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Sample records for activated tyrosine kinase

  1. Tyrosine kinase BMX phosphorylates phosphotyrosine-primed motif mediating the activation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sen; Jiang, Xinnong; Gewinner, Christina A; Asara, John M; Simon, Nicholas I; Cai, Changmeng; Cantley, Lewis C; Balk, Steven P

    2013-05-28

    The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase BMX (bone marrow tyrosine kinase gene on chromosome X) is abundant in various cell types and activated downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase Src, but its substrates are unknown. Positional scanning peptide library screening revealed a marked preference for a priming phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) in the -1 position, indicating that BMX substrates may include multiple tyrosine kinases that are fully activated by pYpY sites in the kinase domain. BMX phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Tyr⁵⁷⁷ subsequent to its Src-mediated phosphorylation at Tyr⁵⁷⁶. Loss of BMX by RNA interference or by genetic deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) markedly impaired FAK activity. Phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in the kinase domain at Tyr¹¹⁸⁹ and Tyr¹¹⁹⁰, as well as Tyr¹¹⁸⁵, and downstream phosphorylation of the kinase AKT at Thr³⁰⁸ were similarly impaired by BMX deficiency. However, insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser⁴⁷³ was not impaired in Bmx knockout MEFs or liver tissue from Bmx knockout mice, which also showed increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, possibly because of decreased abundance of the phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase). Thus, by identifying the pYpY motif as a substrate for BMX, our findings suggest that BMX functions as a central regulator among multiple signaling pathways mediated by tyrosine kinases. PMID:23716717

  2. Asymmetric Tyrosine Kinase Arrangements in Activation or Autophosphorylation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    J Bae; J Schlessinger

    2011-12-31

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play important roles in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell adhesion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Ligand-induced dimerization of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation and activation of RTKs. Structural studies have shown that while isolated ectodomains of several RTKs form symmetric dimers the isolated cytoplasmic kinase domains of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) form asymmetric dimers during their activation. Binding of one kinase molecule of EGFR to a second kinase molecule asymmetrically leads to stimulation of kinase activity and enhanced autophosphorylation. Furthermore, the structures of the kinase domain of FGFR1 and FGFR2 reveal the formation of asymmetric interfaces in the processes of autophosphorylation at their specific phosphotyrosine (pY) sites. Disruption of asymmetric dimer interface of EGFR leads to reduction in enzymatic activity and drastic reduction of autophosphorylation of FGFRs in ligandstimulated live cells. These studies demonstrate that asymmetric dimer formation is as a common phenomenon critical for activation and autophosphorylation of RTKs.

  3. Redundant kinase activation and resistance of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Min; Fu, Li-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have shown dramatic effects against that tumors harboring EGFR activating mutations in the EGFR intracytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain and resulted in cell apoptosis. Unfortunately, a number of patients ultimately developed resistance by multiple mechanisms. Thus, elucidation of the mechanism of resistance to EGFR-TKIs can provide strategies for blocking or reversing the situation. Recent studies suggested that redundant kinase activation plays pivotal roles in escaping from the effects of EGFR-TKIs. Herein, we aimed to characterize several molecular events involved in the resistance to EGFR-TKIs mediated by redundant kinase activation. PMID:25520855

  4. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  5. Microbial Protein-tyrosine Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Joseph D.; Wong, Dennis; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2014-01-01

    Microbial ester kinases identified in the past 3 decades came as a surprise, as protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr, and Tyr amino acids was thought to be unique to eukaryotes. Current analysis of available microbial genomes reveals that “eukaryote-like” protein kinases are prevalent in prokaryotes and can converge in the same signaling pathway with the classical microbial “two-component” systems. Most microbial tyrosine kinases lack the “eukaryotic” Hanks domain signature and are designated tyrosine kinases based upon their biochemical activity. These include the tyrosine kinases termed bacterial tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), which are responsible for the majority of known bacterial tyrosine phosphorylation events. Although termed generally as bacterial tyrosine kinases, BY-kinases can be considered as one family belonging to the superfamily of prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases in bacteria. Other members of this superfamily include atypical “odd” tyrosine kinases with diverse mechanisms of protein phosphorylation and the “eukaryote-like” Hanks-type tyrosine kinases. Here, we discuss the distribution, phylogeny, and function of the various prokaryotic protein-tyrosine kinases, focusing on the recently discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis PtkA and its relationship with other members of this diverse family of proteins. PMID:24554699

  6. Unlocking Doors without Keys: Activation of Src by Truncated C-terminal Intracellular Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Lacking Tyrosine Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mezquita, Belén; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    One of the best examples of the renaissance of Src as an open door to cancer has been the demonstration that just five min of Src activation is sufficient for transformation and also for induction and maintenance of cancer stem cells [1]. Many tyrosine kinase receptors, through the binding of their ligands, become the keys that unlock the structure of Src and activate its oncogenic transduction pathways. Furthermore, intracellular isoforms of these receptors, devoid of any tyrosine kinase activity, still retain the ability to unlock Src. This has been shown with a truncated isoform of KIT (tr-KIT) and a truncated isoform of VEGFR-1 (i21-VEGFR-1), which are intracellular and require no ligand binding, but are nonetheless able to activate Src and induce cell migration and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of the i21-VEGFR-1 is upregulated by the Notch signaling pathway and repressed by miR-200c and retinoic acid in breast cancer cells. Both Notch inhibitors and retinoic acid have been proposed as potential therapies for invasive breast cancer. PMID:24709904

  7. Centrosomal targeting of tyrosine kinase activity does not enhance oncogenicity in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, T; Kirsch, M; Maier, B; Bachmann, J; Klingmüller, U; Anderhub, S; Ho, A D; Krämer, A

    2012-04-01

    Constitutive tyrosine kinase activation by reciprocal chromosomal translocation is a common pathogenetic mechanism in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Since centrosomal proteins have been recurrently identified as translocation partners of tyrosine kinases FGFR1, JAK2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in these diseases, a role for the centrosome in oncogenic transformation has been hypothesized. In this study, we addressed the functional role of centrosomally targeted tyrosine kinase activity. First, centrosomal localization was not routinely found for all chimeric fusion proteins tested. Second, targeting of tyrosine kinases to the centrosome by creating artificial chimeric fusion kinases with the centrosomal targeting domain of AKAP450 failed to enhance the oncogenic transforming potential in both Ba/F3 and U2OS cells, although phospho-tyrosine-mediated signal transduction pathways were initiated at the centrosome. We conclude that the centrosomal localization of constitutively activated tyrosine kinases does not contribute to disease pathogenesis in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. PMID:22015771

  8. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity of CD45 is activated by sequential phosphorylation by two kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Stover, D R; Walsh, K A

    1994-01-01

    We describe a potential regulatory mechanism for the transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Phosphorylation on both tyrosine and serine residues in vitro results in an activation of CD45 specifically toward one artificial substrate but not another. The activation of these kinases appears to be order dependent, as it is enhanced when phosphorylation of tyrosine precedes that of serine but phosphorylation in the reverse order yields no activation. Any of four protein-tyrosine kinases tested, in combination with the protein-serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase II, was capable of mediating this activation in vitro. The time course of phosphorylation of CD45 in response to T-cell activation is consistent with the possibility that this regulatory mechanism is utilized in vivo. Images PMID:7518565

  9. Tie2 and Eph Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Barton, William A.; Dalton, Annamarie C.; Seegar, Tom C.M.; Himanen, Juha P.

    2014-01-01

    The Eph and Tie cell surface receptors mediate a variety of signaling events during development and in the adult organism. As other receptor tyrosine kinases, they are activated on binding of extracellular ligands and their catalytic activity is tightly regulated on multiple levels. The Eph and Tie receptors display some unique characteristics, including the requirement of ligand-induced receptor clustering for efficient signaling. Interestingly, both Ephs and Ties can mediate different, even opposite, biological effects depending on the specific ligand eliciting the response and on the cellular context. Here we discuss the structural features of these receptors, their interactions with various ligands, as well as functional implications for downstream signaling initiation. The Eph/ephrin structures are already well reviewed and we only provide a brief overview on the initial binding events. We go into more detail discussing the Tie-angiopoietin structures and recognition. PMID:24478383

  10. Mechanisms of Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Monomers or Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Ichiro N.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play essential roles in cellular processes, including metabolism, cell-cycle control, survival, proliferation, motility and differentiation. RTKs are all synthesized as single-pass transmembrane proteins and bind polypeptide ligands, mainly growth factors. It has long been thought that all RTKs, except for the insulin receptor (IR) family, are activated by ligand-induced dimerization of the receptors. An increasing number of diverse studies, however, indicate that RTKs, previously thought to exist as monomers, are present as pre-formed, yet inactive, dimers prior to ligand binding. The non-covalently associated dimeric structures are reminiscent of those of the IR family, which has a disulfide-linked dimeric structure. Furthermore, recent progress in structural studies has provided insight into the underpinnings of conformational changes during the activation of RTKs. In this review, I discuss two mutually exclusive models for the mechanisms of activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, the neurotrophin receptor and IR families, based on these new insights. PMID:24758840

  11. Protein tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways contribute to differences in heterophil-mediated innate immune responsiveness between two lines of broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation mediates signal transduction of cellular processes, with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulating virtually all signaling events. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) super-family consists of three conserved pathways that convert receptor activation into ce...

  12. Beta 2 integrin-dependent protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the FGR protein tyrosine kinase in human neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Stimulation of adherent human neutrophils (PMN) with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) triggers protein tyrosine phosphorylation (Fuortes, M., W. W. Jin, and C. Nathan. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 120:777-784). We investigated the dependence of this response on beta 2 integrins by using PMN isolated from a leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) patient, which do not express beta 2 integrins, and by plating PMN on surface bound anti-beta 2 (CD18) antibodies. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation increased in PMN plated on fibrinogen and this phosphorylation was enhanced by TNF. Triggering of protein tyrosine phosphorylation did not occur in LAD PMN plated on fibrinogen either in the absence or the presence of TNF. Surface bound anti-CD18, but not isotype-matched anti- Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, antibodies triggered tyrosine phosphorylation in normal, but not in LAD PMN. As the major tyrosine phosphorylated proteins we found in our assay conditions migrated with an apparent molecular mass of 56-60 kD, we investigated whether beta 2 integrins are implicated in activation of members of the src family of intracellular protein-tyrosine kinases. We found that the fgr protein-tyrosine kinase (p58fgr) activity, and its extent of phosphorylation in tyrosine, in PMN adherent to fibrinogen, was enhanced by TNF. Activation of p58fgr in response to TNF was evident within 10 min of treatment and increased with times up to 30 min. Also other activators of beta 2 integrins such as phorbol-12- myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced activation of p58fgr kinase activity. Activation of p58fgr kinase activity, and phosphorylation in tyrosine, did not occur in PMN of a LAD patient in response to TNF. Soluble anti-CD18, but not anti-Class I MHC antigens, antibodies inhibited activation of p58fgr kinase activity in PMN adherent to fibrinogen in response to TNF, PMA, and FMLP. These findings demonstrate that, in PMN, beta 2 integrins

  13. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  14. Characterization of a Mn sup 2+ -dependent membrane serine kinase that is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, T.J. )

    1991-03-11

    It is hypothesized that the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase may directly phosphorylate and activate one or more serine kinases. The identities of such serine kinases as well as their modes of activation are unclear. The authors have described a serine kinase from rat liver membranes that copurifies with the IR on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-sepharose. The kinase is activated after phosphorylation of the WGA-sepharose-purified fraction by casein kinase-1, casein kinase-2, or casein kinase-3. A tyrosine kinase, possibly IR tyrosine kinase, also participates in the activation process since a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor such as vanadate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, or phosphotyrosine is required in reaction mixtures for activation to be observed. By contrast, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine do not support activation. The activated kinase can use IR {beta}-subunit, myelin basic protein (MBP), and histones as substrates. IR {beta}-subunit phosphorylation was stimulated by MBP, histones, and polylysine, and inhibited by heparin and poly(glu, tyr). The kinase prefers Mn{sup 2+} over Mg{sup 2+} as a metal cofactor.

  15. Tyrosine inhibits creatine kinase activity in cerebral cortex of young rats.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Rodrigo Binkowski; Gemelli, Tanise; Rojas, Denise Bertin; Funchal, Cláudia; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Wannmacher, Clovis Milton Duval

    2011-09-01

    Tyrosine accumulates in inborn errors of tyrosine catabolism, especially in tyrosinemia type II, where tyrosine levels are highly elevated in tissues and physiological fluids of affected patients. Tyrosinemia type II is a disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance characterized by neurological symptoms similar to those observed in patients with creatine deficiency syndromes. Considering that the mechanisms of brain damage in these disorders are poorly known, in the present study our main objective was to investigate the in vivo and in vitro effects of different concentrations and preincubation times of tyrosine on cytosolic and mitochondrial creatine kinase activities of the cerebral cortex from 14-day-old Wistar rats. The cytosolic CK was reduced by 15% at 1 mM and 32% at 2 mM tyrosine. Similarly, the mitochondrial CK was inhibited by 15% at 1 mM and 22% at 2 mM tyrosine. We observed that the inhibition caused by tyrosine was concentration-dependent and was prevented by reduced glutathione. Results also indicated that mitochondrial, but not cytosolic creatine kinase activity was inhibited by tyrosine in a time-dependent way. Finally, a single injection of L-Tyrosine methyl ester administered i.p. decreased cytosolic (31%) and mitochondrial (18%) creatine kinase activities of brain cortex from rats. Considering that creatine kinase is an enzyme dependent of thiol residues for its function and tyrosine induces oxidative stress, the results suggest that the inhibition caused by tyrosine might occur by oxidation of essential sulfhydryl groups of the enzyme. In case this also occurs in patients with tyrosinemia, it is possible that creatine kinase inhibition may contribute to the neurological dysfunction characteristic of tyrosinemia.

  16. Phosphorylation of two regulatory tyrosine residues in the activation of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase via alternative receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Matthew I.; Fluckiger, Anne-Catherine; Kato, Roberta M.; Park, Hyunsun; Witte, Owen N.; Rawlings, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Mutation of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) impairs B cell maturation and function and results in a clinical phenotype of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Activation of Btk correlates with an increase in the phosphorylation of two regulatory Btk tyrosine residues. Y551 (site 1) within the Src homology type 1 (SH1) domain is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases. Y223 (site 2) is an autophosphorylation site within the Btk SH3 domain. Polyclonal, phosphopeptide-specific antibodies were developed to evaluate the phosphorylation of Btk sites 1 and 2. Crosslinking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) or the mast cell Fcɛ receptor, or interleukin 5 receptor stimulation each induced rapid phosphorylation at Btk sites 1 and 2 in a tightly coupled manner. Btk molecules were singly and doubly tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylated Btk comprised only a small fraction (≤5%) of the total pool of Btk molecules in the BCR-activated B cells. Increased dosage of Lyn in B cells augmented BCR-induced phosphorylation at both sites. Kinetic analysis supports a sequential activation mechanism in which individual Btk molecules undergo serial transphosphorylation (site 1) then autophosphorylation (site 2), followed by successive dephosphorylation of site 1 then site 2. The phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine residues within structurally related Tec family kinases is likely to regulate their activation. PMID:9326643

  17. CDPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases and tyrosine autophosphorylation attenuates kinase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs or CPKs) are classified as serine/threonine protein kinases but we made the surprising observation that soybean CDPK' and several Arabidopsis isoforms (AtCPK4 and AtCPK34) could also autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. In studies with His6-GmCDPK', we ide...

  18. Models for the activation pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, S.R.; Niyogi, S.K. )

    1991-03-15

    Activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor's intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which occurs upon formation of the receptor-ligand complex, is the critical regulatory event affecting the subsequent EGF-dependent cellular responses leading to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism by which EGF-dependent activation of receptor kinase activity takes place is not clearly understood. In this study, the growth factor-dependent activation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase was examined in vitro using detergent-solubilized, partially purified GEF receptors from A5431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. Evaluation of the cooperativity observed in the EGF-dependent activation of soluble receptor tyrosine kinase would suggest a mechanism requiring the binding of the EGF peptide to both ligand binding sites on a receptor dimer to induce full receptor kinase activity. Equations describing potential cooperative kinase activation pathways have been examined. The theoretical system which best simulates the allosteric regulation observed in the experimental kinase activation data is that describing multiple essential activation. In addition, studies using mutant analogs of the EGF peptide ligand appear to confirm the requirement for an essential conformational change in the receptor-ligand complex to activate the receptor kinase activity. Several mutant growth factor analogues are able to occupy the ligand binding sites on the receptor without inducing the fully active receptor conformation.

  19. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.; Hession, Catherine A.; Miatkowski, Konrad; Wildes, Craig P.; Cullen, Patrick F.; Hong, Victor; Hopkins, Brian T.; Mertsching, Elisabeth; Jenkins, Tracy J.; Romanowski, Michael J.; Baker, Darren P.; Silvian, Laura F.

    2010-11-15

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.

  20. Protein kinase C directly phosphorylates the insulin receptor in vitro and reduces its protein-tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bollag, G E; Roth, R A; Beaudoin, J; Mochly-Rosen, D; Koshland, D E

    1986-01-01

    The beta subunit of purified insulin receptor is phosphorylated on a serine residue by purified preparations of protein kinase C (ATP: protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37). This phosphorylation is inhibited by antibodies to protein kinase C and stimulated by phospholipids, diacylglycerol, and Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the receptor by protein kinase C does not affect its insulin-binding activity but does inhibit by 65% the receptor's intrinsic tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity (ATP: protein-tyrosine O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.112). These results indicate that activators of protein kinase C, such as phorbol esters, desensitize cells to insulin by direct protein kinase C action on the insulin receptor. Images PMID:3526339

  1. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  2. PREX1 Protein Function Is Negatively Regulated Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation by p21-activated Kinases (PAKs).

    PubMed

    Barrows, Douglas; He, John Z; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-09-16

    Downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) stimulation, the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent Rac exchange factor (PREX) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activates Rho GTPases, leading to important roles for PREX proteins in numerous cellular processes and diseases, including cancer. PREX1 and PREX2 GEF activity is activated by the second messengers PIP3 and Gβγ, and further regulation of PREX GEF activity occurs by phosphorylation. Stimulation of receptor tyrosine kinases by neuregulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) leads to the phosphorylation of PREX1; however, the kinases that phosphorylate PREX1 downstream of these ligands are not known. We recently reported that the p21-activated kinases (PAKs), which are activated by GTP-bound Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), mediate the phosphorylation of PREX2 after insulin receptor activation. Here we show that certain phosphorylation events on PREX1 after insulin, neuregulin, and IGF1 treatment are PAK-dependent and lead to a reduction in PREX1 binding to PIP3 Like PREX2, PAK-mediated phosphorylation also negatively regulates PREX1 GEF activity. Furthermore, the onset of PREX1 phosphorylation was delayed compared with the phosphorylation of AKT, supporting a model of negative feedback downstream of PREX1 activation. We also found that the phosphorylation of PREX1 after isoproterenol and prostaglandin E2-mediated GPCR activation is partially PAK-dependent and likely also involves protein kinase A, which is known to reduce PREX1 function. Our data point to multiple mechanisms of PREX1 negative regulation by PAKs within receptor tyrosine kinase and GPCR-stimulated signaling pathways that have important roles in diseases such as diabetes and cancer. PMID:27481946

  3. Quinoxaline-Based Scaffolds Targeting Tyrosine Kinases and Their Potential Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    El Newahie, Aliya M S; Ismail, Nasser S M; Abou El Ella, Dalal A; Abouzid, Khaled A M

    2016-05-01

    Quinoxaline derivatives, also called benzopyrazines, are an important class of heterocyclic compounds. Quinoxalines have drawn great attention due to their wide spectrum of biological activities. They are considered as an important basis for anticancer drugs due to their potential activity as protein kinase inhibitors. In this review, we focus on the chemistry of the quinoxaline derivatives, the strategies for their synthesis, their potential activities against various tyrosine kinases, and on the structure-activity relationship studies reported to date.

  4. Assays to measure the activation of membrane tyrosine kinase receptors: focus on cellular methods.

    PubMed

    Minor, Lisa K

    2003-09-01

    Many methods have been explored as means to measure the activation and inhibition of tyrosine kinase receptors, in vitro using the isolated kinase domain, and in living cells. Kinase activity has been measured in enzyme assays using a peptide substrate, but with different detection systems. These include the radioactive FlashPlate assay, the fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, the dissociation-enhance lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) and other formats. These methods have successfully identified inhibitors of receptor activity. Cell-based assays have recently emerged to measure receptor activation and inhibition. When membrane tyrosine kinase receptors become activated, they increase their state of phosphorylation. This phosphorylation may lead to an increase in tyrosine kinase-specific activity. Methods have been developed that take advantage of these properties. These include measuring the ligand-stimulated total tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor using a DELFIA or an ELISA assay, measuring ligand-stimulated enzyme activation of the receptor by quantifying enzyme activity, and dimerization of the activated receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Although cell-based assays are still in their infancy, these techniques may prove a valuable addition to the receptor screening strategy.

  5. The human p50csk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates p56lck at Tyr-505 and down regulates its catalytic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, M; Mustelin, T; Oetken, C; Partanen, J; Flint, N A; Amrein, K E; Autero, M; Burn, P; Alitalo, K

    1992-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases participate in the transduction and modulation of signals that regulate proliferation and differentiation of cells. Excessive or deregulated protein tyrosine kinase activity can cause malignant transformation. The catalytic activity of the T cell protein tyrosine kinase p56lck is normally suppressed by phosphorylation of a carboxyl-terminal tyrosine, Tyr-505, by another cellular protein tyrosine kinase. Here we characterize a human cytosolic 50 kDa protein tyrosine kinase, p50csk, which specifically phosphorylates Tyr-505 of p56lck and a synthetic peptide containing this site. Phosphorylation of Tyr-505 suppressed the catalytic activity of p56lck. We suggest that p50csk negatively regulates p56lck, and perhaps other cellular src family kinases. Images PMID:1639064

  6. Pervanadate activation of intracellular kinases leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and shedding of syndecan-1.

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, J; Ott, V L; Lebakken, C S; Yeaman, C; McCarthy, J; Rapraeger, A C

    1996-01-01

    Syndecan-1 is a transmembrane haparan sulphate proteoglycan that binds extracellular matrices and growth factors, making it a candidate to act between these regulatory molecules and intracellular signalling pathways. It has a highly conserved transmembrane/cytoplasmic domain that contains four conserved tyrosines. One of these is in a consensus sequence for tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. As an initial step to investigating whether or not phosphorylation of these tyrosines is part of a signal-transduction pathway, we have monitored the tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 by cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases in intact cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 is observed when NMuMG cells are treated with sodium orthovanadate or pervanadate, which have been shown to activate intracellular tyrosine kinases. Initial studies with sodium orthovanadate demonstrate a slow accumulation of phosphotyrosine on syndecan-1 over the course of several hours. Pervanadate, a more effective inhibitor of phosphatases, allows detection of phosphotyrosine on syndecan-1 within 5 min, with peak phosphorylation seen by 15 min. Concurrently, in a second process activated by pervanadate, syndecan-1 ectodomain is cleaved and released into the culture medium. Two phosphorylated fragments of syndecan-1 of apparent sizes 6 and 8 kDa remain with the cell after shedding of the ectodomain. The 8 kDa size class appears to be a highly phosphorylated form of the 6 kDa product, as it disappears if samples are dephosphorylated. These fragments contain the C-terminus of syndecan-1 and also retain at least a portion of the transmembrane domain, suggesting that they are produced by a cell surface cleavage event. Thus pervanadate treatment of cells results in two effects of syndecan-1: (i) phosphorylation of one or more of its tyrosines via the action of a cytoplasmic kinase(s) and (ii) cleavage and release of the ectodomain into the medium, producing a C-terminal fragment containing the transmembrane

  7. Two Dictyostelium tyrosine kinase–like kinases function in parallel, stress-induced STAT activation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Tsuyoshi; Vu, Linh Hai; Sasaki, Norimitsu; Kawata, Takefumi; Eichinger, Ludwig; Williams, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    When Dictyostelium cells are hyperosmotically stressed, STATc is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Unusually, activation is regulated by serine phosphorylation and consequent inhibition of a tyrosine phosphatase: PTP3. The identity of the cognate tyrosine kinase is unknown, and we show that two tyrosine kinase–like (TKL) enzymes, Pyk2 and Pyk3, share this function; thus, for stress-induced STATc activation, single null mutants are only marginally impaired, but the double mutant is nonactivatable. When cells are stressed, Pyk2 and Pyk3 undergo increased autocatalytic tyrosine phosphorylation. The site(s) that are generated bind the SH2 domain of STATc, and then STATc becomes the target of further kinase action. The signaling pathways that activate Pyk2 and Pyk3 are only partially overlapping, and there may be a structural basis for this difference because Pyk3 contains both a TKL domain and a pseudokinase domain. The latter functions, like the JH2 domain of metazoan JAKs, as a negative regulator of the kinase domain. The fact that two differently regulated kinases catalyze the same phosphorylation event may facilitate specific targeting because under stress, Pyk3 and Pyk2 accumulate in different parts of the cell; Pyk3 moves from the cytosol to the cortex, whereas Pyk2 accumulates in cytosolic granules that colocalize with PTP3. PMID:25143406

  8. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  9. JAK tyrosine kinases promote hierarchical activation of Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Alessio; Bolomini-Vittori, Matteo; Toffali, Lara; Rossi, Barbara; Constantin, Gabriela; Laudanna, Carlo

    2013-12-23

    Lymphocyte recruitment is regulated by signaling modules based on the activity of Rho and Rap small guanosine triphosphatases that control integrin activation by chemokines. We show that Janus kinase (JAK) protein tyrosine kinases control chemokine-induced LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated adhesion as well as human T lymphocyte homing to secondary lymphoid organs. JAK2 and JAK3 isoforms, but not JAK1, mediate CXCL12-induced LFA-1 triggering to a high affinity state. Signal transduction analysis showed that chemokine-induced activation of the Rho module of LFA-1 affinity triggering is dependent on JAK activity, with VAV1 mediating Rho activation by JAKs in a Gαi-independent manner. Furthermore, activation of Rap1A by chemokines is also dependent on JAK2 and JAK3 activity. Importantly, activation of Rap1A by JAKs is mediated by RhoA and PLD1, thus establishing Rap1A as a downstream effector of the Rho module. Thus, JAK tyrosine kinases control integrin activation and dependent lymphocyte trafficking by bridging chemokine receptors to the concurrent and hierarchical activation of the Rho and Rap modules of integrin activation.

  10. Sensitivity and kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 and others to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Kazuto; Harada, Taishi; Iwama, Eiji; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Okamura, Kyoko; Ijichi, Kayo; Fujii, Akiko; Ota, Keiichi; Wang, Shuo; Li, Heyan; Takayama, Koichi; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-05-01

    The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer patients is associated with response to treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib. More than 100 mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have been identified. In particular there are many variations of deletion mutations in exon 19. In this study, using yellow fluorescent protein-tagged fragments of the EGFR intracellular domain, we examined the differences in sensitivity to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib between several exon 19 mutants and other common EGFR mutations. We also used serum of patients undergoing treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this system. In addition, we examined the relative kinase activity of these mutants by measuring relative fluorescent intensity after immunofluorescence staining. We found that both sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and relative kinase activity differed among several EGFR mutations found in the same region of the kinase domain. This study underscores the importance of reporting the clinical outcome of treatment in relation to different EGFR mutations.

  11. Contribution of casein kinase 2 and spleen tyrosine kinase to CFTR trafficking and protein kinase A-induced activity.

    PubMed

    Luz, Simão; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Mendes, Ana Isabel; Romeiras, Francisco; Sousa, Marisa; Schreiber, Rainer; Matos, Paulo; Jordan, Peter; Mehta, Anil; Amaral, Margarida D; Kunzelmann, Karl; Farinha, Carlos M

    2011-11-01

    Previously, the pleiotropic "master kinase" casein kinase 2 (CK2) was shown to interact with CFTR, the protein responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Moreover, CK2 inhibition abolished CFTR conductance in cell-attached membrane patches, native epithelial ducts, and Xenopus oocytes. CFTR possesses two CK2 phosphorylation sites (S422 and T1471), with unclear impact on its processing and trafficking. Here, we investigated the effects of mutating these CK2 sites on CFTR abundance, maturation, and degradation coupled to effects on ion channel activity and surface expression. We report that CK2 inhibition significantly decreased processing of wild-type (wt) CFTR, with no effect on F508del CFTR. Eliminating phosphorylation at S422 and T1471 revealed antagonistic roles in CFTR trafficking: S422 activation versus T1471 inhibition, as evidenced by a severe trafficking defect for the T1471D mutant. Notably, mutation of Y512, a consensus sequence for the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) possibly acting in a CK2 context adjacent to the common CF-causing defect F508del, had a strong effect on both maturation and CFTR currents, allowing the identification of this kinase as a novel regulator of CFTR. These results reinforce the importance of CK2 and the S422 and T1471 residues for regulation of CFTR and uncover a novel regulation of CFTR by SYK, a recognized controller of inflammation.

  12. Activation of Tsk and Btk tyrosine kinases by G protein beta gamma subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Langhans-Rajasekaran, S A; Wan, Y; Huang, X Y

    1995-01-01

    Tsk/Itk and Btk are members of the pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing tyrosine kinase family. The PH domain has been demonstrated to be able to interact with beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) (G beta gamma) and phospholipids. Using cotransfection assays, we show here that the kinase activities of Tsk and Btk are stimulated by certain G beta gamma subunits. Furthermore, using an in vitro reconstitution assay with purified bovine brain G beta gamma subunits and the immunoprecipitated Tsk, we find that Tsk kinase activity is increased by G beta gamma subunits and another membrane factor(s). These results indicate that this family of tyrosine kinases could be an effector of heterotrimeric G proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7567982

  13. Activation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) at fertilization in Rhinella arenarum eggs.

    PubMed

    Mouguelar, Valeria S; Coux, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have provided evidence for the involvement of a cytosolic tyrosine-phosphorylatable 70 kDa oocyte protein in Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) fertilization. The aim of the present work was to characterize its phosphorylation, determine the identity of this protein and establish its biological role during the fertilization process. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the 70 kDa protein was not observed in eggs activated with the calcium ionophore A23187. Pretreatment of oocytes with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein effectively blocked the fertilization-dependent phosphorylation of the 70 kDa protein. In order to identify this protein, we examined the presence in amphibian oocytes of non-receptor 70 kDa tyrosine kinase members of the Syk/Zap70 and Tec families by RT-PCR using degenerate primers. We found that R. arenarum oocytes contain the transcripts coding for Syk and Tec kinases. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of Syk protein in unfertilized oocytes and eggs. Studies using phospho-Syk specific antibodies showed that fertilization rapidly (less than 10 minutes) induces phosphorylation on Syk tyrosine residues (352 and 525/526) that are necessary for the activation of the enzyme. Finally, specific inhibition of Syk with the R406 compound provoked a diminished fertilization score, thereby confirming a functional role of the Syk protein during R. arenarum fertilization. To our knowledge this is the first time that Syk is described as a player in the signaling cascade activated after fertilization.

  14. Endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase activity is essential for myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Tanja; Räsänen, Markus; Anisimov, Andrey; Tuomainen, Tomi; Zheng, Wei; Tvorogov, Denis; Hulmi, Juha J; Andersson, Leif C; Cenni, Bruno; Tavi, Pasi; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-10-20

    Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease, and it is a strong predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deletion of bone marrow kinase in chromosome X (Bmx), an arterial nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in mice. This finding raised the possibility of therapeutic use of Bmx tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which we have addressed here by analyzing cardiac hypertrophy in gene-targeted mice deficient in Bmx tyrosine kinase activity. We found that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is significantly reduced in mice deficient in Bmx and in mice with inactivated Bmx tyrosine kinase compared with WT mice. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling showed that Bmx inactivation suppresses myocardial expression of genes related to Ang II-induced inflammatory and extracellular matrix responses whereas expression of RNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins after Ang II administration was maintained in Bmx-inactivated hearts. Very little or no Bmx mRNA was expressed in human cardiomyocytes whereas human cardiac endothelial cells expressed abundant amounts. Ang II stimulation of endothelial cells increased Bmx phosphorylation, and Bmx gene silencing inhibited downstream STAT3 signaling, which has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ang II treatment was decreased in the Bmx-deficient hearts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the cross-talk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by Bmx inactivation suppresses Ang II-induced signals for cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase could provide a target to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26430242

  15. Endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase activity is essential for myocardial hypertrophy and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Holopainen, Tanja; Räsänen, Markus; Anisimov, Andrey; Tuomainen, Tomi; Zheng, Wei; Tvorogov, Denis; Hulmi, Juha J.; Andersson, Leif C.; Cenni, Bruno; Tavi, Pasi; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy accompanies many forms of heart disease, including ischemic disease, hypertension, heart failure, and valvular disease, and it is a strong predictor of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deletion of bone marrow kinase in chromosome X (Bmx), an arterial nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, has been shown to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in mice. This finding raised the possibility of therapeutic use of Bmx tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which we have addressed here by analyzing cardiac hypertrophy in gene-targeted mice deficient in Bmx tyrosine kinase activity. We found that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy is significantly reduced in mice deficient in Bmx and in mice with inactivated Bmx tyrosine kinase compared with WT mice. Genome-wide transcriptomic profiling showed that Bmx inactivation suppresses myocardial expression of genes related to Ang II-induced inflammatory and extracellular matrix responses whereas expression of RNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins after Ang II administration was maintained in Bmx-inactivated hearts. Very little or no Bmx mRNA was expressed in human cardiomyocytes whereas human cardiac endothelial cells expressed abundant amounts. Ang II stimulation of endothelial cells increased Bmx phosphorylation, and Bmx gene silencing inhibited downstream STAT3 signaling, which has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Furthermore, activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway by Ang II treatment was decreased in the Bmx-deficient hearts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the cross-talk between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by Bmx inactivation suppresses Ang II-induced signals for cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase could provide a target to attenuate the development of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26430242

  16. Phosphorylation in vitro of the 85 kDa subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its possible activation by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, H; Miyake, N; Kanai, F; Shibasaki, F; Takenawa, T; Ebina, Y

    1991-01-01

    Insulin causes a dramatic and rapid increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in the anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates of cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor. This enzyme may therefore be a mediator of insulin signal transduction [Endemann, Yonezawa & Roth (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 396-400; Ruderman, Kapeller, White & Cantley (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 1411-1415]. At least two questions remain to be elucidated. Firstly, does the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase directly, or does it phosphorylate a protein associated with the 3-kinase? Second, if the enzyme is a direct substrate for the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, does tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the kinase alter the specific enzyme activity, or does the amount of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase increase, with no change in the specific activity? We report here evidence that the 85 kDa subunit of highly purified phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is phosphorylated on the tyrosine residue by the activated normal insulin receptor in vitro, but not by a mutant insulin receptor which lacks tyrosine kinase activity. We found that an increase in enzyme activity was detected in response to insulin not only in the anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates of the cytosol, but also in the cytosolic fraction before immunoprecipitation. In addition, we partially separated the tyrosine-phosphorylated form from the unphosphorylated form of the enzyme, by using a f.p.l.c. Mono Q column. The insulin-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity was mainly detected in the fraction containing almost all of the tyrosine-phosphorylated form. This result suggests that tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by the insulin receptor kinase may increase the specific activity of the former enzyme in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:1722393

  17. Activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase is insufficient for downstream signal transduction in B lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Robert C; Hammill, Adrienne M; Lee, Jamie A; Uhr, Jonathan W; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2002-01-01

    Background Immature B lymphocytes and certain B cell lymphomas undergo apoptotic cell death following activation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signal transduction pathway. Several biochemical changes occur in response to BCR engagement, including activation of the Syk tyrosine kinase. Although Syk activation appears to be necessary for some downstream biochemical and cellular responses, the signaling events that precede Syk activation remain ill defined. In addition, the requirements for complete activation of the Syk-dependent signaling step remain to be elucidated. Results A mutant form of Syk carrying a combination of a K395A substitution in the kinase domain and substitutions of three phenylalanines (3F) for the three C-terminal tyrosines was expressed in a murine B cell lymphoma cell line, BCL1.3B3 to interfere with normal Syk regulation as a means to examine the Syk activation step in BCR signaling. Introduction of this kinase-inactive mutant led to the constitutive activation of the endogenous wildtype Syk enzyme in the absence of receptor engagement through a 'dominant-positive' effect. Under these conditions, Syk kinase activation occurred in the absence of phosphorylation on Syk tyrosine residues. Although Syk appears to be required for BCR-induced apoptosis in several systems, no increase in spontaneous cell death was observed in these cells. Surprisingly, although the endogenous Syk kinase was enzymatically active, no enhancement in the phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins, including phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2), a direct Syk target, was observed. Conclusion These data indicate that activation of Syk kinase enzymatic activity is insufficient for Syk-dependent signal transduction. This observation suggests that other events are required for efficient signaling. We speculate that localization of the active enzyme to a receptor complex specifically assembled for signal transduction may be the missing event. PMID:12470302

  18. c-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Adopts Multiple Active Conformational States in Solution.

    PubMed

    Badger, John; Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Panjarian, Shoghag B; Engen, John R; Smithgall, Thomas E; Makowski, Lee

    2016-06-14

    Protein tyrosine kinases of the Abl family have diverse roles in normal cellular regulation and drive several forms of leukemia as oncogenic fusion proteins. In the crystal structure of the inactive c-Abl kinase core, the SH2 and SH3 domains dock onto the back of the kinase domain, resulting in a compact, assembled state. This inactive conformation is stabilized by the interaction of the myristoylated N-cap with a pocket in the C-lobe of the kinase domain. Mutations that perturb these intramolecular interactions result in kinase activation. Here, we present X-ray scattering solution structures of multidomain c-Abl kinase core proteins modeling diverse active states. Surprisingly, the relative positions of the regulatory N-cap, SH3, and SH2 domains in an active myristic acid binding pocket mutant (A356N) were virtually identical to those of the assembled wild-type kinase core, indicating that Abl kinase activation does not require dramatic reorganization of the downregulated core structure. In contrast, the positions of the SH2 and SH3 domains in a clinically relevant imatinib-resistant gatekeeper mutant (T315I) appear to be reconfigured relative to their positions in the wild-type protein. Our results demonstrate that c-Abl kinase activation can occur either with (T315I) or without (A356N) global allosteric changes in the core, revealing the potential for previously unrecognized signaling diversity. PMID:27166638

  19. c-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Adopts Multiple Active Conformational States in Solution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases of the Abl family have diverse roles in normal cellular regulation and drive several forms of leukemia as oncogenic fusion proteins. In the crystal structure of the inactive c-Abl kinase core, the SH2 and SH3 domains dock onto the back of the kinase domain, resulting in a compact, assembled state. This inactive conformation is stabilized by the interaction of the myristoylated N-cap with a pocket in the C-lobe of the kinase domain. Mutations that perturb these intramolecular interactions result in kinase activation. Here, we present X-ray scattering solution structures of multidomain c-Abl kinase core proteins modeling diverse active states. Surprisingly, the relative positions of the regulatory N-cap, SH3, and SH2 domains in an active myristic acid binding pocket mutant (A356N) were virtually identical to those of the assembled wild-type kinase core, indicating that Abl kinase activation does not require dramatic reorganization of the downregulated core structure. In contrast, the positions of the SH2 and SH3 domains in a clinically relevant imatinib-resistant gatekeeper mutant (T315I) appear to be reconfigured relative to their positions in the wild-type protein. Our results demonstrate that c-Abl kinase activation can occur either with (T315I) or without (A356N) global allosteric changes in the core, revealing the potential for previously unrecognized signaling diversity. PMID:27166638

  20. Phosphorylation of Tip60 Tyrosine 327 by Abl Kinase Inhibits HAT Activity through Association with FE65

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sung Hwa; Kang, Sang Sun

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of acetyl groups from acetyl coenzyme A to the ε amino group of internal lysine residues is catalyzed by Tip60, which is in the MYST family of nuclear histone acetyltransferases (HATs). The tyrosine phosphorylation of Tip60 seems to be a unique modification. We present evidence that Tip60 is modified on tyrosine 327 by Abl kinase. We show that this causes functional changes in HAT activity and the subcellular localization of TIP60, which forms a complex with Abl kinase. The Tip60 mutation Y327F abolished tyrosine phosphorylation, reduced the inhibition of Tip60 HAT activity, and caused G0-G1 arrest and association with FE65. Thus, our findings for the first time suggested a novel regulation mechanism of Tip60. Regulation was through phosphorylation of tyrosine 327 by Abl tyrosine kinase and depended on environmental conditions, suggesting that the tyrosine residue of Tip60 is important for the activation process. PMID:24044023

  1. Estrogen stimulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation and Src kinase activity in avian osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, K D; Gay, C V

    1999-12-01

    The estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, stimulated a profound increase in phosphotyrosine immunostaining of proteins that localized along the site of attachment in avian osteoclasts within 1 min of treatment. By 10 min, this rapidly occurring event had returned to basal levels. Pretreatment with 1 microM herbimycin A, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, prevented the response. Immunoblotting revealed that Src kinase was one of the phosphorylated intermediates. Src kinase also appeared to translocate to the periphery of the cells during the 1 min 17beta-estradiol treatment and became dispersed by 10 min. Src kinase activity measurements indicated an increase in phosphotransferase activity after the 1 min estradiol treatment; this effect diminished with longer exposures to estrogen. Pretreatment of osteoclasts with 1 microg/ml cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, delayed the appearance of increased phosphotyrosine immunostaining at attachment sites, possibly through inhibition of Src kinase translocation. These findings demonstrate that estrogen stimulates rapid tyrosine phosphorylation in osteoclasts, a process that involves activation and translocation of Src kinase to the plasma membrane.

  2. Endocytosis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lai Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The canonical model of RTK endocytosis involves rapid internalization of an RTK activated by ligand binding at the cell surface and subsequent sorting of internalized ligand-RTK complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTKs results in autophosphorylation, which is mechanistically coupled to the recruitment of adaptor proteins and conjugation of ubiquitin to RTKs. Ubiquitination serves to mediate interactions of RTKs with sorting machineries both at the cell surface and on endosomes. The pathways and kinetics of RTK endocytic trafficking, molecular mechanisms underlying sorting processes, and examples of deviations from the standard trafficking itinerary in the RTK family are discussed in this work. PMID:23637288

  3. Activation and inhibition of anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor tyrosine kinase by monoclonal antibodies and absence of agonist activity of pleiotrophin.

    PubMed

    Moog-Lutz, Christel; Degoutin, Joffrey; Gouzi, Jean Y; Frobert, Yvelyne; Brunet-de Carvalho, Nicole; Bureau, Jocelyne; Créminon, Christophe; Vigny, Marc

    2005-07-15

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is transiently expressed in specific regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting a role in its normal development and function. The nature of the cognate ligands of ALK in vertebrate is still a matter of debate. We produced a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the extracellular domain of the human receptor. Two major species of ALK (220 and 140 kDa) were identified in transfected cells, and the use of our mAbs established that the 140-kDa species results from a cleavage of the 220-kDa form. Two mAbs, in the nm range, induced the differentiation of PC12 cells transiently transfected with ALK. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing ALK, these two mAbs strongly activated the receptor and subsequently the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. We further showed for the first time that activation of ALK also resulted in a specific activation of STAT3. In contrast, other mAbs presented the characteristics of blocking antibodies. Finally, in these cell systems, a mitogenic form of pleiotrophin, a proposed ligand of ALK, failed to activate this receptor. Thus, in the absence of clearly established ligand(s) in vertebrates, the availability of mAbs allowing the activation or the inhibition of the receptor will be essential for a better understanding of the biological roles of ALK.

  4. Identification of therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer through active tyrosine kinase profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ocaña, Alberto; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2015-01-01

    The activation status of a set of pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases in ovarian cancer patient samples was analyzed to define potential therapeutic targets. Frequent activation of HER family receptor tyrosine kinases, especially HER2, was observed. Studies in ovarian cancer cell lines confirmed the activation of HER2. Moreover, knockdown of HER2 caused a strong inhibition of their proliferation. Analyses of the action of agents that target HER2 indicated that the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) caused a substantial antitumoral effect in vivo and in vitro, and potentiated the action of drugs used in the therapy of ovarian cancer. T-DM1 provoked cell cycle arrest in mitosis, and caused the appearance of aberrant mitotic spindles in cells treated with the drug. Biochemical experiments confirmed accumulation of the mitotic markers phospho-Histone H3 and phospho-BUBR1 in cells treated with the drug. Prolonged treatment of ovarian cancer cells with T-DM1 provoked the appearance of multinucleated cells which later led to cell death. Together, these data indicate that HER2 represents an important oncogene in ovarian cancer, and suggest that targeting this tyrosine kinase with T-DM1 may be therapeutically effective, especially in ovarian tumors with high content of HER2. PMID:26336133

  5. Structure of Escherichia coli tyrosine Kinase Etk Reveals a Novel Activation Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee,D.; Zheng, J.; She, Y.; Jia, Z.

    2008-01-01

    While protein tyrosine (Tyr) kinases (PTKs) have been extensively characterized in eukaryotes, far less is known about their emerging counterparts in prokaryotes. The inner-membrane Wzc/Etk protein belongs to the bacterial PTK family, which has an important function in regulating the polymerization and transport of virulence-determining capsular polysaccharide (CPS). The kinase uses a unique two-step activation process involving intra-phosphorylation of a Tyr residue, although the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of a bacterial PTK, the C-terminal kinase domain of Escherichia coli Tyr kinase (Etk) at 2.5-Angstroms resolution. The fold of the Etk kinase domain differs markedly from that of eukaryotic PTKs. Based on the observed structure and supporting mass spectrometric evidence of Etk, a unique activation mechanism is proposed that involves the phosphorylated Tyr residue, Y574, at the active site and its specific interaction with a previously unidentified key Arg residue, R614, to unblock the active site. Both in vitro kinase activity and in vivo antibiotics resistance studies using structure-guided mutants further support the novel activation mechanism.

  6. Time-resolved luminescence detection of spleen tyrosine kinase activity through terbium sensitization.

    PubMed

    Lipchik, Andrew M; Parker, Laurie L

    2013-03-01

    Disruption of regulatory protein phosphorylation can lead to disease and is particularly prevalent in cancers. Inhibitors that target deregulated kinases are therefore a major focus of chemotherapeutic development. Achieving sensitivity and specificity in high-throughput compatible kinase assays is key to successful inhibitor development. Here, we describe the application of time-resolved luminescence detection to the direct sensing of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activity and inhibition using a novel peptide substrate. Chelation and luminescence sensitization of Tb(3+) allowed the direct detection of peptide phosphorylation without any antibodies or other labeling reagents. Characterizing the Tb(3+) coordination properties of the phosphorylated vs unphosphorylated form of the peptide revealed that an inner-sphere water was displaced upon phosphorylation, which likely was responsible for both enhancing the luminescence intensity and also extending the lifetime, which enabled gating of the luminescence signal to improve the dynamic range. Furthermore, a shift in the optimal absorbance maximum for excitation was observed, from 275 nm (for the unphosphorylated tyrosine peptide) to 266 nm (for the phosphorylated tyrosine peptide). Accordingly, time-resolved measurements with excitation at 266 nm via a monochromator enabled a 16-fold improvement in base signal-to-noise for distinguishing phosphopeptide from unphosphorylated peptide. This led to a high degree of sensitivity and quantitative reproducibility, demonstrating the amenability of this method to both research laboratory and high-throughput applications.

  7. rlk/TXK Encodes Two Forms of a Novel Cysteine String Tyrosine Kinase Activated by Src Family Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Jayantha; Chamorro, Mario; Czar, Michael J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Lenardo, Michael J.; Varmus, Harold E.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.

    1999-01-01

    Rlk/Txk is a member of the BTK/Tec family of tyrosine kinases and is primarily expressed in T lymphocytes. Unlike other members of this kinase family, Rlk lacks a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain near the amino terminus and instead contains a distinctive cysteine string motif. We demonstrate here that Rlk protein consists of two isoforms that arise by alternative initiation of translation from the same cDNA. The shorter, internally initiated protein species lacks the cysteine string motif and is located in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of the larger form. In contrast, the larger form is cytoplasmic. We show that the larger form is palmitoylated and that mutation of its cysteine string motif both abolishes palmitoylation and allows the protein to migrate to the nucleus. The cysteine string, therefore, is a critical determinant of both fatty acid modification and protein localization for the larger isoform of Rlk, suggesting that Rlk regulation is distinct from the other Btk family kinases. We further show that Rlk is phosphorylated and changes localization in response to T-cell-receptor (TCR) activation and, like the other Btk family kinases, can be phosphorylated and activated by Src family kinases. However, unlike the other Btk family members, Rlk is activated independently of the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, consistent with its lack of a PH domain. Thus, Rlk has two distinct isoforms, each of which may have unique properties in signaling downstream from the TCR. PMID:9891083

  8. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  9. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice.

    PubMed

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  10. Molecular docking studies of banana flower flavonoids as insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activators as a cure for diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ganugapati, Jayasree; Baldwa, Aashish; Lalani, Sarfaraz

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused due to insulin deficiency. Banana flower is a rich source of flavonoids that exhibit anti diabetic activity. Insulin receptor is a tetramer that belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases. It contains two alpha subunits that form the extracellular domain and two beta subunits that constitute the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Insulin binds to the extracellular region of the receptor and causes conformational changes that lead to the activation of the tyrosine kinase. This leads to autophosphorylation, a step that is crucial in insulin signaling pathway. Hence, compounds that augment insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity would be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The 3D structure of IR tyrosine kinase was obtained from PDB database. The list of flavonoids found in banana flower was obtained from USDA database. The structures of the flavonoids were obtained from NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the flavonoids was performed using Autodock 4.0 and Autodock Vina. The results indicate that few of the flavonoids may be potential activators of IR tyrosine kinase. PMID:22493522

  11. Molecular docking studies of banana flower flavonoids as insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activators as a cure for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ganugapati, Jayasree; Baldwa, Aashish; Lalani, Sarfaraz

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder caused due to insulin deficiency. Banana flower is a rich source of flavonoids that exhibit anti diabetic activity. Insulin receptor is a tetramer that belongs to a family of receptor tyrosine kinases. It contains two alpha subunits that form the extracellular domain and two beta subunits that constitute the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Insulin binds to the extracellular region of the receptor and causes conformational changes that lead to the activation of the tyrosine kinase. This leads to autophosphorylation, a step that is crucial in insulin signaling pathway. Hence, compounds that augment insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity would be useful in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The 3D structure of IR tyrosine kinase was obtained from PDB database. The list of flavonoids found in banana flower was obtained from USDA database. The structures of the flavonoids were obtained from NCBI Pubchem. Docking analysis of the flavonoids was performed using Autodock 4.0 and Autodock Vina. The results indicate that few of the flavonoids may be potential activators of IR tyrosine kinase.

  12. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  13. Structure and activation of MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase central to neuromuscular junction formation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Stevan R; Gnanasambandan, Kavitha

    2013-10-01

    MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a central signaling role in the formation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). MuSK is activated in a complex spatio-temporal manner to cluster acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic (muscle) side of the synapse and to induce differentiation of the nerve terminal on the presynaptic side. The ligand for MuSK is LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), a transmembrane protein in muscle, whose binding affinity for MuSK is potentiated by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. In addition, Dok7, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is also required for MuSK activation in vivo. This review focuses on the physical interplay between these proteins and MuSK for activation and downstream signaling, which culminates in NMJ formation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emerging recognition and activation mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23467009

  14. Breast tumor kinase (protein tyrosine kinase 6) regulates heregulin-induced activation of ERK5 and p38 MAP kinases in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Julie Hanson; Daniel, Andrea R; Lofgren, Kristopher; Kleer, Celina G; Lange, Carol A

    2007-05-01

    Total tyrosine kinase activity is often elevated in both cytosolic and membrane fractions of malignant breast tissue and correlates with a decrease in disease-free survival. Breast tumor kinase (Brk; protein tyrosine kinase 6) is a soluble tyrosine kinase that was cloned from a metastatic breast tumor and found to be overexpressed in a majority of breast tumors. Herein, we show that Brk is overexpressed in 86% of invasive ductal breast tumors and coexpressed with ErbB family members in breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, the ErbB ligand, heregulin, activates Brk kinase activity. Knockdown of Brk by stable expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in T47D breast cancer cells decreases proliferation and blocks epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and heregulin-induced activation of Rac GTPase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 5, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not Akt, ERK1/2, or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Furthermore, EGF- and heregulin-induced cyclin D1 expression is dependent on p38 signaling and inhibited by Brk shRNA knockdown. The myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcription factor target of p38 MAPK and ERK5 signaling is also sensitive to altered Brk expression. Finally, heregulin-induced migration of T47D cells requires p38 MAPK activity and is blocked by Brk knockdown. These results place Brk in a novel signaling pathway downstream of ErbB receptors and upstream of Rac, p38 MAPK, and ERK5 and establish the ErbB-Brk-Rac-p38 MAPK pathway as a critical mediator of breast cancer cell migration.

  15. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase regulates apoptosis and JNK/SAPK kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Yuko; Miura, Toru; Bissonnette, Reid; Hata, Daisuke; Khan, Wasif N.; Kitamura, Toshio; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Hartman, Stephen E.; Yao, Libo; Alt, Frederick W.; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Mast cells derived from Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk)-defective xid or btk null mice showed greater expansion in culture containing interleukin-3 (IL-3) than those from wild-type (wt) mice. Although the proliferative response to IL-3 was not significantly different between the wt and xid mast cells, xid and btk null mast cells died by apoptosis more slowly than their wt counterparts upon IL-3 deprivation. Consistent with these findings, the apoptosis-linked c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) activity was compromised in these btk-mutated cells upon FcɛRI crosslinking or upon stimulation with IL-3 or with stem cell factor. p38 activity was less severely, but significantly, affected by btk mutation, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinases were not affected by the same mutation. Btk-mediated regulation of apoptosis and JNK activity was confirmed by reconstitution of btk null mutant mast cells with the wt btk cDNA. Furthermore, growth factor withdrawal induced the activation and sustained activity of JNK in wt mast cells, while JNK activity was consistently lower in btk-mutated mast cells. These results support the notion that Btk regulates apoptosis through the JNK activation. PMID:9108083

  16. Structure and Activation of MuSK, a Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Central to Neuromuscular Junction Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Gnanasambandan, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a central signaling role in formation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). MuSK is activated in a complex spatio-temporal manner to cluster acetylcholine receptors on the postsynaptic (muscle) side of the synapse and to induce differentiation of the nerve terminal on the presynaptic side. The ligand for MuSK is LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-4), a transmembrane protein in muscle, whose binding affinity for MuSK is potentiated by agrin, a neuronally derived heparan-sulfate proteoglycan. In addition, Dok7, a cytoplasmic adaptor protein, is also required for MuSK activation in vivo. This review focuses on the physical interplay between these proteins and MuSK for activation and downstream signaling, which culminates in NMJ formation. PMID:23467009

  17. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  18. Src family protein tyrosine kinases induce autoactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, S; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Kut, S A; Saouaf, S J; Bolen, J B

    1995-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is tyrosine phosphorylated and enzymatically activated following ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor. These events are temporally regulated, and Btk activation follows that of various members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, thus raising the possibility that Src kinases participate in the Btk activation process. We have evaluated the mechanism underlying Btk enzyme activation and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between Btk and Src protein kinases. We demonstrate in COS transient-expression assays that Btk can be activated through intramolecular autophosphorylation at tyrosine 551 and that Btk autophosphorylation is required for Btk catalytic functions. Coexpression of Btk with members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, but not Syk, led to Btk tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. Using a series of point mutations in Blk (a representative Src protein kinase) and Btk, we show that Src kinases activate Btk through an indirect mechanism that requires membrane association of the Src enzymes as well as functional Btk SH3 and SH2 domains. Our results are compatible with the idea that Src protein tyrosine kinases contribute to Btk activation by indirectly stimulating Btk intramolecular autophosphorylation. PMID:7565679

  19. Src family protein tyrosine kinases induce autoactivation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, S; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Kut, S A; Saouaf, S J; Bolen, J B

    1995-10-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is tyrosine phosphorylated and enzymatically activated following ligation of the B-cell antigen receptor. These events are temporally regulated, and Btk activation follows that of various members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, thus raising the possibility that Src kinases participate in the Btk activation process. We have evaluated the mechanism underlying Btk enzyme activation and have explored the potential regulatory relationship between Btk and Src protein kinases. We demonstrate in COS transient-expression assays that Btk can be activated through intramolecular autophosphorylation at tyrosine 551 and that Btk autophosphorylation is required for Btk catalytic functions. Coexpression of Btk with members of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, but not Syk, led to Btk tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. Using a series of point mutations in Blk (a representative Src protein kinase) and Btk, we show that Src kinases activate Btk through an indirect mechanism that requires membrane association of the Src enzymes as well as functional Btk SH3 and SH2 domains. Our results are compatible with the idea that Src protein tyrosine kinases contribute to Btk activation by indirectly stimulating Btk intramolecular autophosphorylation. PMID:7565679

  20. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the T-cell receptor (TCR) zeta subunit: regulation of TCR-associated protein tyrosine kinase activity by TCR zeta.

    PubMed Central

    van Oers, N S; Tao, W; Watts, J D; Johnson, P; Aebersold, R; Teh, H S

    1993-01-01

    The T-cell receptor (TCR) zeta subunit is an important component of the TCR complex, involved in signal transduction events following TCR engagement. In this study, we showed that the TCR zeta chain is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated to similar extents in thymocytes and lymph node T cells. Approximately 35% of the tyrosine-phosphorylated TCR zeta (phospho zeta) precipitated from total cell lysates appeared to be surface associated. Furthermore, constitutive phosphorylation of TCR zeta in T cells occurred independently of antigen stimulation and did not require CD4 or CD8 coreceptor expression. In lymph node T cells that constitutively express tyrosine-phosphorylated TCR zeta, there was a direct correlation between surface TCR-associated protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity and expression of phospho zeta. TCR stimulation of these cells resulted in an increase in PTK activity that coprecipitated with the surface TCR complex and a corresponding increase in the levels of phospho zeta. TCR ligations also contributed to the detection of several additional phosphoproteins that coprecipitated with surface TCR complexes, including a 72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein. The presence of TCR-associated PTK activity also correlated with the binding of a 72-kDa protein, which became tyrosine phosphorylated in vitro kinase assays, to tyrosine phosphorylated TCR zeta. The cytoplasmic region of the TCR zeta chain was synthesized, tyrosine phosphorylated, and conjugated to Sepharose beads. Only tyrosine-phosphorylated, not nonphosphorylated, TCR zeta beads were capable of immunoprecipitating the 72-kDa protein from total cell lysates. This 72-kDa protein is likely the murine equivalent of human PTK ZAP-70, which has been shown to associate specifically with phospho zeta. These results suggest that TCR-associated PTK activity is regulated, at least in part, by the tyrosine phosphorylation status of TCR zeta. Images PMID:7689151

  1. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  2. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  3. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib selectively inhibits CYP2C8 activities in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Jae-Won; Oh, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Chang-Soo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Han, Won Seok; Yoon, Chang-No; Chung, Eun Sook; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2013-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib was examined for its inhibition of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in human liver microsomes and in human CYPs expressed in a baculovirus-insect cell system. Nilotinib demonstrated preferential inhibition of CYP2C8-mediated paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation, rosiglitazone hydroxylation and amodiaquine N-deethylation in human liver microsomes, with IC₅₀ values of 0.4, 7.5 and 0.7 µM, respectively. The IC₅₀ value of nilotinib for paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation was 20-fold lower than that of the other five tyrosine-kinase inhibitors tested. Nilotinib appears to display competitive inhibition against paclitaxel 6α-hydroxylation and amodiaquine N-deethylation, with estimated mean Ki values of 0.90 and 0.15 µM in human liver microsomes and 0.10 and 0.61 µM in recombinant human CYP2C8, respectively. These results are consistent with those of molecular docking simulations, where paclitaxel could not access the CYP2C8 catalytic site in the presence of nilotinib, but the binding of midazolam, a substrate of CYP3A4, to the catalytic site of CYP3A4 was not affected by nilotinib. The demonstrated inhibitory activity of nilotinib against CYP2C8 at concentrations less than those observed in patients who received nilotinib therapy is of potential clinical relevance and further in vivo exploration is warranted.

  4. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W. . Coll. of Pharmacy)

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP[sub 3] and the release of intracellular Ca[sup 2+]. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10[mu]M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP[sub 3] formation and Ca[sup 2+] release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-[gamma]1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-[gamma]1, release of IP[sub 3], and mobilization of intracellular Ca[sup 2+].

  5. DMBA induces tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 and activates the tyrosine kinases lck and fyn in the HPB-ALL human T-cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Schieven, G.L.; Ledbetter, J.A.; Burchiel, S.W.

    1993-02-01

    Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that DMBA alters biochemical events associated with lymphocyte activation including formation of the second messenger IP{sub 3} and the release of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the mechanisms by which DMBA induces IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release by examining phosphorylation of membrane associated proteins and activation of protein tyrosine kinases lck and fyn. These studies demonstrated that exposure of HPB-ALL cells to 10{mu}M DMBA resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 that correlated with our earlier findings of IP{sub 3} formation and Ca{sup 2+} release. These results indicate that the effects of DMBA on the PI-PLC signaling pathway are in part, the result of DMBA-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-{gamma}1 enzyme. The mechanism of DMBA- induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1 may be due to activation of fyn or lck kinase activity, since it was found that DMBA increased the activity of these PTKs by more than 2-fold. Therefore, these studies demonstrate that DMBA may disrupt T cell activation by stimulating PTK activation with concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-{gamma}1, release of IP{sub 3}, and mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.

  6. Prognostic value of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity in 249 node-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Romain, S.; Chinot, O.; Klijn, J. G.; van Putten, W. L.; Guirou, O.; Look, M.; Martin, P. M.; Foekens, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Tyrosine-specific protein kinase (TPK) has been associated with the cytoplasmic domain of growth factor receptors as well as oncoproteins. Enzymatic activation appears to be a major initial event in these signal transduction pathways. In this study, TPK was determined in the cytosols of 249 node-positive primary breast tumours. Enzyme activity was measured using [32P]ATP and poly(glutamic acid-tyrosine) (4:1) as an artificial substrate. Levels of TPK varied from 0 to 35.9 pmol ATP min-1 mg-1 protein (median 11.4). No correlation was found with tumour size or number of positive lymph nodes. In contrast, levels of TPK were negatively associated with age (P = 0.01) and menopausal status (P < 0.05) of the patients. Higher concentrations of TPK were in addition found in tumours negative for oestradiol (P < 0.01) and progesterone (P < 0.05) receptors. Finally, a positive correlation was found between TPK and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) (P < 0.05). Patients whose tumours contained high levels of TPK had reduced disease-free (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P < 0.05). In Cox multivariate analysis, including patient's age, menopausal status, tumour size, number of positive lymph nodes, steroid receptors and UPA, TPK retained its independent prognostic importance. PMID:8054279

  7. Rotenone enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate currents by activating a tyrosine kinase in rat dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Na; Martella, Giuseppina; Johnson, Steven W

    2007-11-19

    Our previous work showed that the pesticide rotenone increases the amplitude of inward currents evoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. Using patch pipettes to record whole-cell currents in rat brain slices, we report that the rotenone-induced potentiation of NMDA current is blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and PP1. This action of rotenone is mimicked by H2O2, which is also blocked by genistein. Our results suggest that the rotenone-dependent increase in NMDA current is mediated by release of reactive oxygen species that activates a protein tyrosine kinase.

  8. Activation of tyrosine kinase c-Abl contributes to α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Hyun; Kim, Donghoon; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Kumar, Manoj; Mao, Xiaobo; Shin, Joo Ho; Lee, Yunjong; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Ko, Han Seok

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein contributes to the formation of Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathologic hallmarks of Parkinson disease (PD) and α-synucleinopathies. Although a number of human mutations have been identified in familial PD, the mechanisms that promote α-synuclein accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Here, we report that hyperactivity of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl critically regulates α-synuclein–induced neuropathology. In mice expressing a human α-synucleinopathy–associated mutation (hA53Tα-syn mice), deletion of the gene encoding c-Abl reduced α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active c-Abl in hA53Tα-syn mice accelerated α-synuclein aggregation, neuropathology, and neurobehavioral deficits. Moreover, c-Abl activation led to an age-dependent increase in phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein. In human postmortem samples, there was an accumulation of phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein in brain tissues and Lewy bodies of PD patients compared with age-matched controls. Furthermore, in vitro studies show that c-Abl phosphorylation of α-synuclein at tyrosine 39 enhances α-synuclein aggregation. Taken together, this work establishes a critical role for c-Abl in α-synuclein–induced neurodegeneration and demonstrates that selective inhibition of c-Abl may be neuroprotective. This study further indicates that phosphotyrosine 39 α-synuclein is a potential disease indicator for PD and related α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27348587

  9. A role for Bruton's tyrosine kinase in B cell antigen receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Defects in the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) result in a disease called X-linked agammaglobulinemia, in which there is a profound decrease of mature B cells due to a block in B cell development. Recent studies have shown that Btk is tyrosine phosphorylated and activated upon B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. To elucidate the functions of this kinase, we examined BCR signaling of DT40 B cells deficient in Btk. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma 2 upon receptor stimulation was significantly reduced in the mutant cells, leading to the loss of both BCR-coupled phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis and calcium mobilization. Pleckstrin homology and Src-homology 2 domains of Btk were required for PLC-gamma 2 activation. Since Syk is also required for the BCR-induced PLC-gamma 2 activation, our findings indicate that PLC-gamma 2 activation is regulated by Btk and Syk through their concerted actions. PMID:8691147

  10. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  11. Novel Small Molecule Activators of the Trk Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Obianyo, Obiamaka; Ye, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    The Tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors are a subset of the receptor tyrosine kinase family with an important functionality in the regulation of neurotrophic signaling in the peripheral and central nervous system. As the receptors are able to mediate neuronal survival by associating with their respective neurotrophin ligands, many studies have focused on the therapeutic potential of generating small-molecule mimetic compounds that elicit agonistic effects similar to those of the natural protein ligands. To this end, various structure-based studies have led to the generation of bivalent peptide-based agonists and antibodies that selectively initiate Trk receptor signaling; however, these compounds do not possess the ideal characteristics of a potential drug. Additionally, the reliance of structure-based data to generate the compound libraries, limits the potential identification of novel chemical structures with desirable activity. Therefore, subsequent investigations utilized a cell-based apoptotic screen to facilitate the analysis of large, diverse chemical libraries of small molecules and quickly identify compounds with Trk-dependent antiapoptotic activity. Herein, we describe the Trk agonists that have been identified by this screening methodology and summarize their in vitro and in vivo neurotrophic activity as well as their efficacy in various neurological disease models, implicating their future utility as therapeutic compounds. PMID:22982231

  12. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  13. Cell signaling by receptor-tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses. PMID:20602996

  14. Hyaluronan and the hyaluronan receptor RHAMM promote focal adhesion turnover and transient tyrosine kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms whereby hyaluronan (HA) stimulates cell motility was investigated in a C-H-ras transformed 10T 1/2 fibroblast cell line (C3). A significant (p < 0.001) stimulation of C3 cell motility with HA (10 ng/ml) was accompanied by an increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation as detected by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies using immunoblot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of cells. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins was found to be both rapid and transient with phosphorylation occurring within 1 min of HA addition and dissipating below control levels 10-15 min later. These responses were also elicited by an antibody generated against a peptide sequence within the HA receptor RHAMM. Treatment of cells with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein, 10 micrograms/ml or herbimycin A, 0.5 micrograms/ml) or microinjection of anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies inhibited the transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation in response to HA as well as prevented HA stimulation of cell motility. To determine a link between HA-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and the resulting cell locomotion, cytoskeletal reorganization was examined in C3 cells plated on fibronectin and treated with HA or anti-RHAMM antibody. These agents caused a rapid assembly and disassembly of focal adhesions as revealed by immunofluorescent localization of vinculin. The time course with which HA and antibody induced focal adhesion turnover exactly paralleled the induction of transient protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphotyrosine staining colocalized with vinculin within structures in the lamellapodia of these cells. Notably, the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, was rapidly phosphorylated and dephosphorylated after HA stimulation. These results suggest that HA stimulates locomotion via a rapid and transient protein tyrosine kinase signaling event mediated by RHAMM. They also provide a possible molecular basis for focal adhesion turnover, a process that is

  15. Effects of metformin on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, D B; Hayes, G R; Truglia, J A; Lockwood, D H

    1986-11-01

    The cellular mechanism(s) by which the biguanide, metformin, exerts its antihyperglycaemic effect was investigated. Rat adipocytes were either treated acutely (2 h) or maintained in a biochemically defined medium (20 h) in the presence or absence of metformin (1 X 10(-4) mol/l). Exposure to the drug resulted in a significant enhancement (p less than 0.01) of hexose transport in both the absence (basal) and presence of insulin. Stimulation of transport was not explained by the increase in the basal state alone, since the incremental response to maximally effective concentrations of insulin was significantly enhanced p less than 0.025. Insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity was examined under the same experimental conditions. Activity of the kinase was unaltered as evaluated by phosphorylation of an artificial substrate and by phosphorylation of the receptor in situ. Furthermore, in this investigation neither insulin receptor number nor affinity was changed in adipose tissue treated with metformin. These studies indicate that metformin potentiates the effect of insulin on glucose transport at a site(s) beyond insulin receptor binding and phosphorylation.

  16. The cytokine-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 activates Raf-1 in a p21ras-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xia, K; Mukhopadhyay, N K; Inhorn, R C; Barber, D L; Rose, P E; Lee, R S; Narsimhan, R P; D'Andrea, A D; Griffin, J D; Roberts, T M

    1996-10-15

    JAK2, a member of the Janus kinase superfamily was found to interact functionally with Raf-1, a central component of the ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. Interferon-gamma and several other cytokines that are known to activate JAK2 kinase were also found to stimulate Raf-1 kinase activity toward MEK-1 in mammalian cells. In the baculovirus coexpression system, Raf-1 was activated by JAK2 in the presence of p21ras. Under these conditions, a ternary complex of p21ras, JAK2, and Raf-1 was observed. In contrast, in the absence of p21ras, coexpression of JAK2 and Raf-1 resulted in an overall decrease in the Raf-1 kinase activity. In addition, JAK2 phosphorylated Raf-1 at sites different from those phosphorylated by pp60v-src. In mammalian cells treated with either erythropoietin or interferon-gamma, a small fraction of Raf-1 coimmunoprecipitated with JAK2 in lysates of cells in which JAK2 was activated as judged by its state of tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that JAK2 and p21ras cooperate to activate Raf-1.

  17. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase p72syk by Fc epsilon RI aggregation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. p72syk is a minor component but the major protein tyrosine kinase of pp72.

    PubMed

    Minoguchi, K; Benhamou, M; Swaim, W D; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T; Siraganian, R P

    1994-06-17

    Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells results in protein tyrosine phosphorylations. Previously we reported that there is prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of approximately 72-kDa proteins (pp72) and that the tyrosine kinase p72syk is one component of pp72. Here we studied further the relationship of p72syk to pp72. The aggregation of Fc epsilon RI induced the activation of p72syk which was parallel to its tyrosine phosphorylation. By in vitro kinase assay of immune complexes purified with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was the major pp72 tyrosine kinase. However, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was a minor component of pp72. The heterogeneous nature of pp72 was indicated by different studies. Under optimum conditions of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pp72 consisted of a heterogeneous group of 69-, 71-, and 72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There were differences in the tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins in cells activated in the absence of extracellular calcium or when stimulation was with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol myristate acetate. One of the proteins migrating at 69 kDa was p72syk. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pp72 was found to consist of multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protens including 71-80-kDa proteins that associate with p53/56lyn. A 75-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, different from pp72, was identified as p75HS1 (SPY75). These results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the pp72 and that p72syk is activated after Fc epsilon RI aggregation. PMID:7515887

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition: An Approach to Drug Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitzki, Alexander; Gazit, Aviv

    1995-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) regulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and signaling processes in the cells of the immune system. Uncontrolled signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular tyrosine kinases can lead to inflammatory responses and to diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and psoriasis. Thus, inhibitors that block the activity of tyrosine kinases and the signaling pathways they activate may provide a useful basis for drug development. This article summarizes recent progress in the development of PTK inhibitors and demonstrates their potential use in the treatment of disease.

  19. Downregulation of the Ras–Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway by the EphB2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Is Required for Ephrin-Induced Neurite Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Elowe, Sabine; Holland, Sacha J.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Activation of the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase by clustered ephrin-B1 induces growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in differentiated NG108 neuronal cells. We have investigated the cytoplasmic signaling events associated with EphB2-induced cytoskeletal reorganization in these neuronal cells. We find that unlike other receptor tyrosine kinases, EphB2 induces a pronounced downregulation of GTP-bound Ras and consequently of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A similar inhibition of the Ras-MAPK pathway was observed on stimulation of endogenous EphB2 in COS-1 cells. Inactivation of Ras, induced by ephrin B1 stimulation of NG108 neuronal cells, requires EphB2 tyrosine kinase activity and is blocked by a truncated form of p120-Ras GTPase-activating protein (p120-RasGAP), suggesting that EphB2 signals through the SH2 domain protein p120-RasGAP to inhibit the Ras-MAPK pathway. Suppression of Ras activity appears functionally important, since expression of a constitutively active variant of Ras impaired the ability of EphB2 to induce neurite retraction. In addition, EphB2 attenuated the elevation in ERK activation induced by attachment of NG108 cells to fibronectin, indicating that the EphB2 receptor can modulate integrin signaling to the Ras GTPase. These results suggest that a primary function of EphB2, a member of the most populous family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is to inactivate the Ras-MAPK pathway in a fashion that contributes to cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesion responses in neuronal growth cones. PMID:11585923

  20. Malignant transformation of early lymphoid progenitors in mice expressing an activated Blk tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sami N.; Dordai, Dominic I.; Reim, Johannes; Dintzis, Howard; Desiderio, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular signals governing cellular proliferation and developmental progression during lymphocyte development are incompletely understood. The tyrosine kinase Blk is expressed preferentially in the B lineage, but its function in B cell development has been largely unexplored. We have generated transgenic mice expressing constitutively active Blk [Blk(Y495F)] in the B and T lymphoid compartments. Expression of Blk(Y495F) in the B lineage at levels similar to that of endogenous Blk induced B lymphoid tumors of limited clonality, whose phenotypes are characteristic of B cell progenitors at the proB/preB-I to preB-II transition. Expression of constitutively active Blk in the T lineage resulted in the appearance of clonal, thymic lymphomas composed of intermediate single positive cells. Taken together, these results indicate that specific B and T cell progenitor subsets are preferentially susceptible to transformation by Blk(Y495F) and suggest a role for Blk in the control of proliferation during B cell development. PMID:9636152

  1. Transcription repressor activity of spleen tyrosine kinase mediates breast tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Devarajan, Eswaran; He, Jin; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Le Dai, Jia

    2005-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast. Loss of SYK expression in breast tumors as a result of DNA hypermethylation promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion and predicts shorter survival of breast cancer patients. We previously reported that, in addition to its well-known cytoplasmic localization, the full length Syk is also present in the nucleus, and that Syk nuclear translocation is a rate-limiting step to determine Syk tumor suppressor function. Here we show that the full-length form of Syk acts as a transcription repressor in the cell nucleus. Ectopic expression of Syk down-regulates the transcription of FRA1 and cyclin D1 oncogenes. This transcription repressing activity of Syk is associated with its binding to members of the histone deacetylase family. Syk interacts with transcription factor Sp1 at the Sp1 DNA-binding site in the FRA1 promoter to repress Sp1-activated FRA1 transcription. Thus, breast tumorigenesis and progression resulting from the loss of SYK are underscored by the de-repression of Sp1-mediated oncogene transcription. PMID:16288017

  2. The Fc receptor gamma-chain and the tyrosine kinase Syk are essential for activation of mouse platelets by collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, A; Gibbins, J M; Turner, M; van Vugt, M J; van de Winkel, J G; Saito, T; Tybulewicz, V L; Watson, S P

    1997-01-01

    Activation of mouse platelets by collagen is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins including the Fc receptor gamma-chain, the tyrosine kinase Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2, suggesting that collagen signals in a manner similar to that of immune receptors. This hypothesis has been tested using platelets from mice lacking the Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk and phospholipase Cgamma2 by collagen stimulation is absent in mice lacking the Fc receptor gamma-chain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase Cgamma2 by collagen stimulation is also absent in mice platelets which lack Syk, although phosphorylation of the Fc receptor gamma-chain is maintained. In contrast, tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins by the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin is maintained in mouse platelets deficient in Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk. The absence of Fc receptor gamma-chain or Syk is accompanied by a loss of secretion and aggregation responses in collagen- but not thrombin-stimulated platelets. These observations provide the first direct evidence of an essential role for the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in signalling by a non-immune receptor stimulus. PMID:9171347

  3. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    PubMed Central

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  4. The EphA8 Receptor Regulates Integrin Activity through p110γ Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase in a Tyrosine Kinase Activity-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Park, Soochul

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that ephrins may function in a kinase-independent Eph receptor pathway. Here we report that expression of EphA8 in either NIH 3T3 or HEK293 cells enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin via α5β1- or β3 integrins. Interestingly, a kinase-inactive EphA8 mutant also markedly promoted cell attachment to fibronectin in these cell lines. Using a panel of EphA8 point mutants, we have demonstrated that EphA8 kinase activity does not correlate with its ability to promote cell attachment to fibronectin. Analysis using EphA8 extracellular and intracellular domain mutants has revealed that enhanced cell adhesion is dependent on ephrin A binding to the extracellular domain and the juxtamembrane segment of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. EphA8-promoted adhesion was efficiently inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor. Additionally, we found that EphA8 had associated PI 3-kinase activity and that the p110γ isoform of PI 3-kinase is associated with EphA8. In vitro binding experiments revealed that the EphA8 juxtamembrane segment was sufficient for the formation of a stable complex with p110γ. Similar results were obtained in assay using cells stripped of endogenous ephrin A ligands by treatment with preclustered ephrin A5-Fc proteins. In addition, a membrane-targeted lipid kinase-inactive p110γ mutant was demonstrated to stably associate with EphA8 and suppress EphA8-promoted cell adhesion to fibronectin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism by which the EphA8 receptor localizes p110γ PI 3-kinase to the plasma membrane in a tyrosine kinase-independent fashion, thereby allowing access to lipid substrates to enable the signals required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:11416136

  5. Insulin binding and receptor tyrosine kinase activity in skeletal muscle of carnivorous and omnivorous fish.

    PubMed

    Párrizas, M; Planas, J; Plisetskaya, E M; Gutiérrez, J

    1994-06-01

    We characterized the insulin receptors in skeletal muscle from several fish species with different nutritional preferences: brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), and carp (Cyprinus carpio), semipurified by affinity chromatography (wheat germ agglutinin-agarose). Total specific binding and number of receptors per unit weight of piscine white skeletal muscle were lower than those values found in mammalian skeletal muscle. The same parameters in carp muscle receptor preparations were severalfold higher than in trout muscle (binding capacity 440 +/- 47 fmol/mg glycoprotein in carp and 82 +/- 23 fmol/mg glycoprotein in trout). Piscine insulin receptors phosphorylated exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr) but less so than mammalian receptors. Tyrosine kinase activity of receptors, calculated as percent of 32P incorporated into substrate in the presence of insulin compared with basal incorporation, was also highest in carp (210 +/- 4%) and lowest in trout (150 +/- 2%). In both trout and carp deprived of food for 15 days, specific binding of insulin decreased. Nevertheless, differences between the two species were retained. Our results demonstrate that particular properties of insulin receptors in fish skeletal muscle may be related to nutritional preferences. This finding coincides with the phenomenon of differential glucose tolerance in fish: carnivorous fish, such as trout, are less tolerant, whereas omnivorous fish, such as carp, readily utilize a carbohydrate-rich diet. PMID:8024051

  6. Rational Design of a Dephosphorylation-Resistant Reporter Enables Single-Cell Measurement of Tyrosine Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Abigail H; Lebhar, Michael S; Proctor, Angela; Wang, Qunzhao; Lawrence, David S; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2016-02-19

    Although peptide-based reporters of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity have been used to study PTK enzymology in vitro, the application of these reporters to intracellular conditions is compromised by their dephosphorylation, preventing PTK activity measurements. Nonproteinogenic amino acids may be utilized to rationally design selective peptidic ligands by accessing greater chemical and structural diversity than is available using the native amino acids. We describe a peptidic reporter that, upon phosphorylation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is resistant to dephosphorylation both in vitro and in cellulo. The reporter contains a conformationally constrained phosphorylatable moiety (7-(S)-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) in the place of L-tyrosine and is efficiently phosphorylated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Dephosphorylation of the reporter occurs 3 orders of magnitude more slowly compared with that of the conventional tyrosine-containing reporter.

  7. CEP-701 and CEP-751 inhibit constitutively activated RET tyrosine kinase activity and block medullary thyroid carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strock, Christopher J; Park, Jong-In; Rosen, Mark; Dionne, Craig; Ruggeri, Bruce; Jones-Bolin, Susan; Denmeade, Samuel R; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2003-09-01

    All of the cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) express the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. In essentially all of the hereditary cases and approximately 40% of the sporadic cases of MTC, the RET kinase is constitutively activated by mutation. This suggests that RET may be an effective therapeutic target for treatment of MTC. We show that the indolocarbazole derivatives, CEP-701 and CEP-751, inhibit RET in MTC cells. These compounds effectively inhibit RET phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations <100 nM in 0.5% serum and at somewhat higher concentrations in the presence of 16% serum. They also blocked the growth of these MTC cells in culture. CEP-751 and its prodrug, CEP-2563, also inhibited tumor growth in MTC cell xenografts. These results show that inhibiting RET can block the growth of MTC cells and may have a therapeutic benefit in MTC.

  8. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Lotz-Jenne, Carina; Lüthi, Urs; Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-05-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered "off-target" effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  9. A high-content EMT screen identifies multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity on TGFβ receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ackerknecht, Sabine; Lehembre, François; Fink, Tobias; Stritt, Manuel; Wirth, Matthias; Pavan, Simona; Bill, Ruben; Regenass, Urs; Christofori, Gerhard; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    An epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial tumor cells to break out of the primary tumor mass and to metastasize. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving EMT in more detail will provide important tools to interfere with the metastatic process. To identify pharmacological modulators and druggable targets of EMT, we have established a novel multi-parameter, high-content, microscopy-based assay and screened chemical compounds with activities against known targets. Out of 3423 compounds, we have identified 19 drugs that block transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-induced EMT in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG). The active compounds include inhibitors against TGFβ receptors (TGFBR), Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCK), myosin II, SRC kinase and uridine analogues. Among the EMT-repressing compounds, we identified a group of inhibitors targeting multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, and biochemical profiling of these multi-kinase inhibitors reveals TGFBR as a thus far unknown target of their inhibitory spectrum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of a multi-parameter, high-content microscopy screen to identify modulators and druggable targets of EMT. Moreover, the newly discovered “off-target” effects of several receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors have important consequences for in vitro and in vivo studies and might beneficially contribute to the therapeutic effects observed in vivo. PMID:27036020

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation is a mandatory proximal step in radiation-induced activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway in human B-lymphocyte precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, F M; Schieven, G L; Tuel-Ahlgren, L M; Dibirdik, I; Myers, D E; Ledbetter, J A; Song, C W

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation triggers a signal in human B-lymphocyte precursors that is intimately linked to an active protein-tyrosine kinase regulatory pathway. We show that in B-lymphocyte precursors, irradiation with gamma-rays leads to (i) stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover; (ii) downstream activation by covalent modification of multiple serine-specific protein kinases, including protein kinase C; and (iii) activation of nuclear factor kappa B. All of the radiation-induced signals were effectively prevented by the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation is an important and perhaps mandatory proximal step in the activation of the protein kinase C signaling cascade in human B-lymphocyte precursors. Our report expands current knowledge of the radiation-induced signaling cascade by clarifying the chronological sequence of biochemical events that follow irradiation. Images PMID:8419931

  11. Involvement of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in Ras-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, S; Büscher, D; Kummer, V; Buder, S; Baccarini, M

    1996-11-01

    Ubiquitously expressed SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatases interact physically with tyrosine kinase receptors or their substrates and relay positive mitogenic signals via the activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Conversely, the structurally related phosphatase SHP-1 is predominantly expressed in hemopoietic cells and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon colony-stimulating factor 1 treatment of macrophages without associating with the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor tyrosine kinase. Mice lacking functional SHP-1 (me/me and me(v)/me(v)) develop systemic autoimmune disease with accumulation of macrophages, suggesting that SHP-1 may be a negative regulator of hemopoietic cell growth. By using macrophages expressing dominant negative Ras and the me(v)/me(v) mouse mutant, we show that SHP-1 is activated in the course of mitogenic signal transduction in a Ras-dependent manner and that its activity is necessary for the Ras-dependent activation of the MAPK pathway but not of the Raf-1 kinase. Consistent with a role for SHP-1 as an intermediate between Ras and the MEK-MAPK pathway, Ras-independent activation of the latter kinases by bacterial lipopolysaccharide occurred normally in me(v)/me(v) cells. Our results sharply accentuate the diversity of signal transduction in mammalian cells, in which the same signaling intermediates can be rearranged to form different pathways. PMID:8887625

  12. Involvement of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in Ras-mediated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Krautwald, S; Büscher, D; Kummer, V; Buder, S; Baccarini, M

    1996-01-01

    Ubiquitously expressed SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatases interact physically with tyrosine kinase receptors or their substrates and relay positive mitogenic signals via the activation of the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Conversely, the structurally related phosphatase SHP-1 is predominantly expressed in hemopoietic cells and becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon colony-stimulating factor 1 treatment of macrophages without associating with the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor tyrosine kinase. Mice lacking functional SHP-1 (me/me and me(v)/me(v)) develop systemic autoimmune disease with accumulation of macrophages, suggesting that SHP-1 may be a negative regulator of hemopoietic cell growth. By using macrophages expressing dominant negative Ras and the me(v)/me(v) mouse mutant, we show that SHP-1 is activated in the course of mitogenic signal transduction in a Ras-dependent manner and that its activity is necessary for the Ras-dependent activation of the MAPK pathway but not of the Raf-1 kinase. Consistent with a role for SHP-1 as an intermediate between Ras and the MEK-MAPK pathway, Ras-independent activation of the latter kinases by bacterial lipopolysaccharide occurred normally in me(v)/me(v) cells. Our results sharply accentuate the diversity of signal transduction in mammalian cells, in which the same signaling intermediates can be rearranged to form different pathways. PMID:8887625

  13. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase associated with the bombesin receptor complex in small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Gaudino, G; Cirillo, D; Naldini, L; Rossino, P; Comoglio, P M

    1988-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that bombesin-like peptides produced by small cell lung carcinomas may sustain deregulated proliferation through an autocrine mechanism. We have shown that the neuropeptide bombesin leads to the activation of a protein-tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates a 115-kDa protein (p115) associated with the bombesin receptor complex in mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. We now report that phosphotyrosine antibodies recognize a 115-kDa protein, phosphorylated on tyrosine, in four human small cell lung carcinoma cell lines producing bombesin but not in a nonproducer "variant" line. p115 from detergent-treated small cell lung carcinoma cells binds to bombesin-Sepharose and can be phosphorylated on tyrosine in the presence of radiolabeled ATP and Mn2+. As for the p115 immunoprecipitated from mouse fibroblast, the small cell lung carcinoma p115 can be phosphorylated in an immunocomplex kinase assay. However, the latter does not require the presence of exogenous bombesin for activity. Binding data, obtained by using radiolabeled ligand, suggest receptor occupancy in the cell lines producing bombesin. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that proliferation in some human small cell lung carcinoma lines is under autocrine control, regulated through activation of bombesin receptors. Images PMID:2451242

  14. Ca2+/Calmodulin and Apo-Calmodulin Both Bind to and Enhance the Tyrosine Kinase Activity of c-Src

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Estefanía; Benaim, Gustavo; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in multiple cellular processes, including: cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, stress response, and cell adhesion and migration, among others. And when deregulated by mutations, overexpression, and/or the arrival of faulty incoming signals, its hyperactivity contributes to the development of hematological and solid tumors. c-Src is a prototypical member of this family of kinases, which is highly regulated by a set of phosphorylation events. Other factor contributing to the regulation of Src activity appears to be mediated by the Ca2+ signal generated in cells by different effectors, where the Ca2+-receptor protein calmodulin (CaM) plays a key role. In this report we demonstrate that CaM directly interacts with Src in both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent manners in vitro and in living cells, and that the CaM antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) inhibits the activation of this kinase induced by the upstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in human carcinoma epidermoide A431 cells, and by hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in both A431 cells and human breast adenocarcinoma SK-BR-3 cells. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+/CaM complex strongly activates the auto-phosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src toward exogenous substrates, but most relevantly and for the first time, we demonstrate that Ca2+-free CaM (apo-CaM) exerts a far higher activatory action on Src auto-phosphorylation and kinase activity toward exogenous substrates than the one exerted by the Ca2+/CaM complex. This suggests that a transient increase in the cytosolic concentration of free Ca2+ is not an absolute requirement for CaM-mediated activation of Src in living cells, and that a direct regulation of Src by apo-CaM could be inferred. PMID:26058065

  15. Regulation of Nuclear Localization and Transcriptional Activity of TFII-I by Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Novina, Carl D.; Kumar, Sanjay; Bajpai, Urmila; Cheriyath, Venugopalan; Zhang, Keming; Pillai, Shiv; Wortis, Henry H.; Roy, Ananda L.

    1999-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is required for normal B-cell development, as defects in Btk lead to X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans. Here we demonstrate a functional interaction between the multifunctional transcription factor TFII-I and Btk. Ectopic expression of wild-type Btk enhances TFII-I-mediated transcriptional activation and its tyrosine phosphorylation in transient-transfection assays. Mutation of Btk in either the PH domain (R28C, as in the murine xid mutation) or the kinase domain (K430E) compromises its ability to enhance both the tyrosine phosphorylation and the transcriptional activity of TFII-I. TFII-I associates constitutively in vivo with wild-type Btk and kinase-inactive Btk but not xid Btk. However, membrane immunoglobulin M cross-linking in B cells leads to dissociation of TFII-I from Btk. We further show that while TFII-I is found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of wild-type and xid primary resting B cells, nuclear TFII-I is greater in xid B cells. Most strikingly, receptor cross-linking of wild-type (but not xid) B cells results in increased nuclear import of TFII-I. Taken together, these data suggest that although the PH domain of Btk is primarily responsible for its physical interaction with TFII-I, an intact kinase domain of Btk is required to enhance transcriptional activity of TFII-I in the nucleus. Thus, mutations impairing the physical and/or functional association between TFII-I and Btk may result in diminished TFII-I-dependent transcription and contribute to defective B-cell development and/or function. PMID:10373551

  16. Bisphenol A accelerates capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation of rat sperm by activating protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaofeng; Ru, Yanfei; Chu, Chen; Ni, Zimei; Zhou, Yuchuan; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhang, Yonglian

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen-mimic chemical. It has been shown to affect many reproductive endpoints. However, the effect of BPA on the mature sperm and the mechanism of its action are not clear yet. Here, our in vitro studies indicated that BPA could accelerate sperm capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in time- and dose-dependent manners. In vivo, the adult male rats exposed to a high dose of BPA could result in a significant increase in sperm activity. Further investigation demonstrated that BPA could accelerate capacitation-associated protein tyrosine phosphorylation even if sperm were incubated in medium devoid of BSA, HCO3 (-), and Ca(2+) However, this action of BPA stimulation could be blocked by H89, a highly selective blocker of protein kinase A (PKA), but not by KH7, a specific inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase. These data suggest that BPA may activate PKA to affect sperm functions and male fertility. PMID:27174873

  17. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the BRI1 receptor kinase occurs via a posttranslational modification and is activated by the juxtamembrane domain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In metazoans, receptor kinases control many essential processes related to growth and development and response to the environment. The receptor kinases in plants and animals are structurally similar but evolutionarily distinct from one another, and thus while most animal receptor kinases are tyrosin...

  18. Intracellular reactive oxygen species activate Src tyrosine kinase during cell adhesion and anchorage-dependent cell growth.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Elisa; Buricchi, Francesca; Raugei, Giovanni; Ramponi, Giampietro; Chiarugi, Paola

    2005-08-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are central components of adhesive responses and are required for cell spreading onto the extracellular matrix. Among other intracellular messengers elicited by integrin ligation are reactive oxygen species, which act as synergistic mediators of cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell spreading. We report that after integrin ligation, the tyrosine kinase Src is oxidized and activated. Src displays an early activation phase, concurrent with focal adhesion formation and driven mainly by Tyr527 dephosphorylation, and a late phase, concomitant with reactive oxygen species production, cell spreading, and integrin-elicited kinase oxidation. In addition, our results suggest that reactive oxygen species are key mediators of in vitro and in vivo v-Src tumorigenic properties, as both antioxidant treatments and the oxidant-insensitive C245A and C487A Src mutants greatly decrease invasivity, serum-independent and anchorage-independent growth, and tumor onset. Therefore we propose that, in addition to the known phosphorylation/dephosphorylation circuitry, redox regulation of Src activity is required during both cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and tumorigenesis.

  19. GM1 ganglioside activates ERK1/2 and Akt downstream of Trk tyrosine kinase and protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Irina O; Sokolova, Tatyana V; Vlasova, Yulia A; Furaev, Victor V; Rychkova, Maria P; Avrova, Natalia F

    2014-11-01

    Ganglioside GM1 at micro- and nanomolar concentrations was shown to increase the viability of pheochromocytoma PC12 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide and diminish the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative inactivation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, the effects of micromolar GM1 being more pronounced than those of nanomolar GM1. These effects of GM1 were abolished by Trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and diminished by MEK1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C inhibitors. Hydrogen peroxide activates Trk tyrosine kinase; Akt and ERK1/2 are activated downstream of this protein kinase. GM1 was found to activate Trk receptor tyrosine kinase in PC12 cells. GM1 (100 nM and 10 µM) increased the basal activity of Akt, but did not change Akt activity in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Basal ERK1/2 activity in PC12 cells was increased by GM1 at a concentration of 10 µM, but not at nanomolar concentrations. Activation of ERK1/2 by hydrogen peroxide was enhanced by GM1 at a concentration of 10 µM and to a lesser extent at a concentration of 100 nM. Thus, the protective and metabolic effects of GM1 ganglioside on PC12 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide appear to depend on the activation of Trk receptor tyrosine kinase and downstream activation of Akt and ERK1/2.

  20. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Trawinska, Malgorzata Monika; Perrotti, Alessio Pio; De Fabritiis, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) during pregnancy has become recently a matter of continuous debate. The introduction of the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) in clinical practice has dramatically changed the prognosis of CML patients; in fact, patients diagnosed in chronic phase can reasonably expect many years of excellent disease control and good quality of life, as well as a normal life expectancy, including the necessity to address issues relating to fertility and pregnancy. Physicians are frequently being asked for advice regarding the need for, and/or the appropriateness of, stopping treatment in order to conceive. In this report, we will review the data published in terms of fertility, conception, pregnancy, pregnancy outcome and illness control for TKI treated CML patients, as well as how to manage a planned and/or unplanned pregnancy. PMID:24804001

  1. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM/ALK induces activation of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Kasprzycka, M; Liu, X; El-Salem, M; Halasa, K; Raghunath, P N; Bucki, R; Wlodarski, P; Wasik, M A

    2007-08-16

    The mechanisms of cell transformation mediated by the nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase are only partially understood. Here, we report that cell lines and native tissues derived from the NPM/ALK-expressing T-cell lymphoma display persistent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as determined by phosphorylation of mTOR targets S6rp and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). The mTOR activation is serum growth factor-independent but nutrient-dependent. It is also dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK as demonstrated by cell transfection with wild-type and functionally deficient NPM/ALK, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated NPM/ALK depletion and kinase activity suppression using the inhibitor WHI-P154. The NPM/ALK-induced mTOR activation is transduced through the mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and, to a much lesser degree, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Accordingly, whereas the low-dose PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and Akt inhibitor III profoundly inhibited Akt phosphorylation, they had a very modest effect on S6rp and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. In turn, MEK inhibitors U0126 and PD98059 and siRNA-mediated depletion of either ERK1 or ERK2 inhibited S6rp phosphorylation much more effectively. Finally, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin markedly decreased proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate of ALK+TCL cells. These findings identify mTOR as a novel key target of NPM/ALK and suggest that mTOR inhibitors may prove effective in therapy of ALK-induced malignancies.

  2. Rapid evaluation of tyrosine kinase activity of membrane-integrated human epidermal growth factor receptor using the yeast Gγ recruitment system.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nobuo; Honda, Shinya

    2015-04-17

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family and plays key roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes, including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Deregulation of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity is involved in the development and progression of human cancers. In the present study, we attempted to develop a method to evaluate the tyrosine kinase activity of human EGFR using the yeast Gγ recruitment system. Autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues on the cytoplasmic tail of EGFR induces recruitment of Grb2-fused Gγ subunits to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in yeast cells, which leads to G-protein signal transduction and activation of downstream signaling events, including mating and diploid cell growth. We demonstrate that our system is applicable for the evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which are regarded as promising drug candidates to prevent the growth of tumor cells. This approach provides a rapid and easy-to-use tool to select EGFR-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are able to permeate eukaryotic membranes and function in intracellular environments.

  3. Antidepressants increase glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor production through monoamine-independent activation of protein tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Hisaoka, Kazue; Takebayashi, Minoru; Tsuchioka, Mami; Maeda, Natsuko; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies show that neuronal and glial plasticity are important for therapeutic action of antidepressants. We previously reported that antidepressants increase glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) production in rat C6 glioma cells (C6 cells). Here, we found that amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, increased both GDNF mRNA expression and release, which were selectively and completely inhibited by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitors. Indeed, treatment of amitriptyline rapidly increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activities. Furthermore, different classes of antidepressants also rapidly increased ERK activity. The extent of acute ERK activation and GDNF release were significantly correlated to each other in individual antidepressants, suggesting an important role of acute ERK activation in GDNF production. Furthermore, antidepressants increased the acute ERK activation and GDNF mRNA expression in normal human astrocytes as well as C6 cells. Although 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT), but not noradrenaline or dopamine, increased ERK activation and GDNF release via 5-HT2A receptors, ketanserin, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, did not have any effect on the amitriptyline-induced ERK activation. Thus, GDNF production by amitriptyline was independent of monoamine. Both of the amitriptyline-induced ERK activation and GDNF mRNA expression were blocked by genistein, a general protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor. Actually, we found that amitriptyline acutely increased phosphorylation levels of several phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. Taken together, these findings indicate that ERK activation through PTK regulates antidepressant-induced GDNF production and that the GDNF production in glial cells may be a novel action of the antidepressant, which is independent of monoamine. PMID:17210798

  4. Mechanosensing Controlled Directly by Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Wolfenson, Haguy; Hameed, Feroz M; Bershadsky, Alexander D; Sheetz, Michael P

    2016-09-14

    To understand how cells form tissues, we need to understand how the tyrosine kinases are involved in controlling cell mechanics, whether they act directly as parts of mechanosensing machines or indirectly. Cells test the critical parameter of matrix rigidity by locally contracting ("pinching") matrices and measuring forces, and the depletion of contractile units causes transformation. We report here that knocking down the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), AXL, and ROR2, alters rigidity sensing and increases the magnitude or duration of local contraction events, respectively. Phospho-AXL and ROR2 localize to contraction units and bind major contractile components, tropomyosin 2.1 (AXL), myosin IIA (AXL), and filamin A (ROR2). At a molecular level, phosphorylated AXL localizes to active myosin filaments and phosphorylates tropomyosin at a tyrosine critical for adhesion formation. ROR2 binding of ligand is unnecessary, but binding filamin A helps function. Thus, AXL and ROR2 alter rigidity sensing and consequently morphogenic processes by directly controlling local mechanosensory contractions without ligands. PMID:27559755

  5. Tyrosine kinase activity of CD4-associated p56lck may not be required for CD4-dependent T-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, T L; Burakoff, S J

    1993-01-01

    The lymphoid-specific tyrosine kinase p56lck (Lck) is critical for the development and activation of T lymphocytes, and Lck kinase activity has been implicated in both T-cell antigen receptor/CD3- and CD4-mediated signaling. CD4-dependent T-cell activation has been demonstrated to be dependent upon the association of CD4 with Lck. To examine the role of the kinase activity of Lck in CD4-dependent T-cell activation, we have generated several kinase-deficient mutants of Lck. When transfected into CD4+ murine T-cell hybridoma cells, these mutants cause approximately 90% diminution in CD4-associated Lck kinase activity. Specifically, upon CD4 crosslinking there is decreased Lck autophosphorylation and decreased phosphorylation of an exogenous substrate. When CD4 is crosslinked to the T-cell antigen receptor-CD3 complex, decreased phosphorylation of associated substrates is also observed. In spite of this striking inhibition of Lck kinase function, cells expressing the kinase-deficient mutants demonstrate normal or enhanced CD4-dependent antigen responsiveness. These data demonstrate that the level of Lck kinase activity does not correlate with its CD4-associated function and suggest that the kinase activity of Lck may not be required for CD4-mediated signaling. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7505449

  6. Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C is phosphorylated and inhibited by 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Zhao, Z; Filloux, C; Fischer, E H; Van Obberghen, E

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine-phosphatase 2C (PTP2C, also named SHPTP2, SHPTP3, or PTP1D) is a cytosolic enzyme with two Src homology 2 domains. We have investigated its regulation by phosphorylation in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells. In untreated cells, PTP2C was phosphorylated predominantly on serine residues. A 5-min treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced an increase in phosphorylation on threonine and, to a lesser degree, on serine. After 45 min of exposure to EGF, PTP2C phosphorylation returned to basal levels. Using an in vitro kinase assay, we found that the 44-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase, p44mapk, phosphorylated PTP2C on serine and threonine residues. This phosphorylation resulted in a pronounced inhibition of PTP2C enzyme activity measured with phosphorylated EGF receptors as substrate. Moreover, in intact PC12 cells, PTP2C was also inhibited following a short EGF treatment, but its activity returned to normal when the exposure to EGF was maintained for 45 min. The profile of this response to EGF can be inversely correlated to that of the stimulatory action of EGF on p44mapk. These data suggest that the EGF-induced regulation of PTP2C activity is mediated by p44mapk. These findings provide evidence for an additional role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade--namely, the regulation of a PTP. Images PMID:8197172

  7. Insulin-induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase requires active phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1D.

    PubMed Central

    Ouwens, D M; Mikkers, H M; van der Zon, G C; Stein-Gerlach, M; Ullrich, A; Maassen, J A

    1996-01-01

    Insulin stimulation of fibroblasts rapidly induces the tyrosine dephosphorylation of proteins of 68 kDa and 125 kDa, in addition to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-chain, insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2, and Shc. Using specific antibodies, the 68 kDa and 125 kDa proteins were identified as paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (pp125FAK) respectively. We have examined whether dephosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK requires interaction of the cells with the extracellular matrix. For this, cells were grown on poly(L-lysine) plates, and the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin was increased by addition of lysophosphatidic acid. Under these conditions, insulin still induced the complete dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin, indicating that this process can occur independently of the interaction of integrins with extracellular matrix proteins. We also studied whether dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin results from the action of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. It was found that phenylarsine oxide, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, prevented the insulin-induced dephosphorylation of pp125FAK and paxillin. Furthermore, this insulin-induced dephosphorylation was also impaired in cells expressing a dominant-negative mutant of phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1D (PTP 1D). Thus we have identified paxillin as a target for dephosphorylation by insulin. In addition, we have obtained evidence that the insulin-mediated dephosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK requires active PTP 1D. PMID:8809054

  8. Ocular Toxicity of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To review common tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as their ocular side effects and management. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was conducted using cINahl®, Pubmed, and cochrane databases for articles published since 2004 with the following search terms: ocular toxicities, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ophthalmology, adverse events, eye, and vision. Data Synthesis Tyrosine kinase inhibitors can cause significant eye toxicity. Conclusions Given the prevalence of new tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies and the complexity of possible pathogenesis of ocular pathology, oncology nurses can appreciate the occurrence of ocular toxicities and the role of nursing in the management of these problems. Implications for Nursing Knowledge of the risk factors and etiology of ocular toxicity of targeted cancer therapies can guide nursing assessment, enhance patient education, and improve care management. Including a review of eye symptoms and vision issues in nursing assessment can enhance early detection and treatment of ocular toxicity. PMID:26906134

  9. Synaptic generation of an intracellular retrograde signal requires activation of the tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Stough, Shara; Kopec, Ashley M; Carew, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Cellular changes underlying memory formation can be generated in an activity-dependent manner at specific synapses. Thus an important question concerns the mechanisms by which synaptic signals communicate with the cell body to mediate these cellular changes. A monosynaptic circuit that is enhanced by sensitization in Aplysia is well-suited to study this question because three different subcellular compartments: (i) the sensorimotor SN-MN synapses, (ii) the SN projections to MNs via axonal connections, (iii) the SN cell bodies, can all be manipulated and studied independently. Here, we report that activity-dependent (AD) training in either the entire SN-MN circuit or in only the synaptic compartment, activates MAPK in a temporally and spatially specific pattern. Specifically, we find (i) MAPK activation is first transiently generated at SN-MN synapses during training, (ii) immediately after training MAPK is transiently activated in SN-MN axonal connections and persistently activated in SN cell bodies, and finally, (iii) MAPK is activated in SN cell bodies and SN-MN synapses 1h after training. These data suggest that there is an intracellularly transported retrograde signal generated at the synapse which is later responsible for delayed MAPK activation at SN somata. Finally, we find that this retrograde signal requires activation of tyrosine kinase (TK) and MEK signaling cascades at the synapses.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein: a ligand and specific activator of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt4.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J; Gray, A; Yuan, J; Luoh, S M; Avraham, H; Wood, W I

    1996-01-01

    The tyrosine kinases Flt4, Flt1, and Flk1 (or KDR) constitute a family of endothelial cell-specific receptors with seven immunoglobulin-like domains and a split kinase domain. Flt1 and Flk1 have been shown to play key roles in vascular development; these two receptors bind and are activated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). No ligand has been identified for Flt4, whose expression becomes restricted during development to the lymphatic endothelium. We have identified cDNA clones from a human glioma cell line that encode a secreted protein with 32% amino acid identity to VEGF. This protein, designated VEGF-related protein (VRP), specifically binds to the extracellular domain of Flt4, stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of Flt4 expressed in mammalian cells, and promotes the mitogenesis of human lung endothelial cells. VRP fails to bind appreciably to the extracellular domain of Flt1 or Flk1. The protein contains a C-terminal, cysteine-rich region of about 180 amino acids that is not found in VEGF. A 2.4-kb VRP mRNA is found in several human tissues including adult heart, placenta, ovary, and small intestine and in fetal lung and kidney. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:8700872

  11. Activation of the neu tyrosine kinase induces the fos/jun transcription factor complex, the glucose transporter and ornithine decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the ability of the neu tyrosine kinase to induce a signal for the activation of cell growth-regulated genes. Serum-starved NIH 3T3 cells expressing an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF- R)/neu construct encoding a hybrid receptor protein were stimulated with EGF and the activation of the neu tyrosine kinase and stimulation of growth factor inducible genes were followed at the mRNA, protein, and activity levels, and compared to the corresponding responses in the neu proto-oncogene and oncogene expressing cells. Induction of the expression of jun mRNAs was an immediate early effect of EGF stimulation, followed by a marked increase in the biosynthesis of the fos/jun transcription factor complex and an increased transcription factor activity as measured by a recombinant transcription unit using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assays. In distinction, elevated AP- 1/PEA-1 activity in the absence of a significant increase in jun and fos expression was characteristic of the neu oncogene-expressing cells. The glucose transporter mRNA increased at 2 h of EGF stimulation and was associated with enhanced glucose transport of the EGF-treated cells. An increase of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and activity followed these changes. In contrast, serum-starved, EGF-treated neu proto-oncogene- and oncogene-expressing cells showed constitutively low and high glucose transporter and ODC activities, respectively. These findings demonstrate that the chimeric EGF-R/neu receptor is capable of activating the expression of both immediate early genes and biochemical activities associated with cell growth stimulation. PMID:2572601

  12. Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Asahiro; Gong, Jian; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly targeted therapeutic agents are constantly being developed and have been shown to be effective in various clinical trials. One group of representative targeted oncogenic kinases, the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), has been associated with gastric cancer development. Trastuzumab, an inhibitor of ERBB2, has been approved for the treatment of gastric cancer, although other receptor tyrosine kinases, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, IGF-1R and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, are also activated in gastric cancer. The promising results of the trastuzumab clinical trial for gastric cancer resulted in the approval of trastuzumab-based therapy as a first-line treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients. On the other hand, the trial examining bevacizumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy did not meet its primary goal of increasing the overall survival time of gastric cancer patients; however, a significantly higher response rate and a longer progression-free survival were observed in the bevacizumab arm of the trial. Other clinical trials, especially phase III trials that have tested drugs targeting RTKs, such as cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, erlotinib, figitumumab, sorafenib, sunitinib and lapatinib, have shown that these drugs have modest effects against gastric cancer. This review summarizes the recent results from the clinical trials of molecularly targeted drugs and suggests that further improvements in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer can be achieved through the combination of conventional drugs with the new molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:24782606

  13. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities.

  14. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  15. Targeting Tyrosine Kinases and Autophagy in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases play significant roles in tumor progression and therapy resistance. Inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are on the forefront of targeted therapy. For prostate cancer, tyrosine kinases play an additional role in the development of castration-resistant disease state, the most troubling aspect of prostate cancinogenesis which presently defies any effective treatment. Among the 30 or so tyrosine kinases expressed in a typical prostate cancer cell, nearly one third of them have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Interestingly, most of them channel signals through a trio of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Src/Etk/FAK, referred here as Src tyrosine kinase complex. This complex has been shown to play a significant role in the aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) mediated by growth factors (e.g., epidermal growth factor (EGF)), cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6), chemokines (IL-8), and neurokines (gastrin-releasing peptide). These factors are induced and released from the prostate cancer to the stromal cells upon androgen withdrawal. The Src kinase complex has the ability to phosphorylate androgen receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation and stabilization of un-liganded androgen receptor. Indeed, tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting Src can inhibit androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in preclinical xenograft model. While effective in inducing growth arrest and inhibiting metastasis of castration-resistant tumors, Src inhibitors rarely induce a significant level of apoptosis. This is also reflected by the general ineffectiveness of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as monotherapy in clinical trials. One of the underlying causes of apoptosis resistance is “autophagy,” which is induced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and by androgen withdrawal. Autophagy is a self-digesting process to regenerate energy by removal of long-lived proteins and retired organelles to provide a survival mechanism to cells encountering stresses

  16. Antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory activity of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib in experimental models of lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wollin, Lutz; Maillet, Isabelle; Quesniaux, Valérie; Holweg, Alexander; Ryffel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib (BIBF 1120) is in clinical development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To explore its mode of action, nintedanib was tested in human lung fibroblasts and mouse models of lung fibrosis. Human lung fibroblasts expressing platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor-α and -β were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor BB (homodimer) (PDGF-BB). Receptor activation was assessed by autophosphorylation and cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-induced fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation was determined by α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) mRNA analysis. Lung fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal bleomycin or silica particle administration. Nintedanib was administered every day by gavage at 30, 60, or 100 mg/kg. Preventive nintedanib treatment regimen started on the day that bleomycin was administered. Therapeutic treatment regimen started at various times after the induction of lung fibrosis. Bleomycin caused increased macrophages and lymphocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and collagen in lung tissue. Histology revealed chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Silica-induced lung pathology additionally showed elevated BAL neutrophils, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels, and granuloma formation. Nintedanib inhibited PDGF receptor activation, fibroblast proliferation, and fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation. Nintedanib significantly reduced BAL lymphocytes and neutrophils but not macrophages. Furthermore, interleukin-1β, KC, TIMP-1, and lung collagen were significantly reduced. Histologic analysis showed significantly diminished lung inflammation, granuloma formation, and fibrosis. The therapeutic effect was dependent on treatment start and duration. Nintedanib inhibited receptor tyrosine kinase activation and the proliferation and

  17. Transcriptional regulation through glutamate receptors: Involvement of tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    López-Bayghen, Esther; Aguirre, Adán; Ortega, Arturo

    2003-12-01

    Glutamate receptors play a key role in neuronal plasticity, learning and memory, and in several neuropathologies. Short-term and long-term changes in synaptic efficacy are triggered by glutamate. Although an enhanced glutamate-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation has been described in several systems, its role in membrane-to-nuclei signaling is unclear. Taking advantage of the fact that the gene encoding the chick kainate-binding protein undergoes a glutamate-dependent transcriptional regulation via an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site, we evaluated the involvement of tyrosine kinases in this process. We describe here the participation of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases in the signaling cascade triggered by glutamate. Our results suggest that in Bergmann glia cells, glutamate receptors transactivate receptor tyrosine kinases, favoring the idea of a complex network of signals activated by this excitatory neurotransmitter that results in regulation of gene expression.

  18. Cdk5/p35 phosphorylates lemur tyrosine kinase-2 to regulate protein phosphatase-1C phosphorylation and activity.

    PubMed

    Manser, Catherine; Vagnoni, Alessio; Guillot, Florence; Davies, Jennifer; Miller, Christopher C J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (cdk5)/p35 and protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) are two major enzymes that control a variety of physiological processes within the nervous system including neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity and axonal transport. Defective cdk5/p35 and PP1 function are also implicated in several major human neurodegenerative diseases. Cdk5/p35 and the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1C) both bind to the brain-enriched, serine-threonine kinase lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2). Moreover, LMTK2 phosphorylates PP1C on threonine-320 (PP1Cthr³²⁰) to inhibit its activity. Here, we demonstrate that LMTK2 is phosphorylated on serine-1418 (LMTK2ser¹⁴¹⁸) by cdk5/p35 and present evidence that this regulates its ability to phosphorylate PP1Cthr³²⁰. We thus describe a new signalling pathway within the nervous system that links cdk5/p35 with PP1C and which has implications for a number of neuronal functions and neuronal dysfunction.

  19. The heterotrimeric G q protein-coupled angiotensin II receptor activates p21 ras via the tyrosine kinase-Shc-Grb2-Sos pathway in cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoshima, J; Izumo, S

    1996-01-01

    p21 ras plays as important role in cell proliferation, transformation and differentiation. Recently, the requirement of p21 ras has been suggested for cellular responses induced by stimulation of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. However, it remains to be determined how agonists for G protein-coupled receptors activate p21 ras in metazoans. We show here that stimulation of the G q protein-coupled angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor causes activation of p21 ras in cardiac myocytes. The p21 ras activation by Ang II is mediated by an increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity, but not by an inhibition of the GTPase-activating protein. Ang II causes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and its association with Grb2 and mSos-1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of p21 ras. This leads to translocation of mSos-1 to the membrane fraction. Shc associates with the SH3 domain of Fyn whose tyrosine kinase activity is activated by Ang II with a similar time course as that of tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc. Ang II-induced increase in the guanine nucleotide exchange activity was inhibited by a peptide ligand specific to the SH3 domain of the Src family tyrosine kinases. These results suggest that an agonist for a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein-coupled receptor may initiate the cross-talk with non-receptor-type tyrosine kinases, thereby activating p21 ras using a similar mechanism as receptor tyrosine kinase-induced p21 ras activation. Images PMID:8631299

  20. A novel nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Srm: cloning and targeted disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Kohmura, N; Yagi, T; Tomooka, Y; Oyanagi, M; Kominami, R; Takeda, N; Chiba, J; Ikawa, Y; Aizawa, S

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated a novel nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Srm, that maps to the distal end of chromosome 2. It has SH2, SH2', and SH3 domains and a tyrosine residue for autophosphorylation in the kinase domain but lacks an N-terminal glycine for myristylation and a C-terminal tyrosine which, when phosphorylated, suppresses kinase activity. These are structural features of the recently identified Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. The Srm N-terminal unique domain, however, lacks the structural characteristics of the Tec family kinases, and the sequence similarity is highest to Src in the SH region. The expression of two transcripts is rather ubiquitous and changes according to tissue and developmental stage. Mutant mice were generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells but displayed no apparent phenotype as in mutant mice expressing Src family kinases. These results suggest that Srm constitutes a new family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases that may be redundant in function. Images PMID:7935409

  1. Temporal differences in the activation of three classes of non-transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases following B-cell antigen receptor surface engagement.

    PubMed

    Saouaf, S J; Mahajan, S; Rowley, R B; Kut, S A; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Tsukada, S; Witte, O N; Bolen, J B

    1994-09-27

    We evaluated in WEHI 231 B cells the time-dependent responses of Lyn, Blk, Btk, Syk, and three members of the Jak family of protein tyrosine kinases following antibody-mediated surface engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor. Our results show that the enzyme activities of Lyn and Blk were stimulated within seconds of antigen receptor engagement and correlated with the initial tyrosine phosphorylation of the Ig alpha and Ig beta subunits of the B-cell antigen receptor. Btk enzyme activity was also transiently stimulated and was maximal at approximately 5 min after B-cell receptor surface binding. Syk activity gradually increased to a maximum at 10-30 min following receptor ligation and was found to parallel the association of Syk with the tyrosine phosphorylated Ig alpha and Ig beta subunits of the receptor. While the specific activities of the Jak1, Jak2, and Tyk2 protein tyrosine kinases were unaltered following B-cell receptor ligation, the abundance of Jak1 and Jak2 were increased 3- to 4-fold within 10 min of receptor engagement. These results demonstrate that multiple families of non-transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases are temporally regulated during the process of B-cell antigen receptor-initiated intracellular signal transduction. PMID:7524079

  2. Temporal differences in the activation of three classes of non-transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases following B-cell antigen receptor surface engagement.

    PubMed Central

    Saouaf, S J; Mahajan, S; Rowley, R B; Kut, S A; Fargnoli, J; Burkhardt, A L; Tsukada, S; Witte, O N; Bolen, J B

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated in WEHI 231 B cells the time-dependent responses of Lyn, Blk, Btk, Syk, and three members of the Jak family of protein tyrosine kinases following antibody-mediated surface engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor. Our results show that the enzyme activities of Lyn and Blk were stimulated within seconds of antigen receptor engagement and correlated with the initial tyrosine phosphorylation of the Ig alpha and Ig beta subunits of the B-cell antigen receptor. Btk enzyme activity was also transiently stimulated and was maximal at approximately 5 min after B-cell receptor surface binding. Syk activity gradually increased to a maximum at 10-30 min following receptor ligation and was found to parallel the association of Syk with the tyrosine phosphorylated Ig alpha and Ig beta subunits of the receptor. While the specific activities of the Jak1, Jak2, and Tyk2 protein tyrosine kinases were unaltered following B-cell receptor ligation, the abundance of Jak1 and Jak2 were increased 3- to 4-fold within 10 min of receptor engagement. These results demonstrate that multiple families of non-transmembrane protein tyrosine kinases are temporally regulated during the process of B-cell antigen receptor-initiated intracellular signal transduction. Images PMID:7524079

  3. TOPK promotes lung cancer resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors by phosphorylating and activating c-Jun

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Ting; Niu, Mengjie; Zhang, Shengli; Jia, Lintao; Li, Shengqing

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have shown promising clinical efficacy in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, resistance is frequently observed in malignant cells, operating through a mechanism that remains largely unknown. The present study shows that T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) is upregulated in NSCLC and excessively activated in TKI-refractory cells. TOPK dictates the responsiveness of lung cancers to the EGFR-targeted TKI gefitinib through the transcription factor AP-1 component c-Jun. TOPK binds directly to and phosphorylates c-Jun, which consequently activates the transcription of AP-1 target genes, including CCND1 and CDC2. TOPK silencing sensitizes EGFR-TKI-resistant lung cancer cells to gefitinib and increases gefitinib efficacy in preclinical lung adenocarcinoma xenograft models. These findings represent a novel mechanism of lung cancer resistance to TKIs and suggest that TOPK may have value both as a predictive biomarker and as a therapeutic target: TOPK-targeted therapy may synergize with EGFR-targeted therapy in lung cancers. PMID:26745678

  4. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM/ALK induces activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway independently of c-Raf.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Kasprzycka, M; Liu, X; Raghunath, P N; Wlodarski, P; Wasik, M A

    2007-02-01

    The mechanisms of cell transformation mediated by the highly oncogenic, chimeric NPM/ALK tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. Here we report that cell lines and native tissues derived from the NPM/ALK-expressing T-cell lymphoma (ALK+ TCL) display phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 complex. Transfection of BaF3 cells with NPM/ALK induces phosphorylation of EKR1/2 and of its direct activator mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK) 1/2. Depletion of NPM/ALK by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or its inhibition by WHI-154 abrogates the MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The NPM/ALK-induced MEK/ERK activation is independent of c-Raf as evidenced by the lack of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon c-Raf inactivation by two different inhibitors, RI and ZM336372, and by its siRNA-mediated depletion. In contrast, ERK1/2 activation is strictly MEK1/2 dependent as shown by suppression of the ERK1/2 phosphorylation by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. The U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation impaired proliferation and viability of the ALK+ TCL cells and expression of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-xL and cell cycle-promoting CDK4 and phospho-RB. Finally, siRNA-mediated depletion of both ERK1 and ERK2 inhibited cell proliferation, whereas depletion of ERK 1 (but not ERK2) markedly increased cell apoptosis. These findings identify MEK/ERK as a new signaling pathway activated by NPM/ALK and indicate that the pathway represents a novel therapeutic target in the ALK-induced malignancies.

  5. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide increases tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins and opens the paracellular pathway in lung microvascular endothelia through TLR4, TRAF6, and src family kinase activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: LPS is a key mediator in vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections and opens the pulmonary vascular endothelial paracellular pathway through protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activation. We asked which PTKs and signaling molecules mediate LPS-induced endothel...

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) stabilizes MyoD through direct phosphorylation at tyrosine 156 during myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Chulman; Cho, Sun-Jung; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2011-05-27

    Previously, we reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) activated in the mid-stage of skeletal muscle differentiation promotes myogenic differentiation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we investigated an activity of MEK1 for MyoD. Activated MEK1 associates with MyoD in the nucleus of differentiating myoblasts. In vitro kinase assay using active MEK1, a (32)P-labeled protein band corresponding to GST-MyoD was observed but not to mutant GST-MyoD-Y156F. Tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MyoD was detected with a specific anti-pMyoD-Y156 antibody; however, this response was blocked by PD184352, a MEK-specific inhibitor. These results indicate that activated MEK1 phosphorylates the MyoD-Y156 residue directly. Interestingly, the protein level of mutant MyoD-Y156F decreased compared with that of wild type but was recovered in the presence of lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor. The protein level of MyoD-Y156E, which mimics phosphorylation at Tyr-156, was above that of wild type, indicating that the phosphorylation protects MyoD from the ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation. In addition, the low protein level of MyoD-Y156F was recovered over that of wild type by an additional mutation at Leu-164, a critical binding residue of MAFbx/AT-1, a Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF) E3-ubiquitin ligase. The amount of MyoD co-precipitated with MAFbx/AT-1 also was reduced in the presence of active MEK1. Thus, these results suggested that the phosphorylation probably interrupts the binding of MAFbx/AT-1 to MyoD and thereby increases its stability. Collectively, our results suggest that MEK1 activated in differentiating myoblasts stimulates muscle differentiation by phosphorylating MyoD-Y156, which results in MyoD stabilization.

  7. Conformation-selective inhibitors reveal differences in the activation and phosphate-binding loops of the tyrosine kinases Abl and Src.

    PubMed

    Hari, Sanjay B; Perera, B Gayani K; Ranjitkar, Pratistha; Seeliger, Markus A; Maly, Dustin J

    2013-12-20

    Over the past decade, an increasingly diverse array of potent and selective inhibitors that target the ATP-binding sites of protein kinases have been developed. Many of these inhibitors, like the clinically approved drug imatinib (Gleevec), stabilize a specific catalytically inactive ATP-binding site conformation of their kinases targets. Imatinib is notable in that it is highly selective for its kinase target, Abl, over other closely related tyrosine kinases, such as Src. In addition, imatinib is highly sensitive to the phosphorylation state of Abl's activation loop, which is believed to be a general characteristic of all inhibitors that stabilize a similar inactive ATP-binding site conformation. In this report, we perform a systematic analysis of a diverse series of ATP-competitive inhibitors that stabilize a similar inactive ATP-binding site conformation as imatinib with the tyrosine kinases Src and Abl. In contrast to imatinib, many of these inhibitors have very similar potencies against Src and Abl. Furthermore, only a subset of this class of inhibitors is sensitive to the phosphorylation state of the activation loop of these kinases. In attempting to explain this observation, we have uncovered an unexpected correlation between Abl's activation loop and another flexible active site feature, called the phosphate-binding loop (p-loop). These studies shed light on how imatinib is able to obtain its high target selectivity and reveal how the conformational preference of flexible active site regions can vary between closely related kinases.

  8. Motor activity affects adult skeletal muscle re-innervation acting via tyrosine kinase receptors.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Stefano; Bartolini, Fanny; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Betti, Michele; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Lattanzi, Davide; Di Palma, Michael; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, muscle expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein under activity control has been reported. BDNF is a neurotrophin known to be involved in axon sprouting in the CNS. Hence, we set out to study the effect of chronic treadmill mid-intensity running on adult rat muscle re-innervation, and to explore the involvement of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk) receptors. After nerve crush, muscle re-innervation was evaluated using intracellular recordings, tension recordings, immunostaining and Western blot analyses. An enhanced muscle multiple innervation was found in running rats that was fully reversed to control values blocking Trk receptors or interrupting the running activity. An increase in muscle multiple innervation was also found in sedentary rats treated with a selective TrkB receptor agonist. The expression of TrkB receptors by intramuscular axons was demonstrated, and increased muscle expression of BDNF was found in running animals. The increase in muscle multiple innervation was consistent with the faster muscle re-innervation that we found in running animals. We conclude that, when regenerating axons contact muscle cells, muscle activity progressively increases modulating BDNF and possibly other growth factors, which in turn, acting via Trk receptors, induce axon sprouting to re-innervate skeletal muscle.

  9. Signal transduction in macrophages by glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and Leishmania: Activation of protein tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C by inositolglycan and diacylglycerol moieties

    PubMed Central

    Tachado, Souvenir D.; Gerold, Peter; Schwarz, Ralph; Novakovic, Suzanna; McConville, Malcolm; Schofield, Louis

    1997-01-01

    The perturbation of various glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface proteins imparts profound regulatory signals to macrophages, lymphocytes and other cell types. The specific contribution of the GPI moieties to these events however is unclear. This study demonstrates that purified GPIs of Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania mexicana origin are sufficient to initiate signal transduction when added alone to host cells as chemically defined agonists. GPIs (10 nM–1 μM) induce rapid activation of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) p59hck in macrophages. The minimal structural requirement for PTK activation is the evolutionarily conserved core glycan sequence Manα1-2Manα1-6Manα1-4GlcN1-6myo-inositol. GPI-associated diacylglycerols independently activate the calcium-independent ɛ isoform of protein kinase C. Both signals collaborate in regulating the downstream NF-κB/rel-dependent gene expression of interleukin 1α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and inducible NO synthase. The alkylacylglycerol-containing iM4 GIPL of L. mexicana, however, is unable to activate protein kinase C and inhibits TNF expression in response to other agonists, establishing signaling specificity among structurally distinct GPIs. GPI alone appears sufficient to mimic the activities of malaria parasite extracts in the signaling pathway leading to TNF expression. A mAb to GPI blocks TNF induction by parasite extracts indicating that GPI is a necessary agent in this response. As protozoal GPIs are closely related to their mammalian counterparts, the data indicate that GPIs do indeed constitute a novel outside-in signaling system, acting as both agonists and second messenger substrates, and imparting at least two separate signals through the structurally distinct glycan and fatty acid domains. These activities may underlie aspects of pathology and immune regulation in protozoal infections. PMID:9108098

  10. RTKdb: database of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.

    PubMed

    Grassot, Julien; Mouchiroud, Guy; Perrière, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK) are transmembrane receptors specifically found in metazoans. They represent an excellent model for studying evolution of cellular processes in metazoans because they encompass large families of modular proteins and belong to a major family of contingency generating molecules in eukaryotic cells: the protein kinases. Because tyrosine kinases have been under close scrutiny for many years in various species, they are associated with a wealth of information, mainly in mammals. Presently, most categories of RTK were identified in mammals, but in a near future other model species will be sequenced, and will bring us RTKs from other metazoan clades. Thus, collecting RTK sequences would provide a good starting point as a new model for comparative and evolutionary studies applying to multigene families. In this context, we are developing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase database (RTKdb), which is the only database on tyrosine kinase receptors presently available. In this database, protein sequences from eight model metazoan species are organized under the format previously used for the HOVERGEN, HOBACGEN and NUREBASE systems. RTKdb can be accessed through the PBIL (Pôle Bioinformatique Lyonnais) World Wide Web server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/RTKdb/, or through the FamFetch graphical user interface available at the same address.

  11. Oncogenic activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein, Tpr-Met, involves exclusion from the endocytic degradative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, H H L; Peschard, P; Lin, T; Naujokas, M A; Zuo, D; Park, M

    2007-11-01

    Multiple mechanisms of dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are observed in human cancers. In addition to gain-of-function, loss of negative regulation also contributes to oncogenic activation of RTKs. Negative regulation of many RTKs involves their internalization and degradation in the lysosome, a process regulated through ubiquitination. RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation, are no longer transmembrane proteins, and are predicted to escape lysosomal degradation. To test this, we used the Tpr-Met oncogene, generated following chromosomal translocation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met). Unlike Met, Tpr-Met is localized in the cytoplasm and also lacks the binding site for Cbl ubiquitin ligases. We determined whether subcellular localization of Tpr-Met, and/or loss of its Cbl-binding site, is important for oncogenic activity. Presence of a Cbl-binding site and ubiquitination of cytosolic Tpr-Met oncoproteins does not alter their transforming activity. In contrast, plasma membrane targeting allows Tpr-Met to enter the endocytic pathway, and Tpr-Met transforming activity as well as protein stability are decreased in a Cbl-dependent manner. We show that transformation by Tpr-Met is in part dependent on its ability to escape normal downregulatory mechanisms. This provides a paradigm for many RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation.

  12. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, TYRO3, AXL, and MER, Demonstrate Distinct Patterns and Complex Regulation of Ligand-induced Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Wen-I; Nguyen, Khanh-Quynh N.; Calarese, Daniel A.; Garforth, Scott J.; Antes, Anita L.; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Almo, Steve C.; Birge, Raymond B.; Kotenko, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL, and MER receptors (TAMs) are three homologous type I receptor-tyrosine kinases that are activated by endogenous ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6). These ligands can either activate TAMs as soluble factors, or, in turn, opsonize phosphatidylserine (PS) on apoptotic cells (ACs) and serve as bridging molecules between ACs and TAMs. Abnormal expression and activation of TAMs have been implicated in promoting proliferation and survival of cancer cells, as well as in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Despite the fact that TAM receptors share significant similarity, little is known about the specificity of interaction between TAM receptors and their ligands, particularly in the context of ACs, and about the functional diversity of TAM receptors. To study ligand-mediated activation of TAMs, we generated a series of reporter cell lines expressing chimeric TAM receptors. Using this system, we found that each TAM receptor has a unique pattern of interaction with and activation by GAS6 and PROS1, which is also differentially affected by the presence of ACs, PS-containing lipid vesicles and enveloped virus. We also demonstrated that γ-carboxylation of ligands is essential for the full activation of TAMs and that soluble immunoglobulin-like TAM domains act as specific ligand antagonists. These studies demonstrate that, despite their similarity, TYRO3, AXL, and MER are likely to perform distinct functions in both immunoregulation and the recognition and removal of ACs. PMID:25074926

  13. Regulation of mouse gamete interaction by a sperm tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Leyton, L; LeGuen, P; Bunch, D; Saling, P M

    1992-12-15

    A 95-kDa mouse sperm protein has been previously identified as a putative receptor involved in the sperm-egg interactions that lead to fertilization. The ligand for this receptor is the zona pellucida glycoprotein ZP3. This constituent of the oocyte-specific extracellular matrix mediates not only sperm binding to the zona but also triggers acrosomal exocytosis. The latter, also termed the acrosome reaction, is a key regulatory event upon which fertilization is absolutely dependent. Previously, we showed that the 95-kDa protein that binds ZP3 is a substrate for tyrosine kinase, and its phosphotyrosine content increases after sperm-zona pellucida binding. Here, we show the presence of protein tyrosine kinase activity in sperm plasma membranes and in electroeluted 95-kDa protein. The tyrosine kinase activity of the isolated protein is stimulated by solubilized zona pellucida and inhibited by tyrphostin RG-50864, a membrane-permeable tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, tyrphostin inhibits zona-triggered acrosomal exocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate that the 95-kDa protein participates in a critical regulatory event of gamete interaction; moreover, our experiments suggest that sperm protein tyrosine kinase may be an excellent target for the control of fertility.

  14. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  15. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment.

  16. Molecular dissection of egg fertilization signaling with the aid of tyrosine kinase-specific inhibitor and activator strategies.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Hirahara, Shino; Nishihira, Yusuke; Fukami, Yasuo

    2004-03-11

    Fertilization is triggered by sperm-egg interaction and fusion that initiate a transient rise(s) in the free intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) that is responsible for a series of biochemical and cell biological events, so-called "egg activation". Calcium-dependent egg activation leads to the initiation of developmental program that culminates in the birth of individuals. A growing body of knowledge has uncovered the molecular mechanisms underlying sperm-induced transient [Ca(2+)](i) increase(s) to some extent; namely, in most animals so far studied, a second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) seems to play a pivotal role in inducing [Ca(2+)](i) transient(s) at fertilization. However, signaling mechanisms used by sperm to initiate IP(3)-[Ca(2+)](i) transient pathway have not been elucidated. To approach this problem, we have employed African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, as a model animal and conducted experiments designed specifically to determine the role of the Src family protein-tyrosine kinases (SFKs or Src family PTKs) in the sperm-induced egg activation. This review compiles information about the use of PTK-specific inhibitors and activators for analyzing signal transduction events in egg fertilization. Specifically, we focus on molecular identification of Xenopus Src and the signaling mechanism of the Src-dependent egg activation that has been established recently. We also summarize recent advances in understanding the role of the Src family kinases in egg fertilization of other model organisms, and discuss future directions of the field.

  17. Tyrosine kinase blockers: new hope for successful cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Dariusz; Sliwinski, Tomasz; Poplawski, Tomasz; Ferriola, Deborah; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are attractive targets for cancer therapy, as quite often their abnormal signaling has been linked with tumor development and growth. Constitutive activated TKs stimulate multiple signaling pathways responsible for DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. During the last few years, thorough analysis of the mechanism underlying tyrosine kinase's activity led to novel cancer therapy using TKs blockers. These drugs are remarkably effective in the treatment of various human tumors including head and neck, gastric, prostate and breast cancer and leukemias. The most successful example of kinase blockers is Imatinib (Imatinib mesylate, Gleevec, STI571), the inhibitor of Bcr/Abl oncoprotein, which has become a first-line therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The introduction of STI571 for the treatment of leukemia in clinical oncology has had a dramatic impact on how this disease is currently managed. Others kinase inhibitors used recently in cancer therapy include Dasatinib (BMS-354825) specific for ABL non-receptor cytoplasmic kinase, Gefitinib (Iressa), Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva) and Sunitinib (SU 11248, Sutent) specific for VEGF receptor kinase, AMN107 (Nilotinib) and INNO-406 (NS-187) specific for c-KIT kinase. The following TK blockers for treatment of various human tumors are in clinical development: Lapatinib (Lapatinib ditosylate, Tykerb, GW-572016), Canertinib (CI-1033), Zactima (ZD6474), Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK 222584), Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006, Nexavar), and Leflunomide (SU101, Arava). Herein, we discuss the chemistry, biological activity and clinical potential of new drugs with tyrosine kinase blockers for cancer treatment.

  18. Intrinsic resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Baocheng; Chu, Huili; Yao, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Identifying activating EGFR mutations is a useful predictive strategy that helps select a population of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Patients with sensitizing EGFR mutations (predominantly an in-frame deletion in exon 19 and an L858R substitution) are highly responsive to first-generation EGFR TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, and show improved progression-free survival without serious side effects. However, all patients with activating EGFR mutations who are initially responsive to EGFR TKIs eventually develop acquired resistance after a median progression-free survival of 10–16 months, followed by disease progression. Moreover, ~20%–30% of NSCLC patients have no objective tumor regression on initial EGFR TKI treatment, although they harbor an activating EGFR mutation. These patients represent an NSCLC subgroup that is defined as having intrinsic or primary resistance to EGFR TKIs. Different mechanisms of acquired EGFR TKI resistance have been identified, and several novel compounds have been developed to reverse acquired resistance, but little is known about EGFR TKI intrinsic resistance. In this review, we summarize the latest findings involving mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to EGFR TKIs in advanced NSCLC with activating EGFR mutations and present possible therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. PMID:27382309

  19. Src Tyrosine Kinase Activation by 4-Hydroxynonenal Upregulates p38, ERK/AP-1 Signaling and COX-2 Expression in YPEN-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Ji; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Park, Daeui; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Yeon Ja; Chung, Ki Wung; Park, Min Hi; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a major end product of lipid peroxidation, is highly reactive and involved in various cellular processes, such as inflammatory signaling. However, to date, the mechanistic roles of 4-HNE in inflammatory signaling related to protein tyrosine kinases have not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between 4-HNE and Src (a non-receptor tyrosine kinase) for its involvement in the molecular modulation of the inflammatory signaling pathway utilizing the YPEN-1 cell system. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that 4-HNE phosphorylates (activates) Src at Tyr416 via adduct formation. In addition, LC-MS/MS and a docking simulation model revealed an addiction site at the Cys248 residue of Src, resulting in the stimulation of downstream p38, ERK/AP-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) signaling in YPEN-1 cells. The role of 4-HNE-activated Src in downstream inflammatory signaling was further investigated using dasatinib (a Src inhibitor) and by siRNA knockdown of Src. p38 and ERK were directly regulated by Src, as revealed by immunoblotting of the phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are key elements in the signaling transduction pathway initiated by Src. The study also shows that Src modulates the HNE-enhanced activation of AP-1 and the expression of COX-2 (a target gene of AP-1). Together, the results of this study show that 4-HNE stimulates Src tyrosine kinase in activation of the inflammation process. PMID:26466383

  20. Structural basis for stem cell factor–KIT signaling and activation of class III receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heli; Chen, Xiaoyan; Focia, Pamela J; He, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) binds to and activates the KIT receptor, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), to stimulate diverse processes including melanogenesis, gametogenesis and hematopoeisis. Dysregulation of KIT activation is associated with many cancers. We report a 2.5 Å crystal structure of the functional core of SCF bound to the extracellular ligand-binding domains of KIT. The structure reveals a ‘wrapping' SCF-recognition mode by KIT, in which KIT adopts a bent conformation to facilitate each of its first three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains to interact with SCF. Three surface epitopes on SCF, an extended loop, the B and C helices, and the N-terminal segment, contact distinct KIT domains, with two of the epitopes undergoing large conformational changes upon receptor binding. The SCF/KIT complex reveals a unique RTK dimerization assembly, and a novel recognition mode between four-helix bundle cytokines and Ig-family receptors. It serves as a framework for understanding the activation mechanisms of class III RTKs. PMID:17255936

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 13. Structure-activity relationships for soluble 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines designed as inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M; Murray, D K; Elliott, W L; Fry, D W; Nelson, J A; Showalter, H D; Roberts, B J; Vincent, P W; Denny, W A

    1997-11-21

    The general class of 4-(phenylamino)quinazolines are potent (some members with IC50 values < 1 nM) and selective inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), via competitive binding at the ATP site of the enzyme, but many of the early analogues had poor aqueous solubility (< 1 mM). A series of 7-substituted 4-[(3-bromophenyl)-amino]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines, together with selected (3-methylphenyl)amino analogues, were prepared by reaction of the analogous 7-fluoro derivatives with appropriate amine nucleophiles in 2-BuOH or aqueous 1-PrOH. All of the compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the tyrosine-phosphorylating action of EGF-stimulated full-length EGFR enzyme. Selected analogues were also evaluated for their inhibition of autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells in culture and against A431 tumor xenografts in mice. Analogues bearing a wide variety of polyol, cationic, and anionic solubilizing substituents retained activity, but the most effective in terms of both increased aqueous solubility (> 40 mM) and retention of overall inhibitory activity (IC50's of 0.5-10 nM against isolated enzyme and 8-40 nM for inhibition of EGFR autophosphorylation in A431 cells) were weakly basic amine derivatives. These results are broadly consistent with a proposed model for the binding of these compounds to EGFR, in which the 6- and 7-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring are in a largely hydrophobic binding region of considerable steric freedom, at the entrance of the adenine binding cleft. The most active cationic analogues have a weakly basic side chain where the amine moiety is three or more carbon atoms away from the nucleus. Two of the compounds (bearing weakly basic morpholinopropyl and strongly basic (dimethylamino)butyl solubilizing groups) produced in vivo tumor growth delays of 13-21 days against advanced stage A431 epidermoid xenografts in nude mice, when

  2. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  3. The activity and stability of the intrinsically disordered Cip/Kip protein family are regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Steve; Lelli, Moreno; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors includes p21Cip1, p27Kip1 and p57Kip2. Their kinase inhibitory activities are mediated by a homologous N-terminal kinase-inhibitory domain (KID). The Cdk inhibitory activity and stability of p27 have been shown to be regulated by a two-step phosphorylation mechanism involving a tyrosine residue within the KID and a threonine residue within the flexible C-terminus. We show that these residues are conserved in p21 and p57, suggesting that a similar phosphorylation cascade regulates these Cdk inhibitors. However, the presence of a cyclin binding motif within its C-terminus alters the regulatory interplay between p21 and Cdk2/cyclin A, and its responses to tyrosine phosphorylation and altered p21:Cdk2/cyclin A stoichiometry. We also show that the Cip/Kip proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro by representatives of many non-receptor tyrosine kinase (NRTK) sub-families, suggesting that NRTKs may generally regulate the activity and stability of these Cdk inhibitors. Our results further suggest that the Cip/Kip proteins integrate signals from various NRTK pathways and cell cycle regulation. PMID:25463440

  4. The anti-esophageal cancer cell activity by a novel tyrosine/phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor PP121

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Zhou, Yajuan; Cheng, Long; Hu, Desheng; Zhou, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhaohua; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang

    2015-09-11

    Here we explored the potential effect of PP121, a novel dual inhibitor of tyrosine and phosphoinositide kinases, against human esophageal cancer cells. We showed that PP121 exerted potent cytotoxic effect in primary (patient-derived) and established (Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-3 lines) esophageal cancer cells, possibly through activating caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis. PP121 was, however, non-cytotoxic to the normal human esophageal epithelial cells (EECs). At the molecular level, we showed that PP121 blocked Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) activation in esophageal cancer cells, which was restored by introducing a constitutively-active Akt (CA-Akt). Yet, CA-Akt only partly inhibited cytotoxicity by PP121 in Eca-109 cells. Importantly, we showed that PP121 inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signaling activation in esophageal cancer cells, which appeared independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. In vivo, oral administration of PP121 remarkably inhibited Eca-109 xenograft growth in nude mice, and significantly improved mice survival. Further, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot assays analyzing xenografted tumors showed that PP121 inhibited Akt-mTOR and NFκB activations in vivo. Together, we demonstrate that PP121 potently inhibits esophageal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, possibly through concurrently inhibiting Akt-mTOR and NFκB signalings. - Highlights: • PP121 is cytotoxic against primary and established esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 induces caspase-3-dependnent apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 blocks Akt-mTOR activation in esophageal cancer cells. • PP121 inhibits NFκB activation, independent of Akt-mTOR blockage. • PP121 inhibits Eca-109 xenograft growth and Akt-mTOR/NFκB activation in vivo.

  5. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alice T; Hsu, Peggy P; Awad, Mark M; Engelman, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as 'druggable' targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours.

  6. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  7. PYK2: A Calcium-sensitive Protein Tyrosine Kinase Activated in Response to Fertilization of the Zebrafish Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dipika; Kinsey, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization begins with binding and fusion of a sperm with the oocyte, a process that triggers a high amplitude calcium transient which propagates through the oocyte and stimulates a series of preprogrammed signal transduction events critical for zygote development. Identification of the pathways downstream of this calcium transient remains an important step in understanding the basis of zygote quality. The present study demonstrates that the calcium-calmodulin sensitive protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 is a target of the fertilization-induced calcium transient in the zebrafish oocyte and that it plays an important role in actin-mediated events critical for sperm incorporation. At fertilization, PYK2 was activated initially at the site of sperm-oocyte interaction and was closely associated with actin filaments forming the fertilization cone. Later PYK2 activation was evident throughout the entire oocyte cortex, however activation was most intense over the animal hemisphere. Fertilization-induced PYK2 activation could be blocked by suppressing calcium transients in the ooplasm via injection of BAPTA as a calcium chelator. PYK2 activation could be artificially induced in unfertilized oocytes by injection of IP3 at concentrations sufficient to induce calcium release. Functionally, suppression of PYK2 activity by chemical inhibition or by injection of a dominant-negative construct encoding the N-terminal ERM domain of PKY2 inhibited formation of an organized fertilization cone and reduced the frequency of successful sperm incorporation. Together, the above findings support a model in which PYK2 responds to the fertilization-induced calcium transient by promoting reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton to form the fertilization cone. PMID:23084926

  8. PYK2: a calcium-sensitive protein tyrosine kinase activated in response to fertilization of the zebrafish oocyte.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dipika; Kinsey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization begins with binding and fusion of a sperm with the oocyte, a process that triggers a high amplitude calcium transient which propagates through the oocyte and stimulates a series of preprogrammed signal transduction events critical for zygote development. Identification of the pathways downstream of this calcium transient remains an important step in understanding the basis of zygote quality. The present study demonstrates that the calcium-calmodulin sensitive protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 is a target of the fertilization-induced calcium transient in the zebrafish oocyte and that it plays an important role in actin-mediated events critical for sperm incorporation. At fertilization, PYK2 was activated initially at the site of sperm-oocyte interaction and was closely associated with actin filaments forming the fertilization cone. Later PYK2 activation was evident throughout the entire oocyte cortex, however activation was most intense over the animal hemisphere. Fertilization-induced PYK2 activation could be blocked by suppressing calcium transients in the ooplasm via injection of BAPTA as a calcium chelator. PYK2 activation could be artificially induced in unfertilized oocytes by injection of IP3 at concentrations sufficient to induce calcium release. Functionally, suppression of PYK2 activity by chemical inhibition or by injection of a dominant-negative construct encoding the N-terminal ERM domain of PKY2 inhibited formation of an organized fertilization cone and reduced the frequency of successful sperm incorporation. Together, the above findings support a model in which PYK2 responds to the fertilization-induced calcium transient by promoting reorganization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton to form the fertilization cone.

  9. Conservation and early expression of zebrafish tyrosine kinases support the utility of zebrafish as a model for tyrosine kinase biology.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil Kumar; Chatti, Kiranam

    2013-09-01

    Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome. PMID:23234507

  10. Conservation and early expression of zebrafish tyrosine kinases support the utility of zebrafish as a model for tyrosine kinase biology.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil Kumar; Chatti, Kiranam

    2013-09-01

    Tyrosine kinases have significant roles in cell growth, apoptosis, development, and disease. To explore the use of zebrafish as a vertebrate model for tyrosine kinase signaling and to better understand their roles, we have identified all of the tyrosine kinases encoded in the zebrafish genome and quantified RNA expression of selected tyrosine kinases during early development. Using profile hidden Markov model analysis, we identified 122 zebrafish tyrosine kinase genes and proposed unambiguous gene names where needed. We found them to be organized into 39 nonreceptor and 83 receptor type, and 30 families consistent with human tyrosine kinase family assignments. We found five human tyrosine kinase genes (epha1, bmx, fgr, srm, and insrr) with no identifiable zebrafish ortholog, and one zebrafish gene (yrk) with no identifiable human ortholog. We also found that receptor tyrosine kinase genes were duplicated more often than nonreceptor tyrosine kinase genes in zebrafish. We profiled expression levels of 30 tyrosine kinases representing all families using direct digital detection at different stages during the first 24 hours of development. The profiling experiments clearly indicate regulated expression of tyrosine kinases in the zebrafish, suggesting their role during early embryonic development. In summary, our study has resulted in the first comprehensive description of the zebrafish tyrosine kinome.

  11. Validation of in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of a novel PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor using immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Michael R; Mei, Jay M; Tuman, Robert W; Galemmo, Robert A; Johnson, Dana L

    2005-08-01

    With the advent of agents directed against specific molecular targets in drug discovery, it has become imperative to show a compound's cellular impact on the intended biomolecule in vivo. The objective of the present study was to determine if we could develop an assay to validate the in vivo effects of a compound. Hence, we investigated the in vivo pharmacodynamic activity of JNJ-10198409, a relatively selective inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (PDGF-RTK), in tumor tissues after administering the compound orally in a nude mouse xenograft model of human LoVo colon cancer. We developed a novel assay to quantify the in vivo anti-PDGF-RTK activity of the inhibitor in tumor tissue by determining the phosphorylation status of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), a key downstream cellular molecule in the PDGF-RTK signaling cascade. We used two antibodies, one specific for the total (phosphorylated and unphosphorylated forms) PLCgamma1 (pan-PLCgamma1) and the other, specific for phosphorylated form of PLCgamma1 (ph-PLCgamma1) to immunohistochemically detect their expression in tumor tissues. Computer-assisted image analysis was then used to directly compare the ratio of ph-PLCgamma1 to pan-PLCgamma1 immunolabeling intensities in serial sections (5 mum) of tumors obtained from vehicle- and JNJ-10198409-treated tumor-bearing mice. Our data showed statistically significant, dose-dependent differences in the ph-PLC/pan-PLC ratio among the four treatment groups (vehicle, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.i.d.). These results confirmed this compound's ability to suppress PDGF-RTK downstream signaling in tumor tissues in vivo. In addition to this specific application of this in vivo validation approach to those targets that use PLCgamma as a downstream signaling partner, these methods may also benefit other drug discovery targets. PMID:16093435

  12. Novel Anthraquinone-based Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Stasevych, M.; Zvarych, V.; Lunin, V.; Halenova, T.; Savchuk, O.; Dudchak, O.; Vovk, M.; Novikov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of new derivatives of 9,10-anthraquinone with benzoylthiourea, thiazole, triazole and amino acid fragments on the activity of membrane-associated tyrosine kinases was investigated. Inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase activity of the membrane fraction, as promising agents to search for new potential anticancer agents among the studied compounds, were discovered. PMID:26798182

  13. Molecular cloning of L-JAK, a Janus family protein-tyrosine kinase expressed in natural killer cells and activated leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, M; McVicar, D W; Johnston, J A; Blake, T B; Chen, Y Q; Lal, B K; Lloyd, A R; Kelvin, D J; Staples, J E; Ortaldo, J R

    1994-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are critical enzymes for receptor-mediated signaling in lymphocytes. Because natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes with specialized effector function, we set out to identify PTKs preferentially expressed in these cells. One such PTK was identified and molecularly cloned. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that this kinase lacks SH2 or SH3 domains typical of src family kinases but has tandem nonidentical catalytic domains, indicating that it is a member of the Janus family of PTKs. Immunoprecipitation using antiserum generated against a peptide corresponding to the deduced amino acid sequence of this gene revealed a kinase with a molecular weight of approximately 125,000. The pattern of expression of this kinase contrasted sharply with that of other Janus kinases, which are ubiquitously expressed. The kinase described in the present study was found to be more limited in its expression; expression was found in NK cells and an NK-like cell line but not in resting T cells or in other tissues. In contrast, stimulated and transformed T cells expressed the gene, suggesting a role in lymphoid activation. Because of its homology and tissue expression, we have tentatively termed this PTK gene L-JAK for leukocyte Janus kinase. Images PMID:8022790

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herviou, Pauline; Thivat, Emilie; Richard, Damien; Roche, Lucie; Dohou, Joyce; Pouget, Mélanie; Eschalier, Alain; Durando, Xavier; Authier, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of drugs can be optimized by establishing an individualized dosage, based on the measurement of the drug concentration in the serum, particularly if the drugs are characterized by an inter-individual variation in pharmacokinetics that results in an under- or overexposure to treatment. In recent years, several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to block intracellular signaling pathways in tumor cells. These oral drugs are candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) due to their high inter-individual variability for therapeutic and toxic effects. Following a literature search on PubMed, studies on TKIs and their pharmacokinetic characteristics, plasma quantification and inter-individual variability was studied. TDM is commonly used in various medical fields, including cardiology and psychiatry, but is not often applied in oncology. Plasma concentration monitoring has been thoroughly studied for imatinib, in order to evaluate the usefulness of TDM. The measurement of plasma concentration can be performed by various analytical techniques, with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry being the reference method. This method is currently used to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of imatinib treatments. Although TDM is already being used for imatinib, additional studies are required in order to improve this practice with the inclusion of other TKIs. PMID:27446421

  15. A New Family of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases with a Venus Flytrap Binding Domain in Insects and Other Invertebrates Activated by Aminoacids

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, Arnaud; Rondard, Philippe; Gouignard, Nadège; Khayath, Naji; Huang, Siluo; Trolet, Jacques; Donoghue, Daniel J.; Gauthier, Monique; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Dissous, Colette

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) comprise a large family of membrane receptors that regulate various cellular processes in cell biology of diverse organisms. We previously described an atypical RTK in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, composed of an extracellular Venus flytrap module (VFT) linked through a single transmembrane domain to an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain similar to that of the insulin receptor. Methods and Findings Here we show that this receptor is a member of a new family of RTKs found in invertebrates, and particularly in insects. Sixteen new members of this family, named Venus Kinase Receptor (VKR), were identified in many insects. Structural and phylogenetic studies performed on VFT and TK domains showed that VKR sequences formed monophyletic groups, the VFT group being close to that of GABAB receptors and the TK one being close to that of insulin receptors. We show that a recombinant VKR is able to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues, and report that it can be activated by L-arginine. This is in agreement with the high degree of conservation of the alpha amino acid binding residues found in many amino acid binding VFTs. The presence of high levels of vkr transcripts in larval forms and in female gonads indicates a putative function of VKR in reproduction and/or development. Conclusion The identification of RTKs specific for parasites and insect vectors raises new perspectives for the control of human parasitic and infectious diseases. PMID:19461966

  16. Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Carol R.; Hankey, Pamela; Mishin, Vladimir; Francis, Mary; Yu, Shan; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2012-07-15

    Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase (STK) is a transmembrane receptor reported to play a role in macrophage switching from a classically activated/proinflammatory phenotype to an alternatively activated/wound repair phenotype. In the present studies, STK{sup −/−} mice were used to assess the role of STK in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity as evidence suggests that the pathogenic process involves both of these macrophage subpopulations. In wild type mice, centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminase levels were observed within 6 h of acetaminophen administration (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Loss of STK resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity of mice to the hepatotoxic effects of acetaminophen and increased mortality, effects independent of its metabolism. This was associated with reduced levels of hepatic glutathione, rapid upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and prolonged induction of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting excessive oxidative stress in STK{sup −/−} mice. F4/80, a marker of mature macrophages, was highly expressed on subpopulations of Kupffer cells in livers of wild type, but not STK{sup −/−} mice. Whereas F4/80{sup +} macrophages rapidly declined in the livers of wild type mice following acetaminophen intoxication, they increased in STK{sup −/−} mice. In wild type mice hepatic expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12, products of classically activated macrophages, increased after acetaminophen administration. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor, CCR2, as well as IL-10, mediators involved in recruiting and activating anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages, also increased in wild type mice after acetaminophen. Loss of STK blunted the effects of acetaminophen on expression of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-12, MCP-1 and CCR2, while expression of IL-10 increased. Hepatic expression of CX3CL1, and its receptor, CX3CR1 also increased in STK{sup −/−} mice

  17. Biochemical and cellular effects of c-Src kinase-selective pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidine tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kraker, A J; Hartl, B G; Amar, A M; Barvian, M R; Showalter, H D; Moore, C W

    2000-10-01

    Increased expression or activity of c-Src tyrosine kinase has been associated with the transformed phenotype in tumor cells and with progression of neoplastic disease. A number of pyrido[2, 3-d]pyrimidines have been characterized biochemically and in cells as part of an assessment of their potential as anti-tumor agents. The compounds were ATP-competitive inhibitors of c-Src kinase with IC(50) values < 10 nM and from 6 to >100-fold selectivity for c-Src tyrosine kinase relative to basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (bFGFr) tyrosine kinase, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFr) tyrosine kinase, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) tyrosine kinase. The compounds yielded IC(50) values < 5 nM against Lck. Human colon tumor cell growth in culture was inhibited, as was colony formation in soft agar at concentrations < 1 microM. Phosphorylation of the c-Src cellular substrates paxillin, p130(cas), and Stat3 was also inhibited at concentrations < 1 microM. Autophosphorylation of EGFr tyrosine kinase or PDGFr tyrosine kinase was not inhibited by c-Src inhibitors, thus showing the selective nature of the compounds in cells. In a mitogenesis assay measuring thymidine incorporation stimulated by specific mitogens, the c-Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors reduced incorporated thymidine in a manner consistent with previously reported roles of c-Src in mitogenic signaling. Progression through the cell cycle was inhibited at G(2)/M in human colon tumor cells treated with two of the c-Src-selective compounds, which is also consistent with earlier reports describing a requirement for active c-Src tyrosine kinase for G(2) to M phase progression. The compounds described here are selective inhibitors of c-Src tyrosine kinase and have antiproliferative effects in tumor cells consistent with inhibition of c-Src.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Mutant Tyrosine Kinase Chemical Rescue†

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Kathryn E.; Seeliger, Markus A.; Wang, Zhihong; Fomina, Dina; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Havranek, James J.; Baker, David; Kuriyan, John; Cole, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are critical cell signaling enzymes. These enzymes have a highly conserved Arg residue in their catalytic loop which is present two residues or four residues downstream from an absolutely conserved Asp catalytic base. Prior studies on protein tyrosine kinases Csk and Src revealed the potential for chemical rescue of catalytically-deficient mutant kinases (Arg to Ala mutations) by small diamino compounds, particularly imidazole, however the potency and efficiency of rescue was greater for Src. This current study further examines the structural and kinetic basis of rescue for mutant Src as compared to mutant Abl tyrosine kinase. An X-ray crystal structure of R388A Src revealed the surprising finding that a histidine residue of the N-terminus of a symmetry-related kinase inserts into the active site of the adjacent Src and mimics the hydrogen bonding pattern seen in wild-type protein tyrosine kinases. Abl R367A shows potent and efficient rescue more comparable to Src, even though its catalytic loop is more like that of Csk. Various enzyme redesigns of the active sites indicate that the degree and specificity of rescue is somewhat flexible, but the overall properties of the enzymes and rescue agents play an overarching role. The newly discovered rescue agent 2-aminoimidazole is about as efficient as imidazole in rescuing R/A Src and Abl. Rate vs. pH studies with these imidazole analogs suggest that the protonated imidazolium is the preferred form for chemical rescue, consistent with structural models. The efficient rescue seen with mutant Abl points to the potential of this approach to be used effectively to analyze Abl phosphorylation pathways in cells. PMID:19260709

  19. Cross talk of tyrosine kinases with the DNA damage signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases respond to extracellular and intracellular cues by activating specific cellular signaling cascades to regulate cell cycle, growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Likewise, DNA damage response proteins (DDR) activated by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations recruit the DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint machinery to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Several new examples have been uncovered in recent studies which reveal novel epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR proteins to dictate cell fate, i.e. survival or apoptosis, following DNA damage. These studies reveal the ability of tyrosine kinases to directly regulate the activity of DNA repair and cell cycle check point proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, tyrosine kinases epigenetically regulate DNA damage signaling pathways by modifying the core histones as well as chromatin modifiers at critical tyrosine residues. Thus, deregulated tyrosine kinase driven epigenomic alterations have profound implications in cancer, aging and genetic disorders. Consequently, targeting oncogenic tyrosine kinase induced epigenetic alterations has gained significant traction in overcoming cancer cell resistance to various therapies. This review discusses mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR pathways to regulate processes critical for maintaining genome integrity as well as clinical strategies for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26546517

  20. Activation of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHR) in MA-10 cells leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by a pathway that involves Src family kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Shiraishi, Koji; Welsh, Toni; Ascoli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    We show that activation of the endogenous or recombinant LHR in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MA-10 cells) leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and one of its substrates (paxillin). Using specific antibodies to the five tyrosine residues of FAK that become phosphorylated we show that activation of the LHR increases the phosphorylation of Tyr576 and Tyr577 but it does not affect the phosphorylation of Tyr397, Tyr861 or Tyr925. Because FAK is a prominent substrate for the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) we tested for their involvement in the LHR-mediated phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576. Src is not detectable in MA-10 cells, but two other prominent members of this family (Fyn and Yes) are present. The LHR-mediated phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576 is readily inhibited by PP2 (a pharmacological inhibitor of SFKs) and by dominant-negative mutants of SKFs. Moreover, activation of the LHR in MA-10 cells results in the stimulation of the activity of Fyn and Yes and overexpression of either of these two tyrosine kinases enhances the LHR-mediate phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576. Studies involving activation of other G protein-coupled receptors, overexpression of the different Gα subunits, and the use of second messenger analogs suggest that the LHR-induced phosphorylation of FAK-Tyr576 in MA-10 cells is mediated by SFKs, and that this family of kinases is, in turn, independently or cooperatively activated by the LHR-induced stimulation of Gs and Gq/11-mediated pathways. PMID:16293639

  1. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors: New Hope for Success in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak; Azizi, Gholamreza

    2014-07-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials.

  2. SGX523 is an exquisitely selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase with antitumor activity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, Sean G.; Hendle, Jorg; Lee, Patrick S.; Smith, Christopher R.; Bounaud, Pierre-Yves; Jessen, Katti A.; Tang, Crystal M.; Huser, Nanni H.; Felce, Jeremy D.; Froning, Karen J.; Peterman, Marshall C.; Aubol, Brandon E.; Gessert, Steve F.; Sauder, J. Michael; Schwinn, Kenneth D.; Russell, Marijane; Rooney, Isabelle A.; Adams, Jason; Leon, Barbara C.; Do, Tuan H.; Blaney, Jeff M.; Sprengeler, Paul A.; Thompson, Devon A.; Smyth, Lydia; Pelletier, Laura A.; Atwell, Shane; Holme, Kevin; Wasserman, Stephen R.; Emtage, Spencer; Burley, Stephen K.; Reich, Siegfried H.

    2010-01-12

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase has emerged as an important target for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Activation of MET by mutation or gene amplification has been linked to kidney, gastric, and lung cancers. In other cancers, such as glioblastoma, autocrine activation of MET has been demonstrated. Several classes of ATP-competitive inhibitor have been described, which inhibit MET but also other kinases. Here, we describe SGX523, a novel, ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor remarkable for its exquisite selectivity for MET. SGX523 potently inhibited MET with an IC{sub 50} of 4 nmol/L and is >1,000-fold selective versus the >200-fold selectivity of other protein kinases tested in biochemical assays. Crystallographic study revealed that SGX523 stabilizes MET in a unique inactive conformation that is inaccessible to other protein kinases, suggesting an explanation for the selectivity. SGX523 inhibited MET-mediated signaling, cell proliferation, and cell migration at nanomolar concentrations but had no effect on signaling dependent on other protein kinases, including the closely related RON, even at micromolar concentrations. SGX523 inhibition of MET in vivo was associated with the dose-dependent inhibition of growth of tumor xenografts derived from human glioblastoma and lung and gastric cancers, confirming the dependence of these tumors on MET catalytic activity. Our results show that SGX523 is the most selective inhibitor of MET catalytic activity described to date and is thus a useful tool to investigate the role of MET kinase in cancer without the confounding effects of promiscuous protein kinase inhibition.

  3. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Enhanced insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase activity associated with chromosomal translocation (1;19) in a pre-B-cell leukemia line.

    PubMed

    Newman, J D; Harrison, L C; Eckardt, G S; Jack, I

    1992-02-01

    The gene for the insulin receptor has been assigned to chromosome 19 near the breakpoint of the translocation t(1;19) which occurs in 25% of pre-B-cell leukemias. Insulin receptors in a pre-B-cell leukemia cell line (ACV) with t(1;19) were found to have 2-fold higher affinity for insulin, 5-fold higher basal and insulin-stimulated beta sub-unit autophosphorylation, and 2-fold higher basal and 4-fold higher insulin-stimulated beta sub-unit kinase activity on the synthetic peptide poly(Glu,Tyr), compared to receptors in a B-cell line (ADD) with normal karyotype from the same patient. ACV cells had a novel 13-kb receptor mRNA species and expressed a DNA polymorphism localized to the tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor gene. These findings suggest that t(1;19) in the ACV cell may result in rearrangement of the insulin receptor gene and translation of a receptor with enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:1310491

  5. Specific dephosphorylation of Janus Kinase 2 by protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhuo; Liu, Xidong; Chu, Huiying; Fu, Xueqi; Li, Tianbao; Hu, Lianghai; Xing, Shu; Li, Guohui; Gu, Jingkai; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe

    2015-01-01

    Many protein kinases are activated through phosphorylation of an activation loop thereby turning on downstream signaling pathways. Activation of JAK2, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase with an important role in growth factor and cytokine signaling, requires phosphorylation of the 1007 and 1008 tyrosyl residues. Dephosphorylation of these two sites by phosphatases presumably inactivates the enzyme, but the underlying mechanism is not known. In this study, we employed MALDI-TOF/TOF and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the dephosphorylation process by using synthetic peptides derived from the tandem autophosphorylation sites (Y1007 and Y1008) of human JAK2. We found that tyrosine phosphatases catalyzed the dephosphorylation reaction sequentially, but different enzymes exhibited different selectivity. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B caused rapid dephosphorylation of Y1008 followed by Y1007, while SHP1 and SHP2 selectively dephosphorylated Y1008 only, and yet HePTP randomly removed a single phosphate from either Y1007 or Y1008, leaving behind mono-phosphorylated peptides. The specificity of dephosphorylation was further confirmed by molecular modeling. The data reveal multiple modes of JAK2 regulation by tyrosine phosphatases, reflecting a complex, and intricate interplay between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation.

  6. Regulation of protein kinase enzymatic activity in Jurkat T cells during oxidative stress uncoupled from protein tyrosine kinases: role of oxidative changes in protein kinase activation requirements and generation of second messengers.

    PubMed

    Whisler, R L; Newhouse, Y G; Beiqing, L; Karanfilov, B K; Goyette, M A; Hackshaw, K V

    1994-12-01

    Prior studies have suggested that intracellular phosphorylation events and cellular redox mechanisms may interact in regulating a variety of cellular functions, including the transcriptional activation of gene expression. Increased activity of transcriptional factors NF kappa B and AP1 has been described in cells exposed to oxidative stress and following the direct stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol diesters. However, the mechanisms that may contribute to redox regulation of PKC are unknown. We studied the expression of PKC activity and several second messengers in human Jurkat T cells exposed to oxidative stress in the form of H2O2. Micromolar concentrations of H2O2 rapidly induced increased cytosolic PKC enzymatic activity in Jurkat T cells that was associated with a marked arrest of cellular proliferation. The increase in cytosolic PKC activity in cells treated with H2O2 was accompanied by elevations in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), generation of inositol phosphates, and release of arachidonic acid. Functional studies showed that H2O2 enhancement of cytosolic PKC activity required phospholipase C activity but was not primarily mediated by arachidonic acid. The response of PKC to oxidative stress displayed a lack of Ca2+ dependence and was uncoupled from the activity of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK). Furthermore, the reduced activation requirements of PKC from cells treated with H2O2 were associated with shifts in elution profiles of PKC enzymatic activity after Mono-Q chromatography. These shifts appeared to represent intrinsic changes in the conformation of PKC induced by oxidative stress because western blotting failed to reveal any PKC cleavage products or reductions in native PKC alpha or beta. These findings indicate that oxidative regulation of intracellular events can intersect phosphorylation events mediated by PKC through the release of second messengers as well as direct changes in PKC activation requirements. Moreover, redox

  7. Effects of inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and downstream pathways of receptor tyrosine kinases involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin or mitogen-activated protein kinase in canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Sakai, Hiroki; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm with no current effective treatment. Previous studies showed that receptor tyrosine kinases and molecules within their downstream pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were overexpressed in canine, human, and murine tumors, including HSA. The present study investigated the effects of inhibitors of these pathways in canine splenic and hepatic HSA cell lines using assays of cell viability and apoptosis. Inhibitors of the MAPK pathway did not affect canine HSA cell viability. However, cell viability was significantly reduced by exposure to inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR pathway; these inhibitors also induced apoptosis in these cell lines. These results suggest that these inhibitors reduce the proliferation of canine HSA cells by inducing apoptosis. Further study of these inhibitors, using xenograft mouse models of canine HSA, are warranted to explore their potential for clinical application. PMID:27408334

  8. Potent quinoxaline-based inhibitors of PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. Part 2: the synthesis and biological activities of RPR127963 an orally bioavailable inhibitor.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Myers, Michael R; Hanney, Barbara; Spada, Alfred P; Bilder, Glenda; Galzcinski, Helen; Amin, Dilip; Needle, Saul; Page, Ken; Jayyosi, Zaid; Perrone, Mark H

    2003-09-15

    RPR127963 demonstrates an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in several species and was found to be efficacious in the prevention of restenosis in a Yucatan mini-pig model upon oral administration of 1-5 mg/kg. The in vitro selectivity profile and SAR of the highly optimized PDGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor are highlighted.

  9. Targeting Angiogenesis in Colorectal Cancer: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Sheetal Mehta; Nimeiri, Halla S; Benson, Al B

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is commonly diagnosed throughout the world, and treatment options have greatly expanded over the last 2 decades. Targeting angiogenesis has been a major focus of study in a variety of malignancy types. Targeting angiogenesis has been achieved by several mechanisms in colorectal cancer, including use of antiangiogenic small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). There have been many attempts and failures to prove efficacy of TKIs in the treatment of colorectal cancer including sorafenib, sunitinib, vatalanib, and tivozanib. Regorafenib was the first TKI to demonstrate efficacy and is an orally active inhibitor of angiogenic (including the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3), stromal, and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. There are ongoing investigations of both regorafenib and ninetanib; however, there remains a critical need to better understand novel combinations with TKIs that could prove more efficacious than available options. PMID:27341596

  10. Regulation of Btk by Src family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Afar, D E; Park, H; Howell, B W; Rawlings, D J; Cooper, J; Witte, O N

    1996-01-01

    Loss of function of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) results in X-linked immunodeficiencies characterized by a broad spectrum of signaling defects, including those dependent on Src family kinase-linked cell surface receptors. A gain-of-function mutant, Btk*, induces the growth of fibroblasts in soft agar and relieves the interleukin-5 dependence of a pre-B-cell line. To genetically define Btk signaling pathways, we used a strategy to either activate or inactivate Src family kinases in fibroblasts that express Btk*. The transformation potential of Btk* was dramatically increased by coexpression with a partly activated c-Src mutant (E-378 --> G). This synergy was further potentiated by deletion of the Btk Src homology 3 domain. Downregulation of Src family kinases by the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) suppressed Btk* activation and biological potency. In contrast, kinase-inactive Csk (K-222 --> R), which functioned as a dominant negative molecule, synergized with Btk* in biological transformation. Activation of Btk* correlated with increased phosphotyrosine on transphosphorylation and autophosphorylation sites. These findings suggest that the Src and Btk kinase families form specific signaling units in tissues in which both are expressed. PMID:8668162

  11. Proteinase-activated receptors 1 and 2 and the regulation of porcine coronary artery contractility: a role for distinct tyrosine kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    El-Daly, Mahmoud; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Triggle, Christopher R; Hollenberg, Morley D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Because angiotensin-II-mediated porcine coronary artery (PCA) vasoconstriction is blocked by protein tyrosine kinase (PYK) inhibitors, we hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), known to regulate vascular tension, like angiotensin-II, would also cause PCA contractions via PYK-dependent signalling pathways. Experimental Approach Contractions of intact and endothelium-free isolated PCA rings, stimulated by PAR1/PAR2-activating peptides, angiotensin-II, PGF2α, EGF, PDGF and KCl, were monitored with/without multiple signalling pathway inhibitors, including AG-tyrphostins AG18 (non-specific PYKs), AG1478 (EGF-receptor kinase), AG1296 (PDGF receptor kinase), PP1 (Src kinase), U0126 and PD98059 (MEK/MAPKinase kinase), indomethacin/SC-560/NS-398 (COX-1/2) and L-NAME (NOS). Key Results AG18 inhibited the contractions induced by all the agonists except KCl, whereas U0126 attenuated contractions induced by PAR1/PAR2 agonists, EGF and angiotensin-II, but not by PGF2α, the COX-produced metabolites of arachidonate and KCl. PP1 only affected the responses to PAR1/PAR2-activating peptides and angiotensin-II. The EGF-kinase inhibitor, AG1478, attenuated contractions initiated by the PARs (PAR2 >> PAR1) and EGF itself, but not by angiotensin-II, PGF2α or KCl. COX-1/2 inhibitors blocked the contractions induced by all the agonists, except KCl and PGF2α. Conclusion and Implications PAR1/2-mediated contractions of the PCA are dependent on Src and MAPKinase and, in part, involve EGF-receptor-kinase transactivation and the generation of a COX-derived contractile agonist. However, the PYK signalling pathways used by PARs are distinct from each other and from those triggered by angiotensin-II and EGF. These signalling pathways may be therapeutic targets for managing coagulation-proteinase-induced coronary vasospasm. PMID:24506284

  12. Eph-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of citron kinase controls abscission.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Perchey, Renaud T; Fawal, Mohamad; Callot, Caroline; Froment, Carine; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Besson, Arnaud; Davy, Alice

    2016-08-29

    Cytokinesis is the last step of cell division, culminating in the physical separation of daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Cytokinesis is a tightly regulated process that until recently was mostly viewed as a cell-autonomous event. Here, we investigated the role of Ephrin/Eph signaling, a well-known local cell-to-cell communication pathway, in cell division. We show that activation of Eph signaling in vitro leads to multinucleation and polyploidy, and we demonstrate that this is caused by alteration of the ultimate step of cytokinesis, abscission. Control of abscission requires Eph kinase activity, and Src and citron kinase (CitK) are downstream effectors in the Eph-induced signal transduction cascade. CitK is phosphorylated on tyrosines in neural progenitors in vivo, and Src kinase directly phosphorylates CitK. We have identified the specific tyrosine residues of CitK that are phosphorylated and show that tyrosine phosphorylation of CitK impairs cytokinesis. Finally, we show that, similar to CitK, Ephrin/Eph signaling controls neuronal ploidy in the developing neocortex. Our study indicates that CitK integrates intracellular and extracellular signals provided by the local environment to coordinate completion of cytokinesis. PMID:27551053

  13. ALK kinase domain mutations in primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma: consequences on NPM-ALK activity and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lovisa, Federica; Cozza, Giorgio; Cristiani, Andrea; Cuzzolin, Alberto; Albiero, Alessandro; Mussolin, Lara; Pillon, Marta; Moro, Stefano; Basso, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo; Bonvini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    ALK inhibitor crizotinib has shown potent antitumor activity in children with refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) and the opportunity to include ALK inhibitors in first-line therapies is oncoming. However, recent studies suggest that crizotinib-resistance mutations may emerge in ALCL patients. In the present study, we analyzed ALK kinase domain mutational status of 36 paediatric ALCL patients at diagnosis to identify point mutations and gene aberrations that could impact on NPM-ALK gene expression, activity and sensitivity to small-molecule inhibitors. Amplicon ultra-deep sequencing of ALK kinase domain detected 2 single point mutations, R335Q and R291Q, in 2 cases, 2 common deletions of exon 23 and 25 in all the patients, and 7 splicing-related INDELs in a variable number of them. The functional impact of missense mutations and INDELs was evaluated. Point mutations were shown to affect protein kinase activity, signalling output and drug sensitivity. INDELs, instead, generated kinase-dead variants with dominant negative effect on NPM-ALK kinase, in virtue of their capacity of forming non-functional heterocomplexes. Consistently, when co-expressed, INDELs increased crizotinib inhibitory activity on NPM-ALK signal processing, as demonstrated by the significant reduction of STAT3 phosphorylation. Functional changes in ALK kinase activity induced by both point mutations and structural rearrangements were resolved by molecular modelling and dynamic simulation analysis, providing novel insights into ALK kinase domain folding and regulation. Therefore, these data suggest that NPM-ALK pre-therapeutic mutations may be found at low frequency in ALCL patients. These mutations occur randomly within the ALK kinase domain and affect protein activity, while preserving responsiveness to crizotinib.

  14. TTT-3002 is a novel FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against FLT3-associated leukemias in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hayley; Nguyen, Bao; Li, Li; Greenblatt, Sarah; Williams, Allen; Zhao, Ming; Levis, Mark; Rudek, Michelle; Duffield, Amy; Small, Donald

    2014-03-01

    More than 35% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients harbor a constitutively activating mutation in FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3). The most common type, internal tandem duplication (ITD), confers poor prognosis. We report for the first time on TTT-3002, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is one of the most potent FLT3 inhibitors discovered to date. Studies using human FLT3/ITD mutant leukemia cell lines revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for inhibiting FLT3 autophosphorylation is from 100 to 250 pM. The proliferation IC50 for TTT-3002 in these same cells was from 490 to 920 pM. TTT-3002 also showed potent activity when tested against the most frequently occurring FLT3-activating point mutation, FLT3/D835Y, against which many current TKIs are ineffective. These findings were validated in vivo by using mouse models of FLT3-associated AML. Survival and tumor burden of mice in several FLT3/ITD transplantation models is significantly improved by administration of TTT-3002 via oral dosing. Finally, we demonstrated that TTT-3002 is cytotoxic to leukemic blasts isolated from FLT3/ITD-expressing AML patients, while displaying minimal toxicity to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from healthy blood and bone marrow donors. Therefore, TTT-3002 has demonstrated preclinical potential as a promising new FLT3 TKI in the treatment of FLT3-mutant AML.

  15. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Regulates the Activation of Gene Rearrangements at the λ Light Chain Locus in Precursor B Cells in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Dingjan, Gemma M.; Middendorp, Sabine; Dahlenborg, Katarina; Maas, Alex; Grosveld, Frank; Hendriks, Rudolf W.

    2001-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in precursor B (pre-B) cell receptor signaling. Here we demonstrate that Btk-deficient mice have an ∼50% reduction in the frequency of immunoglobulin (Ig) λ light chain expression, already at the immature B cell stage in the bone marrow. Conversely, transgenic mice expressing the activated mutant BtkE41K showed increased λ usage. As the κ/λ ratio is dependent on (a) the level and kinetics of κ and λ locus activation, (b) the life span of pre-B cells, and (c) the extent of receptor editing, we analyzed the role of Btk in these processes. Enforced expression of the Bcl-2 apoptosis inhibitor did not alter the Btk dependence of λ usage. Crossing 3-83μδ autoantibody transgenic mice into Btk-deficient mice showed that Btk is not essential for receptor editing. Also, Btk-deficient surface Ig+ B cells that were generated in vitro in interleukin 7-driven bone marrow cultures manifested reduced λ usage. An intrinsic defect in λ locus recombination was further supported by the finding in Btk-deficient mice of reduced λ usage in the fraction of pre-B cells that express light chains in their cytoplasm. These results implicate Btk in the regulation of the activation of the λ locus for V(D)J recombination in pre-B cells. PMID:11369788

  16. Multiple receptor tyrosine kinase activation attenuates therapeutic efficacy of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor AZD4547 in FGFR2 amplified gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Xinyang; Wu, Zheng; Geng, Ruixuan; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Dai, Congqi; Liu, Rujiao; Zhang, Qunling; Li, Wenhua; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-targeted therapy has attracted considerable attention as novel anticancer agents in gastric cancer (GC). However, intrinsic or acquired drug resistance has emerged as a major challenge to their clinical use. In this study, we demonstrated that several receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), including EGFR, HER3 and MET, activations contributed to AZD4547 (a selective FGFR2 inhibitor) hyposensitivity in FGFR2 amplified GC cells. The rescue effect was abrogated by inhibiting these RTKs with their targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In addition, synergy in growth inhibition was observed when the GC cells were treated with a combination of AZD4547 and cetuximab (an EGFR monoclonal antibody) both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, tissue microarray analysis revealed that these resistance-conferring RTKs were highly expressed in FGFR2 positive GC patients. Taken together, these observations demonstrated RTKs including EGFR, HER3 and MET activations as novel mechanisms of hyposensitivity to AZD4547. It will be clinically valuable to investigate the involvement of RTK-mediated signaling in intrinsicor acquired resistance to FGFR2 TKIs in GC. A combination targeted therapeutic strategy may be recommended for treating FGFR2 amplified GC patients with these RTK activations. PMID:25576915

  17. Heat stress activates the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein tyrosine phosphatases are essential under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Astrid; Arkind, Christopher; Mattison, Christopher P; Burkholder, Anne; Knoche, Kathryn; Ota, Irene

    2002-04-01

    The yeast high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been characterized as being activated solely by osmotic stress. In this work, we show that the Hog1 MAPK is also activated by heat stress and that Sho1, previously identified as a membrane-bound osmosensor, is required for heat stress activation of Hog1. The two-component signaling protein, Sln1, the second osmosensor in the HOG pathway, was not involved in heat stress activation of Hog1, suggesting that the Sho1 and Sln1 sensors discriminate between stresses. The possible function of Hog1 activation during heat stress was examined, and it was found that the hog1 delta strain does not recover as rapidly from heat stress as well as the wild type. It was also found that protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) Ptp2 and Ptp3, which inactivate Hog1, have two functions during heat stress. First, they are essential for survival at elevated temperatures, preventing lethality due to Hog1 hyperactivation. Second, they block inappropriate cross talk between the HOG and the cell wall integrity MAPK pathways, suggesting that PTPs are important for maintaining specificity in MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:12455951

  18. Heat Stress Activates the Yeast High-Osmolarity Glycerol Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway, and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Are Essential under Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Astrid; Arkind, Christopher; Mattison, Christopher P.; Burkholder, Anne; Knoche, Kathryn; Ota, Irene

    2002-01-01

    The yeast high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been characterized as being activated solely by osmotic stress. In this work, we show that the Hog1 MAPK is also activated by heat stress and that Sho1, previously identified as a membrane-bound osmosensor, is required for heat stress activation of Hog1. The two-component signaling protein, Sln1, the second osmosensor in the HOG pathway, was not involved in heat stress activation of Hog1, suggesting that the Sho1 and Sln1 sensors discriminate between stresses. The possible function of Hog1 activation during heat stress was examined, and it was found that the hog1Δ strain does not recover as rapidly from heat stress as well as the wild type. It was also found that protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) Ptp2 and Ptp3, which inactivate Hog1, have two functions during heat stress. First, they are essential for survival at elevated temperatures, preventing lethality due to Hog1 hyperactivation. Second, they block inappropriate cross talk between the HOG and the cell wall integrity MAPK pathways, suggesting that PTPs are important for maintaining specificity in MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:12455951

  19. Receptor tyrosine kinase targeting in multicellular spheroids.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Susan; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    While growing cells as a monolayer is the traditional method for cell culture, the incorporation of multicellular spheroids into experimental design is becoming increasingly popular. This is due to the understanding that cells grown as spheroids tend to replicate the in vivo situation more reliably than monolayer cells. Thus, the use of multicellular spheroids may be more clinically relevant than monolayer cell cultures. Here, we describe methods for multicellular 3D spheroid generation that may be used to provide samples for receptor tyrosine kinase (and other protein) detection. Methods described include the forced-floating poly-HEMA method, the hanging-drop method, and the use of ECM to form multicellular 3D spheroids. PMID:25319898

  20. Antibodies directed against receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    FAUVEL, Bénédicte; Yasri, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have already been approved for cancers and inflammatory diseases, and monoclonal antibodies continue to be one of the fastest growing classes of therapeutic molecules. Because aberrant signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is a commonly observed factor in cancer, most of the subclasses of RTKs are being extensively studied as potential targets for treating malignancies. The first two RTKs that have been targeted by antibody therapy, with five currently marketed antibodies, are the growth factor receptors EGFR and HER2. However, due to systemic side effects, refractory patients and the development of drug resistance, these treatments are being challenged by emerging therapeutics. This review examines current monoclonal antibody therapies against RTKs. After an analysis of agents that have already been approved, we present an analysis of antibodies in clinical development that target RTKs. Finally, we highlight promising RTKs that are emerging as new oncological targets for antibody-based therapy. PMID:24859229

  1. Regulation and function of syk tyrosine kinase in mast cell signaling and beyond.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Rodrigo Orlandini

    2011-01-01

    The protein tyrosine kinase Syk plays a critical role in FcεRI signaling in mast cells. Binding of Syk to phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (p-ITAM) of the receptor subunits results in conformational changes and tyrosine phosphorylation at multiple sites that leads to activation of Syk. The phosphorylated tyrosines throughout the molecule play an important role in the regulation of Syk-mediated signaling. Reconstitution of receptor-mediated signaling in Syk(-/-) cells by wild-type Syk or mutants which have substitution of these tyrosines with phenylalanine together with in vitro assays has been useful strategies to understand the regulation and function of Syk.

  2. Robust versatile tyrosine kinase assay for HTS in drug discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Sudhir S.; Mineyev, I.; Owicki, John C.

    1999-04-01

    A fluorescence polarization assay was developed as an alternative to the radiolabeled SPA assays currently used to monitor the activity of tyrosine kinases in drug discovery. The assay can be used with enzymes having substrate specificity similar to that of the insulin receptor, the EGF receptor and the Src kinase receptor enzymes. The assay is easy to configure in 96, 384 and 1536-well microplates in assay volumes ranging from (mu) L with minimal efforts. The reconstituted reagents are stable for up to 24 hr at ambient temperatures, thereby minimizing the need for replenishing the stock solutions during the course of a high-throughput screen. Because of the stability and equilibrium kinetics, the assay allows the user the luxury of scheduling the reading of plates any time up to 24 hr after the completion of the assay without substantial deterioration in the assay signal. The antibody and the tracer solutions can also be premixed and added as a preformed complex in a single step. The performance of the assay with the insulin receptor kinase is described. In addition, given the diversity of the substrates used in measuring the activity of different tyrosine kinases, LJL's on-going efforts to provide different antibodies of wide ranging specificity and sensitivity are described.

  3. Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506): a new oral multikinase inhibitor of angiogenic, stromal and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases with potent preclinical antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Scott M; Dumas, Jacques; Adnane, Lila; Lynch, Mark; Carter, Christopher A; Schütz, Gunnar; Thierauch, Karl-Heinz; Zopf, Dieter

    2011-07-01

    Angiogenesis, a critical driver of tumor development, is controlled by interconnected signaling pathways. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 play crucial roles in the biology of normal and tumor vasculature. Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506), a novel oral multikinase inhibitor, potently inhibits these endothelial cell kinases in biochemical and cellular kinase phosphorylation assays. Furthermore, regorafenib inhibits additional angiogenic kinases (VEGFR1/3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1) and the mutant oncogenic kinases KIT, RET and B-RAF. The antiangiogenic effect of regorafenib was demonstrated in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Regorafenib administered once orally at 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the extravasation of Gadomer in the vasculature of rat GS9L glioblastoma tumor xenografts. In a daily (qd)×4 dosing study, the pharmacodynamic effects persisted for 48 hr after the last dosing and correlated with tumor growth inhibition (TGI). A significant reduction in tumor microvessel area was observed in a human colorectal xenograft after qd×5 dosing at 10 and 30 mg/kg. Regorafenib exhibited potent dose-dependent TGI in various preclinical human xenograft models in mice, with tumor shrinkages observed in breast MDA-MB-231 and renal 786-O carcinoma models. Pharmacodynamic analyses of the breast model revealed strong reduction in staining of proliferation marker Ki-67 and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinases 1/2. These data demonstrate that regorafenib is a well-tolerated, orally active multikinase inhibitor with a distinct target profile that may have therapeutic benefit in human malignancies.

  4. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Miller, W Todd

    2012-06-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈600million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage. PMID:22480439

  5. Tyrosine kinase signaling and the emergence of multicellularity.

    PubMed

    Miller, W Todd

    2012-06-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an essential element of signal transduction in multicellular animals. Although tyrosine kinases were originally regarded as specific to the metazoan lineage, it is now clear that they evolved prior to the split between unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes (≈600million years ago). Genome analyses of choanoflagellates and other protists show an abundance of tyrosine kinases that rivals the most complex animals. Some of these kinases are orthologs of metazoan enzymes (e.g., Src), but others display unique domain compositions not seen in any metazoan. Biochemical experiments have highlighted similarities and differences between the unicellular and multicellular tyrosine kinases. In particular, it appears that the complex systems of kinase autoregulation may have evolved later in the metazoan lineage.

  6. Interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinases with the kinase interaction motif of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL provides substrate specificity and retains ERK2 in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, A; Torres, J; Ubeda, J; Pulido, R

    1999-07-30

    ERK1 and ERK2 associate with the tyrosine phosphatase PTP-SL through a kinase interaction motif (KIM) located in the juxtamembrane region of PTP-SL. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PTP-SL fusion protein containing the KIM associated with ERK1 and ERK2 as well as with p38/HOG, but not with the related JNK1 kinase or with protein kinase A or C. Accordingly, ERK2 showed in vitro substrate specificity to phosphorylate GST-PTP-SL in comparison with GST-c-Jun. Furthermore, tyrosine dephosphorylation of ERK2 by the PTP-SLDeltaKIM mutant was impaired. The in vitro association of ERK1/2 with GST-PTP-SL was highly stable; however, low concentrations of nucleotides partially dissociated the ERK1/2.PTP-SL complex. Partial deletions of the KIM abrogated the association of PTP-SL with ERK1/2, indicating that KIM integrity is required for interaction. Amino acid substitution analysis revealed that Arg and Leu residues within the KIM are essential for the interaction and suggested a regulatory role for Ser(231). Finally, coexpression of PTP-SL and ERK2 in COS-7 cells resulted in the retention of ERK2 in the cytoplasm in a KIM-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the noncatalytic region of PTP-SL associates with mitogen-activated protein kinases with high affinity and specificity, providing a mechanism for substrate specificity, and suggest a role for PTP-SL in the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase translocation to the nucleus upon activation.

  7. Cytokine-mediated induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 by activation of tyrosine kinase in bovine endothelial cells stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Akarasereenont, P.; Bakhle, Y. S.; Thiemermann, C.; Vane, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    1. The induction of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) afforded by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) is mediated by tyrosine kinase. LPS also causes the generation of several cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). This study investigates whether endogenous IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, EGF or PDGF contribute to the induction of COX-2 elicited by LPS in BAEC and if their action is due to activation of tyrosine kinase. Furthermore, we have studied the induction of COX-2 by exogenous cytokines. 2. Accumulation of 6-oxo-prostaglandin (PG) F1 alpha in cultures of BAEC was measured by radioimmunoassay at 24 h after addition of either LPS (1 microgram ml-1) alone or LPS together with a polyclonal antibody to one of the various cytokines. In experiments designed to measure 'COX activity', 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha generated by BAEC activated with recombinant human IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, EGF or PDGF for 12 h was measured after incubation of washed cells with exogenous arachidonic acid (30 microM for 15 min). Western blot analysis determined the expression of COX-2 protein in BAEC. 3. The accumulation of 6-oxo-PGF1 alpha caused by LPS in BAEC was attenuated by co-incubation with one of the polyclonal antibodies, anti-IL-1 beta, anti-TNF-alpha, anti-EGF, anti-PDGF or with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha or EGF also caused an increase in COX activity, while PDGF was ineffective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 4 PMID:7582449

  8. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Dobrinic, Paula; Macek, Boris; Franjevic, Damjan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Francoise; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD, and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells. PMID:25278935

  9. PD166326, a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has greater antileukemic activity than imatinib mesylate in a murine model of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicholas C; Veach, Darren R; Tong, William P; Bornmann, William G; Clarkson, Bayard; Ilaria, Robert L

    2005-05-15

    Imatinib mesylate is highly effective in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but BCR/ABL (breakpoint cluster region/abelson murine leukemia)-positive progenitors persist in most patients with CML treated with imatinib mesylate, indicating the need for novel therapeutic approaches. In this study, we have used the murine CML-like myeloproliferative disorder as a platform to characterize the pharmacokinetic, signal transduction, and antileukemic properties of PD166326, one of the most potent members of the pyridopyrimidine class of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In mice with the CML-like disease, PD166326 rapidly inhibited Bcr/Abl kinase activity after a single oral dose and demonstrated marked antileukemic activity in vivo. Seventy percent of PD166326-treated mice achieved a white blood cell (WBC) count less than 20.0 x 10(9)/L (20,000/microL) at necropsy, compared with only 8% of imatinib mesylate-treated animals. Further, two thirds of PD166326-treated animals had complete resolution of splenomegaly, compared with none of the imatinib mesylate-treated animals. Consistent with its more potent antileukemic effect in vivo, PD166326 was also superior to imatinib mesylate in inhibiting the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of numerous leukemia-cell proteins, including the src family member Lyn. PD166326 also prolonged the survival of mice with imatinib mesylate-resistant CML induced by the Bcr/Abl mutants P210/H396P and P210/M351T. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the potential of more potent Bcr/Abl inhibitors to provide more effective antileukemic activity. Clinical development of PD166326 or a related analog may lead to more effective drugs for the treatment of de novo and imatinib mesylate-resistant CML.

  10. Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hill, Kristen S; Elferink, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    The internalization of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by endocytosis and their subsequent down regulation in lysosomes plays a critical role in regulating the duration and intensity of downstream signaling events. Uncoupling of the RTK cMet from ligand-induced degradation was recently shown to correlate with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell tumorigenicity, suggesting that the corruption of these endocytic mechanisms could contribute to increased cMet signaling in metastatic cancers. To understand how cMet signaling for normal cell growth is controlled by endocytosis and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in metastatic cancers, we developed flow cytometry-based assays to examine cMet internalization.

  11. Flavonoids with epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity stimulate PEPT1-mediated cefixime uptake into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, U; Kuntz, S; Daniel, H

    2001-10-01

    We have tested 33 flavonoids, occurring ubiquitously in foods of plant origin, for their ability to alter the transport of the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime via the H+-coupled intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Of the flavonoids tested, quercetin, genistein, naringin, diosmin, acacetin, and chrysin increased uptake of [14C]cefixime dose dependently by up to 60%. All other flavonoids were either without effect or decreased the absorption of cefixime. Quercetin was shown to increase the Vmax of cefixime influx without changing the apparent Km for transport. However, the expected concomitant increase in intracellular acidification due to PEPT1-mediated cefixime/H+-cotransport was less pronounced in the presence of quercetin. This suggested that pH regulatory systems such as apical Na+/H+-exchange could be activated by quercetin and maintain the proton-motive driving force for cefixime uptake. Since quercetin and genistein have been shown to inhibit epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor tyrosine kinases, we applied tyrphostin 25 to prove whether such an inhibition could explain the stimulatory effects seen on cefixime uptake. It was found that tyrphostin 25 simulated the effects of quercetin by increasing cefixime absorption due to maintenance of the transmembrane pH gradient. In conclusion, our studies show that flavonoids with EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities enhance the intestinal absorption of the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime in Caco-2 cells by activation of apical Na+/H+-exchange and a concomitant increase of the driving force for PEPT1.

  12. Bacterial tyrosine kinases: evolution, biological function and structural insights

    PubMed Central

    Grangeasse, Christophe; Nessler, Sylvie; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of fundamental signalling events in all living organisms. Bacteria have been shown to possess a versatile repertoire of protein kinases, including histidine and aspartic acid kinases, serine/threonine kinases, and more recently tyrosine and arginine kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation is today recognized as a key regulatory device of bacterial physiology, linked to exopolysaccharide production, virulence, stress response and DNA metabolism. However, bacteria have evolved tyrosine kinases that share no resemblance with their eukaryotic counterparts and are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyse autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation on tyrosine. These enzymes, named BY-kinases (for Bacterial tYrosine kinases), have been identified in a majority of sequenced bacterial genomes, and to date no orthologues have been found in Eukarya. The aim of this review was to present the most recent knowledge about BY-kinases by focusing primarily on their evolutionary origin, structural and functional aspects, and emerging regulatory potential based on recent bacterial phosphoproteomic studies. PMID:22889913

  13. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors: New class of antimalarials on the horizon?

    PubMed

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2015-08-01

    Development of the antimalarial drug resistant strains has currently become a major public health challenge. There is an urgent need to develop new antimalarial drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are receiving increasing attention as anticancer therapy. It has revolutionarised the management of CML to say the least. TKIs are also increasingly being implicated in complicated but vital life cycle of malaria parasite. Hence we tested two commonly used but different classes of TKIs (imatinib and sorafenib) in-vitro for their antimalarial activity and possible synergistic activity with existing antimalarial drug. Antimalarial activity was tested with the help of modified WHO microtest technique in-vitro for five different Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains (3D7, Dd2, 7G8, MRC2, PKL9). Imatinib and sorafenib showed a promising antimalarial activity with all the strains. These compounds caused dose dependent inhibition of parasite maturation. The isobologram analysis of the interactions of these TKIs with standard antimalarial drug, artesunate revealed distinct patterns of synergism, additivity and antagonism at different ratios. Imatinib showed worthwhile synergism with artesunate indicating imatinib and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors may have significant antimalarial activity and can be used in combination therapy. PMID:26142327

  14. Receptor tyrosine kinases and schistosome reproduction: new targets for chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Hahnel, Steffen; Grevelding, Christoph G.; Dissous, Colette

    2014-01-01

    Schistosome parasites still represent a serious public health concern and a major economic problem in developing countries. Pathology of schistosomiasis is mainly due to massive egg production by these parasites and to inflammatory responses raised against the eggs which are trapped in host tissues. Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are key molecules that control cell differentiation and proliferation and they already represent important targets in cancer therapy. During recent years, it has been shown that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) signaling was active in reproductive organs and that it could regulate sexual maturation of schistosomes and egg production. This opens interesting perspectives for the control of transmission and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis based on new therapies targeting schistosome RTKs. This review relates the numerous data showing the major roles of kinase signaling in schistosome reproduction. It describes the conserved and particular features of schistosome RTKs, their implication in gametogenesis and reproduction processes and summarizes recent works indicating that RTKs and their signaling partners are interesting chemotherapeutical targets in new programs of control. PMID:25101117

  15. Effect of radicicol infusion on the Src tyrosine kinase activity of rat hippocampus before and after training in an inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Vinadé, Elsa; Rodrigues, Letícia; De David e Silva, Tiago L; Ardenghi, Patrícia; da Silva Brum, Lucimar Filot; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Izquierdo, Iván

    2007-07-01

    The participation of protein serine/threonine kinases in memory formation and retrieval is well established. In contrast, relatively little is known on the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Previous work showed that intra-hippocampal infusion of the Src-PTK inhibitor radicicol inhibits memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between levels of Src-PTK activity in hippocampus and memory acquisition, formation, and retrieval of this task. Radicicol (0.5 microg/ml) was infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Radicicol infused 15 min before training decreased Src-PTK activity, as measured 0, 1.5, and 24 h after training, and impaired memory acquisition of the task. When given immediately after training, there was a decrease in Src-PTK activity 1.5 h, but not 0 or 24 h after training. This treatment depressed memory consolidation. Radicicol infused into CA1 10 min prior to retrieval testing inhibited hippocampal Src-PTK activity, as measured immediately after the test session. The results suggest that Src-PTKs participate in memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval processes, but the timing of the role of the enzyme is different in each case.

  16. Transforming and Tumorigenic Activity of JAK2 by Fusion to BCR: Molecular Mechanisms of Action of a Novel BCR-JAK2 Tyrosine-Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ormazábal, Cristina; Santos-Roncero, Matilde; Galán-Díez, Marta; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Figuera, Ángela; Arranz, Eva; Vizmanos, José Luis; Bueren, Juan A.; Río, Paula; Fernández-Ruiz, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations in tumors frequently produce fusion genes coding for chimeric proteins with a key role in oncogenesis. Recent reports described a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene in fatal chronic and acute myeloid leukemia, but the functional behavior of the chimeric protein remains uncharacterized. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to describe a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The patient has been in complete remission for six years following treatment and autologous transplantation, and minimal residual disease was monitored by real-time RT-PCR. BCR-JAK2 codes for a protein containing the BCR oligomerization domain fused to the JAK2 tyrosine-kinase domain. In vitro analysis of transfected cells showed that BCR-JAK2 is located in the cytoplasm. Transduction of hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells with retroviral vectors carrying BCR-JAK2 induced IL-3-independent cell growth, constitutive activation of the chimeric protein as well as STAT5 phosphorylation and translocation to the nuclei, where Bcl-xL gene expression was elicited. Primary mouse progenitor cells transduced with BCR-JAK2 also showed increased proliferation and survival. Treatment with the JAK2 inhibitor TG101209 abrogated BCR-JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation, decreased Bcl-xL expression and triggered apoptosis of transformed Ba/F3 cells. Therefore, BCR-JAK2 is a novel tyrosine-kinase with transforming activity. It deregulates growth factor-dependent proliferation and cell survival, which can be abrogated by the TG101209 inhibitor. Moreover, transformed Ba/F3 cells developed tumors when injected subcutaneously into nude mice, thus proving the tumorigenic capacity of BCR-JAK2 in vivo. Together these findings suggest that adult and pediatric patients with BCR-ABL-negative leukemia and JAK2 overexpression may benefit from targeted therapies. PMID:22384256

  17. Molecular Basis of the Interaction of the Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Non-receptor Type 4 (PTPN4) with the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase p38γ.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, Pierre; Caillet-Saguy, Célia; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bibi-Zainab, Edoo; Sawyer, Kristi; Raynal, Bertrand; Haouz, Ahmed; Delepierre, Muriel; Lafon, Monique; Cordier, Florence; Wolff, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    The human protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 4 (PTPN4) prevents cell death induction in neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines in a PDZ·PDZ binding motifs-dependent manner, but the cellular partners of PTPN4 involved in cell protection are unknown. Here, we described the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ as a cellular partner of PTPN4. The main contribution to the p38γ·PTPN4 complex formation is the tight interaction between the C terminus of p38γ and the PDZ domain of PTPN4. We solved the crystal structure of the PDZ domain of PTPN4 bound to the p38γ C terminus. We identified the molecular basis of recognition of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ that displays the highest affinity among all endogenous partners of PTPN4. We showed that the p38γ C terminus is also an efficient inducer of cell death after its intracellular delivery. In addition to recruiting the kinase, the binding of the C-terminal sequence of p38γ to PTPN4 abolishes the catalytic autoinhibition of PTPN4 and thus activates the phosphatase, which can efficiently dephosphorylate the activation loop of p38γ. We presume that the p38γ·PTPN4 interaction promotes cellular signaling, preventing cell death induction.

  18. Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.

    PubMed

    Rose, David M; Liu, Shouchun; Woodside, Darren G; Han, Jaewon; Schlaepfer, David D; Ginsberg, Mark H

    2003-06-15

    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1). PMID:12794117

  19. Truncation and Activation of Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-regulated Kinase 1A by Calpain I: A MOLECULAR MECHANISM LINKED TO TAU PATHOLOGY IN ALZHEIMER DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nana; Yin, Xiaomin; Gu, Jianlan; Zhang, Xinhua; Shi, Jianhua; Qian, Wei; Ji, Yuhua; Cao, Maohong; Gu, Xiaosong; Ding, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

    2015-06-12

    Hyperphosphorylation and dysregulation of exon 10 splicing of Tau are pivotally involved in pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and/or other tauopathies. Alternative splicing of Tau exon 10, which encodes the second microtubule-binding repeat, generates Tau isoforms containing three and four microtubule-binding repeats, termed 3R-Taus and 4R-Taus, respectively. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) lies at the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. Overexpression of this kinase may contribute to the early Tau pathology in Down syndrome via phosphorylation of Tau and dysregulation of Tau exon 10. Here, we report that Dyrk1A was truncated at the C terminus and was associated with overactivation of calpain I in AD brain. Calpain I proteolyzed Dyrk1A in vitro first at the C terminus and further at the N terminus and enhanced its kinase activity toward Tau via increased Vmax but not Km. C-terminal truncation of Dyrk1A resulted in stronger activity than its full-length protein in promotion of exon 10 exclusion and phosphorylation of Tau. Dyrk1A was truncated in kainic acid-induced excitotoxic mouse brains and coincided with an increase in 3R-Tau expression and phosphorylation of Tau via calpain activation. Moreover, truncation of Dyrk1A was correlated with an increase in the ratio of 3R-Tau/4R-Tau and Tau hyperphosphorylation in AD brain. Collectively, these findings suggest that truncation/activation of Dyrk1A by Ca(2+)/calpain I might contribute to Tau pathology via promotion of exon 10 exclusion and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in AD brain. PMID:25918155

  20. Regulation of the Src family tyrosine kinase Blk through E6AP-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Hideaki; Kumar, Sushant; Howley, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    The Src family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are important regulators of a variety of cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, cell–cell contact, and cell–matrix adhesion. Activation of Src family kinases also can induce DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation; therefore, tight regulation of their kinase activities is important for the cell to maintain proliferative control. Posttranslational phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are recognized as the principle modifications by which the activities of the Src family of tyrosine kinases are regulated. We have discovered that this family of kinases also is regulated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Studies aimed at the identification of cellular targets for E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase involved in ubquitin-mediated degradation, led us to the identification of members of the Src family kinases as potential substrates for E6AP. We have found that E6AP can bind to several of the Src family tyrosine kinases. Here we show that activated Blk is preferentially degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and that its ubiquitination is mediated by E6AP. Identification of members of the Src tyrosine kinase family as substrates of the E6AP ubiquitin-protein ligase implicates a role for the ubiquitin pathway in regulating the activities of individual members of this important family of signaling molecules. PMID:10449731

  1. Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces intestinal epithelial cell secretion of interleukin-8 through mitogen-activated protein kinases and a tyrosine kinase-regulated nuclear factor-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaoguang; Powell, Jan; Mathioudakis, Nes; Kane, Sheryl; Fernandez, Ellen; Sears, Cynthia L

    2004-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) secretes a 20-kDa metalloprotease toxin termed B. fragilis toxin (BFT). ETBF disease in animals is associated with an acute inflammatory response in the intestinal mucosa, and lethal hemorrhagic colitis may occur in rabbits. In this study, we confirmed recent reports (J. M. Kim, Y. K. Oh, Y. J. Kim, H. B. Oh, and Y. J. Cho, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 123:421-427, 2001; L. Sanfilippo, C. K. Li, R. Seth, T. J. Balwin, M. J. Menozzi, and Y. R. Mahida, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 119:456-463, 2000) that purified BFT stimulates interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion by human intestinal epithelial cells (HT29/C1 cells) and demonstrate that stimulation of IL-8 production is dependent on biologically active BFT and independent of serum. Induction of IL-8 mRNA expression occurs rapidly and ceases by 6 h after BFT treatment, whereas IL-8 secretion continues to increase for at least 18 h. Our data suggest that BFT-stimulated IL-8 secretion involves tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) as well as activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 and extracellular signal-related kinase. Simultaneous activation of NF-kappaB and MAPKs appears necessary for secretion of IL-8 by HT29/C1 cells treated with BFT.

  2. De novo design of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors based on a linked-fragment approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xin-Ying; Yu, Ri-Lei; Liu, Dong-Qing; Kang, Cong-Min

    2016-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess substantial antitumor activity. VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors are crucial for development of antitumor drugs. Based on the crystal structure of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase, a linked-fragment strategy was employed to design novel VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and 1000 compounds were generated in this process. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) were used to screen the 1000 compounds, and 59 compounds were acceptable. Scaffold hopping was then used for further screening, and only four compounds were obtained in this way. Then, the binding energy of the four molecules to VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase was calculated using molecular docking, and their values were found to be lower than that of Sorafenib. Finally, molecular dynamics simulations were performed on the complex of the compound with the lowest binding energy with VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase, and the binding model was analyzed. At the end, four chemical entities with novel structures were obtained, and were suggested for experimental testing in future studies. PMID:27558799

  3. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 enhances thyroid cancer cell motile response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Frasca, F; Vigneri, P; Vella, V; Vigneri, R; Wang, J Y

    2001-06-28

    The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its receptor Met are physiological regulators of cell migration. HGF and Met have also been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. We show here that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 has a stimulatory effect on HGF-induced migration and branching morphogenesis in thyroid cancer but not in primary or immortalized thyroid epithelial cells. These stimulatory effects of STI571 are observed at a concentration that is clinically relevant. The STI571-enhanced motile response can be correlated with an increase in the Met receptor tyrosine phosphorylation as well as ERK and Akt activation by HGF. Interestingly, one of the targets of STI571, namely the c-Abl tyrosine kinase, is activated by HGF and is recruited at the migrating edge of thyroid cancer cells. These data suggests that c-Abl and/or STI571-inhibited tyrosine kinases can negatively regulate the Met receptor to restrain the motile response in thyroid cancer cells.

  4. Tyrosine kinase inhibition: A therapeutic target for the management of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias J; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2014-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematologic neoplasm with a progressive, ultimately terminal, disease course. In most cases, CML arises owing to the aberrant formation of a chimeric gene for a constitutively active tyrosine kinase. Inhibition of the signaling activity of this kinase has proved to be a highly successful treatment target transforming the prognosis of patients with CML. New tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) continue to improve the management of CML, offering alternative options for those resistant to or intolerant of standard TKIs. Here we review the pathobiology of CML and explore emerging strategies to optimize the management of chronic-phase CML, particularly first-line treatment. PMID:24236822

  5. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  6. Recent inventions on receptor tyrosine kinase RET modulation.

    PubMed

    Jurvansuu, Jaana M; Goldman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Rearranged during transfection, RET, is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in neural crest derived cell lineages. RET is activated by dimerisation facilitated by its binding to the heterodimeric complex formed by Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) -family ligand (GFL) and GNDF-family receptor (GFR). Both GDNFs and their co-receptors are a small protein family of four members. RET kinase mediated signaling can lead to survival, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. Pharmaceutically RET is of interest due to its involvement in several disease conditions. Oncogenic RET activation by mutations or rearragements predisposes to cancers like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (A and B) and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Loss-of-function mutations in RET are a strong susceptibility factor for Hirschsprung disease, which is characterized by lack of ganglion cells in gastrointestinal tract. All the GFLs promote neuronal survival and GDNF is one of the most potent neurotrophic factors for dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, the neuroprotective capacity of RET activation to override the apoptotic program in neurodegenerative diseases, like in dying midbrain dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, is of great interest. This article reviews the recent international patents on modulation of RET kinase activity by small-molecule and peptide-based agonists and antagonists.

  7. Terreic Acid, a Quinone Epoxide Inhibitor of Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Yuko; Hartman, Stephen E.; Kinoshita, Eiji; Suzuki, Hidefumi; Kitaura, Jiro; Yao, Libo; Inagaki, Naoki; Franco, Alessandra; Hata, Daisuke; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Fukamachi, Hiromi; Nagai, Hiroichi; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    1999-03-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays pivotal roles in mast cell activation as well as in B cell development. Btk mutations lead to severe impairments in proinflammatory cytokine production induced by cross-linking of high-affinity IgE receptor on mast cells. By using an in vitro assay to measure the activity that blocks the interaction between protein kinase C and the pleckstrin homology domain of Btk, terreic acid (TA) was identified and characterized in this study. This quinone epoxide specifically inhibited the enzymatic activity of Btk in mast cells and cell-free assays. TA faithfully recapitulated the phenotypic defects of btk mutant mast cells in high-affinity IgE receptor-stimulated wild-type mast cells without affecting the enzymatic activities and expressions of many other signaling molecules, including those of protein kinase C. Therefore, this study confirmed the important roles of Btk in mast cell functions and showed the usefulness of TA in probing into the functions of Btk in mast cells and other immune cell systems. Another insight obtained from this study is that the screening method used to identify TA is a useful approach to finding more efficacious Btk inhibitors.

  8. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 via enhancing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-dependent cJun expression mediates retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the involvement of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) in endothelial cell angiogenic responses, its role in pathological retinal angiogenesis is not known. In the present study, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) induces Pyk2 activation in mediating human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMVEC) migration, sprouting and tube formation. Downstream to Pyk2, VEGFA induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation and cJun expression in the modulation of HRMVEC migration, sprouting and tube formation. Consistent with these observations, hypoxia induced activation of Pyk2-STAT3-cJun signaling axis and siRNA-mediated downregulation of Pyk2, STAT3 or cJun levels substantially inhibited hypoxia-induced retinal endothelial cell proliferation, tip cell formation and neovascularization. Together, these observations suggest that activation of Pyk2-mediated STAT3-cJun signaling is required for VEGFA-induced HRMVEC migration, sprouting and tube formation in vitro and hypoxia-induced retinal endothelial cell proliferation, tip cell formation and neovascularization in vivo. PMID:27210483

  9. RhoA/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling after growth arrest-specific protein 6/mer receptor tyrosine kinase engagement promotes epithelial cell growth and wound repair via upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Park, Hyun-Jung; Woo, So-Youn; Park, Eun-Mi; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-09-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6)/Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) signaling modulates cytokine secretion and helps to regulate the immune response and apoptotic cell clearance. Signaling pathways that activate an epithelial growth program in macrophages are still poorly defined. We report that Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling can induce the production of epithelial growth factor hepatic growth factor (HGF) in macrophages, which ultimately promotes epithelial cell proliferation and wound repair. The RhoA/protein kinase B (Akt)/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, including p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, and Jun NH2-terminal kinase axis in RAW 264.7 cells, was identified as Gas6/Mer downstream signaling pathway for the upregulation of HGF mRNA and protein. Conditioned medium from RAW 264.7 cells that had been exposed to Gas6 or apoptotic cells enhanced epithelial cell proliferation of the epithelial cell line LA-4 and wound closure. Cotreatment with an HGF receptor-blocking antibody or c-Met antagonist downregulated this enhancement. Inhibition of Mer with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by RhoA siRNA or Rho kinase pharmacologic inhibitor suppressed Gas6-induced HGF mRNA and protein expression in macrophages and blocked epithelial cell proliferation and wound closure induced by the conditioned medium. Our data provide evidence that macrophages can be reprogrammed by Gas6 to promote epithelial proliferation and wound repair via HGF, which is induced by the Mer/RhoA/Akt/MAP kinase pathway. Thus, defects in Gas6/Mer/RhoA signaling in macrophages may delay tissue repair after injury to the alveolar epithelium.

  10. Mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity of DYRK1A.

    PubMed

    Walte, Agnes; Rüben, Katharina; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Preisinger, Christian; Bamberg-Lemper, Simone; Hilz, Nikolaus; Bracher, Franz; Becker, Walter

    2013-09-01

    The function of many protein kinases is controlled by the phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue in the activation loop. Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinases (DYRKs) autophosphorylate on this tyrosine residue but phosphorylate substrates on aliphatic amino acids. This study addresses the mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity in DYRK1A and related kinases. Tyrosine autophosphorylation of DYRK1A occurred rapidly during in vitro translation and did not depend on the non-catalytic domains or other proteins. Expression in bacteria as well as in mammalian cells revealed that tyrosine kinase activity of DYRK1A is not restricted to the co-translational autophosphorylation in the activation loop. Moreover, mature DYRK1A was still capable of tyrosine autophosphorylation. Point mutants of DYRK1A and DYRK2 lacking the activation loop tyrosine showed enhanced tyrosine kinase activity. A series of structurally diverse DYRK1A inhibitors was used to pharmacologically distinguish different conformational states of the catalytic domain that are hypothesized to account for the dual specificity kinase activity. All tested compounds inhibited substrate phosphorylation with higher potency than autophosphorylation but none of the tested inhibitors differentially inhibited threonine and tyrosine kinase activity. Finally, the related cyclin-dependent kinase-like kinases (CLKs), which lack the activation loop tyrosine, autophosphorylated on tyrosine both in vitro and in living cells. We propose a model of DYRK autoactivation in which tyrosine autophosphorylation in the activation loop stabilizes a conformation of the catalytic domain with enhanced serine/threonine kinase activity without disabling tyrosine phosphorylation. The mechanism of dual specificity kinase activity probably applies to related serine/threonine kinases that depend on tyrosine autophosphorylation for maturation. PMID:23809146

  11. Regulation of therapeutic resistance in cancers by receptor tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Kuang; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    In response to DNA damage lesions due to cellular stress, DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are activated to promote cell survival and genetic stability or unrepaired lesion-induced cell death. Current cancer treatments predominantly utilize DNA damaging agents, such as irradiation and chemotherapy drugs, to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce cell death through the activation of DDR. However, a portion of cancer patients is reported to develop therapeutic resistance to these DDR-inducing agents. One significant resistance mechanism in cancer cells is oncogenic kinase overexpression, which promotes cell survival by enhancing DNA damage repair pathways and evading cell cycle arrest. Among the oncogenic kinases, overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is reported in many of solid tumors, and numerous clinical trials targeting RTKs are currently in progress. As the emerging trend in cancer treatment combines DNA damaging agents and RTK inhibitors, it is important to understand the substrates of RTKs relative to the DDR pathways. In addition, alteration of RTK expression and their phosphorylated substrates can serve as biomarkers to stratify patients for combination therapies. In this review, we summarize the deleterious effects of RTKs on the DDR pathways and the emerging biomarkers for personalized therapy. PMID:27186434

  12. Insights into Eph receptor tyrosine kinase activation from crystal structures of the EphA4 ectodomain and its complex with ephrin-A5

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Tzvetkova-Robev, Dorothea; Xu, Yan; Goldgur, Yehuda; Chan, Yee-Peng; Himanen, Juha P.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands mediate cell signaling during normal and oncogenic development. Eph signaling is initiated in a multistep process leading to the assembly of higher-order Eph/ephrin clusters that set off bidirectional signaling in interacting cells. Eph and ephrins are divided in two subclasses based on their abilities to bind and activate each other and on sequence conservation. EphA4 is an exception to the general rule because it can be activated by both A- and B-class ephrin ligands. Here we present high-resolution structures of the complete EphA4 ectodomain and its complexes with ephrin-A5. The structures reveal how ligand binding promotes conformational changes in the EphA4 ligand-binding domain allowing the formation of signaling clusters at the sites of cell–cell contact. In addition, the structural data, combined with structure-based mutagenesis, reveal a previously undescribed receptor–receptor interaction between the EphA4 ligand-binding and membrane-proximal fibronectin domains, which is functionally important for efficient receptor activation. PMID:23959867

  13. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Girbau, M; Bassas, L; Alemany, J; de Pablo, F

    1989-01-01

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage. Images PMID:2548191

  14. Phosphoprotein Associated with Glycosphingolipid-Enriched Microdomains (Pag), a Novel Ubiquitously Expressed Transmembrane Adaptor Protein, Binds the Protein Tyrosine Kinase Csk and Is Involved in Regulation of T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Brdic̆ka, Tomás̆; Pavlis̆tová, Dagmar; Leo, Albrecht; Bruyns, Eddy; Kor̆ínek, Vladimír; Angelisová, Pavla; Scherer, Jeanette; Shevchenko, Andrej; Shevchenko, Anna; Hilgert, Ivan; C̆erný, Jan; Drbal, Karel; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Kornacker, Birgit; Hor̆ejs̆í, Václav; Schraven, Burkhart

    2000-01-01

    According to a recently proposed hypothesis, initiation of signal transduction via immunoreceptors depends on interactions of the engaged immunoreceptor with glycosphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs). In this study, we describe a novel GEM-associated transmembrane adaptor protein, termed phosphoprotein associated with GEMs (PAG). PAG comprises a short extracellular domain of 16 amino acids and a 397-amino acid cytoplasmic tail containing ten tyrosine residues that are likely phosphorylated by Src family kinases. In lymphoid cell lines and in resting peripheral blood α/β T cells, PAG is expressed as a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated protein and binds the major negative regulator of Src kinases, the tyrosine kinase Csk. After activation of peripheral blood α/β T cells, PAG becomes rapidly dephosphorylated and dissociates from Csk. Expression of PAG in COS cells results in recruitment of endogenous Csk, altered Src kinase activity, and impaired phosphorylation of Src-specific substrates. Moreover, overexpression of PAG in Jurkat cells downregulates T cell receptor–mediated activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells. These findings collectively suggest that in the absence of external stimuli, the PAG–Csk complex transmits negative regulatory signals and thus may help to keep resting T cells in a quiescent state. PMID:10790433

  15. The P21-activated kinase expression pattern is different in non-small cell lung cancer and affects lung cancer cell sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Si; Dong, Qian-Ze; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Han, Yong; Wang, Liang; Wang, En-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Exploring methods for increasing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) sensitivity has become a major focus in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Major downstream effectors of the Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases, P21-activated kinases (PAKs) activate the main signaling pathways downstream of EGFR and thus promote tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the expression pattern of phosphorylated PAKs in NSCLC and their potential value as drug targets for treating cancer. The expression and prognostic significance of phosphorylated group I and II PAKs were evaluated in 182 patients with NSCLC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed low group I PAK expression in normal lung tissues and increased expressed in the cytoplasm, particularly in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal group I PAK expression was associated with lymph node metastases and high tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage in NSCLC patients and correlated with poor prognosis. We used group I PAK inhibitor (IPA3) to specifically decrease group I PAK activity in human lung cancer cell lines. Decreased group I PAK activity inhibited cell proliferation and combined IPA3 and EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) treatment inhibited cell proliferation in an obvious manner. Together, our results revealed the PAK expression pattern in NSCLC, and a role for group I PAK in cell proliferation, which provides evidence that decreased PAK activity may have a potential application as a molecular targeted therapy in advanced NSCLC.

  16. SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase negatively regulates NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Honorat, Jean-François; Ragab, Ashraf; Lamant, Laurence; Delsol, Georges; Ragab-Thomas, Jeannie

    2006-05-15

    Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is frequently associated with the 2;5 translocation and expresses the NPM-ALK fusion protein, which possesses a constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. We analyzed SHP1 tyrosine phosphatase expression and activity in 3 ALK-positive ALCL cell lines (Karpas 299, Cost, and SU-DHL1) and in lymph node biopsies (n = 40). We found an inverse correlation between the level of NPM-ALK phosphorylation and SHP1 phosphatase activity. Pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a SHP1/NPM-ALK association. Furthermore, confocal microscopy performed on ALCL cell lines and biopsy specimens showed the colocalization of the 2 proteins in cytoplasmic bodies containing Y664-phosphorylated NPM-ALK. Dephosphorylation of NPM-ALK by SHP1 demonstrated that NPM-ALK was a SHP1 substrate. Downregulation of SHP1 expression by RNAi in Karpas cells led to hyperphosphorylation of NPM-ALK, STAT3 activation, and increase in cell proliferation. Furthermore, SHP1 overexpression in 3T3 fibroblasts stably expressing NPM-ALK led to the decrease of NPM-ALK phosphorylation, lower cell proliferation, and tumor progression in nude mice. These findings show that SHP1 is a negative regulator of NPM-ALK signaling. The use of tissue microarrays revealed that 50% of ALK-positive ALCLs were positive for SHP1. Our results suggest that SHP1 could be a critical enzyme in ALCL biology and a potential therapeutic target.

  17. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase: a possible requirement for fixed-bacteria and lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in human natural killer cell activity.

    PubMed

    Puente, J; Salas, M A; Canon, C; Miranda, D; Wolf, M E; Mosnaim, A D

    1996-05-01

    Preincubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from drug-free, healthy volunteers with either the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (GNT, n = 10, final concentration 200 microM) or the protein kinase A activator dybutiryl-cyclic-AMP (cAMP, n = 11, final concentration 10 microM), resulted in a significant inhibition of natural killer cell activity (NKCA, expressed as percentage of specific chromium release). With the exception of 4 out of the 11 cAMP-treated samples, individual values for NKCA in the drug preincubated specimens were at least 20% below the same subject baseline activity; furthermore, NKC lytic function was non-detectable in 4 out of the 10 and in 1 out of the 11 samples pretreated with either GNT or cAMP, respectively. PBL preincubation with glutaraldehyde-fixed Gram-negative bacteria (GNB, n = 13, final GNB-to-effector cell ratio of 50 : 1) resulted in a statistically significant increase in NKCA (baseline (x +/- SD) of 21.6 +/- 16.4 and bacteria treated samples of 41.5 +/- 24.6, respectively, Student's paired t-test p < 0.05). At least a 20% increase in NKC lytic function over its own baseline value was recorded for 11 out of the 13 samples tested (Table 1). Preincubation with GNB and GNT (5 samples) not only blocked the immunostimulant effects of GNB (Student's paired t-test p < 0.05), but in most cases individual values for NKCA were similar to those recorded for GNT-only treated samples. Use of cAMP instead of GNT also blocked, but to a smaller extent, the GNB-produced increases in NKC lytic function (paired Student's t-test < 0.05). PBL preincubation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, n = 11, final concentration 50 micrograms/ml) resulted in a statistically significant increase in NKCA (baseline (x +/- SD) of 20.7 +/- 14.1 and LPS treated samples of 39.2 +/- 18.5, respectively, Student's paired t-test < 0.05). At least a 20% increase in NKCA over its own baseline value was observed for each and everyone of the 11 samples studied

  18. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Ack1 regulates the fate of activated EGFR by inducing trafficking to the p62/NBR1 pre-autophagosome.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sylwia; Cunningham, Debbie L; Rappoport, Joshua Z; Heath, John K

    2014-03-01

    Growth factor signalling regulates multiple cellular functions and its misregulation has been linked to the development and progression of cancer. Ack1 (activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1, also known as TNK2) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in trafficking and degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), yet its precise functions remain elusive. In this report, we investigate the role of Ack1 in EGFR trafficking and show that Ack1 partially colocalises to Atg16L-positive structures upon stimulation with EGF. These structures are proposed to be the isolation membranes that arise during formation of autophagosomes. In addition, we find that Ack1 colocalises and interacts with sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), a receptor for selective autophagy, through a ubiquitin-associated domain, and this interaction decreases upon treatment with EGF, thus suggesting that Ack1 moves away from p62/SQSTM1 compartments. Furthermore, Ack1 interacts and colocalises with NBR1, another autophagic receptor, and this colocalisation is enhanced in the presence of ectopically expressed p62/SQSTM1. Finally, knockdown of Ack1 results in accelerated localisation of EGFR to lysosomes upon treatment with EGF. Structure-function analyses of a panel of Ack1 deletion mutants revealed key mechanistic aspects of these relationships. The Mig6-homology domain and clathrin-binding domain both contribute to colocalisation with EGFR, whereas the UBA domain is essential for colocalisation with p62/SQSTM1, but not NBR1. Taken together, our studies demonstrate a novel role for Ack1 in diverting activated EGFR into a non-canonical degradative pathway, marked by association with p62/SQSTM1, NBR1 and Atg16L.

  19. A novel Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor CC-292 in combination with the proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib impacts the bone microenvironment in a multiple myeloma model with resultant antimyeloma activity.

    PubMed

    Eda, H; Santo, L; Cirstea, D D; Yee, A J; Scullen, T A; Nemani, N; Mishima, Y; Waterman, P R; Arastu-Kapur, S; Evans, E; Singh, J; Kirk, C J; Westlin, W F; Raje, N S

    2014-09-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) modulates B-cell development and activation and has an important role in antibody production. Interestingly, Btk may also affect human osteoclast (OC) function; however, the mechanism was unknown. Here we studied a potent and specific Btk inhibitor, CC-292, in multiple myeloma (MM). In this report, we demonstrate that, although CC-292 increased OC differentiation, it inhibited OC function via inhibition of c-Src, Pyk2 and cortactin, all involved in OC-sealing zone formation. As CC-292 did not show potent in vitro anti-MM activity, we next evaluated it in combination with the proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib. We first studied the effect of carfilzomib on OC. Carfilzomib did not have an impact on OC-sealing zone formation but significantly inhibited OC differentiation. CC-292 combined with carfilzomib inhibited both sealing zone formation and OC differentiation, resulting in more profound inhibition of OC function than carfilzomib alone. Moreover, the combination treatment in an in vivo MM mouse model inhibited tumor burden compared with CC-292 alone; it also increased bone volume compared with carfilzomib alone. These results suggest that CC-292 combined with carfilzomib augments the inhibitory effects against OC within the bone microenvironment and has promising therapeutic potential for the treatment of MM and related bone disease.

  20. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder.

  1. Involvement of Phospholipase Cγ1 in Mouse Egg Activation Induced by a Truncated Form of the C-kit Tyrosine Kinase Present in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection of a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa (tr-kit) activates mouse eggs parthenogenetically, and tr-kit– induced egg activation is inhibited by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (Sette, C., A. Bevilacqua, A. Bianchini, F. Mangia, R. Geremia, and P. Rossi. 1997. Development [Camb.]. 124:2267–2274). Co-injection of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the src-homology (SH) domains of the γ1 isoform of PLC (PLCγ1) competitively inhibits tr-kit– induced egg activation. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 inhibits egg activation as efficiently as the whole SH region, while a GST fusion protein containing the two SH2 domains is much less effective. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of the Grb2 adaptor protein does not inhibit tr-kit–induced egg activation, showing that the effect of the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is specific. Tr-kit–induced egg activation is also suppressed by co-injection of antibodies raised against the PLCγ1 SH domains, but not against the PLCγ1 COOH-terminal region. In transfected COS cells, coexpression of PLCγ1 and tr-kit increases diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate production, and the phosphotyrosine content of PLCγ1 with respect to cells expressing PLCγ1 alone. These data indicate that tr-kit activates PLCγ1, and that the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is essential for tr-kit–induced egg activation. PMID:9722617

  2. Prokaryotic expression cloning of a novel human tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Beeler, J.F.; LaRochelle, W.J.; Chedid, M.

    1994-02-01

    Screening of a human embryonic lung fibroblast cDNA expression library with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies led to isolation of a novel protein kinase. A clone, designated A6, contained a 3-kb cDNA insert with a predicted open reading frame of 350 amino acids. DNA sequence analysis failed to reveal any detectable similarity with previously known genes, and the predicted A6 protein lacked any of the motifs commonly conserved in the catalytic domains of protein kinases. However, the bacterially expressed {beta}-galactosidase-A6 fusion protein demonstrated both tyrosine and serine phosphorylation in an in vitro kinase assay and phosphorylated exogenous substrates including myelin basic protein specifically on tyrosine residues. The enzyme also displayed biochemical properties analogous to those of other protein tyrosine kinases. The A6 gene was found to be expressed widely at the transcript level in normal tissues and was evolutionarily conserved. Thus, A6 represents a novel tyrosine kinase which is highly divergent from previously described members of this important class of regulatory molecules. 29 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Effects of Membrane Trafficking on Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Miaczynska, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular trafficking machinery contributes to the spatial and temporal control of signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The primary role in this process is played by endocytic trafficking, which regulates the localization of RTKs and their downstream effectors, as well as the duration and the extent of their activity. The key regulatory points along the endocytic pathway are internalization of RTKs from the plasma membrane, their sorting to degradation or recycling, and their residence in various endosomal compartments. Here I will review factors and mechanisms that modulate RTK signaling by (1) affecting receptor internalization, (2) regulating the balance between degradation and recycling of RTK, and (3) compartmentalization of signals in endosomes and other organelles. Cumulatively, these mechanisms illustrate a multilayered control of RTK signaling exerted by the trafficking machinery. PMID:24186066

  4. Mechanisms of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihua; Fu, Liwu

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is driven by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs, e.g., gefitinib and elrotinib) have been effectively used for clinical treatment. However, patients eventually develop drug resistance. Resistance to EGFR-TKIs is inevitable due to various mechanisms, such as the secondary mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter effusion, etc. Here we review and summarize the known resistant mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs and provide potential targets for development of new therapeutic strategies.

  5. AG490 and PF431396 Sensitive Tyrosine Kinase Control the Population Heterogeneity of Basal STAT1 Activity in Ube1l Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Now, Hesung; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A population often contains distinct sub-populations, thereby increasing the complexity of the overall heterogeneity. However, the cellular origin and biological relevance of sub-populations in cell population have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrated the novel roles of ISGylation, which is an IFN-induced post-translational modification, controlling heterogeneity at the population level in cultured adherent cells. Without UBE1L, an E1 enzyme of ISGylation, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited low viral resistance despite high STAT1 and ISG expression compared with the wild-type MEF. We observe that Ube1l-/- MEF populations consist of two behaviorally distinguishable sub-populations with distinct basal STAT1 activity, while wild-type MEF populations are unimodal. This population heterogeneity in Ube1l knock-out cells was perturbed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG490 and PF431396. In contrast, the neutralization of type I IFN did not affect population heterogeneity. Based on these results, we concluded that UBE1L functions to adjust basal immunological states with the regulation of population heterogeneity. PMID:27427993

  6. AG490 and PF431396 Sensitive Tyrosine Kinase Control the Population Heterogeneity of Basal STAT1 Activity in Ube1l Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Now, Hesung; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A population often contains distinct sub-populations, thereby increasing the complexity of the overall heterogeneity. However, the cellular origin and biological relevance of sub-populations in cell population have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrated the novel roles of ISGylation, which is an IFN-induced post-translational modification, controlling heterogeneity at the population level in cultured adherent cells. Without UBE1L, an E1 enzyme of ISGylation, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited low viral resistance despite high STAT1 and ISG expression compared with the wild-type MEF. We observe that Ube1l−/− MEF populations consist of two behaviorally distinguishable sub-populations with distinct basal STAT1 activity, while wild-type MEF populations are unimodal. This population heterogeneity in Ube1l knock-out cells was perturbed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG490 and PF431396. In contrast, the neutralization of type I IFN did not affect population heterogeneity. Based on these results, we concluded that UBE1L functions to adjust basal immunological states with the regulation of population heterogeneity. PMID:27427993

  7. Co-active receptor tyrosine kinases mitigate the effect of FGFR inhibitors in FGFR1-amplified lung cancers with low FGFR1 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Kotani, H; Ebi, H; Kitai, H; Nanjo, S; Kita, K; Huynh, T G; Ooi, A; Faber, A C; Mino-Kenudson, M; Yano, S

    2016-07-01

    Targeted therapies are effective in subsets of lung cancers with EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocations. Large-scale genomics have recently expanded the lung cancer landscape with FGFR1 amplification found in 10-20% of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, the response rates have been low for biomarker-directed fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor therapy in SCC, which contrasts to the relatively high rates of response seen in EGFR mutant and ALK-translocated lung cancers treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors and ALK inhibitors, respectively. In order to better understand the low response rates of FGFR1-amplified lung cancers to FGFR inhibitors, relationships between gene copy number, mRNA expression and protein expression of FGFR1 were assessed in cell lines, tumor specimens and data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The importance of these factors for the sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors was determined by analyzing drug screen data and conducting in vitro and in vivo experiments. We report that there was a discrepancy between FGFR1 amplification level and FGFR1 protein expression in a number of these cell lines, and the cancers with unexpectedly low FGFR1 expression were uniformly resistant to the different FGFR inhibitors. Further interrogation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity in these discordant cell lines revealed co-activation of HER2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) caused by gene amplification or ligand overexpression maintained phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and MEK/ERK signaling even in the presence of FGFR inhibitor. Accordingly, co-inhibition of FGFR1 and HER2 or PDGFRα led to enhanced drug responses. In contrast, FGFR1-amplified high FGFR1 protein-expressing lung cancers are sensitive to FGFR inhibitor monotherapy by downregulating ERK signaling. Addition of a PI3K inhibitor to these high FGFR1 protein-expressing cancers further sensitized them to FGFR

  8. Identification of an essential signaling cascade for mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by angiotensin II in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Possible requirement of Gq-mediated p21ras activation coupled to a Ca2+/calmodulin-sensitive tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, S; Matsumoto, T; Motley, E D; Utsunomiya, H; Inagami, T

    1996-06-14

    In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, angiotensin II (Ang II) induced a rapid increase in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity through the Ang II type 1 receptor, which was insensitive to pertussis toxin but was abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122. The Ang II-induced MAPK activation was not affected by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X, and was only partially impaired by pretreatment with a phorbol ester, whereas both treatments completely prevented MAPK activation by the phorbol ester. Intracellular Ca2+ chelation by TMB-8, but not extracellular Ca2+ chelation or inhibition of Ca2+ influx, abolished Ang II-induced MAPK activation. The calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium, and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, completely blocked MAPK activation by Ang II as well as by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Ang II caused a rapid increase in the binding of GTP to p21(ras), and this was inhibited by genistein, TMB-8, and calmidazolium but not by pertussis toxin or GF109203X. These data suggest that Ang II-induced MAPK activation through the Ang II type 1 receptor could be mediated by p21(ras)activation through a currently unidentified tyrosine kinase that lies downstream of Gq-coupled Ca2+/calmodulin signals.

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain, a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, activates tyrosine hydroxylase through extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyun Sook; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Hong Geun; Kim, Yong Sik; Ahn, Yong Min

    2011-11-01

    Alteration in dopamine neurotransmission has been reported to be involved in the mania of bipolar disorder. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme that is crucial for dopamine biosynthesis, and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple N-terminal serine residues. Previously, we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ouabain, a selective Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, induces hyperactivity in rats that mimics manic symptoms related to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays crucial roles in the modulation of TH phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ICV injection of ouabain on TH phosphorylation in rat striatum and the involvement of ERK1/2 in ouabain-induced TH activation. ICV ouabain induced an acute dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity and in TH phosphorylation in rat striatum. TH phosphorylation at Ser19 was significantly increased with 100, 500, and 1000μM ouabain, and phosphorylation at Ser31 and Ser40 was significantly increased with 500 and 1000μM. We also found that ICV pretreatment with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, attenuated the 1000μM ouabain-induced increase in TH phosphorylation at Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40, as well as the hyperactivity of rats. Moreover, the increased phosphorylation of TH (Ser19, Ser31, and Ser40) was maintained until 8h after single administration ouabain was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) and p90RSK (Thr359/Ser363). These findings imply that TH activation of the ERK1/2 signal pathway could play an important role in ouabain-induced hyperactivity of rats, a mania model. PMID:21871514

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin: a recent perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harun M; Rane, Rajesh; Thapliyal, Neeta; Palkar, Mahesh; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is seen in a number of human tumors like prostate, colon, breast and ovarian. Their expression is correlated with vascularity and often difficult to diagnose. Though a number of active inhibitors and anticancer drugs against EGFR-tyrosine kinase are known, increase in resistance together with many side effects designate the need for new and improved treatments. Natural products and their analoges have significant contribution in the cancer drug discovery and development process. Therefore in the current review we mainly discuss design, synthesis and structural activity relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin: a recent perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harun M; Rane, Rajesh; Thapliyal, Neeta; Palkar, Mahesh; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is seen in a number of human tumors like prostate, colon, breast and ovarian. Their expression is correlated with vascularity and often difficult to diagnose. Though a number of active inhibitors and anticancer drugs against EGFR-tyrosine kinase are known, increase in resistance together with many side effects designate the need for new and improved treatments. Natural products and their analoges have significant contribution in the cancer drug discovery and development process. Therefore in the current review we mainly discuss design, synthesis and structural activity relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin. PMID:25763933

  12. Ligand-independent activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor by ETK (Bmx) tyrosine kinase helps MCF10AT1 breast cancer cells to survive in an apoptosis-inducing environment.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Yasuko; Li, Wen; Wu, Dalei; Wong, Patrick; Vogel, Christoph; Dong, Bin; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Matsumura, Fumio

    2011-10-01

    It has been reported that the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is overexpressed in certain types of breast tumors. However, so far no concrete evidence has been provided yet as to why and how the overexpressed AHR in those cancer cells is functionally activated without exogenous ligands. Here we show that the AHR was functionally activated when estrogen receptor-negative, AHR overexpressing MCF10AT1 human breast cancer cells (designated P20E) were subjected to serum starvation. Transfection of cells with ETK-KQ, a plasmid for kinase-dead epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase (ETK), attenuated this AHR activation. Artificial over-expression of ETK in P20E cells through transfection with wild-type ETK plasmid (ETK-wt) caused up-regulation of cytochrome P4501a1 (CYP1A1; a marker of functional activation of AHR). Furthermore, ablation of ETK expression by a specific antisense oligonucleotide or AG879, a specific inhibitor of ETK kinase suppressed activation of AHR induced by omeprazole, a strong ligand-independent activator of AHR. Activation of ETK in those cells conferred them resistance to UVB- as well as doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, both of which were reversed by ETK-KQ. Together, these findings support our conclusion that ETK is the tyrosine kinase responsible for the functional activation of the AHR in these mammary epithelial cells. PMID:21861773

  13. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Erika, Giordani; Federica, Zoratto; Martina, Strudel; Anselmo, Papa; Luigi, Rossi; Marina, Minozzi; Davide, Caruso; Eleonora, Zaccarelli; Monica, Verrico; Silverio, Tomao

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting. PMID:26278713

  14. Old Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Newcomers in Gastrointestinal Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Erika; Zoratto, Federica; Strudel, Martina; Papa, Anselmo; Rossi, Luigi; Minozzi, Marina; Caruso, Davide; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Verrico, Monica; Tomao, Silverio

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancer treatment is based more on molecular biology that has provided increasing knowledge about cancer pathogenesis on which targeted therapy is being developed. Precisely, targeted therapy is defined as a "type of treatment that uses drugs, such as monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors, to identify and attack specific cancer cells". Nowadays, the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved many targeted therapies for gastrointestinal cancer treatment, as many are in various phases of development as well. In a previous review we discussed the main monoclonal antibodies used and studied in gastrointestinal cancer. In addition to monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent another class of targeted therapy and following the approval of imatinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumours, other tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved for gastrointestinal cancers treatment such as sunitinib, regoragenib, sorafenib and erlotinib. Moving forward, the purpose of this review is to focus on the efficacy data of main tyrosine kinase inhibitors commonly used in the personalized treatment of each gastrointestinal tumour and to provide a comprehensive overview about experimental targeted therapies ongoing in this setting.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 are induced differently by metal nanoparticles in human monocytes: The role of oxidative stress and protein tyrosine kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Rong; Mo Yiqun; Zhang Xing; Chien Sufan; Tollerud, David J.; Zhang Qunwei

    2008-12-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that nanoparticles can translocate from the lungs to the circulatory system. As a particulate foreign body, nanoparticles could induce host responses such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) release which play a major role in tissue destruction and remodeling. However, the direct effects of nanoparticles on leukocytes, especially monocytes, are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Nano-Co and Nano-TiO{sub 2} to cause alteration of transcription and activity of MMPs and to explore possible mechanisms. We hypothesized that non-toxic doses of some transition metal nanoparticles stimulate an imbalance of MMP/TIMP that cause MMP production that may contribute to their health effects. To test this hypothesis, U937 cells were treated with Nano-Co and Nano-TiO{sub 2} and cytotoxic effects and ROS generation were measured. The alteration of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 after exposure to these metal nanoparticles were subsequently determined. To investigate the potential signaling pathways involved in the Nano-Co-induced MMP activation, the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, AP-1 inhibitor, and protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors were also used to pre-treat U937 cells. Our results demonstrated that exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO{sub 2}, at a dose that does not cause cytotoxicity, resulted in ROS generation and up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression{sub ..} Our results also showed dose- and time-related increases in pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities in conditioned media after exposure of U937 cells to Nano-Co, but not to Nano-TiO{sub 2}. Nano-Co-induced pro-MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 activity increases were inhibited by pre-treatment with ROS scavengers or inhibitors. We also demonstrated dose- and time-related decreases in tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 2

  16. Expression of human tyrosine kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor amplifies signaling through endogenous murine epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Hack, N; Sue-A-Quan, A; Mills, G B; Skorecki, K L

    1993-12-15

    Recent findings have suggested that certain ligand-dependent responses to EGF may be propagated in a manner that is not dependent on the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R, Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538) or, alternatively, that these responses may occur through the interaction of the human tyrosine kinase-deficient EGF-R with an as yet unidentified kinase (Selva, E., Raden, D. L., and Davis, R. J. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 2250-2254). These conclusions represent a significant departure from our current understanding of signal transduction by receptor tyrosine kinases. Therefore we examined the effect of expression of tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF receptor in murine NIH-3T3-2.2 cells on the EGF-dependent phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP-2) kinase. In parental cells (NIH-3T3-2.2) that express low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, there was no demonstrable EGF-dependent coupling to MAP-2 kinase. In NIH-3T3-2.2 cells transfected with tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R, there was unexpected EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase. Analysis of the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R in these cells revealed significant tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF-R. A low level of endogenous murine EGF-R present in these cells were also phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and displayed autokinase activity. Similar results were obtained using an unrelated cell line (B82L cells), in which EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase was previously attributed to signal propagation through a tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R (Campos-Gonzalez, R., and Glenney, J. R., Jr. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 14535-14538). Taken together, these results suggest that the tyrosine kinase-negative human EGF-R are able to amplify the response to activation of low levels of endogenous murine EGF-R, thus leading to EGF-dependent phosphorylation of MAP-2 kinase in cells

  17. Functional specificity of cytoplasmic and transmembrane tyrosine kinases: identification of 130- and 75-kilodalton substrates of c-fps/fes tyrosine kinase in macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Areces, L B; Dello Sbarba, P; Jücker, M; Stanley, E R; Feldman, R A

    1994-01-01

    c-fps/fes encodes a 92-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase (NCP92) that is expressed at the highest levels in macrophages. To determine if c-fps/fes can mediate the action of the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) and to identify potential targets of c-fps/fes in macrophages, we have overexpressed c-fps/fes in a CSF-1-dependent macrophage cell line. A 30- to 50-fold overexpression of c-fps/fes partially released these cells from their factor dependence by a nonautocrine mechanism, and this correlated with the tyrosine phosphorylation of two proteins of 130 and 75 kDa (P130 and P75). c-fps/fes did not cause tyrosine phosphorylation or activation of CSF-1 dependent targets, including CSF-1R, Shc, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and conversely, CSF-1 did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of P130 and P75. P75 appears to be a novel phosphotyrosyl protein, whereas P130 cross-reacts with a known substrate of v-src. P130 and P75 may be direct substrates of c-fps/fes: P130 was tightly associated with NCP92, and the src homology 2 domain of NCP92 specifically bound phosphorylated P130 and P75 but not the CSF-1-induced phosphotyrosyl proteins, consistent with the possibility that P130 and P75 are physiological targets of c-fps/fes. We conclude that although c-fps/fes can functionally substitute for CSF-1R to a certain extent, these tyrosine kinases act largely independently of each other and that P130 and P75 are novel targets whose mechanisms of action may be unrelated to the signalling pathways utilized by receptor tyrosine kinases. Images PMID:8007965

  18. Involvement of the N-terminal unique domain of Chk tyrosine kinase in Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yuji; Kawana, Akiko; Igarashi, Asae; Yamaguchi, Naoto . E-mail: nyama@p.chiba-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Chk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Src-family kinases and suppresses their kinase activity. We recently showed that Chk localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and inhibits cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the role of the N-terminal unique domain of Chk in nuclear localization and Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus. In situ binding experiments showed that the N-terminal domain of Chk was associated with the nucleus and the nuclear matrix. The presence of the N-terminal domain of Chk led to a fourfold increase in cell population exhibiting Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus. Expression of Chk but not kinase-deficient Chk induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a variety of proteins ranging from 23 kDa to {approx}200 kDa, especially in Triton X-100-insoluble fraction that included chromatin and the nuclear matrix. Intriguingly, in situ subnuclear fractionations revealed that Chk induced tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins that were associated with the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that various unidentified substrates of Chk, besides Src-family kinases, may be present in the nucleus. Thus, our findings indicate that the importance of the N-terminal domain to Chk-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in the nucleus, implicating that these nuclear tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins may contribute to inhibition of cell proliferation.

  19. Second-generation inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Christina; Tsui, Stella T; Liu, Delong

    2016-01-01

    Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical effector molecule for B cell development and plays a major role in lymphoma genesis. Ibrutinib is the first-generation BTK inhibitor. Ibrutinib has off-target effects on EGFR, ITK, and Tec family kinases, which explains the untoward effects of ibrutinib. Resistance to ibrutinib was also reported. The C481S mutation in the BTK kinase domain was reported to be a major mechanism of resistance to ibrutinib. This review summarizes the clinical development of novel BTK inhibitors, ACP-196 (acalabrutinib), ONO/GS-4059, and BGB-3111. PMID:27590878

  20. Regulation of the EphA2 kinase by the low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase induces transformation.

    PubMed

    Kikawa, Keith D; Vidale, Derika R; Van Etten, Robert L; Kinch, Michael S

    2002-10-18

    Intracellular signaling by protein tyrosine phosphorylation is generally understood to govern many aspects of cellular behavior. The biological consequences of this signaling pathway are important because the levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation are frequently elevated in cancer cells. In the classic paradigm, tyrosine kinases promote tumor cell growth, survival, and invasiveness, whereas tyrosine phosphatases negatively regulate these same behaviors. Here, we identify one particular tyrosine phosphatase, low molecular weight tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP), which is frequently overexpressed in transformed cells. We also show that overexpression of LMW-PTP is sufficient to confer transformation upon non-transformed epithelial cells. Notably, we show that the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase is a prominent substrate for LMW-PTP and that the oncogenic activities of LMW-PTP result from altered EphA2 expression and function. These results suggest a role for LMW-PTP in transformation progression and link its oncogenic potential to EphA2.

  1. Inhibition of an Erythrocyte Tyrosine Kinase with Imatinib Prevents Plasmodium falciparum Egress and Terminates Parasitemia

    PubMed Central

    Kesely, Kristina R.; Pantaleo, Antonella; Turrini, Francesco M.; Olupot-Olupot, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With half of the world’s population at risk for malaria infection and with drug resistance on the rise, the search for mutation-resistant therapies has intensified. We report here a therapy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria that acts by inhibiting the phosphorylation of erythrocyte membrane band 3 by an erythrocyte tyrosine kinase. Because tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3 causes a destabilization of the erythrocyte membrane required for parasite egress, inhibition of the erythrocyte tyrosine kinase leads to parasite entrapment and termination of the infection. Moreover, because one of the kinase inhibitors to demonstrate antimalarial activity is imatinib, i.e. an FDA-approved drug authorized for use in children, translation of the therapy into the clinic will be facilitated. At a time when drug resistant strains of P. falciparum are emerging, a strategy that targets a host enzyme that cannot be mutated by the parasite should constitute a therapeutic mechanism that will retard evolution of resistance. PMID:27768734

  2. Structure and regulation of the c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Sabine; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2011-06-01

    The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase is the normal cellular ortholog of several avian and feline retroviral oncoproteins. Unlike its transforming viral counterparts, c-Fes tyrosine kinase activity is tightly regulated in vivo through a mechanism involving coiled-coil oligomerization domains and other unique structural features found in its long N-terminal region. This review is focused on the regulatory features and structural biology of c-Fes, which has been implicated in normal cellular growth regulation, the innate immune response, and tumorigenesis.

  3. The 2010 patent landscape for spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Alessandro F; Dehnhardt, Christoph; Kaila, Neelu; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Thorarensen, Atli

    2012-05-01

    Discovery of small molecular inhibitors for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is a major ongoing effort within the pharmaceutical industry. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is one of leading small molecular targets with regard to clinical development primarlly due to efforts by Rigel and Portola. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the SYK patent landscape. The patent literature we evaluated relates to any organization that has filed applications that imply that SYK is the intended target. The interest in SYK was initiated in the early 2000's with many organizations, including several large pharmaceutical companies, and has been active for years. In general, the structural theme of most of the compounds in these applications is a traditional ATP competitive inhibitor with each organization having a different hinge binding element. In general, the attachment to the hinge is an aryl amine that is decorated with a solubilizing group. The other substituents are broadly variable across the numerous companies indicating that SYK has significant flexibility in its interactions in that portion of the kinase. This overview of the SYK patent literature and the learnings of the inhibitors' substitution patterns would be an important reference for anyone working in this area.

  4. Reduction of brain barrier tight junctional proteins by lead exposure: role of activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src via chaperon GRP78.

    PubMed

    Song, Han; Zheng, Gang; Shen, Xue-Feng; Liu, Xin-Qin; Luo, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jing-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Lead (Pb) has long been recognized as a neurodevelopmental toxin. Developing blood-brain barrier (BBB) is known to be a target of Pb neurotoxicity; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase Src regulates tight junctional proteins (TJPs). This study was designed to investigate whether Pb acted on the Src-mediated cascade event leading to an altered TJP expression at BBB. Rats aged 20-22 days were exposed to Pb in drinking water (0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm Pb) for eight weeks. Electron microscopic and Western blot analyses revealed a severe leakage of BBB and significantly decreased expressions of TJP occludin and ZO-1. When cultured brain endothelial RBE4 cells were exposed to 10μM Pb for 24 h, expressions of phosphor-Src and an upstream regulator GRP78 were significantly increased by 6.42-fold and 8.29-fold (p < 0.01), respectively. Inactivation of Src pathway by a Src-specific inhibitor reversed Pb-induced downregulation of occludin, but not ZO-1; small interfering RNA knockdown of GRP78 attenuated Pb-induced Src phosphorylation and occludin reduction. Furthermore, Pb exposure caused redistribution of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to cytosol and toward cell member. However, the data from immunoneutralization studies did not show the involvement of cell-surface GRP78 in regulating Src phosphorylation upon Pb exposure, suggesting that the cytosolic GRP78, rather than cell-surface GRP78, was responsible to Pb-induced Src activation and ensuing occludin reduction. Taken together, this study provides the evidence of a novel linkage of GRP78, Src activation to downregulation of occludin, and BBB disruption during Pb exposure.

  5. Dynamics of circulating tumor DNA represented by the activating and resistant mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Junji; Imamura, Fumio; Kukita, Yoji; Oba, Shigeyuki; Kumagai, Toru; Nishino, Kazumi; Inoue, Takako; Kimura, Madoka; Kato, Kikuya

    2016-03-01

    Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging field of cancer research. For lung cancer, non-invasive genotyping of EGFR is the foremost application. The activating mutations represent the ctDNA from all cancer cells, and the T790M-resistant mutation represents that from resistant cells. We examined the ctDNA dynamics of EGFR mutations by using deep sequencing with a massively parallel DNA sequencer. We obtained 190 plasma samples from 57 patients at various times during the treatment course and classified them according to treatment status. The mutation detection rate of exon 19 deletion/L858R in plasma was high at the initiation of treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI; P = 0.001), suppressed during EGFR-TKI treatment before disease progression, and elevated after the onset of disease progression (P = 0.023). The mutation detection rate of T790M was low until the onset of disease progression and elevated thereafter (P = 0.01). Samples across the development of disease progression were obtained from 10 patients and showed a correlation between increased ctDNA level and disease progression. Decreased ctDNA level in response to the initiation of EGFR-TKI was observed in 4 of 6 eligible patients. In two patients, the ctDNA dynamics suggested the presence of cancer cell populations only with the T790M mutation. In another patient, the T790M ctDNA represented cell subpopulations that respond to cytotoxic agents differently from the major population. Considering the high incidence, ctDNA could be a clinical parameter to complement information from image analyses.

  6. Oligomerization of epidermal growth factor receptors on A431 cells studied by time-resolved fluorescence imaging microscopy. A stereochemical model for tyrosine kinase receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    the tyrosine kinase domains. PMID:7790353

  7. Constitutive activation of different Jak tyrosine kinases in human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) tax protein or virus-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Kang, S H; Heidenreich, O; Okerholm, M; O'Shea, J J; Nerenberg, M I

    1995-01-01

    HTLV-1 infection causes an adult T cell leukemia in humans. The viral encoded protein tax, is thought to play an important role in oncogenesis. Our previous data obtained from a tax transgenic mouse model revealed that tax transforms mouse fibroblasts but not thymocytes, despite comparable levels of tax expression in both tissues. Constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of a 130-kD protein(s) was observed in the tax transformed fibroblast B line and in HTLV-1 transformed human lymphoid lines, but not in thymocytes from Thy-tax transgenic mice. Phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis with a set of Jak kinase specific antibodies, identified p130 as Jak2 in the tax transformed mouse fibroblastic cell line and Jak3 in HTLV-1 transformed human T cell lines. Phosphorylation of Jak2 in tax transformed cells resulted from high expression of IL-6. Tyrosine phosphorylation of this protein could also be induced in Balb/c3T3 cells using a supernatant from the B line, which was associated with induction of cell proliferation. Both phosphorylation and proliferation were inhibited by IL-6 neutralizing antibodies. Constitutive phosphorylation of Jak kinases may facilitate tumor growth in both HTLV-1 infected human T cells and the transgenic mouse model. Images PMID:7657825

  8. SAR of carbon-linked, 2-substituted purines: synthesis and characterization of AP23451 as a novel bone-targeted inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase with in vivo anti-resorptive activity.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, William C; Wang, Yihan; Bohacek, Regine; Keenan, Terry; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Metcalf, Chet; Dilauro, Anne; Roeloffzen, Sonya; Liu, Shuangying; Saltmarsh, Jennifer; Paramanathan, Guru; Dalgarno, David; Narula, Surinder; Pradeepan, Selvi; van Schravendijk, Marie Rose; Keats, Jeff; Ram, Mary; Liou, Shuenn; Adams, Susan; Wardwell, Scott; Bogus, Julie; Iuliucci, John; Weigele, Manfred; Xing, Lianping; Boyce, Brendan; Sawyer, Tomi K

    2008-02-01

    Targeted disruption of the pp60(src) (Src) gene has implicated this tyrosine kinase in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and as a therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related diseases. Here, we describe structure activity relationships of a novel series of carbon-linked, 2-substituted purines that led to the identification of AP23451 as a potent inhibitor of Src tyrosine kinase with antiresorptive activity in vivo. AP23451 features the use of an arylphosphinylmethylphosphinic acid moiety which confers bone-targeting properties to the molecule, thereby increasing local concentrations of the inhibitor to actively resorbing osteoclasts at the bone interface. AP23451 exhibited an IC50 = 68 nm against Src kinase; an X-ray crystal structure of the molecule complexed with Src detailed the molecular interactions responsible for its Src inhibition. In vivo, AP23451 demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in PTH-induced hypercalcemia. Moreover, AP23517, a structurally and biochemically similar molecule with comparable activity (IC50 = 73 nm) except devoid of the bone-targeting element, demonstrated significantly reduced in vivo efficacy, suggesting that Src activity was necessary but not sufficient for in vivo activity in this series of compounds. PMID:18179464

  9. Functional analysis of the T-cell-restricted protein tyrosine kinase Txk.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, J H; Sutmuller, R P; Sims, M J; Cooksley, S

    1998-01-01

    T lymphocytes express a range of tyrosine kinases that are involved in signalling processes driving cell activation, proliferation and differentation. Two tyrosine kinases expressed only in T cells, the Itk/Emt and Txk gene products, are members of the Tec family of kinases. The role of Tec kinases in cellular function is poorly understood, although a Tec kinase specific to B cells, Btk, is essential for B-cell development. To explore the contribution of the T-cell-specific Tec kinases to lymphocyte function, we have expressed human Txk in the baculovirus system and conducted the first characterization of its activity. We find that Txk exhibits a substrate preference in vitro quite distinct from that of the major T-cell kinases Lck and ZAP70, suggesting that Tec-family kinases might act on a distinct range of substrates. We also investigated the interactions of Txk with the cytoplasmic domains of the key signalling molecules CD3zeta, CD28 and CTLA4 and find that none of these are phosphorylated by Txk, nor are they ligands for the SH2 or SH3 domains of Txk. We conclude that it is unlikely that Txk has a role in the early signal transduction events associated with these key pathways controlling T-cell activation. PMID:9761724

  10. Tailoring Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Fit the Lung Cancer Genome

    PubMed Central

    Looyenga, Brendan D; Cherni, Irene; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Weiss, Glen J

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been in use as cancer therapeutics for nearly a decade, and their utility in targeting specific malignancies with defined genetic lesions has proven to be remarkably effective. Recent efforts to characterize the spectrum of genetic lesions found in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) have provided important insights into the molecular basis of this disease and have also revealed a wide array of tyrosine kinases that might be effectively targeted for rationally designed therapies. The findings of these studies, however, also provide a cautionary tale about the limitations of single-agent therapies, which fail to account for the genetic heterogeneity and pathway redundancy that characterize advanced NSCLC. Emergence of drug resistance mechanisms to specific TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, suggests that more sophisticated chemotherapeutic paradigms that target multiple pathways at the same time will be required to effectively treat this disease. PMID:21461169

  11. Targeting kinases with anilinopyrimidines: discovery of N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives as selective inhibitors of class III receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gandin, Valentina; Ferrarese, Alessandro; Dalla Via, Martina; Marzano, Cristina; Chilin, Adriana; Marzaro, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors are attractive drugs/drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. The most recent literature has highlighted the importance of multi target kinase inhibitors, although a correct balance between specificity and non-specificity is required. In this view, the discovery of multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with subfamily selectivity is a challenging goal. Herein we present the synthesis and the preliminary kinase profiling of a set of novel 4-anilinopyrimidines. Among the synthesized compounds, the N-phenyl-N’-[4-(pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl]urea derivatives selectively targeted some members of class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Starting from the structure of hit compound 19 we synthesized a further compound with an improved affinity toward the class III receptor tyrosine kinase members and endowed with a promising antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a murine solid tumor model. Molecular modeling simulations were used in order to rationalize the behavior of the title compounds. PMID:26568452

  12. Perspective: Dynamics of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Bruce J

    2012-08-14

    Textbook descriptions of signal transduction complexes provide a static snapshot view of highly dynamic events. Despite enormous strides in identifying the key components of signaling complexes and the underlying mechanisms of signal transduction, our understanding of the dynamic behavior of these complexes has lagged behind. Using the example of receptor tyrosine kinases, this perspective takes a fresh look at the dynamics of the system and their potential impact on signal processing. PMID:22584051

  13. A conserved isoleucine maintains the inactive state of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Boyken, Scott E.; Chopra, Nikita; Xie, Qian; Joseph, Raji E.; Wales, Thomas E.; Fulton, D. Bruce; Engen, John R.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite high homology among non-receptor tyrosine kinases, different kinase families employ a diverse array of regulatory mechanisms. For example, the catalytic kinase domains of the Tec family kinases are inactive without assembly of the adjacent regulatory domains, whereas the Src kinase domains are autoinhibited by the assembly of similar adjacent regulatory domains. Using molecular dynamic simulations, biochemical assays, and biophysical approaches, we have uncovered an isoleucine residue in the kinase domain of the Tec family member Btk that, when mutated to the closely related leucine, leads to a shift in the conformational equilibrium of the kinase domain toward the active state. The single amino acid mutation results in measureable catalytic activity for the Btk kinase domain in the absence of the regulatory domains. We suggest this isoleucine side chain in the Tec family kinases acts as a ‘wedge’ that restricts the conformational space available to key regions in the kinase domain, preventing activation until the kinase domain associates with its regulatory subunits and overcomes the energetic barrier to activation imposed by the isoleucine side chain. PMID:25193673

  14. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  15. A novel putative tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Janssen, J W; Schulz, A S; Steenvoorden, A C; Schmidberger, M; Strehl, S; Ambros, P F; Bartram, C R

    1991-11-01

    We have detected transforming activity by a tumorigenicity assay using NIH3T3 cells transfected with DNA from a chronic myeloproliferative disorder patient. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of the corresponding oncogene, designated UFO, in allusion to the as yet unidentified function of its protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 3116bp cDNA clone revealed a 2682-bp-long open reading frame capable of directing the synthesis of a 894 amino acid polypeptide. The predicted UFO protein exhibits characteristic features of a transmembrane receptor with associated tyrosine kinase activity. The UFO proto-oncogene maps to human chromosome 19q13.1 and is transcribed into two 5.0 kb and 3.2 kb mRNAs in human bone marrow and human tumor cell lines. The UFO locus is evolutionarily conserved between vertebrate species. A 4.0 kb mRNA of the murine UFO homolog is expressed in a variety of different mouse tissues. We thus have identified a novel element of the complex signaling network involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  16. Targeting tyrosine-kinases and estrogen receptor abrogates resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuying; Meng, Xiaolong; Chen, Huiqin; Liu, Wenbin; Miller, Todd; Murph, Mandi; Lu, Yiling; Zhang, Fan; Gagea, Mihai; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Mills, Gordon B.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; González-Angulo, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous therapies that effectively inhibit estrogen signaling in breast cancer, a significant proportion of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive malignancy will succumb to their disease. Herein we demonstrate that long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED) therapy among ER-positive breast cancer cells results in the adaptive increase in ER expression and subsequent activation of multiple tyrosine kinases. Combination therapy with the ER down-regulator fulvestrant and dasatinib, a broad kinase inhibitor, exhibits synergistic activity against LTED cells, by reduction of cell proliferation, cell survival, cell invasion and mammary acinar formation. Screening kinase phosphorylation using protein arrays and functional proteomic analysis demonstrates that the combination of fulvestrant and dasatinib inhibits multiple tyrosine kinases and cancer-related pathways that are constitutively activated in LTED cells. Because LTED cells display increased insulin receptor (InsR)/insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling, we added an ant-IGF-1 antibody to the combination with fulvestrant and dasatinib in an effort to further increase the inhibition. However, adding MK0646 only modestly increased the inhibition of cell growth in monolayer culture, but neither suppressed acinar formation nor inhibited cell migration in vitro and invasion in vivo. Therefore, combinations of fulvestrant and dasatinib, but not MK0646, may benefit patients with tyrosine-kinase-activated, endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer. PMID:24979294

  17. Role of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Indolent and Other Mature B-Cell Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kutsch, Nadine; Marks, Reinhard; Ratei, Richard; Held, Thomas K; Schmidt-Hieber, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Targeting tyrosine kinases represents a highly specific treatment approach for different malignancies. This also includes non-Hodgkin lymphoma since it is well known that these enzymes are frequently involved in the lymphomagenesis. Hereby, tyrosine kinases might either be dysregulated intrinsically or be activated within signal transduction pathways leading to tumor survival and growth. Among others, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is of particular interest as a potential therapeutic target. Btk is stimulated by B-cell receptor signaling and activates different transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB. The Btk inhibitor ibrutinib has been approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle-cell lymphoma recently. Numerous clinical trials evaluating this agent in different combinations (eg, with rituximab or classical chemotherapeutic agents) as a treatment option for aggressive and indolent lymphoma are under way. Here, we summarize the role of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of indolent and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (eg, mantle-cell lymphoma). PMID:26327780

  18. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease.

    PubMed

    Shen, M R; Chou, C Y; Browning, J A; Wilkins, R J; Ellory, J C

    2001-12-01

    1. This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. 2. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. 3. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl- channel. 4. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl- channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. 5. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. 6. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  19. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with oncogenic lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a key role in T cell signal transduction and is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Lck can function as an oncoprotein when overexpressed or constantly activated by mutations. Our previous studies showed that Lck-induced cellular transformation could be suppressed by enforced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a SOCS family member involved in the negative feedback control of cytokine signaling. We observed attenuated Lck kinase activity in SOCS1-expressing cells, suggesting an important role of SOCS in regulating Lck functions. It remains largely unknown whether and how SOCS proteins interact with the oncogenic Lck kinase. Here, we report that among four SOCS family proteins, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 domain containing protein), SOCS1 has the highest affinity in binding to the oncogenic Lck kinase. We identified the positive regulatory phosphotyrosine 394 residue in the kinase domain as the key interacting determinant in Lck. Additionally, the Lck kinase domain alone is sufficient to bind SOCS1. While the SH2 domain in SOCS1 is important in its association with the oncogenic Lck kinase, other functional domains may also contribute to overall binding affinity. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the role of SOCS proteins as tumor suppressors in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases.

  20. ACK1/TNK2 tyrosine kinase: molecular signaling and evolving role in cancers.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, K; Mahajan, N P

    2015-08-01

    Deregulated tyrosine kinase signaling alters cellular homeostasis to drive cancer progression. The emergence of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (non-RTK), ACK1 (also known as activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 or TNK2) as an oncogenic kinase, has uncovered novel mechanisms by which tyrosine kinase signaling promotes cancer progression. Although early studies focused on ACK1 as a cytosolic effector of activated transmembrane RTKs, wherein it shuttles between the cytosol and the nucleus to rapidly transduce extracellular signals from the RTKs to the intracellular effectors, recent data unfold a new aspect of its functionality as an epigenetic regulator. ACK1 interacts with the estrogen receptor (ER)/histone demethylase KDM3A (JHDM2a) complex, which modifies KDM3A by tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate the transcriptional outcome at HOXA1 locus to promote the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. It is also well established that ACK1 regulates the activity of androgen receptor (AR) by tyrosine phosphorylation to fuel the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancers. Further, recent explosion in genomic sequencing has revealed recurrent ACK1 gene amplification and somatic mutations in a variety of human malignancies, providing a molecular basis for its role in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we will discuss the various facets of ACK1 signaling, including its newly uncovered epigenetic regulator function, which enables cells to bypass the blockade to major survival pathways to promote resistance to standard cancer treatments. Not surprisingly, cancer cells appear to acquire an 'addiction' to ACK1-mediated survival, particularly under stress conditions, such as growth factor deprivation or genotoxic insults or hormone deprivation. With the accelerated development of potent and selective ACK1 inhibitors, targeted treatment for cancers harboring aberrant ACK1 activity may soon become a clinical reality.

  1. Small-molecule inhibitors of the c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Sabine; Miduturu, Chandra V; Kanda, Shigeru; Zhang, Jianming; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Salah, Eidarus; Deng, Xianming; Choi, Hwan Geun; Zhou, Wenjun; Hur, Wooyoung; Knapp, Stefan; Gray, Nathanael S; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2012-04-20

    The c-Fes protein-tyrosine kinase modulates cellular signaling pathways governing differentiation, the innate immune response, and vasculogenesis. Here, we report the identification of types I and II kinase inhibitors with potent activity against c-Fes both in vitro and in cell-based assays. One of the most potent inhibitors is the previously described anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor TAE684. The crystal structure of TAE684 in complex with the c-Fes SH2-kinase domain showed excellent shape complementarity with the ATP-binding pocket and a key role for the gatekeeper methionine in the inhibitory mechanism. TAE684 and two pyrazolopyrimidines with nanomolar potency against c-Fes in vitro were used to establish a role for this kinase in osteoclastogenesis, illustrating the value of these inhibitors as tool compounds to probe the diverse biological functions associated with this unique kinase.

  2. Oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases as molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Rosalind H; Sala, Elisa; Tartari, Carmen J; Puttini, Miriam; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Mologni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Deregulated activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is a frequent event underlying malignant transformation in many types of cancer. The formation of oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) resulting from genomic rearrangements, represents a common mechanism by which kinases escape the strict controls that normally regulate their expression and activation. FTKs are typically composed of an N-terminal dimerisation domain, provided by the fusion partner protein, fused to the kinase domain of receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases (non-RTKs). Since FTKs do not contain extracellular domains, they share many characteristics with non-RTKs in terms of their properties and approaches for therapeutic targeting. FTKs are cytoplasmic or sometimes nuclear proteins, depending on the normal distribution of their fusion partner. FTKs no longer respond to ligand and are instead constitutively activated by dimerisation induced by the fusion partner. Unlike RTKs, FTKs cannot be targeted by therapeutic antibodies, instead they require agents that can cross the cell membrane as with non-RTKs. Here we review the PTKs known to be expressed as FTKs in cancer and the strategies for molecularly targeting these FTKs in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18045055

  3. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and Their Ligands in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-García, Estefanía; Saceda, Miguel; Martínez-Lacaci, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent, aggressive and fatal type of brain tumor. Glioblastomas are characterized by their infiltrating nature, high proliferation rate and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Recently, oncologic therapy experienced a rapid evolution towards “targeted therapy,” which is the employment of drugs directed against particular targets that play essential roles in proliferation, survival and invasiveness of cancer cells. A number of molecules involved in signal transduction pathways are used as molecular targets for the treatment of various tumors. In fact, inhibitors of these molecules have already entered the clinic or are undergoing clinical trials. Cellular receptors are clear examples of such targets and in the case of glioblastoma multiforme, some of these receptors and their ligands have become relevant. In this review, the importance of glioblastoma multiforme in signaling pathways initiated by extracellular tyrosine kinase receptors such as EGFR, PDGFR and IGF-1R will be discussed. We will describe their ligands, family members, structure, activation mechanism, downstream molecules, as well as the interaction among these pathways. Lastly, we will provide an up-to-date review of the current targeted therapies in cancer, in particular glioblastoma that employ inhibitors of these pathways and their benefits. PMID:24709958

  4. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors target cancer stem cells in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Solarek, Wojciech; Kornakiewicz, Anna; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze the impact of multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the cancer stem cell subpopulation in renal cell cancer. The second objective was to evaluate the effect of tumor growth inhibition related to a tumor niche factor - oxygen deprivation - as hypoxia develops along with the anti-angiogenic activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in renal tumors. Cells were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sunitinib, sorafenib and axitinib, in 2D and 3D culture conditions. Cell proliferation along with drug toxicity were evaluated. It was shown that the proliferation rate of cancer stem cells was decreased by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of the growth inhibition was limited by hypoxic conditions and 3D intratumoral cell-cell interactions. We conclude that understanding the complex molecular interaction feedback loops between differentiated cancer cells, cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment in 3D culture should aid the identification of novel treatment targets and to evalute the efficacy of renal cancer therapies. Cell-cell interaction may represent a critical microenvironmental factor regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal potential, enhancing the stem cell phenotype and limiting drug toxicity. At the same time the role of hypoxia in renal cancer stem cell biology is also significant.

  5. Anchor-based classification and type-C inhibitors for tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Chih-Ta; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hung, Hui-Chen; Sun, Chung-Ming; Barve, Indrajeet; Chen, Wen-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Huang, Chin-Ting; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yang, Jinn-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases regulate various biological processes and are drug targets for cancers. At present, the design of selective and anti-resistant inhibitors of kinases is an emergent task. Here, we inferred specific site-moiety maps containing two specific anchors to uncover a new binding pocket in the C-terminal hinge region by docking 4,680 kinase inhibitors into 51 protein kinases, and this finding provides an opportunity for the development of kinase inhibitors with high selectivity and anti-drug resistance. We present an anchor-based classification for tyrosine kinases and discover two type-C inhibitors, namely rosmarinic acid (RA) and EGCG, which occupy two and one specific anchors, respectively, by screening 118,759 natural compounds. Our profiling reveals that RA and EGCG selectively inhibit 3% (EGFR and SYK) and 14% of 64 kinases, respectively. According to the guide of our anchor model, we synthesized three RA derivatives with better potency. These type-C inhibitors are able to maintain activities for drug-resistant EGFR and decrease the invasion ability of breast cancer cells. Our results show that the type-C inhibitors occupying a new pocket are promising for cancer treatments due to their kinase selectivity and anti-drug resistance. PMID:26077136

  6. B-type receptor for platelet-derived growth factor mediates a chemotactic response by means of ligand-induced activation of the receptor protein-tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, B; Siegbahn, A; Heldin, C H; Claesson-Welsh, L

    1990-01-01

    Porcine aorta endothelial cells are devoid of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). We have transfected such cells with cDNA for the PDGF B-type receptor, both the wild-type receptor and a mutant form of the receptor (K634A), in which the putative nucleotide-binding lysine of the protein-tyrosine domain has been changed to alanine. Immunoprecipitation studies of metabolically labeled cells showed that both types of receptors were synthesized and processed to the mature form of Mr 190,000. In cells expressing the wild-type receptor, PDGF-BB, the natural ligand for the B-type receptor, induced membrane ruffling and reorganization of actin. Such a response has previously been seen in cells expressing the natural PDGF B-type receptor in response to PDGF-BB. No such effect was induced in nontransfected cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. PDGF was also shown to be chemotactic for cells expressing the wild-type receptor, whereas no chemotactic response was elicited in control cells or in cells expressing the K634A mutant receptor. Our study thus provides formal evidence that the PDGF B-type receptor mediates a motility response including actin reorganization and chemotaxis. Furthermore, the results establish a role for the receptor-associated protein-tyrosine kinase in the transduction of the chemotactic signal. Images PMID:2153283

  7. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase and Kinase Specificity in Regulation of SRC and Breast Tumor Kinase* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Aleem, Saadat; Yang, Ming; Miller, W. Todd; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant evidence to the contrary, the view that phosphatases are “nonspecific” still pervades the field. Systems biology approaches to defining how signal transduction pathways are integrated at the level of whole organisms also often downplay the contribution of phosphatases, defining them as “erasers” that serve merely to restore the system to its basal state. Here, we present a study that counteracts the idea of “nonspecific phosphatases.” We have characterized two structurally similar and functionally related kinases, BRK and SRC, which are regulated by combinations of activating autophosphorylation and inhibitory C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. We demonstrated specificity at the level of the kinases in that SRMS phosphorylated the C terminus of BRK, but not SRC; in contrast, CSK is the kinase responsible for C-terminal phosphorylation of SRC, but not BRK. For the phosphatases, we observed that RNAi-mediated suppression of PTP1B resulted in opposing effects on the activity of BRK and SRC and have defined the mechanisms underlying this specificity. PTP1B inhibited BRK by directly dephosphorylating the Tyr-342 autophosphorylation site. In contrast, PTP1B potentiated SRC activity, but not by dephosphorylating SRC itself directly; instead, PTP1B regulated the interaction between CBP/PAG and CSK. SRC associated with, and phosphorylated, the transmembrane protein CBP/PAG at Tyr-317, resulting in CSK recruitment. We identified PAG as a substrate of PTP1B, and dephosphorylation abolished recruitment of the inhibitory kinase CSK. Overall, these findings illustrate how the combinatorial effects of PTKs and PTPs may be integrated to regulate signaling, with both classes of enzymes displaying exquisite specificity. PMID:25897081

  8. SRC protein tyrosine kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-kappaBp65 signaling in commercial and wild-type turkey leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing signaling in wild-type turkey (WT) leukocytes and commercial turkey (CT) leukocytes found that the activity of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and MAP kinases, ERK 1/2 and p38, were significantly higher in WT leukocytes compared to CT lines upon exposure to both SE and OPSE on days...

  9. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.

  10. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling is coupled to src family kinase activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of zonula adherens proteins, and opening of the paracellular pathway in human lung microvascular endothelia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key mediator in the vascular leak syndromes associated with Gram-negative bacterial infections. LPS opens the paracellular pathway in pulmonary vascular endothelia through protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We now have identified the protein tyrosine kinase (PT...

  11. Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-mediated inhibitory signaling is regulated by sequential phosphorylation mediated by distinct nonreceptor tyrosine kinases: a case study involving PECAM-1.

    PubMed

    Tourdot, Benjamin E; Brenner, Michelle K; Keough, Kathleen C; Holyst, Trudy; Newman, Peter J; Newman, Debra K

    2013-04-16

    The activation state of many blood and vascular cells is tightly controlled by a delicate balance between receptors that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and those that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Precisely how the timing of cellular activation by ITAM-coupled receptors is regulated by ITIM-containing receptors is, however, poorly understood. Using platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) as a prototypical ITIM-bearing receptor, we demonstrate that initiation of inhibitory signaling occurs via a novel, sequential process in which Src family kinases phosphorylate the C-terminal ITIM, thereby enabling phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of PECAM-1 by other Src homology 2 domain-containing nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). NRTKs capable of mediating the second phosphorylation event include C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk and Csk function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation during ITAM-dependent platelet activation. In ITAM-activated platelets that were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, PECAM-1 was phosphorylated but did not bind the tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, indicating that it was not phosphorylated on its N-terminal ITIM. Csk bound to and phosphorylated PECAM-1 more efficiently than did Btk and required its SH2 domain to perform these functions. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of Siglec-9 by Csk is enhanced by the prior phosphorylation of its C-terminal ITIM, providing evidence that the ITIMs of other dual ITIM-containing receptors are also sequentially phosphorylated. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sequential ITIM phosphorylation provides a general mechanism for precise temporal control over the recruitment and activation of tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases that dampen ITAM-dependent signals. PMID:23418871

  12. Identification of nitrated tyrosine residues of protein kinase G-Iα by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingshan; Yao, Ikuko; Shimojo, Masahito; Katano, Tayo; Uchida, Hitoshi; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Seiji

    2014-02-01

    The nitration of tyrosine to 3-nitrotyrosine is an oxidative modification of tyrosine by nitric oxide and is associated with many diseases, and targeting of protein kinase G (PKG)-I represents a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary hypertension and chronic pain. The direct assignment of tyrosine residues of PKG-I has remained to be made due to the low sensitivity of the current proteomic approach. In order to assign modified tyrosine residues of PKG-I, we nitrated purified PKG-Iα expressed in insect Sf9 cells by use of peroxynitrite in vitro and analyzed the trypsin-digested fragments by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 21 tyrosine residues of PKG-Iα, 16 tyrosine residues were assigned in 13 fragments; and six tyrosine residues were nitrated, those at Y71, Y141, Y212, Y336, Y345, and Y567, in the peroxynitrite-treated sample. Single mutation of tyrosine residues at Y71, Y212, and Y336 to phenylalanine significantly reduced the nitration of PKG-Iα; and four mutations at Y71, Y141, Y212, and Y336 (Y4F mutant) reduced it additively. PKG-Iα activity was inhibited by peroxynitrite in a concentration-dependent manner from 30 μM to 1 mM, and this inhibition was attenuated in the Y4F mutant. These results demonstrated that PKG-Iα was nitrated at multiple tyrosine residues and that its activity was reduced by nitration of these residues.

  13. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Smita; Oruganty, Krishnadev; Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J; Eyers, Patrick A; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-02-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  14. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P.; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E.; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Eyers, Patrick A.; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  15. Neuroblastoma Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks Involve FYN and LYN in Endosomes and Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ailan; Stokes, Matthew P.; Kuehn, Emily D.; George, Lynn; Comb, Michael; Grimes, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in creating a highly dynamic network of interacting proteins that reads and responds to signals from growth factors in the cellular microenvironment. Cells of the neural crest employ multiple signaling mechanisms to control migration and differentiation during development. It is known that defects in these mechanisms cause neuroblastoma, but how multiple signaling pathways interact to govern cell behavior is unknown. In a phosphoproteomic study of neuroblastoma cell lines and cell fractions, including endosomes and detergent-resistant membranes, 1622 phosphorylated proteins were detected, including more than half of the receptor tyrosine kinases in the human genome. Data were analyzed using a combination of graph theory and pattern recognition techniques that resolve data structure into networks that incorporate statistical relationships and protein-protein interaction data. Clusters of proteins in these networks are indicative of functional signaling pathways. The analysis indicates that receptor tyrosine kinases are functionally compartmentalized into distinct collaborative groups distinguished by activation and intracellular localization of SRC-family kinases, especially FYN and LYN. Changes in intracellular localization of activated FYN and LYN were observed in response to stimulation of the receptor tyrosine kinases, ALK and KIT. The results suggest a mechanism to distinguish signaling responses to activation of different receptors, or combinations of receptors, that govern the behavior of the neural crest, which gives rise to neuroblastoma. PMID:25884760

  16. Interleukin-2 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the vav proto-oncogene product in human T cells: lack of requirement for the tyrosine kinase lck.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, G A; Howard, O M; Erwin, R; Farrar, W L

    1993-01-01

    The haematopoietic protein, p95vav, has been shown to be a tyrosine kinase substrate and to have tyrosine kinase-modulated guanine-nucleotide-releasing-factor activity. This implies a function in the control of ras or ras-like proteins. Because ras activation has been shown to be a downstream event following stimulation of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, we investigated the possibility that vav was involved in IL-2 signal transduction pathways, using human T cells as a model. We found rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of vav in response to IL-2 within 1 min, with maximum increase of phosphorylation of 5-fold occurring by 5 min after treatment in normal human T cells. IL-2 stimulation of the human T-cell line YT and a subclone of the YT cell line (YTlck-) that does not express message for the src-family kinase p56lck also results in a rapid rate of tyrosine phosphorylation of vav of more than 5-fold by 5 min. These results suggest that vav may play an important role in IL-2-stimulated signal transduction and that there is not a strict requirement for the tyrosine kinase p56lck. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7690544

  17. Involvement of Protein Kinase D1 in Signal Transduction from the Protein Kinase C Pathway to the Tyrosine Kinase Pathway in Response to Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone*

    PubMed Central

    Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Maeda, Noriko; Toku, Seikichi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and its stimulation activates extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK). We found that the transactivation of ErbB4 was involved in GnRH-induced ERK activation in immortalized GnRH neurons (GT1–7 cells). We found also that GnRH induced the cleavage of ErbB4. In the present study, we examined signal transduction for the activation of ERK and the cleavage of ErbB4 after GnRH treatment. Both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage were completely inhibited by YM-254890, an inhibitor of Gq/11 proteins. Down-regulation of protein kinase C (PKC) markedly decreased both ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Experiments with two types of PKC inhibitors, Gö 6976 and bisindolylmaleimide I, indicated that novel PKC isoforms but not conventional PKC isoforms were involved in ERK activation and ErbB4 cleavage. Our experiments indicated that the novel PKC isoforms activated protein kinase D (PKD) after GnRH treatment. Knockdown and inhibitor experiments suggested that PKD1 stimulated the phosphorylation of Pyk2 by constitutively activated Src and Fyn for ERK activation. Taken together, it is highly possible that PKD1 plays a critical role in signal transduction from the PKC pathway to the tyrosine kinase pathway. Activation of the tyrosine kinase pathway may be involved in the progression of cancer. PMID:26338704

  18. Novel interaction partners of the TPR/MET tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Christian P; Benzing, Jörg; Schmitt, Thomas; Erz, Dorothee H R; Tewes, Magdalena; Bartram, Claus R; Janssen, Johannes W G

    2005-02-01

    A large variety of biological processes is mediated by stimulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Screening a mouse embryo cDNA library, we were able to identify several novel, putative intracellular TPR/MET-substrates: SNAPIN, DCOHM, VAV-1, Sorting nexin 2, Death associated protein kinase 3, SMC-1, Centromeric protein C, and hTID-1. Interactions as identified by yeast two-hybrid analysis were validated in vitro and in vivo by mammalian two-hybrid studies, a far-western assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Participation in apoptosis-regulating mechanisms through interaction with DAPK-3 and cell cycle control via binding to nuclear proteins such as CENPC and SMC-1 are possible new aspects of intracellular MET signaling.

  19. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib potentiates a prothrombotic state.

    PubMed

    Alhawiti, Naif; Burbury, Kate L; Kwa, Faith A; O'Malley, Cindy J; Shuttleworth, Peter; Alzard, Mohamad; Hamadi, Abdullah; Grigg, Andrew P; Jackson, Denise E

    2016-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib are now established as highly effective frontline therapies for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Disease control is achieved in the majority of patients and survival is excellent such that recent focus has been on toxicities of these agents. Cumulative data have reported an excess of serious vascular complications, including arterial thrombosis and peripheral arterial occlusive disease, in patients receiving nilotinib in comparison with other TKIs, with resultant interest in delineating the pathophysiology and implications for rationale cardiovascular risk modification. To address this issue, we studied the effects of imatinib, nilotinib and dasatinib on platelet function and thrombus formation in human and mouse models using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches. In vitro studies demonstrated that dasatinib and imatinib but not nilotinib inhibited ADP, CRP, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and moreover, that nilotinib potentiated PAR-1-mediated alpha granule release. Pretreatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice with nilotinib but not imatinib or dasatinib, significantly increased thrombus growth and stability, on type I collagen under ex vivo arterial flow conditions and increased thrombus growth and stability following FeCl3-induced vascular injury of mesenteric arterioles and carotid artery injury in vivo. Whole blood from nilotinib-treated CML patients, demonstrated increased platelet adhesion ex vivo under flow, increased plasma soluble P- and E-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6 levels and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) levels in vivo, despite being on daily low-dose aspirin. These results demonstrate that nilotinib can potentiate platelet and endothelial activation and platelet thrombus formation ex vivo and in vivo.

  20. SH2B1beta adaptor is a key enhancer of RET tyrosine kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Donatello, S; Fiorino, A; Degl'Innocenti, D; Alberti, L; Miranda, C; Gorla, L; Bongarzone, I; Rizzetti, M G; Pierotti, M A; Borrello, M G

    2007-10-01

    The RET gene encodes two main isoforms of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) implicated in various human diseases. Activating germ-line point mutations are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinomas, inactivating germ-line mutations for Hirschsprung's disease, while somatic rearrangements (RET/PTCs) are specific to papillary thyroid carcinomas. SH2B1beta, a member of the SH2B adaptors family, and binding partner for several RTKs, has been recently described to interact with proto-RET. Here, we show that both RET isoforms and its oncogenic derivatives bind to SH2B1beta through the SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain and a kinase activity-dependent mechanism. As a result, RET phosphorylates SH2B1beta, which in turn enhances its autophosphorylation, kinase activity, and downstream signaling. RET tyrosine residues 905 and 981 are important determinants for functional binding of the adaptor, as removal of both autophosphorylation sites displaces its recruitment. Binding of SH2B1beta appears to protect RET from dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases, and might represent a likely mechanism contributing to its upregulation. Thus, overexpression of SH2B1beta, by enhancing phosphorylation/activation of RET transducers, potentiates the cellular differentiation and the neoplastic transformation thereby induced, and counteracts the action of RET inhibitors. Overall, our results identify SH2B1beta as a key enhancer of RET physiologic and pathologic activities.

  1. Novel bone-targeted Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, William C; Metcalf, Chester A; Wang, Yihan; Sundaramoorthi, Raji; Keenan, Terence; Weigele, Manfred; Bohacek, Regine S; Dalgarno, David C; Sawyer, Tomi K

    2003-09-01

    Bone-targeted Src tyrosine kinase (STK) inhibitors have recently been developed for the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-related bone diseases. The concept of bone targeting derives from bisphosphonates, and from the evolution of such molecules in terms of therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of bone disorders. Interestingly, some of the earliest bisphosphonates were recognized for their ability to inhibit calcium carbonate precipitation (scaling) by virtue of their affinity to chelate calcium. This chelating property was subsequently exploited in the development of bisphosphonate analogs as inhibitors of the bone-resorbing cells known as osteoclasts, giving rise to breakthrough medicines, such as Fosamax (for the treatment of osteoporosis) and Zometa (for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone metastases). Relative to these milestone achievements, there is a tremendous opportunity to explore beyond the limited chemical space (functional group diversity) of such bisphosphonates to design novel bone-targeting moieties, which may be used to develop other classes of promising small-molecule drugs affecting different biological pathways. Here, we review studies focused on bone-targeted inhibitors of STK, a key enzyme in osteoclast-dependent bone resorption. Two strategies are described relative to bone-targeted STK inhibitor drug discovery: (i) the development of novel Src homology (SH)-2 inhibitors incorporating non-hydrolyzable phosphotyrosine mimics and exhibiting molecular recognition and bone-targeting properties, leading to the in vivo-effective lead compound AP-22408; and (ii) the development of novel ATP-based Src kinase inhibitors incorporating bone-targeting moieties, leading to the in vivo-effective lead compound AP-23236. In summary, AP-22408 and AP-23236, which differ mechanistically by virtue of blocking Src-dependent non-catalytic or catalytic activities in osteoclasts, exemplify ARIAD Pharmaceuticals' structure-based design of novel bone

  2. Signaling Network Map of Endothelial TEK Tyrosine Kinase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aafaque Ahmad; Sandhya, Varot K; Singh, Priyata; Parthasarathy, Deepak; Kumar, Awinav; Advani, Jayshree; Gattu, Rudrappa; Ranjit, Dhanya V; Vaidyanathan, Rama; Mathur, Premendu Prakash; Prasad, T S Keshava; Mac Gabhann, F; Pandey, Akhilesh; Raju, Rajesh; Gowda, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    TEK tyrosine kinase is primarily expressed on endothelial cells and is most commonly referred to as TIE2. TIE2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase modulated by its ligands, angiopoietins, to regulate the development and remodeling of vascular system. It is also one of the critical pathways associated with tumor angiogenesis and familial venous malformations. Apart from the vascular system, TIE2 signaling is also associated with postnatal hematopoiesis. Despite the involvement of TIE2-angiopoietin system in several diseases, the downstream molecular events of TIE2-angiopoietin signaling are not reported in any pathway repository. Therefore, carrying out a detailed review of published literature, we have documented molecular signaling events mediated by TIE2 in response to angiopoietins and developed a network map of TIE2 signaling. The pathway information is freely available to the scientific community through NetPath, a manually curated resource of signaling pathways. We hope that this pathway resource will provide an in-depth view of TIE2-angiopoietin signaling and will lead to identification of potential therapeutic targets for TIE2-angiopoietin associated disorders.

  3. Abl tyrosine kinases modulate cadherin-dependent adhesion upstream and downstream of Rho family GTPases.

    PubMed

    Zandy, Nicole L; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2008-02-15

    Formation and dissolution of intercellular adhesions are processes of paramount importance during tissue morphogenesis and for pathological conditions such as tumor metastasis. Cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion requires dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The pathways that link cadherin signaling to cytoskeletal regulation remain poorly defined. We have recently uncovered a novel role for the Abl family of tyrosine kinases linking cadherin-mediated adhesion to actin dynamics via the regulation of Rho family GTPases. Abl kinases are activated by cadherin engagement, localize to cell-cell junctions and are required for the formation of adherens junctions. Notably, we showed that Abl kinases are required for Rac activation during formation of adherens junctions, and also regulate a Rho-ROCK-myosin signaling pathway that is required for the maintenance of intercellular adhesion. Here we show that Abl kinases regulate the formation and strengthening of adherens junctions downstream of active Rac, and that Abl tyrosine kinases are components of a positive feed-back loop that employs the Crk/CrkL adaptor proteins to promote the formation and maturation of adherens junctions.

  4. The actions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on transforming growth factor-beta2 promoter activity are localized to the TATA box binding region and controlled through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, D C; Barlow, K D; Gaido, K W

    1996-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread environmental contaminant and suspected human carcinogen, is believed to act by altering expression of a number of genes involved in cell growth control. In a previous study, we demonstrated the transcriptional down regulation of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) by TCDD. To identify the region of the TGF-beta2 promoter necessary for the observed down-regulation by TCDD, we studied the effect of TCDD on a series of TGF-beta2 gene promoter deletions ranging from 1391 to 64 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site. We demonstrate that the effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 promoter activity is localized to the TATA box sequence. The effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 transcription is dose-dependent, exhibiting saturation kinetics maximal by 10 nM. Time course experiments show that the maximum decrease (30-50%) in promoter activity by a 10 nM dose of TCDD is complete by 24 hr. DNAase I footprinting and gel shift experiments indicate a single shifted protein complex in this region that we conclude is the transcription initiation complex. TCDD does not appear to significantly alter this complex suggesting that gross alterations in the proteins associated with this sequence do not occur. Treatment of the cells with various protein kinase inhibitors had no significant effect on the TCDD-induced decrease in promoter activity with the exception of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Genistein reverses the effect of TCDD on TGF-beta2 promoter activity back to control levels. Thus, TCDD can modulate gene transcription by acting at the transcription initiation complex via a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway.

  5. Relationship between apoptosis and the cell cycle in lymphocytes: roles of protein kinase C, tyrosine phosphorylation, and AP1.

    PubMed

    Walker, P R; Kwast-Welfeld, J; Gourdeau, H; Leblanc, J; Neugebauer, W; Sikorska, M

    1993-07-01

    The mechanism of switching between the cell cycle and active cell death (apoptosis) was investigated in cytokine-dependent CTLL cells. These cells proliferate in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL2), but accumulate in early G1 and undergo apoptosis in its absence. In the absence of IL2 the cells also become sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Using specific inhibitors of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinases we established that two signals are required to fully repress cell death and stimulate G1 progression. One of these signals activates protein kinase C (PKC) which represses cell death and the other activates a tyrosine kinase which confers glucocorticoid resistance and permits cell cycle progression. Thus, phorbol esters can activate PKC and maintain cell viability in the absence of IL2, but the cells cannot proliferate. Moreover, the cells remain sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis unless the tyrosine kinase-mediated signal is also given. There is a correlation between the presence of AP1 DNA-binding activity and the repression of the cell death pathway. The c-jun gene is expressed constitutively and both IL2 and phorbol esters induce the expression of c-fos to generate a functional AP1 capable of repressing cell death. However, only interleukin 2 can initiate the tyrosine kinase-mediated modification that confers dexamethasone resistance and permits G1 progression. In the absence of IL2 glucocorticoids stimulate AP1 degradation and induce apoptosis.

  6. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  7. Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okabe, Seiichi Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells okabe et al. •Imatinib or nilotinib resistance was involved Src family kinase. •The BCR-ABL point mutation (E334V) was highly resistant to imatinib or nilotinib. •Ponatinib was a powerful strategy against imatinib or nilotinib resistant Ph-positive cells. -- Abstract: Because a substantial number of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia acquire resistance to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), their management remains a challenge. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted TKI. Ponatinib is currently being investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of ponatinib against imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant (R) K562 and Ba/F3 cells. The proliferation of imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant K562 cells did not decrease after treatment with imatinib or nilotinib. Src family kinase Lyn was activated. Point mutation Ba/F3 cells (E334 V) were also highly resistant to imatinib and nilotinib. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited the growth of imatinib- and nilotinib-resistant cells. The phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, Lyn, and Crk-L was reduced. This study demonstrates that ponatinib has an anti-leukemia effect by reducing ABL and Lyn kinase activity and this information may be of therapeutic relevance.

  8. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein induces the detachment of rotavirus particles from the cell surface.

    PubMed

    López, Tomás; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-12-01

    Group A rotaviruses are a major cause of severe gastroenteritis in young infants. In this work we evaluated the potential role of protein tyrosine kinases on rotavirus infectivity and viral progeny production. From the broad-spectrum inhibitors tested, only genistein, a flavonoid, inhibited rotavirus infectivity. The inhibition observed was dose and strain dependent, with more than 10-fold IC50 differences for some rotavirus strains, and the effect of the drug was shown to be dependent of their activity as a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, since the inactive analogue of genistein, daidzein, had no effect on virus infection. Investigation of the stage of virus replication blocked by the drug showed that it interferes with the early interactions of the virus with receptors and/or co-receptors, since treatment of the cells with genistein promoted the detachment of the virus from the cell surface.

  9. QSAR and molecular docking studies on oxindole derivatives as VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cong-Min; Liu, Dong-Qing; Zhao, Xu-Hao; Dai, Ying-Jie; Cheng, Jia-Gao; Lv, Ying-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) were established for 30 oxindole derivatives as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitors by using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative similarity indices analysis comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques. With the CoMFA model, the cross-validated value (q(2)) was 0.777, the non-cross-validated value (R(2)) was 0.987, and the external cross-validated value ([Formula: see text]) was 0.72. And with the CoMSIA model, the corresponding q(2), R(2) and [Formula: see text] values were 0.710, 0.988 and 0.78, respectively. Docking studies were employed to bind the inhibitors into the active site to determine the probable binding conformation. The binding mode obtained by molecular docking was in good agreement with the 3D-QSAR results. Based on the QSAR models and the docking binding mode, a set of new VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors were designed, which showed excellent predicting inhibiting potencies. The result revealed that both QSAR models have good predictive capability to guide the design and structural modification of homologic compounds. It is also helpful for further research and development of new VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  10. Reconstitution of interactions between tyrosine kinases and the high affinity IgE receptor which are controlled by receptor clustering.

    PubMed Central

    Scharenberg, A M; Lin, S; Cuenod, B; Yamamura, H; Kinet, J P

    1995-01-01

    High affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) signaling after contact with antigen occurs in response to receptor clustering. This paper describes methodology, based on vaccinia virus driven protein expression, for probing signaling pathways and its application to Fc epsilon RI interactions with the lyn and syk tyrosine kinases. Reconstitution of the complete tetrameric Fc epsilon RI receptor, lyn and syk in a non-hematopoietic 'null' cell line is sufficient to reconstruct clustering-controlled receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of syk, without apparent requirement for hematopoietic specific phosphatases. The src family kinase lyn phosphorylates Fc epsilon RI in response to receptor clustering, resulting in syk binding to the phosphorylated Fc epsilon RI. Lyn also participates in the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of syk in a manner which is dependent on phosphorylated Fc epsilon RI. Using overexpression of active and dominant negative syk proteins in a mast cell line which naturally expresses Fc epsilon RI, we corroborate syk's role downstream of receptor phosphorylation, and demonstrate that syk SH2 domains protect receptor ITAMs from ongoing dephosphorylation. Based on these results, we propose that receptor clustering controls lyn-mediated Fc epsilon RI tyrosine phosphorylation by shifting a balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation towards accumulation of tyrosine phosphorylated Fc epsilon RI. Fc epsilon RI tyrosine phosphorylation functions to bring syk into a microenvironment where it becomes tyrosine phosphorylated and activated, thereby allowing clustering to indirectly control syk activity. Images PMID:7628439

  11. Molecular characterization of WDCP, a novel fusion partner for the anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase ALK

    PubMed Central

    YOKOYAMA, NORIKO; MILLER, W. TODD

    2015-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily. The ALK gene is a site of frequent mutation and chromosomal rearrangement in various types of human cancers. A novel chromosomal translocation was recently identified in human colorectal cancer between the ALK gene and chromosome 2, open reading frame 44 (C2orf44), a gene of unknown function. As a first step in understanding the oncogenic properties of this fusion protein, C2orf44 cDNA was cloned and the encoded protein was characterized, which was designated as WD repeat and coiled coil containing protein (WDCP). A C-terminal proline-rich segment in WDCP was shown to mediate binding to the Src homology 3 domain of the Src family kinase hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck). Co-expression with Hck lead to tyrosine phosphorylation of WDCP. Chromatographic fractionation of WDCP-containing lysates indicates that the protein exists as an oligomer in mammalian cells. These results suggest that, in the context of the ALK-C2orf44 gene fusion, WDCP imposes an oligomeric structure on ALK that results in constitutive kinase activation and signaling. PMID:25469238

  12. Evidence that simulated microgravity may alter the vascular nonreceptor tyrosine kinase second messenger pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahwaji, C. I.; Sheibani, S.; Han, S.; Siu, W. O.; Kaka, A. H.; Fathy, T. M.; el-Abbadi, N. H.; Purdy, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Simulated microgravity (hind limb unweighting; HU) reduces maximal contractile capacity to norepinephrine (NE) but not 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the rat abdominal aorta of male Wistar rats. Our earlier study showed that voltage-operated calcium channels, the MAPK pathway [1], and vasoconstrictive prostaglandins contribute to the NE-induced contraction of control (C) but not HU, aorta rings. Genistein, a general tyrosine kinase inhibitor, caused a significant reduction in vascular contractility in C but not HU arteries. The present study explored the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular receptor-activated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the HU-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness to NE. Microgravity was simulated in Wistar rats by 20 day HU. The abdominal aorta was removed from control and HU rats, cut into 3 mm rings, and mounted in tissue baths to measure isometric contraction. Protein levels were determined using Western blot analysis. PD98059, a selective MAPKK inhibitor, caused a marked inhibition of NE-induced contraction in both C and HU arteries. Calphostin C, a PKC inhibitor, completely abolished the contractile response to NE in both C and HU tissues. Phosphorylated (activated) ERK1/2 protein mass was greater in C, compared to HU, aortas, and was reduced by genistein only in C tissues. MAPK total protein levels in the rat aorta were increased in the HU-treated, compared to C, animals. These results indicate that PKC represents an early transduction step in the contractile response to NE in the rat abdominal aorta. That inhibition of the step immediately before activation of MAPK reduced contraction in both C and HU tissues, while general tyrosine kinase inhibition with genistein blocked only the control responses, suggests that a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase may be involved in HU-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness to NE.

  13. Targeting of DNA molecules, BSA/c-Met tyrosine kinase receptors and anti-proliferative activity of bis(terpyridine)copper(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mahendiran, Dharmasivam; Kumar, Raju Senthil; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Rahiman, Aziz Kalilur

    2016-05-01

    A series of homoleptic bis(terpyridine)copper(ii) complexes of the type [Cu(L(1-5))2]Cl2 (), where L(1-5) = 4'-(4-substituted)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridines, have been synthesized and characterized. The molecular structure of complex was confirmed by the single crystal XRD technique, and the geometry of the complexes is best described as distorted octahedral. Structural parameters from the crystallographic and DFT studies are in good agreement with each other. The small HOMO-LUMO energy gap supports bioefficacy of the complexes. DNA binding studies show high intrinsic binding constant values 1.53 ± 0.15, 1.62 ± 0.08 and 3.09 ± 0.12 × 10(5) M(-1) for complexes , and , respectively, with intercalative mode of binding to CT-DNA. The binding results were further supported by molecular docking studies. The experimental results indicate that the interaction between the complexes and BSA protein involves a static quenching mechanism. The molecular docking studies with c-Met tyrosine kinase receptors show hydrophobic and π-π interactions. All the complexes bring about hydroxyl radical mediated DNA cleavage in the presence of H2O2. In vitro cytotoxicities of the complexes () were tested against three cancerous cell lines, namely human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), epithelioma (Hep-2) and cervical (HeLa) cell lines, and one non-tumorigenic human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cell line by MTT reduction assay. The morphological assessment data obtained using Hoechst 33258 staining revealed that complex induces apoptosis much more effectively than the other complexes. PMID:27063595

  14. Autoregulation by the Juxtamembrane Region of the Human Ephrin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase A3 (EphA3)

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Loppnau, Peter; Butler-Cole, Christine; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

    2008-07-08

    Ephrin receptors (Eph) affect cell shape and movement, unlike other receptor tyrosine kinases that directly affect proliferative pathways. The kinase domain of EphA3 is activated by ephrin binding and receptor oligomerization. This activation is associated with two tyrosines in the juxtamembrane region; these tyrosines are sites of autophosphorylation and interact with the active site of the kinase to modulate activity. This allosteric event has important implications both in terms of understanding signal transduction pathways mediated by Eph kinases as well as discovering specific therapeutic ligands for receptor kinases. In order to provide further details of the molecular mechanism through which the unphosphorylated juxtamemebrane region blocks catalysis, we studied wild-type and site-specific mutants in detail. High-resolution structures of multiple states of EphA3 kinase with and without the juxtamembrane segment allowed us to map the coupled pathway of residues that connect the juxtamembrane segment, the activation loop, and the catalytic residues of the kinase domain. This highly conserved set of residues likely delineates a molecular recognition pathway for most of the Eph RTKs, helping to characterize the dynamic nature of these physiologically important enzymes.

  15. Palmitylation of Src family tyrosine kinases regulates functional interaction with a B cell substrate.

    PubMed

    Saouaf, S J; Wolven, A; Resh, M D; Bolen, J B

    1997-05-19

    Palmitylation of Src family tyrosine kinases has been shown to play a role in directing their membrane localization. Here we demonstrate that palmitylation can also regulate recognition and tyrosine phosphorylation of the B cell Src kinase substrate Ig alpha. Blk and Src, which are not palmitylated, phosphorylate co-expressed Ig alpha in Cos cells, whereas palmitylated Src kinases do not. Addition of a palmitylation site to Blk abrogates its phosphorylation of the substrate, while mutation of Fyn's palmitylation sites results in recognition and phosphorylation of Ig alpha. These results indicate that palmitylation, a reversible protein modification, aids in regulating recognition of physiologic substrates by Src family tyrosine kinases. PMID:9177269

  16. The transcription factor RUNX2 regulates receptor tyrosine kinase expression in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Boregowda, Rajeev K.; Medina, Daniel J.; Markert, Elke; Bryan, Michael A.; Chen, Wenjin; Chen, Suzie; Rabkin, Anna; Vido, Michael J.; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Chekmareva, Marina; Foran, David J.; Lasfar, Ahmed; Goydos, James S.; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases-based autocrine loops largely contribute to activate the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in generating these autocrine loops are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examine the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in the regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) expression in melanoma. We have demonstrated that RUNX2-deficient melanoma cells display a significant decrease in three receptor tyrosine kinases, EGFR, IGF-1R and PDGFRβ. In addition, we found co-expression of RUNX2 and another RTK, AXL, in both melanoma cells and melanoma patient samples. We observed a decrease in phosphoAKT2 (S474) and phosphoAKT (T308) levels when RUNX2 knock down resulted in significant RTK down regulation. Finally, we showed a dramatic up regulation of RUNX2 expression with concomitant up-regulation of EGFR, IGF-1R and AXL in melanoma cells resistant to the BRAF V600E inhibitor PLX4720. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that RUNX2 might be a key player in RTK-based autocrine loops and a mediator of resistance to BRAF V600E inhibitors involving RTK up regulation in melanoma. PMID:27102439

  17. Current Management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical outcomes and survival of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have been significantly improved. The aim of this editorial is to outline critical steps of TKI administration practices during the long-term clinical course of CML based on data obtained from randomized clinical trials and international recommendations. The efficacy of TKI treatment, TKI side effects, off-target complications, and long-term morbidities due to both the disease and the drug are common arguments in the management of CML. Complete hematological response, early complete cytogenetic response, faster major molecular response, and deeper, more durable molecular responses (MR4, MR4.5, MR5) are the ultimate goals for TKI-receiving patients with CML. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385803

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications.

    PubMed

    Quintanal-Villalonga, A; Paz-Ares, Luis; Ferrer, Irene; Molina-Pinelo, S

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as "omics" has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed. PMID:27528792

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Regulate OPG through Inhibition of PDGFRβ

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Mei Lin; Lin, Jian-Ming; Bava, Usha; Callon, Karen; Cornish, Jillian; Naot, Dorit; Grey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nilotinib and imatinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). In vitro, imatinib and nilotinib inhibit osteoclastogenesis, and in patients they reduce levels of bone resorption. One of the mechanisms that might underlie these effects is an increase in the production of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In the current work we report that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling regulates OPG production in vitro. In addition, we have shown that TKIs have effects on RANKL signaling through inhibition of the PDGFRβ and other target receptors. These findings have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms by which TKIs affect osteoclastogenesis, and the role of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating osteoclastogenesis. Further studies are indicated to confirm the clinical effects of PDGFRβ-inhibitors and to elaborate the intracellular pathways that underpin these effects. PMID:27737004

  20. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase as an Autism Genetic Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yun; Huentelman, Matthew; Smith, Christopher; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we will briefly discuss recent literature on the role of MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in brain development and how perturbation of MET signaling may alter normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent human genetic studies have established MET as a risk factor for autism, and the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this genetic risk are only beginning to emerge from obscurity. Unlike many autism risk genes that encode synaptic proteins, the spatial and temporal expression pattern of MET RTK indicates this signaling system is ideally situated to regulate neuronal growth, functional maturation, and establishment of functional brain circuits, particularly in those brain structures involved in higher levels of cognition, social skills, and executive functions. PMID:24290385

  1. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  2. Recent developments in receptor tyrosine kinases targeted anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Samir H.; Singh, Ratn D.; Joshi, Dilip V.; Patel, Hitesh B.; Mody, Shailesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel concepts and understanding of receptors lead to discoveries and optimization of many small molecules and antibodies as anti-cancerous drugs. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are such a promising class of receptors under the investigation in past three decades. RTKs are one of the essential mediators of cell signaling mechanism for various cellular processes. Transformations such as overexpression, dysregulation, or mutations of RTKs may result into malignancy, and thus are an important target for anticancer therapy. Numerous subfamilies of RTKs, such as epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor receptor, have been being investigated in recent years as target for anticancer therapy. The present review focuses several small molecules drugs as well as monoclonal antibodies targeting aforesaid subfamilies either approved or under investigation to treat the various cancers. PMID:27051190

  3. Precision Therapy for Lung Cancer: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Arun; Schrump, David S

    2015-01-01

    For patients with advanced cancers there has been a concerted effort to transition from a generic treatment paradigm to one based on tumor-specific biologic, and patient-specific clinical characteristics. This approach, known as precision therapy has been made possible owing to widespread availability and a reduction in the cost of cutting-edge technologies that are used to study the genomic, proteomic, and metabolic attributes of individual tumors. This review traces the evolution of precision therapy for lung cancer from the identification of molecular subsets of the disease to the development and approval of tyrosine kinase, as well as immune checkpoint inhibitors for lung cancer therapy. Challenges of the precision therapy era including the emergence of acquired resistance, identification of untargetable mutations, and the effect on clinical trial design are discussed. We conclude by highlighting newer applications for the concept of precision therapy. PMID:26074108

  4. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Quintanal-Villalonga, A.; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as “omics” has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed. PMID:27528792

  5. Protein Tyrosine Kinase 6 Regulates UVB-Induced Signaling and Tumorigenesis in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Chastkofsky, Michael I; Bie, Wenjun; Ball-Kell, Susan M; He, Yu-Ying; Tyner, Angela L

    2015-10-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also called BRK) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase expressed in the epithelial linings of the gastrointestinal tract and the skin, where it is expressed in nondividing differentiated cells. We found that PTK6 expression increases in the epidermis following UVB treatment. To evaluate the roles of PTK6 in the skin following UVB-induced damage, we exposed back skin of Ptk6 +/+ and Ptk6 -/- SENCAR mice to incremental doses of UVB for 30 weeks. Wild-type mice were more sensitive to UVB and exhibited increased inflammation and greater activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) than Ptk6-/- mice. Disruption of Ptk6 did not have an impact on proliferation, although PTK6 was expressed and activated in basal epithelial cells in wild-type mice following UVB treatment. However, wild-type mice exhibited shortened tumor latency and increased tumor load compared with Ptk6-/- mice, and STAT3 activation was increased in these tumors. PTK6 activation was detected in UVB-induced tumors, and this correlated with increased activating phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1). Activation of PTK6 was also detected in human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Although PTK6 has roles in normal differentiation, it also contributes to UVB-induced injury and tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:25938342

  6. An Autoinhibitory Tyrosine Motif in the Cell-Cycle-Regulated Nek7 Kinase Is Released through Binding of Nek9

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Mark W.; O'Regan, Laura; Mas-Droux, Corine; Blot, Joelle M.Y.; Cheung, Jack; Hoelder, Swen; Fry, Andrew M.; Bayliss, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mitosis is controlled by multiple protein kinases, many of which are abnormally expressed in human cancers. Nek2, Nek6, Nek7, and Nek9 are NIMA-related kinases essential for proper mitotic progression. We determined the atomic structure of Nek7 and discovered an autoinhibited conformation that suggests a regulatory mechanism not previously described in kinases. Additionally, Nek2 adopts the same conformation when bound to a drug-like molecule. In both structures, a tyrosine side chain points into the active site, interacts with the activation loop, and blocks the αC helix. Tyrosine mutants of Nek7 and the related kinase Nek6 are constitutively active. The activity of Nek6 and Nek7, but not the tyrosine mutant, is increased by interaction with the Nek9 noncatalytic C-terminal domain, suggesting a mechanism in which the tyrosine is released from its autoinhibitory position. The autoinhibitory conformation is common to three Neks and provides a potential target for selective kinase inhibitors. PMID:19941817

  7. Overexpression of the potential kinase serine/ threonine/tyrosine kinase 1 (STYK 1) in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Suyoun; Tamura, Kenji; Furihata, Mutsuo; Uemura, Motohide; Daigo, Yataro; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2009-11-01

    Despite high response rates and clinical benefits, androgen ablation often fails to cure advanced or relapsed prostate cancer because castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells inevitably emerge. CRPC cells not only grow under castration, but also behave more aggressively, indicating that a number of malignant signaling pathways are activated in CRPC cells as well as androgen receptor signaling. Based on information from the gene expression profiles of clinical CRPC cells, we here identified one overexpressed gene, serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1 (STYK1), encoding a potential kinase, as a molecular target for CRPC. RNA and immunohistochemical analyses validated the overexpression of STYK1 in prostate cancer cells, and its expression was distinct in CRPC cells. Knockdown of STYK1 by siRNA resulted in drastic suppression of prostate cancer cell growth and, concordantly, enforced expression of STYK1 promoted cell proliferation, whereas ectopic expression of a kinase-dead mutant STYK1 did not. An in vitro kinase assay using recombinant STYK1 demonstrated that STYK1 could have some potential as a kinase, although its specific substrates are unknown. These findings suggest that STYK1 could be a possible molecular target for CRPC, and small molecules specifically inhibiting STYK1 kinase could be a possible approach for the development of novel CRPC therapies.

  8. Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Nan P; LaMarche, Matthew J; Chan, Ho Man; Fekkes, Peter; Garcia-Fortanet, Jorge; Acker, Michael G; Antonakos, Brandon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Zhouliang; Cooke, Vesselina G; Dobson, Jason R; Deng, Zhan; Fei, Feng; Firestone, Brant; Fodor, Michelle; Fridrich, Cary; Gao, Hui; Grunenfelder, Denise; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jacob, Jaison; Ho, Samuel; Hsiao, Kathy; Kang, Zhao B; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Larrow, Jay; La Bonte, Laura R; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Price, Edmund; Quinn, Christopher; Shakya, Subarna; Shultz, Michael D; Slisz, Joanna; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Wang, Ping; Warmuth, Markus; Williams, Sarah; Yang, Guizhi; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Zhu, Ping; Ramsey, Timothy; Keen, Nicholas J; Sellers, William R; Stams, Travis; Fortin, Pascal D

    2016-07-01

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27362227

  9. A Novel Triazolopyridine-Based Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor That Arrests Joint Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gregory D.; Delgado, Mercedes; Plantevin-Krenitsky, Veronique; Jensen-Pergakes, Kristen; Bates, R. J.; Torres, Sanaa; Celeridad, Maria; Brown, Heather; Burnett, Kelven; Nadolny, Lisa; Tehrani, Lida; Packard, Garrick; Pagarigan, Barbra; Haelewyn, Jason; Nguyen, Trish; Xu, Li; Tang, Yang; Hickman, Matthew; Baculi, Frans; Pierce, Steven; Miyazawa, Keiji; Jackson, Pilgrim; Chamberlain, Philip; LeBrun, Laurie; Xie, Weilin; Bennett, Brydon; Blease, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies and the immunoreceptors to which they bind can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase with a central role in immunoreceptor (FcR) signaling and immune cell functionality. Syk kinase inhibitors have activity in antibody-dependent immune cell activation assays, in preclinical models of arthritis, and have progressed into clinical trials for RA and other autoimmune diseases. Here we describe the characterization of a novel triazolopyridine-based Syk kinase inhibitor, CC-509. This compound is a potent inhibitor of purified Syk enzyme, FcR-dependent and FcR-independent signaling in primary immune cells, and basophil activation in human whole blood. CC-509 is moderately selective across the kinome and against other non-kinase enzymes or receptors. Importantly, CC-509 was optimized away from and has modest activity against cellular KDR and Jak2, kinases that when inhibited in a preclinical and clinical setting may promote hypertension and neutropenia, respectively. In addition, CC-509 is orally bioavailable and displays dose-dependent efficacy in two rodent models of immune-inflammatory disease. In passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), CC-509 significantly inhibited skin edema. Moreover, CC-509 significantly reduced paw swelling and the tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines RANTES and MIP-1α in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. In summary, CC-509 is a potent, moderately selective, and efficacious inhibitor of Syk that has a differentiated profile when compared to other Syk compounds that have progressed into the clinic for RA. PMID:26756335

  10. Acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Murakami, Akiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Kato, Motoyasu; Shukuya, Takehito; Tajima, Ken; Shimada, Naoko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-03-01

    Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers anti-apoptotic signaling, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, which leads to development and progression of human epithelial cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibition of EGFR by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib has provided a new hope for the cure of NSCLC patients. However, acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib via EGFR-mutant NSCLC has occurred through various molecular mechanisms such as T790M secondary mutation, MET amplification, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, PTEN downregulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and other mechanisms. This review will discuss the biology of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition and focus on the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  11. Targeting FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 with the human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody IMC-EB10.

    PubMed

    Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Tonra, James; Li, Yiwen

    2010-02-15

    FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (FLT3) is a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that holds considerable promise as a therapeutic target in hematologic malignancies. Current efforts directed toward the development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors of FLT3 may be limited by off-target toxicities and the development of drug resistance. Target-specific antibodies could overcome these hurdles and provide additional mechanisms to enhance the antitumor efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. IMC-EB10 is a novel antibody directed against FLT3. The binding of IMC-EB10 to FLT3 results in antiproliferative effects in vitro and in mouse models engrafted with human leukemia cells that harbor wild-type or constitutively activated FLT3. Future clinical trials will test these notions formally and will identify the most appropriate opportunities for this member of a new generation of antileukemic therapies.

  12. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine kinase A PtkA by Ser/Thr protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peifu; Wong, Dennis; Li, Wu; Xie, Jianping; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2015-11-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has inflicted about one third of mankind and claims millions of deaths worldwide annually. Signalling plays an important role in Mtb pathogenesis and persistence, and thus represents attractive resource for drug target candidates. Here, we show that protein tyrosine kinase A (PtkA) can be phosphorylated by Mtb endogenous eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases (eSTPKs). Kinase assays showed that PknA, PknD, PknF, and PknK can phosphorylate PtkA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Enzyme kinetics suggests that PknA has the highest affinity and enzymatic efficiency towards PtkA. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction assay in surrogate host showed that PtkA interacts with multi-eSTPKs in vivo, including PknA. Lastly, we show that PtkA phosphorylation by eSTPKs occurs on threonine residues and may effect tyrosine phosphorylation levels and thus PtkA activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that PtkA can serve as a substrate to many eSTPKs and suggests that's its activity can be regulated. PMID:26417687

  13. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and molecular evolution of the spleen tyrosine kinase in lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Su, Peng; Li, Ranran; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a member of Syk family of cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinases, is a key component of B cell receptor signaling and regulates multiple physiological functions of B lymphocytes in vertebrates. In the current study, a Syk homologue was identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica (Lj-Syk). The cDNA fragment of Lj-Syk contains a 1953-bp open reading frame which encodes 651 amino acids, a 12-bp fragment of 5'-untranslated region, and a 1029-bp 3'-untranslated region. The same as vertebrate's Syks, Lj-Syk protein also contains a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain which functions as its kinase activity center and two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains which are the targets when Syk is recruited by phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It is revealed by multiple sequence alignment that the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and two SH2 domains are conserved throughout the Syk gene family in vertebrates. The evolutionary dynamics of Syks were analyzed by MEME software using conserved motifs as markers. Among 19 conserved motifs elicited from 22 Syks or Syk-like proteins, 12 motifs that locate at N-terminal, two tandem SH2, Inter SH2, and Tyrkc domains are conserved in Syks from jawless to jawed vertebrates. From the absence and existence of the other seven motifs, it can be concluded that the primary Syk gene evolved to modern functional gene through short insertion and deletion strategy in their gene sequence rather than gene duplication. The expression of lamprey Syk was examined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot methods in leukocyte cells, gills, supraneural myeloid bodies, kidneys, and hearts of lampreys before and after the animals were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The transcriptional level of lamprey Syk was upregulated in gill, kidney, heart, and leukocyte cells, and the protein expression level is upregulated in leukocyte cells and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulated with LPS. It

  14. Molecular cloning, expression pattern, and molecular evolution of the spleen tyrosine kinase in lamprey, Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Su, Peng; Li, Ranran; Zhang, Qiong; Zhu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Li, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a member of Syk family of cytoplasmic non-receptor tyrosine kinases, is a key component of B cell receptor signaling and regulates multiple physiological functions of B lymphocytes in vertebrates. In the current study, a Syk homologue was identified in the lamprey Lampetra japonica (Lj-Syk). The cDNA fragment of Lj-Syk contains a 1953-bp open reading frame which encodes 651 amino acids, a 12-bp fragment of 5'-untranslated region, and a 1029-bp 3'-untranslated region. The same as vertebrate's Syks, Lj-Syk protein also contains a tyrosine kinase catalytic domain which functions as its kinase activity center and two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains which are the targets when Syk is recruited by phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It is revealed by multiple sequence alignment that the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain and two SH2 domains are conserved throughout the Syk gene family in vertebrates. The evolutionary dynamics of Syks were analyzed by MEME software using conserved motifs as markers. Among 19 conserved motifs elicited from 22 Syks or Syk-like proteins, 12 motifs that locate at N-terminal, two tandem SH2, Inter SH2, and Tyrkc domains are conserved in Syks from jawless to jawed vertebrates. From the absence and existence of the other seven motifs, it can be concluded that the primary Syk gene evolved to modern functional gene through short insertion and deletion strategy in their gene sequence rather than gene duplication. The expression of lamprey Syk was examined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot methods in leukocyte cells, gills, supraneural myeloid bodies, kidneys, and hearts of lampreys before and after the animals were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The transcriptional level of lamprey Syk was upregulated in gill, kidney, heart, and leukocyte cells, and the protein expression level is upregulated in leukocyte cells and supraneural myeloid bodies after stimulated with LPS. It

  15. Identification of targets of c-Src tyrosine kinase by chemical complementation and phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Isabel Martinez; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Zhong, Jun; Molina, Henrik; Jacob, Harrys K C; Herbst-Robinson, Katie; Dancy, Beverley M; Katju, Vikram; Bose, Ron; Zhang, Jin; Pandey, Akhilesh; Cole, Philip A

    2012-08-01

    The cellular proto-oncogene c-Src is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase involved in cell growth and cytoskeletal regulation. Despite being dysregulated in a variety of human cancers, its precise functions are not fully understood. Identification of the substrates of c-Src remains a major challenge, because there is no simple way to directly stimulate its activity. Here we combine the chemical rescue of mutant c-Src and global quantitative phosphoproteomics to obtain the first high resolution snapshot of the range of tyrosine phosphorylation events that occur in the cell immediately after specific c-Src stimulation. After enrichment by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, we identified 29 potential novel c-Src substrate proteins. Tyrosine phosphopeptide mapping allowed the identification of 382 nonredundant tyrosine phosphopeptides on 213 phosphoproteins. Stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation allowed the detection of 97 nonredundant tyrosine phosphopeptides whose level of phosphorylation is increased by c-Src. A large number of previously uncharacterized c-Src putative protein targets and phosphorylation sites are presented here, a majority of which play key roles in signaling and cytoskeletal networks, particularly in cell adhesion. Integrin signaling and focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway are two of the most altered pathways upon c-Src activation through chemical rescue. In this context, our study revealed the temporal connection between c-Src activation and the GTPase Rap1, known to stimulate integrin-dependent adhesion. Chemical rescue of c-Src provided a tool to dissect the spatiotemporal mechanism of activation of the Rap1 guanine exchange factor, C3G, one of the identified potential c-Src substrates that plays a role in focal adhesion signaling. In addition to unveiling the role of c-Src in the cell and, specifically, in the Crk-C3G-Rap1 pathway, these results exemplify a strategy for obtaining a comprehensive understanding of

  16. A C-terminal protein-binding domain in the retinoblastoma protein regulates nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase in the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Welch, P J; Wang, J Y

    1993-11-19

    The ubiquitously expressed c-Abl tyrosine kinase is localized to the nucleus and binds to DNA. The DNA binding activity is regulated by cdc2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for c-Abl. Here we show that the tyrosine kinase activity of nuclear c-Abl is regulated in the cell cycle through a specific interaction with the retinoblastoma protein (RB). A domain in the C-terminus of RB, outside of the A/B pocket, binds to the ATP-binding lobe of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase, resulting in kinase inhibition. The RB-c-Abl interaction is not affected by the viral oncoproteins that bind to RB. Hyperphosphorylation of RB correlates with release of c-Abl and activation of the tyrosine kinase in S phase cells. The nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase can enhance transcription, and this activity is inhibited by RB. Nuclear c-Abl is an S phase-activated tyrosine kinase that may participate directly in the regulation of transcription. PMID:8242749

  17. The Tyrosine Kinase Pyk2 Contributes to Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Paone, Christoph; Rodrigues, Natalie; Ittner, Ella; Santos, Carina; Buntru, Alexander; Hauck, Christof R

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) is a member of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) family and is mainly expressed in neuronal and hematopoietic cells. As FAK family members are involved in signaling connections downstream of integrins, we studied the role of Pyk2 in complement-receptor 3 (CR3, also known as Mac-1, integrin αMβ2, CD11b/CD18)-mediated phagocytosis, a key process in innate immunity. Using 3 independent approaches, we observed that Pyk2 contributes to CR3-dependent phagocytosis by RAW 264.7 macrophages, but is dispensable for Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated uptake. Reduction of Pyk2 expression levels via siRNA, the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 kinase activity as well as macrophage treatment with a cell permeable TAT fusion protein containing the C-terminus of Pyk2 (TAT-PRNK) significantly impaired CR3-mediated phagocytosis without affecting FcγR-mediated uptake. In addition, Pyk2 was strongly recruited to complement opsonized Escherichia coli and the pharmacological inhibition of Pyk2 significantly decreased uptake of the bacteria. Finally, CRISPR/Cas-mediated disruption of the pyk2 gene in RAW 264.7 macrophages confirmed the role of this protein tyrosine kinase in CR3-mediated phagocytosis. Together, our data demonstrate that Pyk2 selectively contributes to the coordination of phagocytosis-promoting signals downstream of CR3, but is dispensable for FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  18. Regulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by SRC family tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kan; Hackett, John T; Cox, Michael E; Van Hoek, Monique; Lindstrom, Jon M; Parsons, Sarah J

    2004-03-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) are abundant in chromaffin cells that reside in the adrenal medulla and respond to cholinergic stimulation by secreting catecholamines. Our previous work indicated that SFKs regulate acetylcholine- or nicotine-induced secretion, but the site of modulatory action was unclear. Using whole cell recordings, we found that inhibition of SFK tyrosine kinase activity by PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine) treatment or expression of a kinase-defective c-Src reduced the peak amplitude of nicotine-induced currents in chromaffin cells or in human embryonic kidney cells ectopically expressing functional neuronal alpha3beta4alpha5 acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Conversely, the phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, sodium vanadate, or expression of mutationally activated c-Src resulted in enhanced current amplitudes. These results suggest that SFKs and putative phosphotyrosine phosphatases regulate the activity of AChRs by opposing actions. This proposed model was supported further by the findings that SFKs physically associate with the receptor and that the AChR is tyrosine-phosphorylated.

  19. Specificity is complex and time consuming: mutual exclusivity in tyrosine kinase-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Lisa; Ladbury, John E

    2003-06-01

    Most fundamental cellular processes are transduced through tyrosine kinase (TK)-mediated pathways. For transduction without corruption, the protein-protein interactions involved have to be mutually exclusive. Many of these proteins bind via homologous domains whose binding characteristics suggest that their innate specificity is not sufficiently high to account for the integrity of signal transduction. Stimulation of TK-mediated signals is often accompanied by recruitment of a precise, multimolecular protein complex that is itself capable of imposing specificity. Furthermore, this complex provides protection against phosphatase activity, controlling the longevity of the active signaling complex, and thus influencing outcomes in subsequent downstream events.

  20. Functional interaction between nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl and SR-Rich protein RBM39.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sanyue; Qu, Xiuhua; Li, Ping; Ma, Qingjun; Liu, Xuan; Cao, Cheng

    2016-04-22

    RBM39, also known as splicing factor HCC1.4, acts as a transcriptional coactivator for the steroid nuclear receptors JUN/AP-1, ESR1/ER-α and ESR2/ER-β. RBM39 is involved in the regulation of the transcriptional responses of these steroid nuclear receptors and promotes transcriptional initiation. In this paper, we report that RBM39 interacts with the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. Both the Src homology (SH) 2 and SH3 domains of c-Abl interact with RBM39. The major tyrosine phosphorylation sites on RBM39 that are phosphorylated by c-Abl are Y95 and Y99, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and mutational analysis. c-Abl was shown boost the transcriptional coactivation activity of RBM39 for ERα and PRβ in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. The results suggest that mammalian c-Abl plays an important role in steroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription by regulating RBM39.

  1. Serum Inter-α-inhibitor Activates the Yes Tyrosine Kinase and YAP/TEAD Transcriptional Complex in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Annerén, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the Src family kinase Yes, the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and TEA domain TEAD2 transcription factor pathway are activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and contribute to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal. In addition, we have shown that fetal bovine serum (FBS) induces Yes auto-phosphorylation and activation. In the present study we confirm that serum also activates TEAD-dependent transcription in a time- and dose-dependent manner and we identify Inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) as a component in serum capable of activating the Yes/YAP/TEAD pathway by inducing Yes auto-phosphorylation, YAP nuclear localization and TEAD-dependent transcription. The cleaved heavy chain 2 (HC2) sub-component of IαI, is demonstrated to be responsible for this effect. Moreover, IαI is also shown to efficiently increase expression of TEAD-downstream target genes including well-known stem cell factors Nanog and Oct 3/4. IαI is not produced by the ES cells per se but is added to the cells via the cell culture medium containing serum or serum-derived components such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). In conclusion, we describe a novel function of IαI in activating key pluripotency pathways associated with ES cell maintenance and self-renewal. PMID:25301940

  2. Serum Inter-α-inhibitor activates the Yes tyrosine kinase and YAP/TEAD transcriptional complex in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pijuan-Galitó, Sara; Tamm, Christoffer; Annerén, Cecilia

    2014-11-28

    We have previously demonstrated that the Src family kinase Yes, the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and TEA domain TEAD2 transcription factor pathway are activated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and contribute to mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal. In addition, we have shown that fetal bovine serum (FBS) induces Yes auto-phosphorylation and activation. In the present study we confirm that serum also activates TEAD-dependent transcription in a time- and dose-dependent manner and we identify Inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) as a component in serum capable of activating the Yes/YAP/TEAD pathway by inducing Yes auto-phosphorylation, YAP nuclear localization and TEAD-dependent transcription. The cleaved heavy chain 2 (HC2) sub-component of IαI, is demonstrated to be responsible for this effect. Moreover, IαI is also shown to efficiently increase expression of TEAD-downstream target genes including well-known stem cell factors Nanog and Oct 3/4. IαI is not produced by the ES cells per se but is added to the cells via the cell culture medium containing serum or serum-derived components such as bovine serum albumin (BSA). In conclusion, we describe a novel function of IαI in activating key pluripotency pathways associated with ES cell maintenance and self-renewal.

  3. Nuclear localization of Src-family tyrosine kinases is required for growth factor-induced euchromatinization

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akinori; Obata, Yuuki; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Nakayama, Yuji; Kasahara, Kousuke; Kuga, Takahisa; Higashiyama, Yukihiro; Saito, Takashi; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2009-04-15

    Src-family kinases (SFKs), which participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also several subcellular compartments, including the nucleus. Nuclear structural changes are frequently observed during transcription, cell differentiation, senescence, tumorigenesis, and cell cycle. However, little is known about signal transduction in the alteration of chromatin texture. Here, we develop a pixel imaging method for quantitatively evaluating chromatin structural changes. Growth factor stimulation increases euchromatic hypocondensation and concomitant heterochromatic hypercondensation in G{sub 1} phase, and the levels reach a plateau by 30 min, sustain for at least 5 h and return to the basal levels after 24 h. Serum-activated SFKs in the nucleus were more frequently detected in the euchromatin areas than the heterochromatin areas. Nuclear expression of kinase-active SFKs, but not unrelated Syk kinase, drastically increases both euchromatinization and heterochromatinization in a manner dependent on the levels of nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation. However, growth factor stimulation does not induce chromatin structural changes in SYF cells lacking SFKs, and reintroduction of one SFK member into SYF cells can, albeit insufficiently, induce chromatin structural changes. These results suggest that nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation by SFKs plays an important role in chromatin structural changes upon growth factor stimulation.

  4. Ibrutinib: a first in class covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Davids, Matthew S; Brown, Jennifer R

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib (formerly PCI-32765) is a potent, covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, a kinase downstream of the B-cell receptor that is critical for B-cell survival and proliferation. In preclinical studies, ibrutinib bound to Bruton’s tyrosine kinase with high affinity, leading to inhibition of B-cell receptor signaling, decreased B-cell activation and induction of apoptosis. In clinical studies, ibrutinib has been well-tolerated and has demonstrated profound anti-tumor activity in a variety of hematologic malignancies, most notably chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), leading to US FDA approval for relapsed CLL and MCL. Ongoing studies are evaluating ibrutinib in other types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Waldenström’s macrogobulinemia, in larger Phase III studies in CLL and MCL, and in combination studies with monoclonal antibodies and chemotherapy. Future studies will combine ibrutinib with other promising novel agents currently in development in hematologic malignancies. PMID:24941982

  5. The coreceptor CD4 is expressed in distinct nanoclusters and does not colocalize with T-cell receptor and active protein tyrosine kinase p56lck.

    PubMed

    Roh, Kyung-Ho; Lillemeier, Björn F; Wang, Feng; Davis, Mark M

    2015-03-31

    CD4 molecules on the surface of T lymphocytes greatly augment the sensitivity and activation process of these cells, but how it functions is not fully understood. Here we studied the spatial organization of CD4, and its relationship to T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the active form of Src kinase p56lck (Lck) using single and dual-color photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). In nonactivated T cells, CD4 molecules are clustered in small protein islands, as are TCR and Lck. By dual-color imaging, we find that CD4, TCR, and Lck are localized in their separate clusters with limited interactions in the interfaces between them. Upon T-cell activation, the TCR and CD4 begin clustering together, developing into microclusters, and undergo a larger scale redistribution to form supramolecluar activation clusters (SMACs). CD4 and Lck localize in the inner TCR region of the SMAC, but this redistribution of disparate cluster structures results in enhanced segregation from each other. In nonactivated cells these preclustered structures and the limited interactions between them may serve to limit spontaneous and random activation events. However, the small sizes of these island structures also ensure large interfacial surfaces for potential interactions and signal amplification when activation is initiated. In the later activation stages, the increasingly larger clusters and their segregation from each other reduce the interfacial surfaces and could have a dampening effect. These highly differentiated spatial distributions of TCR, CD4, and Lck and their changes during activation suggest that there is a more complex hierarchy than previously thought. PMID:25829544

  6. Unplanned discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    TSUTSUMI, YUTAKA; ITO, SHINICHI; OHIGASHI, HIROYUKI; SHIRATORI, SOUICHI; TESHIMA, TAKANORI

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. A single-center retrospective analysis was performed, including 46 chronic-phase (CP) CML patients who achieved complete molecular response (CMR) with TKIs. TKI treatment was discontinued in 13 patients based on their requests. The BCR-ABL transcript levels were monitored in the peripheral blood by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis following treatment discontinuation. Of the 13 patients who discontinued TKI treatment, 7 remained in CMR, with a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 10–60 months). The remaining 6 patients lost CMR following TKI discontinuation; 2 of these patients achieved a second CMR following re-administration of TKIs, 2 patients spontaneously achieved CMR and 2 remained in complete hematological response (CHR) without TKI treatment with a median follow-up of 29.5 months (range, 10–52 months). In conclusion, the survival of patients who lost CMR following TKI discontinuation may not be affected, even without re-administration of TKIs. Vigilant observation is recommended for such patients. The limitations of this study included the small patient sample, retrospective design and patient heterogeneity. Therefore, the results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:26870364

  7. Studying N-linked glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Itkonen, Harri M; Mills, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alterations have been identified as a frequent event in cancer. This is often associated with increased flux through glycolysis, and also a secondary pathway to glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). HBP provides substrate for N-linked glycosylation, which occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. N-linked glycosylation supports protein folding and correct sorting of proteins to plasma membrane and secretion. This process generates complex glycoforms, which can be recognized by other proteins and glycosylation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) can also regulate their plasma-membrane retention time. Of special interest for experimental biologists, plants produce proteins, termed lectins, which bind with high specificity to glyco-conjugates. For the purposes of molecular biology, plant lectins can be conjugated to different moieties, such as agarose beads, which enable precipitation of specifically glycosylated proteins. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to perform pull-down experiments with commercially available lectins to identify changes in the glycosylation of RTKs. PMID:25319893

  8. Pancreatitis with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ghatalia, Pooja; Morgan, Charity J; Choueiri, Toni K; Rocha, Pedro; Naik, Gurudatta; Sonpavde, Guru

    2015-04-01

    A trial-level meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relative risk (RR) of pancreatitis associated with multi-targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Eligible studies included randomized phase 2 and 3 trials comparing arms with and without an FDA-approved VEGFR TKI (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, ponatinib, regorafenib). Statistical analyses calculated the RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 10,578 patients from 16 phase III trials and 6 phase II trials were selected. The RR for all grade and high-grade pancreatitis for the TKI vs. no TKI- arms was 1.95 (p=0.042, 95% CI: 1.02 to 3.70) and 1.89 (p=0.069, 95% CI: 0.95 to 373), respectively. No differential impact of malignancy type or specific TKI agent was seen on RR of all grade of high grade pancreatitis. Better patient selection and monitoring may mitigate the risk of severe pancreatitis.

  9. Have adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors lost their shine?

    PubMed

    Sabari, Joshua K; Chaft, Jamie E

    2016-08-01

    Despite broad advances in molecularly targeted therapies, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in approximately 17% of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the US population. The remarkable efficacy of small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in this unique subset of patients has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to lung cancer. The success of these agents in the metastatic setting leads to the logical question of what role these drugs may have in the adjuvant setting for patients with earlier stage disease. RADIANT, an international randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase III study in patients with completely resected stage IB to IIIA NSLC whose tumors expressed EGFR by IHC and EGFR amplification by FISH, attempted to answer the question of whether erlotinib would improve disease free survival and overall survival in the adjuvant setting. While RADIANT does not conclude for or against adjuvant use of EGFR-TKIs, all data points towards benefit in a selected population. As clinicians, we must continue to enroll to potentially practice changing therapeutic neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy studies internationally. PMID:27568486

  10. Have adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors lost their shine?

    PubMed Central

    Sabari, Joshua K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite broad advances in molecularly targeted therapies, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer related mortality in the United States. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations occur in approximately 17% of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the US population. The remarkable efficacy of small-molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in this unique subset of patients has revolutionized the therapeutic approach to lung cancer. The success of these agents in the metastatic setting leads to the logical question of what role these drugs may have in the adjuvant setting for patients with earlier stage disease. RADIANT, an international randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase III study in patients with completely resected stage IB to IIIA NSLC whose tumors expressed EGFR by IHC and EGFR amplification by FISH, attempted to answer the question of whether erlotinib would improve disease free survival and overall survival in the adjuvant setting. While RADIANT does not conclude for or against adjuvant use of EGFR-TKIs, all data points towards benefit in a selected population. As clinicians, we must continue to enroll to potentially practice changing therapeutic neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy studies internationally. PMID:27568486

  11. Screening of anti-hypoxia/reoxygenation agents by an in vitro model. Part 1: Natural inhibitors for protein tyrosine kinase activated by hypoxia/reoxygenation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Morita, I; Shao, G; Yao, X S; Murota, S

    2000-03-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) signaling pathways play important roles in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injuries. Inhibition of PTK activation can protect against I/R- or H/R-induced damages. As one part of our work for seeking bioactive compounds from natural sources against I/R or H/R, in the present study we examined the effects of 54 compounds purified from various traditional Chinese herbs on H/R-induced PTK activation by means of an in vitro H/R model in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results demonstrated that an increase in PTK activation was induced after 2 h of reoxygenation. Compounds 2 (macrostemososide A), 3 (laxogenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L-arabinopyra nosyl- (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside), 4 (chinenoside II), 7 (ginsenoside-Rd), 52 (icariin), 53 (icariside), and 54 (icaritin) showed relatively obvious inhibition on this H/R-induced PTK activation. Compounds 5 (beta-sitosterol) and 6 (daucosterine), especially 5, completely blocked such an increased activation of PTK induced by H/R. On the contrary, compound 29 (isocumarine) significantly promoted PTK activation further. Moreover, the effects of these compounds on PTK activation were dose-dependent. PMID:10763582

  12. Characterization of protein tyrosine kinases from human breast cancer: involvement of the c-src oncogene product.

    PubMed

    Ottenhoff-Kalff, A E; Rijksen, G; van Beurden, E A; Hennipman, A; Michels, A A; Staal, G E

    1992-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism in response to the action of growth factors and oncogenes. Since many oncogenes code for tyrosine kinases, increased or altered oncogene expression may be reflected in increased tyrosine kinase activity. In a recent study (Hennipman et al., Cancer Res., 49: 516-521, 1989), we found that the tyrosine kinase activity of the cytosolic and membrane fractions of malignant human breast tissue was significantly higher compared to the benign or the normal breast tissue. Moreover, the increase in the cytosolic fractions was found to be of prognostic value. In the present study we determined the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of another 72 breast cancer specimens, and it could be shown again that the PTK activity in all 72 of these tumors was elevated compared to normal controls. We characterized these cytosolic PTKs by anion exchange chromatography using fast protein liquid chromatography, and it could be shown that at least two different forms of PTK exist. Using antibodies against a number of known oncogene products, we could determine that at least 70% of the PTK activity in the cytosol originated from the presence of the c-src oncogene product. Both of the PTK activity peaks seen in the fast protein liquid chromatography patterns could be precipitated with the anti-Src antibody. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, it could be shown that the antibody against c-src also precipitated a part of the cytosolic PTK activity. In normal human peripheral lymphocytes, no precipitation of the cytosolic and membrane PTK activity could be achieved using the anti-Src antibody. Inasmuch as the cytosolic PTK activity parallels the malignancy in breast tumors (Hennipman et al., Cancer Res., 49: 516-521, 1989), and the majority of this activity is precipitated by anti-Src antibodies, the c-src protooncogene may play a key role in the manifestation of breast cancer.

  13. Serotonin derivatives as a new class of non-ATP-competitive receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Anita; Cottin, Thomas; Xu, Jing; Tzagkaroulaki, Lito; Giannis, Athanassios

    2010-05-15

    The discovery of new templates and their subsequent elaboration to clinically useful receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors continues to be an important issue. RTKs are a class of enzymes responsible for the activation of different cellular signal transduction cascades. The majority of the known small molecules RTK inhibitors are ATP-competitive and they are multiple targeted inhibitors. We describe here serotonin derivatives as a new class of multiple targeted RTK inhibitors. In contrast to most other RTK inhibitors they act via a non-ATP-competitive (allosteric) mechanism. Furthermore, they are able to inhibit the proliferation of HUVE cells, fibroblasts and two cancer cell lines.

  14. Management of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Uharek, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia chromosome. This oncogene is generated by the fusion of breakpoint cluster region (BCR) and Abelson leukemia virus (ABL) genes and encodes a novel fusion gene translating into a protein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The discovery and introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) irreversibly changed the landscape of CML treatment, leading to dramatic improvement in long-term survival rates. The majority of patients with CML in the chronic phase have a life expectancy comparable with that of healthy age-matched individuals. Although an enormous therapeutic improvement has been accomplished, there are still some unresolved issues in the treatment of patients with CML. One of the most important problems is based on the fact that TKIs can efficiently target proliferating mature cells but do not eradicate leukemic stem cells, allowing persistence of the malignant clone. Owing to the resistance mechanisms arising during the course of the disease, treatment with most of the approved BCR-ABL1 TKIs may become ineffective in a proportion of patients. This article highlights the different molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance being developed during treatment with TKIs as well as the pharmacological strategies to overcome it. Moreover, it gives an overview of novel drugs and therapies that are aiming in overcoming drug resistance, loss of response, and kinase domain mutations. PMID:26917943

  15. Endocytosis and the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, James; Caplan, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The regulated intracellular transport of nutrient, adhesion, and growth factor receptors is crucial for maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis. Endocytosis, or endocytic membrane trafficking, involves the steps of intracellular transport that include, but are not limited to, internalization from the plasma membrane, sorting in early endosomes, transport to late endosomes/lysosomes followed by degradation, and/or recycling back to the plasma membrane through tubular recycling endosomes. In addition to regulating the localization of transmembrane receptor proteins, the endocytic pathway also controls the localization of non-receptor molecules. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src (Src) and its closely related family members Yes and Fyn represent three proteins whose localization and signaling activities are tightly regulated by endocytic trafficking. Here, we provide a brief overview of endocytosis, Src function and its biochemical regulation. We will then concentrate on recent advances in understanding how Src intracellular localization is regulated and how its subcellular localization ultimately dictates downstream functioning. As Src kinases are hyperactive in many cancers, it is essential to decipher the spatiotemporal regulation of this important family of tyrosine kinases. PMID:25372749

  16. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential. PMID:25568918

  17. The TAM family: phosphatidylserine sensing receptor tyrosine kinases gone awry in cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, Douglas K; DeRyckere, Deborah; Davies, Kurtis D; Earp, H Shelton

    2014-12-01

    The TYRO3, AXL (also known as UFO) and MERTK (TAM) family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are aberrantly expressed in multiple haematological and epithelial malignancies. Rather than functioning as oncogenic drivers, their induction in tumour cells predominately promotes survival, chemoresistance and motility. The unique mode of maximal activation of this RTK family requires an extracellular lipid–protein complex. For example, the protein ligand, growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6), binds to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) that is externalized on apoptotic cell membranes, which activates MERTK on macrophages. This triggers engulfment of apoptotic material and subsequent anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In tumours, autocrine and paracrine ligands and apoptotic cells are abundant, which provide a survival signal to the tumour cell and favour an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive microenvironment. Thus, TAM kinase inhibition could stimulate antitumour immunity, reduce tumour cell survival, enhance chemosensitivity and diminish metastatic potential.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist efatutazone impairs transforming growth factor β2-induced motility of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Masakuni; Murakami, Haruyasu; Watanabe, Masaru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koh, Yasuhiro

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) are effective for non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with EGFR-activating mutations. However, most responders develop resistance. Efatutazone, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, is currently under clinical evaluation; it has antiproliferative effects and induces cellular morphological changes and differentiation. The present study investigated the effects of efatutazone in EGFR-TKI-resistant NSCLC cells, while focusing on cell motility. The PC-9-derived NSCLC cell lines PC-9ER and PC-9ZD, resistant to EGFR-TKI due to v-crk avian sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog-like (CRKL) amplification-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activation and an EGFR T790M mutation, respectively, were used. These cells exhibit enhanced cell motility due to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad2 family member 2 (Smad2) pathway activation. Efatutazone had no growth-inhibitory effect on the tested cells but inhibited the motility of EGFR-TKI-resistant cells in wound closure and transwell assays. Efatutazone plus erlotinib treatment provided greater inhibition of PC-9ER cell migration than efatutazone or erlotinib alone. Efatutazone suppressed increased TGF-β2 secretion from both cell lines (shown by ELISA) and downregulation of TGF-β2 transcription (observed by quantitative RT-PCR). Immunoblot analysis and luciferase assays revealed that efatutazone suppressed Smad2 phosphorylation and its transcriptional activity. These results suggest that efatutazone inhibits cell motility by antagonizing the TGF-β/Smad2 pathway and effectively prevents metastasis in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI regardless of the resistance mechanism.

  19. Role of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in myeloproliferative neoplasms: comparative lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Sweet, Kendra L; Corrales-Yepez, Gabriela M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-01-01

    An important pathogenetic distinction in the classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is the presence or absence of the BCR-ABL fusion gene, which encodes a unique oncogenic tyrosine kinase. The BCR-ABL fusion, caused by the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) through translocation, constitutes the disease-initiating event in chronic myeloid leukemia. The development of successive BCR-ABL-targeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitors has led to greatly improved outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, including high rates of complete hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses. Such levels of treatment success have long been elusive for patients with Ph-negative MPNs, because of the difficulties in identifying specific driver proteins suitable as drug targets. However, in recent years an improved understanding of the complex pathobiology of classic Ph-negative MPNs, characterized by variable, overlapping multimutation profiles, has prompted the development of better and more broadly targeted (to pathway rather than protein) treatment options, particularly JAK inhibitors. In classic Ph-negative MPNs, overactivation of JAK-dependent signaling pathways is a central pathogenic mechanism, and mutually exclusive mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR linked to aberrant JAK activation are now recognized as key drivers of disease progression in myelofibrosis (MF). In clinical trials, the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib - the first therapy approved for MF worldwide - improved disease-related splenomegaly and symptoms independent of JAK2 (V617F) mutational status, and prolonged survival compared with placebo or standard therapy in patients with advanced MF. In separate trials, ruxolitinib also provided comprehensive hematologic control in patients with another Ph-negative MPN - polycythemia vera. However, complete cytogenetic or molecular responses with JAK inhibitors alone are normally not observed, underscoring the need for novel combination

  20. KSHV-TK is a tyrosine kinase that disrupts focal adhesions and induces Rho-mediated cell contraction

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Michael B; Turner, Rachel; Stevenson, Philip G; Way, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paradoxically, the thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an extremely inefficient nucleoside kinase, when compared to TKs from related herpesviruses. We now show that KSHV-TK, in contrast to HSV1-TK, associates with the actin cytoskeleton and induces extensive cell contraction followed by membrane blebbing. These dramatic changes in cell morphology depend on the auto-phosphorylation of tyrosines 65, 85 and 120 in the N-terminus of KSHV-TK. Phosphorylation of tyrosines 65/85 and 120 results in an interaction with Crk family proteins and the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3-Kinase, respectively. The interaction of Crk with KSHV-TK leads to tyrosine phoshorylation of this cellular adaptor. Auto-phosphorylation of KSHV-TK also induces a loss of FAK and paxillin from focal adhesions, resulting in activation of RhoA-ROCK signalling to myosin II and cell contraction. In the absence of FAK or paxillin, KSHV-TK has no effect on focal adhesion integrity or cell morphology. Our observations demonstrate that by acting as a tyrosine kinase, KSHV-TK modulates signalling and cell morphology. PMID:25471072

  1. A Novel Isoform of the B Cell Tyrosine Kinase BTK Protects Breast Cancer Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Eifert, Cheryl; Wang, Xianhui; Kokabee, Leila; Kourtidis, Antonis; Jain, Ritu; Gerdes, Michael J.; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases orchestrate key cellular signaling pathways and their dysregulation is often associated with cellular transformation. Several recent cases in which inhibitors of tyrosine kinases have been successfully used as anticancer agents have underscored the importance of this class of proteins in the development of targeted cancer therapies. We have carried out a large-scale loss-of-function analysis of the human tyrosine kinases using RNA interference to identify novel survival factors for breast cancer cells. In addition to kinases with known roles in breast and other cancers, we identified several kinases that were previously unknown to be required for breast cancer cell survival. The most surprising of these was the cytosolic, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), which has been extensively studied in B cell development. Down regulation of this protein with RNAi or inhibition with pharmacological inhibitors causes apoptosis; overexpression inhibits apoptosis induced by Doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. Our results surprisingly show that BTK is expressed in several breast cancer cell lines and tumors. The predominant form of BTK found in tumor cells is transcribed from an alternative promoter and results in a protein with an amino-terminal extension. This alternate form of BTK is expressed at significantly higher levels in tumorigenic breast cells than in normal breast cells. Since this protein is a survival factor for these cells, it represents both a potential marker and novel therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:23913792

  2. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling: Regulating Neural Crest Development One Phosphate at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Soriano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) bind to a subset of growth factors on the surface of cells and elicit responses with broad roles in developmental and postnatal cellular processes. Receptors in this subclass consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain harboring a catalytic tyrosine kinase and regulatory sequences that are phosphorylated either by the receptor itself or various interacting proteins. Once activated, RTKs bind signaling molecules and recruit effector proteins to mediate downstream cellular responses through various intracellular signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will highlight the role of a subset of RTK families in regulating the activity of neural crest cells (NCCs) and the development of their derivatives in mammalian systems. NCCs are migratory, multipotent cells that can be subdivided into four axial populations, cranial, cardiac, vagal and trunk. These cells migrate throughout the vertebrate embryo along defined pathways and give rise to unique cell types and structures. Interestingly, individual RTK families often have specific functions in a subpopulation of NCCs that contribute to the diversity of these cells and their derivatives in the mammalian embryo. We will additionally discuss current methods used to investigate RTK signaling, including genetic, biochemical, large-scale proteomic and biosensor approaches, which can be applied to study intracellular signaling pathways active downstream of this receptor subclass during NCC development. PMID:25662260

  3. Screening of anti-hypoxia/reoxygenation agents by an in vitro method. Part 2: Inhibition of tyrosine kinase activation prevented hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in endothelial gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y W; Morita, I; Zhang, L; Shao, G; Yao, X S; Murota, S

    2000-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) induced an injury in gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) after 2 h of reoxygenation in cultured HUVEC. Free radical scavenger (DMSO) and antioxidant (SOD) did not prevent this GJIC injury at all. Protein kinase C inhibitor (calphostin C) partly blocked this injury. However, the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein completely inhibited this GJIC injury. Compounds 1 [laxogenin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinosyl-(1-->6)- beta-D-glucopyranoside], 2 (macrostemososide A), 3 [laxogenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], 4 (chinenoside II), 5 (beta-sitosterol), 6 (daucosterine), 7 (ginsenoside-Rd), 29 (isocumarine), 52 (icariin), 53 (icariside), and 54 (icaritin), which showed obvious influence on H/R-induced PTK activation as stated in Part 1 (except 1), were explored for their effects on GJIC. The results showed that compounds 2-7 and 52-57 partly protected H/R-induced GJIC injury. Compounds 5 and 6 (especially 5), which showed the strongest inhibitory effects on PTK activation, completely blocked H/R-provoked GJIC injury. Compound 1, which did not influence PTK activation, failed to prevent this GJIC injury. In contrast, compound 29, which significantly promoted PTK activation, enhanced this H/R-induced GJIC injury further. Western blotting of connexin 43, an important gap junctional protein for modulating GJIC in HUVEC, revealed that interference with the gap junctional protein might be the most direct mechanism for compounds 2, 5, 29, and 53 to affect H/R-injured GJIC. PMID:10763583

  4. Increasing the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphB2 Prevents Amyloid-β-induced Depletion of Cell Surface Glutamate Receptors by a Mechanism That Requires the PDZ-binding Motif of EphB2 and Neuronal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takashi; Kim, Daniel; Knox, Joseph A.; Johnson, Erik; Mucke, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Diverse lines of evidence suggest that amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides causally contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. However, the mechanisms by which Aβ impairs neuronal functions remain to be fully elucidated. Previous studies showed that soluble Aβ oligomers interfere with synaptic functions by depleting NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) from the neuronal surface and that overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphB2 can counteract this process. Through pharmacological treatments and biochemical analyses of primary neuronal cultures expressing wild-type or mutant forms of EphB2, we demonstrate that this protective effect of EphB2 depends on its PDZ-binding motif and the presence of neuronal activity but not on its kinase activity. We further present evidence that the protective effect of EphB2 may be mediated by the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2, which can become associated with the PDZ-binding motif of EphB2 through PDZ domain-containing proteins and can promote the retention of NMDARs in the membrane. In addition, we show that the Aβ-induced depletion of surface NMDARs does not depend on several factors that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Aβ-induced neuronal dysfunction, including aberrant neuronal activity, tau, prion protein (PrPC), and EphB2 itself. Thus, although EphB2 does not appear to be directly involved in the Aβ-induced depletion of NMDARs, increasing its expression may counteract this pathogenic process through a neuronal activity- and PDZ-dependent regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. PMID:26589795

  5. Cardiotoxicity Associated with the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Tammy F.; Rupnick, Maria A.; Kerkela, Risto; Dallabrida, Susan M.; Zurakowski, David; Nguyen, Lisa; Woulfe, Kathleen; Pravda, Elke; Cassiola, Flavia; Desai, Jayesh; George, Suzanne; Morgan, Jeffrey A.; Harris, David; Ismail, Nesreen S.; Chen, Jey-Hsin; Schoen, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have advanced cancer treatment. Sunitinib, a recently-approved, multi-targeted TKI, prolongs survival for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but concerns about cardiac safety have arisen with this agent. Methods To determine the cardiovascular risk associated with sunitinib, we reviewed all cardiovascular events in patients with imatinib-resistant, metastatic GIST at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute enrolled in a Phase I/II protocol evaluating the efficacy of the drug (n=75). Sunitinib’s effects on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and blood pressure (BP) were also examined. Studies in isolated cardiomyocytes and mice investigated potential mechanisms of sunitinib-associated cardiac effects. Findings Eleven percent (8/75) of subjects suffered a cardiovascular event with congestive heart failure (CHF) occurring in 8% (6/75) of the population. Twenty-eight percent (10/36) of patients treated at the FDA-approved dose had LVEF declines of ≥ 10 EF%, and nineteen percent (7/36) experienced LVEF declines of ≥ 15 EF%. Sunitinib induced significant increases in mean systolic and diastolic BP in patients, and 47% (35/75) of individuals developed hypertension (HTN) (>150/100 mmHg). CHF and LV dysfunction generally responded to withholding drug and instituting medical management. In mice and cultured cardiomyocytes, sunitinib caused mitochondrial injury and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Interpretation Sunitinib treatment can lead to HTN, LVEF decline, and/or CHF. Experimental studies suggest that this is due, at least in part, to direct cardiomyocyte toxicity which may be exacerbated by HTN. Patients treated with sunitinib should receive close monitoring and prompt treatment for HTN and/or LVEF decline. PMID:18083403

  6. Reactive oxygen species induce tyrosine phosphorylation of and Src kinase recruitment to NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Meurer, Sabine; Pioch, Sylke; Gross, Steffen; Müller-Esterl, Werner

    2005-09-30

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the major cytosolic receptor for nitric oxide (NO) that converts GTP into the second messenger cGMP in a NO-dependent manner. Other factors controlling this key enzyme are intracellular proteins such as Hsp90 and PSD95, which bind to sGC and modulate its activity, stability, and localization. To date little is known about the effects of posttranslational modifications of sGC, although circumstantial evidence suggests that reversible phosphorylation may contribute to sGC regulation. Here we demonstrate that inhibitors of protein-tyrosine phosphatases such as pervanadate and bisperoxo(1,10-phenanthroline)oxovanadate(V) as well as reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 induce specific tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta1 but not of the alpha1 subunit of sGC. Tyrosine phosphorylation of sGCbeta1 is also inducible by pervanadate and H2O2 in intact PC12 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells, and in rat aortic tissues, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of sGC may also occur in vivo. We have mapped the major tyrosine phosphorylation site to position 192 of beta1, where it forms part of a highly acidic phospho-acceptor site for Src-like kinases. In the phosphorylated state Tyr(P)-192 exposes a docking site for SH2 domains and efficiently recruits Src and Fyn to sGCbeta1, thereby promoting multiple phosphorylation of the enzyme. Our results demonstrate that sGC is subject to tyrosine phosphorylation and interaction with Src-like kinases, revealing an unexpected cross-talk between the NO/cGMP and tyrosine kinase signaling pathways at the level of sGC.

  7. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Ph+ Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Therapy: a Review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; Parikh, Sonia; Rawal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Deregulated BCRABL fusion tyrosine kinase activity is the main cause of CML disease pathogenesis, making BCRABL an ideal target for inhibition. Current tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) designed to inhibit BCRABL oncoprotein activity, have completely transformed the prognosis of CML. Interruption of TKI treatment leads to minimal residual disease reside (MRD), thought to reside in TKIinsensitive leukaemia stem cells which remain a potential reservoir for disease relapse. This highlights the need to develop new therapeutic strategies for CML either as small molecule master TKIs or phytopharmaceuticals derived from nature to achieve chronic molecular remission. This review outlines the past, present and future therapeutic approaches for CML including coverage of relevant mechanisms, whether ABL dependent or independent, and epigenetic factors responsible for developing resistance against TKIs. Appearance of mutant clones along the course of therapy either preexisting or induced due to therapy is still a challenge for the clinician. A proposed invitro model of generating colony forming units from CML stem cells derived from diagnostic samples seems to be achievable in the era of high throughput technology which can take care of single cell genomic profiling. PMID:27509925

  8. The tyrosine kinase McsB is a regulated adaptor protein for ClpCP.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, Janine; Dougan, David A; Gerth, Ulf; Hecker, Michael; Turgay, Kürşad

    2007-04-18

    Cells of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis have to adapt to fast environmental changes in their natural habitat. Here, we characterized a novel system in which cells respond to heat shock by regulatory proteolysis of a transcriptional repressor CtsR. In B. subtilis, CtsR controls the synthesis of itself, the tyrosine kinase McsB, its activator McsA and the Hsp100/Clp proteins ClpC, ClpE and their cognate peptidase ClpP. The AAA+ protein family members ClpC and ClpE can form an ATP-dependent protease complex with ClpP and are part of the B. subtilis protein quality control system. The regulatory response is mediated by a proteolytic switch, which is formed by these proteins under heat-shock conditions, where the tyrosine kinase McsB acts as a regulated adaptor protein, which in its phosphorylated form activates the Hsp100/Clp protein ClpC and targets the repressor CtsR for degradation by the general protease ClpCP.

  9. Advances in treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia – new treatment options with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    SANTOS, FABIO P. S.; RAVANDI, FARHAD

    2014-01-01

    Imatinib is considered standard therapy for patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), inducing a high rate of hematologic and cytogenetic responses. Despite these excellent results, several patients develop resistance to imatinib. Mechanisms of resistance are varied and include BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations, decreased entry of imatinib into cells, acquisition of secondary genetic changes and activation of alternate signaling pathways. Second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) (dasatinib, nilotinib) were developed as an alternative for patients that develop resistance or are intolerant to imatinib. Dasatinib is a dual Abl/Src kinase TKI that is structurally unrelated to imatinib and is approved for therapy of all phases of CML in patients who are resistant or intolerant to imatinib. Nilotinib is a compound related to imatinib that has greater specificity and improved binding characteristics, and has clinical activity in the setting of imatinib failure. Resistance to multiple TKIs does occur, particularly in patients with the T315I mutation. Several new agents are in development including new TKIs, aurora kinase inhibitors and homoharringtonine. PMID:20017607

  10. Completing the structural family portrait of the human EphB tyrosine kinase domains

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Ross C; Debreczeni, Judit E; Truman, Caroline M; McAlister, Mark S; Attwood, Teresa K

    2014-01-01

    The EphB receptors have key roles in cell morphology, adhesion, migration and invasion, and their aberrant action has been linked with the development and progression of many different tumor types. Their conflicting expression patterns in cancer tissues, combined with their high sequence and structural identity, present interesting challenges to those seeking to develop selective therapeutic molecules targeting this large receptor family. Here, we present the first structure of the EphB1 tyrosine kinase domain determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.5Å. Our comparative crystalisation analysis of the human EphB family kinases has also yielded new crystal forms of the human EphB2 and EphB4 catalytic domains. Unable to crystallize the wild-type EphB3 kinase domain, we used rational engineering (based on our new structures of EphB1, EphB2, and EphB4) to identify a single point mutation which facilitated its crystallization and structure determination to 2.2 Å. This mutation also improved the soluble recombinant yield of this kinase within Escherichia coli, and increased both its intrinsic stability and catalytic turnover, without affecting its ligand-binding profile. The partial ordering of the activation loop in the EphB3 structure alludes to a potential cis-phosphorylation mechanism for the EphB kinases. With the kinase domain structures of all four catalytically competent human EphB receptors now determined, a picture begins to emerge of possible opportunities to produce EphB isozyme-selective kinase inhibitors for mechanistic studies and therapeutic applications. PMID:24677421

  11. CD14 Mediates Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Endocytosis and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) and Interferon Regulatory Transcription Factor 3 (IRF3) Activation in Epithelial Cells and Impairs Neutrophil Infiltration and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Killing in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanhita; Karmakar, Mausita; Pearlman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of CD14 in regulating LPS activation of corneal epithelial cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. Our findings demonstrate that LPS induces Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) internalization in corneal epithelial cells and that blocking with anti-CD14 selectively inhibits TLR4 endocytosis, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and IRF3 phosphorylation, and production of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-β, but not IL-8. Using a murine model of P. aeruginosa corneal infection, we show that although infected CD14−/− corneas produce less CCL5, they exhibit significantly increased CXC chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment to the corneal stroma, and bacterial clearance than C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that CD14 has a critical role in mediating TLR4 signaling through IRF3 in resident corneal epithelial cells and macrophages and thereby modulates TLR4 cell surface activation of the MyD88/NF-κB/AP-1 pathway and production of CXC chemokines and neutrophil infiltration to infected tissues. PMID:24275652

  12. Computational Study of the “DFG-Flip” Conformational Transition in c-Abl and c-Src Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are crucial to cellular signaling pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and migration. To maintain normal regulation of cellular signal transductions, the activities of tyrosine kinases are also highly regulated. The conformation of a three-residue motif Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) near the N-terminus of the long “activation” loop covering the catalytic site is known to have a critical impact on the activity of c-Abl and c-Src tyrosine kinases. A conformational transition of the DFG motif can switch the enzyme from an active (DFG-in) to an inactive (DFG-out) state. In the present study, the string method with swarms-of-trajectories was used to computationally determine the reaction pathway connecting the two end-states, and umbrella sampling calculations were carried out to characterize the thermodynamic factors affecting the conformations of the DFG motif in c-Abl and c-Src kinases. According to the calculated free energy landscapes, the DFG-out conformation is clearly more favorable in the case of c-Abl than that of c-Src. The calculations also show that the protonation state of the aspartate residue in the DFG motif strongly affects the in/out conformational transition in c-Abl, although it has a much smaller impact in the case of c-Src due to local structural differences. PMID:25548962

  13. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein blocks HIV-1 infection in primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Stantchev, Tzanko S; Markovic, Ingrid; Telford, William G; Clouse, Kathleen A; Broder, Christopher C

    2007-02-01

    Binding of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) to its cellular receptors elicits a variety of signaling events, including the activation of select tyrosine kinases. To evaluate the potential role of such signaling, we examined the effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, on HIV-1 entry and infection of human macrophages using a variety of assays. Without altering cell viability, cell surface expression of CD4 and CCR5 or their abilities to interact with Env, genistein inhibited infection of macrophages by reporter gene-encoding, beta-lactamase containing, or wild type virions, as well as Env-mediated cell-fusion. The observation that genistein blocked virus infection if applied before, during or immediately after the infection period, but not 24h later; coupled with a more pronounced inhibition of infection in the reporter gene assays as compared to both beta-lactamase and p24 particle entry assays, imply that genistein exerts its inhibitory effects on both entry and early post-entry steps. These findings suggest that other exploitable targets, or steps, of the HIV-1 infection process may exist and could serve as additional opportunities for the development of new therapeutics.

  14. Role of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) in the expansion of glioma-initiating cells by fractionated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyejin; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of glioma stem-like cells. {yields} Inhibition of LCK prevents acquisition of fractionated radiation-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment. {yields} LCK activity is critical for the maintenance of self-renewal in glioma stem-like cells. -- Abstract: Brain cancers frequently recur or progress as focal masses after treatment with ionizing radiation. Radiation used to target gliomas may expand the cancer stem cell population and enhance the aggressiveness of tumors; however, the mechanisms underlying the expansion of cancer stem cell population after radiation have remained unclear. In this study, we show that LCK (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population and acquisition of resistance to anticancer treatments. Fractionated radiation caused a selective increase in the activity of LCK, a Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The activities of other Src family kinases Src, Fyn, and Lyn were not significantly increased. Moreover, knockdown of LCK expression with a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively blocked fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the CD133{sup +} cell population. siRNA targeting of LCK also suppressed fractionated radiation-induced expression of the glioma stem cell marker proteins CD133, Nestin, and Musashi. Expression of the known self-renewal-related proteins Notch2 and Sox2 in glioma cells treated with fractionated radiation was also downregulated by LCK inhibition. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of LCK effectively restored the sensitivity of glioma cells to cisplatin and etoposide. These results indicate that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase LCK is critically involved in fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population and

  15. Altered regulation of Src tyrosine kinase by transforming growth factor beta1 in a human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Kawata, S; Tamura, S; Matsuda, Y; Inui, Y; Igura, T; Inoue, S; Kudara, T; Matsuzawa, Y

    1998-09-01

    Transforming growth factor betas (TGF-betas) are the potent growth inhibitors for various cell types. Certain transformed cells, however, show poor response to TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition, which contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation. Recently, we have reported that TGF-beta1 induces degradation of activated Src tyrosine kinase in rat fibroblasts. To elucidate the alteration in TGF-beta signaling pathway in tumor cells that cannot respond to the cytokine, we compared the effects of TGF-beta1 on Src kinase in two human hepatoma cell lines, TGF-beta1-insensitive Mahlavu cells and TGF-beta1-sensitive HepG2 cells. TGF-beta1 decreased Src kinase activity in HepG2 cells, but increased cellular Src levels and Src kinase activity in Mahlavu cells. Co-incubation of Mahlavu cells with TGF-beta1 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) decreased Src protein levels and Src kinase activity, inducing TGF-beta1 sensitivity. TGF-beta1 induced tyrosine dephosphorylation of Ras guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (Ras-GAP) and Ras inactivation in HepG2 cells, but induced Ras-GAP phosphorylation and Ras activation in Mahlavu cells. The Src kinase inhibitor abolished the increase of Src kinase activity in TGF-beta1-treated Mahlavu cells, and induced TGF-beta1 sensitivity. These findings suggest that regulation of Src kinase by TGF-beta1 is altered in Mahlavu cells. The altered regulation of Src may contribute to TGF-beta1 insensitivity in this cell line, at least in part through activation of Ras.

  16. Reduced Proteolytic Shedding of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases is a Post-Translational Mechanism of Kinase Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Miles A.; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Wang, Stephanie J.; Meyer, Aaron S.; Im, Hyungsoon; Frederick, Dennie T.; Tadros, Jenny; Griffith, Linda G.; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph; Flaherty, Keith T.; Gertler, Frank B.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Kinase inhibitor resistance often involves upregulation of poorly understood “bypass” signaling pathways. Here, we show that extracellular proteomic adaptation is one path to bypass signaling and drug resistance. Proteolytic shedding of surface receptors, which can provide negative feedback on signaling activity, is blocked by kinase inhibitor treatment and enhances bypass signaling. In particular, MEK inhibition broadly decreases shedding of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including HER4, MET, and most prominently AXL, an ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrate, thus increasing surface RTK levels and mitogenic signaling. Progression-free survival of melanoma patients treated with clinical BRAF/MEK inhibitors inversely correlates with RTK shedding reduction following treatment, as measured non-invasively in blood plasma. Disrupting protease inhibition by neutralizing TIMP1 improves MAPK inhibitor efficacy, and combined MAPK/AXL inhibition synergistically reduces tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Altogether, extracellular proteomic rewiring through reduced RTK shedding represents a surprising mechanism for bypass signaling in cancer drug resistance. PMID:26984351

  17. A cytosolic activator of DNA replication is tyrosine phosphorylated in its active form.

    PubMed

    Fresa, K L; Autieri, M V; Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Cohen, S

    1993-04-01

    Cytosolic extracts from actively dividing lymphoid cells have been shown to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. An initiating factor in such extracts (activator of DNA replication; ADR) is a > 90-kDa aprotinin-binding protein whose activity is inhibitable not only by aprotinin, but also by several other protease inhibitors as well. Although cytosol from non-proliferating lymphocytes is devoid of ADR activity, we have shown that these preparations can be induced to express ADR activity by brief exposure to a membrane-enriched fraction of spontaneously proliferating MOLT-4 cells via a kinase-dependent mechanism. In the present study, we examine the role of tyrosine kinases in this process. Three inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (genistein, kaempferol, and quercetin) can inhibit the in vitro generation of ADR activity. In vitro generation of ADR activity is associated with the de novo phosphorylation of several proteins, many of which are detectable using anti-phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies. ADR itself may be tyrosine phosphorylated in active form as immunoprecipitation using such monoclonal antibodies leads to the depletion of its activity. Moreover, immunoprecipitation results in the removal of several de novo tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including species at approximately 122, 105, 93, 86, 79, and 65 kDa. A subset of de novo-phosphorylated proteins, migrating at approximately 105, 93, and 70 kDa, also bound to aprotinin, suggesting that at least one of these proteins may represent ADR itself. PMID:7683270

  18. Influence of biotransformation of luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone and apigenin by cultured rat hepatocytes on antioxidative capacity and inhibition of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Schlupper, Doreen; Giesa, Sabine; Gebhardt, Rolf

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids are known as biologically active compounds. Although this has been shown by several in vivo studies, it is still elusive whether their metabolites exert similar activities. Herein we investigated the biotransformation of four different flavonoids, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone, apigenin, luteolin and luteolin 7-O-glucoside, by cultured rat hepatocytes using a combination of enzymatic deconjugation, HPLC separation and high-resolution mass spectrometry. These flavonoids were chosen because they are active components of many plants, e. g., artichokes. All flavonoids showed rather complex metabolite patterns dominated by phase II metabolites, mainly sulfates, methyl sulfates and methyl glucuronides, but also of combined glucuronide and sulfate conjugates. Phase I metabolism by hydroxylation was rendered likely only for apigenin to form luteolin. When culture media containing the flavonoids and their metabolites were assayed for antioxidative capacity by the DPPH assay, only compounds with hydroxy groups in position 3' and 4' of the B ring were active. Thus, during metabolism of (inactive) apigenin a strong increase in the antioxidative effect was observed while that of the other three flavonoids decreased with time. Determination of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity likewise revealed strong inhibition in the presence of a catechol group at ring B. However, in this case the situation was much more complex resulting in a significant increase of the inhibitory activity of 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone and apigenin, but not of luteolin and luteolin 7-O-glucoside during 22 h of incubation. These results show that the biotransformation of flavonoids is very complex and may result not only in a loss but also in a gain of biological activity depending on the individual structural features. PMID:16732514

  19. Induction of multiple sclerosis and response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Emad Y

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the role of the autoimmune cells in multiple sclerosis (MS) induction and the immunomodulatory mechanism of therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in MS attenuation. Samples (5 × 10(5) cells per well) of C6 and primary rat astrocytes were stimulated with 10 ng/mL of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFbb) as a positive control forming a mouse model of MS. PDGFbb was added to the astrocytes in the absence or presence of 0.1 and 1 μM of imatinib. Proliferation of C6 and primary rat astrocytes samples were assessed for samples staging by the addition of 1 μCi of (3)H-thymidine per well. Samples of RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated for 48 h with 10 ng/mL of PDGFbb in the absence or presence of 0.1 and 1 μM of sorafenib. Tumour necrotic factor (TNF) levels in culture supernatants from RAW 264.7 cells were measured by ELISA. The histologic grade (HG) and the level of TNF of the mouse model of MS was 1/5 and 5 times respectively of those in the control one to clarify that MS induction is due to a major decrease in HG inversely proportional to the accompanied increase in TNF level perpetuating local inflammation and demyelination in MS lesion. The addition of 0.1 and 1 μM doses of imatinib increased HG of the mouse model of MS by 6 and 11 times respectively while 0.1 and 1 μM doses of sorafenib decreased TNF level to be 1/2 and 1/5 of that in the mouse model of MS respectively restoring normal rate of TNF level of normal lesion to show that HGand TNF level would be strongly inversely correlated (r = -0.99) in attenuating MS effectively by TKIs therapy but not in an inverse proportion as in MS induction. PMID:25298631

  20. Basic science for the clinician 48: tyrosine kinases in disease: the potential for inhibitors in the treatment of immunologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2008-02-01

    The magic bullet--a compound that will stop a disease dead in its tracks by specifically targeting the underlying pathogenic principle of that disease--is what every designer/developer of drugs wants. As cellular and molecular biology research delves deeper into how cells are activated by their ligands, the intracellular pathways of activation of individual cellular processes become better known and more attractive therapeutic targets. The receptors for transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activate a variety of cells via a series of tyrosine kinases; inhibition of specific tyrosine kinases has until recently been within the domain of oncologists, treating leukemia, and certain gastrointestinal tumors, but now there is mounting evidence that these agents might be of value in rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases. This is another example of "Better living (and curing!) through chemistry" that we as clinicians need to master to render optimal care. PMID:18431100

  1. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:17441906

  2. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  3. Identification of Nuclear Protein Targets for Six Leukemogenic Tyrosine Kinases Governed by Post-Translational Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Andrew; Williamson, Andrew; Jaworska, Ewa; Griffiths, John R.; Taylor, Sam; Walker, Michael; O’Dea, Mark Aspinall; Spooncer, Elaine; Unwin, Richard D.; Poolman, Toryn; Ray, David; Whetton, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Mutated tyrosine kinases are associated with a number of different haematological malignancies including myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma and acute myeloid leukaemia. The potential commonalities in the action of six of these leukemogenic proteins on nuclear proteins were investigated using systematic proteomic analysis. The effects on over 3600 nuclear proteins and 1500 phosphopeptide sites were relatively quantified in seven isogenic cell lines. The effects of the kinases were diverse although some commonalities were found. Comparison of the nuclear proteomic data with transcriptome data and cytoplasmic proteomic data indicated that the major changes are due to post-translational mechanisms rather than changes in mRNA or protein distribution. Analysis of the promoter regions of genes whose protein levels changed in response to the kinases showed the most common binding site found was that for NFκB whilst other sites such as those for the glucocorticoid receptor were also found. Glucocorticoid receptor levels and phosphorylation were decreased by all 6 PTKs. Whilst Glucocorticoid receptor action can potentiate NFκB action those proteins where genes have NFκB binding sites were in often regulated post-translationally. However all 6 PTKs showed evidence of NFkB pathway modulation via activation via altered IkB and NFKB levels. Validation of a common change was also undertaken with PMS2, a DNA mismatch repair protein. PMS2 nuclear levels were decreased in response to the expression of all 6 kinases, with no concomitant change in mRNA level or cytosolic protein level. Response to thioguanine, that requires the mismatch repair pathway, was modulated by all 6 oncogenic kinases. In summary common targets for 6 oncogenic PTKs have been found that are regulated by post-translational mechanisms. They represent potential new avenues for therapies but also demonstrate the post-translational regulation is a key target of leukaemogenic kinases. PMID:22745689

  4. The protein tyrosine kinases EpsB and PtkA differentially affect biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Gerwig, Jan; Kiley, Taryn B.; Gunka, Katrin; Stanley-Wall, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is able to choose between motile and sessile lifestyles. The sessile way of life, also referred to as biofilm, depends on the formation of an extracellular polysaccharide matrix and some extracellular proteins. Moreover, a significant proportion of cells in a biofilm form spores. The first two genes of the 15-gene operon for extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, epsA and epsB, encode a putative transmembrane modulator protein and a putative protein tyrosine kinase, respectively, with similarity to the TkmA/PtkA modulator/kinase couple. Here we show that the putative kinase EpsB is required for the formation of structured biofilms. However, an epsB mutant is still able to form biofilms. As shown previously, a ptkA mutant is also partially defective in biofilm formation, but this defect is related to spore formation in the biofilm. The absence of both kinases resulted in a complete loss of biofilm formation. Thus, EpsB and PtkA fulfil complementary functions in biofilm formation. The activity of bacterial protein tyrosine kinases depends on their interaction with modulator proteins. Our results demonstrate the specific interaction between the putative kinase EpsB and its modulator protein EpsA and suggest that EpsB activity is stimulated by its modulator EpsA. PMID:24493247

  5. Salmonella induces SRC protein tyrosine kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-kappaBp65 signaling pathways in commercial and wild-type turkey leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies comparing signaling in wild-type turkey (WT) leukocytes and commercial turkey (CT) leukocytes found that the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and MAP kinases, ERK 1/2 and p38, were significantly higher in WT leukocytes compared to CT lines upon exposure to both SE and OPSE on d...

  6. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Peng, M; Ball-Kell, S M; Tyner, A L

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) expression, activation, and amplification of the PTK6 gene have been reported in ERBB2/HER2-positive mammary gland cancers. To explore contributions of PTK6 to mammary gland tumorigenesis promoted by activated ERBB2, we crossed Ptk6-/- mice with the mouse mammary tumor virus-ERBB2 transgenic mouse line expressing activated ERBB2 and characterized tumor development and progression. ERBB2-induced tumorigenesis was significantly delayed and diminished in mice lacking PTK6. PTK6 expression was induced in the mammary glands of ERBB2 transgenic mice before tumor development and correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increased proliferation. Disruption of PTK6 impaired STAT3 activation and proliferation. Phosphorylation of the PTK6 substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1; p130CAS) was decreased in Ptk6-/- mammary gland tumors. Reduced numbers of metastases were detected in the lungs of Ptk6-/- mice expressing activated ERBB2, compared with wild-type ERBB2 transgenic mice. PTK6 activation was detected at the edges of ERBB2-positive tumors. These data support roles for PTK6 in both ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumor initiation and metastasis, and identify STAT3, FAK, and BCAR1 as physiologically relevant PTK6 substrates in breast cancer. Including PTK6 inhibitors as part of a treatment regimen could have distinct benefits in ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancers.

  7. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans.

  8. Production of recombinant insulin-like androgenic gland hormones from three decapod species: In vitro testicular phosphorylation and activation of a newly identified tyrosine kinase receptor from the Eastern spiny lobster, Sagmariasus verreauxi.

    PubMed

    Aizen, Joseph; Chandler, Jennifer C; Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Sagi, Amir; Battaglene, Stephen C; Elizur, Abigail; Ventura, Tomer

    2016-04-01

    In crustaceans the insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG) is responsible for male sexual differentiation. To date, the biochemical pathways through which IAG exerts its effects are poorly understood and could be elucidated through the production of a functional recombinant IAG (rIAG). We have successfully expressed glycosylated, biologically active IAG using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. We co-expressed recombinant single-chain precursor molecules consisting of the B and A chains (the mature hormone) tethered by a flexible linker, producing rIAGs of the following commercially important species: Eastern spiny lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi (Sv), redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Cq) and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). We then tested the biological activity of each, through the ability to increase phosphorylation in the testis; both Sv and Cq rIAGs significantly elevated phosphorylation specific to their species, and in a dose-dependent manner. Mr rIAG was tested on Macrobrachium australiense (Ma), eliciting a similar response. Moreover, using bioinformatics analyses of the de novo assembled spiny lobster transcriptome, we identified a spiny lobster tyrosine kinase insulin receptor (Sv-TKIR). We validated this discovery with a receptor activation assay in COS-7 cells expressing Sv-TKIR, using a reporter SRE-LUC system designed for RTKs, with each of the rIAG proteins acting as the activation ligand. Using recombinant proteins, we aim to develop specific tools to control sexual development through the administration of IAG within the critical sexual differentiation time window. The biologically active rIAGs generated might facilitate commercially feasible solutions for the long sought techniques for sex-change induction and monosex population culture in crustaceans and shed new light on the physiological mode of action of IAG in crustaceans. PMID:26883686

  9. Chromosomal location of the Syk and ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase genes in mice and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, G.; Malissen, B.; Mattei, M.G.

    1994-12-31

    Several protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), which may be grouped into two structurally different families, have been implicated in antigen receptor proximal signaling. Blk, Fyn, Lck, Lyn, and Yes belong to the Src-family kinases, whereas the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and the CD3-{zeta}-associated PTK (ZAP-70) define a new one, the Syk family. These kinases differ from the Src-family kinases in that they are non-myristylated cytoplasmic polypeptides composed of two N-terminal Src homology-2 (SH2) domains and a C-terminal catalytic domain. ZAP-70 appears to be expressed exclusively in T cells and NK cells, whereas Syk is preferentially expressed in B cells, T cells, and myeloid cells. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Distinct cellular properties of oncogenic KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mutants enable alternative courses of cancer cell inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiarong; Sousa, Leiliane P; Mandel-Bausch, Elizabeth M; Tome, Francisco; Reshetnyak, Andrey V; Hadari, Yaron; Schlessinger, Joseph; Lax, Irit

    2016-08-16

    Large genomic sequencing analysis as part of precision medicine efforts revealed numerous activating mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases, including KIT. Unfortunately, a single approach is not effective for inhibiting cancer cells or treating cancers driven by all known oncogenic KIT mutants. Here, we show that each of the six major KIT oncogenic mutants exhibits different enzymatic, cellular, and dynamic properties and responds distinctly to different KIT inhibitors. One class of KIT mutants responded well to anti-KIT antibody treatment alone or in combination with a low dose of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A second class of KIT mutants, including a mutant resistant to imatinib treatment, responded well to a combination of TKI with anti-KIT antibodies or to anti-KIT toxin conjugates, respectively. We conclude that the preferred choice of precision medicine treatments for cancers driven by activated KIT and other RTKs may rely on clear understanding of the dynamic properties of oncogenic mutants. PMID:27482095

  11. The ROR2 tyrosine kinase receptor regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Iván E; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    Wnt signaling regulates synaptic development and function and contributes to the fine-tuning of the molecular and morphological differentiation of synapses. We have shown previously that Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling to stimulate postsynaptic differentiation in excitatory hippocampal neurons promoting the clustering of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 and the development of dendritic spines. At least three different kinds of Wnt receptors have been associated with Wnt5a signaling: seven trans-membrane Frizzled receptors and the tyrosine kinase receptors Ryk and ROR2. We report here that ROR2 is distributed in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons in close proximity to synaptic contacts and it is contained in dendritic spine protrusions. We demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary to maintain dendritic spine number and morphological distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. ROR2 overexpression increased dendritic spine growth without affecting the density of dendritic spine protrusions in a form dependent on its extracellular Wnt binding cysteine rich domain (CRD) and kinase domain. Overexpression of dominant negative ROR2 lacking the extracellular CRD decreased spine density and the proportion of mushroom like spines, while ROR2 lacking the C-terminal and active kinase domains only affected spine morphology. Our results indicate a crucial role of the ROR2 in the formation and maturation of the postsynaptic dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons.

  12. The ROR2 tyrosine kinase receptor regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Iván E; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-07-01

    Wnt signaling regulates synaptic development and function and contributes to the fine-tuning of the molecular and morphological differentiation of synapses. We have shown previously that Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling to stimulate postsynaptic differentiation in excitatory hippocampal neurons promoting the clustering of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 and the development of dendritic spines. At least three different kinds of Wnt receptors have been associated with Wnt5a signaling: seven trans-membrane Frizzled receptors and the tyrosine kinase receptors Ryk and ROR2. We report here that ROR2 is distributed in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons in close proximity to synaptic contacts and it is contained in dendritic spine protrusions. We demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary to maintain dendritic spine number and morphological distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. ROR2 overexpression increased dendritic spine growth without affecting the density of dendritic spine protrusions in a form dependent on its extracellular Wnt binding cysteine rich domain (CRD) and kinase domain. Overexpression of dominant negative ROR2 lacking the extracellular CRD decreased spine density and the proportion of mushroom like spines, while ROR2 lacking the C-terminal and active kinase domains only affected spine morphology. Our results indicate a crucial role of the ROR2 in the formation and maturation of the postsynaptic dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. PMID:26003414

  13. Lemur Tyrosine Kinase 2, a novel target in prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit; Bradbury, Neil A

    2015-06-10

    Progression from early forms of prostate cancer to castration-resistant disease is associated with an increase in signal transduction activity. The majority of castration-resistance cancers persist in the expression of the androgen receptor (AR), as well as androgen-dependent genes. The AR is regulated not only by it associated steroid hormone, but also by manifold regulatory and signaling molecules, including several kinases. We undertook evaluation of the role of Lemur Tyrosine Kinase 2 (LMTK2) in modulating AR activity, as several Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have shown a marked association of LMTK2 activity with the development of prostate cancer. We confirm that not only is LMTK2 mRNA reduced in prostate cancer tissue, but also LMTK2 protein levels are markedly diminished. Knockdown of LMTK2 protein in prostate cell lines greatly increased the transcription of androgen-responsive genes. In addition, LMTK2 knockdown led to an increase in prostate cancer stem cell populations in LNCaP cells, indicative of increased tumorogenicity. Using multiple approaches, we also demonstrate that LMTK2 interacts with the AR, thus putting LMTK2 as a component of a signaling complex modulating AR activity. Our finding that LMTK2 is a negative regulator of AR activity defines a novel cellular pathway for activation of AR-responsive genes in castrate resistant-prostate cancer. Moreover, pharmacologic manipulation of LMTK2 activity will provide a novel therapeutic target for more effective treatments for patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

  14. Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase involvement in signal transduction and immunodeficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Saouaf, S J; Burkhardt, A L; Bolen, J B

    1995-09-01

    The nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) have been grouped into 10 different enzyme families based on predicted amino acid sequences. As the number of enzymes belonging to the nonreceptor class of PTK is increasing, one challenge is to determine how these various classes of PTKs interact within the cell to promote signal transduction. Herein, the activation of four classes of nonreceptor PTKs is discussed in relation to their interactions with each other as well as with other signaling molecules during the process of lymphocyte surface antigen receptor-mediated activation. Recent findings of nonreceptor PTK loss-of-function mutations in different immunodeficiency diseases has revealed the important contribution of this group of enzymes to lymphocyte development. PMID:7554458

  15. Src Family Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Regulates FilGAP through Association with RBM10.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hazuki; Tsutsumi, Koji; Nakazawa, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    FilGAP is a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that suppresses lamellae formation. In this study, we have identified RBM10 (RNA Binding Motif domain protein 10) as a FilGAP-interacting protein. Although RBM10 is mostly localized in the nuclei in human melanoma A7 cells, forced expression of Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn induced translocation of RBM10 from nucleus into cell peripheries where RBM10 and FilGAP are co-localized. The translocation of RBM10 from nucleus appears to require catalytic activity of Fyn since kinase-negative Fyn mutant failed to induce translocation of RBM10 in A7 cells. When human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells are spreading on collagen-coated coverslips, endogenous FilGAP and RBM10 were localized at the cell periphery with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. RBM10 appears to be responsible for targeting FilGAP at the cell periphery because depletion of RBM10 by siRNA abrogated peripheral localization of FilGAP during cell spreading. Association of RBM10 with FilGAP may stimulate RacGAP activity of FilGAP. First, forced expression of RBM10 suppressed FilGAP-mediated cell spreading on collagen. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RBM10 by siRNA abolished FilGAP-mediated suppression of cell spreading on collagen. Second, FilGAP suppressed formation of membrane ruffles induced by Fyn and instead produced spiky cell protrusions at the cell periphery. This protrusive structure was also induced by depletion of Rac, suggesting that the formation of protrusions may be due to suppression of Rac by FilGAP. We found that depletion of RBM10 markedly reduced the formation of protrusions in cells transfected with Fyn and FilGAP. Finally, depletion of RBM10 blocked FilGAP-mediated suppression of ruffle formation induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that Src family tyrosine kinase signaling may regulate FilGAP through association with RBM10. PMID:26751795

  16. Src Family Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Regulates FilGAP through Association with RBM10

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hazuki; Tsutsumi, Koji; Nakazawa, Yuki; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke; Ohta, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    FilGAP is a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that suppresses lamellae formation. In this study, we have identified RBM10 (RNA Binding Motif domain protein 10) as a FilGAP-interacting protein. Although RBM10 is mostly localized in the nuclei in human melanoma A7 cells, forced expression of Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn induced translocation of RBM10 from nucleus into cell peripheries where RBM10 and FilGAP are co-localized. The translocation of RBM10 from nucleus appears to require catalytic activity of Fyn since kinase-negative Fyn mutant failed to induce translocation of RBM10 in A7 cells. When human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells are spreading on collagen-coated coverslips, endogenous FilGAP and RBM10 were localized at the cell periphery with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. RBM10 appears to be responsible for targeting FilGAP at the cell periphery because depletion of RBM10 by siRNA abrogated peripheral localization of FilGAP during cell spreading. Association of RBM10 with FilGAP may stimulate RacGAP activity of FilGAP. First, forced expression of RBM10 suppressed FilGAP-mediated cell spreading on collagen. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RBM10 by siRNA abolished FilGAP-mediated suppression of cell spreading on collagen. Second, FilGAP suppressed formation of membrane ruffles induced by Fyn and instead produced spiky cell protrusions at the cell periphery. This protrusive structure was also induced by depletion of Rac, suggesting that the formation of protrusions may be due to suppression of Rac by FilGAP. We found that depletion of RBM10 markedly reduced the formation of protrusions in cells transfected with Fyn and FilGAP. Finally, depletion of RBM10 blocked FilGAP-mediated suppression of ruffle formation induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that Src family tyrosine kinase signaling may regulate FilGAP through association with RBM10. PMID:26751795

  17. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the rainforest tree Polyscias murrayi.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Malcolm S; Carroll, Anthony R; Edser, Annette; Parisot, John; Addepalli, Rama; Quinn, Ronald J

    2005-02-01

    A series of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid derivatives, which inhibit Itk (interleukin-2 inducible T-cell kinase), a Th2-cell target, were isolated from the Australian rainforest tree Polyscias murrayi. The new compound 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionyl choline and a 2:1 mixture of the new compounds 3,4-di-O-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionyl-1,5-dihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid and 3,5-di-O-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionyl-1,4-dihydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid were isolated along with two known compounds 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid and 3-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The assay results suggest that both the 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propanoate and carboxyl moieties contribute to Itk activity of the compounds.

  18. Differential requirement of protein tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C in the regulation of T cell locomotion in three-dimensional collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Entschladen, F; Niggemann, B; Zänker, K S; Friedl, P

    1997-10-01

    Locomotion of T lymphocytes within three-dimensional collagen matrices is regulated via different signaling states of the cells. Purified human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells developed a spontaneously locomoting subpopulation of about 25% of the whole population immediately after incorporation into a three-dimensional collagen matrix analyzed by time-lapse videomicroscopy. This spontaneous locomotion was accompanied by enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity using genistein significantly reduced the spontaneous locomotory activity. This reduction was overcome by subsequent activation of protein kinase C (PKC) using PMA, which led to a persistent increase of locomotory activity to more than 60% of the cells. Thus, the PKC-driven type of locomotion was independent of PTK activity, whereas spontaneous locomotion was not altered by inhibition of PKC activity using calphostin C or inhibition of the serine/ threonine phosphatases pp1 and pp2A using okadaic acid. We presume that PTK activity, especially tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, is decisively involved in the regulation of spontaneous T lymphocyte locomotion, which is independent of PKC activity. In contrast, PKC-driven locomotion is independent of tyrosine phosphorylation events, indicating that T lymphocyte locomotion is regulated by more than one signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis of phosphotyrosine residues, FAK, and PKC revealed an exclusive cellular distribution of these components, suggesting a regulation of T lymphocyte locomotion different from migration models developed for other cell types, which refer to a colocalization of FAK and PKC in focal adhesions.

  19. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 regulates mammary gland tumorigenesis in mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Peng, M; Ball-Kell, S M; Franks, R R; Xie, H; Tyner, A L

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6, also called BRK) is an intracellular tyrosine kinase expressed in the majority of human breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, but its expression has not been reported in normal mammary gland. To study functions of PTK6 in vivo, we generated and characterized several transgenic mouse lines with expression of human PTK6 under control of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) long terminal repeat. Ectopic active PTK6 was detected in luminal epithelial cells of mature transgenic mammary glands. Lines expressing the MMTV-PTK6 transgene exhibited more than a two-fold increase in mammary gland tumor formation compared with nontransgenic control animals. PTK6 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and active STAT3 was detected in PTK6-positive mammary gland epithelial cells. Endogenous mouse PTK6 was not detected in the normal mouse mammary gland, but it was induced in mouse mammary gland tumors of different origin, including spontaneous tumors that developed in control mice, and tumors that formed in PTK6, H-Ras, ERBB2 and PyMT transgenic models. MMTV-PTK6 and MMTV-ERBB2 transgenic mice were crossed to explore crosstalk between PTK6 and ERBB2 signaling in vivo. We found no significant increase in tumor incidence, size or metastasis in ERBB2/PTK6 double transgenic mice. Although we detected increased proliferation in ERBB2/PTK6 double transgenic tumors, an increase in apoptosis was also observed. MMTV-PTK6 clearly promotes mammary gland tumorigenesis in vivo, but its impact may be underrepresented in our transgenic models because of induction of endogenous PTK6 expression. PMID:24323291

  20. The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is essential in mechanisms involving the Fyn tyrosine kinase for induction and progression of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-11-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is an Src homology 2 domain-only adaptor involved in multiple immune cell functions. It has also been linked to immunodeficiencies and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Here, we examined the role and mechanism of action of SAP in autoimmunity using a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that SAP was essential for development of CIA in response to collagen immunization. It was also required for production of collagen-specific antibodies, which play a key role in disease pathogenesis. These effects required SAP expression in T cells, not in B cells. In mice immunized with a high dose of collagen, the activity of SAP was nearly independent of its ability to bind the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn and correlated with the capacity of SAP to promote full differentiation of follicular T helper (TFH) cells. However, with a lower dose of collagen, the role of SAP was more dependent on Fyn binding, suggesting that additional mechanisms other than TFH cell differentiation were involved. Further studies suggested that this might be due to a role of the SAP-Fyn interaction in natural killer T cell development through the ability of SAP-Fyn to promote Vav-1 activation. We also found that removal of SAP expression during progression of CIA attenuated disease severity. However, it had no effect on disease when CIA was clinically established. Together, these results indicate that SAP plays an essential role in CIA because of Fyn-independent and Fyn-dependent effects on TFH cells and, possibly, other T cell types.

  1. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10–100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  2. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK)-dependent immune cell crosstalk drives pancreas cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Andrew J.; Kaneda, Megan M.; Tsujikawa, Takahiro; Nguyen, Abraham V.; Affara, Nesrine I.; Ruffell, Brian; Gorjestani, Sara; Liudahl, Shannon M.; Truitt, Morgan; Olson, Peter; Kim, Grace; Hanahan, Douglas; Tempero, Margaret A.; Sheppard, Brett; Irving, Bryan; Chang, Betty Y.; Varner, Judith A.; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has one of the worst five-year survival rates of all solid tumors, and thus new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Here we report that targeting Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase (BTK), a key B cell and macrophage kinase, restores T cell-dependent anti-tumor immune responses, thereby inhibiting PDAC growth and improving responsiveness to standard-of-care chemotherapy (CTX). We report that PDAC tumor growth depends on crosstalk between B cells and FcRγ+ tumor-associated macrophages, resulting in TH2-type macrophage programming via BTK activation in a phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)γ-dependent manner. Treatment of PDAC-bearing mice with the BTK inhibitor PCI32765 (ibrutinib) or by PI3Kγ inhibition reprogrammed macrophages toward a TH1 phenotype that fostered CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, and suppressed PDAC growth, indicating that BTK signaling mediates PDAC immunosuppression. These data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of BTK in PDAC can reactivate adaptive immune responses, presenting a new therapeutic modality for this devastating tumor type. PMID:26715645

  3. TGF-β activates Erk MAP kinase signalling through direct phosphorylation of ShcA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Matt K; Pardoux, Cécile; Hall, Marie C; Lee, Pierre S; Warburton, David; Qing, Jing; Smith, Susan M; Derynck, Rik

    2007-01-01

    Erk1/Erk2 MAP kinases are key regulators of cell behaviour and their activation is generally associated with tyrosine kinase signalling. However, TGF-β stimulation also activates Erk MAP kinases through an undefined mechanism, albeit to a much lower level than receptor tyrosine kinase stimulation. We report that upon TGF-β stimulation, the activated TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) recruits and directly phosphorylates ShcA proteins on tyrosine and serine. This dual phosphorylation results from an intrinsic TβRI tyrosine kinase activity that complements its well-defined serine-threonine kinase function. TGF-β-induced ShcA phosphorylation induces ShcA association with Grb2 and Sos, thereby initiating the well-characterised pathway linking receptor tyrosine kinases with Erk MAP kinases. We also found that TβRI is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to TGF-β. Thus, TβRI, like the TGF-β type II receptor, is a dual-specificity kinase. Recruitment of tyrosine kinase signalling pathways may account for aspects of TGF-β biology that are independent of Smad signalling. PMID:17673906

  4. Regulation of the human WEE1Hu CDK tyrosine 15-kinase during the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, N; Broome, M; Hunter, T

    1995-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are negatively regulated by phosphorylation on threonine 14 (T14) and tyrosine 15 (Y15). In fission yeast, the Wee1 and mitosis inhibitory kinase 1 (Mik1) protein kinases phosphorylate Y15 in Cdc2. WEE1Hu is the only known protein kinase that can carry out this inhibitory phosphorylation on Y15 in higher eukaryotes. In the present study, we examined the endogenous products of WEE1Hu in human cells and found that the original WEE1Hu cDNA lacked 214 amino acids at the N-terminus. The predicted full-length protein has weak, but significant, similarity over its entire length with Mik1. Thus, we suggest that 'WEE1Hu' is a Mik1-related protein rather than a Wee1 homologue. When isolated in immunoprecipitates, the endogenous WEE1Hu phosphorylated several cyclin-associated CDKs on Y15. WEE1Hu activity increased during S and G2 phases in parallel with the level of protein. Its activity decreased at M phase when WEE1Hu became transiently hyperphosphorylated. In addition, a decrease in WEE1Hu protein level was observed at M/G1 phase. Apparently, the hyperphosphorylation and degradation in combination caused inactivation of WEE1Hu at M phase and the following G1 phase. These results suggest that the activity of WEE1Hu is regulated by phosphorylation and proteolytic degradation, and that WEE1Hu plays a role in inhibiting mitosis before M phase by phosphorylating cyclin B1-Cdc2. Images PMID:7743995

  5. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-05-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  6. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S M; Au-Yeung, Steve C F; To, Kenneth K W

    2016-05-06

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted.

  7. A platinum-based hybrid drug design approach to circumvent acquired resistance to molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuming; Poon, Daniel C.; Fei, Rong; Lam, Amy S. M.; Au-Yeung, Steve C. F.; To, Kenneth K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Three molecular targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) were conjugated to classical platinum-based drugs with an aim to circumvent TKI resistance, predominately mediated by the emergence of secondary mutations on oncogenic kinases. The hybrids were found to maintain specificity towards the same oncogenic kinases as the original TKI. Importantly, they are remarkably less affected by TKI resistance, presumably due to their unique structure and the observed dual mechanism of anticancer activity (kinase inhibition and DNA damage). The study is also the first to report the application of a hybrid drug approach to switch TKIs from being efflux transporter substrates into non-substrates. TKIs cannot penetrate into the brain for treating metastases because of efflux transporters at the blood brain barrier. The hybrids were found to escape drug efflux and they accumulate more than the original TKI in the brain in BALB/c mice. Further development of the hybrid compounds is warranted. PMID:27150583

  8. The HER-2/neu receptor tyrosine kinase gene encodes a secreted autoinhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joni K.; Bond, Chris; Jardim, Armando; Adelman, John P.; Clinton, Gail M.

    1999-01-01

    HER-2/neu (erbB-2) encodes an 185-kDa orphan receptor tyrosine kinase that is constitutively active as a dimer and displays potent oncogenic activity when overexpressed. Here we describe a secreted protein of ≈68 kDa, designated herstatin, as the product of an alternative HER-2 transcript that retains intron 8. This alternative transcript specifies 340 residues identical to subdomains I and II from the extracellular domain of p185HER-2 followed by a unique C-terminal sequence of 79 aa encoded by intron 8. The recombinant product of the alternative transcript specifically binds to HER-2-transfected cells with a KD of ≈14 nM and was chemically crosslinked to p185HER-2, whereas the intron encoded sequence alone also binds with high affinity to transfected cells and associates with p185 solubilized from cell extracts. The herstatin mRNA is expressed in normal human fetal kidney and liver, but is at reduced levels relative to p185HER-2 mRNA in carcinoma cells that contain an amplified HER-2 gene. Herstatin appears to be an inhibitor of p185HER-2, because it disrupts dimers, reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of p185, and inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of transformed cells that overexpress HER-2. PMID:10485918

  9. The Complex of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor-Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Up-Regulates Connexin43 and Intercellular Coupling in Astrocytes via the Janus Tyrosine Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription PathwayD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ozog, Mark A.; Bernier, Suzanne M.; Bates, Dave C.; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lo, Cecilia W.; Naus, Christian C.G.

    2004-01-01

    Cytokines regulate numerous cell processes, including connexin expression and gap junctional coupling. In this study, we examined the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) on connexin43 (Cx43) expression and intercellular coupling in astrocytes. Murine cortical astrocytes matured in vitro were treated with CNTF (20 ng/ml), soluble ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CNTFRα) (200 ng/ml), or CNTF-CNTFRα. Although CNTF and CNTFRα alone had no effect on Cx43 expression, the heterodimer CNTF-CNTFRα significantly increased both Cx43 mRNA and protein levels. Cx43 immunostaining correlated with increased intercellular coupling as determined by dye transfer analysis. By using the pharmacological inhibitor α-cyano-(3,4-dihydroxy)-N-benzylcinnamide (AG490), the increase in Cx43 was found to be dependent on the Janus tyrosine kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that CNTF-CNTFRα treatment produced nuclear localization of phosphorylated STAT3, whereas CNTF treatment alone did not. Transient transfection of constructs containing various sequences of the Cx43 promoter tagged to a LacZ reporter into ROS 17/2.8 cells confirmed that the promoter region between -838 to -1693 was deemed necessary for CNTF-CNTFRα to induce heightened expression. CNTF-CNTFRα did not alter Cx30 mRNA levels, suggesting selectivity of CNTF-CNTFRα for connexin signaling. Together in the presence of soluble receptor, CNTF activates the JAK/STAT pathway leading to enhanced Cx43 expression and intercellular coupling. PMID:15342787

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinases: Characterisation, mechanism of action and therapeutic interests for bone cancers.

    PubMed

    Ségaliny, Aude I; Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-03-01

    Bone cancers are characterised by the development of tumour cells in bone sites, associated with a dysregulation of their environment. In the last two decades, numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed to target the cancer cells or tumour niche. As the crosstalk between these two entities is tightly controlled by the release of polypeptide mediators activating signalling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RTK inhibitors have been designed. These inhibitors have shown exciting clinical impacts, such as imatinib mesylate, which has become a reference treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. The present review gives an overview of the main molecular and functional characteristics of RTKs, and focuses on the clinical applications that are envisaged and already assessed for the treatment of bone sarcomas and bone metastases. PMID:26579483

  11. Receptor tyrosine kinases: Characterisation, mechanism of action and therapeutic interests for bone cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ségaliny, Aude I.; Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Bone cancers are characterised by the development of tumour cells in bone sites, associated with a dysregulation of their environment. In the last two decades, numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed to target the cancer cells or tumour niche. As the crosstalk between these two entities is tightly controlled by the release of polypeptide mediators activating signalling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), RTK inhibitors have been designed. These inhibitors have shown exciting clinical impacts, such as imatinib mesylate, which has become a reference treatment for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. The present review gives an overview of the main molecular and functional characteristics of RTKs, and focuses on the clinical applications that are envisaged and already assessed for the treatment of bone sarcomas and bone metastases. PMID:26579483

  12. Enhancement of a pentacyclic tyrosine kinase inhibitor production in Cladosporium cf. cladosporioides by Cladosporol.

    PubMed

    Assante, Gemma; Bava, Adriana; Nasini, Gianluca

    2006-02-01

    The binaphthyl derivative cladosporol 3 was supplied from 60 to 200 mg l(-1) to shaken cultures of Cladosporium cf. cladosporioides. Compared to blank, fungal biomass was not affected by adding cladosporol till 100 mg l(-1): it rather increased at higher ratios between 150 and 200 mg l(-1). The production of the major pentacyclic metabolite 1, a cytokine production and tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was enhanced tenfold when cladosporol was supplied at the highest ratio (200 mg l(-1)) to shaken growing cultures of the fungus. The bioconversion of cladosporol to cladosporol D through reductive cleavage of the epoxide group was also observed. Interest in this kind of metabolites lies in their potential activity vs DNA topoisomerase I.

  13. Tyrosine kinase-mediated axial motility of basal cells revealed by intravital imaging

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jeremy; Kim, Bongki; Hill, Eric; Visconti, Pablo; Krapf, Dario; Vinegoni, Claudio; Weissleder, Ralph; Brown, Dennis; Breton, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells are generally considered to be static relative to their neighbours. Basal cells in pseudostratified epithelia display a single long cytoplasmic process that can cross the tight junction barrier to reach the lumen. Using in vivo microscopy to visualize the epididymis, a model system for the study of pseudostratified epithelia, we report here the surprising discovery that these basal cell projections—which we call axiopodia—periodically extend and retract over time. We found that axiopodia extensions and retractions follow an oscillatory pattern. This movement, which we refer to as periodic axial motility (PAM), is controlled by c-Src and MEK1/2–ERK1/2. Therapeutic inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity induces a retraction of these projections. Such unexpected cell motility may reflect a novel mechanism by which specialized epithelial cells sample the luminal environment. PMID:26868824

  14. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases: Expression, disease and oncogenesis in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Angela M.; Keating, Amy K.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface proteins that tightly regulate a variety of downstream intra-cellular processes; ligand-receptor interactions result in cascades of signaling events leading to growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration. There are 58 described RTKs, which are further categorized into 20 different RTK families. When dysregulated or overexpressed, these RTKs are implicated in disordered growth, development, and oncogenesis. The TAM family of RTKs, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK, is prominently expressed during the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Aberrant expression and dysregulated activation of TAM family members has been demonstrated in a variety of CNS-related disorders and diseases, including the most common but least treatable brain cancer in children and adults: glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:24184575

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase EphA5 Is a Functional Molecular Target in Human Lung Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. Finally, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications. PMID:25623065

  16. Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a promising novel targeted treatment for B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Aalipour, Amin; Advani, Ranjana H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Constitutive or aberrant signalling of the B cell receptor signalling cascade has been implicated in the propagation and maintenance of a variety of B cell malignancies. Small molecule inhibitors of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein early in this cascade and specifically expressed in B cells, have emerged as a new class of targeted agents. There are several BTK inhibitors, including ONO-WG-307, LFM-A13, dasatinib, CC-292, and PCI-32765 (ibrutinib), in preclinical and/or clinical development of which ibrutinib is currently in phase III trials. Recent clinical data suggest significant activity of ibrutinib as a first in class oral inhibitor of BTK. This review provides an overview of ongoing clinical studies of BTK inhibitors. PMID:24111579

  17. Proteome-wide dataset supporting functional study of tyrosine kinases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Angelopoulos, Nicos; Stebbing, Justin; Xu, Yichen; Giamas, Georgios; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases (TKs) play an essential role in regulating various cellular activities and dysregulation of TK signaling contributes to oncogenesis. However, less than half of the TKs have been thoroughly studied. Through a combined use of RNAi and stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, a global functional proteomic landscape of TKs in breast cancer was recently revealed highlighting a comprehensive and highly integrated signaling network regulated by TKs (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1]. We collate the enormous amount of the proteomic data in an open access platform, providing a valuable resource for studying the function of TKs in cancer and benefiting the science community. Here we present a detailed description related to this study (Stebbing et al., 2015) [1] and the raw data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the identifier PXD002065. PMID:27054188

  18. IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor enhances the cytotoxic effect of methyl jasmonate in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Ilan; Sarfstein, Rive; Reiss, Ari; Flescher, Eliezer; Werner, Haim

    2014-10-01

    The present study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in endometrial cancer cells and examined the hypothesis that the apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions of MJ in these cell lines can be enhanced by co-targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) signaling pathway. MJ had a potent pro-apoptotic effect and exhibited significant toxicity in all cell lines tested. MJ in combination with NVP-AEW541, a selective IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, had significantly increased cytotoxicity. MJ decreased IGF1R phosphorylation, however, it enhanced AKT phosphorylation and abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF1. These findings suggest that combined IGF1R inhibitor and MJ administration may constitute an attractive modality for treating endometrial cancer.

  19. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; Liu, Diane D.; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Ferrara, Fortunato; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.; Lobb, Roy R.; Edelman, Martin J.; Sidman, Richard L.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lung cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is a functional molecular target in human lung cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Qian, Ming D.; Salameh, Ahmad; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Edwards, Julianna K.; Cimino, Daniel F.; Moeller, Benjamin J.; Kelly, Patrick; Nunez, Maria I.; Tang, Ximing; et al

    2015-03-20

    Lung cancer is often refractory to radiotherapy, but molecular mechanisms of tumor resistance remain poorly defined. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA5 is specifically overexpressed in lung cancer and is involved in regulating cellular responses to genotoxic insult. In the absence of EphA5, lung cancer cells displayed a defective G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, were unable to resolve DNA damage, and became radiosensitive. Upon irradiation, EphA5 was transported into the nucleus where it interacted with activated ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) at sites of DNA repair. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a new monoclonal antibody against human EphA5 sensitized lungmore » cancer cells and human lung cancer xenografts to radiotherapy and significantly prolonged survival, thus suggesting the likelihood of translational applications.« less

  1. The expression of COX-2 in VEGF-treated endothelial cells is mediated through protein tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Akarasereenont, Pravit C; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Thaworn, Athiwat; Chotewuttakorn, Sirikul

    2002-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX), existing as the COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, which is then further metabolized to various prostaglandins. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to play important roles in inflammation and is upregulated by the prostaglandin E series through COX-2 in several cell types. Here, we have investigated the effects of VEGF on the COX isoform expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The signalling mechanism of the COX isoform expressed in endothelial cells activated with VEGF will be also investigated using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, and protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine. The activity of COX-2 was assessed by measuring the production of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha in the presence of exogenous arachidonic acids (10 microM, 10 min) by enzyme immunoassay. The expression of COX isoform protein was detected by immunoblot using specific antibodies. Untreated HUVEC contained no COX-2 protein. In HUVEC treated with VEGF (0.01-50 ng/ml), COX-2 protein, but not COX-1, and COX activity were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the increased COX-2 protein and activity in response to VEGF (10 ng/ml) was inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (0.05-5 microg/ml), but not by the protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine (0.1-10 ng/ml). Thus, the induction of COX-2 by VEGF in endothelial cells was mediated through protein tyrosine kinase, and the uses of specific COX-2 inhibitors in these conditions, in which VEGF was involved, might have a role. PMID:11926591

  2. Subcellular localization of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 during oocyte fertilization and early-embryo development in mice

    PubMed Central

    MENG, Xiao-qian; DAI, Yuan-yuan; JING, Lai-dong; BAI, Jing; LIU, Shu-zhen; ZHENG, Ke-gang; PAN, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the focal adhesion kinase family and is highly expressed in oocytes. Using a combination of confocal microscopy and RNAi, we localized and studied the function of both Pyk2 and tyrosine-phosphorylated Pyk2 (p-Pyk2) during mouse oocyte fertilization and early embryo development. At the onset of fertilization, Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 were detected predominantly in sperm heads and the oocyte cytoplasm. Upon formation of male and female pronuclei, Pyk2 and its activated form leave the cytoplasm and accumulate in the two pronuclei. We detected Pyk2 in blastomere nuclei and found both Pyk2 and p-Pyk2 in the pre-blastula cytoplasm. Pyk2 and its activated form then disappeared from the blastula nuclei and localized to the perinuclear regions, where blastula cells come into contact with each other. Pyk2 knockdown via microinjection of siRNA into the zygote did not inhibit early embryo development. Our results suggest that Pyk2 plays multiple functional roles in mouse oocyte fertilization as well as throughout early embryo development. PMID:27086609

  3. Role of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors in myeloproliferative neoplasms: comparative lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier; Sweet, Kendra L; Corrales-Yepez, Gabriela M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-01-01

    An important pathogenetic distinction in the classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is the presence or absence of the BCR–ABL fusion gene, which encodes a unique oncogenic tyrosine kinase. The BCR–ABL fusion, caused by the formation of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) through translocation, constitutes the disease-initiating event in chronic myeloid leukemia. The development of successive BCR–ABL-targeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitors has led to greatly improved outcomes in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, including high rates of complete hematologic, cytogenetic, and molecular responses. Such levels of treatment success have long been elusive for patients with Ph-negative MPNs, because of the difficulties in identifying specific driver proteins suitable as drug targets. However, in recent years an improved understanding of the complex pathobiology of classic Ph-negative MPNs, characterized by variable, overlapping multimutation profiles, has prompted the development of better and more broadly targeted (to pathway rather than protein) treatment options, particularly JAK inhibitors. In classic Ph-negative MPNs, overactivation of JAK-dependent signaling pathways is a central pathogenic mechanism, and mutually exclusive mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR linked to aberrant JAK activation are now recognized as key drivers of disease progression in myelofibrosis (MF). In clinical trials, the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib – the first therapy approved for MF worldwide – improved disease-related splenomegaly and symptoms independent of JAK2V617F mutational status, and prolonged survival compared with placebo or standard therapy in patients with advanced MF. In separate trials, ruxolitinib also provided comprehensive hematologic control in patients with another Ph-negative MPN – polycythemia vera. However, complete cytogenetic or molecular responses with JAK inhibitors alone are normally not observed, underscoring the need for novel

  4. Functions of the Lyn tyrosine kinase in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Src family kinases such as Lyn are important signaling intermediaries, relaying and modulating different inputs to regulate various outputs, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration and metabolism. Intriguingly, Lyn can mediate both positive and negative signaling processes within the same or different cellular contexts. This duality is exemplified by the B-cell defect in Lyn−/− mice in which Lyn is essential for negative regulation of the B-cell receptor; conversely, B-cells expressing a dominant active mutant of Lyn (Lynup/up) have elevated activities of positive regulators of the B-cell receptor due to this hyperactive kinase. Lyn has well-established functions in most haematopoietic cells, viz. progenitors via influencing c-kit signaling, through to mature cell receptor/integrin signaling, e.g. erythrocytes, platelets, mast cells and macrophages. Consequently, there is an important role for this kinase in regulating hematopoietic abnormalities. Lyn is an important regulator of autoimmune diseases such as asthma and psoriasis, due to its profound ability to influence immune cell signaling. Lyn has also been found to be important for maintaining the leukemic phenotype of many different liquid cancers including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and B-cell lymphocytic leukaemia (BCLL). Lyn is also expressed in some solid tumors and here too it is establishing itself as a potential therapeutic target for prostate, glioblastoma, colon and more aggressive subtypes of breast cancer. Lay Abstract To relay information, a cell uses enzymes that put molecular markers on specific proteins so they interact with other proteins or move to specific parts of the cell to have particular functions. A protein called Lyn is one of these enzymes that regulate information transfer within cells to modulate cell growth, survival and movement. Depending on which type of cell and the source of the information input, Lyn can

  5. Aberrant Mer receptor tyrosine kinase expression contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee-Sherick, A B; Eisenman, K M; Sather, S; McGranahan, A; Armistead, P M; McGary, C S; Hunsucker, S A; Schlegel, J; Martinson, H; Cannon, C; Keating, A K; Earp, H S; Liang, X; DeRyckere, D; Graham, D K

    2013-11-14

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be extremely difficult to treat successfully, and the unacceptably low overall survival rates mandate that we assess new potential therapies to ameliorate poor clinical response to conventional therapy. Abnormal tyrosine kinase activation in AML has been associated with poor prognosis and provides strategic targets for novel therapy development. We found that Mer receptor tyrosine kinase was over-expressed in a majority of pediatric (29/36, 80%) and adult (10/10, 100%) primary AML patient blasts at the time of diagnosis, and 100% of patient samples at the time of relapse. Mer was also found to be expressed in 12 of 14 AML cell lines (86%). In contrast, normal bone marrow myeloid precursors expressed little to no Mer. Following AML cell line stimulation with Gas6, a Mer ligand, we observed activation of prosurvival and proliferative signaling pathways, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, MSK1, CREB, ATF1, AKT and STAT6. To assess the phenotypic role of Mer in AML, two independent short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs were used to decrease Mer expression in the AML cell lines Nomo-1 and Kasumi-1. Reduction of Mer protein levels significantly increased rates of myeloblast apoptosis two to threefold in response to serum starvation. Furthermore, myeloblasts with knocked-down Mer demonstrated decreased colony formation by 67-87%, relative to control cell lines (P<0.01). NOD-SCID-gamma mice transplanted with Nomo-1 myeloblasts with reduced levels of Mer had a significant prolongation in survival compared with mice transplanted with the parental or control cell lines (median survival 17 days in parental and control cell lines, versus 32-36 days in Mer knockdown cell lines, P<0.0001). These data suggest a role for Mer in acute myeloid leukemogenesis and indicate that targeted inhibition of Mer may be an effective therapeutic strategy in pediatric and adult AML. PMID:23474756

  6. Aberrant Mer receptor tyrosine kinase expression contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sherick, A B; Eisenman, K M; Sather, S; McGranahan, A; Armistead, P M; McGary, C S; Hunsucker, S A; Schlegel, J; Martinson, H; Cannon, C; Keating, A K; Earp, H S; Liang, X; DeRyckere, D; Graham, D K

    2013-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continues to be extremely difficult to treat successfully, and the unacceptably low overall survival rates mandate that we assess new potential therapies to ameliorate poor clinical response to conventional therapy. Abnormal tyrosine kinase activation in AML has been associated with poor prognosis and provides strategic targets for novel therapy development. We found that Mer receptor tyrosine kinase was over-expressed in a majority of pediatric (29/36, 80%) and adult (10/10, 100%) primary AML patient blasts at the time of diagnosis, and 100% of patient samples at the time of relapse. Mer was also found to be expressed in 12 of 14 AML cell lines (86%). In contrast, normal bone marrow myeloid precursors expressed little to no Mer. Following AML cell line stimulation with Gas6, a Mer ligand, we observed activation of prosurvival and proliferative signaling pathways, including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, MSK1, CREB, ATF1, AKT and STAT6. To assess the phenotypic role of Mer in AML, two independent short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs were used to decrease Mer expression in the AML cell lines Nomo-1 and Kasumi-1. Reduction of Mer protein levels significantly increased rates of myeloblast apoptosis two to threefold in response to serum starvation. Furthermore, myeloblasts with knocked-down Mer demonstrated decreased colony formation by 67–87%, relative to control cell lines (P<0.01). NOD-SCID-gamma mice transplanted with Nomo-1 myeloblasts with reduced levels of Mer had a significant prolongation in survival compared with mice transplanted with the parental or control cell lines (median survival 17 days in parental and control cell lines, versus 32–36 days in Mer knockdown cell lines, P<0.0001). These data suggest a role for Mer in acute myeloid leukemogenesis and indicate that targeted inhibition of Mer may be an effective therapeutic strategy in pediatric and adult AML. PMID:23474756

  7. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the contractility of rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Toma, C; Jensen, P E; Prieto, D; Hughes, A; Mulvany, M J; Aalkjaer, C

    1995-01-01

    1. A pharmacological characterization of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) belonging to two distinct groups (competitors at the ATP-binding site and the substrate-binding site, respectively) was performed, based on their effects on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries. 2. Both the ATP-site competitors (genistein and its inactive analogue, daidzein) and the substrate-site competitors (tyrphostins A-23, A-47 and the inactive analogue, A-1) reversibly inhibited noradrenaline (NA, (10 microM)) and KCl (125 mM) induced contractions, concentration-dependently. Genistein was slightly but significantly more potent than daidzein; the tyrphostins were all less potent than genistein, and there were no significant differences between the individual potencies. The tyrosine kinase substrate-site inhibitor bis-tyrphostin had no inhibitory effect. 3. Genistein, daidzein, A-23 and A-47 each suppressed the contraction induced by Ca2+ (1 microM) in alpha-toxin permeabilized arteries. A-1 and bis-tyrphostin had little or no effect on contraction of the permeabilized arteries. 4. Genistein was significantly more potent than daidzein with respect to inhibition of the contraction induced by 200 nM Ca2+ in the presence of NA (100 microM) and GTP (3 microM). The effect of A-23, A-47, A-1 and bis-tyrphostin was similar in permeabilized arteries activated with Ca2+ (200 nM) + NA (100 microM) + GTP (3 microM) and permeabilized arteries activated with 1 microM Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620718

  8. The Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) Regulates Alzheimer Amyloid-β Production and Tau Hyperphosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Daniel; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Bachmeier, Corbin; Laco, Gary; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Lin, Yong; Jin, Chao; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the L-type calcium channel (LCC) antagonist nilvadipine reduces brain amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation by affecting both Aβ production and Aβ clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nilvadipine consists of a mixture of two enantiomers, (+)-nilvadipine and (−)-nilvadipine, in equal proportion. (+)-Nilvadipine is the active enantiomer responsible for the inhibition of LCC, whereas (−)-nilvadipine is considered inactive. Both nilvadipine enantiomers inhibit Aβ production and improve the clearance of Aβ across the BBB showing that these effects are not related to LCC inhibition. In addition, treatment of P301S mutant human Tau transgenic mice (transgenic Tau P301S) with (−)-nilvadipine reduces Tau hyperphosphorylation at several Alzheimer disease (AD) pertinent epitopes. A search for the mechanism of action of (−)-nilvadipine revealed that this compound inhibits the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). We further validated Syk as a target-regulating Aβ by showing that pharmacological inhibition of Syk or down-regulation of Syk expression reduces Aβ production and increases the clearance of Aβ across the BBB mimicking (−)-nilvadipine effects. Moreover, treatment of transgenic mice overexpressing Aβ and transgenic Tau P301S mice with a selective Syk inhibitor respectively decreased brain Aβ accumulation and Tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD relevant epitopes. We show that Syk inhibition induces an increased phosphorylation of the inhibitory Ser-9 residue of glycogen synthase kinase-3β, a primary Tau kinase involved in Tau phosphorylation, by activating protein kinase A, providing a mechanism explaining the reduction of Tau phosphorylation at GSK3β-dependent epitopes following Syk inhibition. Altogether our data highlight Syk as a promising target for preventing both Aβ accumulation and Tau hyperphosphorylation in AD. PMID:25331948

  9. Role of the Yes and Csk tyrosine kinases in the development of a pathological state in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Lyudmila; Emelyanova, Valentina; Volotovski, Igor

    2010-07-01

    Amplification and a cloning of fragments of genes of human retina tyrosine kinases, the nucleotide sequences of which feature a high homology to the gene families of the Yes and Csk tyrosine kinases, and a cloning of the complete coding sequence of the cDNA of the Csk tyrosine kinase gene of the human lymphocytes have been carried out. It has been established that this sequence contains 1,624 bp and encodes a protein that, with a 99% homology, corresponds to the human tyrosine kinase. A comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the full-size cDNA of the Csk tyrosine kinase of the lymphocytes of healthy donors and of patients with an eye choroidal melanoma has shown that a risk of development of an eye choroidal melanoma can be estimated by the frequency of occurrence of a mutant allele in the 10th exon.

  10. The tyrosine 343 residue of nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is important for its interaction with SHP1, a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase with tumor suppressor functions.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Samar A; Wang, Peng; Anand, Mona; Ingham, Robert J; Gelebart, Pascal; Lai, Raymond

    2010-06-25

    The cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 has been shown to inhibit the oncogenic fusion protein nucleophosmin (NPM)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and loss of SHP1 contributes to NPM-ALK-mediated tumorigenesis. In this study, we aimed to further understand how SHP1 interacts and regulates NPM-ALK. We employed an in vitro model in which GP293 cells were transfected with various combinations of NPM-ALK (or mutants) and SHP1 (or mutants) expression vectors. We found that SHP1 co-immunoprecipitated with NPM-ALK, but not the enzymatically inactive NPM-ALK(K210R) mutant, or the mutant in which all three functionally important tyrosine residues (namely, Tyr(338), Tyr(342), and Tyr(343)) in the kinase activation loop (KAL) of ALK were mutated. Interestingly, whereas mutation of Tyr(338) or Tyr(342) did not result in any substantial change in the NPM-ALK/SHP1 binding (assessed by co-immunoprecipitation), mutation of Tyr(343) abrogated this interaction. Furthermore, the NPM-ALK/SHP1 binding was readily detectable when each of the remaining 8 tyrosine residues known to be phosphorylated were mutated. Although the expression of SHP1 effectively reduced the level of tyrosine phosphorylation of NPM-ALK, it did not affect that of the NPM-ALK(Y343F) mutant. In soft agar clonogenic assay, SHP1 expression significantly reduced the tumorigenicity of NPM-ALK but not that of NPM-ALK(Y343F). In conclusion, we identified Tyr(343) of NPM-ALK as the crucial site for mediating the NPM-ALK/SHP1 interaction. Our results also support the notion that the tumor suppressor effects of SHP1 on NPM-ALK are dependent on its ability to bind to this oncogenic protein.

  11. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Marceline; Miller, A. Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu . E-mail: shan-lu.liu@mcgill.ca

    2007-08-17

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.

  12. PDK2: the missing piece in the receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway puzzle.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lily Q; Liu, Feng

    2005-08-01

    Activation of members of the protein kinase AGC (cAMP dependent, cGMP dependent, and protein kinase C) family is regulated primarily by phosphorylation at two sites: a conserved threonine residue in the activation loop and a serine/threonine residue in a hydrophobic motif (HM) near the COOH terminus. Although phosphorylation of these kinases in the activation loop has been found to be mediated by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), the kinase(s) that catalyzes AGC kinase phosphorylation in the HM remains uncharacterized. So far, at least 10 kinases have been suggested to function as an HM kinase or the so-called "PDK2," including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), p38 MAP kinase, protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), PKCbeta, the NIMA-related kinase-6 (NEK6), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the double-stranded DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNK-PK), and the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product. However, whether any or all of these kinases act as a physiological HM kinase remains to be established. Nonetheless, available data suggest that multiple systems may be used in cells to regulate the activation of the AGC family kinases. It is possible that, unlike activation loop phosphorylation, phosphorylation of the HM site in the different AGC family kinases is mediated by distinct kinases. In addition, phosphorylation of the AGC family kinase at the HM site could be cell type, signaling pathway, and substrate specific. Identification and characterization of the bonafide HM kinase(s) will be essential to verify these hypotheses. PMID:16014356

  13. Single-label kinase and phosphatase assays for tyrosine phosphorylation using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Harekrushna; Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-12-26

    The collision-induced fluorescence quenching of a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) by hydrogen atom abstraction from the tyrosine residue in peptide substrates was introduced as a single-labeling strategy to assay the activity of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. The assays were tested for 12 different combinations of Dbo-labeled substrates and with the enzymes p60c-Src Src kinase, EGFR kinase, YOP protein tyrosine phosphatase, as well as acid and alkaline phosphatases, thereby demonstrating a broad application potential. The steady-state fluorescence changed by a factor of up to 7 in the course of the enzymatic reaction, which allowed for a sufficient sensitivity of continuous monitoring in steady-state experiments. The fluorescence lifetimes (and intensities) were found to be rather constant for the phosphotyrosine peptides (ca. 300 ns in aerated water), while those of the unphosphorylated peptides were as short as 40 ns (at pH 7) and 7 ns (at pH 13) as a result of intramolecular quenching. Owing to the exceptionally long fluorescence lifetime of Dbo, the assays were alternatively performed by using nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection, which leads to an improved discrimination of background fluorescence and an increased sensitivity. The potential for inhibitor screening was demonstrated through the inhibition of acid and alkaline phosphatases by molybdate.

  14. Cell cycle-dependent nuclear accumulation of the p94fer tyrosine kinase is regulated by its NH2 terminus and is affected by kinase domain integrity and ATP binding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Dor, I; Bern, O; Tennenbaum, T; Nir, U

    1999-02-01

    p94fer and p51ferT are two tyrosine kinases that are encoded by differentially spliced transcripts of the FER locus in the mouse. The two tyrosine kinases share identical SH2 and kinase domains but differ in their NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. Unlike p94fer, the presence of which has been demonstrated in most mammalian cell lines analyzed, the expression of p51ferT is restricted to meiotic cells. Here, we show that the two related tyrosine kinases also differ in their subcellular localization profiles. Although p51ferT accumulates constitutively in the cell nucleus, p94fer is cytoplasmic in quiescent cells and enters the nucleus concomitantly with the onset of S phase. The nuclear translocation of the FER proteins is driven by a nuclear localization signal (NLS), which is located within the kinase domain of these enzymes. The functioning of that NLS depends on the integrity of the kinase domain but was not affected by inactivation of the kinase activity. The NH2 terminus of p94fer dictated the cell cycle-dependent functioning of the NLS of FER kinase. This process was governed by coiled-coil forming sequences that are present in the NH2 terminus of the kinase. The regulatory effect of the p94fer NH2-terminal sequences was not affected by kinase activity but was perturbed by mutations in the kinase domain ATP binding site. Ectopic expression of the constitutively nuclear p51ferT in CHO cells interfered with S-phase progression in these cells. This was not seen in p94fer-overexpressing cells. The FER tyrosine kinases seem, thus, to be regulated by novel mechanisms that direct their different subcellular distribution profiles and may, consequently, control their cellular functioning. PMID:10074905

  15. Ligand-based receptor tyrosine kinase partial agonists: New paradigm for cancer drug discovery?

    PubMed Central

    Riese, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are validated targets for oncology drug discovery and several RTK antagonists have been approved for the treatment of human malignancies. Nonetheless, the discovery and development of RTK antagonists has lagged behind the discovery and development of agents that target G-protein coupled receptors. In part, this is because it has been difficult to discover analogs of naturally-occurring RTK agonists that function as antagonists. Areas covered Here we describe ligands of ErbB receptors that function as partial agonists for these receptors, thereby enabling these ligands to antagonize the activity of full agonists for these receptors. We provide insights into the mechanisms by which these ligands function as antagonists. We discuss how information concerning these mechanisms can be translated into screens for novel small molecule- and antibody-based antagonists of ErbB receptors and how such antagonists hold great potential as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. Expert opinion While there have been a number of important key findings into this field, the identification of the structural basis of ligand functional specificity is still of the greatest importance. While it is true that, with some notable exceptions, peptide hormones and growth factors have not proven to be good platforms for oncology drug discovery; addressing the fundamental issues of antagonistic partial agonists for receptor tyrosine kinases has the potential to steer oncology drug discovery in new directions. Mechanism based approaches are now emerging to enable the discovery of RTK partial agonists that may antagonize both agonist-dependent and –independent RTK signaling and may hold tremendous promise as targeted cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:21532939

  16. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lavendustin A.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D E; Fan, T P

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding angiogenic factor which specifically acts on endothelial cells via distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we used the rat sponge implant model to test the hypothesis that the angiogenic activity of VEGF can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors. 2. Neovascular responses in subcutaneous sponge implants were determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by use of a 133Xe clearance technique, and confirmed by histological studies and morphometric analysis. 3. Daily local administration of 250 ng VEGF165 accelerated the rate of 133Xe clearance from the sponges and induced an intense neovascularisation. This VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was inhibited by daily co-administration of the selective PTK inhibitor, lavendustin A (10 micrograms), but not its negative control, lavendustin B (10 micrograms). Blood flow measurements and morphometric analysis of 8-day-old sponges showed that lavendustin A reduced the 133Xe clearance of VEGF165-treated sponges from 32.9 +/- 1.5% to 20.9 +/- 1.6% and the total fibrovascular growth area from 62.4 +/- 6.1% to 21.6 +/- 6.8% (n = 12, P < 0.05). 4. Co-injection of suramin (3 mg), an inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors, also suppressed the VEGF165-elicited neovascular response. In contrast, neither lavendustin A nor suramin produced any effect on the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. 5. When given alone, low doses of VEGF165 (25 ng) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 ng) did not modify the basal sponge-induced neovascularisation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:7533611

  17. Tyk2 tyrosine kinase expression is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial respiration in primary pro-B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Potla, Ramesh; Koeck, Thomas; Wegrzyn, Joanna; Cherukuri, Srujana; Shimoda, Kazuya; Baker, Darren P; Wolfman, Janice; Planchon, Sarah M; Esposito, Christine; Hoit, Brian; Dulak, Jozef; Wolfman, Alan; Stuehr, Dennis; Larner, Andrew C

    2006-11-01

    Tyk2, a member of the Jak family of protein tyrosine kinases, is critical for the biological actions of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta). Although Tyk2(-/-) mice are phenotypically normal, they exhibit abnormal responses to inflammatory challenges in a variety of cells isolated from Tyk2(-/-) mice. The reported phenotypic alterations in both Tyk2-null cells and mice are consistent with the possibility that the expression of this tyrosine kinase may regulate mitochondrial function. We report here that Tyk2-null pro-B cells are markedly deficient in basal oxygen consumption and exhibit a significant decrease in steady-state cellular ATP levels compared to wild-type cells. Tyk2-null cells also exhibit impaired complex I, III, and IV function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Reconstitution of Tyk2-null pro-B cells with either the wild type or a kinase-inactive mutant of Tyk2 restores basal mitochondrial respiration. By contrast, the kinase activity of Tyk2 is required for maintenance of both complex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration as well as induction of apoptosis in cells incubated with IFN-beta. Consistent with the role of Tyk2 in the regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3, expression of a constitutively active Stat3 can restore the mitochondrial respiration in Tyk2-null cells treated with IFN-beta. Finally, Tyk2(-/-) mice show decreased exercise tolerance compared to wild-type littermates. Our results implicate a novel role for Tyk2 kinase and Stat3 phosphorylation in mitochondrial respiration.

  18. JAK2 inhibition sensitizes resistant EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sizhi P.; Chang, Qing; Mao, Ninghui; Daly, Laura A.; Vogel, Robert; Chan, Tyler; Liu, Shu Hui; Bournazou, Eirini; Schori, Erez; Zhang, Haiying; Brewer, Monica Red; Pao, William; Morris, Luc; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria; Manova-Todorova, Katia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Norton, Larry; Levine, Ross L.; Altan-Bonnet, Gregoire; Solit, David; Zinda, Michael; Huszar, Dennis; Lyden, David; Bromberg, Jacqueline F.

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas with mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) respond to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), but resistance invariably occurs. We found that the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was aberrantly increased in TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. JAK2 inhibition restored sensitivity to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib in TKI-resistant cell lines and xenograft models of EGFR-mutant TKI-resistant lung cancer. JAK2 inhibition uncoupled EGFR from its negative regulator, suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 (SOCS5), consequently increasing EGFR abundance and restoring the tumor cells’ dependence on EGFR signaling. Furthermore, JAK2 inhibition led to heterodimerization of mutant and wild-type EGFR subunits, the activity of which was then blocked by TKIs. Our results reveal a mechanism whereby JAK2 inhibition overcomes acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors and support the use of combination therapy with JAK and EGFR inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR-dependent NSCLC. PMID:27025877

  19. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase Regulates AP-1 Dependent Transcriptional Response to Minimally Oxidized LDL

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp; Almazan, Felicidad; Kim, Jungsu; Miller, Yury I.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) turns it into an endogenous ligand recognized by pattern-recognition receptors. We have demonstrated that minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL) binds to CD14 and mediates TLR4/MD-2-dependent responses in macrophages, many of which are MyD88-independent. We have also demonstrated that the mmLDL activation leads to recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to TLR4 and TLR4 and Syk phosphorylation. In this study, we produced a macrophage-specific Syk knockout mouse and used primary Syk−/− macrophages in our studies. We demonstrated that Syk mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, which in turn phosphorylated c-Fos and c-Jun, respectively, as assessed by an in vitro kinase assay. c-Jun phosphorylation was also mediated by IKKε. c-Jun and c-Fos bound to consensus DNA sites and thereby completed an AP-1 transcriptional complex and induced expression of CXCL2 and IL-6. These results suggest that Syk plays a key role in TLR4-mediated macrophage responses to host-generated ligands, like mmLDL, with subsequent activation of an AP-1 transcription program. PMID:22384232

  20. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    PubMed

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  1. The SH2 domain of Abl kinases regulates kinase autophosphorylation by controlling activation loop accessibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontanara, Allan Joaquim; Georgeon, Sandrine; Tria, Giancarlo; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Hantschel, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The activity of protein kinases is regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms, and their disruption is a common driver of oncogenesis. A central and almost universal control element of protein kinase activity is the activation loop that utilizes both conformation and phosphorylation status to determine substrate access. In this study, we use recombinant Abl tyrosine kinases and conformation-specific kinase inhibitors to quantitatively analyse structural changes that occur after Abl activation. Allosteric SH2-kinase domain interactions were previously shown to be essential for the leukemogenesis caused by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. We find that these allosteric interactions switch the Abl activation loop from a closed to a fully open conformation. This enables the trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop and requires prior phosphorylation of the SH2-kinase linker. Disruption of the SH2-kinase interaction abolishes activation loop phosphorylation. Our analysis provides a molecular mechanism for the SH2 domain-dependent activation of Abl that may also regulate other tyrosine kinases.

  2. Discovery and Evaluation of Clinical Candidate AZD3759, a Potent, Oral Active, Central Nervous System-Penetrant, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingbei; Wang, Jiabing; Cheng, Ziqiang; Chen, Kan; Johnström, Peter; Varnäs, Katarina; Li, David Yunzhi; Yang, Zhen Fan; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2015-10-22

    Recent reports suggest that an increasing number of patients with lung cancer, especially those with activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), also present with brain metastases and leptomeningeal metastases. These patients have poor prognosis as there are no approved drugs for these indications. Available agents have poor efficacy for these patients even at well above their standard dose. Herein, we report the discovery of (4-[(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl (2R)-2,4-dimethylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 1m (AZD3759), an investigational drug currently in Phase 1 clinical trial, which has excellent central nervous system penetration and which induces profound regression of brain metastases in a mouse model. PMID:26313252

  3. The Syk protein tyrosine kinase can function independently of CD45 or Lck in T cell antigen receptor signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, D H; Spits, H; Peyron, J F; Rowley, R B; Bolen, J B; Weiss, A

    1996-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is a critical component of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, acting as a positive regulator of Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as Lck. Most CD45-deficient human and murine T cell lines are unable to signal through their TCRs. However, there is a CD45-deficient cell line that can signal through its TCR. We have studied this cell line to identify a TCR signaling pathway that is independent of CD45 regulation. In the course of these experiments, we found that the Syk PTK, but not the ZAP-70 PTK, is able to mediate TCR signaling independently of CD45 and of Lck. For this function, Syk requires functional kinase and SH2 domains, as well as intact phosphorylation sites in the regulatory loop of its kinase domain. Thus, differential expression of Syk is likely to explain the paradoxical phenotypes of different CD45-deficient T cells. Finally, these results suggest differences in activation requirements between two closely related PTK family members, Syk and ZAP-70. The differential activities of these two kinases suggest that they may play distinct, rather than completely redundant, roles in lymphocyte signaling. Images PMID:8947048

  4. A New Transgenic Mouse Model of Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia Raised by Sustained Activation of Met Tyrosine Kinase in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Valentina; Gatti, Stefano; Gallo, Simona; Medico, Enzo; Cantarella, Daniela; Cimino, James; Ponzetto, Antonio; Crepaldi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Among other diseases characterized by the onset of cachexia, congestive heart failure takes a place of relevance, considering the high prevalence of this pathology in most European countries and in the United States, and is undergoing a rapid increase in developing countries. Actually, only few models of cardiac cachexia exist. Difficulties in the recruitment and follow-up of clinical trials implicate that new reproducible and well-characterized animal models are pivotal in developing therapeutic strategies for cachexia. We generated a new model of cardiac cachexia: a transgenic mouse expressing Tpr-Met receptor, the activated form of c-Met receptor of hepatocyte growth factor, specifically in the heart. We showed that the cardiac-specific induction of Tpr-Met raises a cardiac hypertrophic remodelling, which progresses into concentric hypertrophy with concomitant increase in Gdf15 mRNA levels. Hypertrophy progresses to congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, characterized by reduced body weight gain and food intake and skeletal muscle wasting. Prevention trial by suppressing Tpr-Met showed that loss of body weight could be prevented. Skeletal muscle wasting was also associated with altered gene expression profiling. We propose transgenic Tpr-Met mice as a new model of cardiac cachexia, which will constitute a powerful tool to understand such complex pathology and test new drugs/approaches at the preclinical level. PMID:27298830

  5. Alignment independent 3D-QSAR, quantum calculations and molecular docking of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    PubMed Central

    Shiri, Fereshteh; Pirhadi, Somayeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2015-01-01

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD) and the enhanced replacement method (ERM) were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRid INdependent descriptors (GRIND) approach. After variable selection, GRIND were correlated with activity values (pIC50) by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an rpred2 of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap) implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors. PMID:27013913

  6. Z3, a Novel Jak2 Tyrosine Kinase Small Molecule Inhibitor that Suppresses Jak2-mediated Pathologic Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Jacqueline; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David A.; Allan, Robert W.; Braylan, Raul C.; Sayeski, Peter P.

    2008-01-01

    Jak2 tyrosine kinase is essential for animal development and hyper-kinetic Jak2 function has been linked to a host of human diseases. Control of this pathway using Jak2-specific inhibitors would therefore potentially serve as a useful research tool and/or therapeutic agent. Here, we used a high throughput program called DOCK, to predict the ability of 20,000 small molecules to interact with a structural pocket adjacent to the ATP binding site of murine Jak2. One small molecule, 2-methyl-1-phenyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-2-(2-pyridin-2-ylethyl)butan-1-one (herein designated as Z3) bound to Jak2 with a favorable energy score. Z3 inhibited Jak2-V617F and Jak2-WT autophosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, but was not cytotoxic to cells at concentrations that inhibited kinase activity. Z3 selectively inhibited Jak2 kinase function with no effect of Tyk2 or c-Src kinase function. Z3 significantly inhibited proliferation of the Jak2-V617F-expressing, human erythroleukemia cell line, HEL 92.1.7. The Z3-mediated reduction in cell proliferation correlated with reduced Jak2 and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation levels as well as marked cell cycle arrest. Finally, Z3 inhibited the growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells isolated from the bone marrow of an essential thrombocythemia patient harboring the Jak2-V617F mutation and a polycythemia vera patient carrying a Jak2-F537I mutation. Collectively, the data suggest that Z3 is a novel specific inhibitor of Jak2 tyrosine kinase. PMID:18723478

  7. Rescue of a trafficking defective human pacemaker channel via a novel mechanism: roles of Src, Fyn, and Yes tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Huang, Jianying; Kan, Hong; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Yu, Han-Gang

    2009-10-30

    Therapeutic strategies such as using channel blockers and reducing culture temperature have been used to rescue some long QT-associated voltage-gated potassium Kv trafficking defective mutant channels. A hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated HCN4 pacemaker channel mutant (D553N) has been recently found in a patient associated with cardiac arrhythmias including long QT. D553N showed the defective trafficking to the cell surface, leading to little ionic current expression (loss-of-function). We show in this report that enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Src, Fyn, and Yes kinases was able to restore the surface expression of D553N for normal current expression. Src or Yes, but not Fyn, significantly increased the current density and surface expression of D553N. Fyn accelerated the activation kinetics of the rescued D553N. Co-expression of D553N with Yes exhibited the slowest activation kinetics of D553N. Src, Fyn, and Yes significantly enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation of D553N. A combination of Src, Fyn, and Yes rescued the current expression and the gating of D553N comparable with those of wild-type HCN4. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel mechanism using three endogenous Src kinases to rescue a trafficking defective HCN4 mutant channel (D553N) by enhancing the tyrosine phosphorylation of the mutant channel protein.

  8. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  9. Deletion of the endothelial Bmx tyrosine kinase decreases tumor angiogenesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Tanja; López-Alpuche, Vanessa; Zheng, Wei; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Jones, Dennis; He, Yun; Tvorogov, Denis; D'Amico, Gabriela; Wiener, Zoltan; Andersson, Leif C; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Min, Wang; Alitalo, Kari

    2012-07-15

    Bmx, [corrected] also known as Etk, is a member of the Tec family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Bmx is expressed mainly in arterial endothelia and in myeloid hematopoietic cells. Bmx regulates ischemia-mediated arteriogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, but its role in tumor angiogenesis is not known. In this study, we characterized the function of Bmx in tumor growth using both Bmx knockout and transgenic mice. Isogenic colon, lung, and melanoma tumor xenotransplants showed reductions in growth and tumor angiogenesis in Bmx gene-deleted ((-/-)) mice, whereas developmental angiogenesis was not affected. In addition, growth of transgenic pancreatic islet carcinomas and intestinal adenomas was also slower in Bmx(-/-) mice. Knockout mice showed high levels of Bmx expression in endothelial cells of tumor-associated and peritumoral arteries. Moreover, endothelial cells lacking Bmx showed impaired phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) upon VEGF stimulation, indicating that Bmx contributes to the transduction of vascular endothelial growth factor signals. In transgenic mice overexpressing Bmx in epidermal keratinocytes, tumors induced by a two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis treatment showed increased growth and angiogenesis. Our findings therefore indicate that Bmx activity contributes to tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID:22593188

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinase expression of circulating tumor cells in small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Hochmair, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis and is found disseminated at first presentation in the majority of cases. The cell biological mechanisms underlying metastasis and drug resistance are not clear. SCLC is characterized by high numbers of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and we were able to expand several CTC lines ex vivo and to relate chitinase-3-like-1/YKL-40 (CHI3L1) as marker. Availability of expanded SCLC CTC cells allowed for a screening of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) expressed. The metastatic CHI3L1-negative SCLC cell line SCLC26A, established from a pleural effusion was used for comparison. The CTC cell line BHGc10 was found to exhibit increased expression of RYK, AXL, Tie-1, Dtk, ROR1/2, several ephrins (Eph) and FGF/EGF receptors compared to SCLC26A. All of these RTKs have been associated with cell motility, invasion and poor prognosis in diverse cancer entities without knowledge of their association with CTCs. The identification of RYK, AXL and ROR1/2 as pseudokinases, lacking activity, seems to be related to the observed failure of RTK inhibitors in SCLC. These kinases are involved in the noncanonical WNT pathway and their expression in SCLC CTCs represents a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. PMID:26328272

  11. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase mediates both tethering and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Zagórska, A; Lew, E D; Michail, K; Lemke, G

    2015-01-01

    Billions of inflammatory leukocytes die and are phagocytically cleared each day. This regular renewal facilitates the normal termination of inflammatory responses, suppressing pro-inflammatory mediators and inducing their anti-inflammatory counterparts. Here we investigate the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Mer and its ligands Protein S and Gas6 in the initial recognition and capture of apoptotic cells (ACs) by macrophages. We demonstrate extremely rapid binding kinetics of both ligands to phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-displaying ACs, and show that ACs can be co-opsonized with multiple PtdSer opsonins. We further show that macrophage phagocytosis of ACs opsonized with Mer ligands can occur independently of a requirement for αV integrins. Finally, we demonstrate a novel role for Mer in the tethering of ACs to the macrophage surface, and show that Mer-mediated tethering and subsequent AC engulfment can be distinguished by their requirement for Mer kinase activity. Our results identify Mer as a receptor uniquely capable of both tethering ACs to the macrophage surface and driving their subsequent internalization. PMID:25695599

  12. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression.

  13. Abscisic Acid Induces Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Knetsch, MLW.; Wang, M.; Snaar-Jagalska, B. E.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    1996-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) induces a rapid and transient mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in barley aleurone protoplasts. MAP kinase activity, measured as myelin basic protein phosphorylation by MAP kinase immunoprecipitates, increased after 1 min, peaked after 3 min, and decreased to basal levels after ~5 min of ABA treatment in vivo. Antibodies recognizing phosphorylated tyrosine residues precipitate with myelin basic protein kinase activity that has identical ABA activation characteristics and demonstrate that tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase occurs during activation. The half-maximal concentration of ABA required for MAP kinase activation, 3 x 10-7 M, is very similar to that required for ABA-induced rab16 gene expression. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor phenylarsine oxide can completely block ABA-induced MAP kinase activation and rab16 gene expression. These results lead us to conclude that ABA activates MAP kinase via a tyrosine phosphatase and that these steps are a prerequisite for ABA induction of rab16 gene expression. PMID:12239411

  14. Structural investigation of the binding of a herpesviral protein to the SH3 domain of tyrosine kinase Lck.

    PubMed

    Schweimer, Kristian; Hoffmann, Silke; Bauer, Finn; Friedrich, Ute; Kardinal, Christian; Feller, Stephan M; Biesinger, Brigitte; Sticht, Heinrich

    2002-04-23

    Herpesvirus saimiri codes for a tyrosine kinase interacting protein (Tip) that interacts with both the SH3 domain and the kinase domain of the T-cell-specific tyrosine kinase Lck via two separate motifs. The activation of Lck by Tip is considered as a key event in the transformation of human T-lymphocytes during herpesviral infection. We investigated the interaction of proline-rich Tip peptides with the LckSH3 domain starting with the structural characterization of the unbound interaction partners. The solution structure of the LckSH3 was determined by heteronuclear multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using 44 residual dipolar couplings in addition to the conventional experimental restraints. Circular dichroism spectroscopy proved that the polyproline helix of Tip is already formed prior to SH3 binding and is conformationally stable. NMR titration experiments point out three major regions of the Tip-Lck interaction comprising the RT loop, the n-src loop, and a helical turn preceding the last strand of the beta-sheet. Further changes of the chemical shifts were observed for the N- and C-terminal beta-strands of the SH3 domain, indicating additional contacts outside the proline-rich segment or subtle structural rearrangements transmitted from the binding site of the proline helix. Fluorescence spectroscopy shows that Tip binds to the SH3 domains of several Src kinases (Lck, Hck, Lyn, Src, Fyn, Yes), exhibiting the highest affinities for Lyn, Hck, and Lck.

  15. The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-04-15

    The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

  16. In vivo and in vitro specificity of protein tyrosine kinases for immunoglobulin G receptor (FcgammaRII) phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Bewarder, N; Weinrich, V; Budde, P; Hartmann, D; Flaswinkel, H; Reth, M; Frey, J

    1996-01-01

    Human B cells express four immunoglobulin G receptors, FcgammaRIIa, FcgammaRIIb1, FcgammaRIIb2, and FcgammaRIIc. Coligation of either FcgammaRII isoform with the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the abrogation of B-cell activation, but only the FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaIIb1 isoforms become phosphorylated. To identify the FcgammaRII-phosphorylating protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), we used the combination of an in vitro and an in vivo approach. In an in vitro assay using recombinant cytoplasmic tails of the different FcgammaRII isoforms as well as tyrosine exchange mutants, we show that each of the BCR-associated PTKs (Lyn, Blk, Fyn, and Syk) shows different phosphorylation patterns with regard to the different FcgammaR isoforms and point mutants. While each PTK phosphorylated FcgammaRIIa/c, FcgammaRIIb1 was phosphorylated by Lyn and Blk whereas FcgammaRIIb2 became phosphorylated only by Blk. Mutants lacking both tyrosine residues of the immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of FcgammaRIIa/c were not phosphorylated by Blk and Fyn, while Lyn-mediated phosphorylation was dependent on the presence of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM. Results obtained in assays using an FcgammaR- B-cell line transfected with wild-type or mutated FcgammaRIIa demonstrated that exchange of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM of FcgammaRIIa/c was sufficient to abolish FcgammaRIIa/c phosphorylation in B cells. Additionally, we could show that Lyn and Fyn bind to FcgammaRIIa/c, with the ITAM being necessary for association. Comparison of the phosphorylation pattern of each PTK observed in vitro with the phosphorylation pattern observed in vivo suggests that Lyn is the most likely candidate for FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaRIIb1 phosphorylation in vivo. PMID:8756631

  17. BAP-135, a target for Bruton’s tyrosine kinase in response to B cell receptor engagement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiyi; Desiderio, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is essential for B cell activation, but downstream targets of Btk have not been defined. We now describe a protein, BAP-135, that is associated with Btk in B cells and is a substrate for phosphorylation by Btk. BAP-135, which exhibits no detectable homology to known proteins, contains six occurrences of a hitherto undescribed amino acid repeat and two motifs, similar to the Src autophosphorylation site, that represent potential targets for tyrosine phosphorylation. The pleckstrin homology domain of Btk comprises the principal site of BAP-135 binding. Btk-dependent phosphorylation of BAP-135 is abolished by mutations that impair activation of Btk by Src-related kinases. Btk and BAP-135 exist in a complex before B cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement; in response to BCR crosslinking, BAP-135 is transiently phosphorylated on tyrosine. Taken together, these observations suggest that BAP-135 may reside downstream of Btk in a signaling pathway originating at the BCR. PMID:9012831

  18. High-throughput analysis of genome-wide receptor tyrosine kinase expression in human cancers identifies potential novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Schwäble, Joachim; Steffen, Björn; Tidow, Nicola; Brandt, Burkhardt; Becker, Kerstin; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Halfter, Hartmut; Vogt, Ulf; Metzger, Ralf; Schneider, Paul M; Büchner, Thomas; Brandts, Christian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Serve, Hubert

    2004-02-15

    Novel high-throughput analyses in molecular biology allow sensitive and rapid identification of disease-related genes and drug targets. We have used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR reactions (n = 23000) to analyze expression of all human receptor tyrosine kinases (n = 56) in malignant tumors (n = 313) of different origins and normal control samples (n = 58). The different tumor types expressed very different numbers of receptor tyrosine kinases: whereas brain tumors and testicular cancer expressed 50 receptor tyrosine kinases, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples expressed only 20 different ones. Specimens of similar tumor origin exhibited characteristic receptor tyrosine kinase expression patterns and were grouped together in hierarchical cluster analyses. When we focused on specific tumor entities, receptor tyrosine kinases were identified that were disease and/or stage specific. Leukemic blasts from AML bone marrow samples differed significantly in receptor tyrosine kinase expression compared with normal bone marrow and purified CD34+ cells. Among the differentially expressed receptor tyrosine kinases, we found FLT3, c-kit, CSF1 receptor, EPHB6, leukocyte tyrosine kinase, and ptk7 to be highly overexpressed in AML samples. Whereas expression changes of some of these were associated with altered differentiation patterns (e.g., CSF1 receptor), others, such as FLT3, were genuinely overexpressed in leukemic blasts. These data and the associated database (http://medweb.uni-muenster.de/institute/meda/research/) provide a comprehensive view of receptor tyrosine kinase expression in human cancer. This information can assist in the definition of novel drug targets.

  19. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships for 6-substituted 4-(phenylamino)pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidines designed as inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Rewcastle, G W; Bridges, A J; Fry, D W; Rubin, J R; Denny, W A

    1997-06-01

    A series of 6-substituted 4-anilinopyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidines has been prepared and shown to be potent inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). These compounds are structurally related to the pyrido[3,2-d]- and pyrido[3,4-d]-pyrimidines previously shown to be EGFR inhibitors. Their structure-activity relationships (SAR) for inhibition of the isolated enzyme more closely resemble those of the [3,2-d] than the [3,4-d] pyridopyrimidine isomers. This suggests the requirement of an aza atom in the 7- but not the 5-position (i.e., a carbon atom in the 5-position) for the enhanced potency shown by 6-N-methylated derivatives in each series. X-ray crystal structures were determined for the three NHMe derivatives 2, 3, and 5c in the pyrido[9,2-d]-, pyrido[3,4-d]-, and pyrimido[5,4-d]-pyrimidine series, respectively. These show that a carbon rather than a nitrogen atom at the 5-position leads to significant conformational changes in the molecule (a longer C5a-C4 bond and a 30 degrees out-of-plane rotation of the phenyl group), due to the requirement to relieve nonbonding interactions between the C5 and N9 protons. Pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine analogues bearing bulky, weakly basic solubilizing side chains linked to the 6-position through a secondary amine generally retained potency both against the isolated enzyme and for inhibition of autophosphorylation of EGFR in intact A431 cells. This agrees with a recent binding model that suggests this general class of compounds binds to EGFR with the 6-position located in an area of comparative bulk tolerance at the entrance to the ATP-binding pocket. While these solubilized pyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine analogues were less potent than the NHMe derivative 5c in the isolated enzyme assay, some were considerably superior to 5c (and among the most potent ever reported) as inhibitors of EGFR autophosphorylation in cellular assays.

  20. Formation of long and winding nuclear F-actin bundles by nuclear c-Abl tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyama, Kazumasa; Yuki, Ryuzaburo; Horiike, Yasuyoshi; Kubota, Sho; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Morii, Mariko; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Nakayama, Yuji; Kuga, Takahisa; Hashimoto, Yuuki; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2013-12-10

    The non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl is involved in actin dynamics in the cytoplasm. Having three nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and one nuclear export signal, c-Abl shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Although monomeric actin and filamentous actin (F-actin) are present in the nucleus, little is known about the relationship between c-Abl and nuclear actin dynamics. Here, we show that nuclear-localized c-Abl induces nuclear F-actin formation. Adriamycin-induced DNA damage together with leptomycin B treatment accumulates c-Abl into the nucleus and increases the levels of nuclear F-actin. Treatment of c-Abl-knockdown cells with Adriamycin and leptomycin B barely increases the nuclear F-actin levels. Expression of nuclear-targeted c-Abl (NLS-c-Abl) increases the levels of nuclear F-actin even without Adriamycin, and the increased levels of nuclear F-actin are not inhibited by inactivation of Abl kinase activity. Intriguingly, expression of NLS-c-Abl induces the formation of long and winding bundles of F-actin within the nucleus in a c-Abl kinase activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, NLS-c-AblΔC, which lacks the actin-binding domain but has the full tyrosine kinase activity, is incapable of forming nuclear F-actin and in particular long and winding nuclear F-actin bundles. These results suggest that nuclear c-Abl plays critical roles in actin dynamics within the nucleus. - Highlights: • We show the involvement of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in nuclear actin dynamics. • Nuclear F-actin is formed by nuclear-localized c-Abl and its kinase-dead version. • The c-Abl actin-binding domain is prerequisite for nuclear F-actin formation. • Formation of long nuclear F-actin bundles requires nuclear c-Abl kinase activity. • We discuss a role for nuclear F-actin bundle formation in chromatin regulation.

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  2. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer thera