-adherent macrophages via αVβ3 integrin, by ERK activation in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This has proven to be a valuable model for investigating functional monocyte/macrophage diversity. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a Th1-cytokine that is crucial in macrophage activation. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-γ on adhesion and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. IFN-γ is incapable of inducing cell attachment and TNF production; however, it cumulatively upregulated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. IFN-γ increased αV integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and among these PMA-induced cell surface adhesion molecules, the blocking antibody for αV integrin suppressed adhesion and TNF production. Furthermore, IFN-γ enhanced PMA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and not ERK phosphorylation. Accordingly, the NF-κB pathway inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) inhibited the enhancing effect of IFN-γ on adhesion and TNF production. By contrast, the MEK inhibitor (U0126) almost completely eliminated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. In conclusion, IFN-γ regulates macrophage activation by mediating the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:23589028

  3. Interferon-γ enhances phorbol myristate acetate-induced cell attachment and tumor necrosis factor production via the NF-κB pathway in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuichi; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    During inflammation, activated macrophages express adhesion molecules and produce cytokines that interact with other hematopoietic and stromal cells. THP-1 non-adherent human monocytic cells differentiate into plastic-adherent macrophages via αVβ3 integrin, by ERK activation in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This has proven to be a valuable model for investigating functional monocyte/macrophage diversity. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a Th1-cytokine that is crucial in macrophage activation. In this study, we investigated the effects of IFN-γ on adhesion and the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells. IFN-γ is incapable of inducing cell attachment and TNF production; however, it cumulatively upregulated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. IFN-γ increased αV integrin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression and among these PMA-induced cell surface adhesion molecules, the blocking antibody for αV integrin suppressed adhesion and TNF production. Furthermore, IFN-γ enhanced PMA-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and not ERK phosphorylation. Accordingly, the NF-κB pathway inhibitor (BAY 11-7082) inhibited the enhancing effect of IFN-γ on adhesion and TNF production. By contrast, the MEK inhibitor (U0126) almost completely eliminated PMA-induced basal adhesion and TNF production. In conclusion, IFN-γ regulates macrophage activation by mediating the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  4. Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, suppresses phorbol ester-induced expression of multiple scavenger receptor genes in THP-1 human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Ai; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2006-05-29

    Unregulated uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) via macrophage scavenger receptors (SRs) such as lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a key event in atherosclerosis. In this study, we examined the effects of five selected food phytochemicals on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced LOX-1 mRNA expression in THP-1 human monocyte-like cells. Nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, markedly reduced it in dose- and time-dependent manners. It also suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, and c-Jun (Ser-63), thereby inhibiting the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1. Further nobiletin attenuated expression of SR-A, SR-PSOX, CD36, and CD68, but not CLA-1, mRNA, leading to the blockade of DiI-acLDL uptake. Together, our results suggest that nobiletin is a promising phytochemical for regulating atherosclerosis with reasonable action mechanisms.

  5. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27689075

  6. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  7. I. Suppression by compound 48/80 of bacterial endotoxin-inducible monocytic tissue factor activity: direct blockade of factor VII binding to THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Chu, A J; Walton, M A; Seto, A; Fox, M J; Prasad, J K; Wang, Z G

    1999-10-18

    Hypercoagulation with upregulated monocytic tissue factor (TF) activity often occurs under a variety of inflammatory conditions including endotoxemia. The antagonism to bacterial endotoxin (LPS) signaling often results in the depression in TF upregulation. We herein report that compound 48/80 (48/80) significantly depressed LPS-induced TF activity in human and cebus monkey peripheral blood monocytes. Employing a model monocyte-like cell line (THP-1), we explored the regulatory mechanism to identify the inhibitory site(s) of 48/80. We determine whether the inhibition results from the blockade of LPS signaling. 48/80 dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced TF activity. Chase of LPS-challenged cells with 48/80 also significantly offset TF upregulation. In immunofluorescent approaches, FACScan analysis revealed that 48/80 had no effect on either LPS recognition or the expression of its receptors (CD14 and CD11b). Moreover, LPS-induced TF expression as well as synthesis remained unaffected in the presence of 48/80. Consistent with the independence of LPS action, 48/80 was also able to inhibit TF activity induced by A23187, ionomycin, or Quin-2 AM. Interestingly, 48/80 significantly decreased the FVII binding to either resting or LPS-challenged cells. In conclusion, our results elucidate that the inhibitory action of 48/80 was independent of LPS signaling including recognition, receptor expression, and the induced TF expression/ synthesis. However, 48/80 was able to directly block FVII binding to monocytic TF, thereby resulting in such antagonism to LPS-induced TF-initiated extrinsic coagulation.

  8. Pneumolysin-dependent and -independent gene expression identified by cDNA microarray analysis of THP-1 human mononuclear cells stimulated by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P David; Thornton, Justin; Barker, Katherine S; McDaniel, D Olga; Sacks, Gordon S; Swiatlo, Edwin; McDaniel, Larry S

    2003-04-01

    Pneumolysin is an important virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, interacting with the membranes of host cells to elicit a multitude of inflammatory responses. We used cDNA microarrays to identify genes which are responsive to S. pneumoniae in a pneumolysin-dependent and -independent fashion. The THP-1 human monocytic cell line was coincubated for 3 h with medium alone, with the virulent type 2 S. pneumoniae strain D39, or with the isogenic strain PLN, which does not express pneumolysin. RNA was isolated from the monocytes and hybridized on cDNA microarrays. Of 4,133 genes evaluated, 142 were found to be responsive in a pneumolysin-dependent fashion, whereas 40 were found to be responsive independent of pneumolysin. Genes that were up-regulated in cells exposed to D39 relative to those exposed to PLN included genes encoding proteins such as mannose binding lectin 1, lysozyme, alpha-1 catenin, cadherin 17, caspases 4 and 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta), interleukin 8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3), IL-2 receptor beta (IL-2Rbeta), IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Ralpha), interferon receptor 2, and prostaglandin E synthase. Down-regulated genes included those encoding complement component receptor 2/CD21, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1). Pneumolysin-independent responses included down-regulation of the genes encoding CD68, CD53, CD24, transforming growth factor beta2, and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1. These results demonstrate the striking effects of pneumolysin on the host cell upon exposure to S. pneumoniae.

  9. Pertussis Toxin Exploits Host Cell Signaling Pathways Induced by Meningitis-Causing E. coli K1-RS218 and Enhances Adherence of Monocytic THP-1 Cells to Human Cerebral Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Starost, Laura Julia; Karassek, Sascha; Sano, Yasuteru; Kanda, Takashi; Kim, Kwang Sik; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, Marcus Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTx), the major virulence factor of the whooping cough-causing bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis, permeabilizes the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and in vivo. Breaking barriers might promote translocation of meningitis-causing bacteria across the BBB, thereby facilitating infection. PTx activates several host cell signaling pathways exploited by the neonatal meningitis-causing Escherichia coli K1-RS218 for invasion and translocation across the BBB. Here, we investigated whether PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 exert similar effects on MAPK p38, NF-κB activation and transcription of downstream targets in human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells using qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and ELISA in combination with specific inhibitors. PTx and E. coli K1-RS218 activate MAPK p38, but only E. coli K1-RS218 activates the NF-κB pathway. mRNA and protein levels of p38 and NF-κB downstream targets including IL-6, IL-8, CxCL-1, CxCL-2 and ICAM-1 were increased. The p38 specific inhibitor SB203590 blocked PTx-enhanced activity, whereas E. coli K1-RS218’s effects were inhibited by the NF-κB inhibitor Bay 11-7082. Further, we found that PTx enhances the adherence of human monocytic THP-1 cells to human cerebral endothelial TY10 cells, thereby contributing to enhanced translocation. These modulations of host cell signaling pathways by PTx and meningitis-causing E. coli support their contributions to pathogen and monocytic THP-1 cells translocation across the BBB. PMID:27754355

  10. Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 downregulates the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 by activating the TLR2/NF-кB/ZNF202 pathway in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liangjie; Zhang, Zizhen; Zhang, Min; Yu, Xiaohua; Yao, Feng; Tan, Yulin; Liu, Dan; Gong, Duo; Chong, Huang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xilong; Tian, Guoping; Tang, Chaoke

    2016-04-01

    Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) has been shown to promote the development of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane protein, plays a critical role in mediating cholesterol export from macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). However, whether MALP-2 can regulate the expression of ABCA1 is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of MALP-2 on ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that the treatment of cells with MALP-2 decreased ABCA1 level and suppressed cholesterol efflux in both concentration- and time-dependent manners. The contents of intracellular cholesterol were significantly increased in the presence of MALP-2. Moreover, MALP-2-mediated inhibition of ABCA1 expression was abolished by siRNA of either Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). A similar effect was produced by treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. In addition, MALP-2-induced activation of NF-κB markedly increased zinc finger protein 202 (ZNF202) level, and ZNF202 siRNA impaired the effects of MALP-2 on ABCA1 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that MALP-2 can decrease ABCA1 expression and subsequent cholesterol efflux through activation of the TLR2/NF-κB/ZNF202 signaling pathway in THP-1 macrophages. PMID:26922321

  11. Silymarin Constituents Enhance ABCA1 Expression in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limei; Rotter, Susanne; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is a hepatoprotective mixture of flavonolignans and flavonoids extracted from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn). This study investigates the effect of major bioactive constituents from silymarin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B, silydianin, silychristin, isosilychristin, and taxifolin, on the expression of ABCA1, an important cholesterol efflux transporter, in THP-1-derived macrophages. Four of the studied compounds, isosilybin A, silybin B, silychristin and isosilychristin, were found to significantly induce ABCA1 protein expression without affecting cell viability. Moreover, isosilybin A, a partial PPARγ agonist, was found to promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings first show ABCA1 protein up-regulating activity of active constituents of silymarin and provide new avenues for their further study in the context of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26729088

  12. DHRS3, a retinal reductase, is differentially regulated by retinoic acid and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 cells and rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Zolfaghari, Reza; Chen, Qiuyan

    2012-01-01

    Both retinoid status and inflammation have been shown to control the level of expression of retinoid homeostatic genes. In the present study, DHRS3, previously shown to possess retinal reductase activity, was identified by microarray analysis of THP-1 monocytes as a possible gene target of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). In these cells, DHRS3 mRNA increased 30- to 40-fold after treatment with ≤20 nM RA for 24 h, while DHRS3 protein also increased. Of several synthetic retinoids tested, only Am580, a RA receptor-α-selective retinoid, increased DHRS3 mRNA expression. The full-length DHRS3 cDNA was cloned from rat liver and subjected to in vitro transcription-translation. Two major ∼30- and 35-kDa proteins were detected. In adult rat tissues, DHRS3 mRNA was most abundant in the adrenal gland, liver, and ovary. In the liver, DHRS3 is expressed in hepatocytes and possibly in all liver cells. To evaluate whether DHRS3 is regulated in the liver by RA and/or inflammatory stimuli, we treated rats for 6 h with RA or LPS or both. DHRS3 mRNA was doubled by RA but reduced by >90% after treatment with LPS in the absence and presence of RA. On the basis of our results, DHRS3 mRNA expression is regulated by RA in a tissue- or cell-type specific manner; the RA-induced increase in DHRS3 may contribute to retinoid storage; and a reduction of DHRS3 expression in the liver during inflammation may contribute to the perturbation of whole body vitamin A metabolism that has previously been shown to occur in conditions of inflammatory stress. PMID:22790594

  13. DHRS3, a retinal reductase, is differentially regulated by retinoic acid and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 cells and rat liver.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghari, Reza; Chen, Qiuyan; Ross, A Catharine

    2012-09-01

    Both retinoid status and inflammation have been shown to control the level of expression of retinoid homeostatic genes. In the present study, DHRS3, previously shown to possess retinal reductase activity, was identified by microarray analysis of THP-1 monocytes as a possible gene target of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). In these cells, DHRS3 mRNA increased 30- to 40-fold after treatment with ≤20 nM RA for 24 h, while DHRS3 protein also increased. Of several synthetic retinoids tested, only Am580, a RA receptor-α-selective retinoid, increased DHRS3 mRNA expression. The full-length DHRS3 cDNA was cloned from rat liver and subjected to in vitro transcription-translation. Two major ∼30- and 35-kDa proteins were detected. In adult rat tissues, DHRS3 mRNA was most abundant in the adrenal gland, liver, and ovary. In the liver, DHRS3 is expressed in hepatocytes and possibly in all liver cells. To evaluate whether DHRS3 is regulated in the liver by RA and/or inflammatory stimuli, we treated rats for 6 h with RA or LPS or both. DHRS3 mRNA was doubled by RA but reduced by >90% after treatment with LPS in the absence and presence of RA. On the basis of our results, DHRS3 mRNA expression is regulated by RA in a tissue- or cell-type specific manner; the RA-induced increase in DHRS3 may contribute to retinoid storage; and a reduction of DHRS3 expression in the liver during inflammation may contribute to the perturbation of whole body vitamin A metabolism that has previously been shown to occur in conditions of inflammatory stress.

  14. Upconversion nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy induces THP-1 macrophage apoptosis via ROS bursts and activation of the mitochondrial caspase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xing; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Longbin; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Li, Xuesong; Zhao, Jing; Kou, Jiayuan; Jiang, Yueqing; Zheng, Xiufeng; Liu, Zhongni; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye; Wang, You; Yang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most vital cardiovascular disease, which poses a great threat to human health. Macrophages play an important role in the progression of AS. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a useful therapeutic modality not only in the treatment of cancer but also in the treatment of AS. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the activity of PDT, using mesoporous-silica-coated upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles encapsulating chlorin e6 (UCNPs-Ce6) in the induction of apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages. Here, we investigated the ability of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT to induce THP-1 macrophage apoptosis by facilitating the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) to depolarize mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C were examined using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Our results indicated that the levels of ROS were significantly increased in the PDT group, resulting in both MPTP opening and MMP depolarization, which led to apoptosis. In addition, immunofluorescence and Western blotting revealed that PDT induced both Bax translocation and the release of cytochrome C, as well as upregulation of cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Therefore, we demonstrated that UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT induces apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages via ROS bursts. The proapoptotic factor Bax subsequently translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in the MPTP opening and cytochrome C release. This study demonstrated the great potential of UCNPs-Ce6-mediated PDT in the treatment of AS. PMID:26045663

  15. Silver wire amplifies the signaling mechanism for IL-1beta production more than silver submicroparticles in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Jin; Pak, Pyo June; Park, Sung Hyo; Ju, Jae Eun; Kim, Joong-Su; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Chung, Namhyun

    2014-01-01

    Silver materials have been widely used in diverse fields. However, their toxicity and their mechanism, especially in different forms, have not been studied sufficiently. Thus, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) production were investigated using macrophage-like THP-1 cells in the presence of Ag microparticles (AgMPs, 2.7 µm), Ag submicroparticles (AgSMPs, 150 nm), and Ag wires (AgWs, 274 nm×5.3 µm). The levels of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and IL-1β production by AgWs were higher than those by the other two AgSMPs and AgMPs. This trend was also observed with each step of the signaling mechanism for IL-1β production, which is a single pathway affiliated with ROS generation or lysosomal rupture or both, cathepsin B, caspase-1 (NALP3 inflammasome), and finally IL-1β production in THP-1 cells. All these results suggest that, for development of safe and effective silver materials, the shape or form of silver materials should be considered, especially for macrophage cell lines because epithelial cell lines are not overly sensitive to silver materials. PMID:25396430

  16. Attenuation of niacin-induced prostaglandin D2 generation by omega-3 fatty acids in THP-1 macrophages and Langerhans dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    VanHorn, Justin; Altenburg, Jeffrey D; Harvey, Kevin A; Xu, Zhidong; Kovacs, Richard J; Siddiqui, Rafat A

    2012-01-01

    Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound that has several cardio-beneficial effects. However, its use is limited due to the induction of a variable flushing response in most individuals. Flushing occurs from a niacin receptor mediated generation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid metabolism. This study examined the ability of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), to attenuate niacin-induced prostaglandins in THP-1 macrophages. Niacin induced both PGD2 and PGE2 generation in a dose-dependent manner. Niacin also caused an increase in cytosolic calcium and activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2. The increase in PGD2 and PGE2 was reduced by both docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, but not by oleic acid. Omega-3 PUFAs efficiently incorporated into cellular phospholipids at the expense of arachidonic acid, whereas oleic acid incorporated to a higher extent but had no effect on arachidonic acid levels. Omega-3 PUFAs also reduced surface expression of GPR109A, a human niacin receptor. Furthermore, omega-3 PUFAs also inhibited the niacin-induced increase in cytosolic calcium. Niacin and/or omega-3 PUFAs minimally affected cyclooxygenase-1 activity and had no effect on cyclooxygenase -2 activity. The effects of niacin on PGD2 generation were further confirmed using Langerhans dendritic cells. Results of the present study indicate that omega-3 PUFAs reduced niacin-induced prostaglandins formation by diminishing the availability of their substrate, as well as reducing the surface expression of niacin receptors. In conclusion, this study suggests that the regular use of omega-3 PUFAs along with niacin can potentially reduce the niacin-induced flushing response in sensitive patients. PMID:22442634

  17. Oleoylethanolamide exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced THP-1 cells by enhancing PPARα signaling and inhibiting the NF-κB and ERK1/2/AP-1/STAT3 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichao; Guo, Han; Li, Ying; Meng, Xianglan; Yan, Lu; Dan Zhang; Wu, Sangang; Zhou, Hao; Peng, Lu; Xie, Qiang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory actions of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells. The cells were stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml) in the presence or absence of OEA (10, 20 and 40 μM). The pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The THP-1 cells were transiently transfected with PPARα small-interfering RNA, and TLR4 activity was determined with a blocking test using anti-TLR4 antibody. Additionally, a special inhibitor was used to analyse the intracellular signaling pathway. OEA exerted a potent anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and TLR4 expression, and by enhancing PPARα expression. The modulatory effects of OEA on LPS-induced inflammation depended on PPARα and TLR4. Importantly, OEA inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation, expression of AP-1, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3. In summary, our results demonstrated that OEA exerts anti-inflammatory effects by enhancing PPARα signaling, inhibiting the TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, and interfering with the ERK1/2-dependent signaling cascade (TLR4/ERK1/2/AP-1/STAT3), which suggests that OEA may be a therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases. PMID:27721381

  18. Furano-sesquiterpene from soft coral, Sinularia kavarittiensis: induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated caspase-dependent pathway in THP-1, leukemia cell line.

    PubMed

    Arepalli, S K; Sridhar, V; Venkateswara Rao, J; Kavin Kennady, P; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2009-05-01

    Bioassay directed fractionation and purification led to the successful isolation of a furano sesquiterpene, Methyl 5-[(1E,5E)-2,6-Dimethyl octa-1,5,7-trienyl] furan-3-carboxylate (MDTFC), a bioactive component from a soft coral, Sinularia kavarittiensis. Its structure was determined by analyzing (1)H, (13)C NMR and FAB-MS. The results show that MDTFC could efficiently and selectively inhibit the proliferation of several human cancer cell lines. Among all the cell lines, THP-1 was found to be most sensitive (IC(50) 29.59 microM), whereas the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were least effected (IC(50) 464.16 microM). The molecular mechanism of MDTFC mediated apoptosis was investigated for the first time. Induction of apoptosis in THP-1 cells was characterized by cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and decrease in level of pro-caspases 3, 9 and increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Our results were further strengthened through cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (Psim) and cytosolic release of cytochrome c, which are key events during apoptosis. Moreover, phosphatidyl serine exposure and appearance of sub-G1 peak also demonstrated cell death, when analyzed by flow cytometry. DNA fragmentation was prevented moderately when pretreated with caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) and largely with caspase-3 inhibitor (Z-DEVD-FMK). In summary, MDTFC mediated apoptosis involves mitochondria-dependent pathway and the present compound of marine origin might have a therapeutic value against human cancer cell lines and especially on leukemia cells. PMID:19283488

  19. Contribution of the Major ND10 Proteins PML, hDaxx and Sp100 to the Regulation of Human Cytomegalovirus Latency and Lytic Replication in the Monocytic Cell Line THP-1

    PubMed Central

    Wagenknecht, Nadine; Reuter, Nina; Scherer, Myriam; Reichel, Anna; Müller, Regina; Stamminger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, also termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as nuclear protein accumulations mediating an intrinsic cellular defense against viral infections via chromatin-based mechanisms, however, their contribution to the control of herpesviral latency is still controversial. In this study, we utilized the monocytic cell line THP-1 as an in vitro latency model for human cytomegalovirus infection (HCMV). Characterization of THP-1 cells by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of all major ND10 components. THP-1 cells with a stable, individual knockdown of PML, hDaxx or Sp100 were generated. Importantly, depletion of the major ND10 proteins did not prevent the terminal cellular differentiation of THP-1 monocytes. After construction of a recombinant, endotheliotropic human cytomegalovirus expressing IE2-EYFP, we investigated whether the depletion of ND10 proteins affects the onset of viral IE gene expression. While after infection of differentiated, THP-1-derived macrophages as well as during differentiation-induced reactivation from latency an increase in the number of IE-expressing cells was readily detectable in the absence of the major ND10 proteins, no effect was observed in non-differentiated monocytes. We conclude that PML, hDaxx and Sp100 primarily act as cellular restriction factors during lytic HCMV replication and during the dynamic process of reactivation but do not serve as key determinants for the establishment of HCMV latency. PMID:26057166

  20. Proteomic-Based Approach To Gain Insight into Reprogramming of THP-1 Cells Exposed to Leishmania donovani over an Early Temporal Window

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alok Kumar; Pandey, Rajeev Kumar; Siqueira-Neto, Jair Lage; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H.; Shaha, Chandrima

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. It lives and multiplies within the harsh environment of macrophages. In order to investigate how intracellular parasite manipulate the host cell environment, we undertook a quantitative proteomic study of human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1) following infection with L. donovani. We used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to compare expression profiles of noninfected and L. donovani-infected THP-1 cells. We detected modifications of protein expression in key metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, suggesting a global reprogramming of cell metabolism by the parasite. An increased abundance of proteins involved in gene transcription, RNA splicing (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins [hnRNPs]), histones, and DNA repair and replication was observed at 24 h postinfection. Proteins involved in cell survival and signal transduction were more abundant at 24 h postinfection. Several of the differentially expressed proteins had not been previously implicated in response to the parasite, while the others support the previously identified proteins. Selected proteomics results were validated by real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. Similar changes were observed in L. donovani-infected human monocyte-derived primary macrophages. The effect of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knockdown of proteins validated the relevance of the host quantitative proteomic screen. Our findings indicate that the host cell proteome is modulated after L. donovani infection, provide evidence for global reprogramming of cell metabolism, and demonstrate the complex relations between the host and parasite at the molecular level. PMID:25690103

  1. Geniposide alleviates inflammation by suppressing MeCP2 in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury and LPS-treated THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao-tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Li, Wan-xia; Yang, Yang; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Geniposide (GP), an iridoid glucoside extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruits, has been used as a herbal medicine to treat liver and gall bladder disorders for many years. However the mechanism of anti-inflammatory is largely unknown. In this study, GP significantly attenuated inflammation in acute liver injury (ALI) mice model and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced THP-1 cells. It was demonstrated that GP obviously decreased the expression of Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of MeCP2 with siRNA suppressed the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α, while over-expression of MeCP2 had a proinflammatory effect on the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. Mechanistically, it was indicated that GP had anti-inflammatory effects at least in part, through suppressing MeCP2. Interestingly, GP could attenuate expressions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and GLIS family zinc finger 1 (GLIS1) but increase Ptched1 (PTCH1) expression. Similar findings were also demonstrated at the protein level by siRNA MeCP2. Furthermore, over-expression of MeCP2 obviously increased Shh and GLIS1 expressions but reduced PTCH1 expression. Taken together, GP may serve as an effective modulator of MeCP2-hedgehog pathway (Hh)-axis during the pathogenesis of inflammation. Our findings shed light on the potential therapeutic feature of GP in recovering inflammatory diseases. PMID:26371859

  2. Involvement of miR-Let7A in inflammatory response and cell survival/apoptosis regulated by resveratrol in THP-1 macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Jun, Mira; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, has multiple functions in cellular responses including apoptosis, survival, and differentiation. It also participates in the regulation of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. MicroRNA-Let-7A (miR-Let7A), known as a tumor suppressor miRNA, was recently reported to play a crucial role in both inflammation and apoptosis. Therefore, we examined involvement of miR-Let7A in the modulation of inflammation and cell survival/apoptosis regulated by resveratrol. MATERIALS/METHODS mRNA expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and protein expression of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), p-ASK1, and caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 were measured, and cell viability and Hoechst/PI staining for apoptosis were observed in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages with the treatment of resveratrol and/or miR-Let7A overexpression. RESULTS Pre-treatment with resveratrol (25-200 µM) resulted in significant recovery of the reduced cell viabilities under LPS-induced inflammatory condition and in markedly increased expression of miR-Let7A in non-stimulated or LPS-stimulated cells. Increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 induced by LPS were significantly attenuated, and decreased levels of IL-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were significantly restored by resveratrol and miR-Let7A overexpression, respectively, or in combination. Decreased expression of IL-4 mRNA by LPS stimulation was also significantly increased by miR-Let7A overexpression co-treated with resveratrol. In addition, decreased SIRT1 mRNA levels, and increased p-ASK1 levels and PI-positive cells by LPS stimulation were significantly restored by resveratrol and miR-Let7A overexpression, respectively, or in combination. CONCLUSIONS miR-Let7A may be involved in the inflammatory response and cell survival/apoptosis modulated by resveratrol in human THP-1 macrophages

  3. Cadmium inhibits IL-6 production and IL-6 mRNA expression in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1

    SciTech Connect

    Funkhouser, S.W.; Vredevoe, D.L.; Martinez-Maza, O. )

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium is a known immunotoxic agent in animal studies. Cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system are strategically located at portals of entry in humans and therefore may be particularly at risk for cadmium exposure through contaminated air, food, and drinking water. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, a pleiotropic cytokine, when an activated human monocytic cell line was exposed to cadmium. Results suggest that there were statistically significant lower levels of IL-6 at 0.06 mM cadmium (P < 0.05), and 0.8 and 0.1 mM cadmium (P < 0.01), determined via the ELISA method. IL-6 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were also decreased at these cadmium concentrations. The addition of a chelating agent, EDTA, to the cultures prevented the suppression of IL-6 secretion. 33 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The human cytomegalovirus lytic cycle is induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in peripheral blood monocytes and in the THP-1 monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-En; Miller, William E

    2015-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resides in a latent form in hematopoietic progenitors and undifferentiated cells within the myeloid lineage. Maturation and differentiation along the myeloid lineage triggers lytic replication. Here, we used peripheral blood monocytes and the monocytic cell line THP-1 to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on HCMV replication. Interestingly, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces lytic replication marked by upregulation of HCMV gene expression and production of infectious virus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 correlate with maturation/differentiation of the monocytes and not by directly stimulating the MIEP. These results are somewhat surprising as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 typically boosts immunity to bacteria and viruses rather than driving the infectious life cycle as it does for HCMV. Defining the signaling pathways kindled by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 will lead to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine the fate of HCMV once it infects cells in the myeloid lineage. PMID:25965798

  5. The human cytomegalovirus lytic cycle is induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in peripheral blood monocytes and in the THP-1 monocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-En; Miller, William E

    2015-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) resides in a latent form in hematopoietic progenitors and undifferentiated cells within the myeloid lineage. Maturation and differentiation along the myeloid lineage triggers lytic replication. Here, we used peripheral blood monocytes and the monocytic cell line THP-1 to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on HCMV replication. Interestingly, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces lytic replication marked by upregulation of HCMV gene expression and production of infectious virus. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 correlate with maturation/differentiation of the monocytes and not by directly stimulating the MIEP. These results are somewhat surprising as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 typically boosts immunity to bacteria and viruses rather than driving the infectious life cycle as it does for HCMV. Defining the signaling pathways kindled by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 will lead to a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms that determine the fate of HCMV once it infects cells in the myeloid lineage.

  6. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS) and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS). THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control). Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS) and two (one ADS and one non-ADS) collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles. PMID:26184251

  7. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS) and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS). THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control). Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS) and two (one ADS and one non-ADS) collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles. PMID:26184251

  8. Changes in the proteomic profile during the differential polarization status of the human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Hao; Jiang, Guanmin; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Xianfeng; Wang, Hao; Fang, Rui; Cai, Shaohui; Du, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages are heterogeneous and plastic populations that are an essential component of inflammation and host defense. To understand how macrophages respond to cytokine signals, we used 2DE to identify protein profiles in macrophages stimulated with interleukin 4 (M2) and those stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon γ (M1). In total, 32 differentially expressed proteins in THP-1 cells were identified by MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis. The different proteins were mainly involved in cellular structure, protein metabolism, stress response, oxidative response, and nitric oxide production during macrophage polarization. In particular, proteins playing important roles in production of nitric oxide (NO) were downregulated in M2 macrophages. Many antioxidant and heat shock proteins, which are related to oxidative response, were upregulated in M2 macrophages. More importantly, a remarkable decrease in intracellular ROS and NO production were detected in M2 macrophages. Our results provide a proteomic profile of differentially polarized macrophages and validate the function of the identified proteins, which may indicate possible mechanism of macrophage polarization process.

  9. Toxicity of nickel ions and comprehensive analysis of nickel ion-associated gene expression profiles in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Xie, Yu-Mei; Wang, Shu-Shui; Qiu, Qing-Huan; Zhou, Ying-Ling; Zeng, Guo-Hong

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of nickel ions during therapeutic nickel‑based alloy‑treatment in congenital heart disease by investigating the metal‑induced cytotoxicity to the human monocyte‑derived macrophage cell line THP‑1. THP‑1 cells were treated with NiCl2·6H2O (25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µM) for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. MTT was applied to detect THP‑1 cell proliferation following NiCl2 treatment. Apoptosis of THP‑1 cells was quantified using flow cytometry. Illumina sequencing was used for screening the associated genes, whose mRNA expression levels were further confirmed by quantitative real‑time polymerase chain reaction. High concentrations of nickel ions had a significant suppressive effect on cell proliferation at the three concentrations investigated (200, 400 and 800 µM). Treatment with nickel ions (25‑400 µM) for 48 h reduced cell viability in a dose‑dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of RELB, FIGF, SPI‑1, CXCL16 and CRLF2 were significantly increased following nickel treatment. The results of the present study suggested that nickel ions exert toxic effects on THP‑1 cell growth, which may indicate toxicity of the nickel ion during treatment of congenital heart disease. The identification of genes modified by the toxic effects of nickel on THP‑1 cells (EPOR, RELB, FIGF, SPI‑1, TGF‑β1, CXCL16 and CRLF2) may aid in the development of interventional measures for the treatment/prevention of nickel ion‑associated toxic effects during the treatment of congenital heart disease.

  10. Interleukin-8, CXCL1, and MicroRNA miR-146a Responses to Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Enteropathogenic E. coli in Human Intestinal Epithelial T84 and Monocytic THP-1 Cells after Apical or Basolateral Infection.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Harshana; Cichon, Christoph; Ölschläger, Tobias A; Sonnenborn, Ulrich; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Bacterium-host interactions in the gut proceed via directly contacted epithelial cells, the host's immune system, and a plethora of bacterial factors. Here we characterized and compared exemplary cytokine and microRNA (miRNA) responses of human epithelial and THP-1 cells toward the prototype enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strain E2348/69 (O127:H6) and the probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) (O6:K5:H1). Human T84 and THP-1 cells were used as cell culture-based model systems for epithelial and monocytic cells. Polarized T84 monolayers were infected apically or basolaterally. Bacterial challenges from the basolateral side resulted in more pronounced cytokine and miRNA responses than those observed for apical side infections. Interestingly, the probiotic EcN also caused a pronounced transcriptional increase of proinflammatory CXCL1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels when human T84 epithelial cells were infected from the basolateral side. miR-146a, which is known to regulate adaptor molecules in Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB signaling, was found to be differentially regulated in THP-1 cells between probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. To assess the roles of flagella and flagellin, we employed several flagellin mutants of EcN. EcN flagellin mutants induced reduced IL-8 as well as CXCL1 responses in T84 cells, suggesting that flagellin is an inducer of this cytokine response. Following infection with an EPEC type 3 secretion system (T3SS) mutant, we observed increased IL-8 and CXCL1 transcription in T84 and THP-1 cells compared to that in wild-type EPEC. This study emphasizes the differential induction of miR-146a by pathogenic and probiotic E. coli strains in epithelial and immune cells as well as a loss of probiotic properties in EcN interacting with cells from the basolateral side. PMID:27297392

  11. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette; Schwarze, Per E; Møller, Peter

    2009-03-31

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM), authentic traffic-generated particles, mineral PM and standard reference material (SRM2975) of diesel exhaust particles in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines. DNA damage was measured as strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites by the comet assay, whereas cell cytotoxicity was determined as lactate dehydrogenase release. The exposure to WSPM generated SB and FPG sites in both cell lines at concentrations from 2.5 or 25 microg/ml, which were not cytotoxic. Compared to all other studied particles, WSPM generated greater responses in terms of both SB and FPG sites. Organic extracts of WSPM and SRM2975 elicited higher levels of SB than native and washed PM at 25 and 100 microg/ml, whereas assay saturation precluded reliable assessment of FPG sites. During a 6h post-exposure period, in which the medium with PM had been replaced by fresh medium, 60% of the DNA lesions generated by WSPM were removed. In conclusion, WSPM generated more DNA damage than traffic-generated PM per unit mass in human cell lines, possibly due to the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in WSPM. This suggests that exposure to WSPM might be more hazardous than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer. PMID:19041418

  12. Generation of Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal with Heat Shock 60 kDa Protein 1 in Human Promyelocytic HL-60 and Monocytic THP-1 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Daga, Martina; Cetrangolo, Giovanni Paolo; Ciamporcero, Eric Stefano; Petrella, Claudia; Graf, Maria; Uchida, Koji; Mamone, Gianfranco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Ames, Paul R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60) is a chaperone and stress response protein responsible for protein folding and delivery of endogenous peptides to antigen-presenting cells and also a target of autoimmunity implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. By two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found that exposure of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells to a nontoxic concentration (10 μM) of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) yielded a HSP60 modified with HNE. We also detected adducts of HNE with putative uncharacterized protein CXorf49, the product of an open reading frame identified in various cell and tissue proteomes. Moreover, exposure of human monocytic THP-1 cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to 10 μM HNE, and to light density lipoprotein modified with HNE (HNE-LDL) or by copper-catalyzed oxidation (oxLDL), but not to native LDL, stimulated the formation of HNE adducts with HSP60, as detected by immunoprecipitation and western blot, well over basal levels. The identification of HNE-HSP60 adducts outlines a framework of mutually reinforcing interactions between endothelial cell stressors, like oxLDL and HSP60, whose possible outcomes, such as the amplification of endothelial dysfunction, the spreading of lipoxidative damage to other proteins, such as CXorf49, the activation of antigen-presenting cells, and the breaking of tolerance to HSP60 are discussed. PMID:26078803

  13. Pepsin-pancreatin protein hydrolysates from extruded amaranth inhibit markers of atherosclerosis in LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages-like human cells by reducing expression of proteins in LOX-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is considered a progressive disease that affects arteries that bring blood to the heart, to the brain and to the lower end. It derives from endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, which play an important role in the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death around the world and one factor that can contribute to its progression and prevention is diet. Our previous study found that amaranth hydrolysates inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in human and mouse macrophages by preventing activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, extrusion improved the anti-inflammatory effect of amaranth protein hydrolysates in both cell lines, probably attributed to the production of bioactive peptides during processing. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the anti-atherosclerotic potential of pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates from unprocessed and extruded amaranth in THP-1 lipopolysaccharide-induced human macrophages and suggest the mechanism of action. Results Unprocessed amaranth hydrolysate (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysate (EAH) showed a significant reduction in the expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) (69% and 100%, respectively), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (64% and 52%, respectively), interleukin-22 (IL-22) (55% and 70%, respectively). Likewise, UAH and EAH showed a reduction in the expression of monocyte-chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (35% and 42%, respectively), transferrin receptor-1 (TfR-1) (48% and 61%, respectively), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (59% and 63%, respectively), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (60% and 63%, respectively). Also, EAH reduced the expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) (27%), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (28%) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (19%), important molecular markers in the atherosclerosis pathway. EAH, led to a reduction of 58, 52 and 79% for

  14. Reduced PMA enhances the responsiveness of transfected THP-1 macrophages to polarizing stimuli.

    PubMed

    Maeß, Marten B; Wittig, Berith; Cignarella, Andrea; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2014-01-15

    Macrophages are versatile cells of the immune system which react to various external stimuli through different polarization patterns which adjust the cells to the required function whether it is removal of pathogens or necrotic cells, tissue repair or propagation of inflammation. As much of macrophage behavior is determined by their polarization, appropriate models to study macrophage polarization are required. Previously we have published a protocol for transfection of THP-1 macrophages, which in brief pre-differentiates THP-1 monocytes for 48h using 100ng/ml PMA, followed by detachment of the cells and eletroporation using Lonza nucleofector technology and finally includes further 48h of differentiation with 100ng/ml PMA. When we applied this protocol to study interleukin (IL) 10 dependent polarization, the cells were inert to the IL10 stimulus, as indicated by a failure to induce IL10 target genes such as SOCS3. Further investigation revealed that the cells were classically activated by the differentiation agent phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as shown by induction of chemokine receptor CCR7. Subsequent reduction of PMA concentration during THP-1 macrophage differentiation significantly improved their response to IL10 as SOCS3 increased more than 40-fold. This increased responsiveness of the THP-1 macrophages was also confirmed for polarization with LPS and IFNγ. Up-regulation of classical activation markers CCL3, CCR7 and TNFα was enhanced from 18-, 21- and 70-fold, respectively, to 48-, 222- and 951-fold, respectively. Reduction of PMA concentration did not negatively affect macrophage differentiation or transfection efficiency. Expression of macrophage differentiation markers CD11b and CD68 as well as cell morphology remained unchanged. In addition transfection efficiency and rates of apoptosis and necrosis remained unaffected. Thus our revised protocol combines high transfection efficiency and cell vitality with a strong response to polarizing

  15. Sulforaphane exerts its anti-inflammatory effect against amyloid-β peptide via STAT-1 dephosphorylation and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 cascade in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    An, Ye Won; Jhang, Kyoung A; Woo, So-Youn; Kang, Jihee Lee; Chong, Young Hae

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, accounting for most cases of dementia in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane against Aβ1-42 monomers in human THP-1 microglia-like cells. The results showed that sulforaphane preferentially inhibited cathepsin B- and caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mostly Aβ1-42 monomers, an effect that potently reduced excessive secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that sulforaphane mitigated the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 induced by Aβ1-42 monomers. Sulforaphane also increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, which was followed by upregulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). The anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane on Aβ1-42-induced IL-1β production was diminished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly attenuated the levels of microRNA-146a, which is selectively upregulated in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. The aforementioned effects of sulforaphane were replicated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, and Nrf2 activator. These results indicate that signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 dephosphorylation, HO-1 and its upstream effector, Nrf2, play a pivotal role in triggering an anti-inflammatory signaling cascade of sulforaphane that results in decreases of IL-1β release and microRNA-146a production in Aβ1-42-stimulated human microglia-like cells. These findings suggest that the phytochemical sulforaphane has a potential application in AD therapeutics.

  16. High-Density Lipoprotein Binds to Mycobacterium avium and Affects the Infection of THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Naoya; Sato, Megumi; Yoshimoto, Akira; Yano, Kouji; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity. PMID:27516907

  17. Highly Efficient Transfection of Human THP-1 Macrophages by Nucleofection

    PubMed Central

    Maeß, Marten B.; Wittig, Berith; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages, as key players of the innate immune response, are at the focus of research dealing with tissue homeostasis or various pathologies. Transfection with siRNA and plasmid DNA is an efficient tool for studying their function, but transfection of macrophages is not a trivial matter. Although many different approaches for transfection of eukaryotic cells are available, only few allow reliable and efficient transfection of macrophages, but reduced cell vitality and severely altered cell behavior like diminished capability for differentiation or polarization are frequently observed. Therefore a transfection protocol is required that is capable of transferring siRNA and plasmid DNA into macrophages without causing serious side-effects thus allowing the investigation of the effect of the siRNA or plasmid in the context of normal cell behavior. The protocol presented here provides a method for reliably and efficiently transfecting human THP-1 macrophages and monocytes with high cell vitality, high transfection efficiency, and minimal effects on cell behavior. This approach is based on Nucleofection and the protocol has been optimized to maintain maximum capability for cell activation after transfection. The protocol is adequate for adherent cells after detachment as well as cells in suspension, and can be used for small to medium sample numbers. Thus, the method presented is useful for investigating gene regulatory effects during macrophage differentiation and polarization. Apart from presenting results characterizing macrophages transfected according to this protocol in comparison to an alternative chemical method, the impact of cell culture medium selection after transfection on cell behavior is also discussed. The presented data indicate the importance of validating the selection for different experimental settings. PMID:25226503

  18. Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 are formed

    SciTech Connect

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Sukonina, Valentina; Kroupa, Olessia; Thulin, Petra; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Olivecrona, Thomas; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is controlled by ANGPTL4 in THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both LPL and ANGPTL4 bind to THP-1 macrophages in a heparin-releasable fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only monomers of ANGPTL4 are present within THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Covalent oligomers of ANGPTL4 appear on cell surface and in medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of LPL coincide with ANGPTL4 oligomer formation on cell surfaces. -- Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins causing release of fatty acids for metabolic purposes in muscles and adipose tissue. LPL in macrophages in the artery wall may, however, promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). The mechanisms for inactivation of LPL by ANGPTL4 was studied in THP-1 macrophages where active LPL is associated with cell surfaces in a heparin-releasable form, while LPL in the culture medium is mostly inactive. The PPAR{delta} agonist GW501516 had no effect on LPL mRNA, but increased ANGPTL4 mRNA and caused a marked reduction of the heparin-releasable LPL activity concomitantly with accumulation of inactive, monomeric LPL in the medium. Intracellular ANGPTL4 was monomeric, while dimers and tetramers of ANGPTL4 were present in the heparin-releasable fraction and medium. GW501516 caused an increase in the amount of ANGPTL4 oligomers on the cell surface that paralleled the decrease in LPL activity. Actinomycin D blocked the effects of GW501516 on ANGPTL4 oligomer formation and prevented the inactivation of LPL. Antibodies against ANGPTL4 interfered with the inactivation of LPL. We conclude that inactivation of LPL in THP-1 macrophages primarily occurs on the cell surface where oligomers of ANGPTL4 are formed.

  19. L-cystathionine inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced THP-1-derived macrophage inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 generation via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingzhu; Du, Junbao; Liu, Angie Dong; Holmberg, Lukas; Chen, Selena Y; Bu, Dingfang; Tang, Chaoshu; Jin, Hongfang

    2015-05-28

    This study aimed to explore whether and how L-cystathionine had any regulatory effect on the inflammatory response in THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in vitro under oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) stimulation. The human monocyte line THP-1 cell was cultured in vitro and differentiated into macrophages after 24 hours of PMA induction. Macrophages were pretreated with L-cystathionine and then treated with ox-LDL. The results showed that compared with the controls, ox-LDL stimulation significantly upregulated the expression of THP-1-derived macrophage MCP-1 by enhancing NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and DNA binding with the MCP-1 promoter. Compared with the ox-LDL group, 0.3 mmol/L and 1.0 mmol/L L-cystathionine significantly inhibited the expression of THP-1-derived macrophage MCP-1. Mechanistically, 0.3 mmol/L and 1.0 mmol/L L-cystathionine suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 protein, as well as the DNA binding activity and DNA binding level of NF-κB with the MCP-1 promoter, which resulted in a reduced THP-1-derived macrophage MCP-1 generation. This study suggests that L-cystathionine could inhibit the expression of MCP-1 in THP-1-derived macrophages induced by ox-LDL via inhibition of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and binding of the MCP-1 promoter sequence after entry into the nucleus.

  20. Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages through PPAR-γ/LXR-α signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaolin; Li, Qian; Pang, Liewen; Huang, Guoqian; Huang, Jiechun; Shi, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yiqing

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Arctigenin enhanced cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages. •The expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE was upregulated in arctigenin-treated cells. •Arctigenin promoted the expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α. •Inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α reversed arctigenin-mediated biological effects. •Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux via activation of PPAR-γ/LXR-α/ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a critical mechanism to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa, on the cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our data showed that arctigenin significantly accelerated apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, arctigenin treatment enhanced the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and apoE, all of which are key molecules in the initial step of cholesterol efflux, at both mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also caused a concentration-dependent elevation in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α). The arctigenin-mediated induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE was abolished by specific inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α using small interfering RNA technology. Our results collectively indicate that arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages through upregulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE, which is dependent on the enhanced expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α.

  1. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mattana, Antonella; Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W; Henriquez, Fiona L; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  2. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  3. Chronic Iron Overload Results in Impaired Bacterial Killing of THP-1 Derived Macrophage through the Inhibition of Lysosomal Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Jun-Kai; Wang, Shih-Chung; Ho, Li-Wei; Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for living organisms and the disturbance of iron homeostasis is associated with altered immune function. Additionally, bacterial infections can cause major complications in instances of chronic iron overload, such as patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Monocytes and macrophages play important roles in maintaining systemic iron homoeostasis and in defense against invading pathogens. However, the effect of iron overload on the function of monocytes and macrophages is unclear. We elucidated the effects of chronic iron overload on human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and THP-1 derived macrophages (TDM) by continuously exposing them to high levels of iron (100 μM) to create I-THP-1 and I-TDM, respectively. Our results show that iron overload did not affect morphology or granularity of I-THP-1, but increased the granularity of I-TDM. Bactericidal assays for non-pathogenic E. coli DH5α, JM109 and pathogenic P. aeruginosa all revealed decreased efficiency with increasing iron concentration in I-TDM. The impaired P. aeruginosa killing ability of human primary monocyte derived macrophages (hMDM) was also found when cells are cultured in iron contained medium. Further studies on the bactericidal activity of I-TDM revealed lysosomal dysfunction associated with the inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulting in increasing lysosomal pH, the impairment of post-translational processing of cathepsins (especially cathepsin D), and decreased autophagic flux. These findings may explain the impaired innate immunity of thalassemic patients with chronic iron overload, suggesting the manipulation of lysosomal function as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27244448

  4. Enhanced uptake of multiple sclerosis-derived myelin by THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin phagocytosis. It remains unclear why microglia and macrophages demyelinate axons in MS, but previously found or yet-unknown changes in the myelin of MS patients could contribute to this process. We therefore studied whether myelin from normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS donors is phagocytosed more efficiently than myelin from control donors. Methods Myelin was isolated from 11 MS and 12 control brain donors and labeled with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye pHrodo to quantify uptake in lysosomes. Phagocytosis by differentiated THP-1 macrophages and by primary human microglia was quantified with flow cytometry. Whereas myelin uptake by THP-1 macrophages reached a plateau after approximately 24 hours, uptake by primary human microglia showed an almost linear increase over a 72–hour period. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann–Whitney U test. Results MS-derived myelin was phagocytosed more efficiently by THP-1 macrophages after 6-hour incubation (P = 0.001 for the percentage of myelin-phagocytosing cells and P = 0.0005 for total myelin uptake) and after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0001, respectively), and by microglia after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0106 for total myelin uptake). This enhanced uptake was not due to differences in the oxidation status of the myelin. Interestingly, myelin phagocytosis correlated negatively with the age of myelin donors, whereas the age of microglia donors showed a positive trend with myelin phagocytosis. Conclusions Myelin isolated from normal-appearing white matter of MS donors was phagocytosed more efficiently than was myelin isolated from control brain donors by both THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia. These data indicate that changes in MS myelin might precede phagocyte activation and subsequent demyelination in MS. Identifying these myelin changes responsible for enhancing phagocytic ability

  5. The choice of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate differentiation protocol influences the response of THP-1 macrophages to a pro-inflammatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Lund, Maria E; To, Joyce; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Donnelly, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    The human monocytic cell line, THP-1, is the most widely used model for primary human monocytes/macrophages. This is because, following differentiation using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), THP-1 cells acquire a macrophage-like phenotype, which mimics, in many respects, primary human macrophages. Despite the widespread use of THP-1 cells in studies elucidating macrophage responses to inflammatory stimuli, as well as the development and screening of potential therapeutics, there is currently no standardised protocol for the reliable differentiation of THP-1 monocytes to a macrophage phenotype using PMA. Consequently, reports using THP-1 cells have demonstrated significant phenotypic and functional differences between resultant THP-1 macrophage populations, which are largely attributable to the varying PMA differentiation methods used. Thus, to guarantee consistency and reproducibility between studies, and to ensure the relevance of THP-1 cells as an appropriate model for primary human macrophages, it is crucial to develop a standardised protocol for the differentiation of THP-1 macrophages. Accordingly, we compared the function and phenotype of THP-1 macrophages generated using the range of published PMA differentiation protocols, specifically in response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our results demonstrated that the function of the resultant THP-1 macrophage populations, as determined by tumour necrosis factor (TNF) secretion in response to LPS stimulation, varied significantly, and was dependent upon the concentration of PMA used to stimulate the differentiation of monocytes, and the period of rest following PMA exposure. These data indicate that exposure of monocytic THP-1 cells to 25 nM PMA over 48 h, followed by a recovery period of 24h in culture in the absence of PMA, was the optimal protocol for the differentiation of THP-1 cells.

  6. Rhodomyrtone Modulates Innate Immune Responses of THP-1 Monocytes to Assist in Clearing Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Srisuwan, Sutthirat; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Srimanote, Potjanee; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to conventional antibiotics poses a major health problem. Moreover, S. aureus can survive within phagocytes, thus evading some antibiotics and the innate immune response. Rhodomyrtone, a bioactive compound from the leaves of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, possesses potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of rhodomyrtone on THP-1 monocytes in response to MRSA. Methods THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with heat-killed MRSA, followed by treatment with rhodomyrtone. The cell pellets were prepared to detect pro-inflammatory molecules using real-time PCR. The supernatants were collected to assess nitric oxide production using Griess assay. Assays for phagocytosis and bacterial killing by THP-1 monocytes were performed to determine if they were affected by rhodomyrtone. Results Expression of pro-inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS was enhanced in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with high doses of heat-killed MRSA (108 to 109 cfu/ml). In contrast, monocytes stimulated with MRSA at lower doses (106 to 107 cfu/ml) did not induce the expression of these cytokines. However, rhodomyrtone significantly increased the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, IL-6 and iNOS in monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at low doses, and displayed some anti-inflammatory activity by reducing TNF-α expression in monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at high doses. Treatment with rhodomyrtone also significantly up-regulated the expression of the key pattern recognition receptors, TLR2 and CD14, in THP-1 monocytes stimulated with heat-killed MRSA at 106 to 109 cfu/ml, while heat-killed MRSA alone did not induce the expression of these molecules. The ability of rhodomyrtone to eliminate MRSA from the monocytes was observed within 24 h after treatment. Conclusion Rhodomyrtone enhanced the expression of pattern

  7. Human intestinal mucosa-associated Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains with probiotic properties modulate IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12 gene expression in THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Čitar, M; Hacin, B; Tompa, G; Štempelj, M; Rogelj, I; Dolinšek, J; Narat, M; Matijašić, B Bogovič

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and characterisation, as well as assessment of probiotic properties and safety. Importantly, selected strains showed the capability of colonising different parts of the intestine. The most frequently isolated species was Lactobacillus paracasei followed by Lactobacillus fermentum. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance, however, tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistance was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum and L. fermentum strains. Thirteen strains were able to ferment more than 19 different carbon sources and three out of five tested strains exerted antagonistic activity against several different indicator strains. Two Lactobacillus isolates (L. paracasei L350 and L. fermentum L930 bb) and one Bifidobacterium isolate (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis IM386) fulfilled in vitro selection criteria for probiotic strains and exhibited strong downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The selected strains represent suitable candidates for further studies regarding their positive influence on host health and could play an important role in ameliorating the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  8. L-Plastin Nanobodies Perturb Matrix Degradation, Podosome Formation, Stability and Lifetime in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, Sarah; Boucherie, Ciska; Vandekerckhove, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Podosomes are cellular structures acting as degradation ‘hot-spots’ in monocytic cells. They appear as dot-like structures at the ventral cell surface, enriched in F-actin and actin regulators, including gelsolin and L-plastin. Gelsolin is an ubiquitous severing and capping protein, whereas L-plastin is a leukocyte-specific actin bundling protein. The presence of the capping protein CapG in podosomes has not yet been investigated. We used an innovative approach to investigate the role of these proteins in macrophage podosomes by means of nanobodies or Camelid single domain antibodies. Nanobodies directed against distinct domains of gelsolin, L-plastin or CapG were stably expressed in macrophage-like THP-1 cells. CapG was not enriched in podosomes. Gelsolin nanobodies had no effect on podosome formation or function but proved very effective in tracing distinct gelsolin populations. One gelsolin nanobody specifically targets actin-bound gelsolin and was effectively enriched in podosomes. A gelsolin nanobody that blocks gelsolin-G-actin interaction was not enriched in podosomes demonstrating that the calcium-activated and actin-bound conformation of gelsolin is a constituent of podosomes. THP-1 cells expressing inhibitory L-plastin nanobodies were hampered in their ability to form stable podosomes. Nanobodies did not perturb Ser5 phosphorylation of L-plastin although phosphorylated L-plastin was highly enriched in podosomes. Furthermore, nanobody-induced inhibition of L-plastin function gave rise to an irregular and unstable actin turnover of podosomes, resulting in diminished degradation of the underlying matrix. Altogether these results indicate that L-plastin is indispensable for podosome formation and function in macrophages. PMID:24236012

  9. Dynorphin 1-17 and Its N-Terminal Biotransformation Fragments Modulate Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Nuclear Factor-kappa B Nuclear Translocation, Interleukin-1beta and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Differentiated THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dynorphin 1–17, (DYN 1–17) opioid peptide produces antinociception following binding to the kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor. Upon synthesis and release in inflamed tissues by immune cells, DYN 1–17 undergoes rapid biotransformation and yields a unique set of opioid and non-opioid fragments. Some of these major fragments possess a role in immunomodulation, suggesting that opioid-targeted therapeutics may be effective in diminishing the severity of inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of DYN 1–17 and major N-terminal fragments found in the inflammatory environment on nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, differentiated THP-1 cells. The results demonstrate that NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was significantly attenuated following treatment with DYN 1–17 and a specific range of fragments, with the greatest reduction observed with DYN 1–7 at a low concentration (10 nM). Antagonism with a selective KOP receptor antagonist, ML-190, significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of DYN 1–17, DYN 1–6, DYN 1–7 and DYN 1–9, but not other DYN 1–17 N-terminal fragments (DYN 1–10 and 1–11) on NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation. DYN 1–17 and selected fragments demonstrated differential modulation on the release of IL-1β and TNF-α with significant inhibition observed with DYN 1–7 at low concentrations (1 nM and 10 pM). These effects were blocked by ML-190, suggesting a KOP receptor-mediated pathway. The results demonstrate that DYN 1–17 and certain N-terminal fragments, produced in an inflamed environment, play an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 translocation and the subsequent cytokine release through KOP receptor-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:27055013

  10. Xylitol, an Anticaries Agent, Exhibits Potent Inhibition of Inflammatory Responses in Human THP-1-Derived Macrophages Infected With Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunjoo; Na, Hee Sam; Kim, Sheon Min; Wallet, Shannon; Cha, Seunghee; Chung, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Xylitol is a well-known anticaries agent and has been used for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of xylitol are evaluated for possible use in the prevention and treatment of periodontal infections. Methods Cytokine expression was stimulated in THP-1 (human monocyte cell line)-derived macrophages by live Porphyromonas gingivalis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a commercial multiplex assay kit were used to determine the effects of xylitol on live P. gingivalis–induced production of cytokine. The effects of xylitol on phagocytosis and the production of nitric oxide were determined using phagocytosis assay, viable cell count, and Griess reagent. The effects of xylitol on P. gingivalis adhesion were determined by immunostaining, and costimulatory molecule expression was examined by flow cytometry. Results Live P. gingivalis infection increased the production of representative proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, in a multiplicity of infection– and time-dependent manner. Live P. gingivalis also enhanced the release of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-12 p40, eotaxin, interferon γ–induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1. The pretreatment of xylitol significantly inhibited the P. gingivalis– induced cytokines production and nitric oxide production. In addition, xylitol inhibited the attachment of live P. gingivalis on THP-1-derived macrophages. Furthermore, xylitol exerted anti-phagocytic activity against both Escherichia coli and P. gingivalis. Conclusion These findings suggest that xylitol acts as an antiinflammatory agent in THP-1-derived macrophages infected with live P. gingivalis, which supports its use in periodontitis. PMID:24592909

  11. In vitro anti-inflammatory effects and immunomodulation by gemifloxacin in stimulated human THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Hall, I H; Schwab, U; Ward, E S; Ives, T

    2004-09-01

    Cultured human THP-1 monocytes were exposed to serial concentrations of gemifloxacin over 4 h after pre-stimulation with zymogen A for 1 h or Staphylococcus aureus for 2 h. The following parameters were assessed: pH, phagocytosis, c-AMP, NO, TNFalpha, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and H2O2 levels, enzyme activities of protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase, SOD, gluthathion reductase, NAG and cathepsin D as well as lipid peroxidation. The reversiblity of these changes was determined in the presence of known blockers of the phagocytic process. The effects of gemifloxacin on DNA synthesis and killing of S. aureus was assessed in bacteria alone and in those bacteria phagocytosed by THP-1 monocytes over 24 h. Gemifloxacin in stimulated THP-1 monocytes over the first 30 min caused an increase in c-AMP, NO, H2O2 and TNFalpha levels and protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase, glutathione reductase, NAG and cathepsin D activities. The pH became more acidic and phagocytosis was stimulated. These parameters were reversed at 1 h and continued to decline until 4 h. Lipid peroxidation was at the highest levels at 1 h and IL-8 levels at 2 h. DNA synthesis and bacterial growth were suppressed at 2 h in both S. aureus alone and bacteria phagocytosed by THP-1 monocytes. These effects were at a higher magnitude at 24 h. Gemifloxacin initiates a phagocyticidal effect of THP-1 monocytes at an early time of 30 min which plays a role in killing bacteria but a higher magnitude of killing of bacteria occurs later by a standard static mechanism. This early action of gemifloxacin should decrease the spread of infection and the inflammatory response since the tissue destruction process was attenuated at 4 h.

  12. S-Allylcysteine, a garlic compound, increases ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Malekpour-Dehkordi, Zahra; Javadi, Ebrahim; Doosti, Mahmood; Paknejad, Maliheh; Nourbakhsh, Mitra; Yassa, Narguess; Gerayesh-Nejad, Siavash; Heshmat, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-loaded macrophages, which is the first step of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), the most abundant organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract, on the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in human THP-1 macrophages. The human monocyte THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophage cells in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA). Macrophage cells were then treated with different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mM) of SAC for 24 h. Total RNA of treated macrophages was extracted and analyzed with real-time RT-PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed with western blotting. Results showed that SAC increased the ABCA1 mRNA (1.82-, 2.07- and 2.23-fold) and protein (1.37-, 1.55- and 2.08-fold) expression in macrophage THP-1 cells compared with control (untreated cells). Results suggested that SAC can increase ABCA1 expression in macrophages and may be beneficial in promoting reverse cholesterol efflux. PMID:22610793

  13. Leoligin, the Major Lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum), Promotes Cholesterol Efflux from THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Limei; Ladurner, Angela; Latkolik, Simone; Schwaiger, Stefan; Linder, Thomas; Hošek, Jan; Palme, Veronika; Schilcher, Nicole; Polanský, Ondřej; Heiss, Elke H; Stangl, Herbert; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2016-06-24

    Leoligin is a natural lignan found in Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum). The aim of this study was to examine its influence on cholesterol efflux and to address the underlying mechanism of action. Leoligin increases apo A1- as well as 1% human plasma-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages without affecting cell viability as determined by resazurin conversion. Western blot analysis revealed that the protein levels of the cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were upregulated, whereas the SR-B1 protein level remained unchanged upon treatment with leoligin (10 μM, 24 h). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR further uncovered that leoligin also increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels without affecting the half-life of the two mRNAs in the presence of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Proteome analysis revealed the modulation of protein expression fingerprint in the presence of leoligin. Taken together, these results suggest that leoligin induces cholesterol efflux in THP-1-derived macrophages by upregulating ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. This novel activity suggests leoligin as a promising candidate for further studies addressing a possible preventive or therapeutic application in the context of atherosclerosis. PMID:27220065

  14. Leoligin, the Major Lignan from Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale subsp. alpinum), Promotes Cholesterol Efflux from THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Leoligin is a natural lignan found in Edelweiss (Leontopodium nivale ssp. alpinum). The aim of this study was to examine its influence on cholesterol efflux and to address the underlying mechanism of action. Leoligin increases apo A1- as well as 1% human plasma-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages without affecting cell viability as determined by resazurin conversion. Western blot analysis revealed that the protein levels of the cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 were upregulated, whereas the SR-B1 protein level remained unchanged upon treatment with leoligin (10 μM, 24 h). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR further uncovered that leoligin also increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA levels without affecting the half-life of the two mRNAs in the presence of actinomycin D, a transcription inhibitor. Proteome analysis revealed the modulation of protein expression fingerprint in the presence of leoligin. Taken together, these results suggest that leoligin induces cholesterol efflux in THP-1-derived macrophages by upregulating ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. This novel activity suggests leoligin as a promising candidate for further studies addressing a possible preventive or therapeutic application in the context of atherosclerosis. PMID:27220065

  15. Beryllium uptake and related biological effects studied in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Lin, Lin; Hang, Wei; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-11-01

    Investigation of cellular uptake of metal compounds is important in understanding metal-related toxicity and diseases. Inhalation of beryllium aerosols can cause chronic beryllium disease, a progressive, granulomatous fibrosis of the lung. Studies in laboratory animals and cultured animal cells indicate that alveolar macrophages take up beryllium compounds and participate in a hypersensitivity immune response to a beryllium-containing antigen. In the present work, human monocyte cell line THP-1 was induced with phorbol myristate acetate to differentiate into a macrophage. This cell with characteristics of human alveolar macrophages was employed to study cellular beryllium uptake and related biological effects. Morphological changes, phagocytosis of fluorescent latex beads, and cell surface CD14 expression were used to verify the successful differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages. An improved mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of intracellular beryllium as opposed to the traditional radioisotopic approach was developed using ICP-MS. The influence of the solubility of beryllium compounds, exposure duration, and beryllium concentration on the incorporation of beryllium was studied. Our data indicated that the uptake of particulate BeO was much more significant than that of soluble BeSO(4), suggesting the major cellular uptake pathway is phagocytosis. Nevertheless, subsequent DAPI nuclear staining and PARP cleavage study indicated that beryllium uptake had a negligible effect on the apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages compared to the unstimulated macrophage control. Meanwhile, no substantial variation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production was observed for THP-1 macrophages upon beryllium exposure. These data imply alveolar macrophages could have some level of tolerance to beryllium and this may explain why most Be-exposed individuals remain healthy throughout life.

  16. Biological effects of double-walled carbon nanotubes on the innate immune system: An in vitro study on THP-1 human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dekali, Samir; Bachelet, Christine; Maunoir-Regimbal, Séverine; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Crouzier, David

    2016-07-15

    DWCNTs have numerous industrial and biomedical applications and several studies reported that they could act as immunomodulator systems. The immune system is the first line of defence of the human body when exposed to particulate matter. In order to investigate DWCNTs' role on innate immunity, we used THP-1 monocytic cells for the purpose of this study. We showed that DWCNTs were not cytotoxic until 6h, 24h, 48h and 72h of incubation with THP-1 monocytic cells (concentrations tested from 10 to 50μg/mL). From 6h to 72h of incubation of THP-1 cells with DWCNTs, we measured a significant increase of the baseline cell index using xCELLigence(®) technology showing cell adhesion. After 24h of exposure, DWCNTs agglomerates were localized in THP-1 monocyte cytoplasm and cell adhesion was observed simultaneously with a significant increase in the expression of CD11b and CD14 cell surface proteins. Pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-10) was also measured in supernatants after 6h or 24h of exposure to DWCNTs. This pro-inflammatory response was increased in THP-1 monocytic cells pre-treated with LPS. Altogether, our data indicate that DWCNTs induce an increased pro-inflammatory response of THP-1 monocytes and seem to modulate cell surface protein expression confirming that DWCNTs could act as stimulators of innate immunity. PMID:27475286

  17. Biological effects of double-walled carbon nanotubes on the innate immune system: An in vitro study on THP-1 human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dekali, Samir; Bachelet, Christine; Maunoir-Regimbal, Séverine; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Crouzier, David

    2016-07-15

    DWCNTs have numerous industrial and biomedical applications and several studies reported that they could act as immunomodulator systems. The immune system is the first line of defence of the human body when exposed to particulate matter. In order to investigate DWCNTs' role on innate immunity, we used THP-1 monocytic cells for the purpose of this study. We showed that DWCNTs were not cytotoxic until 6h, 24h, 48h and 72h of incubation with THP-1 monocytic cells (concentrations tested from 10 to 50μg/mL). From 6h to 72h of incubation of THP-1 cells with DWCNTs, we measured a significant increase of the baseline cell index using xCELLigence(®) technology showing cell adhesion. After 24h of exposure, DWCNTs agglomerates were localized in THP-1 monocyte cytoplasm and cell adhesion was observed simultaneously with a significant increase in the expression of CD11b and CD14 cell surface proteins. Pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-10) was also measured in supernatants after 6h or 24h of exposure to DWCNTs. This pro-inflammatory response was increased in THP-1 monocytic cells pre-treated with LPS. Altogether, our data indicate that DWCNTs induce an increased pro-inflammatory response of THP-1 monocytes and seem to modulate cell surface protein expression confirming that DWCNTs could act as stimulators of innate immunity.

  18. Activity of Tissue Factor in Microparticles Produced in vitro by Endothelial Cells, Monocytes, Granulocytes, and Platelets.

    PubMed

    Khaspekova, S G; Antonova, O A; Shustova, O N; Yakushkin, V V; Golubeva, N V; Titaeva, E V; Dobrovolsky, A B; Mazurov, A V

    2016-02-01

    Activity of tissue factor (TF) in membrane microparticles (MPs) produced in vitro by endothelial cells (ECs), monocytes, THP-1 monocytic cells, granulocytes, and platelets was investigated. ECs were isolated from human umbilical vein, and monocytes, granulocytes, and platelets - from the blood of healthy donors. ECs, monocytes, and THP-1 cells were activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide, granulocytes - by lipopolysaccharide or phorbol myristate acetate, and platelets - by SFLLRN, thrombin receptor-activating peptide. MPs were sedimented from the culture medium or supernatant of activated cells at 20,000g for 30 min. Coagulation activity of MPs was analyzed in a modified recalcification assay by assessing their effects on coagulation of donor plasma depleted of endogenous MPs (by centrifuging at 20,000g for 90 min). MPs from all cell types accelerated plasma coagulation. Antibodies blocking TF activity prolonged coagulation lag-phase in the presence of MPs from ECs, monocytes, and THP-1 cells (by 2.7-, 2.0-, and 1.8-fold, respectively), but did not influence coagulation in the presence of MPs from granulocytes and platelets. In accordance with these data, TF activity measured by its ability to activate factor X was found in MPs from ECs, monocytes, and THP-1 cells, but not in MPs from granulocytes and platelets. The data obtained indicate that active TF is present in MPs produced in vitro by ECs, monocytes, and THP-1 cells, but not in MPs derived from granulocytes and platelets. PMID:27260391

  19. Inhibition of Human Group IIA-Secreted Phospholipase A2 and THP-1 Monocyte Recruitment by Maslinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Yap, Wei Hsum; Ahmed, Nafees; Lim, Yang Mooi

    2016-10-01

    Maslinic acid is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid which has anti-inflammatory properties. A recent study showed that secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) may be a potential binding target of maslinic acid. The human group IIA (hGIIA)-sPLA2 is found in human sera and their levels are correlated with severity of inflammation. This study aims to determine whether maslinic acid interacts with hGIIA-sPLA2 and inhibits inflammatory response induced by this enzyme. It is shown that maslinic acid enhanced intrinsic fluorescence of hGIIA-sPLA2 and inhibited its enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Molecular docking revealed that maslinic acid binds to calcium binding and interfacial phospholipid binding site, suggesting that it inhibit access of catalytic calcium ion for enzymatic reaction and block binding of the enzyme to membrane phospholipid. The hGIIA-sPLA2 enzyme is also responsible in mediating monocyte recruitment and differentiation. Results showed that maslinic acid inhibit hGIIA-sPLA2-induced THP-1 cell differentiation and migration, and the effect observed is specific to hGIIA-sPLA2 as cells treated with maslinic acid alone did not significantly affect the number of adherent and migrated cells. Considering that hGIIA-sPLA2 enzyme is known to hydrolyze glyceroacylphospholipids present in lipoproteins and cell membranes, maslinic acid may bind and inhibit hGIIA-sPLA2 enzymatic activity, thereby reduces the release of fatty acids and lysophospholipids which stimulates monocyte migration and differentiation. This study is the first to report on the molecular interaction between maslinic acid and inflammatory target hGIIA-sPLA2 as well as its effect towards hGIIA-sPLA2-induced THP-1 monocyte adhesive and migratory capabilities, an important immune-inflammation process in atherosclerosis.

  20. The Effects of Phellinus linteus Polysaccharide Extracts on Cholesterol Efflux in Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Loaded THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-hui; Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhao-yun; Cai, Xi-guo; Wang, Hong-min

    2015-06-01

    The removal of excess cellular cholesterol is critical for maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Phellinus linteus polysaccharide extracts (PLPEs) is an immunomudulatory agent with a molecular weight of 153 kd. Here, we analyzed the effects of PLPEs on cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-loaded THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) macrophages. Various concentrations of PLPEs (5, 10, 20, and 100 μg/mL) were used to treat cells. Cholesterol efflux analysis was performed to analyze the cholesterol efflux ratio in PLPE-treated cells. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were conducted to assess the expression of target genes. Low dose of PLPEs (5-20 μg/mL) dose dependently enhanced cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), evidenced by promoting the expression of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette A1, ATP-binding cassette G1, and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ, key regulators for cholesterol efflux. Moreover, GW9662, a potent antagonist of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ, inhibited PLPE (20 μg/mL)-promoted cholesterol efflux to ApoA-I in a dose-dependent fashion. However, high dose of PLPEs (100 μg/mL) inhibited cholesterol efflux to ApoA-I from ox-LDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages, enhanced the production of superoxide anion, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels, and raised nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits. Thus, these results indicate that low and high doses of PLPEs exhibit opposite effects on cholesterol efflux from ox-LDL-loaded THP-1 cells.

  1. [Serum amyloid A promotes the inflammatory response via p38-MAPK/SR-BI pathway in THP-1 macrophages].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ming-Yan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yu; Peng, Feng-Ling; Ou, Han-Xiao; Zheng, Xiang; Shi, Jin-Feng; Zeng, Gao-Feng; Mo, Zhong-Cheng

    2016-06-25

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of serum amyloid A (SAA) on the expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and inflammatory response in THP-1 macrophages, the human THP-1 cells were treated with SAA and p38-MAPK agonist (anisomycin) or p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Then, the expressions of SR-BI, phosphorylated p38-MAPK and inflammatory factors (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β) were examined by real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. The results showed that, compared with control group, SAA increased the levels of inflammatory factors (MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1β), down-regulated the expressions of SR-BI, and up-regulated the expression of phosphorylated p38-MAPK protein in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in THP-1 cells (P < 0.05). After treatment with SAA and p38-MAPK agonist (anisomycin) in THP-1 cells, the expression of SR-BI was down-regulated, and the levels of inflammatory factors and phosphorylated p38-MAPK protein expression were increased, compared with the group only treated by SAA (P < 0.05). In contrast, the SR-BI expression was up-regulated, whereas inflammatory factors and phosphorylated p38-MAPK protein expressions were decreased after the cells were treated with SAA and p38-MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) (P < 0.05). The results suggest that SAA-promoted inflammatory response in THP-1 macrophages may be through the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and inhibition of SR-BI expression. PMID:27350202

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Ruairi C; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%-42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%-7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. PMID:26308008

  3. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Algae-Derived Lipid Extracts on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Stimulated Human THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Ruairi C.; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Bahar, Bojlul; Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Algae contain a number of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and chlorophyll a, hence as dietary ingredients, their extracts may be effective in chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of lipid extracts from three red seaweeds (Porphyra dioica, Palmaria palmata and Chondrus crispus) and one microalga (Pavlova lutheri) were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages. Extracts contained 34%–42% total fatty acids as n-3 PUFA and 5%–7% crude extract as pigments, including chlorophyll a, β-carotene and fucoxanthin. Pretreatment of the THP-1 cells with lipid extract from P. palmata inhibited production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.05) and IL-8 (p < 0.05) while that of P. lutheri inhibited IL-6 (p < 0.01) production. Quantitative gene expression analysis of a panel of 92 genes linked to inflammatory signaling pathway revealed down-regulation of the expression of 14 pro-inflammatory genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR8, TRAF5, TRAF6, TNFSF18, IL6R, IL23, CCR1, CCR4, CCL17, STAT3, MAP3K1) by the lipid extracts. The lipid extracts effectively inhibited the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory signaling pathways mediated via toll-like receptors, chemokines and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling molecules. These results suggest that lipid extracts from P. lutheri, P. palmata, P. dioica and C. crispus can inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory pathways in human macrophages. Therefore, algal lipid extracts should be further explored as anti-inflammatory ingredients for chronic inflammation-linked metabolic diseases. PMID:26308008

  4. Brucella melitensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis depict overlapping gene expression patterns induced in infected THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Masoudian, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M M

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens infecting mammalian cells have developed various strategies to suppress and evade their hosts' defensive mechanisms. In this line, the intracellular bacteria that are able to survive and propagate within their host cells must have developed strategies to avert their host's killing attitude. Studying the interface of host-pathogen confrontation can provide valuable information for defining therapeutic approaches. Brucellosis, caused by the Brucella strains, is a zoonotic bacterial disease that affects thousands of humans and animals around the world inflicting discomfort and huge economic losses. Similar to many other intracellular dwelling bacteria, infections caused by Brucella are difficult to treat, and hence any attempt at identifying new and common therapeutic targets would prove beneficial for the purpose of curing infections caused by the intracellular bacteria. In THP-1 macrophage infected with Brucella melitensis we studied the expression levels of four host's genes, i.e. EMP2, ST8SIA4, HCP5 and FRMD5 known to be involved in pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data showed that at this molecular level, except for FRMD5 that was downregulated, the other three genes were upregulated by B. melitensis. Brucella melitensis and M. tuberculosis go through similar intracellular processes and interestingly two of the investigated genes, i.e. EMP2 and ST4SIA8 were upregulated in THP-1 cell infected with B. melitensis similar to that reported for THP-1 cells infected with M. tuberculosis. At the host-pathogen interaction interface, this study depicts overlapping changes for different bacteria with common survival strategies; a fact that implies designing therapeutic approaches based on common targets may be possible. PMID:27175205

  5. Flavonoid Fraction of Bergamot Juice Reduces LPS-Induced Inflammatory Response through SIRT1-Mediated NF-κB Inhibition in THP-1 Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Roberto; Currò, Monica; Cirmi, Santa; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Campiglia, Pietro; Caccamo, Daniela; Ientile, Riccardo; Navarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Plant polyphenols exert anti-inflammatory activity through both anti-oxidant effects and modulation of pivotal pro-inflammatory genes. Recently, Citrus bergamia has been studied as a natural source of bioactive molecules with antioxidant activity, but few studies have focused on molecular mechanisms underlying their potential beneficial effects. Several findings have suggested that polyphenols could influence cellular function by acting as activators of SIRT1, a nuclear histone deacetylase, involved in the inhibition of NF-κB signaling. On the basis of these observations we studied the anti-inflammatory effects produced by the flavonoid fraction of the bergamot juice (BJe) in a model of LPS-stimulated THP-1 cell line, focusing on SIRT1-mediated NF-κB inhibition. We demonstrated that BJe inhibited both gene expression and secretion of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) by a mechanism involving the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, we showed that BJe treatment reversed the LPS-enhanced acetylation of p65 in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, increasing concentrations of Sirtinol were able to suppress the inhibitory effect of BJe via p65 acetylation, underscoring that NF-κB–mediated inflammatory cytokine production may be directly linked to SIRT1 activity. These results suggest that BJe may be useful for the development of alternative pharmacological strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory process. PMID:25260046

  6. MicroRNA-155 silencing enhances inflammatory response and lipid uptake in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-stimulated human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ri-sheng; Hu, Guan-qiong; Lin, Bin; Lin, Zhi-yi; Sun, Cheng-chao

    2010-12-01

    It has been proposed that the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been shown to be involved in acute inflammatory response. However, the function of miR-155 in oxLDL-stimulated inflammation and atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we show that the exposure of human THP-1 macrophages to oxLDL led to a marked up-regulation of miR-155 in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of endogenous miR-155 in THP-1 cells using locked nucleic acid-modified antisense oligonucleotides significantly enhanced oxLDL-induced lipid uptake, up-regulated the expression of scavenger receptors (lectinlike oxidized LDL receptor-1, cluster of differentiation 36 [CD36], and CD68), and promoted the release of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, -8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Luciferase reporter assay showed that targeting miR-155 promoted nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and potentiated the NF-κB-driven transcription activity. Moreover, miR-155 knockdown resulted in a marked increase in the protein amount of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an important adapter protein used by Toll-like receptors to activate the NF-κB pathway. Our data demonstrate that miR-155 serves as a negative feedback regulator in oxLDL-stimulated THP-1 inflammatory responses and lipid uptake and thus might have potential therapeutic implications in atherosclerosis.

  7. Quercetin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to inhibit foam cell formation through activating PPARγ-ABCA1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liqiang; Li, En; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tao; Qin, Zhiping; Niu, Shaohui; Qiu, Chunguang

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages could induce the formation of foam cells and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We wonder if quercetin, one of flavonoids with anti-inflammation functions in different cell types, could elevate the development of foam cells formation in atherosclerosis. We treated foam cells derived from oxLDL induced THP-1 cells with quercetin, and evaluated the foam cells formation, cholesterol content and apoptosis of the cells. We found that quercetin induced the expression of ABCA1 in differentiated THP-1 cells, and increased the cholesterol efflux from THP-1 cell derived foam cells. Eventually, cholesterol level and the formation of foam cell derived from THP-1 cells decreased after quercetin treatment. In addition, quercetin activated PPARγ-LXRα pathway to upregulate ABCA1 expression through increasing protein level of PPARγ and its transcriptional activity. Inhibition of PPARγ activity by siRNA knockdown or the addition of chemical inhibitor, GW9662, abolished quercetin induced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 derived macrophages. Our data demonstrated that quercetin increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages through upregulating the expressions of PPARγ and ABCA1. Taken together, increasing uptake of quercetin or quercetin-rich foods would be an effective way to lower the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:26617799

  8. [Spectrophotometric determination of protein content in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages - description of the method].

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the basic building block of tissue, and are part of enzymes and hormones regulating many important life processes. Changes in their concentration control the metabolic processes of the cell. Quantitative determination of the protein content is divided into indirect methods (e.g. Kjeldahl method) and direct methods (buret method, Lowry, immunoenzymatic, formol method, based on incorporation of dye in the range of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and based on the phenomenon of selective absorption of radiation in the infrared range). One of the methods for the determination of protein content is the spectrophotometric method described by Bradford. The protein concentration assay procedure utilizes the phenomenon of formation of the dye (Coomassie Brillant Blue G-250)-protein and colour intensity is proportional to the protein content in the solution. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of this method for determining the protein content in THP-1 cells cultured with extracts of nettle fruit stalks (Urtica dioica L.). Aqueous and alcohol extracts at two concentrations were used. It has been shown that the spectrophotometric determination of protein content by the Bradford method is an effective and accurate method for determining the concentration of protein in THP-1 macrophages. The results indicate that this method can be recommended for the determination of the protein content in other cell cultures. PMID:27116861

  9. [Spectrophotometric determination of protein content in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages - description of the method].

    PubMed

    Wolska, Jolanta; Janda, Katarzyna; Gutowska, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are the basic building block of tissue, and are part of enzymes and hormones regulating many important life processes. Changes in their concentration control the metabolic processes of the cell. Quantitative determination of the protein content is divided into indirect methods (e.g. Kjeldahl method) and direct methods (buret method, Lowry, immunoenzymatic, formol method, based on incorporation of dye in the range of ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and based on the phenomenon of selective absorption of radiation in the infrared range). One of the methods for the determination of protein content is the spectrophotometric method described by Bradford. The protein concentration assay procedure utilizes the phenomenon of formation of the dye (Coomassie Brillant Blue G-250)-protein and colour intensity is proportional to the protein content in the solution. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of this method for determining the protein content in THP-1 cells cultured with extracts of nettle fruit stalks (Urtica dioica L.). Aqueous and alcohol extracts at two concentrations were used. It has been shown that the spectrophotometric determination of protein content by the Bradford method is an effective and accurate method for determining the concentration of protein in THP-1 macrophages. The results indicate that this method can be recommended for the determination of the protein content in other cell cultures.

  10. Host gene expression for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Park, Hongtae; Park, Hyun-Eui; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, which causes considerable economic loss in the dairy industry and has a possible relationship to Crohn's disease (CD) in humans. As MAP has been detected in retail pasteurized milk samples, its transmission via milk is of concern. Despite its possible role in the etiology of CD, there have been few studies examining the interactions between MAP and human cells. In the current study, we applied Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to the transcription profiles generated from a murine model with MAP infection as part of a previously conducted study. Twenty-one genes were selected as potential host immune responses, compared with the transcriptional profiles in naturally MAP-infected cattle, and validated in MAP-infected human monocyte-derived macrophage THP-1 cells. Of these, the potential host responses included up-regulation of genes related to immune response (CD14, S100A8, S100A9, LTF, HP and CHCIL3), up-regulation of Th1-polarizing factor (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10), down-regulation of genes related to metabolism (ELANE, IGF1, TCF7L2 and MPO) and no significant response of other genes (GADD45a, GPNMB, HMOX1, IFNG and NQO1) in THP-1 cells infected with MAP. PMID:25877879

  11. Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages through PPAR-γ/LXR-α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolin; Li, Qian; Pang, Liewen; Huang, Guoqian; Huang, Jiechun; Shi, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yiqing

    2013-11-15

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a critical mechanism to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa, on the cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our data showed that arctigenin significantly accelerated apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, arctigenin treatment enhanced the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and apoE, all of which are key molecules in the initial step of cholesterol efflux, at both mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also caused a concentration-dependent elevation in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α). The arctigenin-mediated induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE was abolished by specific inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α using small interfering RNA technology. Our results collectively indicate that arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages through upregulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE, which is dependent on the enhanced expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α.

  12. Arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages through PPAR-γ/LXR-α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolin; Li, Qian; Pang, Liewen; Huang, Guoqian; Huang, Jiechun; Shi, Meng; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Yiqing

    2013-11-15

    Cholesterol efflux from macrophages is a critical mechanism to prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa, on the cholesterol efflux in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-loaded THP-1 macrophages. Our data showed that arctigenin significantly accelerated apolipoprotein A-I- and high-density lipoprotein-induced cholesterol efflux in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Moreover, arctigenin treatment enhanced the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and apoE, all of which are key molecules in the initial step of cholesterol efflux, at both mRNA and protein levels. Arctigenin also caused a concentration-dependent elevation in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) and liver X receptor-alpha (LXR-α). The arctigenin-mediated induction of ABCA1, ABCG1, and apoE was abolished by specific inhibition of PPAR-γ or LXR-α using small interfering RNA technology. Our results collectively indicate that arctigenin promotes cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages through upregulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and apoE, which is dependent on the enhanced expression of PPAR-γ and LXR-α. PMID:24140409

  13. The Effects of Cadmium at Low Environmental Concentrations on THP-1 Macrophage Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Korbecki, Jan; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-09-07

    Cadmium at environmental concentrations is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, in which macrophages play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium at low environmental (nanomolar) concentrations on apoptotic processes in THP-1(acute monocytic leukemia cells line)-derived macrophages, with special focus on mitochondrial events involved. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl₂) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM and 2 µM CdCl₂. Cell viability was measured using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric measurement (annexin V/FITC (annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate) and PI (propidium iodide) double staining) was used to quantify the extent of apoptosis. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used for imaging of apoptosis process. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored using cytofluorimetry after cell staining with JC-1(5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyane iodide) probe. Mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels were measured cytofluorimetrically after incubation of cells with mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX) red fluorescent marker. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was analysed with qRT-PCR. Our study demonstrates that cadmium, even at low environmental concentrations, exerts mitochondrial toxicity in THP-1 macrophages. Forty-eight-hour exposure to very low concentrations reduces cell viability and results in cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. The decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS production, increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 mRNA expression are mitochondrial events involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis.

  14. The Effects of Cadmium at Low Environmental Concentrations on THP-1 Macrophage Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Piotrowska, Katarzyna; Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Korbecki, Jan; Kurzawski, Mateusz; Tarnowski, Maciej; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium at environmental concentrations is a risk factor for many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, in which macrophages play an important role. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cadmium at low environmental (nanomolar) concentrations on apoptotic processes in THP-1(acute monocytic leukemia cells line)-derived macrophages, with special focus on mitochondrial events involved. Macrophages were incubated with various cadmium chloride (CdCl2) solutions for 48 h at final concentrations of 5 nM, 20 nM, 200 nM and 2 µM CdCl2. Cell viability was measured using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric measurement (annexin V/FITC (annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate) and PI (propidium iodide) double staining) was used to quantify the extent of apoptosis. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used for imaging of apoptosis process. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were monitored using cytofluorimetry after cell staining with JC-1(5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazol-carbocyane iodide) probe. Mitochondrial ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels were measured cytofluorimetrically after incubation of cells with mitochondrial superoxide indicator (MitoSOX) red fluorescent marker. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax was analysed with qRT-PCR. Our study demonstrates that cadmium, even at low environmental concentrations, exerts mitochondrial toxicity in THP-1 macrophages. Forty-eight-hour exposure to very low concentrations reduces cell viability and results in cell death by apoptosis and necrosis. The decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, increased ROS production, increased Bax and decreased Bcl-2 mRNA expression are mitochondrial events involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis. PMID:26370970

  15. Syk protein tyrosine kinase involves PECAM-1 signaling through tandem immunotyrosine inhibitory motifs in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junchen; Wu, Yanling; Hu, Hai; Wang, Weimin; Lu, Ying; Mao, Huiming; Liu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Zhongmin; Chen, Bing-guan

    2011-01-01

    Although recent evidence supports a functional relationship between platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) and Syk tyrosine kinase, little is known about the interaction of Syk with PECAM-1. We report that down-regulation of Syk inhibits the spreading of human THP-1 macrophage cells. Moreover, our data indicate that Syk binds PECAM-1 through its immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), and dual phosphorylation of the ITIM domain of PECAM-1 leads to activation of Syk. Our results indicate that the distance between the phosphotyrosines could be up to 22 amino acids in length, depending on the conformational flexibility, and that the dual ITIM tyrosine motifs of PECAM-1 facilitate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like signaling. The preferential binding of PECAM-1 to Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 or Syk may depend on their relative affinities, and could provide a mechanism by which signal transduction from PECAM-1 is internally regulated by both positive and negative signaling enzymes. PMID:22000807

  16. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  17. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M; Brown, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL. PMID:25130461

  18. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  19. Effect of oxidative stress on plasma membrane fluidity of THP-1 induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    de la Haba, Carlos; Palacio, José R; Martínez, Paz; Morros, Antoni

    2013-02-01

    Plasma membrane is one of the preferential targets of reactive oxygen species which cause lipid peroxidation. This process modifies membrane properties such as membrane fluidity, a very important physical feature known to modulate membrane protein localization and function. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oxidative stress on plasma membrane fluidity regionalization of single living THP-1 macrophages. These cells were oxidized with H(2)O(2) at different concentrations, and plasma membrane fluidity was analyzed by two-photon microscopy in combination with the environment-sensitive probe Laurdan. Results show a significant H(2)O(2) concentration dependent increase in the frequency of rigid lipid regions, mainly attributable to lipid rafts, at the expense of the intermediate fluidity regions. A novel statistical analysis evaluated changes in size and number of lipid raft domains under oxidative stress conditions, as lipid rafts are platforms aiding cell signaling and are thought to have relevant roles in macrophage functions. It is shown that H(2)O(2) causes an increase in the number, but not the size, of raft domains. As macrophages are highly resistant to H(2)O(2), these new raft domains might be involved in cell survival pathways.

  20. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is impaired by the fatty acid component from lipoprotein hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yanbo; Thyagarajan, Narmadaa; Coady, Breanne M.; Brown, Robert J.

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Lipoprotein hydrolysis products were produced by lipoprotein lipase. • Hydrolysis products lowers expression of macrophage cholesterol transporters. • Hydrolysis products reduces expression of select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products lowers cholesterol transporters and select nuclear receptors. • Fatty acid products reduces cholesterol efflux from macrophages. - Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an extracellular lipase that primarily hydrolyzes triglycerides within circulating lipoproteins. Macrophage LPL contributes to atherogenesis, but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. We hypothesized that the products of lipoprotein hydrolysis generated by LPL promote atherogenesis by inhibiting the cholesterol efflux ability by macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we treated human THP-1 macrophages with total lipoproteins that were hydrolyzed by LPL and we found significantly reduced transcript levels for the cholesterol transporters ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, and scavenger receptor BI. These decreases were likely due to significant reductions for the nuclear receptors liver-X-receptor-α, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α, and PPAR-γ. We prepared a mixture of free fatty acids (FFA) that represented the ratios of FFA species within lipoprotein hydrolysis products, and we found that the FFA mixture also significantly reduced cholesterol transporters and nuclear receptors. Finally, we tested the efflux of cholesterol from THP-1 macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I, and we found that the treatment of THP-1 macrophages with the FFA mixture significantly attenuated cholesterol efflux. Overall, these data show that the FFA component of lipoprotein hydrolysis products generated by LPL may promote atherogenesis by inhibiting cholesterol efflux, which partially explains the pro-atherogenic role of macrophage LPL.

  1. Suppression of NRF2-ARE activity sensitizes chemotherapeutic agent-induced cytotoxicity in human acute monocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Xue, Peng; Hou, Yongyong; Dong, Jian; Zhou, Tong; Qu, Weidong; Peng, Shuangqing; Li, Jin; Carmichael, Paul L; Nelson, Bud; Clewell, Rebecca; Zhang, Qiang; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription, plays a pivotal role in chemical detoxification in normal and tumor cells. Consistent with previous findings that NRF2-ARE contributes to chemotherapeutic resistance of cancer cells, we found that stable knockdown of NRF2 by lentiviral shRNA in human acute monocytic leukemia (AML) THP-1 cells enhanced the cytotoxicity of several chemotherapeutic agents, including arsenic trioxide (As2O3), etoposide and doxorubicin. Using an ARE-luciferase reporter expressed in several human and mouse cells, we identified a set of compounds, including isonicotinic acid amides, isoniazid and ethionamide, that inhibited NRF2-ARE activity. Treatment of THP-1 cells with ethionamide, for instance, significantly reduced mRNA expression of multiple ARE-driven genes under either basal or As2O3-challenged conditions. As determined by cell viability and cell cycle, suppression of NRF2-ARE by ethionamide also significantly enhanced susceptibility of THP-1 and U937 cells to As2O3-induced cytotoxicity. In THP-1 cells, the sensitizing effect of ethionamide on As2O3-induced cytotoxicity was highly dependent on NRF2. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate that ethionamide suppresses NRF2-ARE signaling and disrupts the transcriptional network of the antioxidant response in AML cells, leading to sensitization to chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Apoptosis of THP-1 derived macrophages induced by sonodynamic therapy using a new sonosensitizer hydroxyl acetylated curcumin.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Longbin; Sun, Xinyong; Zhu, Xing; Lv, Fengxiang; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Wenhui; Cao, Wenwu; Yang, Liming; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin is extracted from the rhizomes of the traditional Chinese herb Curcuma longa. Our previous study indicated curcumin was able to function as a sonosensitizer. Hydroxyl acylated curcumin was synthesized from curcumin to eliminate the unstable hydroxy perssad in our group. The potential use of Hydroxyl acylated curcumin as a sonosensitizer for sonodynamic therapy (SDT) requires further exploration. This study investigated the sonodynamic effect of Hydroxyl acylated curcumin on THP-1 macrophage. THP-1 macrophages were cultured with Hydroxyl acylated curcumin at a concentration of 5.0 μg/mL for 4 hours and then exposed to pulse ultrasound irradiation (0.5 W/cm2 with 1.0 MHz ) for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min. Six hours later, cell viability decreased significantly by CCK-8 assay. After ultrasound irradiation, the ratio of apoptosis and necrosis in SDT group was higher than that in control, Hydroxyl acylated curcumin alone and ultrasound alone. Moreover, the apoptotic rate was higher than necrotic rate with the flow cytometry analysis. Furthermore, Hydroxyl acylated curcumin-SDT induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in THP-1 macrophages immediately after the ultrasound treatment while ROS generation was reduced significantly with the scavenger of singlet oxygen Sodium azide (NaN3). Hydroxyl acylated curcumin-SDT led to a conspicuous loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) compared with other groups, while MMP was increased significantly with the scavenger of singlet oxygen Sodium azide (NaN3), ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP) inhibitor Cyclosporin A (CsA). The cytochrome C, cleaved-Caspase-9, cleaved-Caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP upregulated after SDT through Western blotting. These findings suggested that Hydroxyl acylated curcumin under low-intensity ultrasound had sonodynamic effect on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and mitochondria-caspase signaling

  3. Effect of cortisol and/or DHEA on THP1-derived macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Bettina; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; D'Attilio, Luciano; Leon-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Bottasso, Oscar; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Bay, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem requiring an appropriate cell immune response to be controlled. Macrophages play a central role in the response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Given our prior studies in which adrenal steroids were found to modify the cellular immune responses from TB patients, it was sensible to analyze the immunomodulatory capability of cortisol and DHEA on macrophages infected with Mtb. The human macrophage-like THP-1 cells were infected with the H37Rv strain of Mtb and treated with Cortisol and DHEA at different doses. We monitored phagocytosis, intracellular-bacterial growth, autophagosoma formation, as well as cytokine gene expression and production. Cultures exposed to cortisol showed a decreased production of IL-1β, TNF-α, with DHEA being unable to modify the pattern of cytokine production or to reverse the cortisol inhibitory effects. Interestingly the intra-macrophagic bacterial burden was found reduced by DHEA treatment. While this effect was not related to a different cytokine pattern, in terms their production or mRNA expression, DHEA treatment did promote autophagy in Mtb-infected macrophages, irrespective of Cortisol presence. In essence, the better control of Mtb load by DHEA-treated macrophages seems to be dependent on an autophagic mechanism. The present results are relevant for two reasons as autophagy is not only important for clearance of mycobacteria but also for the prevention of tissue damage.

  4. The Effect of Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Molecular Markers of Cholesterol Homeostasis in THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zavar Reza, Javad; Nahangi, Hossein; Mansouri, Reza; Dehghani, Ali; Mojarrad, Majid; Fathi, Mohammad; Nikzamir, Abdolrahim; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background Macrophages derived foam cells are key factors in the maladaptive immune and inflammatory response. Objectives The study of the cholesterol homeostasis and the molecular factor involved in these cells is very important in understanding the process of atherosclerosis and the mechanisms that prevent its occurrence. Materials and Methods This experimental study investigated the effects of c9, t11-Conjugated Linoleic Acid (c9, t11-CLA). Alpha Linolenic Acid (LA), and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) on the PPARα and ACAT1 mRNA expression by Real time PCR and cholesterol homeostasis in THP-1 macrophages derived foam cells. Results Incubation of CLA, LA, EPA, and synthetic ligands did not prevent increasing the cellular total cholesterol (TC). Free cholesterol (FC) is increased by Sandoz58-035 (P = 0.024) and decreased by fatty acids and Wy14643 (Pirinixic acid) (P = 0.035). The pattern of distribution of %EC is similar to the EC pattern distribution. The ACAT1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by EPA (P = 0.009), but c9, t11- CLA, LA, Wy14643, and Sandoz58-035 had no significant effect on the mRNA level of ACAT1 expression compared to DMSO(Dimethyl sulfoxide). Discussions In comparison to the control of Wy14643, Sandoz58-035, c9 and t11-CLA, EPA increased the PPARα mRNA levels (P = 0.024, P = 0.041, P = 0.043, and P = 0.004, respectively), even though, LA had no significant effect on the PPARα mRNA expression (P = 0.489). Conclusions Variations in the chemical structure of fatty acids can affect their physiological function. PMID:24396573

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5×10(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1μg/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25637769

  6. Selection of reliable reference genes during THP-1 monocyte differentiation into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reliable reference genes are a vital prerequisite for any functional study employing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) for analyzing gene expression. Yet a proper selection and assessment of the chosen reference genes is only rarely included into a study. To date, no reference genes have been validated for differentiation of THP-1 monocytes. Here we report on the selection of validated reference genes during differentiation of THP-1 monocytes into macrophages induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Results The mRNA expression of 21 preselected potential reference genes was measured by RT-qPCR at several time-points over six days of PMA-induced THP-1 monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. A ranking according to expression stability was calculated. Calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel-based applets GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Our results indicated ACTB (β-actin) (Cq ± SD, 14.1 ± 0.3) and RPL37A (ribosomal protein L37a) (14.5 ± 0.3) as the most stable genes. While other frequently used reference genes such as GAPDH (glycereraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) (20.8 ± 0.8) or G6PD (glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase) (16.1 ± 1.0) were found to be not as reliable and were therefore unsuited for use as reference genes. These findings were validated by investigating mRNA expression of macrophage scavenger receptor CD36, known to be regulated during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. Using ACTB and RPL37A as reference genes a profound and significant regulation of CD36 could be demonstrated, while use of G6PD resulted in a much less pronounced apparent regulation of CD36. Conclusion Consequently, it is recommended to normalize any real-time PCR-based expression data obtained during THP-1 monocyte differentiation using ACTB and RPL37A. PMID:21122122

  7. Pleiotropic Effects of Blastocystis spp. Subtypes 4 and 7 on Ligand-Specific Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and NF-κB Activation in a Human Monocyte Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Joshua D. W.; MacAry, Paul A.; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. is a common enteric stramenopile parasite that colonizes the colon of hosts of a diverse array of species, including humans. It has been shown to compromise intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity and mediate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mucosal epithelial surfaces, including the intestinal epithelium, are increasingly recognized to perform a vital surveillance role in the context of innate immunity, through the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, we use the human TLR reporter monocytic cell line, THP1-Blue, which expresses all human TLRs, to investigate effects of Blastocystis on TLR activation, more specifically the activation of TLR-2, -4 and -5. We have observed that live Blastocystis spp. parasites and whole cell lysate (WCL) alone do not activate TLRs in THP1-Blue. Live ST4-WR1 parasites inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. In contrast, ST7-B WCL and ST4-WR1 WCL induced pleiotropic modulation of ligand-specific TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, with no significant effects on flagellin-mediated TLR-5 activation. Real time-qPCR analysis on SEAP reporter gene confirmed the augmenting effect of ST7-B on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. Taken together, this is the first study to characterize interactions between Blastocystis spp. and host TLR activation using an in vitro reporter model. PMID:24551212

  8. In vitro anticancer activity of extracts of Mentha Spp. against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Hussain, Shabir; Gupta, Moni; Saxena, Ajit Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In vitro anticancer potential of methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole plants of Mentha arvensis, M. longifolia, M. spicata and M. viridis at concentration of 100 μg/ml was evaluated against eight human cancer cell lines--A-549, COLO-205, HCT-116, MCF-7, NCI-H322, PC-3, THP-1 and U-87MG from six different origins (breast, colon, glioblastoma, lung, leukemia and prostate) using sulphorhodamine blue (SRB) assay. Methanolic extracts of above-mentioned Mentha Spp. displayed anti-proliferative effect in the range of 70-97% against four human cancer cell lines, namely COLO-205, MCF-7, NCI-H322 and THP-1; however, aqueous extracts were found to be active against HCT-116 and PC-3. The results indicate that Mentha Spp. contain certain constituents with cytotoxic properties which may find use in developing anticancer agents.

  9. A heteroglycan from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune modulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion by THP-1 monocytes through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Astridur; Thorlacius, Gudny Ella; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia; Vikingsson, Arnor; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2014-09-25

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) have been consumed as food and used in folk medicine since ancient times to alleviate a variety of diseases. Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc have been shown to produce complex exopolysaccharides with antioxidant and antiviral activity. Furthermore, Nostoc sp. are common in cyanolichen symbiosis and lichen polysaccharides are known to have immunomodulating effects. Nc-5-s is a heteroglycan isolated from free-living colonies of Nostoc commune and its structure has been characterized in detail. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Nc-5-s on the inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human THP-1 monocytes and how the effects are mediated. THP-1 monocytes primed with interferon-γ and stimulated with LPS in the presence of Nc-5-s secreted less of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and more of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 than THP-1 monocytes stimulated without Nc-5-s. In contrast, Nc-5-s increased LPS-induced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8. Nc-5-s decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Akt kinase, but did not affect phosphorylation of the p38 kinase, activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, nor DNA binding of c-fos. These results show that Nc-5-s has anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by THP-1 monocytes, but its effects are pro-inflammatory when it comes to TNF-α and IL-8. Furthermore, they show that the effects of Nc-5-s may be mediated through the ERK1/2 pathway and/or the Akt/phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway and their downstream effectors. The ability of Nc-5-s to decrease IL-6 secretion, increase IL-10 secretion and moderate ERK1/2 activation indicates a potential for its development as an anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:24877713

  10. Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Martyn, Danika; Jacquier, Jc; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-04-01

    Antiinflammatory compounds in the diet can alleviate excessive inflammation, a factor in the pathogenesis of common diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This study examined three European herbs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) and willow bark (Salix alba L.), which have been traditionally used to treat inflammation and their potential for use as antiinflammatory agents. Aqueous herbal extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds (apigenin, quercetin and salicylic acid, 0-100 μM) were incubated with THP1 macrophages, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. At concentrations of 10 μM, both apigenin and quercetin reduced IL-6 significantly ( p < 0.05). Apigenin at 10 μM and quercetin at 25 μM reduced TNF-α significantly ( p < 0.05). Amongst the herbal extracts, willow bark had the greatest antiinflammatory activity at reducing IL-6 and TNF-α production. This was followed by meadowsweet and then chamomile. The lowest effective antiinflammatory concentrations were noncytotoxic (MTT mitochondrial activity assay). The Comet assay, which was used to study the protective effect of the isolated phenols against oxidative damage, showed positive results for all three polyphenols. These are the first findings that demonstrate the antiinflammatory capacity of these herbal extracts.

  11. Inhibition of proinflammatory biomarkers in THP1 macrophages by polyphenols derived from chamomile, meadowsweet and willow bark.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Elaine M; Harbourne, Niamh; Marete, Eunice; Martyn, Danika; Jacquier, Jc; O'Riordan, Dolores; Gibney, Eileen R

    2013-04-01

    Antiinflammatory compounds in the diet can alleviate excessive inflammation, a factor in the pathogenesis of common diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This study examined three European herbs, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria L.) and willow bark (Salix alba L.), which have been traditionally used to treat inflammation and their potential for use as antiinflammatory agents. Aqueous herbal extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds (apigenin, quercetin and salicylic acid, 0-100 μM) were incubated with THP1 macrophages, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured. At concentrations of 10 μM, both apigenin and quercetin reduced IL-6 significantly ( p < 0.05). Apigenin at 10 μM and quercetin at 25 μM reduced TNF-α significantly ( p < 0.05). Amongst the herbal extracts, willow bark had the greatest antiinflammatory activity at reducing IL-6 and TNF-α production. This was followed by meadowsweet and then chamomile. The lowest effective antiinflammatory concentrations were noncytotoxic (MTT mitochondrial activity assay). The Comet assay, which was used to study the protective effect of the isolated phenols against oxidative damage, showed positive results for all three polyphenols. These are the first findings that demonstrate the antiinflammatory capacity of these herbal extracts. PMID:22711544

  12. Inflammasomes-dependent regulation of IL-1β secretion induced by the virulent Mycobacterium bovis Beijing strain in THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Deming; Yue, Ruichao; Khan, Sher Hayat; Shah, Syed Zahid Ali; Yin, Xiaomin; Yang, Lifeng; Zhang, Zhongqiu; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle. Infection of macrophages with M. bovis leads to the activation of the "nucleotide binding and oligomerization, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domains-containing protein 3" (NLRP3) and "absent in melanoma 2" (AIM2) inflammasomes, which in turn triggers release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) that contributes to bacterial clearance and plays a crucial role in the host defense. However, NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation is influenced by several factors and how IL-1β secretion by M. bovis-infected macrophages is regulated via the inflammasome pathway remains unclear. Here we found that IL-1β secretion and pro-IL-1β protein accumulation were inhibited in THP-1 macrophages upon exposure to the virulent M. bovis Beijing strain in the presence of high K(+) concentrations, cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor) and PR-619 (a deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor). Scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by N-acetylcysteine reduced IL-1β release independent of the mitochondrial permeability transition. Collectively, our results suggest that IL-1β secretion by M. bovis-infected THP-1 macrophages is reduced by high extracellular K(+) concentration, inhibition of new protein synthesis, deubiquitination, and ROS generation. PMID:25980833

  13. Shiga Toxins Activate the NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway To Promote Both Production of the Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-1β and Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moo-Seung; Kwon, Haenaem; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Tesh, Vernon L.; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated immune responses, including the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), may exacerbate vascular damage and accelerate lethality. However, the immune signaling pathway activated in response to Stx is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that enzymatically active Stx, which leads to ribotoxic stress, triggers NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in differentiated macrophage-like THP-1 (D-THP-1) cells. The treatment of cells with a chemical inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, which suppresses the expression of the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide and subsequent endocytosis of the toxin, substantially blocked activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and processing of caspase-1 and IL-1β. Processing and release of both caspase-1 and IL-1β were significantly reduced or abolished in Stx-intoxicated D-THP-1 cells in which the expression of NLRP3 or ASC was stably knocked down. Furthermore, Stx mediated the activation of caspases involved in apoptosis in an NLRP3- or ASC-dependent manner. In Stx-intoxicated cells, the NLRP3 inflammasome triggered the activation of caspase-8/3, leading to the initiation of apoptosis, in addition to caspase-1-dependent pyroptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that Stxs trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway to release proinflammatory IL-1β as well as to promote apoptotic cell death. PMID:26502906

  14. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  15. Anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of a squalene synthase inhibitor, TAK-475 active metabolite-I, in immune cells simulating mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD)-like condition.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobutaka; Ito, Tatsuo; Matsui, Hisanori; Takizawa, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    TAK-475 (lapaquistat acetate) and its active metabolite-I (TAK-475 M-I) inhibit squalene synthase, which catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to squalene. FPP is a substrate for synthesis of other mevalonate-derived isoprenoids (MDIs) such as farnesol (FOH), geranlygeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), and geranylgeraniol. In patients with MKD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, defective activity of mevalonate kinase leads to a shortage of MDIs. MDIs especially GGPP are required for prenylation of proteins, which is a posttranslation modification necessary for proper functioning of proteins like small guanosine triphosphatases. Malfunction of prenylation of proteins results in upregulation of the inflammatory cascade, leading to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), eventually leading to episodic febrile attacks. In vitro, TAK-475 M-I incubation in a concentration dependent manner increased levels of FPP, GGPP, and FOH in human monocytic THP-1 cells. In subsequent experiments, THP-1 cells or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated with simvastatin, which inhibits hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and thereby decreases levels of the precursors of MDIs, leading to the depletion of MDIs as expected in MKD patients. Increased levels of GGPP and FPP attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β production in THP-1 cells and human PBMCs in statin-treated conditions. The MDIs also significantly reduced the damaged cell ratio in this active MKD-like condition. Moreover, TAK-475 M-I directly inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β production from statin-treated THP-1 cells. These results show anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of MDIs via TAK-475 M-I treatment in statin-treated immune cells, suggesting that possible therapeutic effects of TAK-475 treatment in MKD patients. PMID:27652005

  16. Vibrio cholerae Porin OmpU Induces Pro-Inflammatory Responses, but Down-Regulates LPS-Mediated Effects in RAW 264.7, THP-1 and Human PBMCs

    PubMed Central

    Sakharwade, Sanica C.; Sharma, Praveen K.; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae porin OmpU plays a crucial role in the survival of the organism in the human gut. Various observations suggest critical involvement of OmpU in V. cholerae pathogenesis. However, OmpU is poorly characterized in terms of its ability to evoke cellular responses, particularly in the context of host immune system. Therefore, towards characterizing V. cholerae OmpU for its host immunomodulatory functions, we have studied the ability of OmpU to elicit pro-inflammatory responses in a range of immune cells which include, mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, human THP-1 monocytes and human PBMCs. We have observed that purified OmpU induces pro-inflammatory responses in terms of production of NO, TNFα and IL-6. Interestingly, pre-treatment of the cells with OmpU suppresses the production of NO, TNFα, IL-6 as well as IL-12 upon subsequent activation with LPS. Our results therefore suggest that V. cholerae OmpU may have a differential regulatory role in terms of host immunomodulatory function: it can induce pro-inflammatory responses in target host immune cells, whereas it can also exert suppressive effect on LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses. In addition, our study indicates that purified OmpU may have the ability to skew the Th1 response towards the Th2 response, presumably via suppression of IL-12 production. PMID:24086753

  17. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein inhibits THP-1-derived macrophage autophagy via TET2 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guohua; Peng, Juan; Liu, Yanhui; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Qin; Li, Yongqing; Tang, Zhihan; Wang, Zuo; Jiang, Zhisheng; Wei, Dangheng

    2015-02-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism underlying its pro-atherosclerosis roles has not yet been well explored. DNA demethylation modification, via DNA methyltransferases or ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family, is a crisis epigenetic regulation for various biological and pathological processes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ox-LDL on macrophage autophagy and its potential epigenetic mechanism. Results showed that after treatment with 0, 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg/L ox-LDL for 24 h, the autophagy markers Beclin 1 and LC3 expression were obviously decreased at protein levels (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of TET2 was evidently decreased (P < 0.05). After pre-treatment with TET2 siRNA, the mRNA and protein levels of Beclin 1 and LC3 decreased compared with the 80 mg/L treatment group (P < 0.01). The mRNA and protein levels of Beclin 1 and LC3-II were up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) of pretreatment group. Consistent with the Western blot results, cell immunofluorescence showed that the protein concentration of LC3-II decreased in the TET2 siRNA group and increased in the 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine group. Taken together, these results showed that DNA demethylation modifications regulate ox-LDL-treated THP-1 macrophages autophagy and TET2 might be a novel regulator.

  18. 4-Anilino-6-phenyl-quinoline inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Henric; Sjö, Peter; Ersoy, Oguz; Kristoffersson, Anna; Larsson, Joakim; Nordén, Bo

    2010-08-15

    A class of inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase-activated kinase 2 (MK2) was discovered via high-throughput screening. This compound class demonstrates activity against the enzyme with sub-microM IC(50) values, and suppresses LPS-induced TNFalpha levels in THP-1 cells. MK2 inhibition kinetic measurements indicated mixed binding approaching non-ATP competitive inhibition.

  19. Zinc deficiency enhanced inflammatory response by increasing immune cell activation and inducing IL6 promoter demethylation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Carmen P.; Rinaldi, Nicole A.; Ho, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Scope Zinc deficiency results in immune dysfunction and promotes systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc deficiency on cellular immune activation and epigenetic mechanisms that promote inflammation. This work is potentially relevant to the aging population given that age-related immune defects, including chronic inflammation, coincide with declining zinc status. Methods and results An in vitro cell culture system and the aged mouse model were used to characterize immune activation and DNA methylation profiles that may contribute to the enhanced proinflammatory response mediated by zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency up-regulated cell activation markers ICAM1, MHC class II, and CD86 in THP1 cells, that coincided with increased IL1β and IL6 responses following LPS stimulation. A decreased zinc status in aged mice was similarly associated with increased ICAM1 and IL6 gene expression. Reduced IL6 promoter methylation was observed in zinc deficient THP1 cells, as well as in aged mice and human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from aged individuals. Conclusion Zinc deficiency induced inflammatory response in part by eliciting aberrant immune cell activation and altered promoter methylation. Our results suggested potential interactions between zinc status, epigenetics, and immune function, and how their dysregulation could contribute to chronic inflammation. PMID:25656040

  20. Effects of soy pinitol on the pro-inflammatory cytokines and scavenger receptors in oxidized low-density lipoprotein-treated THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myung-Sook; Lee, Won-Ha; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kang, Mi Ae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Park, Yong Bok; Jeon, Seon-Min

    2007-12-01

    Pinitol, a methylated form of D-chiro-inositol, acts as a insulin mediator. We investigated the effects of soy pinitol on the factors involved in foam cell formation using differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Pinitol slightly inhibited the lipid-laden foam cell formation by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in a dose-dependent manner. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 releases were significantly reduced by pinitol treatment (0.05-0.5 mM), whereas interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 secretions were significantly reduced in low-dose pinitol (0.05 or 0.1 mM) and 0.5 mM pinitol-treated cells, respectively, compared to no pinitol-treated cells. Gene expressions of CD36 and CD68 were significantly down-regulated by 0.05-0.5 mM pinitol compared to the oxLDL-treated control cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression was significantly decreased in 0.05-0.5 mM pinitol-treated cells compared to the no pinitol-treated macrophages. We conclude that pinitol has some inhibitory effects on foam cell formation by reducing lipid accumulation, secretion, and expression of some cytokines and macrophage scavenger receptor expression via its insulin-like action.

  1. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl

    PubMed Central

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P.; Mellody, Kieran T.; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F.; Dearman, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~ 400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  2. The effects of arginine glutamate, a promising excipient for protein formulation, on cell viability: Comparisons with NaCl.

    PubMed

    Kheddo, Priscilla; Golovanov, Alexander P; Mellody, Kieran T; Uddin, Shahid; van der Walle, Christopher F; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an equimolar mixture of l-arginine and l-glutamate (Arg·Glu) on cell viability and cellular stress using in vitro cell culture systems are examined with reference to NaCl, in the context of monoclonal antibody formulation. Cells relevant to subcutaneous administration were selected: the human monocyte cell line THP-1, grown as a single cell suspension, and adherent human primary fibroblasts. For THP-1 cells, the mechanism of cell death caused by relatively high salt concentrations was investigated and effects on cell activation/stress assessed as a function of changes in membrane marker and cytokine (interleukin-8) expression. These studies demonstrated that Arg·Glu does not have any further detrimental effects on THP-1 viability in comparison to NaCl at equivalent osmolalities, and that both salts at higher concentrations cause cell death by apoptosis; there was no significant effect on measures of THP-1 cellular stress/activation. For adherent fibroblasts, both salts caused significant toxicity at ~400 mOsm/kg, although Arg·Glu caused a more precipitous subsequent decline in viability than did NaCl. These data indicate that Arg·Glu is of equivalent toxicity to NaCl and that the mechanism of toxicity is such that cell death is unlikely to trigger inflammation upon subcutaneous injection in vivo. PMID:26873863

  3. Regulation of LPS-induced tissue factor expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells by curcumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane receptor, which initiates thrombotic episodes associated with various diseases. In addition to membrane-bound TF, we have discovered an alternatively spliced form of human TF mRNA. It was later confirmed that this form of TF mRNA expresses a soluble protein circ...

  4. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles.

  5. Cell polarity factor Par3 binds SPTLC1 and modulates monocyte serine palmitoyltransferase activity and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Tamehiro, Norimasa; Mujawar, Zahedi; Zhou, Suiping; Zhuang, Debbie Z; Hornemann, Thorsten; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fitzgerald, Michael L

    2009-09-11

    Elevated sphingolipids have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease. Conversely, atherosclerosis is reduced in mice by blocking de novo synthesis of sphingolipids catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The SPT enzyme is composed of the SPTLC1 and -2 subunits, and here we describe a novel protein-protein interaction between SPTLC1 and the PDZ protein Par3 (partitioning defective protein 3). Mammalian SPTLC1 orthologs have a highly conserved C terminus that conforms to a type II PDZ protein interaction motif, and by screening PDZ domain protein arrays with an SPTLC1 C-terminal peptide, we found it bound the third PDZ domain of Par3. Overlay and immunoprecipitation assays confirmed this interaction and indicate Par3 is able to associate with the SPTLC1/2 holoenzyme by binding the C-terminal SPTLC1 PDZ motif. The physiologic existence of the SPTLC1/2-Par3 complex was detected in mouse liver and macrophages, and short interfering RNA inhibition of Par3 in human THP-1 monocytes significantly reduced SPT activity and de novo ceramide synthesis by nearly 40%. Given monocyte recruitment into inflamed vessels is thought to promote atherosclerosis, and because Par3 and sphingolipids have been associated with polarized cell migration, we tested whether the ability of THP-1 monocytes to migrate toward MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) depended upon Par3 and SPTLC1 expression. Knockdown of Par3 significantly reduced MCP1-induced chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes, as did knockdown of SPTLC1, and this Par3 effect depended upon SPT activity and was blunted by ceramide treatment. In conclusion, protein arrays were used to identify a novel SPTLC1-Par3 interaction that associates with increased monocyte serine palmitoyltransferase activity and chemotaxis toward inflammatory signals. PMID:19592499

  6. Marrubium vulgare extract inhibits human-LDL oxidation and enhances HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Isabelle, Maxim; Cherki, Mounia; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the beneficial properties of aqueous extracts of Marrubium vulgare (AEM) towards cardiovascular disease by protecting human-LDL against lipid peroxidation and promoting HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human-LDL were oxidised by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of increased concentrations of AEM (0-100 microg/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene formation, vitamin E disappearance as well as LDL-electrophoretic mobility. HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux assay was carried out in human THP-1 macrophages. Incubation of LDL with AEM significantly prolonged the lag phase (P=0.014), lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P=0.004), reduced the disappearance of vitamin E and the electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. Also, incubation of HDL with AEM significantly increased HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages implicating an independent ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) pathways. Our findings suggest that M. vulgare provides a source of natural antioxidants, which inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance reverse cholesterol transport and thus can prevent cardiovascular diseases development. These antioxidant properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  7. Effects of globularifolin on cell survival, nuclear factor-κB activity, neopterin production, tryptophan breakdown and free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Becker, Kathrin; Gostner, Johanna M; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Schennach, Harald; Aydin, Ahmet; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of globularifolin, an acylated iridoid glucoside, on cell survival, inflammation markers and free radicals scavenging were investigated. Viability assay on human myelomomonocytic cell line THP-1 and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using the Cell-Titer Blue assay proved that globularifolin had no toxic effect at the tested concentrations. Conversely, it is proportional to the dose globularifolin increased growth of THP-1 cells (p <0.01). On human PBMC, globularifolin at 6.25 and 12.5 μM concentrations showed a stimulatory effect, while at 12.5-200 μM it suppressed response of PBMC to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Globularifolin (50-200 μM) enhanced neopterin formation dose-dependently, whereas tryptophan breakdown was not influenced. At 50-200 μM in unstimulated PBMC in THP-1 cells, globularifolin induced a significant expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) as was quantified by Quanti-Blue assay. By contrast, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells, the higher concentrations of globularifolin suppressed NF-κB expression dose-dependently and a significant decrease was observed at 200 μM concentration. A positive correlation was found between increased neopterin and NF-κB activity (p <0.01). Similarly, a positive correlation was observed between neopterin levels in mitogen-induced cells and NF-κB activity in LPS-stimulated cells after treatment with globularifolin (p=0.001). The free radical scavenging capacity of globularifolin evaluated by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay showed relative ORAC values of 0.36±0.05 μmol Trolox equivalent/μmol. All together, results show that natural antioxidant globularifolin might represent a potential immunomodulatory as well as proliferative agent, which deserves further in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:24185011

  8. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL. PMID:16019008

  9. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  10. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF{kappa}B in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Weidong | Alexis, Neil E. |; Chen Xian |; Bromberg, Philip A. |; Peden, David B. ||

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF{kappa}B were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NF{kappa}B activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NF{kappa}B activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NF{kappa}B activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NF{kappa}B.

  11. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFkappaB in LPS-induced CD40 expression on human monocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weidong; Alexis, Neil E; Chen, Xian; Bromberg, Philip A; Peden, David B

    2008-04-15

    CD40 is a costimulatory molecule linking innate and adaptive immune responses to bacterial stimuli, as well as a critical regulator of functions of other costimulatory molecules. The mechanisms regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced CD40 expression have not been adequately characterized in human monocytic cells. In this study we used a human monocytic cell line, THP-1, to investigate the possible mechanisms of CD40 expression following LPS exposure. Exposure to LPS resulted in a dose- and time-dependent increase in CD40 expression. Further studies using immunoblotting and pharmacological inhibitors revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NFkappaB were activated by LPS exposure and involved in LPS-induced CD40 expression. Activation of MAPKs was not responsible for LPS-induced NFkappaB activation. TLR4 was expressed on THP-1 cells and pretreatment of cells with a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) neutralizing antibody (HTA125) significantly blunted LPS-induced MAPK and NFkappaB activation and ensuing CD40 expression. Additional studies with murine macrophages expressing wild type and mutated TLR4 showed that TLR4 was implicated in LPS-induced ERK and NFkappaB activation, and CD40 expression. Moreover, blockage of MAPK and NFkappaB activation inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression. In summary, LPS-induced CD40 expression in monocytic cells involves MAPKs and NFkappaB.

  12. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay. PMID:24055517

  13. Isolation and antiproliferative activity of Lotus corniculatus lectin towards human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Shaista; Majeed, Rabiya; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Wani, Ishfak; Rakhshanda, Syed; Qurishi, Yasrib; Sharma, P R; Hamid, Abid; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Rabia

    2013-12-15

    The objective of the study was to investigate the anti cancer activity of a lectin isolated from Lotus corniculatus seeds. A tetrameric 70kDa galactose specific lectin was purified using two step simple purification protocol which involved affinity chromatography on AF-BlueHC650M and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The lectin was adsorbed on AF-BlueHC650M and desorbed using 1M NaCl in the starting buffer. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 yielded a major peak absorbance that gave two bands of 15kDa and 20kDa in SDS PAGE. Hemagglutination activity was completely preserved, when the temperature was in the range of 20-60°C. However, drastic reduction in activity occurred at temperatures above 60°C. Full hemagglutination activity was retained at ambient pH 4-12. Thereafter no activity was observed above pH 13. Hemaglutination of the lectin was inhibited by d-galactose. The lectin showed a strong antiproliferative activity towards human leukemic (THP-1) cancer cells followed by lung cancer (HOP62) cells and HCT116 with an IC50 of 39μg/ml and 50μg/ml and 60μg/ml respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in the percentage of cells in sub G0G1 phase confirming that Lotus corniculatus lectin induced apoptosis. Morphological observations showed that Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) treated THP-1 cells displayed apparent apoptosis characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of membrane enclosed apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentation. Lotus corniculatus lectin (LCL) effectively inhibits the cell migration in a dose dependent manner as indicated by the wound healing assay.

  14. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sae Mi; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-10-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-α1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-α1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation.

  15. IRAK regulates macrophage foam cell formation by modulating genes involved in cholesterol uptake and efflux.

    PubMed

    Rana, Minakshi; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Rajiv Lochan; Singh, Vishal; Chandra, Tulika; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) is linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; however, its role in macrophage foam cell formation is not known. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of IRAK1 in lipid uptake, biosynthesis, and efflux in THP-1 derived macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs). Ox-LDL (40 μg/mL, 15 minutes-48 hours) treatment induced time-dependent increase in IRAK1, IRAK4, and Stat1 activation in THP-1 derived macrophages. IRAK1/4 inhibitor (INH) or IRAK1 siRNA significantly attenuated cholesterol accumulation, DiI-Ox-LDL binding, and uptake while cholesterol efflux to apoAI and HDL was enhanced in THP-1 derived macrophages and HMDMs. Ox-LDL treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of CD36, LOX-1, SR-A, ABCA1, ABCG1, Caveolin-1, CYP27A1 while that of SR-BI was decreased. IRAK1/4 inhibition or IRAK1 knockdown, however, attenuated Ox-LDL-induced CD36 expression; augmented ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression while expression of others was unaffected in THP-1 derived macrophages and HMDMs. Moreover, IRAK1/4 inhibition had no significant effect on genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. In IRAK1/4 INH pre-treated THP-1 derived macrophages Ox-LDL-induced Stat1 phosphorylation and its binding to CD36 promoter was significantly attenuated while LXRα expression and its binding to the ABCA1/ABCG1 locus, NFATc2 activation and its binding to ABCA1 locus was enhanced. The present study thus demonstrates that IRAK regulates lipid accumulation by modulating CD36-mediated uptake and ABCA1-, ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Therefore, IRAK1 can be a potential target for preventing macrophage foam cell formation. PMID:27270491

  16. Hypoxia primes human normal prostate epithelial cells and cancer cell lines for the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia contributes to prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) remain largely unknown. Because hypoxia stimulates the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which “primes” cells for inflammasome activation by inducing the expression of NLRP3 or AIM2 receptor and pro-IL-1β, we investigated whether hypoxia could activate the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) and cancer cell lines. Here we report that hypoxia (1% O2) treatment of PrECs, prostate cell lines, and a macrophage cell line (THP-1) increased the levels of NLRP3, AIM2, and pro-IL-1β. Further, hypoxia in cells potentiated activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activity. Notably, hypoxia “primed” cells for NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation through stimulation of the NF-κB activity. Our observations support the idea that hypoxia in human prostatic tumors contributes to PCI, in part, by priming cells for the activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. PMID:27058421

  17. Apelin-13 impedes foam cell formation by activating Class III PI3K/Beclin-1-mediated autophagic pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Feng; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Xie, Wei; Tan, Yu-Lin; Gong, Duo; Cheng, Hai-Peng; Liu, Dan; Li, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2015-10-30

    Apelin-13, an adipokine, promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages with antiatherosclerotic effect. Autophagy, an evolutionarily ancient response to cellular stress, has been involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether apelin-13 regulates macrophage foam cell cholesterol metabolism through autophagy, and also explore the underlying mechanisms. Here, we revealed that apelin-13 decreased lipid accumulation in THP-1 derived macrophages through markedly enhancing cholesterol efflux. Our study further demonstrated that apelin-13 induced autophagy via activation of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Beclin-1. Inhibition of Class III PI3K and Beclin-1 suppressed the stimulatory effects of apelin-13 on autophagy activity. The present study concluded that apelin-13 reduces lipid accumulation of foam cells by activating autophagy via Class III PI3K/Beclin-1 pathway. Therefore, our results provide brand new insight about apelin-13 inhibiting foam cell formation and highlight autophagy as a promising therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.

  18. Interleukin-32α downregulates the activity of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 protein by inhibiting protein kinase Cε-dependent SUMO-2 modification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Sun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Yang, Young; Lee, Hee Gu; Hong, JinTae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    A proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 acts as an intracellular mediator. IL-32α interacts with many intracellular molecules, but there are no reports of interaction with a transcriptional repressor BCL6. In this study, we showed that PMA induces an interaction between IL-32α, PKCε, and BCL6, forming a trimer. To identify the mechanism of the interaction, we treated cells with various inhibitors. In HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines, treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor, PKCε inhibitor, and PKCδ inhibitor decreased BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. MAPK inhibitors and classical PKC inhibitor did not decrease PMA-induced BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. Further, the pan-PKC inhibitor and PKCε inhibitor disrupted PMA-induced interaction between IL-32α and BCL6. These data demonstrate that the intracellular interaction between IL-32α and BCL6 is induced by PMA-activated PKCε. PMA induces post-translational modification of BCL6 by conjugation to SUMO-2, while IL-32α inhibits. PKCε inhibition eliminated PMA-induced SUMOylation of BCL6. Inhibition of BCL6 SUMOylation by IL-32α affected the cellular function and activity of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 in THP-1 cells. Thus, we showed that IL-32α is a negative regulator of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. IL-32α inhibits BCL6 SUMOylation by activating PKCε, resulting in the modulation of BCL6 target genes and cellular functions of BCL6. PMID:25245533

  19. Interleukin-32α downregulates the activity of the B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 protein by inhibiting protein kinase Cε-dependent SUMO-2 modification.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun Sun; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Man Sub; Bak, Yesol; Yang, Young; Lee, Hee Gu; Hong, JinTae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2014-09-30

    A proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 acts as an intracellular mediator. IL-32α interacts with many intracellular molecules, but there are no reports of interaction with a transcriptional repressor BCL6. In this study, we showed that PMA induces an interaction between IL-32α, PKCε, and BCL6, forming a trimer. To identify the mechanism of the interaction, we treated cells with various inhibitors. In HEK293 and THP-1 cell lines, treatment with a pan-PKC inhibitor, PKCε inhibitor, and PKCδ inhibitor decreased BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. MAPK inhibitors and classical PKC inhibitor did not decrease PMA-induced BCL6 and IL-32α protein expression. Further, the pan-PKC inhibitor and PKCε inhibitor disrupted PMA-induced interaction between IL-32α and BCL6. These data demonstrate that the intracellular interaction between IL-32α and BCL6 is induced by PMA-activated PKCε. PMA induces post-translational modification of BCL6 by conjugation to SUMO-2, while IL-32α inhibits. PKCε inhibition eliminated PMA-induced SUMOylation of BCL6. Inhibition of BCL6 SUMOylation by IL-32α affected the cellular function and activity of the transcriptional repressor BCL6 in THP-1 cells. Thus, we showed that IL-32α is a negative regulator of the transcriptional repressor BCL6. IL-32α inhibits BCL6 SUMOylation by activating PKCε, resulting in the modulation of BCL6 target genes and cellular functions of BCL6.

  20. IL-12 could induce monocytic tumor cells directional differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting-Ting; Wu, Bi-Tao; Lin, Yan; Xiong, Hai-Yu; Wang, Qin; Li, Zi-Wei; Cheng, Feng; Tu, Zhi-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12), a member of interleukin family, plays a critical role in immune responses and anti-tumor activity. In this study, the effects of IL-12 on monocytic tumor cell lines differentiation to macrophagocyte and its likely mechanism was investigated. We examined the differentiation markers, morphological and functional changes, and possible mechanism in IL-12-treated THP-1 and U937 cells. It was found that IL-12 could up-regulated macrophage surface marker CD68 and CD11b expression in a time-dependent manner. Morphologically, after IL-12 treatment, THP-1 and U937 cells became round or irregular shape, even stretched many cell membrane protuberances; some cell nuclei became fuzzy or completely disappeared, and the chromatin appeared dense and cordlike. Furthermore, IL-12-induced monocytic tumor cell differentiation was accompanied by the growth arrest with G1-phase accumulation and S-phase reduction; apoptosis increased with anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 down-expression and pro-apoptosis protein Fas up-regulation, and enhanced phagocytosis function. The IL-12-induced macrophage differentiation of THP-1 and U937 cells was associated with the up-regulation of c-fms expression and the CSF-1R Tyr 809 site phosphorylation. These findings have revealed that IL-12 could induce monocytic tumor cells directional differentiation into macrophage-like cells, and its mechanism is possible connected with the up-regulation of c-fms expression and the phosphorylation of CSF-1R Tyr-809 site.

  1. [Characteristics of migration of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells after co-cultivation with activated monocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, O A; Korovina, I V; Gogia, B Sh; Sysoeva, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are considered to be promising tool of regenerative medicine. Migration of MSC toward damaged inflammatory site is essential for physiological tissue reparation. Therefore we studied modifications of migratory features of adipose tissue derived MSC (AT-MSC) after co-cultivation with activated monocytes derived from THP-1 cell line. As a result, we have observed an increased migration rate of AT-MSC in vitro in the absence of chemoattractant gradient as well as toward the gradient of PDGF BB (platelet-derived growth factor BB), which is well known chemoattractant for the cells of mesenchymal origin. Furthermore, the rate of directional AT-MSC migration through fibronectin was also increased. We have established that signaling from PDGFRβ which is activated through binding of integrin receptors with extracellular matrix may be possible way to stimulate cellular migration under simulated inflammatory conditions.

  2. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Imaging during Respiratory Burst in Human Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Prasad, Ankush; Matsuoka, Ryo; Aoyagi, Shigeo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, consume oxygen and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to external stimuli. Among the various ROS, the superoxide anion radical is known to be primarily produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase. In the current study, we attempt to evaluate the respiratory burst by monitoring the rapid consumption of oxygen by using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) imaging. The respiratory burst was measured in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient under the effect of the exogenous addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which acts as a differentiation inducer. SECM imaging composed of a microelectrode was used to compare oxygen consumption between normal cellular respiration and during respiratory burst in THP-1 cells. Two-dimensional respiratory activity imaging was performed using XY-scan. In addition, the quantitative evaluation of oxygen consumption in THP-1 cells was performed using a Z-scan. The results obtained show higher consumption of oxygen in cells undergoing respiratory burst. SECM imaging is thus claimed to be a highly sensitive and appropriate technique compared to other existing techniques available for evaluating oxidative stress in human cells, making it potentially useful for widespread applications in biomedical research and clinical trials. PMID:26903876

  3. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Imaging during Respiratory Burst in Human Cell.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Prasad, Ankush; Matsuoka, Ryo; Aoyagi, Shigeo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Kasai, Shigenobu

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, consume oxygen and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to external stimuli. Among the various ROS, the superoxide anion radical is known to be primarily produced by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase. In the current study, we attempt to evaluate the respiratory burst by monitoring the rapid consumption of oxygen by using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) imaging. The respiratory burst was measured in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) derived from an acute monocytic leukemia patient under the effect of the exogenous addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, which acts as a differentiation inducer. SECM imaging composed of a microelectrode was used to compare oxygen consumption between normal cellular respiration and during respiratory burst in THP-1 cells. Two-dimensional respiratory activity imaging was performed using XY-scan. In addition, the quantitative evaluation of oxygen consumption in THP-1 cells was performed using a Z-scan. The results obtained show higher consumption of oxygen in cells undergoing respiratory burst. SECM imaging is thus claimed to be a highly sensitive and appropriate technique compared to other existing techniques available for evaluating oxidative stress in human cells, making it potentially useful for widespread applications in biomedical research and clinical trials.

  4. Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) peel polyphenols modulate LPS-induced inflammation in human THP-1-derived macrophages through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija; Refai, Amira; Riahi, Ichrak; Fattouch, Sami; Karoui, Habib; Essafi, Makram

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols inhibit LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-8. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols augment LPS-induced secretion of IL-10 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quince peel polyphenols-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced secretion of TNF-{alpha} is partially mediated by IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anti-inflammatory effects of quince polyphenols pass through NF-{kappa}B, p38MAPK and Akt inhibition. -- Abstract: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of several pathologies, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis and cancer. A wide range of anti-inflammatory chemicals have been used to treat such diseases while presenting high toxicity and numerous side effects. Here, we report the anti-inflammatory effect of a non-toxic, cost-effective natural agent, polyphenolic extract from the Tunisian quince Cydonia oblonga Miller. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human THP-1-derived macrophages induced the secretion of high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-{alpha} and the chemokine IL-8, which was inhibited by quince peel polyphenolic extract in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, quince polyphenols enhanced the level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 secreted by LPS-treated macrophages. We further demonstrated that the unexpected increase in IL-6 secretion that occurred when quince polyphenols were associated with LPS treatment was partially responsible for the polyphenols-mediated inhibition of TNF-{alpha} secretion. Biochemical analysis showed that quince polyphenols extract inhibited the LPS-mediated activation of three major cellular pro-inflammatory effectors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), p38MAPK and Akt. Overall, our data indicate that quince peel polyphenolic extract induces a potent anti-inflammatory effect that may prove useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and that a quince

  5. Calpain secreted by activated human lymphoid cells degrades myelin.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-10-01

    Calpain secreted by lymphoid (MOLT-3, M.R.) or monocytic (U-937, THP-1) cell lines activated with PMA and A23187 degraded myelin antigens. The degradative effect of enzymes released in the extracellular medium was tested on purified myelin basic protein and rat central nervous system myelin in vitro. The extent of protein degradation was determined by SDS-PAGE and densitometric analysis. Various proteinase inhibitors were used to determine to what extent protein degradation was mediated by calpain and/or other enzymes. Lysosomal and serine proteinase inhibitors inhibited 20-40% of the myelin-degradative activity found in the incubation media of cell lines, whereas the calcium chelator (EGTA), the calpain-specific inhibitor (calpastatin), and a monoclonal antibody to m calpain blocked myelin degradation by 60-80%. Since breakdown products of MBP generated by calpain may include fragments with antigenic epitopes, this enzyme may play an important role in the initiation of immune-mediated demyelination. PMID:8568927

  6. Galactomutarotase and other galactose-related genes are rapidly induced by retinoic acid in human myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Pai, Tongkun; Chen, Qiuyan; Zhang, Yao; Zolfaghari, Reza; Ross, A Catharine

    2007-12-25

    Aldose-1-epimerase (mutarotase) catalyzes the interconversion of alpha and beta hexoses, which is essential for normal carbohydrate metabolism and the production of complex oligosaccharides. Galactose mutarotase (GALM) has been well characterized at the protein level, but information is lacking on the regulation of GALM gene expression. We report herein that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A that is known to induce myeloid lineage cell differentiation into macrophage-like cells, induces a rapid and robust regulation of GALM mRNA expression in human myeloid cells. all-trans-RA at a physiological concentration (20 nM), or Am580, a ligand selective for the nuclear retinoid receptor RARalpha, increased GALM mRNA in THP-1 cells, with significantly increased expression in 2 h, increasing further to an approximately 8-fold elevation after 6-40 h (P < 0.005). In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not increase GALM mRNA expression, although it is capable of inducing cell differentiation. RA also increased GALM mRNA in U937 and HL-60 cells. The increase in GALM mRNA by RA was blocked by pretreating THP-1 cells with actinomycin D but not by cycloheximide. GALM protein and mutarotase activity were also increased time dependently in RA-treated THP-1 cells. In addition to GALM, several other genes in the biosynthetic pathway of galactosyl-containing complex oligosaccharides were more highly expressed in RA-treated THP-1 cells, including B4GALT5, ST3GAL3, ST6GALNAC5, and GALNAC4S-6ST. Thus, the results of this study identify RA as a significant regulator of GALM and other galactose-related genes in myeloid-monocytic cells, which could affect energy utilization and synthesis of cell-surface glycoproteins or glycolipids involved in cell motility, adhesion, and/or functional properties.

  7. piggyBac transposon plus insulators overcome epigenetic silencing to provide for stable signaling pathway reporter cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Valeri V; Waters, James K; Hannink, Mark; Mawhinney, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified hematopoietic progenitors represent an important testing platform for a variety of cell-based therapies, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and other applications. Stable expression of a transfected gene of interest in the cells is often obstructed by its silencing. DNA transposons offer an attractive non-viral alternative of transgene integration into the host genome, but their broad applicability to leukocytes and other "transgene unfriendly" cells has not been fully demonstrated. Here we assess stability of piggyBac transposon-based reporter expression in murine prostate adenocarcinoma TRAMP-C2, human monocyte THP-1 and erythroleukemia K562 cell lines, along with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that have differentiated from the THP-1 transfects. The most efficient and stable reporter activity was observed for combinations of the transposon inverted terminal repeats and one 5'- or two cHS4 core insulators flanking a green fluorescent protein reporter construct, with no detectable silencing over 10 months of continuous cell culture in absence of any selective pressure. In monocytic THP-1 cells, the functional activity of luciferase reporters for NF-κB, Nrf2, or HIF-1α has not decreased over time and was retained following differentiation into macrophages and DCs, as well. These results imply pB as a versatile tool for gene integration in monocytic cells in general, and as a convenient access route to DC-based signaling pathway reporters suitable for high-throughput assays, in particular. PMID:24376882

  8. Cytotoxic activity to acute myeloid leukemia cells by Antp-TPR hybrid peptide targeting Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Tomohisa; Kawamoto, Megumi; Kohno, Masayuki; Kawakami, Koji

    2012-07-01

    We previously reported that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide inhibited the interaction of Hsp90 with TPR2A and had selective cytotoxic activity discriminating between normal and cancer cells to induce cancer cell death. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of Antp-TPR peptide toward acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. It was demonstrated that Antp-TPR peptide induced AML cell death in cell lines such as U937, K562, THP-1, and HL-60 via activation of caspases 3 and 7, and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conversely, Antp-TPR peptide did not reduce the viability of normal cells including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), although both geldanamycin and 17-AAG, small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90, mediated cytotoxicity to these normal cells at low concentrations. In addition, mutation analysis of TPR peptide demonstrated that the highly conserved amino acids Lys and Arg were critical to the cytotoxic activity. These results indicated that Antp-TPR hybrid peptide would provide potent and selective therapeutic options in the treatment of AML.

  9. Cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of cyclopiazonic acid on human cells.

    PubMed

    Hymery, Nolwenn; Masson, Floriane; Barbier, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was evaluated on human cells. To evaluate cytoxicity, several cellular targets were used (CD34+, monocytes, THP-1 and Caco-2). Monocytes were more sensitive to CPA than the THP-1 monocytic cell line after 48h of incubation in the tested conditions. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) were determined to be 8.5 × 10(-8) and 1.75 × 10(-7)M for monocytes and THP1, respectively, while IC50>1.25 × 10(-7)M was observed for Caco-2 and CD34+ cells. The CPA effect on macrophage differentiation was also examined at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The monocyte differentiation process was markedly disturbed in the presence of CPA. After 6 days of culture, CD71 expression was downregulated, while CD14 and CD11a expressions did not change. Moreover, activated macrophages showed a raised burst activity and TNF-α secretion. Overall, the results indicated that CPA exhibited toxicity on various human cellular models. Moreover, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, CPA disturbed human monocytes differentiation into macrophages. This work contributes to understanding the immunosuppressive properties of this food-related toxin. PMID:24747294

  10. Cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of cyclopiazonic acid on human cells.

    PubMed

    Hymery, Nolwenn; Masson, Floriane; Barbier, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    In this study, in vitro cytotoxicity and immunotoxicity of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was evaluated on human cells. To evaluate cytoxicity, several cellular targets were used (CD34+, monocytes, THP-1 and Caco-2). Monocytes were more sensitive to CPA than the THP-1 monocytic cell line after 48h of incubation in the tested conditions. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) were determined to be 8.5 × 10(-8) and 1.75 × 10(-7)M for monocytes and THP1, respectively, while IC50>1.25 × 10(-7)M was observed for Caco-2 and CD34+ cells. The CPA effect on macrophage differentiation was also examined at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The monocyte differentiation process was markedly disturbed in the presence of CPA. After 6 days of culture, CD71 expression was downregulated, while CD14 and CD11a expressions did not change. Moreover, activated macrophages showed a raised burst activity and TNF-α secretion. Overall, the results indicated that CPA exhibited toxicity on various human cellular models. Moreover, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, CPA disturbed human monocytes differentiation into macrophages. This work contributes to understanding the immunosuppressive properties of this food-related toxin.

  11. Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Novel Nitro-Substituted Hydroxynaphthanilides on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Kauerova, Tereza; Kos, Jiri; Gonec, Tomas; Jampilek, Josef; Kollar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ring-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides are considered as cyclic analogues of salicylanilides, compounds possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities, including promising anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer effect of novel nitro-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides with a special focus on structure-activity relationships. The antiproliferative effect was assessed by Water Soluble Tetrazolium Salts-1 (WST-1) assay, and cytotoxicity was evaluated via dye exclusion test. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. Our data indicate that the potential to cause the antiproliferative effect increases with the shift of the nitro substituent from the ortho- to the para-position. The most potent compounds, 3-hydroxy-N-(3-nitrophenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide (2), and 2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitrophenyl)-naphthalene-1-carboxamide (6) showed antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of 3T3-L1 non-tumour cells. Compounds 2 and 6 induced the accumulation of THP-1 and MCF-7 cells in G1 phase associated with the downregulation of cyclin E1 protein levels, while the levels of cyclin B1 were not affected. Moreover, compound 2 was found to exert the pro-apoptotic effect on the THP-1 cells. These results suggest that hydroxynaphthanilides might represent a potential model structure for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:27483236

  12. Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Novel Nitro-Substituted Hydroxynaphthanilides on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Kauerova, Tereza; Kos, Jiri; Gonec, Tomas; Jampilek, Josef; Kollar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ring-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides are considered as cyclic analogues of salicylanilides, compounds possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities, including promising anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer effect of novel nitro-substituted hydroxynaphthanilides with a special focus on structure-activity relationships. The antiproliferative effect was assessed by Water Soluble Tetrazolium Salts-1 (WST-1) assay, and cytotoxicity was evaluated via dye exclusion test. Flow cytometry was used for cell cycle analysis and detection of apoptosis using Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. Our data indicate that the potential to cause the antiproliferative effect increases with the shift of the nitro substituent from the ortho- to the para-position. The most potent compounds, 3-hydroxy-N-(3-nitrophenyl)naphthalene-2-carboxamide (2), and 2-hydroxy-N-(4-nitrophenyl)-naphthalene-1-carboxamide (6) showed antiproliferative activity against THP-1 and MCF-7 cancer cells without affecting the proliferation of 3T3-L1 non-tumour cells. Compounds 2 and 6 induced the accumulation of THP-1 and MCF-7 cells in G1 phase associated with the downregulation of cyclin E1 protein levels, while the levels of cyclin B1 were not affected. Moreover, compound 2 was found to exert the pro-apoptotic effect on the THP-1 cells. These results suggest that hydroxynaphthanilides might represent a potential model structure for the development of novel anticancer agents. PMID:27483236

  13. HLA-G1, but Not HLA-G3, Suppresses Human Monocyte/Macrophage-mediated Swine Endothelial Cell Lysis.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, H; Maeda, A; Lo, P C; Matsuura, R; Esquivel, E L; Asada, M; Sakai, R; Nakahata, K; Yamamichi, T; Umeda, S; Deguchi, K; Ueno, T; Okuyama, H; Miyagawa, S

    2016-05-01

    The inhibitory function of HLA-G1, a class Ib molecule, on monocyte/macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity was examined. The expression of inhibitory receptors that interact with HLA-G, immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2), ILT4, and KIR2DL4 (CD158d) on in vitro-generated macrophages obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated THP-1 cells were examined by flow cytometry. cDNAs of HLA-G1, HLA-G3, HLA-E, and human β2-microglobulin were prepared, transfected into pig endothelial cells (PECs), and macrophage- and the THP-1 cell-mediated PEC cytolysis was then assessed. In vitro-generated macrophages expressed not only ILT2 and ILT4 but CD158d as well. The transgenic HLA-G1 on PEC indicated a significant suppression in macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, which was equivalent to that of transgenic HLA-E. HLA-G1 was clearly expressed on the cell surface of PEC, whereas the levels of HLA-G3 were much lower and remained in the intracellular space. On the other hand, the PMA-activated THP-1 cell was less expressed these inhibitory molecules than in vitro-generated macrophages. Therefore, the HLA-G1 on PECs showed a significant but relatively smaller suppression to THP-1 cell-mediated cytotoxicity compared to in vitro-generated macrophages. These results indicate that by generating HLA-G1, but not HLA-G3, transgenic pigs can protect porcine grafts from monocyte/macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:27320605

  14. Monocytes and macrophages, implications for breast cancer migration and stem cell-like activity and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Rebecca; Sims, Andrew H.; Lee, Alexander; Lo, Christina; Wynne, Luke; Yusuf, Humza; Gregson, Hannah; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica; Landberg, Göran; Lamb, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are a major cellular constituent of the tumour stroma and contribute to breast cancer prognosis. The precise role and treatment strategies to target macrophages remain elusive. As macrophage infiltration is associated with poor prognosis and high grade tumours we used the THP-1 cell line to model monocyte-macrophage differentiation in co-culture with four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468) to model in vivo cellular interactions. Polarisation into M1 and M2 subtypes was confirmed by specific cell marker expression of ROS and HLA-DR, respectively. Co-culture with all types of macrophage increased migration of ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, while M2-macrophages increased mammosphere formation, compared to M1-macrophages, in all breast cancer cells lines. Treatment of cells with Zoledronate in co-culture reduced the “pro-tumourigenic” effects (increased mammospheres/migration) exerted by macrophages. Direct treatment of breast cancer cells in homotypic culture was unable to reduce migration or mammosphere formation. Macrophages promote “pro-tumourigenic” cellular characteristics of breast cancer cell migration and stem cell activity. Zoledronate targets macrophages within the microenvironment which in turn, reduces the “pro-tumourigenic” characteristics of breast cancer cells. Zoledronate offers an exciting new treatment strategy for both primary and metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26008983

  15. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A. Sofia; Figueiredo, A. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  16. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Gago, Custódia; Antunes, Maria Dulce; Megías, Cristina; Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Vioque, Javier; Lima, A Sofia; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS(•+) and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. PMID:26229547

  17. TAK1-ECSIT-TRAF6 complex plays a key role in the TLR4 signal to activate NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sae Mi; Moon, Gyuyoung; Kim, Juhong; Kim, Seong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Chun, Eunyoung; Lee, Ki-Young

    2014-12-19

    ECSIT (evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in Toll pathways) is known as a multifunctional regulator in different signals, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), TGF-β, and BMP. Here, we report a new regulatory role of ECSIT in TLR4-mediated signal. By LPS stimulation, ECSIT formed a high molecular endogenous complex including TAK1 and TRAF6, in which ECSIT interacted with each protein and regulated TAK1 activity, leading to the activation of NF-κB. ECSIT-knockdown THP-1 (ECSIT(KD) THP-1) cells exhibited severe impairments in NF-κB activity, cytokine production, and NF-κB-dependent gene expression, whereas those were dramatically restored by reintroduction of wild type (WT) ECSIT gene. Interestingly, ECSIT mutants, which lack a specific interacting domain for either TAK1 or TRAF6, could not restore these activities. Moreover, no significant changes in both NF-κB activity and cytokine production induced by TLR4 could be seen in TAK1(KD) or TRAF6(KD) THP-1 cells transduced by WT ECSIT, strongly suggesting the essential requirement of TAK1-ECSIT-TRAF6 complex in TLR4 signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the ECSIT complex, including TAK1 and TRAF6, plays a pivotal role in TLR4-mediated signals to activate NF-κB.

  18. Retinoic acid synergizes ATO-mediated cytotoxicity by precluding Nrf2 activity in AML cells

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, M; Glorieux, C; Stockis, J; Sid, B; Sandoval, J M; Felipe, K B; Kviecinski, M R; Verrax, J; Calderon, P Buc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Standard therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) includes retinoic acid (all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)), which promotes differentiation of promyelocytic blasts. Although co-administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO) with ATRA has emerged as an effective option to treat APL, the molecular basis of this effect remains unclear. Methods: Four leukaemia cancer human models (HL60, THP-1, NBR4 and NBR4-R2 cells) were treated either with ATO alone or ATO plus ATRA. Cancer cell survival was monitored by trypan blue exclusion and DEVDase activity assays. Gene and protein expression changes were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot. Results: ATO induced an antioxidant response characterised by Nrf2 nuclear translocation and enhanced transcription of downstream target genes (that is, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, ferritin). In cells exposed to ATO plus ATRA, the Nrf2 nuclear translocation was prevented and cytotoxicity was enhanced. HO-1 overexpression reversed partially the cytotoxicity by ATRA-ATO in HL60 cells. The inhibitory effects of ATRA on ATO-mediated responses were not observed in either the ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells or in NB4 cells pre-incubated with the RARα antagonist Ro-41-52-53. Conclusions: The augmented cytotoxicity observed in leukaemia cells following combined ATO-ATRA treatment is likely due to inhibition of Nrf2 activity, thus explaining the efficacy of combined ATO-ATRA treatment in the APL therapy. PMID:25003661

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and monocytes: Impact of size, charge and solubility on activation status

    SciTech Connect

    Prach, Morag; Stone, Vicki; Proudfoot, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particle induced cytotoxicity was dependent on size, charge and solubility, factors which at sublethal concentrations may influence the activation of the human monocytic cell line THP1. ZnO nanoparticles (NP; average diameter 70 nm) were more toxic than the bulk form (< 44 μm mesh) and a positive charge enhanced cytotoxicity of the NP despite their relatively high dissolution. A positive charge of the particles has been shown in other studies to have an influence on cell viability. Centrifugal filtration using a cut off of 5 kDa and Zn element analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed that exposure of the ZnO particles and NP to 10% foetal bovine serum resulted in a strong association of the Zn{sup 2+} ion with protein. This association with protein may influence interaction of the ZnO particles and NP with THP1 cells. After 24 h exposure to the ZnO particles and NP at sublethal concentrations there was little effect on immunological markers of inflammation such as HLA DR and CD14, although they may induce a modest increase in the adhesion molecule CD11b. The cytokine TNFα is normally associated with proinflammatory immune responses but was not induced by the ZnO particles and NP. There was also no effect on LPS stimulated TNFα production. These results suggest that ZnO particles and NP do not have a classical proinflammatory effect on THP1 cells. -- Highlights: ► ZnO is cytotoxic to THP-1 monocytes. ► ZnO nanoparticles are more toxic than the bulk form. ► Positive charge enhances ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity. ► Sublethal doses of ZnO particles do not induce classical proinflammatory markers.

  20. Cytotoxic Capacity of IL-15-Stimulated Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Against Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Rhabdomyosarcoma in Humanized Preclinical Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Rettinger, Eva; Meyer, Vida; Kreyenberg, Hermann; Volk, Andreas; Kuçi, Selim; Willasch, Andre; Koscielniak, Ewa; Fulda, Simone; Wels, Winfried S.; Boenig, Halvard; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has become an important treatment modality for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is also under investigation for soft tissue sarcomas. The therapeutic success is still limited by minimal residual disease (MRD) status ultimately leading to patients’ relapse. Adoptive donor lymphocyte infusions based on MRD status using IL-15-expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells may prevent relapse without causing graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). To generate preclinical data we developed mouse models to study anti-leukemic- and anti-tumor-potential of CIK cells in vivo. Immunodeficient mice (NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc−, NSG) were injected intravenously with human leukemic cell lines THP-1, SH-2 and with human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cell lines RH41 and RH30 at minimal doses required for leukemia or tumor engraftment. Mice transplanted with THP-1 or RH41 cells were randomly assigned for analysis of CIK cell treatment. Organs of mice were analyzed by flow cytometry as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction for engraftment of malignant cells and CIK cells. Potential of CIK cells to induce GvHD was determined by histological analysis. Tissues of the highest degree of THP-1 cell expansion included bone marrow followed by liver, lung, spleen, peripheral blood (PB), and brain. RH30 and RH41 engraftment mainly took place in liver and lung, but was also detectable in spleen and PB. In spite of delayed CIK cell expansion compared with malignant cells, CIK cells injected at equal amounts were sufficient for significant reduction of RH41 cells, whereas against fast-expanding THP-1 cells 250 times more CIK than THP-1 cells were needed to achieve comparable results. Our preclinical in vivo mouse models showed a reliable 100% engraftment of malignant cells which is essential for analysis of anti-cancer therapy. Furthermore our data demonstrated that IL-15-activated CIK cells have potent cytotoxic capacity against AML

  1. Molecular association of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives: Electrochemical, DFT studies and antiproliferative activity against leukemia cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rishikesh; Bhand, Sujit; Konkimalla, V. Badireenath; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Ugale, Bharat; Chadar, Dattatray; Saha, Sourav Kr.; Praharaj, Prakash Priyadarshi; Nagaraja, C. M.; Chakrovarty, Debamitra; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2016-12-01

    Molecular structures and their molecular association of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone, viz., LH-3; propyl, LH-4; butyl and LH-8; octyl derivatives were studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Synthesis and characterization of 2-octylamino-1,4-naphthoquinone; LH-8 was discussed. The molecule of LH-3 crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P21/c, while the LH-4 and LH-8 molecule crystallizes in triclinic space group P-1. LH-3, LH-4 and LH-8 showed intermolecular N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O interactions, LH-3 showed unique C(3)-H(3)⋯O(1) interaction. Interchain π-π stacking, slipped π-π stacking and C⋯O close contacts was respectively observed in LH-3, LH-4 and LH-8. Electrochemical studies were performed on first eight members of homologous series of 2-(n-alkylamino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (LH-1 to LH-8) by cyclic voltammetry. Naphthoquinone to naphthosemiquinone reversible redox couple was observed in all compounds ∼ E1/2 = -0.657 ± 0.05 V. HOMO-LUMO band gap was determined for the neutral form as well as the monoanionic radical form viz. naphthosemiquinone form of selected derivatives by DFT studies. It has been observed that the electron density is delocalized in the naphthoquinone ring in both neutral as well as one electron reduced form of compounds. Antiproliferative activity of LH-1 to LH-8 was evaluated against two cancer cell lines, THP1(acute monocytic leukemia) and K562(human immortalized myelogenous leukemia cell line) cells. It was observed that, in THP1 cells, compounds LH-2 and LH-3 are very active while LH-1, LH-4 and LH-6 were moderately active and LH-5, LH-7 and LH-8 were totally inactive. Contrastingly, in K562 cells all of the compounds were moderately active.

  2. Residual endotoxin contaminations in recombinant proteins are sufficient to activate human CD1c+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002-2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14.

  3. Composition of three essential oils, and their mammalian cell toxicity and antimycobacterial activity against drug resistant-tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria strains.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Juan; Escobar, Patricia; Martínez, Jairo René; Leal, Sandra Milena; Stashenko, Elena E

    2011-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most ancient epidemic disease in the world and a serious opportunistic disease in HIV/AIDS patients. The increase in multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB, XDR-TB) demands the search for novel antimycobacterial drugs. Essential oils (EOs) have been widely used in medicine and some EOs and their major components have been shown to be active against M. tuberculosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimycobacterial and cell toxicity activities of three EOs derived from Salvia aratocensis, Turnera diffusa and Lippia americana, aromatics plants collected in Colombia. The EOs were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS techniques. The EOs were tested against 15 Mycobacterium spp using a colorimetric macrodilution method and against mammalian Vero and THP-1 cells by MTT. The activity was expressed as minimal concentration in microg/mL that inhibits growth, and the concentration that is cytotoxic for 50 or 90% of the cells (CC50 and CC90). The major components were epi-alpha-cadinol (20.1%) and 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (14.2%) for Salvia aratocensis; drima-7,9(11)-diene (22.9%) and viridiflorene (6.6%) for Turnera diffusa; and germacrene D (15.4%) and trans-beta- caryophyllene (11.3%) for Lippia americana. The most active EO was obtained from S. aratocensis, with MIC values below 125 microg mL(-1) for M. tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains, and 200 to 500 microg mL(-1) for nontuberculous mycobacterial strains. The EOs were either partially or non toxic to Vero and THP-1 mammalian cells with CC50 values from 30 to > 100 microg mL(-1), and a CC90 > 100 microg mL(-1). The EOs obtained from the three aromatic Colombian plants are an important source of potential compounds against TB. Future studies using the major EO components are recommended. PMID:22224302

  4. A novel role for β2-microglobulin: a precursor of antibacterial chemokine in respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Wang, Chan-Chi; Tseng, Yan-Shen; Lee, Yen-Jung; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Chi-Hsien; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Hong, Yi-Ren; Lu, Chi-Yu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chignard, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed a panel of cationic molecules secreted in the culture medium of human respiratory epithelial cells (REC) upon activation by IL-1β and different pathogen-associated molecular patterns. A 9 kDa fragment derived from β2-microglobulin (B2M) was identified and named shed 9 kDa B2M (sB2M-9). The primary structure of sB2M-9 was revealed to increase its pI value that potentially could play an important role in innate defense. sB2M-9 exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA) but not against Gram negative Klebsiella pneumonia (KP). Upon its binding to SA, sB2M-9 induces clumps, a phenomenon not observed with B2M. Migration of THP-1 monocytes exposed to SA clumps was significantly greater than that to SA without clumps. sB2M-9 binds to SA, more likely as a chemokine, to facilitate THP-1 migration. As a whole, we demonstrated that REC release a novel chemokine with antibacterial activity that is shed from B2M to facilitate THP-1 migration. PMID:27503241

  5. A novel role for β2-microglobulin: a precursor of antibacterial chemokine in respiratory epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Wang, Chan-Chi; Tseng, Yan-Shen; Lee, Yen-Jung; Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chou, Chi-Hsien; Chuang, Lea-Yea; Hong, Yi-Ren; Lu, Chi-Yu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Chignard, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed a panel of cationic molecules secreted in the culture medium of human respiratory epithelial cells (REC) upon activation by IL-1β and different pathogen-associated molecular patterns. A 9 kDa fragment derived from β2-microglobulin (B2M) was identified and named shed 9 kDa B2M (sB2M-9). The primary structure of sB2M-9 was revealed to increase its pI value that potentially could play an important role in innate defense. sB2M-9 exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (SA) but not against Gram negative Klebsiella pneumonia (KP). Upon its binding to SA, sB2M-9 induces clumps, a phenomenon not observed with B2M. Migration of THP-1 monocytes exposed to SA clumps was significantly greater than that to SA without clumps. sB2M-9 binds to SA, more likely as a chemokine, to facilitate THP-1 migration. As a whole, we demonstrated that REC release a novel chemokine with antibacterial activity that is shed from B2M to facilitate THP-1 migration. PMID:27503241

  6. Recombinant form of human wild type mannan-binding lectin (MBL/A) but not its structural variant (MBL/C) promotes phagocytosis of zymosan by activating complement.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Rema; Nyaundi, Takazvida; Salvi, Veena P; Rawal, Nenoo

    2010-09-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) mediates innate immune responses, such as activation of the complement lectin pathway and phagocytosis, to help fight infections. In the present study, employing recombinant forms of human MBL (rMBL), the role of wild type MBL (rMBL/A) and its structural variant rMBL/C in mediating THP-1 phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled zymosan was examined and compared to MBL purified from human plasma (pMBL/A). Flow cytometric analyses revealed that opsonization of zymosan with rMBL/A and pMBL/A (0.5-30microg/ml) resulted in a 1.9- and 2.7-fold enhancement in its uptake by THP-1 cells in the presence of serum that was depleted of both MBL and the classical pathway component, C1q (MBL/C1q Dpl serum). In contrast, no enhancement in phagocytosis was observed when zymosan was opsonized with rMBL/C. Addition of MBL monoclonal antibody, EDTA, or mannan to the opsonization reaction mixture inhibited THP-1 phagocytosis of pMBL/A opsonized zymosan. Heat inactivation of MBL/C1q Dpl serum abolished the 2-fold increase in phagocytosis and in the absence of serum the direct opsonic activity of MBL did not contribute significantly to the uptake of zymosan into THP-1 cells. Activation products of complement components C3 and C4 were deposited on zymosan opsonized with pMBL/A and rMBL/A but not rMBL/C indicating that MBL-mediated phagocytosis of zymosan requires activation of the complement lectin pathway. The findings imply that impaired MBL-mediated phagocytosis may put individuals homozygous for the mutant allele MBL/C but not wild type MBL/A at increased risk to infections such as yeast. PMID:20579738

  7. Structure-Activity Relationship Study of N(6)-Benzoyladenine-Type BRD4 Inhibitors and Their Effects on Cell Differentiation and TNF-α Production.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Seika; Yamaguchi, Takao; Sakai, Taki; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Noguchi-Yachide, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Bromodomains are epigenetic 'readers' of histone acetylation. The first potent bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibitors, (+)-JQ1 and I-BET762 (also known as GSK525762), were reported in 2010. Some BET inhibitors are already under clinical trial for the treatment of cancers, but so far, only a few chemical scaffolds are available. We have reported potent N(6)-benzoyladenine-based inhibitors of BRD4, a BET family member that serves as a key mediator of transcriptional elongation. Here we present an analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these inhibitors. Among the compounds examined, 20, 28 and 29 enhanced all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced HL-60 cell differentiation and inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production by THP-1 cells. PMID:27581642

  8. Development and validation of a simple cell-based fluorescence assay for dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) activity.

    PubMed

    Thong, Bob; Pilling, James; Ainscow, Edward; Beri, Raj; Unitt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) (EC 3.4.14.1; also known as cathepsin C, cathepsin J, dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, and dipeptidyl aminotransferase) is a lysosomal cysteinyl protease of the papain family involved in the intracellular degradation of proteins. Isolated enzyme assays for DPP1 activity using a variety of synthetic substrates such as dipeptide or peptide linked to amino-methyl-coumarin (AMC) or other fluorophores are well established. There is, however, no report of a simple whole-cell-based assay for measuring lysosomal DPP1 activity other than the use of flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) or the use of invasive activity-based probes or the production of physiological products such as neutrophil elastase. The authors investigated a number of DPP1 fluorogenic substrates that have the potential to access the lysosome and enable the measurement of DPP1 enzyme activity in situ. They describe the development and evaluation of a simple noninvasive fluorescence assay for measuring DPP1 activity in fresh or cryopreserved human THP-1 cells using the substrate H-Gly-Phe-AFC (amino-fluoro-coumarin). This cell-based fluorescence assay can be performed in a 96-well plate format and is ideally suited for determining the cell potency of potential DPP1 enzyme inhibitors.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of novel palladium-based compounds on leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Antunovic, Maja; Kriznik, Bojana; Ulukaya, Engin; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Mihalic, Katarina C; Madunic, Josip; Marijanovic, Inga

    2015-02-01

    Effective treatment methods for human leukemia are under development, but so far none of them have been found to be completely satisfactory. It was recently reported that palladium complexes have significant anticancer activity as well as lower toxicity compared with some clinically used chemotherapeutics. The anticancer activities of two novel palladium(II) complexes, [Pd(sac)(terpy)](sac)·4H2O and [PdCl(terpy)](sac)·2H2O, were tested against three human leukemia cell lines, Jurkat, MOLT-4, and THP-1, in comparison with cisplatin and adriamycin. The cytotoxic effect of the drugs was determined using the MTT assay. Cell death was assessed using fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin/propidium iodide staining for flow cytometry. Furthermore, p53 phosphorylation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels were examined to elucidate the mechanism of cell death induction. Both complexes exhibited a significant dose-dependent antigrowth effect in vitro. The complexes predominately induced apoptosis, but necrosis was also observed. In-vitro results have shown that palladium(II) complexes may be regarded as potential anticancer agents for treating human leukemia. Therefore, further analysis to determine the putative mechanism of action and in-vivo studies on animal models are warranted.

  10. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

    2013-09-01

    For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC): inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production in myeloid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Low, Pauline; Clark, Amanda M; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chang, Tsu-Chung; Reynolds, Maxwell; Ralph, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is a mixture predominantly composed of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes, refined from the essential oil of the tea tree by removing up to 99% of the more toxic, hydrophobic monoterpenes. MAC was examined here for its immunomodulatory effects on the human THP1 and murine RAW264.7 myeloid leukemic cell lines as models for macrophage-like cells. Firstly, MAC levels were determined that did not affect either the survival or proliferation of these cell lines in vitro. Next, the levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFNγ and IL-3) were examined from the myeloid cell lines using multiplex assays. Many of the LPS-inducible cytokines produced by either cell lines could be significantly inhibited by MAC. Closer examination of the mechanism of action of MAC showed that it inhibited the LPS-induced activation of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling and translocation, inhibiting iNOS protein expression and NO production. These results demonstrate that MAC exerts its immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signalling activation and levels of cytokine production by macrophage-like cell lines.

  12. Immunomodulatory activity of Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC): inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB activation and cytokine production in myeloid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Low, Pauline; Clark, Amanda M; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chang, Tsu-Chung; Reynolds, Maxwell; Ralph, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is a mixture predominantly composed of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenes, refined from the essential oil of the tea tree by removing up to 99% of the more toxic, hydrophobic monoterpenes. MAC was examined here for its immunomodulatory effects on the human THP1 and murine RAW264.7 myeloid leukemic cell lines as models for macrophage-like cells. Firstly, MAC levels were determined that did not affect either the survival or proliferation of these cell lines in vitro. Next, the levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFNγ and IL-3) were examined from the myeloid cell lines using multiplex assays. Many of the LPS-inducible cytokines produced by either cell lines could be significantly inhibited by MAC. Closer examination of the mechanism of action of MAC showed that it inhibited the LPS-induced activation of IκB phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signalling and translocation, inhibiting iNOS protein expression and NO production. These results demonstrate that MAC exerts its immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signalling activation and levels of cytokine production by macrophage-like cell lines. PMID:25858876

  13. Restoration of susceptibility of intracellular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactams: comparison of strains, cells, and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M; Appelbaum, Peter C; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other beta-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01x to 100x MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09x MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], -0.69 log CFU [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized for

  14. THE ROLE OF ENDOGENOUSLY PRODUCED EXTRACELLULAR HSP72 IN MONONUCLEAR CELL REPROGRAMMING

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Patricia A.; Lahni, Patrick M.; Page, Kristen; Giuliano, John S.; Harmon, Kelli; Dunsmore, Katherine E.; Wong, Hector R.; Wheeler, Derek S.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is known to serve a broad cytoprotective role. Recent data indicate that stressed cells can release Hsp72 into the extracellular compartment, although the biological function of extracellular Hsp72 remains to be fully elucidated. Because extracellular Hsp72 has been demonstrated to interact with Toll-like receptor 4, we hypothesized that endogenously produced and released Hsp72 would reprogram the mononuclear cell responses to LPS. THP-1 cells treated with LPS were used as a model for nuclear factor (NF)–κB activation. Heat shock conditions consisted of incubation at 43°C for 1 h. Control cells were incubated at 37°C. Twenty four hours after incubation, heat shock conditioned media (HSCM) and control media (CM) were centrifuged, and the respective cells were discarded. A separate group of naive THP-1 cells were then incubated with either HSCM or CM for 18 h and then stimulated with LPS (1 µg/mL). Heat shock significantly increased Hsp72 in HSCM compared with CM. In THP-1 cells transfected with an NF-κB luciferase reporter plasmid, the addition of HSCM attenuated subsequent LPS-mediated luciferase activity compared with cells incubated in CM. The addition of HSCM also attenuated LPS-mediated NF-κB–DNA binding and IκBα degradation. Heat shock protein 72–mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation was further corroborated by a significant decrease in TNF-α production. When HSCM and CM were subjected to Hsp72 depletion via adenosine triphosphate–agarose binding, LPS-mediated activation of NF-κB was partially restored, suggesting that Hsp72 is partially responsible for cellular reprogramming in response to HSCM. These data demonstrate that endogenously produced and released extracellular Hsp72 has the ability to reprogram the in vitro response to endotoxin in cultured human mononuclear cells. PMID:18323737

  15. Induction of monocyte differentiation and foam cell formation in vitro by 7-ketocholesterol.

    PubMed

    Hayden, John M; Brachova, Libuse; Higgins, Karen; Obermiller, Lewis; Sevanian, Alex; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Reaven, Peter D

    2002-01-01

    Oxidized LDL (OxLDL) is composed of many potentially proatherogenic molecules, including oxysterols. Of the oxysterols, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found in relatively large abundance in OxLDL, as well as in atherosclerotic plaque and foam cells in vivo. Although there is evidence that 7-KC activates endothelial cells, its effect on monocytes is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that 7-KC may induce monocyte differentiation and promote foam cell formation. THP-1 cells were used as a monocyte model system and were treated with 7-KC over a range of concentrations from 0.5 to 10 microg/ml. Changes in cell adhesion properties, cell morphology, and expression of antigens characteristic of differentiated macrophages were monitored over a 7-day period. 7-KC promoted cells to firmly adhere and display morphologic features of differentiated macrophages; this effect was time and dose dependent and was markedly more potent than cholesterol treatment (45% of cells became adherent after 7 days of treatment with 7-KC at 10 microg/ml vs. less then 5% for control cells, P < 0.01). Similar effects were obtained when LDL enriched with 7-KC or OxLDL were added to THP-1 cells. 7-KC-differentiated cells expressed CD11b, CD36, and CD68, phagocytized latex beads, and formed lipid-laden foam cells after exposure to acetylated LDL or OxLDL. In contrast to 7-KC, oxysterols with known cell regulatory effects such as 25-hydroxycholesterol, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, and (22R)-hydroxycholesterol did not effectively promote THP-1 differentiation. In conclusion, these results demonstrate for the first time that 7-KC, a prominent oxysterol formed in OxLDL by peroxidation of cholesterol, may play an important role in promoting monocyte differentiation and foam cell formation. These studies also suggest that 7-KC induces monocyte differentiation through a sterol-mediated regulatory pathway that remains to be characterized.

  16. In vitro Effects of Selected Saponins on the Production and Release of Lysozyme Activity of Human Monocytic and Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Helal, Racha; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2011-01-01

    Lysozyme is one of the most important factors of innate immunity and a unique enzybiotic in that it exerts not only antibacterial activity, but also antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory activities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether in vitro exposure to saponins can affect the release and production of lysozyme activity in human monocytic cells THP-1, and in human epithelial cells HT-29. Lysozyme activity levels in cell culture fluids were measured using highly sensitive fluorescence-based lysozyme activity assay. Majority of the examined saponins were demonstrated to stimulate significantly the release of lysozyme activity of monocytes and epithelial cells after one hour treatment at non-toxic concentrations. On the contrary, cells treated with saponins for longer periods up to 72 hours showed tendency to decrease in the secretion and production of lysozyme activity. However, these inhibitory effects of saponins observed with long-term treatment periods were mostly associated with toxic effects of saponins to cells. The results suggested positive contribution of some saponins to lysozyme release of monocytes and epithelial cells upon short exposure. Furthermore, demonstrated ability of these saponins to enhance the release of lysozyme activity can present a new mechanism contribute to explaining important biological characteristics of saponins, including the antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory or immune-stimulating properties. PMID:21773070

  17. T315 Decreases Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Viability through a Combination of Apoptosis Induction and Autophagic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chang-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Jadhav, Appaso; Wu, Chia-Yung; Sargeant, Aaron M.; Bai, Li-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    T315, an integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor, has been shown to suppress the proliferation of breast cancer, stomach cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Here we demonstrate that T315 decreases cell viability of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines (HL-60 and THP-1) and primary leukemia cells from AML patients in a dose-responsive manner. Normal human bone marrow cells are less sensitive than leukemia cells to T315. T315 down regulates protein kinase B (Akt) and p-Akt and induces caspase activation, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, apoptosis and autophagy through an ILK-independent manner. Interestingly, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors rescues cells from apoptosis and concomitant PARP cleavage, which implicates a key role of autophagic cell death in T315-mediated cytotoxicity. T315 also demonstrates efficacy in vivo, suppressing the growth of THP-1 xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice when administered intraperitoneally. This study shows that autophagic cell death and apoptosis cooperatively contribute to the anticancer activity of T315 in AML cells. In conclusion, the complementary roles of apoptotic and autophagic cell death should be considered in the future assessment of the translational value of T315 in AML therapy. PMID:27537872

  18. T315 Decreases Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Viability through a Combination of Apoptosis Induction and Autophagic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chang-Fang; Weng, Jing-Ru; Jadhav, Appaso; Wu, Chia-Yung; Sargeant, Aaron M; Bai, Li-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    T315, an integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor, has been shown to suppress the proliferation of breast cancer, stomach cancer and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Here we demonstrate that T315 decreases cell viability of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines (HL-60 and THP-1) and primary leukemia cells from AML patients in a dose-responsive manner. Normal human bone marrow cells are less sensitive than leukemia cells to T315. T315 down regulates protein kinase B (Akt) and p-Akt and induces caspase activation, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, apoptosis and autophagy through an ILK-independent manner. Interestingly, pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors rescues cells from apoptosis and concomitant PARP cleavage, which implicates a key role of autophagic cell death in T315-mediated cytotoxicity. T315 also demonstrates efficacy in vivo, suppressing the growth of THP-1 xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice when administered intraperitoneally. This study shows that autophagic cell death and apoptosis cooperatively contribute to the anticancer activity of T315 in AML cells. In conclusion, the complementary roles of apoptotic and autophagic cell death should be considered in the future assessment of the translational value of T315 in AML therapy. PMID:27537872

  19. Restoration of Susceptibility of Intracellular Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactams: Comparison of Strains, Cells, and Antibiotics▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Olivier, Aurélie; Van Bambeke, Françoise; Tulkens, Paul M.; Appelbaum, Peter C.; Glupczynski, Youri

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades eukaryotic cells. When methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) ATCC 33591 is phagocytized by human THP-1 macrophages, complete restoration of susceptibility to cloxacillin and meropenem is shown and the strain becomes indistinguishable from MSSA ATCC 25923 due to the acid pH prevailing in phagolysosomes (S. Lemaire et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:1627-1632, 2007). We examined whether this observation can be extended to (i) strains of current clinical and epidemiological interest (three hospital-acquired MRSA [HA-MRSA] strains, two community-acquired MRSA [CA-MRSA] strains, two HA-MRSA strains with the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, one HA-MRSA strain with the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, and one animal [porcine] MRSA strain), (ii) activated THP-1 cells and nonprofessional phagocytes (keratinocytes, Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells), and (iii) other β-lactams (imipenem, oxacillin, cefuroxime, cefepime). All strains showed (i) a marked reduction in MICs in broth at pH 5.5 compared with the MIC at pH 7.4 and (ii) sigmoidal dose-response curves with cloxacillin (0.01× to 100× MIC, 24 h of incubation) after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages that were indistinguishable from each other and from the dose-response curve for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 (relative potency [50% effect], 6.09× MIC [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.50 to 8.25]; relative efficacy [change in bacterial counts over the original inoculum for an infinitely large cloxacillin concentration, or maximal effect], −0.69 log CFU [95% CI, −0.79 to −0.58]). Similar dose-response curves for cloxacillin were also observed with MSSA ATCC 25923 and MRSA ATCC 33591 after phagocytosis by activated THP-1 macrophages, keratinocytes, and Calu-3 cells. By contrast, there was a lower level of restoration of susceptibility of MRSA ATCC 33591 to cefuroxime and cefepime after phagocytosis by THP-1 macrophages, even when the data were normalized

  20. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of indole glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quan V; Trenerry, Craige; Rochfort, Simone; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina; Hughes, Andrew B

    2014-01-15

    The nitronate and nitrovinyl methods to synthesize indole glucosinolates (GLs) have been investigated. The results were applied to generally the most prevalent natural indole glucosinolates to synthesize 4-methoxyglucobrassicin (MGB) and neo-glucobrassicin (NGB) in moderate overall yield for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activity of the synthetic indole GLs was determined by inhibition of TNF-α secretion in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. The data showed that glucobrassicin (GB) exhibited higher activity than other synthetic indolyl GLs. PMID:24360830

  1. Kinetics of cytokine profile in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Streptococcus pyogenes activated cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Kumar, Parveen; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Yadav, Manisha

    2016-06-01

    The infection of epithelial cells is a necessary step for Mycobacterium bovis BCG dissemination, but the mechanism of mycobacterial epithelial interactions is not completely understood. Similarly, Streptococcus pyogenes is a strictly human pathogen that favorably colonizes the skin and the pharynx. Effective cytokine secretion is essential in order to fabricate a suitable inflammatory response against an infection. In this data article, the cytokine profile in BCG and S. pyogenes activated THP-1 cell line in media after the acute phase of infection by ELISA is described. The interleukin-8 level was increased in response to both BCG and S. pyogenes, but was quite prominent after 24 h and further increased upto 72 h post infection. On the other hand, an increase in IL-6 response to S. pyogenes was observed while there was no response to BCG even after 48 h of infection. A low level of TNF-α was detected upon BCG and S. pyogenes infection.

  2. N-Alkoxyphenylhydroxynaphthalenecarboxamides and Their Antimycobacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Gonec, Tomas; Pospisilova, Sarka; Kauerova, Tereza; Kos, Jiri; Dohanosova, Jana; Oravec, Michal; Kollar, Peter; Coffey, Aidan; Liptaj, Tibor; Cizek, Alois; Jampilek, Josef

    2016-01-01

    A series of nineteen N-(alkoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-carboxamides and a series of their nineteen positional isomers N-(alkoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamides were prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of all the synthesized compounds was performed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, M. kansasii and M. smegmatis. Screening of the cytotoxicity of the compounds was performed using human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells. Some of the tested compounds showed antimycobacterial activity comparable with or higher than that of rifampicin. For example, 2-hydroxy-N-(4-propoxyphenyl)-naphthalene-1-carboxamide showed the highest activity (MIC = 12 µM) against M. tuberculosis with insignificant cytotoxicity. N-[3-(But-2-yloxy)phenyl]- and N-[4-(but-2-yloxy)phenyl]-2-hydroxy-naphthalene-1-carboxamide demonstrated high activity against all tested mycobacterial strains and insignificant cytotoxicity. N-(Alkoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamides demonstrated rather high effect against M. smegmatis and M. kansasii and strong antiproliferative effect against the human THP-1 cell line. Lipophilicity was found as the main physicochemical parameter influencing the activity. A significant decrease of mycobacterial cell metabolism (viability of M. tuberculosis H37Ra) was observed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:27537867

  3. Tracking immune-related cell responses to drug delivery microparticles in 3D dense collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Obarzanek-Fojt, Magdalena; Curdy, Catherine; Loggia, Nicoletta; Di Lena, Fabio; Grieder, Kathrin; Bitar, Malak; Wick, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Beyond the therapeutic purpose, the impact of drug delivery microparticles on the local tissue and inflammatory responses remains to be further elucidated specifically for reactions mediated by the host immune cells. Such immediate and prolonged reactions may adversely influence the release efficacy and intended therapeutic pathway. The lack of suitable in vitro platforms limits our ability to gain insight into the nature of immune responses at a single cell level. In order to establish an in vitro 3D system mimicking the connective host tissue counterpart, we utilized reproducible, compressed, rat-tail collagen polymerized matrices. THP1 cells (human acute monocytic leukaemia cells) differentiated into macrophage-like cells were chosen as cell model and their functionality was retained in the dense rat-tail collagen matrix. Placebo microparticles were later combined in the immune cell seeded system during collagen polymerization and secreted pro-inflammatory factors: TNFα and IL-8 were used as immune response readout (ELISA). Our data showed an elevated TNFα and IL-8 secretion by macrophage THP1 cells indicating that Placebo microparticles trigger certain immune cell responses under 3D in vivo like conditions. Furthermore, we have shown that the system is sensitive to measure the differences in THP1 macrophage pro-inflammatory responses to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) microparticles with different API release kinetics. We have successfully developed a tissue-like, advanced, in vitro system enabling selective "readouts" of specific responses of immune-related cells. Such system may provide the basis of an advanced toolbox enabling systemic evaluation and prediction of in vivo microparticle reactions on human immune-related cells.

  4. Coculture with intraocular lens material-activated macrophages induces an inflammatory phenotype in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pintwala, Robert; Postnikoff, Cameron; Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-03-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, requiring surgical implantation of an intraocular lens. Despite evidence of leukocyte ingress into the postoperative lens, few studies have investigated the leukocyte response to intraocular lens materials. A novel coculture model was developed to examine macrophage activation by hydrophilic acrylic (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophobic acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate) commercial intraocular lens. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages and cocultured with human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3) with or without an intraocular lens for one, two, four, or six days. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, expression of the macrophage activation marker CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and production of reactive oxygen species via the fluorogenic probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were examined in macrophages. α-Smooth muscle actin, a transdifferentiation marker, was characterized in lens epithelial cells. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) intraocular lens prevented adhesion but induced significant macrophage activation (p < 0.03) versus control (no intraocular lens), while the polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens enabled adhesion and multinucleated fusion, but induced no significant activation. Coculture with either intraocular lens increased reactive oxygen species production in macrophages after one day (p < 0.03) and increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin in HLE B-3 after six days, although only poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced a significant difference versus control (p < 0.01). Our results imply that-contrary to prior uveal biocompatibility understanding-macrophage adherence is not necessary for a strong inflammatory response to an intraocular lens, with hydrophilic surfaces inducing higher activation than hydrophobic surfaces. These findings provide a new method of inquiry into uveal

  5. Coculture with intraocular lens material-activated macrophages induces an inflammatory phenotype in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pintwala, Robert; Postnikoff, Cameron; Molladavoodi, Sara; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-03-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, requiring surgical implantation of an intraocular lens. Despite evidence of leukocyte ingress into the postoperative lens, few studies have investigated the leukocyte response to intraocular lens materials. A novel coculture model was developed to examine macrophage activation by hydrophilic acrylic (poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)) and hydrophobic acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate) commercial intraocular lens. The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages and cocultured with human lens epithelial cell line (HLE-B3) with or without an intraocular lens for one, two, four, or six days. Using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, expression of the macrophage activation marker CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and production of reactive oxygen species via the fluorogenic probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were examined in macrophages. α-Smooth muscle actin, a transdifferentiation marker, was characterized in lens epithelial cells. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) intraocular lens prevented adhesion but induced significant macrophage activation (p < 0.03) versus control (no intraocular lens), while the polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens enabled adhesion and multinucleated fusion, but induced no significant activation. Coculture with either intraocular lens increased reactive oxygen species production in macrophages after one day (p < 0.03) and increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin in HLE B-3 after six days, although only poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) induced a significant difference versus control (p < 0.01). Our results imply that-contrary to prior uveal biocompatibility understanding-macrophage adherence is not necessary for a strong inflammatory response to an intraocular lens, with hydrophilic surfaces inducing higher activation than hydrophobic surfaces. These findings provide a new method of inquiry into uveal

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones induce distinct forms of cell death that modulate human monocyte-derived macrophage responses.

    PubMed

    López-Antón, Nancy; Hermann, Corinna; Murillo, Renato; Merfort, Irmgard; Wanner, Gerhard; Vollmar, Angelika M; Dirsch, Verena M

    2007-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SQTLs) are shown to possess anti-inflammatory as well as cytotoxic activity. No study, however, links both activities. We, therefore, hypothesized that SQTL-treated, dying cells might induce an anti-inflammatory response in cocultured THP-1 macrophages. Here we show that SQTLs bearing either an alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone or an alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone induce different forms of cell death. Whereas the cyclopentenone SQTL induced typical apoptosis, the alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone SQTLs-induced cell death lacked partly classical signs of apoptosis, such as DNA fragmentation. All SQTLs, however, activated caspases and the nuclear morphology of cell death was dependent on caspase activation. Most interestingly, alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone SQTLs induced a more pronounced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure than the cyclopentenone SQTL. Especially, 7-hydroxycostunolide (HC), with an alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone substituted with a hydroxyl group, showed a striking fast and pronounced PS translocation. This result was in agreement with a strong activation of phagocytosis in cocultured THP-1 macrophages. Interestingly, HC-treated Jurkat cells led to an early (3.5 h) but transient increase in TNF-alpha levels in macrophage coculture. Release of TGF-beta remained unaffected after 18 h. We propose that this type of SQTL may influence local inflammation by transiently activating the immune system and help to clear cells by inducing a form of cell death that promotes phagocytosis.

  7. Synthesis and p38 Inhibitory Activity of Some Novel Substituted N,N'-Diarylurea Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dianxi; Xing, Qifeng; Cao, Ruiyuan; Zhao, Dongmei; Zhong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    We have identified a novel series of substituted N,N'-diarylurea p38α inhibitors. The inhibitory activity of the target compounds against the enzyme p38α, MAPKAPK2 in BHK cells, TNF-α release in LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells and p38α binding experiments were tested. Among these compounds, 25a inhibited the p38α enzyme with an IC50 value of 0.47 nM and a KD value of 1.54 × 10(-8) and appears to be the most promising one in the series. PMID:27223276

  8. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)-stimulated deoxycytidine deaminases from a human lymphoma cell but not the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) from Ramos 6.4 human Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bases, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Deoxycytidine deaminase enzyme activity was reduced in lysates of human leukemic THP1 cells 24 h after transfection with siRNA designed to inhibit cell synthesis of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70)1a and Hsp701b. The cytidine deaminase enzyme activity from the cell lysates was purified from an affinity column which contained bound single-stranded oligodeoxycytidylic acid. Deficient enzyme activity in certain elution fractions from the siRNA-transfected cells was restored by including recombinant HSP 70 in the assays. Enzyme activity in some other fractions was increased after siRNA transfection. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a central factor in the immune response. A more specific assay for AID was used to study the influence of Hsp70 on AID activity. Unlike Hsp70's ability to stimulate certain enzymes of DNA base excision repair and other cytidine deaminases, it had little effect on AID activity in vitro, or was weakly inhibitory.

  9. Sesquiterpenoids from the Rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis and Their Inhibitory Effects on LPS-Induced TLR4 Activation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Jin-Han; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Kim, Min-Suk; Jo, Jin Ha; Jung, Kyungsook; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Woo Song; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-01-01

    Two new guaiane-type (2, 6) and one new furanogermacrane-type (11) sesquiterpenoids have been isolated along with twelve known compounds from an EtOAc-soluble extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis rhizomes. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using a combination of NMR, MS, and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. The inhibitory effects of each compound on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation in THP-1-Blue cells were assessed, and compound 4 showed more potent inhibitory activity against LPS-stimulated TLR4 activation. PMID:27373668

  10. In vitro Models to Evaluate Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity: Potential Test Based on Activation of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Valentina; Papale, Angela; Kummer, Elena; Corsini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs) are the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergy. HDRs account for approximately 1/6 of drug-induced adverse effects, and include immune-mediated (“allergic”) and non-immune-mediated (“pseudo allergic”) reactions. In recent years, the severe and unpredicted drug adverse events clearly indicate that the immune system can be a critical target of drugs. Enhanced prediction in preclinical safety evaluation is, therefore, crucial. Nowadays, there are no validated in vitro or in vivo methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs in the pre-clinical phase. The problem of non-predictability of immunologically-based hypersensitivity reactions is related to the lack of appropriate experimental models rather than to the lack of -understanding of the adverse phenomenon. We recently established experimental conditions and markers to correctly identify drug associated with in vivo hypersensitivity reactions using THP-1 cells and IL-8 production, CD86 and CD54 expression. The proposed in vitro method benefits from a rationalistic approach with the idea that allergenic drugs share with chemical allergens common mechanisms of cell activation. This assay can be easily incorporated into drug development for hazard identification of drugs, which may have the potential to cause in vivo hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this review is to assess the state of the art of in vitro models to assess the allergenic potential of drugs based on the activation of dendritic cells. PMID:27462271

  11. In vitro Models to Evaluate Drug-Induced Hypersensitivity: Potential Test Based on Activation of Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Valentina; Papale, Angela; Kummer, Elena; Corsini, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity drug reactions (HDRs) are the adverse effect of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergy. HDRs account for approximately 1/6 of drug-induced adverse effects, and include immune-mediated ("allergic") and non-immune-mediated ("pseudo allergic") reactions. In recent years, the severe and unpredicted drug adverse events clearly indicate that the immune system can be a critical target of drugs. Enhanced prediction in preclinical safety evaluation is, therefore, crucial. Nowadays, there are no validated in vitro or in vivo methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs in the pre-clinical phase. The problem of non-predictability of immunologically-based hypersensitivity reactions is related to the lack of appropriate experimental models rather than to the lack of -understanding of the adverse phenomenon. We recently established experimental conditions and markers to correctly identify drug associated with in vivo hypersensitivity reactions using THP-1 cells and IL-8 production, CD86 and CD54 expression. The proposed in vitro method benefits from a rationalistic approach with the idea that allergenic drugs share with chemical allergens common mechanisms of cell activation. This assay can be easily incorporated into drug development for hazard identification of drugs, which may have the potential to cause in vivo hypersensitivity reactions. The purpose of this review is to assess the state of the art of in vitro models to assess the allergenic potential of drugs based on the activation of dendritic cells. PMID:27462271

  12. MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor for IgG is functionally expressed in monocytes, intestinal macrophages, and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Meng, G; Dickinson, B L; Li, X; Mizoguchi, E; Miao, L; Wang, Y; Robert, C; Wu, B; Smith, P D; Lencer, W I; Blumberg, R S

    2001-03-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) for IgG, an MHC class I-related molecule, functions to transport IgG across polarized epithelial cells and protect IgG from degradation. However, little is known about whether FcRn is functionally expressed in immune cells. We show here that FcRn mRNA was identifiable in human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. FcRn heavy chain was detectable as a 45-kDa protein in monocytic U937 and THP-1 cells and in purified human intestinal macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes, and dendritic cells by Western blot analysis. FcRn colocalized in vivo with macrosialin (CD68) and Ncl-Macro, two macrophage markers, in the lamina propria of human small intestine. The heavy chain of FcRn was associated with the beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) light chain in U937 and THP-1 cells. FcRn bound human IgG at pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5. This binding could be inhibited by human IgG Fc, but not Fab. FcRn could be detected on the cell surface of activated, but not resting, THP-1 cells. Furthermore, FcRn was uniformly present intracellularly in all blood monocytes and intestinal macrophages. FcRn was detectable on the cell surface of a significant fraction of monocytes at lower levels and on a small subset of tissue macrophages that expressed high levels of FcRn on the cell surface. These data show that FcRn is functionally expressed and its cellular distribution is regulated in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, suggesting that it may confer novel IgG binding functions upon these cell types relative to typical Fc gamma Rs: Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, and Fc gamma RIII.

  13. Saikosaponin D isolated from Bupleurum falcatum inhibits selectin-mediated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoung-Jun; Kim, Ye Sol; Bae, Eun Young; Oh, Tae-Seok; Choi, Hwa-Jung; Lee, Jung-Hee; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Seung Woong

    2014-01-01

    Three saikosaponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L.: saikosaponins B3 (1); B4 (2); and D (3). Of the three, compound 3 inhibited the interaction of selectins (E, L, and P) and THP-1 cells with IC50 values of 1.8, 3.0 and 4.3 µM, respectively. Also, the aglycone structure 4 of compound 3 showed moderate inhibitory activity on L-selectin-mediated cell adhesion. From these results, we suspect that compound 3 isolated from Bupleurum falcatum roots would be a good candidate for therapeutic strategies to treat inflammation. PMID:25486247

  14. Endocytosis of indium-tin-oxide nanoparticles by macrophages provokes pyroptosis requiring NLRP3-ASC-Caspase1 axis that can be prevented by mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Naji, Abderrahim; Muzembo, Basilua André; Yagyu, Ken-ichi; Baba, Nobuyasu; Deschaseaux, Frédéric; Sensebé, Luc; Suganuma, Narufumi

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) are of considerable importance because workers exposed to indium compounds have been diagnosed with interstitial lung disease or pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; however, the pathophysiology of these diseases is undefined. Here, mice intraperitoneally inoculated with ITO-nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) resulted in peritonitis dependent in NLRP3 inflammasome, with neutrophils recruitment and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Withal peritoneal macrophages exposed ex vivo to ITO-NPs caused IL-1β secretion and cytolysis. Further, alveolar macrophages exposed to ITO-NPs in vitro showed ITO-NP endocytosis and production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β, ensued cell death by cytolysis. This cell death was RIPK1-independent but caspase1-dependent, and thus identified as pyroptosis. Endocytosis of ITO-NPs by activated THP-1 cells induced pyroptosis with IL-1β/TNF-α production and cytolysis, but not in activated THP-1 cells with knockdown of NLRP3, ASC, or caspase1. However, exposing activated THP-1 cells with NLRP3 or ASC knockdown to ITO-NPs resulted in cell death but without cytolysis, with deficiency in IL-1β/TNF-α, and revealing features of apoptosis. While, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with macrophages impaired both inflammation and cell death induced by ITO-NPs. Together, our findings provide crucial insights to the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases caused by ITO particles, and identify MSCs as a potent therapeutic. PMID:27194621

  15. Lobolide, a diterpene, blockades the NF-κB pathway and p38 and ERK MAPK activity in macrophages in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiao-fen; Chen, Si-han; Li, Jie; Fang, Jian-ping; Guo, Yue-wei; Ding, Kan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Recent studies have shown that constitutive activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays a key role in chronic inflammation and cancers. The aim of this study was to characterize lobolide, a cembrane diterpene, as a drug candidate targeting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods: A HEK 293/NF-κB-Luc stable cell line was constructed to evaluate the effect of lobolide on NF-κB activation. THP-1 human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers were tested. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNFα and IL-1β production and activation of the TAK1-IKK-NF-κB pathway were studied using ELISA and Western blot analysis. Results: In HEK 293/NF-κB-Luc stable cells, lobolide (0.19–50 μmol/L) inhibited NF-κB activation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 4.2±0.3 μmol/L. Treatment with lobolide (2.5–10 μmol/L) significantly suppressed LPS-induced production of TNFα and IL-1β in both THP-1 cells and PBMCs. In THP-1 cells, the suppression was partially caused by blockade of the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus via affecting the TAK1-IKK-NF-κB pathway and p38 and ERK MAPK activity. Conclusion: Lobolide is a potential inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway, which blocks the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Lobolide inhibits LPS-stimulated TNFα and IL-1β release, suggesting that the compound might be an anti-inflammatory compound. PMID:22922340

  16. The Role of Putative Phosphatidylserine-Interactive Residues of Tissue Factor on Its Coagulant Activity at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shabbir A.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Sen, Prosenjit; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is thought to play a critical role in tissue factor (TF) decryption. Recent molecular dynamics simulation studies suggested that the TF ectodomain may directly interact with PS. To investigate the potential role of TF direct interaction with the cell surface phospholipids on basal TF activity and the enhanced TF activity following the decryption, one or all of the putative PS-interactive residues in the TF ectodomain were mutated and tested for their coagulant activity in cell systems. Out of the 9 selected TF mutants, five of them -TFS160A, TFS161A, TFS162A, TFK165A, and TFD180A- exhibited a similar TF coagulant activity to that of the wild-type TF. The specific activity of three mutants, TFK159A, TFS163A, and TFK166A, was reduced substantially. Mutation of the glycine residue at the position 164 markedly abrogated the TF coagulant activity, resulting in ~90% inhibition. Mutation of all nine lipid binding residues together did not further decrease the activity of TF compared to TFG164A. A similar fold increase in TF activity was observed in wild-type TF and all TF mutants following the treatment of THP-1 cells with either calcium ionomycin or HgCl2, two agents that are commonly used to decrypt TF. Overall, our data show that a few select TF residues that are implicated in interacting with PS contribute to the TF coagulant activity at the cell surface. However, our data also indicate that TF regions outside of the putative lipid binding region may also contribute to PS-dependent decryption of TF. PMID:27348126

  17. Highly efficient synthetic iron-dependent nucleases activate both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic death pathways in leukemia cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Horn, Adolfo; Fernandes, Christiane; Parrilha, Gabrieli L; Kanashiro, Milton M; Borges, Franz V; de Melo, Edésio J T; Schenk, Gerhard; Terenzi, Hernán; Pich, Claus T

    2013-11-01

    The nuclease activity and the cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cancer cells of iron complexes, [Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3 (1), [Cl(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)Cl]Cl2·2H2O (2), and [(SO4)(HPClNOL)Fe(μ-O)Fe(HPClNOL)(SO4)]·6H2O (3) (HPClNOL=1-(bis-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino)-3-chloropropan-2-ol), were investigated. Each complex was able to promote plasmid DNA cleavage and change the supercoiled form of the plasmid to circular and linear ones. Kinetic data revealed that (1), (2) and (3) increase the rate of DNA hydrolysis about 278, 192 and 339 million-fold, respectively. The activity of the complexes was inhibited by distamycin, indicating that they interact with the minor groove of the DNA. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes toward U937, HL-60, Jukart and THP-1 leukemia cancer cells was studied employing 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), fluorescence and electronic transmission microscopies, flow cytometry and a cytochrome C release assay. Compound (2) has the highest activity toward cancer cells and is the least toxic for normal ones (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). In contrast, compound (1) is the least active toward cancer cells but displays the highest toxicity toward normal cells. Transmission electronic microscopy indicates that cell death shows features typical of apoptotic cells, which was confirmed using the annexin V-FITC/PI (fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide) assay. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that at an early stage during the treatment with complex (2) mitochondria lose their transmembrane potential, resulting in cytochrome C release. A quantification of caspases 3, 9 (intrinsic apoptosis pathway) and caspase 8 (extrinsic apoptosis pathway) indicated that both the intrinsic (via mitochondria) and extrinsic (via death receptors) pathways are involved in the apoptotic stimuli. PMID:23933562

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    PubMed Central

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    PubMed Central

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. A new cryptic cationic antimicrobial peptide from human apolipoprotein E with antibacterial activity and immunomodulatory effects on human cells.

    PubMed

    Pane, Katia; Sgambati, Valeria; Zanfardino, Anna; Smaldone, Giovanni; Cafaro, Valeria; Angrisano, Tiziana; Pedone, Emilia; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Capasso, Domenica; Haney, Evan F; Izzo, Viviana; Varcamonti, Mario; Notomista, Eugenio; Hancock, Robert E W; Di Donato, Alberto; Pizzo, Elio

    2016-06-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) possess fast and broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, as well as fungi. It has become increasingly evident that many AMPs, including those that derive from fragments of host proteins, are multifunctional and able to mediate various immunomodulatory functions and angiogenesis. Among these, synthetic apolipoprotein-derived peptides are safe and well tolerated in humans and have emerged as promising candidates in the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. Here, we report the characterization of a new AMP corresponding to residues 133-150 of human apolipoprotein E. Our results show that this peptide, produced either by chemical synthesis or by recombinant techniques in Escherichia coli, possesses a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. As shown for several other AMPs, ApoE (133-150) is structured in the presence of TFE and of membrane-mimicking agents, like SDS, or bacterial surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and an anionic polysaccharide, alginate, which mimics anionic capsular exo-polysaccharides of several pathogenic microorganisms. Noteworthy, ApoE (133-150) is not toxic toward several human cell lines and triggers a significant innate immune response, assessed either as decreased expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in differentiated THP-1 monocytic cells or by the induction of chemokines released from PBMCs. This novel bioactive AMP also showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on human keratinocytes, suggesting its potential use as a model for designing new immunomodulatory therapeutics. PMID:27028511

  1. Differences in Innate Immune Responses (In Vitro) to HeLa Cells Infected with Nondisseminating Serovar E and Disseminating Serovar L2 of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Darville, Toni L.; Cuozzo, Francis P.; Ferguson, Kaethe; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2002-01-01

    The inflammatory response associated with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections is thought to be initiated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines from infected epithelial cells. This study focuses on the interactions between C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and immune cells involved in the early stages of infection, i.e., neutrophils and macrophages. First, we showed that the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly active on macrophages, was upregulated at the mRNA level in the genital tracts of infected mice. Second, incubation of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells or monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM) with basal culture supernatants from C. trachomatis serovar E- or serovar L2-infected HeLa cells resulted in macrophage activation with a differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) but not of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression. Third, coculture of infected HeLa cells with dTHP-1 cells resulted in a reduction in chlamydial growth, which was more dramatic for serovar E than for L2 and which was partially reversed by the addition of anti-TNF-α antibodies for serovar E or exogenous tryptophan for both serovars but was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase or anti-IL-8 or anti-IL-1β antibodies. A gamma interferon-independent IDO mRNA upregulation was also detected in dTHP-1 cells from infected cocultures. Lastly, with a two-stage coculture system, we found that (i) supernatants from neutrophils added to the apical side of infected HeLa cell cultures were chlamydicidal and induced MdM to express antichlamydial activity and (ii) although polymorphonuclear leukocytes released more proinflammatory cytokines in response to serovar E- than in response to L2-infected cells, MdM were strongly activated by serovar L2 infection, indicating that the early inflammatory response generated with a nondisseminating or a disseminating strain is

  2. Differences in innate immune responses (in vitro) to HeLa cells infected with nondisseminating serovar E and disseminating serovar L2 of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Darville, Toni L; Cuozzo, Francis P; Ferguson, Kaethe; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2002-06-01

    The inflammatory response associated with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections is thought to be initiated by the release of proinflammatory cytokines from infected epithelial cells. This study focuses on the interactions between C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells and immune cells involved in the early stages of infection, i.e., neutrophils and macrophages. First, we showed that the expression of interleukin-11 (IL-11), an anti-inflammatory cytokine mainly active on macrophages, was upregulated at the mRNA level in the genital tracts of infected mice. Second, incubation of differentiated THP-1 (dTHP-1) cells or monocyte-derived macrophages (MdM) with basal culture supernatants from C. trachomatis serovar E- or serovar L2-infected HeLa cells resulted in macrophage activation with a differential release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and upregulation of indoleamine 2,3-deoxygenase (IDO) but not of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 mRNA expression. Third, coculture of infected HeLa cells with dTHP-1 cells resulted in a reduction in chlamydial growth, which was more dramatic for serovar E than for L2 and which was partially reversed by the addition of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies for serovar E or exogenous tryptophan for both serovars but was not reversed by the addition of superoxide dismutase or anti-IL-8 or anti-IL-1beta antibodies. A gamma interferon-independent IDO mRNA upregulation was also detected in dTHP-1 cells from infected cocultures. Lastly, with a two-stage coculture system, we found that (i) supernatants from neutrophils added to the apical side of infected HeLa cell cultures were chlamydicidal and induced MdM to express antichlamydial activity and (ii) although polymorphonuclear leukocytes released more proinflammatory cytokines in response to serovar E- than in response to L2-infected cells, MdM were strongly activated by serovar L2 infection, indicating that the early inflammatory response generated with a nondisseminating or a disseminating

  3. microRNA-150 inhibits the formation of macrophage foam cells through targeting adiponectin receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Suhua

    2016-08-01

    Transformation of macrophages into foam cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and biological roles of microRNA (miR)-150 in the formation of macrophage foam cells and to identify its functional target(s). Exposure to 50 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to a significant upregulation of miR-150 in THP-1 macrophages. Overexpression of miR-150 inhibited oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, while knockdown of miR-150 enhanced lipid accumulation. apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was increased by 66% and 43%, respectively, in miR-150-overexpressing macrophages relative to control cells. In contrast, downregulation of miR-150 significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) as a direct target of miR-150. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of AdipoR2 phenocopied the effects of miR-150 overexpression, reducing lipid accumulation and facilitating cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Knockdown of AdipoR2 induced the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ABCA1, and ABCG1. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ or LXRα impaired AdipoR2 silencing-induced upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-150 can attenuate oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages via promotion of cholesterol efflux. The suppressive effects of miR-150 on macrophage foam cell formation are mediated through targeting of AdipoR2. Delivery of miR-150 may represent a potential approach to prevent macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

  4. The FGL2/fibroleukin prothrombinase is involved in alveolar macrophage activation in COPD through the MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yanling; Xu, Sanpeng; Xiao, Fei; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Xiaojin; Gao, Sui; Yan, Weiming; Ning, Qin

    2010-05-28

    Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2)/fibroleukin has been reported to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of some critical inflammatory diseases by possessing immunomodulatory activity through the mediation of 'immune coagulation' and the regulation of maturation and proliferation of immune cells. We observed upregulated FGL2 expression in alveolar macrophages from peripheral lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and found a correlation between FGL2 expression and increased macrophage activation markers (CD11b and CD14). The role of FGL2 in the activation of macrophages was confirmed by the detection of significantly decreased macrophage activation marker (CD11b, CD11c, and CD71) expression as well as the inhibition of cell migration and inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and MMP-9) production in an LPS-induced FGL2 knockdown human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Increased FGL2 expression co-localized with upregulated phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) in the lung tissues from COPD patients. Moreover, FGL2 knockdown in THP-1 cells significantly downregulated LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38-MAPK while upregulating phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Thus, we demonstrate that FGL2 plays an important role in macrophage activation in the lungs of COPD patients through MAPK pathway modulation.

  5. Role of nitric oxide in the anti-tumoral effect of retinoic acid and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on human promonocytic leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Dugas, N; Mossalayi, M D; Calenda, A; Léotard, A; Bécherel, P; Mentz, F; Ouaaz, F; Arock, M; Debré, P; Dornand, J; Dugas, B

    1996-11-01

    All trans retinoic acid and vitamin D3 derivatives are well known for their antileukemic activity, while the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be clarified. Using human leukemic U937 and THP-1 promonocytic cell lines, we analyzed the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD) on the generation of nitric oxide (NO), a potent antitumoral mediator. U937 cell differentiation with VD or with both RA and VD (RA/VD) correlated with gene transcription and functional expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Nitrites and L-citrulline were also detected in U937 cell supernatants as soon as 24 hours following cell incubation with VD or RA/VD, but not in cells treated with RA alone. Inhibition of iNOS activity by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (LNMMA) significantly decreased in vitro U937 cell differentiation with VD and RA/VD as shown by the expression of cell differentiation markers (CD14 and CD68) and by the capacity of these cells to undergo a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in response to opsonized zymosan. Similar results were obtained using the THP-1 cell line strengthening the role of NO in the VD- and RA/VD-induced growth arrest and terminal differentiation of promonocytic leukemia cells.

  6. Ligand-independent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by insulin and C-peptide in kidney proximal tubular cells: dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Rasheed, Nawal M; Chana, Ravinder S; Baines, Richard J; Willars, Gary B; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-11-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has key roles in the regulation of adipogenesis, inflammation, and lipid and glucose metabolism. C-peptide is believed to be inert and without appreciable biological functions. Recent studies suggest that C-peptide possesses multiple functions. The present study investigated the effects of insulin and C-peptide on PPARgamma transcriptional activity in opossum kidney proximal tubular cells. Both insulin and C-peptide induced a concentration-dependent stimulation of PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Both agents substantially augmented thiazolidinedione-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Neither insulin nor C-peptide had any effect on the expression levels of PPARgamma. GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, blocked PPARgamma activation by thiazolidinediones but had no effect on either insulin- or C-peptide-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity. Co-transfection of opossum kidney cells with dominant negative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase significantly depressed basal PPARgamma transcriptional activity but had no effect on that induced by either insulin or C-peptide. Both insulin- and C-peptide-stimulated PPARgamma transcriptional activity were attenuated by wortmannin and by expression of a dominant negative phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit. In addition PI 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation of PPARgamma was observed after stimulation by C-peptide or insulin. C-peptide effects but not insulin on PPARgamma transcriptional activity were abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Finally both C-peptide and insulin positively control the expression of the PPARgamma-regulated CD36 scavenger receptor in human THP-1 monocytes. We concluded that insulin and C-peptide can stimulate PPARgamma activity in a ligand-independent fashion and that this effect is mediated by PI 3-kinase. These results support a new and potentially important physiological role for C-peptide in

  7. Effect of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific enterohaemolysin on interleukin-1β production differs between human and mouse macrophages due to the different sensitivity of NLRP3 activation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Li; Song, Li-Qiong; Huang, Yuan-Ming; Xiong, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Sun, Hui; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Meng, Guang-Xun; Xu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection in humans can cause acute haemorrhagic colitis and severe haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The role of enterohaemolysin (Ehx) in the pathogenesis of O157:H7-mediated disease in humans remains undefined. Recent studies have revealed the importance of the inflammatory response in O157:H7 pathogenesis in humans. We previously reported that Ehx markedly induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the disparity in Ehx-induced IL-1β production between human and mouse macrophages and explored the underlying mechanism regarding the activation of NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. In contrast to the effects on human differentiated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Ehx exerted no effect on IL-1β production in mouse macrophages and splenocytes because of a disparity in pro-IL-1β cleavage into mature IL-1β upon caspase-1 activation. Additionally, Ehx significantly contributed to O157:H7-induced ATP release from THP-1 cells, which was not detected in mouse macrophages. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Ehx was a key inducer of cathepsin B release in THP-1 cells but not in mouse IC-21 cells upon O157:H7 challenge. Inhibitor experiments indicated that O157:H7-induced IL-1β production was largely dependent upon caspase-1 activation and partially dependent upon ATP signalling and cathepsin B release, which were both involved in NLRP3 activation. Moreover, inhibition of K(+) efflux drastically diminished O157:H7-induced IL-1β production and cytotoxicity. The findings in this study may shed light on whether and how the Ehx contributes to the development of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in human O157:H7 infection. PMID:25580516

  8. Effect of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific enterohaemolysin on interleukin-1β production differs between human and mouse macrophages due to the different sensitivity of NLRP3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Li; Song, Li-qiong; Huang, Yuan-Ming; Xiong, Yan-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Sun, Hui; Zhu, Xin-Ping; Meng, Guang-Xun; Xu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection in humans can cause acute haemorrhagic colitis and severe haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The role of enterohaemolysin (Ehx) in the pathogenesis of O157:H7-mediated disease in humans remains undefined. Recent studies have revealed the importance of the inflammatory response in O157:H7 pathogenesis in humans. We previously reported that Ehx markedly induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the disparity in Ehx-induced IL-1β production between human and mouse macrophages and explored the underlying mechanism regarding the activation of NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes. In contrast to the effects on human differentiated THP-1 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, Ehx exerted no effect on IL-1β production in mouse macrophages and splenocytes because of a disparity in pro-IL-1β cleavage into mature IL-1β upon caspase-1 activation. Additionally, Ehx significantly contributed to O157:H7-induced ATP release from THP-1 cells, which was not detected in mouse macrophages. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Ehx was a key inducer of cathepsin B release in THP-1 cells but not in mouse IC-21 cells upon O157:H7 challenge. Inhibitor experiments indicated that O157:H7-induced IL-1β production was largely dependent upon caspase-1 activation and partially dependent upon ATP signalling and cathepsin B release, which were both involved in NLRP3 activation. Moreover, inhibition of K+ efflux drastically diminished O157:H7-induced IL-1β production and cytotoxicity. The findings in this study may shed light on whether and how the Ehx contributes to the development of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in human O157:H7 infection. PMID:25580516

  9. Toward understanding the mechanism underlying the strong adjuvant activity of aluminum salt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Xu, Haiyue; Li, Xu; Taylor, Amber N; Shi, Yan-Chun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-06-01

    Aluminum salts such as aluminum oxyhydroxide and aluminum hydroxyphosphate are commonly used human vaccine adjuvants. In an effort to improve the adjuvant activity of aluminum salts, we previously showed that the adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles is significantly more potent than that of aluminum oxyhydroxide microparticles. The present study was designed to (i) understand the mechanism underlying the potent adjuvant activity of aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles, relative to microparticles, and (ii) to test whether aluminum hydroxyphosphate nanoparticles have a more potent adjuvant activity than aluminum hydroxyphosphate microparticles as well. In human THP-1 myeloid cells, wild-type and NLRP3-deficient, both aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles and microparticles stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β by activating NLRP3 inflammasome, although aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are more potent than microparticles, likely related to the higher uptake of the nanoparticles by the THP-1 cells than the microparticles. Aluminum hydroxyphosphate nanoparticles also have a more potent adjuvant activity than microparticles in helping a model antigen lysozyme to stimulate specific antibody response, again likely related to their stronger ability to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27155490

  10. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Physalis Alkekengi var. franchetii and Its Main Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zunpeng; Xing, Na; Wang, Qiuhong; Li, Xinli; Xu, Bingqing; Li, Zhenyu; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether the 50% EtOH fraction from AB-8 macroporous resin fractionation of a 70% EtOH extract of P. Alkekengi (50-EFP) has antibacterial and/or anti-inflammatory activity both in vivo and in vitro and to investigate the mechanism of 50-EFP anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, this study sought to define the chemical composition of 50-EFP. Results indicated that 50-EFP showed significant antibacterial activity in vitro and efficacy in vivo. Moreover, 50-EFP significantly reduced nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) production in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells. Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (examined at the protein level) in THP-1 cells were suppressed by 50-EFP, which inhibited nuclear translocation of p65. Consistent with this anti-inflammatory activity in vitro, 50-EFP reduced inflammation in both animal models. Finally, seventeen compounds (8 physalins and 9 flavones) were isolated as major components of 50-EFP. Our data demonstrate that 50-EFP has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect appears to occur, at least in part, through the inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65. Moreover, physalins and flavones are probably the active components in 50-EFP that exert antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27057196

  11. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hielpos, M Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site.

  12. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection.

    PubMed

    Hielpos, M Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site. PMID:26448160

  13. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Andrea G.; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site. PMID:26448160

  14. Cytokine-like Activity of Liver Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (L-FABP) Inducing Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Gil, Gaae; Lee, Siyoung; Kwak, Areum; Jo, Seunghyun; Kim, Ensom; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Sinae; Jhun, Hyunjhung; Kim, Somi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) do not act only as intracellular mediators of lipid responses but also have extracellular functions. This study aimed to investigate whether extracellular liver type (L)-FABP has a biological activity and to determined serum L-FABP levels in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We isolated L-FABP complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) from the Huh7 human hepatocarcinoma cell line and expressed the recombinant L-FABP protein in Escherichia coli. A549 lung carcinoma and THP-1 monocytic cells were stimulated with the human recombinant L-FABP. Human whole blood cells were also treated with the human recombinant L-FABP or interleukin (IL)-1α. IL-6 levels were measured in cell culture supernatants using IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Human recombinant L-FABP induced IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner in A549, THP-1 cells, and whole blood cells. The blood samples of healthy volunteers and patients with ESRD were taken after an overnight fast. The serum levels of L-FABP in healthy volunteers and ESRD patients were quantified with L-FABP ELISA. The values of L-FABP in patients with ESRD were significantly lower than those in the control group. Our results demonstrated the biological activity of L-FABP in human cells suggesting L-FABP can be a mediator of inflammation. PMID:27799875

  15. Neuro-Immune Interactions for Cell-based Model under the Conditions of Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huiyang; Deng, Yulin; Lei, Runhong; Ma, Hong; Zhuang, Fengyuan

    AIM: To explore the proliferation effect of the SH-SY5Y cells which is damaged by the radiation on the Jurkat cells and THP-1 cells. METHODS: The first, SH-SY5Y cells was on the dose of 7 Gy γ-ray radiation, then the cells were cultured at 37℃ until 24 hours later, and the culture medium was changed. The second, culture of SH-SY5Y cells was removed, and it was used for Jurkat cells and THP-1 cells. The third, Jurkat cells and THP-1 cells were cultured until 24 hours later. At this moment the cell number was counted by the MTS. RESULTS: On the MTS results, the number of Jurkat cells in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group, but the number of THP-1 cells in the experimental group was much higher than the control group. CONCLUSION: The 24 hours medium culture from SH-SY5Y cells which was damaged by radiation would Inhibition of the Jurkat cell growth, but it would Promote the growth of the THP-1 cell.

  16. An Allergic Lung Microenvironment Suppresses Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammasome Activation via STAT6-Dependent Inhibition of Caspase-1

    PubMed Central

    Shipkowski, Kelly A.; Taylor, Alexia J.; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Glista-Baker, Ellen E.; Sayers, Brian C.; Messenger, Zachary J.; Bauer, Rebecca N.; Jaspers, Ilona; Bonner, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent a human health risk as mice exposed by inhalation display pulmonary fibrosis. Production of IL-1β via inflammasome activation is a mechanism of MWCNT-induced acute inflammation and has been implicated in chronic fibrogenesis. Mice sensitized to allergens have elevated T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and are susceptible to MWCNT-induced airway fibrosis. We postulated that Th2 cytokines would modulate MWCNT-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1β release in vitro and in vivo during allergic inflammation. Methods THP-1 macrophages were primed with LPS, exposed to MWCNTs and/or IL-4 or IL-13 for 24 hours, and analyzed for indicators of inflammasome activation. C57BL6 mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and MWCNTs were delivered to the lungs by oropharyngeal aspiration. Mice were euthanized 1 or 21 days post-MWCNT exposure and evaluated for lung inflammasome components and allergic inflammatory responses. Results Priming of THP-1 macrophages with LPS increased pro-IL-1β and subsequent exposure to MWCNTs induced IL-1β secretion. IL-4 or IL-13 decreased MWCNT-induced IL-1β secretion by THP-1 cells and reduced pro-caspase-1 but not pro-IL-1β. Treatment of THP-1 cells with STAT6 inhibitors, either Leflunomide or JAK I inhibitor, blocked suppression of caspase activity by IL-4 and IL-13. In vivo, MWCNTs alone caused neutrophilic infiltration into the lungs of mice 1 day post-exposure and increased IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pro-caspase-1 immuno-staining in macrophages and airway epithelium. HDM sensitization alone caused eosinophilic inflammation with increased IL-13. MWCNT exposure after HDM sensitization increased total cell numbers in BALF, but decreased numbers of neutrophils and IL-1β in BALF as well as reduced pro-caspase-1 in lung tissue. Despite reduced IL-1β mice exposed to MWCNTs after HDM developed more severe airway fibrosis by 21 days and

  17. The cytokine-dependent MUTZ-3 cell line as an in vitro model for the screening of contact sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Azam, Philippe; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Chamousset, Delphine; Tissier, Marie-Helene; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine; Vian, Laurence; Fabre, Isabelle; Ourlin, Jean-Claude . E-mail: jean-claude.ourlin@afssaps.sante.fr

    2006-04-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are key mediators of contact allergenicity in the skin. However, no in vitro methods exist which are based on the activation process of LC to predict the sensitization potential of chemicals. In this study, we have evaluated the performances of MUTZ-3, a cytokine-dependent human monocytic cell line, in its response to sensitizers. First, we compared undifferentiated MUTZ-3 cells with several standard human cells such as THP-1, KG-1, HL-60, K-562, and U-937 in their response to the strong sensitizer DNCB and the irritant SDS by monitoring the expression levels of HLA-DR, CD54, and CD86 by flow cytometry. Only MUTZ-3 and THP-1 cells show a strong and specific response to sensitizer, while other cell lines showed very variable responses. Then, we tested MUTZ-3 cells against a wider panel of sensitizers and irritants on a broader spectrum of cell surface markers (HLA-DR, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-DC). Of these markers, CD86 proved to be the most reliable since it detected all sensitizers, including benzocaine, a classical false negative in local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not irritants. We confirmed the MUTZ-3 response to DNCB by real-time PCR analysis. Taken together, our data suggest that undifferentiated MUTZ-3 cells may represent a valuable in vitro model for the screening of potential sensitizers.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor transcription factors are released from activated human platelets and shed in microparticles.

    PubMed

    Ray, Denise M; Spinelli, Sherry L; Pollock, Stephen J; Murant, Thomas I; O'Brien, Jamie J; Blumberg, Neil; Francis, Charles W; Taubman, Mark B; Phipps, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and its ligands are important regulators of lipid metabolism, inflammation, and diabetes. We previously demonstrated that anucleate human platelets express the transcription factor PPARgamma and that PPARgamma ligands blunt platelet activation. To further understand the nature of PPARgamma in platelets, we determined the platelet PPARgamma isoform(s) and investigated the fate of PPARgamma following platelet activation. Our studies demonstrated that human platelets contain only the PPARgamma1 isoform and after activation with thrombin, TRAP, ADP or collagen PPARgamma is released from internal stores. PPARgamma release was blocked by a cytoskeleton inhibitor, Latrunculin A. Platelet-released PPARgamma was complexed with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and retained its ability to bind DNA. Interestingly, the released PPARgamma and RXR were microparticle associated and the released PPARgamma/RXR complex retained DNA-binding ability. Additionally, a monocytic cell line, THP-1, is capable of internalizing PMPs. Further investigation following treatment of these cells with the PPARgamma agonist, rosiglitazone and PMPs revealed a possible transcellular mechanism to attenuate THP-1 activation. These new findings are the first to demonstrate transcription factor release from platelets, revealing the complex spectrum of proteins expressed and expelled from platelets, and suggests that platelet PPARgamma has an undiscovered role in human biology. PMID:18217139

  19. Ursolic Acid Activates Intracellular Killing Effect of Macrophages During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Podder, Biswajit; Jang, Woong Sik; Nam, Kung-Woo; Lee, Byung-Eui; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most threatening infectious diseases to public health all over the world, for which Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the etiological agent of pathogenesis. Ursolic acid (UA) has immunomodulatory function and exhibits antimycobacterial activity. However, the intracellular killing effect of UA has yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intracellular killing effect of UA during mycobacterial infection. The intracellular killing activity of UA was evaluated in the macrophage cell line THP-1 by the MGIT 960 system as well as by CFU count. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the level of nitric oxide (NO) were measured using DCF-DA and Griess reagent, respectively. Phagocytosis was observed by a fluorescence-based staining method, and the colony forming units were enumerated on 7H11 agar medium following infection. In addition, MRP8 mRNA expression was measured by qRT-PCR. UA significantly decreased the number of intracellular Mycobacterium through generation of ROS and NO. In addition, it profoundly activated the phagocytosis process of THP-1 cells during MTB-infection. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that UA activated the phagocytosis process in human monocyte cells through MRP8 induction. These data suggest that UA firmly contributes to the intracellular killing effect of macrophages during mycobacterial infection.

  20. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol suppresses monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by attenuation of JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Kanamori, Yuta; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Morihara, Naoaki

    2015-09-25

    Several clinical studies have shown that the intake of aged garlic extract improves endothelial dysfunction. Lignan compounds, (+)-(2S,3R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDC) and (-)-(2R,3S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDDC), have been isolated as antioxidants in aged garlic extract. There is evidence showing the importance of oxidative stress in endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we examined whether DDC and DDDC enhance endothelial cell function in vitro. Cell adhesion assay was performed using THP-1 monocyte and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-BSA. Cellular ELISA method was used for the evaluation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression on HUVECs. DDC and DDDC suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs which was activated by LPS or AGEs-BSA. DDC and DDDC also inhibited VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS or AGEs-BSA, but DDDC was less effective than DDC. In addition, the inhibitory effect of DDC on VCAM-1 expression involved suppressing JNK/c-Jun pathway rather than NF-κB pathway. DDC has an inhibitory effect on VCAM-1 expression via JNK pathway in endothelial cells and therefore may serve as a novel pharmacological agent to improve endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26271597

  1. Eggshell membrane hydrolyzates activate NF-κB in vitro: possible implications for in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kevin J; Durham, Paul L; O’Reilly, Austin; Long, F Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Eggshell membrane (ESM) has been shown to contain naturally occurring bioactive components, and biological activities such as reducing proinflammatory cytokines, liver fibrosis, and joint pain in osteoarthritis sufferers have also been reported for ESM matrix as a whole. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) is a signaling protein found in the cytoplasm of nearly all human and animal cell types and is a primary regulator of immune function. The studies reported herein were designed to investigate the possible role that NF-κB activity might play in the reported biological activities of ESM. Methods Three ESM hydrolyzates produced via fermentation, enzymatic, or chemical hydrolysis were evaluated in vitro in either human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 (human leukemic monocyte) cell cultures for NF-κB activity following 4-hour exposure. The hydrolyzates were compared with untreated control cells or cells incubated with lipopolysaccharide or ascorbic acid. The source of ESM activity was also evaluated. Results NF-κB levels were increased above levels found in untreated cells at all three dilutions (1:100, 1:1,000, and 1:10,000) for the fermentation hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-FH) (P=0.021, P=0.020, P=0.009, respectively) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzymatic hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-EH) also produced statistically significant levels of activated NF-κB at the 1:100 and 1:1,000 dilutions (P=0.004, P=0.006, respectively) but fell just shy of significance at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.073). Similarly, ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.002) and ESM-EH (P=0.007, P=0.007) activated NF-κB in THP-1 cells at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. The chemical hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-CH) showed statistically significant levels of activation at the 1:1,000 dilution (P=0.005) but failed to differ from untreated cells at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.193) in THP-1 cells. Conclusion Results from our studies provide evidence

  2. Characterization of miRNomes in Acute and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qian; Yang, Yadong; Wang, Hai; Li, Jie; Wang, Shaobin; Li, Yanming; Yang, Yaran; Cai, Kan; Ruan, Xiuyan; Yan, Jiangwei; Hu, Songnian; Fang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid leukemias are highly diverse diseases and have been shown to be associated with microRNA (miRNA) expression aberrations. The present study involved an in-depth miRNome analysis of two human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, HL-60 and THP-1, and one human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line, K562, via massively parallel signature sequencing. mRNA expression profiles of these cell lines that were established previously in our lab facilitated an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression patterns. miRNA expression profiling followed by differential expression analysis and target prediction suggested numerous miRNA signatures in AML and CML cell lines. Some miRNAs may act as either tumor suppressors or oncomiRs in AML and CML by targeting key genes in AML and CML pathways. Expression patterns of cell type-specific miRNAs could partially reflect the characteristics of K562, HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines, such as actin filament-based processes, responsiveness to stimulus and phagocytic activity. miRNAs may also regulate myeloid differentiation, since they usually suppress differentiation regulators. Our study provides a resource to further investigate the employment of miRNAs in human leukemia subtyping, leukemogenesis and myeloid development. In addition, the distinctive miRNA signatures may be potential candidates for the clinical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of myeloid leukemias. PMID:24755403

  3. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  4. Differential roles of the protein corona in the cellular uptake of nanoporous polymer particles by monocyte and macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Gause, Katelyn T; Kamphuis, Marloes M J; Ang, Ching-Seng; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Lenzo, Jason C; Reynolds, Eric C; Nice, Edouard C; Caruso, Frank

    2013-12-23

    Many biomolecules, mainly proteins, adsorb onto polymer particles to form a dynamic protein corona in biological environments. The protein corona can significantly influence particle-cell interactions, including internalization and pathway activation. In this work, we demonstrate the differential roles of a given protein corona formed in cell culture media in particle uptake by monocytes and macrophages. By exposing disulfide-stabilized poly(methacrylic acid) nanoporous polymer particles (PMASH NPPs) to complete cell growth media containing 10% fetal bovine serum, a protein corona, with the most abundant component being bovine serum albumin, was characterized. Upon adsorption onto the PMASH NPPs, native bovine serum albumin (BSA) was found to undergo conformational changes. The denatured BSA led to a significant decrease in internalization efficiency in human monocytic cells, THP-1, compared with the bare particles, due to reduced cell membrane adhesion. In contrast, the unfolded BSA on the NPPs triggered class A scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis in differentiated macrophage-like cells (dTHP-1) without a significant impact on the overall internalization efficiency. Taken together, this work demonstrates the disparate effects of a given protein corona on particle-cell interactions, highlighting the correlation between protein corona conformation in situ and relevant biological characteristics for biological functionalities.

  5. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Macrophage Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT Activation and HO-1 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Guibo; Dong, Xi; Wang, Min; Qin, Meng; Yu, Yingli; Sun, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Isorhamnetin (Iso) is a flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Hippophae rhamnoides L. Previous studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study investigated the ability of Iso to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1-derived macrophages. The effects of Iso on atherosclerosis in vivo were also evaluated in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. Methods and Results Iso showed significant inhibitory effects on ox-LDL-induced THP-1-derived macrophage injuries via decreasing reactive oxygen species levels, lipid deposition, and caspase-3 activation, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and regulating apoptosis-related proteins. We also determined the protective effects of Iso by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. Iso reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in ApoE-/- mice as assessed by oil red O, Sudan IV staining, and CD68-positive cells, and reduced macrophage apoptosis as assessed by caspase-3 and TUNEL assays in lesions. Conclusion In conclusion, our results show that Iso inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. PMID:25799286

  6. MicroRNA-122 Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines by Targeting the PKR Activator PACT in Human Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masato; Kanda, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Reina; Haga, Yuki; Jiang, Xia; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is one of the most abundant miRs in the liver. Previous studies have demonstrated that miR-122 plays a role in inflammation in the liver and functions in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which reside in the space of Disse. Here, we showed that the transient inhibition of PKR-activating protein (PACT) expression, by miR-122 or siRNA targeting of PACT, suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-1β, in human HSC LX-2. Sequence and functional analyses confirmed that miR-122 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of PACT. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that miR-122 blocked NF-κB-nuclear translocation in LX-2 cells. We also showed that conditioned medium from miR-122-transfected LX-2 cells suppressed human monocyte-derived THP-1 cell migration. Taken together, our study indicates that miR-122 may downregulate cytokine production in HSCs and macrophage chemotaxis and that the targeting of miR-122 may have therapeutic potential for preventing the progression of liver diseases. PMID:26636761

  7. Polydatin Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Growth of Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunmei; Luo, Yuan; Lu, Jie; Wang, Yingchao; Sheng, Guangyao

    2016-04-01

    Polydatin (PD), a component isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum, has various activities such as inhibiting platelet aggregation, lowering level of blood lipid, reducing lipid peroxidation, and so on. However, the antitumor activity of PD has been poorly reported. In the present study, effect of PD on cell proliferation was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, and cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, the protein expression level of Bc1-2, Bax, cyclin A, cyclin B, and cyclin D1, which associated with apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by Western blotting. Results show that PD could effectively inhibit the growth, arrest cells in S phase, and induce apoptosis of acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1; meanwhile, expression of cyclin D1 and Bc1-2 decreased significantly, and expression of Bax and cyclin A increased notably. All results suggest that PD maybe a potential therapeutic strategy for acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:26616494

  8. Biodegradation of carbon nanohorns in macrophage cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minfang; Yang, Mei; Bussy, Cyrill; Iijima, Sumio; Kostarelos, Kostas; Yudasaka, Masako

    2015-02-01

    With the rapid developments in the medical applications of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanohorns (CNHs), carbon nanotubes, and graphene based nanomaterials, understanding the long-term fate, health impact, excretion, and degradation of these materials has become crucial. Herein, the in vitro biodegradation of CNHs was determined using a non-cellular enzymatic oxidation method and two types of macrophage cell lines. Approximately 60% of the CNHs was degraded within 24 h in a phosphate buffer solution containing myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, approximately 30% of the CNHs was degraded by both RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophage cells within 9 days. Inflammation markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α were not induced by exposure to CNHs. However, reactive oxygen species were generated by the macrophage cells after uptake of CNHs, suggesting that these species were actively involved in the degradation of the nanomaterials rather than in an inflammatory pathway induction.With the rapid developments in the medical applications of carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanohorns (CNHs), carbon nanotubes, and graphene based nanomaterials, understanding the long-term fate, health impact, excretion, and degradation of these materials has become crucial. Herein, the in vitro biodegradation of CNHs was determined using a non-cellular enzymatic oxidation method and two types of macrophage cell lines. Approximately 60% of the CNHs was degraded within 24 h in a phosphate buffer solution containing myeloperoxidase. Furthermore, approximately 30% of the CNHs was degraded by both RAW 264.7 and THP-1 macrophage cells within 9 days. Inflammation markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α were not induced by exposure to CNHs. However, reactive oxygen species were generated by the macrophage cells after uptake of CNHs, suggesting that these species were actively involved in the degradation of the

  9. Vesicular Location and Transport of S100A8 and S100A9 Proteins in Monocytoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paramita; Bjork, Per; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Anders; Riva, Matteo; Mörgelin, Matthias; Liberg, David; Ivars, Fredrik; Leanderson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We show here, by using surface biotinylation, followed by Western blotting or surface plasmon resonance analysis, that very low levels of S100A8 and/or S100A9 can be detected on the surface of THP-1 cells or freshly isolated human monocytes. This was supported by immune-electron microscopy where we observed membrane-associated expression of the proteins restricted to small patches. By using confocal microscopy we could determine that S100A8 and S100A9 protein in THP-1 cells or freshly isolated human monocytes was mostly present in vesicular structures. This finding was confirmed using immune-electron microscopy. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy showed that these vesicular structures are mainly early endosomes and endolysosomes. Our subsequent studies showed that accumulation of S100A8 and S100A9 in the endolysosomal compartment is associated with induction of their release from the cells. Furthermore, an inhibitor of lysosomal activity could modulate the release of S100A8 and S100A9 in the extracellular milieu. Our current results suggest that the S100A8 and S100A9 proteins are primarily associated with certain kinds of cytosolic vesicles and may be secreted via an endolysosomal pathway. PMID:26661255

  10. Vesicular Location and Transport of S100A8 and S100A9 Proteins in Monocytoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Paramita; Bjork, Per; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Anders; Riva, Matteo; Mörgelin, Matthias; Liberg, David; Ivars, Fredrik; Leanderson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We show here, by using surface biotinylation, followed by Western blotting or surface plasmon resonance analysis, that very low levels of S100A8 and/or S100A9 can be detected on the surface of THP-1 cells or freshly isolated human monocytes. This was supported by immune-electron microscopy where we observed membrane-associated expression of the proteins restricted to small patches. By using confocal microscopy we could determine that S100A8 and S100A9 protein in THP-1 cells or freshly isolated human monocytes was mostly present in vesicular structures. This finding was confirmed using immune-electron microscopy. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy showed that these vesicular structures are mainly early endosomes and endolysosomes. Our subsequent studies showed that accumulation of S100A8 and S100A9 in the endolysosomal compartment is associated with induction of their release from the cells. Furthermore, an inhibitor of lysosomal activity could modulate the release of S100A8 and S100A9 in the extracellular milieu. Our current results suggest that the S100A8 and S100A9 proteins are primarily associated with certain kinds of cytosolic vesicles and may be secreted via an endolysosomal pathway. PMID:26661255

  11. Down-regulation of miR-20a-5p triggers cell apoptosis to facilitate mycobacterial clearance through targeting JNK2 in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoliang; Liu, Xi; Wang, Wenfei; Cai, Yi; Li, Shaoyuan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Mingfeng; Zhang, Mingxia; Zeng, Gucheng; Zhou, Boping; Feng, Carl G; Chen, Xinchun

    2016-09-16

    Induction of cell apoptosis is one of the major host defense mechanisms through which macrophages control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, the mechanisms underlying macrophage apoptosis triggered by Mtb infection are still largely unknown. In this study, a microarray profiling survey revealed 14 miRNAs were down-regulated in CD14+ monocytes from active pulmonary tuberculosis patients, and only the reduction of miR-20a-5p could be reversed after successful anti-tuberculosis treatment. Validation of miR-20a-5p expression was confirmed using real time qPCR. Moreover, miR-20a-5p expression also decreased in differentiated THP-1 macrophages after mycobacterial infection in vitro. Functional assays through forced or inhibited expression of miR-20a-5p in THP-1 macrophages demonstrated that miR-20a-5p functioned as a negative regulator of mycobacterial-triggered apoptosis. Importantly, inhibition of miR-20a-5p expression resulted in more efficient mycobacterial clearance from infected THP-1 macrophages while miR-20a-5p overexpression promoted mycobacterial survival. Mechanistically, miR-20a-5p was demonstrated to regulate Bim expression in a JNK2-dependent manner, unlike Bcl2, and luciferase assay showed JNK2 was a novel direct target of miR-20a-5p. Together, our findings indicate that downregulation of miR-20a-5p triggers macrophage apoptosis as a novel mechanism for host defense against mycobacterial infection. PMID:27494776

  12. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells.

  13. Cell sedimentation with gravity activation.

    PubMed

    Czerlinski, G; Goldman-Leikin, R; Reid, D

    1988-12-01

    Murine monoclonal antibody T101 has been coupled to thinly polymer-coated heavy alloy particles (LaMn2Ge2). These conjugates are coupled to cultured cells of the human T-cell leukemia line RPMI 8402 (T8402). The sedimentation velocities of cells, of particles, and of cells with particles attached are measured. After determining the mean radii of cells, of particles, and of cells with particles attached, one may compute a mean number of 33 particles attached to a cell. Independently one may compute a mean number of 144 particles/cell for surface saturation. The Appendix handles the underlying theory in three parts: number of particles/cell, saturation number of particles/cell, and resolution for gravity activation. Regarding the latter, cell radii from 4 to 10 microns and particle radii from 0.01 to 1 micron are considered.

  14. Cytotoxic activities of several geranyl-substituted flavanones.

    PubMed

    Smejkal, Karel; Svacinová, Jana; Slapetová, Tereza; Schneiderová, Kristýna; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Závalová, Veronika; Kollár, Peter; Chudík, Stanislav; Marek, Radek; Julínek, Ondrej; Urbanová, Marie; Kartal, Murat; Csöllei, Marek; Dolezal, Karel

    2010-04-23

    Nine geranylated flavanones isolated from the fruits of Paulownia tomentosa (4-12) and two from the roots of Morus alba (13 and 14) were examined for cytotoxicity to selected human cancer cell lines and normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was determined in vitro using a calcein AM cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity for the THP-1 monocytic leukemia cell line was tested using erythrosin B cell staining. The geranylated compounds tested were compared with the known simple flavanone standards taxifolin (1), naringenin (2), and hesperetin (3) and with the standard anticancer drugs olomoucine II, diaziquone, and oxaliplatin and the antineoplastic compound camptothecin, and showed different levels of cytotoxicity. The effects of structural changes on cytotoxic activity, including geranyl substitution of the flavanone skeleton and the oxidation pattern of ring B of the flavanones, are discussed. PMID:20192247

  15. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1β from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1β secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1β transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1β was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  16. Endothelial cell activation, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by a panel of metal-based nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    The importance of composition, size, crystal structure, charge and coating of metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and/or THP-1 monocytic cells. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed because they are important in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The NMs used were five TiO(2) NMs with different charge, size and crystal structure, coated and uncoated ZnO NMs and Ag which were tested in a wide concentration range. There were major differences between the types of NMs; exposure to ZnO and Ag resulted in cytotoxicity and increased gene expression levels of HMOX1 and IL8. The intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression were highest in TiO(2) NM-exposed cells. There was increased adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cells onto HUVECs with Ag exposure. None of the NMs increased the intracellular ROS production. There were no major effects of the coating of ZnO NMs. The TiO(2) NMs data on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression suggested that the anatase form was more potent than the rutile form. In addition, the larger TiO(2) NM was more potent than the smaller for gene expression and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. The toxicological profile of cardiovascular disease-relevant biomarkers depended on composition, size and crystal structure of TiO(2) NMs, whereas the charge on TiO(2) NMs and the coating of ZnO NMs were not associated with differences in toxicological profile.

  17. Predicting skin sensitization potential and inter-laboratory reproducibility of a human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) in the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) ring trials.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Ryan, Cindy; Ovigne, Jean-Marc; Schroeder, Klaus R; Ashikaga, Takao

    2010-09-01

    Regulatory policies in Europe prohibited the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for a number of toxicological endpoints. Currently no validated non-animal test methods exist for skin sensitization. Evaluation of changes in cell surface marker expression in dendritic cell (DC)-surrogate cell lines represents one non-animal approach. The human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) examines the level of CD86 and CD54 expression on the surface of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, following 24h of chemical exposure. To examine protocol transferability, between-lab reproducibility, and predictive capacity, the h-CLAT has been evaluated by five independent laboratories in several ring trials (RTs) coordinated by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA). The results of the first and second RTs demonstrated that the protocol was transferable and basically had good between-lab reproducibility and predictivity, but there were some false negative data. To improve performance, protocol and prediction model were modified. Using the modified prediction model in the first and second RT, accuracy was improved. However, about 15% of the outcomes were not correctly identified, which exposes some of the limitations of the assay. For the chemicals evaluated, the limitation may due to chemical being a weak allergen or having low solubility (ex. alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde). The third RT evaluated the modified prediction model and satisfactory results were obtained. From the RT data, the feasibility of utilizing cell lines as surrogate DC in development of in vitro skin sensitization methods shows promise. The data also support initiating formal pre-validation of the h-CLAT in order to fully understand the capabilities and limitations of the assay.

  18. Silver nanoparticles induce degradation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor activating transcription factor-6 leading to activation of the NLRP-3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Simard, Jean-Christophe; Vallieres, Francis; de Liz, Rafael; Lavastre, Valerie; Girard, Denis

    2015-02-27

    In the past decade, the increasing amount of nanoparticles (NP) and nanomaterials used in multiple applications led the scientific community to investigate the potential toxicity of NP. Many studies highlighted the cytotoxic effects of various NP, including titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and silver nanoparticles (AgNP). In a few studies, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was found to be associated with NP cytotoxicity leading to apoptosis in different cell types. In this study, we report for the first time that silver nanoparticles of 15 nm (AgNP15), depending on the concentration, induced different signature ER stress markers in human THP-1 monocytes leading to a rapid ER stress response with degradation of the ATF-6 sensor. Also, AgNP15 induced pyroptosis and activation of the NLRP-3 inflammasome as demonstrated by the processing and increased activity of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain) pyroptosome formation. Transfection of THP-1 cells with siRNA targeting NLRP-3 decreased the AgNP15-induced IL-1β production. The absence of caspase-4 expression resulted in a significant reduction of pro-IL-1β. However, caspase-1 activity was significantly higher in caspase-4-deficient cells when compared with WT cells. Inhibition of AgNP15-induced ATF-6 degradation with Site-2 protease inhibitors completely blocked the effect of AgNP15 on pyroptosis and secretion of IL-1β, indicating that ATF-6 is crucial for the induction of this type of cell death. We conclude that AgNP15 induce degradation of the ER stress sensor ATF-6, leading to activation of the NLRP-3 inflammasome regulated by caspase-4 in human monocytes.

  19. Proinflammatory and prothrombotic effects on human vascular endothelial cells of Immune-cell-derived LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective LIGHT (TNFSF 14) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily and is expressed by activated T cells as well as various types of antigen presenting cells. LIGHT binds to its cellular receptors TR2 and LTßR and has a co-stimulatory role in T cell activation. Here, we compared the relative expression of LIGHT in different immune cells and the biological activity of immune cell-derived LIGHT on endothelial cells. Methods and Results Surface expression of LIGHT and mRNA production by PBMC and isolated T cells (CD4+ or CD8+) significantly increased after stimulation with PMA (Phorbolester-12-Myristat-13-Acetat) + ionomycin. No LIGHT expression on PMA stimulated monocytes or monocytic-like THP-1 cells could be detected; differentiation of monocytes and THP-1 cells into macrophages, however, resulted in up-regulation of LIGHT. Supernatants of stimulated T cells contained higher concentrations of soluble LIGHT than macrophage supernatants normalized to cell numbers; release of soluble LIGHT was found to be dependent on metalloproteinase activity. Size determination of released soluble LIGHT by size exclusion chromatography revealed a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, suggesting a trimeric form. Released soluble LIGHT induced expression of proinflammatory antigens ICAM-1, tissue factor and IL-8 in human endothelial cells and caused apoptosis of IFN-γ pretreated endothelial cells. Soluble LIGHT was detected at low levels in sera of healthy controls and was significantly enhanced in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis C and rheumatoid arthritis (24.93 ± 9.41 vs.129.53 ± 49.14 and 172.13 ± 77.64; p < 0.0005). Conclusion These findings suggest that among immune cells activated T lymphocytes are the main source of soluble LIGHT with released amounts of soluble LIGHT markedly higher compared to platelets. Immune cell-derived membrane-bound and soluble trimeric LIGHT is biologically active, inducing proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells. Enhanced plasma

  20. Acoustofluidic Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Chen, Yuchao; Nama, Nitesh; Nissly, Ruth Helmus; Ren, Liqiang; Ozcelik, Adem; Wang, Lin; McCoy, J Philip; Levine, Stewart J; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-12-15

    Selective isolation of cell subpopulations with defined biological characteristics is crucial for many biological studies and clinical applications. In this work, we present the development of an acoustofluidic fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) device that simultaneously performs on-demand, high-throughput, high-resolution cell detection and sorting, integrated onto a single chip. Our acoustofluidic FACS device uses the "microfluidic drifting" technique to precisely focus cells/particles three dimensionally and achieves a flow of single-file particles/cells as they pass through a laser interrogation region. We then utilize short bursts (150 μs) of standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW) triggered by an electronic feedback system to sort fluorescently labeled particles/cells with desired biological properties. We have demonstrated continuous isolation of fluorescently labeled HeLa cells from unlabeled cells at a throughput of ∼1200 events/s with a purity reaching 92.3 ± 3.39%. Furthermore, 99.18% postsort cell viability indicates that our acoustofluidic sorting technique maintains a high integrity of cells. Therefore, our integrated acoustofluidic FACS device is demonstrated to achieve two-way cell sorting with high purity, biocompatibility, and biosafety. We believe that our device has significant potential for use as a low-cost, high-performance, portable, and user-friendly FACS instrument.

  1. Interleukin-34 induces monocytic-like differentiation in leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Booker, Burthia E; Clark, Ryan S; Pellom, Samuel T; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a cytokine consisting of a 39kD homodimer, shown to be a ligand for both the Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF/CSF-1) receptor and the Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-zeta (RPTP-ƺ). IL-34 has been shown to promote monocyte viability and proliferation as well as the differentiation of bone marrow cells into macrophage progenitors. Published work on IL-34 involves its effects on normal hematopoietic and osteoclast progenitors. However, it is not known whether IL-34 has biologic effects in cancer, including leukemia. Here we report that the biological effects of IL-34 include induction of differential expression of Interleukins-1α and -1β as well as induction of differentiation of U937, HL-60 and THP-1 leukemia cell lines demonstrating monocyte-like characteristics. The ability of IL-34 to induce monocytic-like differentiation is supported by strong morphological and functional evidence. Cell surface markers of myeloid lineage, CD64 and CD86, remain constant while the levels of CD11b and CD71 decline with IL-34 treatment. IL-34 also induced increases in CD14 and CD68 expression, further supporting maturation toward monocytic character. IL-34-induced differentiated U937 and THP-1 cell lines exhibited biological functions such as endocytosis and respiratory burst activities. Collectively, we conclude that while IL-34 does not induce cell growth or proliferation, it is able to induce differentiation of leukemia cell lines from monoblastic precursor cells towards monocyte- and macrophage-like cells, mediated through the JAK/STAT and PI3K/Akt pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IL-34 induces differentiation in human leukemic cells, let alone any cancer model.

  2. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of selected Cameroonian edible plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon, the use of edible plants is an integral part of dietary behavior. However, evidence of the antimicrobial as well as the cytotoxic effects of many of them has not been investigated. In the present study, aqueous and methanol extracts from barks, seeds, leaves and roots of three Cameroonian edible plants namely Garcina lucida, Fagara heitzii and Hymenocardia lyrata were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. Methods Antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed by the broth micro-dilution method meanwhile the cytotoxicity was performed using sulphorhodamine B assay (SRB) against the human leukemia THP-1, the alveolar epithelial A549, prostate cancer PC-3, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. Results The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the seven tested extracts ranged from 62.5 μg/ml to 1000 μg/ml. The methanol (MeOH) extract from the roots of H. lyrata showed the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus and S. epidermitis. The best antifungal activity was obtained with the MeOH extract from the leaves of G. lucida against C. tropicalis (MIC value of 62.5 μg/ml). The in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed that, extract from the bark of F. heitzii and extract from H. lyrata roots had significant cytotoxic activity on THP-1 (IC50 8.4 μg/ml) and PC-3 (IC50 9.5 μg/ml) respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Cameroonian spices herein studied could be potentially useful for the development of therapeutic agents against bacterial infections as well as for prostate and leukemia cancer. PMID:23565827

  3. Development of Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Activators

    PubMed Central

    Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jian; Lee, Su-Lin; Wei, Shuo; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2010-01-01

    In light of the unique ability of thiazolidinediones to mediate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ-independent activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and suppression of interleukin (IL)-6 production, we conducted a screening of an in-house, thiazolidinedione-based focused compound library to identify novel agents with these dual pharmacological activities. Cell-based assays pertinent to the activation status of AMPK and mammalian homolog of target of rapamycin (i.e., phosphorylation of AMPK and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase, respectively), and IL-6/IL-6 receptor signaling (i.e., IL-6 production and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation, respectively) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 human macrophages were used to screen this compound library, which led to the identification of compound 53 (N-{4-[3-(1-Methylcyclohexylmethyl)-2,4-dioxo-thiazolidin-5-ylidene-methyl]-phenyl}-4-nitro-3-trifluoromethyl-benzenesulfonamide) as the lead agent. Evidence indicates that this drug-induced suppression of LPS-stimulated IL-6 production was attributable to AMPK activation. Furthermore, compound 53-mediated AMPK activation was demonstrated in C-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells, indicating that it is not a cell line-specific event. PMID:20170185

  4. Endothelial cell behaviour within a microfluidic mimic of the flow channels of a modular tissue engineered construct

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omar F.

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of disturbed flow patterns on endothelial cells, the channels found within a modular tissue engineering construct were reproduced in a microfluidic chip and lined with endothelial cells whose resulting phenotype under flow was assessed using confocal microscopy. Modular tissue engineered constructs formed by the random packing of sub-millimetre, cylindrically shaped, endothelial cell-covered modules into a larger container creates interconnected channels that permit the flow of fluids such as blood. Due to the random packing, the flow path is tortuous and has the potential to create disturbed flow, resulting in an activated endothelium. At an average shear stress of 2.8 dyn cm−2, endothelial cells within channels of varying geometries showed higher amounts of activation, as evidenced by an increase in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels with respect to static controls. VE-cadherin expression also increased, however, it appeared discontinuous around the perimeter of the cells. An increase in flow (15.6 dyn cm−2) was sufficient to reduce ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression to a level below that of static controls for many disturbed flow-prone channels that contained branches, curves, expansions and contractions. VE-cadherin expression was also reduced and became discontinuous in all channels, possibly due to paracrine signaling. Other than showing a mild correlation to VE-cadherin, which may be linked through a cAMP-initiated pathway, KLF2 was found to be largely independent of shear stress for this system. To gauge the adhesiveness of the endothelium to leukocytes, THP-1 cells were introduced into flow-conditioned channels and their attachment measured. Relative to static controls, THP-1 adhesion was reduced in straight and bifurcating channels. However, even in the presence of flow, areas where multiple channels converged were found to be the most prone to THP-1 attachment. The microfluidic system enabled a full analysis of the effect of the tortuous flow

  5. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  6. Engineering of Isogenic Cells Deficient for MR1 with a CRISPR/Cas9 Lentiviral System: Tools To Study Microbial Antigen Processing and Presentation to Human MR1-Restricted T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Angharad; Meermeier, Erin W.; Crowther, Michael D.; Connor, Thomas R.; Dolton, Garry; Miles, John J.; Burrows, Scott R.; Gold, Marielle C.; Lewinsohn, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The nonclassical HLA molecule MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) presents metabolites of the vitamin B synthesis pathways to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and other MR1-restricted T cells. This new class of Ags represents a variation on the classical paradigm of self/non-self discrimination because these T cells are activated through their TCR by small organic compounds generated during microbial vitamin B2 synthesis. Beyond the fundamental significance, the invariant nature of MR1 across the human population is a tantalizing feature for the potential development of universal immune therapeutic and diagnostic tools. However, many aspects of MR1 Ag presentation and MR1-restricted T cell biology remain unknown, and the ubiquitous expression of MR1 across tissues and cell lines can be a confounding factor for experimental purposes. In this study, we report the development of a novel CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing lentiviral system and its use to efficiently disrupt MR1 expression in A459, THP-1, and K562 cell lines. We generated isogenic MR1−/− clonal derivatives of the A549 lung carcinoma and THP-1 monocytic cell lines and used these to study T cell responses to intracellular pathogens. We confirmed that MAIT cell clones were unable to respond to MR1−/− clones infected with bacteria whereas Ag presentation by classical and other nonclassical HLAs was unaffected. This system represents a robust and efficient method to disrupt the expression of MR1 and should facilitate investigations into the processing and presentation of MR1 Ags as well as into the biology of MAIT cells. PMID:27307560

  7. Engineering of Isogenic Cells Deficient for MR1 with a CRISPR/Cas9 Lentiviral System: Tools To Study Microbial Antigen Processing and Presentation to Human MR1-Restricted T Cells.

    PubMed

    Laugel, Bruno; Lloyd, Angharad; Meermeier, Erin W; Crowther, Michael D; Connor, Thomas R; Dolton, Garry; Miles, John J; Burrows, Scott R; Gold, Marielle C; Lewinsohn, David M; Sewell, Andrew K

    2016-08-01

    The nonclassical HLA molecule MHC-related protein 1 (MR1) presents metabolites of the vitamin B synthesis pathways to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and other MR1-restricted T cells. This new class of Ags represents a variation on the classical paradigm of self/non-self discrimination because these T cells are activated through their TCR by small organic compounds generated during microbial vitamin B2 synthesis. Beyond the fundamental significance, the invariant nature of MR1 across the human population is a tantalizing feature for the potential development of universal immune therapeutic and diagnostic tools. However, many aspects of MR1 Ag presentation and MR1-restricted T cell biology remain unknown, and the ubiquitous expression of MR1 across tissues and cell lines can be a confounding factor for experimental purposes. In this study, we report the development of a novel CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing lentiviral system and its use to efficiently disrupt MR1 expression in A459, THP-1, and K562 cell lines. We generated isogenic MR1(-/-) clonal derivatives of the A549 lung carcinoma and THP-1 monocytic cell lines and used these to study T cell responses to intracellular pathogens. We confirmed that MAIT cell clones were unable to respond to MR1(-/-) clones infected with bacteria whereas Ag presentation by classical and other nonclassical HLAs was unaffected. This system represents a robust and efficient method to disrupt the expression of MR1 and should facilitate investigations into the processing and presentation of MR1 Ags as well as into the biology of MAIT cells.

  8. Mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via downregulating interferon regulatory factor 5 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhiquan; Yan, Li; Chen, Yixin; Bao, Chuanhong; Deng, Jing; Deng, Jiagang

    2016-01-01

    Mangiferin is a natural polyphenol and the predominant effective component of Mangifera indica Linn. leaves. For hundreds of years, Mangifera indica Linn. leaf has been used as an ingredient in numerous traditional Chinese medicine preparations for the treatment of bronchitis. However, the pharmacological mechanism of mangiferin in the treatment of bronchitis remains to be elucidated. Macrophage classical activation is important role in the process of bronchial airway inflammation, and interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been identified as a key regulatory factor for macrophage classical activation. The present study used the THP-1 human monocyte cell line to investigate whether mangiferin inhibits macrophage classical activation via suppressing IRF5 expression in vitro. THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Macrophages were polarized to M1 macrophages following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Flow cytometric analysis was conducted to detect the M1 macrophages. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate cellular IRF5 gene expression. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines and IRF5 were assessed following cell culture and cellular homogenization using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IRF5 protein and nuclei co-localization was performed in macrophages with laser scanning confocal microscope immunofluorescence analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that mangiferin significantly inhibits LPS/IFN-γ stimulation-induced classical activation of macrophages in vitro and markedly decreases proinflammatory cytokine release. In addition, cellular IRF5 expression was markedly downregulated. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of mangiferin on classical activation of macrophages may be exerted via downregulation of cellular IRF5 expression levels. PMID:27277156

  9. Legionella pneumophila induces cathepsin B-dependent necrotic cell death with releasing high mobility group box1 in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Legionella pneumophila (LPN) can cause a lethal infectious disease with a marked inflammatory response in humans. However, the mechanism of this severe inflammation remains poorly understood. Since necrosis is known to induce inflammation, we investigated whether LPN induces necrosis in macrophages. We also analyzed the involvement of lysosomal cathepsin B in LPN-induced cell death. Methods The human monocytic cell line THP-1 was infected with LPN, NUL1 strain. MG132-treated cells were used as apoptotic control cells. After infection, the type of cell death was analyzed by using microscopy, LDH release and flow cytometry. As a proinflammatory mediator, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), was measured. Cathepsin B activity was also measured and the inhibitory effects of cathepsin B on LPN-induced cell death were analyzed. Results THP-1 cells after treatment with high dose of LPN showed necrotic features with releasing HMGB-1. This necrosis and the HMGB-1 release were inhibited by a specific lysosomal cathepsin B inhibitor and were characterized by a rapid and high activation of cathepsin B that was not observed in apoptotic control cells. The necrosis was also accompanied by cathepsin B-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Conclusions We demonstrate here that L. pneumophila rapidly induces cathepsin B-dependent necrosis in a dose-dependent manner and releases a proinflammatory mediator, HMGB-1, from macrophages. This report describes a novel aspect of the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease and provides a possible therapeutic target for the regulation of inflammation. PMID:21092200

  10. Cell surface expression of mouse macrosialin and human CD68 and their role as macrophage receptors for oxidized low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ramprasad, M P; Terpstra, V; Kondratenko, N; Quehenberger, O; Steinberg, D

    1996-12-10

    We have previously identified a 94- to 97-kDa oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding protein in mouse macrophages as macrosialin (MS), a member of the lamp family. Earlier immunostaining studies have shown that MS and its human homolog, CD68, are predominantly intracellular proteins. However, using sensitive techniques such as flow cytometry (FACS) and cell-surface-specific biotinylation, we now show that there is significant surface expression of these proteins. FACS analysis of intact cells using mAb FA/11 showed small but definite surface expression of MS in resident mouse peritoneal macrophages but this was greatly enhanced with thioglycollate elicitation. Biotinylation of intact cells and detergent-solubilized cell preparations followed by immunoprecipitation revealed 10-15% of the total MS content of elicited macrophages on the plasma membrane. Similar results were obtained with untreated RAW 264.7 cells. FACS analysis of intact THP-1 monocytic cells showed minimal surface expression of CD68 on unactivated cells (4% of total cell content). Stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased both surface and total CD68 expression considerably. Furthermore, the specific binding at 4 degrees C and uptake at 37 degrees C of 125I-labeled oxidized LDL by activated THP-1 cells was inhibited by 30-50% by CD68 mAbs KP-1 and EBM-11. Thus, although the surface expression of MS/CD68 at steady-state represents only a small percentage of their total cellular content, these proteins can play a significant role in oxidized LDL uptake by activated macrophages in vitro and could contribute to foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions.

  11. Structural Determination and Toll-like Receptor 2-dependent Proinflammatory Activity of Dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol from Mycobacterium marinum*

    PubMed Central

    Elass-Rochard, Elisabeth; Rombouts, Yoann; Coddeville, Bernadette; Maes, Emmanuel; Blervaque, Renaud; Hot, David; Kremer, Laurent; Guérardel, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Although it was identified in the cell wall of several pathogenic mycobacteria, the biological properties of dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol have not been documented yet. In this study an apolar glycolipid, presumably corresponding to dimycolyl-diarabino-glycerol, was purified from Mycobacterium marinum and subsequently identified as a 5-O-mycolyl-β-Araf-(1→2)-5-O-mycolyl-α-Araf-(1→1′)-glycerol (designated Mma_DMAG) using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses. Lipid composition analysis revealed that mycolic acids were dominated by oxygenated mycolates over α-mycolates and devoid of trans-cyclopropane functions. Highly purified Mma_DMAG was used to demonstrate its immunomodulatory activity. Mma_DMAG was found to induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β) in human macrophage THP-1 cells and to trigger the expression of ICAM-1 and CD40 cell surface antigens. This activation mechanism was dependent on TLR2, but not on TLR4, as demonstrated by (i) the use of neutralizing anti-TLR2 and -TLR4 antibodies and by (ii) the detection of secreted alkaline phosphatase in HEK293 cells co-transfected with the human TLR2 and secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase reporter genes. In addition, transcriptomic analyses indicated that various genes encoding proinflammatory factors were up-regulated after exposure of THP-1 cells to Mma_DMAG. Importantly, a wealth of other regulated genes related to immune and inflammatory responses, including chemokines/cytokines and their respective receptors, adhesion molecules, and metalloproteinases, were found to be modulated by Mma_DMAG. Overall, this study suggests that DMAG may be an active cell wall glycoconjugate driving host-pathogen interactions and participating in the immunopathogenesis of mycobacterial infections. PMID:22798072

  12. A West Nile virus NS4B-P38G mutant strain induces cell intrinsic innate cytokine responses in human monocytic and macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guorui; Luo, Huanle; Tian, Bing; Mann, Brian; Bao, Xiaoyong; McBride, Jere; Tesh, Robert; Barrett, Alan D; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an attenuated West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant induces stronger innate and adaptive immune responses than wild-type WNV in mice, which has important applications to vaccine development. To investigate the mechanism of immunogenicity, we characterized WNV NS4B-P38G mutant infection in two human cell lines--THP-1 cells and THP-1 macrophages. Although the NS4B-P38G mutant produced more viral RNA than the parental WNV NY99 in both cell types, there was no detectable infectious virus in the supernatant of either cell type. Nonetheless, the attenuated mutant boosted higher innate cytokine responses than virulent parental WNV NY99 in these cells. The NS4B-P38G mutant infection of THP-1 cells led to more diverse and robust innate cytokine responses than that seen in THP-1 macrophages, which were mediated by toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and retinoic acid-inducible gene 1(RIG-I) signaling pathways. Overall, these results suggest that a defective viral life cycle during NS4B-P38G mutant infection in human monocytic and macrophage cells leads to more potent cell intrinsic innate cytokine responses. PMID:25562791

  13. In vitro Catecholamine Exposure Produces Variable Effects on the B7 Costimulatory Pathway in Human Monocytic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B.; Sams, Clarence; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Catecholamines have been associated with immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system towards a Th2 response in vitro. We therefore examined the role of in vitro epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) exposure on the B7 costimulatory expression of antigen presenting cells (APC) from human monocytic cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). THP1 monocytic cells and CD14+ cells from normal human PBMC were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with physiologic stress levels (10(exp -6) - 10(exp -8)M) of EPI or NE for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently stained with CD80 FITC, CD86 PE, and CD14 PC5 antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry for changes in fluorescence and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Exposure of THP1 to EPI in vitro at concentrations of 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8)M significantly decreased mean CD80 from 42 plus or minus 0.7% to 11 plus or minus 0.44%, 19.1 plus or minus 2.0%, and 30.7 plus or minus 2.1% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). In addition, CD86 expression increased with EPI at 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8) M from 9.2 plus or minus 0.52% to 41 plus or minus 3.8%, 26.4 plus or minus 1.9%, and 15.74 plus or minus 1.8% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). Similar results for mean CD80 and CD86 percent expression were observed for CD14+ cells from PBMC with a sample size of N = 6 and for NE when substituted for EPI. The data show that in vitro exposure to catecholamines significantly decreases %CD86 expression and significantly increases %CD86 expression in THP1 cells and human CD14+ APC. Previous studies have suggested an association between increased CD86 expression and TH2 activity. Thus, these data suggest that immunomodulation by catecholamines results in part by the variable effects of the B7 costimulatory pathway in APC.

  14. The anticancer activity of 3- and 10-bromofascaplysins is mediated by caspase-8, -9, -3-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kuzmich, Alexandra S; Fedorov, Sergey N; Shastina, Valeria V; Shubina, Larisa K; Radchenko, Oleg S; Balaneva, Nadezda N; Zhidkov, Maxim E; Park, Joo-In; Kwak, Jong Y; Stonik, Valentin A

    2010-06-01

    3- and 10-Bromofascaplysins was previously found to possess cytotoxic activity. In this study, we investigated their cancer preventive and proapoptotic properties. These effects were tested on mouse skin epidermal JB6 P(+) Cl41 cell line, its stable transfectants, and human tumor HL-60, THP-1, SNU-C4, SK-MEL-28, DLD-1, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa cells using a variety of assessments, including a cell viability (MTS) assay, flow cytometry, anchorage-independent soft agar assay, luciferase assay, mitochondrial permeability assay, and Western blotting. 3- and 10-Bromofascaplysins were effective at submicromolar concentrations as the anticancer agents, which exerted their action, at least in part, through the induction of caspase-8, -9, -3-dependent apoptosis.

  15. The toxicity of bovine α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells is highly dependent on oleic acid and induces killing in cancer cell lines and noncancer-derived primary cells.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Christel Rothe; Heegaard, Christian Würtz; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Thiel, Steffen

    2011-06-01

    A complex between α-lactalbumin and oleic acid (C18:1, 9 cis) has been reported to be cytotoxic to cancer cells. We have prepared such complexes and tested their activity against both cancer cell lines and noncancer-derived primary cells. Unexpectedly, some primary cell types were more sensitive to treatment than cancer cell lines. We found the complex to be cytotoxic to all of the tested cells, with a 46-fold difference between the most sensitive and the least sensitive cell type. Oleic acid by itself exhibited a remarkably similar activity. The cell-killing mechanisms of the complex and of oleic acid alone were examined by flow cytometry, testing for apoptosis- and necrosis- inducing activity. The T-cell leukemia-derived Jurkat cells primarily underwent cell death resembling apoptosis, whereas the monocytic leukemia-derived THP1 cells adopted a more necrotic-like cell death. Erythrocytes were sensitive to lysis by the complex and oleic acid. We conclude that oleic acid is cytotoxic by itself and that, in contrast to the literature, a complex of α-lactalbumin and oleic acid has cytotoxic activity against primary cells, as well as cancer cells.

  16. Gold(I)-triphenylphosphine complexes with hypoxanthine-derived ligands: in vitro evaluations of anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Křikavová, Radka; Hošek, Jan; Vančo, Ján; Hutyra, Jakub; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    A series of gold(I) complexes involving triphenylphosphine (PPh3) and one N-donor ligand derived from deprotonated mono- or disubstituted hypoxanthine (HLn) of the general composition [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1-9) is reported. The complexes were thoroughly characterized, including multinuclear high resolution NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray analysis (for complexes 1 and 3). The complexes were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), which identified the complexes 4-6 as the most promising representatives, who antiproliferative activity was further tested against A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), G-361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) cell lines. Complexes 4-6 showed a significantly higher in vitro anticancer effect against the employed cancer cells, except for G-361, as compared with the commercially used anticancer drug cisplatin, with IC50 ≈ 1-30 µM. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro by the assessment of the ability of the complexes to modulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in the lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The results of this study identified the complexes as auspicious anti-inflammatory agents with similar or better activity as compared with the clinically applied gold-based antiarthritic drug Auranofin. In an effort to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for the biological effect, the products of interactions of selected complexes with sulfur-containing biomolecules (L-cysteine and reduced glutathione) were studied by means of the mass-spectrometry study. PMID:25226034

  17. Gold(I)-Triphenylphosphine Complexes with Hypoxanthine-Derived Ligands: In Vitro Evaluations of Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Křikavová, Radka; Hošek, Jan; Vančo, Ján; Hutyra, Jakub; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    A series of gold(I) complexes involving triphenylphosphine (PPh3) and one N-donor ligand derived from deprotonated mono- or disubstituted hypoxanthine (HLn) of the general composition [Au(Ln)(PPh3)] (1–9) is reported. The complexes were thoroughly characterized, including multinuclear high resolution NMR spectroscopy as well as single crystal X-ray analysis (for complexes 1 and 3). The complexes were screened for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines MCF7 (breast carcinoma), HOS (osteosarcoma) and THP-1 (monocytic leukaemia), which identified the complexes 4–6 as the most promising representatives, who antiproliferative activity was further tested against A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), G-361 (melanoma), HeLa (cervical cancer), A2780 (ovarian carcinoma), A2780R (ovarian carcinoma resistant to cisplatin), 22Rv1 (prostate cancer) cell lines. Complexes 4–6 showed a significantly higher in vitro anticancer effect against the employed cancer cells, except for G-361, as compared with the commercially used anticancer drug cisplatin, with IC50 ≈ 1–30 µM. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in vitro by the assessment of the ability of the complexes to modulate secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in the lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage-like THP-1 cell model. The results of this study identified the complexes as auspicious anti-inflammatory agents with similar or better activity as compared with the clinically applied gold-based antiarthritic drug Auranofin. In an effort to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for the biological effect, the products of interactions of selected complexes with sulfur-containing biomolecules (L-cysteine and reduced glutathione) were studied by means of the mass-spectrometry study. PMID:25226034

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses of nanoparticles from photocopiers in three human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Photocopiers emit nanoparticles with complex chemical composition. Short-term exposures to modest nanoparticle concentrations triggered upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy human volunteers in a recent study. To further understand the toxicological properties of copier-emitted nanoparticles, we studied in-vitro their ability to induce cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine release, DNA damage, and apoptosis in relevant human cell lines. Methods Three cell types were used: THP-1, primary human nasal- and small airway epithelial cells. Following collection in a large volume photocopy center, nanoparticles were extracted, dispersed and characterized in the cell culture medium. Cells were doped at 30, 100 and 300 μg/mL administered doses for up to 24 hrs. Estimated dose delivered to cells, was ~10% and 22% of the administered dose at 6 and 24 hrs, respectively. Gene expression analysis of key biomarkers was performed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in THP-1 cells at 5 μg nanoparticles/mL for 6-hr exposure for confirmation purposes. Results Multiple cytokines, GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, MCP-1, TNF-α and VEGF, were significantly elevated in THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis confirmed up-regulation of the TNF-α gene in THP-1 cells, consistent with cytokine findings. In both primary epithelial cells, cytokines IL-8, VEGF, EGF, IL-1α, TNF-α, IL-6 and GM-CSF were significantly elevated. Apoptosis was induced in all cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, consistent with the significant up-regulation of key apoptosis-regulating genes P53 and Casp8 in THP-1 cells. No significant DNA damage was found at any concentration with the comet assay. Up-regulation of key DNA damage and repair genes, Ku70 and Rad51, were also observed in THP-1 cells, albeit not statistically significant. Significant up-regulation of the key gene HO1 for oxidative stress, implicates oxidative stress induced by

  19. Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor-α with Adalimumab: Effects on Endothelial Activation and Monocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Raghav; Schuett, Jutta; Schuett, Harald; Koch, Ann-Kathrin; Luchtefeld, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is well known that atherosclerotic inflammatory vascular disease is critically driven by oxidized lipids and cytokines. In this regard, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known as a crucial mediator of early pro-atherosclerotic events. Epidemiologic data suggest that blockade of TNF-α has beneficial effects on vascular outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, however, detailed mechanistic studies are still lacking. This study aims to elucidate effects of TNF-α blockade by adalimumab–which is approved for several inflammatory disorders–on endothelial activation and monocyte adhesion under pro-atherosclerotic conditions. Methods and Results Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with oxidized low density lipoprotein and subsequent analysis of this conditioned media (oxLDL CM) revealed a strong release of TNF-α. The TNF-α rich supernatant led to activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as shown by enhanced expression of major adhesion molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin which was suppressed by the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab. Accordingly, adalimumab effectively prevented THP-1 monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under static as well as under flow conditions. Furthermore, adalimumab suppressed endothelial leakage as shown by Evan's blue diffusion across a confluent endothelial monolayer. Of note, after intraperitoneal injection we detected abundant deposition of fluorophore-labelled adalimumab in atherosclerotic plaques of hypercholesterolemic mice. Conclusion Our results show that adalimumab prevents major inflammatory effects of TNF-α on endothelial activation, endothelial monocyte adhesion, endothelial leakage and therefore extends the therapeutic options of adalimumab to limit vascular inflammation. PMID:27467817

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of anti-leishmanial and immunomodulatory activity of Neem leaf extract in Leishmania donovani infection.

    PubMed

    Dayakar, Alti; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; Veronica, Jalaja; Sundar, Shyam; Maurya, Radheshyam

    2015-06-01

    The toxicity and emergence of resistance to available chemical drugs against visceral leishmaniasis is evoking to explore herbal treatment. One such attempt with the Neem is being reported here. The current study is primarily focused to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effects of Neem leaf extracts. Among which, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) alone was found to exhibit leishmanicidal effect validated through cytotoxicity assay and estimated its IC₅₀ to be 52.4 µg/ml on the promastigote stage. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of dead cells substantiated the aforementioned activity. Carboxy fluorescein-diaceate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining of promastigotes has affirmed its anti-proliferation activity. The characteristic features such as DNA fragmentation, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, increased sub G0/G1 phase parasites and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in EAF treated promastigotes indicate the apoptosis like death. In addition, the reduced parasite burden both in vitro (viz. ~45% in human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) and ~50% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and in vivo (spleen and liver) provides the evidence for its anti-leishmanial activity on amastigote stage. The increase of ROS levels in THP-1 and nitric oxide (NO) production from J774.1 cell line (mouse macrophages) upon EAF treatment was evidenced for oxidative killing of intracellular amastigotes. Active immunomodulatory activity at m-RNA level (viz. upregulation of Th1 cytokines, and downregulation of Th2 cytokines) both in vitro and in vivo was also shown to be exhibited by EAF. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of EAF revealed the presence of 14 compounds.

  1. Polyphosphate, an active molecule derived from probiotic Lactobacillus brevis, improves the fibrosis in murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Shin; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Konishi, Hiroaki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Moriichi, Kentaro; Tanabe, Hiroki; Ikuta, Katsuya; Ohtake, Takaaki; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease frequently causes intestinal obstruction because of extensive fibrosis. This study investigated whether polyphosphate (poly P), an active molecule derived from Lactobacillus brevis, could improve the fibrosis in a model of chronic colitis. In this study, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis models and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis models were used as models of fibrosis. To clarify the mechanism responsible for the observed effects, Caco-2/brush border epithelial (BBE) and naive T helper lymphocyte (THP)-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation. Non-cancer human colon fibroblast (CCD-18) cells were treated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce fibrosis. The expression levels of fibrosis- and inflammation-associated molecules were evaluated by both a Western blotting analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The histologic inflammation and fibrosis were significantly improved in the group administered poly P in both the DSS and TNBS colitis models. The levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were significantly decreased by poly P treatment. The expression levels of TGF-β1 and collagens in the colitis mice were decreased by poly P. The LPS-induced expressions of IL-1β and TGF-β1 in Caco-2/BBE cells and of TNF-α in THP-1 cells were reduced by poly P treatment. Poly P did not affect the expression of collagens and connective tissue growth factor in the CCD-18 cells. In conclusion, poly P suppresses intestinal inflammation and fibrosis by downregulating the expression of inflammation- and fibrosis-associated molecules in the intestinal epithelium. The administration of poly P is therefore a novel option to treat fibrosis because of chronic intestinal inflammation. PMID:25766132

  2. Inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β by Pretreatment of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages with Menaquinone-7 and Cell Activation with TLR Agonists In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Maresz, Katarzyna; Lee, Pei-Sheng; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Popko, Janusz; Mehta, Dilip S; Stohs, Sidney J; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    Circulatory markers of low-grade inflammation such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) positively correlate with endothelial damage, atheroma formation, cardiovascular disease, and aging. The natural vitamin K2-menaquinone-7 (MK-7) added to the cell culture of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) at the same time as toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists did not influence the production of TNF-α. When the cells were pretreated up to 6 h with MK-7 before treatment with TLR agonists, MK-7 did not inhibit significantly the production of TNF-α after the TLR activation. However, 30 h pretreatment of hMDMs with at least 10 μM of MK-7 effectively and dose dependently inhibited the proinflammatory function of hMDMs. Pretreatment of hMDMs with 10 μM of MK-7 for 30 h resulted in 20% inhibition of TNF-α production after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation (P < .05) and 43% inhibition after macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP) activation (P < .001). Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PMPP) activation was inhibited by 20% with MK-7 pretreatment; however, this inhibition was not statistically significant. The 30 h pretreatment of a THP-1-differentiated monocyte cell line with MK-7 resulted in a dose-dependent downregulation of TNFα, IL-1α, and IL-1β gene expression as evaluated by RNA semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MK-7 is able to modulate immune and inflammatory reactions in the dose-response inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β gene expression and protein production by the healthy hMDMs in vitro. PMID:27200471

  3. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Mulsow, Katharina; Enzlein, Thomas; Delebinski, Catharina; Jaeger, Sebastian; Seifert, Georg; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-01-01

    Complementary treatment possibilities for the therapy of cancer are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard cytostatics used in the first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace). The therapeutic activity of these extracts is attributed to Mistletoe lectins which are Ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these main constituents the extract of Viscum album L. comprises also a mixture of lipophilic ingredients like triterpene acids of the oleanane, lupane and ursane type. However, these constituents are not contained in commercially available aqueous extracts due to their high lipophilicity and insolubility in aqueous extraction media. To understand the impact of the extract ingredients in cancer therapy, the intracellular uptake of the mistletoe lectin I (ML) by cultured tumor cells was investigated in relation to the mistletoe triterpene acids, mainly oleanolic acid. Firstly, these hydrophobic triterpene acids were solubilized using cyclodextrins ("TT" extract). Afterwards, the uptake of either single compounds (isolated ML and the aqueous "viscum" extract) or in combination with the TT extract (ML+TT, viscumTT), was analyzed. The uptake of ML was studied inTHP-1-, HL-60-, 143B- and Ewing TC-71-cells and determined after 30, 60 and 120 minutes by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay which quantifies the A-chain of the hololectin. It could be shown that the intracellular uptake after 120 minutes amounted to 20% in all cell lines after incubation with viscumTT. The studies further revealed that the uptake in THP-1-, HL-60- and Ewing TC-71-cells was independent of the addition of TT extract. Interestingly, the uptake of ML by 143B-cells could only be measured after addition of triterpenes pointing to resistance to mistletoe lectin. PMID:27088729

  4. Impact of Mistletoe Triterpene Acids on the Uptake of Mistletoe Lectin by Cultured Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mulsow, Katharina; Enzlein, Thomas; Delebinski, Catharina; Jaeger, Sebastian; Seifert, Georg; Melzig, Matthias F.

    2016-01-01

    Complementary treatment possibilities for the therapy of cancer are increasing in demand due to the severe side effects of the standard cytostatics used in the first-line therapy. A common approach as a complementary treatment is the use of aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. (Santalaceace). The therapeutic activity of these extracts is attributed to Mistletoe lectins which are Ribosome-inactivating proteins type II. Besides these main constituents the extract of Viscum album L. comprises also a mixture of lipophilic ingredients like triterpene acids of the oleanane, lupane and ursane type. However, these constituents are not contained in commercially available aqueous extracts due to their high lipophilicity and insolubility in aqueous extraction media. To understand the impact of the extract ingredients in cancer therapy, the intracellular uptake of the mistletoe lectin I (ML) by cultured tumor cells was investigated in relation to the mistletoe triterpene acids, mainly oleanolic acid. Firstly, these hydrophobic triterpene acids were solubilized using cyclodextrins (“TT” extract). Afterwards, the uptake of either single compounds (isolated ML and the aqueous “viscum” extract) or in combination with the TT extract (ML+TT, viscumTT), was analyzed. The uptake of ML was studied inTHP-1-, HL-60-, 143B- and Ewing TC-71-cells and determined after 30, 60 and 120 minutes by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay which quantifies the A-chain of the hololectin. It could be shown that the intracellular uptake after 120 minutes amounted to 20% in all cell lines after incubation with viscumTT. The studies further revealed that the uptake in THP-1-, HL-60- and Ewing TC-71-cells was independent of the addition of TT extract. Interestingly, the uptake of ML by 143B-cells could only be measured after addition of triterpenes pointing to resistance to mistletoe lectin. PMID:27088729

  5. Accumulation of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomains on the target cells is essential for its cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akihito; Isobe, Hirokazu; Iwao, Yasuhisa; Takano, Tomomi; Hung, Wei-Chun; Taneike, Ikue; Nakagawa, Saori; Dohmae, Soshi; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2012-12-01

    The mechanisms for the cytotoxicity of staphylococcal Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a pore-forming toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV, in human immune cells are still unclear. Because LukS-PV binds to ganglioside GM1, a constituent of detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs) of the plasma membrane, the role of DRMs in PVL cytotoxicity was examined in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), monocytes, HL-60 cells, and THP-1 cells. PVL binding capacities in HL-60 and THP-1 cells were higher than those in PMNs and monocytes; however, the PVL concentration to obtain more than 80% cell lysis in HL-60 cells was 10 times higher than that in PMNs and PVL even at such concentration induced < 10% cell lysis in THP-1 cells. After incubation of PMNs with LukS-PV, more than 90% of LukS-PV bound to the detergent-soluble membranes. Subsequent incubation with LukF-PV at 4 °C induced the accumulation of more than 70% of PVL components and 170- to 220-kDa complex formation in DRMs in an actin-independent manner. However, only 30% of PVL was found, and complex formation was under detectable level in DRMs in HL-60 cells. PVL did not accumulate in DRMs in THP-1 cells. Our observations strongly indicate that PVL accumulation in DRMs is essential for PVL cytotoxicity.

  6. Type I Interferons Function as Autocrine and Paracrine Factors to Induce Autotaxin in Response to TLR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jianwen; Guan, Ming; Zhao, Zhenwen; Zhang, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an important phospholipid mediator in inflammation and immunity. However, the mechanism of LPA regulation during inflammatory response is largely unknown. Autotaxin (ATX) is the key enzyme to produce extracellular LPA from lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In this study, we found that ATX was induced in monocytic THP-1 cells by TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR9 ligand CpG oligonucleotide, and TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), respectively. The ATX induction by TLR ligand was abolished by the neutralizing antibody against IFN-β or the knockdown of IFNAR1, indicating that type I IFN autocrine loop is responsible for the ATX induction upon TLR activation. Both IFN-β and IFN-α were able to induce ATX expression via the JAK-STAT and PI3K-AKT pathways but with different time-dependent manners. The ATX induction by IFN-β was dramatically enhanced by IFN-γ, which had no significant effect on ATX expression alone, suggesting a synergy effect between type I and type II IFNs in ATX induction. Extracellular LPA levels were significantly increased when THP-1 cells were treated with IFN-α/β or TLR ligands. In addition, the type I IFN-mediated ATX induction was identified in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) stimulated with LPS or poly(I:C), and IFN-α/β could induce ATX expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocytes isolated form blood samples. These results suggest that, in response to TLR activation, ATX is induced through a type I INF autocrine-paracrine loop to enhance LPA generation. PMID:26313906

  7. RELAXIN ACTIVATES PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Bennett, Robert G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Relaxin is a polypeptide hormone that triggers multiple signaling pathways through its receptor RXFP1. Many of relaxin’s functions, including vascular and antifibrotic effects, are similar to those induced by activation of PPARγ. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that relaxin signaling through RXFP1 would activate PPARγ activity. In cells overexpressing RXFP1 (HEK-RXFP1), relaxin increased transcriptional activity through a PPAR response element (PPRE) in a concentration-dependent manner. In cells lacking RXFP1, relaxin had no effect. Relaxin increased both the baseline activity and the response to the PPARγ agonists rosiglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, but not to agonists of PPARα or PPARδ. In HEK-RXFP1 cells infected with adenovirus expressing PPARγ, relaxin increased transcriptional activity through PPRE, and this effect was blocked with an adenovirus expressing a dominant-negative PPARγ. Knockdown of PPARγ using siRNA resulted in a decrease in the response to both relaxin and rosiglitazone. Both relaxin and rosiglitazone increased expression of the PPARγ target genes CD36 and LXRα in HEK-RXFP1 and in THP-1 cells naturally expressing RXFP1. Relaxin did not increase PPARγ mRNA or protein levels. Treatment of cells with GW9662, an inhibitor of PPARγ ligand binding, effectively blocked rosiglitazone-induced PPARγ activation, but had no effect on relaxin activation of PPARγ. These results suggest that relaxin activates PPARγ activity, and increases the overall response in the presence PPARγ agonists. This activation is dependent on the presence of RXFP1. Furthermore, relaxin activates PPARγ via a ligand-independent mechanism. These studies represent the first report that relaxin can activate the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. PMID:19712722

  8. Lipoapoptosis induced by saturated free fatty acids stimulates monocyte migration: a novel role for Pannexin1 in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Waldrop, Shar L; Bronk, Steve F; Gores, Gregory J; Davis, Laurie S; Kilic, Gordan

    2015-09-01

    Recruitment of monocytes in the liver is a key pathogenic feature of hepatic inflammation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we studied migration of human monocytes in response to supernatants obtained from liver cells after inducing lipoapoptosis with saturated free fatty acids (FFA). Lipoapoptotic supernatants stimulated monocyte migration with the magnitude similar to a monocyte chemoattractant protein, CCL2 (MCP-1). Inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in liver cells with SP600125 blocked migration of monocytes in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that JNK stimulates release of chemoattractants in lipoapoptosis. Notably, treatment of supernatants with Apyrase to remove ATP potently inhibited migration of THP-1 monocytes and partially blocked migration of primary human monocytes. Inhibition of the CCL2 receptor (CCR2) on THP-1 monocytes with RS102895, a specific CCR2 inhibitor, did not block migration induced by lipoapoptotic supernatants. Consistent with these findings, lipoapoptosis stimulated pathophysiological extracellular ATP (eATP) release that increased supernatant eATP concentration from 5 to ~60 nM. Importantly, inhibition of Panx1 expression in liver cells with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) decreased supernatant eATP concentration and inhibited monocyte migration, indicating that monocyte migration is mediated in part by Panx1-dependent eATP release. Moreover, JNK inhibition decreased supernatant eATP concentration and inhibited Pannexin1 activation, as determined by YoPro-1 uptake in liver cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that JNK regulates activation of Panx1 channels, and provide evidence that Pannexin1-dependent pathophysiological eATP release in lipoapoptosis is capable of stimulating migration of human monocytes, and may participate in the recruitment of monocytes in chronic liver injury induced by saturated FFA.

  9. Tracking and treating activated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, N.H.; Nadithe, V.; Elsayed, M.; Merkel, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Upon activation, T cells of various subsets are the most important mediators in cell-mediated immune responses. Activated T cells play an important role in immune system related diseases such as chronic inflammatory diseases, viral infections, autoimmune disease, transplant rejection, Crohn disease, diabetes, and many more. Therefore, efforts have been made to both visualize and treat activated T cells specifically. This review summarizes imaging approaches and selective therapeutics for activated T cells and gives an outlook on how tracking and treating can be combined into theragnositc agents for activated T cells. PMID:24660025

  10. Recombinant Treponema pallidum Protein Tp0965 Activates Endothelial Cells and Increases the Permeability of Endothelial Cell Monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui-Li; Zhang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Qian-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant Treponema pallidum protein Tp0965 (rTp0965), one of the many proteins derived from the genome of T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, shows strong immunogenicity and immunoreactivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of rTp0965 on the endothelial barrier. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with rTp0965 resulted in increased levels of ICAM-1, E-selectin, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein expression. These increases contributed to the adhesion and chemataxis of monocytes (THP-1 cells) to HUVECs preincubated with rTp0965. In addition, rTp0965 induced reorganization of F-actin and decreased expression of claudin-1 in HUVECs. Interestingly, inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway protected against rTp0965-induced higher endothelial permeability as well as transendothelial migration of monocytes. These data indicate that Tp0965 protein may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of syphilis. PMID:25514584

  11. Cross Talk between Neuroregulatory Molecule and Monocyte: Nerve Growth Factor Activates the Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Datta-Mitra, Ananya; Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Smriti; Mitra, Anupam; Raychaudhuri, Siba P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence points to a role for the extra-neuronal nerve growth factor (NGF) in acquired immune responses. However, very little information is available about its role and underlying mechanism in innate immunity. The role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we explored the contribution of pleiotropic NGF in the innate immune response along with its underlying molecular mechanism with respect to IL-1β secretion. Methods Human monocytes, null and NLRP3 deficient THP-1 cell lines were used for this purpose. We determined the effect of NGF on secretion of IL-1β at the protein and mRNA levels. To determine the underlying molecular mechanism, the effect of NGF on NLRP1/NLRP3 inflammasomes and its downstream key protein, activated caspase-1, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoflorescence, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR. Results In human monocytes and null THP-1 cell line, NGF significantly upregulates IL-1β at protein and mRNA levels in a caspase-1 dependent manner through its receptor, TrkA. Furthermore, we observed that NGF induces caspase-1 activation through NLRP1/NLRP3 inflammasomes, and it is dependent on the master transcription factor, NF-κB. Conclusions To best of our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the mechanistic aspect of a neuroregulatory molecule, NGF, in innate immune response, and thus enriches our understanding regarding its pathogenic role in inflammation. These observations add further evidence in favor of anti-NGF therapy in autoimmune diseases and also unlock a new area of research about the role of NGF in IL-1β mediated diseases. PMID:25876154

  12. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections. PMID:27077876

  13. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Li, Xiaojuan; Kuang, Ersheng

    2016-04-12

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral evasion of NK cells via the impairment of NK cell-activating receptors and ligands, which provide new insights on the relationship between NK cells and viral actions during persistent viral infections.

  14. Dormancy activation mechanism of tracheal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xu, Jing-xian; Jia, Xin-Shan; Li, Wen-ya; Han, Yi-chen; Wang, En-hua; Li, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate markers and molecular mechanisms of stem cell dormancy and activation are poorly understood. In this study, the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, was used to selectively kill proliferating cells of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. This method can enrich and purify stem cell population. The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification. PMID:27009861

  15. Chlamydial plasmid-encoded protein pORF5 induces production of IL-1β and IL-18 via NALP3 inflammasome activation and p38 MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjuan; Zou, Yan; Su, Shengmei; He, Zhansheng; Liu, Yan; Huang, Qiulin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced inflammation is poorly understood. pORF5 is the only secreted protein encoded by Chlamydial plasmid. This study aims to investigate the effects of pORF5 on the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. THP-1 (a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) cells were stimulated by pORF5 with or without pretreatment with Natch domain, Leucine-rich repeat and PYD-containing protein 3 (NALP3) siRNA, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) siRNA, cysteine aspartate-specific protease-1 (caspase-1) specific inhibitor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor. IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 expression was detected through both ELISA and qRT-PCR. NALP3 and ASC expression was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of caspase-1 and phosphorylated-p38 MAPK was detected by western blot analysis. pORF5 induced IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1 and NALP3 inflammasome expression in THP-1 cells. Caspase-1 inhibitor significantly reduced pORF5-induced IL-1β and IL-18 expression. The siRNAs for NALP3 inflammasome significantly reduced pORF5-induced IL-1β, IL-18 and caspase-1 expression. Furthermore, p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced pORF5-induced IL-1β, IL-18, caspase-1 and NALP3 inflammasome expression. pORF5 could induce production of IL-1β and IL-18 via NALP3 inflammasome activation and p38MAPK pathway. pORF5 protein might play an important role in Chlamydia pathogenesis. This study provides a new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydial diseases. PMID:26884953

  16. SARS coronavirus spike protein-induced innate immune response occurs via activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in human monocyte macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Susan F; Mahajan, Supriya D; Collins, Arlene R

    2009-06-01

    A purified recombinant spike (S) protein was studied for its effect on stimulating human peripheral blood monocyte macrophages (PBMC). We examined inflammatory gene mRNA abundances found in S protein-treated PBMC using gene arrays. We identified differential mRNA abundances of genes with functional properties associated with antiviral (CXCL10) and inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8) responses. We confirmed cytokine mRNA increases by real-time quantitative(q) RT-PCR or ELISA. We further analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of the prominent IL-8 response. By real-time qRT-PCR, S protein was shown to stimulate IL-8 mRNA accumulation in a dose dependent manner while treatment with E protein did not. Also, titration of S protein-specific production and secretion of IL-8 by ELISA showed that the dose of 5.6nM of S produced a significant increase in IL-8 (p=0.003) compared to mock-treated controls. The increase in IL-8 stimulated by a concentration of 5.6nM of S was comparable to concentrations seen for S protein binding to ACE2 or to neutralizing monoclonal antibody suggesting a physiological relevance. An NF-kappaB inhibitor, TPCK (N-Tosyl-L-Phenylalanine Chloromethyl Ketone) could suppress IL-8 production and secretion in response to S protein in PBMC and THP-1 cells and in HCoV-229E virus-infected PBMC. Activation and translocation of NF-kappaB was shown to occur rapidly following exposure of PBMC or THP-1 cells to S protein using a highly sensitive assay for active nuclear NF-kappaB p65 transcription factor. The results further suggested that released or secreted S protein could activate blood monocytes through recognition by toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand.

  17. Antibacterial activity of human natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro effects of human NK cells on viability of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was investigated. PBLs depleted of glass- adherent cells showed a significant antibacterial activity that was increased as the concentration of NK cells became higher. Leu-11- enriched cells exhibited the most efficient bactericidal activity. Stimulation of NK cells with staphylococcal enterotoxin B for 16 h produced a significant increase in the antibacterial activity of all NK cells tested. The antibacterial activity of monocyte-depleted cells and Leu-11-enriched cells was also enhanced after culturing in vitro for 16- 24 h without exogenous cytokines. Dependence of the antibacterial activity on the presence of serum in the culture medium was not found. Ultrastructural studies revealed close contact between NK cell membranes and bacteria, no evidence of phagocytosis, and extracellular bacterial ghosts, after incubation at 37 degrees C. Supernatants from purified NK cells exhibited potent bactericidal activity with kinetics and target specificity similar to that of effector cells. These results document the potent antibacterial activity of purified NK cells and suggest an extracellular mechanism of killing. PMID:2642532

  18. Anti-inflammatory activities of oleanolic acid on HMGB1 activated HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Wonhwa; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Song, Kyung-Sik; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2012-05-01

    As a late mediator of inflammation, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in several inflammatory diseases. Further, high plasma levels of HMGB1 correlate with poor prognosis and increased mortality in patients with severe inflammation. Oleanolic acid (OA), a triterpenoid known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, is commonly present in several medicinal plants but the effects of OA on HMGB1-mediated pro-inflammatory responses of human endothelial cells is not well-studied. In this study, we investigated this question by monitoring the effect of OA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated release of HMGB1 and the HMGB1-mediated modulation of inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). OA potently inhibited the release of HMGB1 by HUVECs as well as down-regulated HMGB1-dependent adhesion and migration of the monocytic cell line THP-1 to activated HUVECs. OA also down-regulated the cell surface expression of the receptor of HMGB1, thereby inhibiting HMGB1-dependent pro-inflammatory responses by inhibiting activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by HMGB1. Given these results, OA showed anti-inflammatory activities and could be a candidate as a therapeutic agent for various inflammatory diseases through the inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  19. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  20. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chii J.; Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J.; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells. PMID:25902426

  1. Myosin II Activity Softens Cells in Suspension.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chii J; Ekpenyong, Andrew E; Golfier, Stefan; Li, Wenhong; Chalut, Kevin J; Otto, Oliver; Elgeti, Jens; Guck, Jochen; Lautenschläger, Franziska

    2015-04-21

    The cellular cytoskeleton is crucial for many cellular functions such as cell motility and wound healing, as well as other processes that require shape change or force generation. Actin is one cytoskeleton component that regulates cell mechanics. Important properties driving this regulation include the amount of actin, its level of cross-linking, and its coordination with the activity of specific molecular motors like myosin. While studies investigating the contribution of myosin activity to cell mechanics have been performed on cells attached to a substrate, we investigated mechanical properties of cells in suspension. To do this, we used multiple probes for cell mechanics including a microfluidic optical stretcher, a microfluidic microcirculation mimetic, and real-time deformability cytometry. We found that nonadherent blood cells, cells arrested in mitosis, and naturally adherent cells brought into suspension, stiffen and become more solidlike upon myosin inhibition across multiple timescales (milliseconds to minutes). Our results hold across several pharmacological and genetic perturbations targeting myosin. Our findings suggest that myosin II activity contributes to increased whole-cell compliance and fluidity. This finding is contrary to what has been reported for cells attached to a substrate, which stiffen via active myosin driven prestress. Our results establish the importance of myosin II as an active component in modulating suspended cell mechanics, with a functional role distinctly different from that for substrate-adhered cells.

  2. Effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph node micrometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Hu, Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Liang, Pin; Zhang, Jian; Cao, Liang; Wang, Zheng-Lin; Liu, Huan-Ran; Yin, Xun-Guo; Dong, Cheng-Yong; Wang, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We observed whether the effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph nodes micrometastasis and research its possible mechanism. Macrophage THP-1 cells and Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells were collectively cultivated in vivo. We found macrophage could suppress the proliferation and accelerated cell death of MFC cell. Meanwhile, these effects may be concerned with many signaling pathways, and we detected MCP-1 and COX-2 miRNA expressions, PGE-2 release levels, IL-4 and IL-10 activities, and TGF-β, IFN-γ, VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions in collectively cultivated cell. We found that MCP-1 and COX-2 miRNA expressions, and PGE-2 release levels were suppressed, IL-4 activity was inhibited and IL-10 activity was activated in collectively cultivated cell. Meanwhile, TGF-β, MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions were inhibited and IFN-γ and VEGF protein expressions were activated in collectively cultivated cell. Taken together, these results suggest that the effect of tumor-associated macrophages on gastric cancer stem cell in omental milky spots and lymph nodes micrometastasis via COX-2/PGE-2/TGF-β/VEGF signal pathways. PMID:26823693

  3. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM) to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated) and 901 (CAM treated) THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold), eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold) between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the pathogen whether or not

  4. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  5. Genipin Suppresses NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Through Uncoupling Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Rajanbabu, Venugopal; Galam, Lakshmi; Fukumoto, Jutaro; Enciso, Juan; Tadikonda, Pratima; Lane, Troy N.; Bandyopadhyay, Sayantani; Parthasarathy, Prasanna Tamarapu; Cho, Young; Cho, Seong Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Lockey, Richard F.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah

    2015-01-01

    Incomplete clearance of apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release are known to trigger inflammasome activation causing severe inflammation in acute lung injury and various metabolic and autoimmune diseases. Moreover, it has been reported that apoptotic cell clearance and ROS-mediated apoptosis critically depend on mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). However, the relationship between UCP2 and inflammasome activation has not been studied. This report investigates the role of UCP2 in the expression and activation of NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in human macrophages. We found that UCP2 overexpression significantly enhanced the expression levels of NLRP3. The NLRP3 expression levels were significantly suppressed in THP1 cells treated with genipin, a UCP2 inhibitor, compared to controls. In addition, genipin altered adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) secretion and significantly suppressed caspase-1 activity in inflammasome-activated human macrophages. Taken together, our results suggest that genipin modulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ATP- or H2O2-mediated IL-1β release. PMID:26123077

  6. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  7. Bismuth(III) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine- and 2-benzoylpyridine-derived hydrazones: Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities and effects on the clonogenic survival of human solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabella P; Piló, Elisa D L; Recio-Despaigne, Angel A; Da Silva, Jeferson G; Ramos, Jonas P; Marques, Lucas B; Prazeres, Pedro H D M; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Rocha, Willian; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2016-07-01

    Complexes [Bi(2AcPh)Cl2]·0.5H2O (1), [Bi(2AcpClPh)Cl2] (2), [Bi(2AcpNO2Ph)Cl2] (3), [Bi(2AcpOHPh)Cl2]·2H2O (4), [Bi(H2BzPh)Cl3]·2H2O (5), [Bi(H2BzpClPh)Cl3] (6), [Bi(2BzpNO2Ph)Cl2]·2H2O (7) and [Bi(H2BzpOHPh)Cl3]·2H2O (8) were obtained with 2-acetylpyridine phenylhydrazone (H2AcPh), its -para-chloro-phenyl- (H2AcpClPh), -para-nitro-phenyl (H2AcpNO2Ph) and -para-hydroxy-phenyl (H2AcpOHPh) derivatives, as well as with the 2-benzoylpyridine phenylhydrazone analogues (H2BzPh, H2BzpClPh, H2BzpNO2Ph, H2BzpOHPh). Upon coordination to bismuth(III) antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains significantly improved except for complex (4). The cytotoxic effects of the compounds under study were evaluated on HL-60, Jurkat and THP-1 leukemia, and on MCF-7 and HCT-116 solid tumor cells, as well as on non-malignant Vero cells. In general, 2-acetylpyridine-derived hydrazones proved to be more potent and more selective as cytotoxic agents than the corresponding 2-benzoylpyridine-derived counterparts. Exposure of HCT-116 cells to H2AcpClPh, H2AcpNO2Ph and complex (3) led to 99% decrease of the clonogenic survival. The IC50 values of these compounds were three-fold smaller when cells were cultured in soft-agar (3D) than when cells were cultured in monolayer (2D), suggesting that they constitute interesting scaffolds, which should be considered in further studies aiming to develop new drug candidates for the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:27209169

  8. Stem cell tracking with optically active nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Cui, Yan; Chan, Jerry KY; Xu, Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    Stem-cell-based therapies hold promise and potential to address many unmet clinical needs. Cell tracking with modern imaging modalities offers insight into the underlying biological process of the stem-cell-based therapies, with the goal to reveal cell survival, migration, homing, engraftment, differentiation, and functions. Adaptability, sensitivity, resolution, and non-invasiveness have contributed to the longstanding use of optical imaging for stem cell tracking and analysis. To identify transplanted stem cells from the host tissue, optically active probes are usually used to label stem cells before the administration. In comparison to the traditional fluorescent probes like fluorescent proteins and dyes, nanoparticle-based probes are advantageous in terms of the photo-stabilities and minimal changes to the cell phenotype. The main focus here is to overview the recent development of optically active nanoparticles for stem cells tracking. The related optical imaging modalities include fluorescence imaging, photoacoustic imaging, Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy imaging. PMID:23638335

  9. Impact of Procyanidins from Different Berries on Caspase 8 Activation in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minker, Carole; Duban, Livine; Karas, Daniel; Järvinen, Päivi; Lobstein, Annelise; Muller, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    Scope. The aim of this work is to identify which proapoptotic pathway is induced in human colon cancer cell lines, in contact with proanthocyanidins extracted from various berries. Methods and Results. Proanthocyanidins (Pcys) extracted from 11 berry species are monitored for proapoptotic activities on two related human colon cancer cell lines: SW480-TRAIL-sensitive and SW620-TRAIL-resistant. Apoptosis induction is monitored by cell surface phosphatidylserine (PS) detection. Lowbush blueberry extract triggers the strongest activity. When tested on the human monocytic cell line THP-1, blueberry Pcys are less effective for PS externalisation and DNA fragmentation is absent, highlighting a specificity of apoptosis induction in gut cells. In Pcys-treated gut cell lines, caspase 8 (apoptosis extrinsic pathway) but not caspase 9 (apoptosis intrinsic pathway) is activated after 3 hours through P38 phosphorylation (90 min), emphasizing the potency of lowbush blueberry Pcys to eradicate gut TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Conclusion. We highlight here that berries Pcys, especially lowbush blueberry Pcys, are of putative interest for nutritional chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in view of their apoptosis induction in a human colorectal cancer cell lines. PMID:26180579

  10. Telmisartan attenuates hyperglycemia-exacerbated VCAM-1 expression and monocytes adhesion in TNFα-stimulated endothelial cells by inhibiting IKKβ expression.

    PubMed

    Song, Kee-Ho; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jo, Inho; Park, Joong-Yeol; Seo, Jungwon; Kim, Soon Ae; Cho, Du-Hyong

    2016-03-01

    Uncontrolled hyperglycemia accelerates endothelial damage and vascular inflammation caused by proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which leads to arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), is prescribed for treatment of hypertensive patients with concurrent diabetes mellitus (DM). Although a few clinical trials have suggested that telmisartan decreases cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients, the molecular mechanism for the beneficial effects remains elusive. Here, we investigated a molecular mechanism and effects of telmisartan on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and attachment of monocytes onto endothelial cells induced by TNFα in hyperglycemia-treated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Telmisartan dose-dependently decreased hyperglycemia-aggravated IκB kinase β (IKKβ) expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65-Ser(536) phosphorylation, which accompanied a decrease in VCAM-1 expression and THP-1 monocytes adhesion. Among ARBs, including losartan and fimasartan, only telmisartan showed the inhibitory effects on expression of VCAM-1 and IKKβ, and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65-Ser(536). The telmisartan's beneficial effects were not changed by pretreatment with GW9662, a specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist, although GW9662 clearly inhibited rosiglitazone-induced CD36 expression. Finally, ectopic expression of wild type (WT)-IKKβ significantly restored telmisartan-attenuated VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB p65-Ser(536) phosphorylation, and THP-1 monocytes adhesion. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that telmisartan ameliorates hyperglycemia-exacerbated vascular inflammation, at least in part, by decreasing expression of IKKβ and VCAM-1 independently of PPARγ. Telmisartan may be useful for the treatment of DM-associated vascular

  11. Rabies virus replication in primary murine bone marrow macrophages and in human and murine macrophage-like cell lines: implications for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Ray, N B; Ewalt, L C; Lodmell, D L

    1995-02-01

    To determine whether rabies viruses replicate in macrophage or macrophage-like cells, several human and murine macrophage-like cell lines, as well as primary cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages, were incubated with the Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) virus and several different street rabies viruses (SRV). ERA rabies virus replicated well in human monocytic U937 and THP-1 cells and murine macrophage IC-21 cells, as well as primary cultures of murine macrophages. Minimal replication was detected in murine monocytic WEHI-3BD- and PU5-1R cells, and ERA virus did not replicate in murine monocytic P388D1 or J774A.1 cells. A tissue culture-adapted SRV of bat origin also replicated in IC-21 and U937 cells. Non-tissue culture-adapted SRV isolated from different animal species, particularly bats, replicated minimally in U937, THP-1, IC-21 cells and primary murine bone marrow macrophages. To determine whether rabies virus replication is dependent upon the state of differentiation of the macrophage-like cell, human promyelocytic HL-60 cells were differentiated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). ERA rabies virus replicated in the differentiated HL-60 cells but not in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. Persistent infections were established in macrophage-like U937 cells with ERA rabies virus and SRV, and infectious SRV was isolated from adherent bone marrow cells of mice that had been infected 96 days previously. Virus harvested from persistently infected U937 cells and the adherent bone marrow cells had specifically adapted to each cell. This specificity was shown by the inability of the viruses to infect macrophages other than U937 cells and primary bone marrow macrophages, respectively. Virus titers of the persistently infected U937 cells fluctuated with extended cell passage. After 30 passages, virus released from the cells had lost virulence as shown by its inability to kill intracranially inoculated mice. However, the avirulent virus released from the

  12. Microfluidic Buffer Exchange for Interference-free Micro/Nanoparticle Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Tay, Hui Min; Yeo, David C; Wiraja, Christian; Xu, Chenjie; Hou, Han Wei

    2016-01-01

    Engineering cells with active-ingredient-loaded micro/nanoparticles (NPs) is becoming an increasingly popular method to enhance native therapeutic properties, enable bio imaging and control cell phenotype. A critical yet inadequately addressed issue is the significant number of particles that remain unbound after cell labeling which cannot be readily removed by conventional centrifugation. This leads to an increase in bio imaging background noise and can impart transformative effects onto neighboring non-target cells. In this protocol, we present an inertial microfluidics-based buffer exchange strategy termed as Dean Flow Fractionation (DFF) to efficiently separate labeled cells from free NPs in a high throughput manner. The developed spiral microdevice facilitates continuous collection (>90% cell recovery) of purified cells (THP-1 and MSCs) suspended in new buffer solution, while achieving >95% depletion of unbound fluorescent dye or dye-loaded NPs (silica or PLGA). This single-step, size-based cell purification strategy enables high cell processing throughput (10(6) cells/min) and is highly useful for large-volume cell purification of micro/nanoparticle engineered cells to achieve interference-free clinical application. PMID:27500904

  13. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  14. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  15. Activity-driven fluctuations in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, É.; Guo, M.; Gov, N. S.; Visco, P.; Weitz, D. A.; van Wijland, F.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a model for the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living cell, where both thermal fluctuations and nonequilibrium activity coexist. The model is based on a confining harmonic potential describing the elastic cytoskeletal matrix, which undergoes random active hops as a result of the nonequilibrium rearrangements within the cell. We describe the probe's statistics and we bring forth quantities affected by the nonequilibrium activity. We find an excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and experimental results for tracers inside living cells. Finally, we exploit our model to arrive at quantitative predictions for the parameters characterizing nonequilibrium activity, such as the typical time scale of the activity and the amplitude of the active fluctuations.

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Ichihara, Gaku; Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora; Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ichihara, Sahoko

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  17. Single Cell Analysis of Transcriptional Activation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Powers, Sara Lawrence; Joo, Lucy M.; LeRoy, Gary; Janicki, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene activation is thought to occur through a series of temporally defined regulatory steps. However, this process has not been completely evaluated in single living mammalian cells. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the timing and coordination of gene activation events, we tracked the recruitment of GCN5 (histone acetyltransferase), RNA polymerase II, Brd2 and Brd4 (acetyl-lysine binding proteins), in relation to a VP16-transcriptional activator, to a transcription site that can be visualized in single living cells. All accumulated rapidly with the VP16 activator as did the transcribed RNA. RNA was also detected at significantly more transcription sites in cells expressing the VP16-activator compared to a p53-activator. After α-amanitin pre-treatment, the VP16-activator, GCN5, and Brd2 are still recruited to the transcription site but the chromatin does not decondense. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that a strong activator can rapidly overcome the condensed chromatin structure of an inactive transcription site and supercede the expected requirement for regulatory events to proceed in a temporally defined order. Additionally, activator strength determines the number of cells in which transcription is induced as well as the extent of chromatin decondensation. As chromatin decondensation is significantly reduced after α-amanitin pre-treatment, despite the recruitment of transcriptional activation factors, this provides further evidence that transcription drives large-scale chromatin decondensation. PMID:20422051

  18. Synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic activity evaluation of hydroxyurea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kos, Ivan; Jadrijević-Mladar, Milena; Butula, Ivan; Biruš, Mladen; Maravić-Vlahoviček, Gordana; Dabelić, Sanja

    2013-06-01

    5 Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series (N = 16) of cyclic and acyclic hydroxyurea derivatives, including benzotriazole-, isocyanuric acid- and biuret-containing compounds, are disclosed. 1-N-(benzyloxycarbamoyl)benzotriazole was used as a benzyloxyisocyanate donor, a useful intermediate in the preparation of substituted hydroxyurea. Antibacterial activities of synthesized hydroxyurea derivatives were tested on three E. coli strains, i.e., a strain susceptible to antibiotics, a strain resistant to macrolide antibiotics and a strain resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Six compounds (three acyclic and three cyclic hydroxyureas) showed growth inhibition of the tested E. coli strains, with different specificity toward each strain. Results of the cytotoxic activity evaluation revealed that twelve out of sixteen test compounds were cytotoxic to human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 and/or human acute T cell leukemia Jurkat cell line. 1-(N-hydroxycarbamoyl) benzotriazole () increased the metabolic activity of both cell lines. Two compounds, 1-(N-hydroxycarbamoyl) benzotriazole (5) and N,N',N''-trihydroxybiuret (15), were identified as potential NO donors.

  19. Rap1 controls activation of the α(M)β(2) integrin in a talin-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jenson; Dupuy, Aurélien G; Critchley, David R; Caron, Emmanuelle

    2010-11-01

    The small GTPase Rap1 and the cytoskeletal protein talin regulate binding of C3bi-opsonised red blood cells (RBC) to integrin α(M)β(2) in phagocytic cells, although the mechanism has not been investigated. Using COS-7 cells transfected with α(M)β(2), we show that Rap1 acts on the β(2) and not the α(M) chain, and that residues 732-761 of the β(2) subunit are essential for Rap1-induced RBC binding. Activation of α(M)β(2) by Rap1 was dependent on W747 and F754 in the β(2) tails, which are required for talin head binding, suggesting a link between Rap1 and talin in this process. Using talin1 knock-out cells or siRNA-mediated talin1 knockdown in the THP-1 monocytic cell line, we show that Rap1 acts upstream of talin but surprisingly, RIAM knockdown had little effect on integrin-mediated RBC binding or cell spreading. Interestingly, Rap1 and talin influence each other's localisation at phagocytic cups, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that they interact together. These results show that Rap1-mediated activation of α(M)β(2) in macrophages shares both common and distinct features from Rap1 activation of α(IIb)β(3) expressed in CHO cells.

  20. Dual-targeting triplebody 33-3-19 mediates selective lysis of biphenotypic CD19+ CD33+ leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Roskopf, Claudia C.; Braciak, Todd A.; Fenn, Nadja C.; Kobold, Sebastian; Fey, Georg H.; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Oduncu, Fuat S.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous targeting of multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in cancer immunotherapy is presumed to enhance tumor cell selectivity and to reduce immune escape. The combination of B lymphoid marker CD19 and myeloid marker CD33 is exclusively present on biphenotypic B/myeloid leukemia cells. Triplebody 33-3-19 binds specifically to both of these TAAs and activates T cells as immune effectors. Thereby it induces specific lysis of established myeloid (MOLM13, THP-1) and B-lymphoid cell lines (BV173, SEM, Raji, ARH77) as well as of primary patient cells. EC50 values range from 3 pM to 2.4 nM. In accordance with our hypothesis, 33-3-19 is able to induce preferential lysis of double- rather than single-positive leukemia cells in a target cell mixture: CD19/CD33 double-positive BV173 cells were eliminated to a significantly greater extent than CD19 single-positive SEM cells (36.6% vs. 20.9% in 3 hours, p = 0.0048) in the presence of both cell lines. In contrast, equivalent elimination efficiencies were observed for both cell lines, when control triplebody 19-3-19 or a mixture of the bispecific single chain variable fragments 19-3 and 33-3 were used. This result highlights the potential of dual-targeting agents for efficient and selective immune-intervention in leukemia patients. PMID:26981773

  1. Oxidative stress pathways involved in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on cells constitutive of alveolo-capillary barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hanot-Roy, Maïté; Tubeuf, Emilie; Guilbert, Ariane; Bado-Nilles, Anne; Vigneron, Pascale; Trouiller, Bénédicte; Braun, Anne; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2016-06-01

    The health risks of nanoparticles remain a serious concern given their prevalence from industrial and domestic use. The primary route of titanium dioxide nanoparticle exposure is inhalation. The extent to which nanoparticles contribute to cellular toxicity is known to associate induction of oxidative stress. To investigate this problem further, the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was examined on cell lines representative of alveolo-capillary barrier. The present study showed that all nanoparticle-exposed cell lines displayed ROS generation. Macrophage-like THP-1 and HPMEC-ST1.6R microvascular cells were sensitive to endogenous redox changes and underwent apoptosis, but not alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Genotoxic potential of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was investigated using the activation of γH2AX, activation of DNA repair proteins and cell cycle arrest. In the sensitive cell lines, DNA damage was persistent and activation of DNA repair pathways was observed. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that specific pathways associated with cellular stress response were activated concomitantly with DNA repair or apoptosis. Nanoparticles-induced oxidative stress is finally signal transducer for further physiological effects including genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Within activated pathways, HSP27 and SAPK/JNK proteins appeared as potential biomarkers of intracellular stress and of sensitivity to endogenous redox changes, respectively, enabling to predict cell behavior.

  2. Kinetic discrimination in T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, J D; Beeson, C; Lyons, D S; Davis, M M; McConnell, H M

    1996-01-01

    We propose a quantitative model for T-cell activation in which the rate of dissociation of ligand from T-cell receptors determines the agonist and antagonist properties of the ligand. The ligands are molecular complexes between antigenic peptides and proteins of the major histocompatibility complex on the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells. Binding of ligand to receptor triggers a series of biochemical reactions in the T cell. If the ligand dissociates after these reactions are complete, the T cell receives a positive activation signal. However, dissociation of ligand after completion of the first reaction but prior to generation of the final products results in partial T-cell activation, which acts to suppress a positive response. Such a negative signal is brought about by T-cell ligands containing the variants of antigenic peptides referred to as T-cell receptor antagonists. Results of recent experiments with altered peptide ligands compare favorably with T-cell responses predicted by this model. PMID:8643643

  3. Kinetic Discrimination in T-Cell Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Beeson, Craig; Lyons, Daniel S.; Davis, Mark M.; McConnell, Harden M.

    1996-02-01

    We propose a quantitative model for T-cell activation in which the rate of dissociation of ligand from T-cell receptors determines the agonist and antagonist properties of the ligand. The ligands are molecular complexes between antigenic peptides and proteins of the major histocompatibility complex on the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells. Binding of ligand to receptor triggers a series of biochemical reactions in the T cell. If the ligand dissociates after these reactions are complete, the T cell receives a positive activation signal. However, dissociation of ligand after completion of the first reaction but prior to generation of the final products results in partial T-cell activation, which acts to suppress a positive response. Such a negative signal is brought about by T-cell ligands containing the variants of antigenic peptides referred to as T-cell receptor antagonists. Results of recent experiments with altered peptide ligands compare favorably with T-cell responses predicted by this model.

  4. Mononuclear Phagocyte-Derived Microparticulate Caspase-1 Induces Pulmonary Vascular Endothelial Cell Injury.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Srabani; Wewers, Mark D; Sarkar, Anasuya

    2015-01-01

    Lung endothelial cell apoptosis and injury occurs throughout all stages of acute lung injury (ALI/ARDS) and impacts disease progression. Lung endothelial injury has traditionally been focused on the role of neutrophil trafficking to lung vascular integrin receptors induced by proinflammatory cytokine expression. Although much is known about the pathogenesis of cell injury and death in ALI/ARDS, gaps remain in our knowledge; as a result of which there is currently no effective pharmacologic therapy. Enzymes known as caspases are essential for completion of the apoptotic program and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that caspase-1 may serve as a key regulator of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMVEC) apoptosis in ALI/ARDS. Our recent experiments confirm that microparticles released from stimulated monocytic cells (THP1) induce lung endothelial cell apoptosis. Microparticles pretreated with the caspase-1 inhibitor, YVAD, or pan-caspase inhibitor, ZVAD, were unable to induce cell death of HPMVEC, suggesting the role of caspase-1 or its substrate in the induction of HPMVEC cell death. Neither un-induced microparticles (control) nor direct treatment with LPS induced apoptosis of HPMVEC. Further experiments showed that caspase-1 uptake into HPMVEC and the induction of HPMVEC apoptosis was facilitated by caspase-1 interactions with microparticulate vesicles. Altering vesicle integrity completely abrogated apoptosis of HPMVEC suggesting an encapsulation requirement for target cell uptake of active caspase-1. Taken together, we confirm that microparticle centered caspase-1 can play a regulator role in endothelial cell injury. PMID:26710067

  5. Active oxygen and cell death in cereal aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Fath, Angelika; Bethke, Paul; Beligni, Veronica; Jones, Russell

    2002-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue whose function is regulated by gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Aleurone cells lack functional chloroplasts, thus excluding photosynthesis as a source of active oxygen species (AOS) in cell death. Incubation of barley aleurone layers or protoplasts in GA initiated the cell death programme, but incubation in ABA delays programmed cell death (PCD). Light, especially blue and UV-A light, and H(2)O(2) accelerate PCD of GA-treated aleurone cells, but ABA-treated aleurone cells are refractory to light and H(2)O(2) and are not killed. It was shown that light elevated intracellular H(2)O(2), and that the rise in H(2)O(2) was greater in GA-treated cells compared to cells in ABA. Experiments with antioxidants show that PCD in aleurone is probably regulated by AOS. The sensitivity of GA-treated aleurone to light and H(2)O(2) is a result of lowered amounts of enzymes that metabolize AOS. mRNAs encoding catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase are all reduced during 6-18 h of incubation in GA, but these mRNAs were present in higher amounts in cells incubated in ABA. The amounts of protein and enzyme activities encoded by these mRNAs were also dramatically reduced in GA-treated cells. Aleurone cells store and metaboliz