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Sample records for activating epidermal growth

  1. Epidermal cell growth-dependent arylhydrocarbon-hydroxylase (AHH) activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Merk, H F; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1987-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450-dependent arylhydrocarbon-hydroxylase (AHH) activity and inducibility by benzanthracene (BA) was measured in cultured guinea pig and human epidermal cells. Basal AHH-activity (AHHb) in guinea pig epidermal cells was much higher than in human epidermal cells. AHHb in guinea pig epidermal cells was directly related to the labeling index and decreased to the original level between the 5th and 7th day of cell culturing. On the other hand, the induction-ratio of AHH reached its maximum level when the number of cells began to rise (proliferation phase) and remained high at day 7 of the cell culture. These results suggest a cell growth dependent activity and inducibility of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, such as AHH, in isolated epidermal cells. PMID:3435181

  2. Expression and activation of erbB-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor in lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Rachwal, W. J.; Bongiorno, P. F.; Orringer, M. B.; Whyte, R. I.; Ethier, S. P.; Beer, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    ErbB-2 and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) are expressed in lung adenocarcinomas and associated with a poor prognosis. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed erbB-2 and EGFR coexperession as a characteristic feature of most lung adenocarcinomas, and at levels of receptor expression present in bronchial epithelial cells. In primary lung tumours and cell lines, erbB-2 detected using Western blot analysis demonstrated low-level phosphotyrosine staining of the 185 kDa band, as compared with breast cancer cell lines. A549 and A427 lung adenocarcinoma cells treated with neu differentiation factor (NDF) showed increased erbB-2 phosphotyrosine staining, but to a much lesser extent than breast cancer cells. The lung cells were examined for expression of the potential autocrine growth factors NDF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) by Northern blot analysis. Both NDF and TFG-alpha mRNA were abundantly expressed in the A549 cells. NDF mRNA was highest during active cell proliferation and decreased in confluent cells or after treatment with the growth-inhibitory steroid dexamethasone. Primary tumours and cell lines expressed EGFR, showing higher basal level phosphotyrosine staining than erbB-2. Treatment with NDF and EGF (epidermal growth factor) stimulated cell growth, and in A549 cells the presence of both factors provided an additive increase in cell growth. The growth stimulus that ligand-activated erbB-2 and EGFR provides to lung adenocarcinoma cells may establish a background of continued cell proliferation over which other critical transforming events may occur. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7599067

  3. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  4. Immobilized epidermal growth factor stimulates persistent, directed keratinocyte migration via activation of PLCγ1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chloe S; Mitchell, Isaiah P; Desotell, Anthony W; Kreeger, Pamela K; Masters, Kristyn S

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a critical element in dermal repair, but EGF-containing wound dressings have not been successful clinically. However, these dressings have delivered only soluble EGF, and the native environment provides both soluble and matrix-bound EGF. To address our hypothesis that tethered EGF can stimulate cell behaviors not achievable with soluble EGF, we examined single-cell movement and signaling in human immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes treated with soluble or immobilized EGF. Although both EGF treatments increased collective sheet displacement and individual cell speed, only cells treated with immobilized EGF exhibited directed migration, as well as 2-fold greater persistence compared with soluble EGF. Immunofluorescence showed altered EGF receptor (EGFR) trafficking, where EGFR remained membrane-localized in the immobilized EGF condition. Cells treated with soluble EGF demonstrated higher phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cells on immobilized EGF exhibited higher pPLCγ1, which was localized at the leading edge. Treatment with U0126 inhibited migration in both conditions, demonstrating that ERK1/2 activity was necessary but not responsible for the observed differences. In contrast, PLCγ1 inhibition with U73122 significantly decreased persistence on immobilized EGF. Combined, these results suggest that immobilized EGF increases collective keratinocyte displacement via an increase in single-cell migration persistence resulting from altered EGFR trafficking and PLCγ1 activation.-Kim, C. S., Mitchell, I. P., Desotell, A. W., Kreeger, P. K., Masters, K. S. Immobilized epidermal growth factor stimulates persistent, directed keratinocyte migration via activation of PLCγ1. PMID:27025961

  5. INSULIN INDUCED EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR ACTIVATION IN VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS IS ADAM-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Roztocil, Elisa; Nicholl, Suzanne M.; Davies, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Background With the rise in metabolic syndrome, understanding the role of insulin signaling within the cells of vasculature has become more important but yet remains poorly defined. The study examines the role of insulin actions on a pivotal cross-talk receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). EGFR is transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor linked tyrosine kinases and is key to many of their responses. Objective To determine the pathway of EGFR transactivation by insulin in human coronary smooth muscle cells (VSMC) Methods VSMC were cultured in vitro. Assays of EGFR phosphorylation were examined in response to insulin in the presence and absence of the plasmin inhibitors (e-aminocaproic acid and aprotinin) matrix metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitor GM6001, the ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase Domain) inhibitors TAPI-0 and TAPI-1, Heparin binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) inhibitor, CRM197, HB-EGF inhibitory antibodies, EGF inhibitory antibodies and the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Results Insulin induced time-dependent EGFR phosphorylation, which was inhibited by AG1478 in a concentration dependent manner. Application of the plasmin inhibitors did not block the response. EGFR phosphorylation by insulin was blocked by inhibition of MMP activity and the ligand HB-EGF. The presence of the ADAM inhibitors, TAPI-0 and TAPI-1 significantly decreased EGFR activation. EGFR phosphorylation by EGF was not interrupted by inhibition of plasmin, MMPs TAPIs, or HB-EGF. Direct blockade of the EGFR prevented activation by both insulin and EGF. Conclusion Insulin can induce transactivation of EGFR by an ADAM-mediated, HB-EGF dependent process. This is the first description of crosstalk via ADAM between insulin and EGFR in vascular SMC. Targeting a pivotal cross-talk receptor such as EGFR, which can be transactivated by both G-protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases is an attractive molecular target. PMID:18656632

  6. Cloning, Expression, and Cost Effective Purification of Authentic Human Epidermal Growth Factor With High Activity

    PubMed Central

    Pouranvari, Sara; Ebrahimi, Firouz; Javadi, Gholamreza; Maddah, Bozorgmehr

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays a fundamental role in the healing of wounds relating to skin damage, the cornea, and the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives: The aim of this study is the cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant human EGF (rhEGF), and an assessment of its activity. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, a synthetic pET28a (+) -hEGF construct was prepared. In order to ligate hEGF into pET24a (+), the PCR technique was performed, using special primers that possess restriction enzyme sites, which are also located in appropriate sites in pET24a (+). After transferring this construct into E. coli cells, protein expression was performed under standard conditions. Protein solubilization was done by urea. hEGF purification and refolding were carried out using gradient dialysis against the urea. We used RP-HPLC to compare between rhEGF and commercial rhEGF as a control. Finally, an MTT assay was performed to assess the viability of the NIH 3T3 cells treated with various concentrations of rhEGF. Results: Dialysis after urea solubilization caused precipitation of unwanted proteins, resulting in achievement of purified EGF with > 90% purity, without the need for expensive and time-consuming process. The MTT assay results showed that our rhEGF activate significantly higher proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells in comparison to the control (P-values were < 0.0001), in total concentrations and times evaluated Conclusions: Via our purification protocol, a sufficient amount of bioactive recombinant human epidermal growth factor was obtained in just a few affordable steps, with superlative purity. PMID:27247796

  7. Phosphatidylinositol kinase is activated in membranes derived from cells treated with epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D H; Pike, L J

    1987-01-01

    The ability of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to stimulate phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) kinase activity in A431 cells was examined. The incorporation of 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into PtdIns by A431 membranes was increased in membranes prepared from cells that had been pretreated with EGF. Demonstration of a stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity by EGF required the use of subconfluent cultures and was dependent on the inclusion of protease inhibitors in the buffers used to prepare the membranes. Stimulation of the PtdIns kinase activity was rapid. The activation peaked 2 min after the addition of EGF and declined slowly thereafter. Half-maximal stimulation of the PtdIns kinase occurred at 7 nM EGF. Kinetic analyses of the reaction indicated that treatment of the cells with EGF resulted in a decrease in the Km for PtdIns with no change in the Vmax. The kinetic parameters for the utilization of ATP were unchanged in the EGF-treated membranes compared to the control membranes. Pretreatment of the cells with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate blocked the ability of EGF to stimulate PtdIns kinase activity. These findings demonstrate that a PtdIns kinase activity in A431 cells is regulated by EGF and provide a good system for examining the mechanism by which EGF stimulates the activity of this intracellular enzyme. PMID:2823265

  8. Development of an epidermal growth factor derivative with EGFR blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Panosa, Clara; Tebar, Francesc; Ferrer-Batallé, Montserrat; Fonge, Humphrey; Seno, Masaharu; Reilly, Raymond M; Massaguer, Anna; De Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/ErbB family are prime targets for cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic efficiency of the existing anti-ErbB agents is limited. Thus, identifying new molecules that inactivate the ErbB receptors through novel strategies is an important goal on cancer research. In this study we have developed a shorter form of human EGF (EGFt) with a truncated C-terminal as a novel EGFR inhibitor. EGFt was designed based on the superimposition of the three-dimensional structures of EGF and the Potato Carboxypeptidase Inhibitor (PCI), an EGFR blocker previously described by our group. The peptide was produced in E. coli with a high yield of the correctly folded peptide. EGFt showed specificity and high affinity for EGFR but induced poor EGFR homodimerization and phosphorylation. Interestingly, EGFt promoted EGFR internalization and translocation to the cell nucleus although it did not stimulate the cell growth. In addition, EGFt competed with EGFR native ligands, inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. These data indicate that EGFt may be a potential EGFR blocker for cancer therapy. In addition, the lack of EGFR-mediated growth-stimulatory activity makes EGFt an excellent delivery agent to target toxins to tumours over-expressing EGFR. PMID:23935985

  9. Molecular basis for multimerization in the activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongjian; Bharill, Shashank; Karandur, Deepti; Peterson, Sean M; Marita, Morgan; Shi, Xiaojun; Kaliszewski, Megan J; Smith, Adam W; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Kuriyan, John

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated by dimerization, but activation also generates higher-order multimers, whose nature and function are poorly understood. We have characterized ligand-induced dimerization and multimerization of EGFR using single-molecule analysis, and show that multimerization can be blocked by mutations in a specific region of Domain IV of the extracellular module. These mutations reduce autophosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of EGFR and attenuate phosphorylation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase, which is recruited by EGFR. The catalytic activity of EGFR is switched on through allosteric activation of one kinase domain by another, and we show that if this is restricted to dimers, then sites in the tail that are proximal to the kinase domain are phosphorylated in only one subunit. We propose a structural model for EGFR multimerization through self-association of ligand-bound dimers, in which the majority of kinase domains are activated cooperatively, thereby boosting tail phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14107.001 PMID:27017828

  10. Molecular Basis for Redox Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase.

    PubMed

    Truong, Thu H; Ung, Peter Man-Un; Palde, Prakash B; Paulsen, Candice E; Schlessinger, Avner; Carroll, Kate S

    2016-07-21

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of signal-derived H2O2, and oxidation of active-site cysteine 797 to sulfenic acid enhances kinase activity. Although a major class of covalent drugs targets C797, nothing is known about its catalytic importance or how S-sulfenylation leads to activation. Here, we report the first detailed functional analysis of C797. In contrast to prior assumptions, mutation of C797 diminishes catalytic efficiency in vitro and cells. The experimentally determined pKa and reactivity of C797 toward H2O2 correspondingly distinguish this residue from the bulk of the cysteinome. Molecular dynamics simulation of reduced versus oxidized EGFR, reinforced by experimental testing, indicates that sulfenylation of C797 allows new electrostatic interactions to be formed with the catalytic loop. Finally, we show that chronic oxidative stress yields an EGFR subpopulation that is refractory to the FDA-approved drug afatinib. Collectively, our data highlight the significance of redox biology to understanding kinase regulation and drug pharmacology. PMID:27427230

  11. Epidermal growth factor-like repeats of tenascin-C-induced constriction of cerebral arteries via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Masashi; Shiba, Masato; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Liu, Lei; Nakasaki, Asuka; Shimojo, Naoshi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2016-07-01

    Tenascin-C (TNC), one of matricellular proteins, has been suggested to be involved in cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, the mechanisms of how TNC constricts cerebral arteries remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine if epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats of TNC is involved in TNC-induced constriction of cerebral arteries in rats via EGF receptor (EGFR) activation. Two dosages of recombinant TNC (r-TNC) consisting of the EGF-like repeats was administered intracisternally to healthy rats, and its vasoconstrictor effects were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests and India-ink angiography at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the administration. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms on constricted cerebral arteries after 24 hours. The effects of a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (AG1478) on r-TNC-induced vasoconstriction were evaluated by neurobehavioral tests, India-ink angiography and immunohistochemistry at 24 hours after the administration. A higher dosage of r-TNC induced cerebral arterial constriction more severely, which continued for 48 hours. The effects were associated with the activation of EGFR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the smooth muscle cell layer of the constricted cerebral artery, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 were not activated. AG1478 blocked r-TNC-induced vasoconstrictive effects, as well as activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. These findings demonstrate that TNC induces constriction of cerebral arteries via activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. PMID:27086972

  12. Enhanced dimerization drives ligand-independent activity of mutant epidermal growth factor receptor in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Valley, Christopher C.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.; Karedla, Narain; Steinkamp, Mara P.; Chizhik, Alexey I.; Hlavacek, William S.; Wilson, Bridget S.; Lidke, Keith A.; Lidke, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/erbB1/Her1) are often associated with tumorigenesis. In particular, a number of EGFR mutants that demonstrate ligand-independent signaling are common in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including kinase domain mutations L858R (also called L834R) and exon 19 deletions (e.g., ΔL747-P753insS), which collectively make up nearly 90% of mutations in NSCLC. The molecular mechanisms by which these mutations confer constitutive activity remain unresolved. Using multiple subdiffraction-limit imaging modalities, we reveal the altered receptor structure and interaction kinetics of NSCLC-associated EGFR mutants. We applied two-color single quantum dot tracking to quantify receptor dimerization kinetics on living cells and show that, in contrast to wild-type EGFR, mutants are capable of forming stable, ligand-independent dimers. Two-color superresolution localization microscopy confirmed ligand-independent aggregation of EGFR mutants. Live-cell Förster resonance energy transfer measurements revealed that the L858R kinase mutation alters ectodomain structure such that unliganded mutant EGFR adopts an extended, dimerization-competent conformation. Finally, mutation of the putative dimerization arm confirmed a critical role for ectodomain engagement in ligand-independent signaling. These data support a model in which dysregulated activity of NSCLC-associated kinase mutants is driven by coordinated interactions involving both the kinase and extracellular domains that lead to enhanced dimerization. PMID:26337388

  13. Sphingosine-1-phosphate mediates epidermal growth factor-induced muscle satellite cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Yosuke Ohashi, Kazuya; Wada, Eiji; Yuasa, Yuki; Shiozuka, Masataka; Nonomura, Yoshiaki; Matsuda, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle can regenerate repeatedly due to the presence of resident stem cells, called satellite cells. Because satellite cells are usually quiescent, they must be activated before participating in muscle regeneration in response to stimuli such as injury, overloading, and stretch. Although satellite cell activation is a crucial step in muscle regeneration, little is known of the molecular mechanisms controlling this process. Recent work showed that the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) plays crucial roles in the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of muscle satellite cells. We investigated the role of growth factors in S1P-mediated satellite cell activation. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with insulin induced proliferation of quiescent undifferentiated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells, which are also known as reserve cells, in serum-free conditions. Sphingosine kinase activity increased when reserve cells were stimulated with EGF. Treatment of reserve cells with the D-erythro-N,N-dimethylsphingosine, Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitor, or siRNA duplexes specific for sphingosine kinase 1, suppressed EGF-induced C2C12 activation. We also present the evidence showing the S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. Moreover, we demonstrated a combination of insulin and EGF promoted activation of satellite cells on single myofibers in a manner dependent on SPHK and S1P2. Taken together, our observations show that EGF-induced satellite cell activation is mediated by S1P and its receptor. - Highlights: • EGF in combination with insulin induces proliferation of quiescent C2C12 cells. • Sphingosine kinase activity increases when reserve cells are stimulated with EGF. • EGF-induced activation of reserve cells is dependent on sphingosine kinase and ERK. • The S1P receptor S1P2 is involved in EGF-induced reserve cell activation. • EGF-induced reserve cell activation is mediated by S1P and its

  14. Graphene Enhances Cellular Proliferation through Activating the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Cheng; Liao, Chunyang; Cui, Lin; Li, Haishan; Qu, Guangbo; Yu, Wenlian; Song, Naining; Cui, Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Wenping; Chen, Huiming; Zhou, Qunfang

    2016-07-27

    Graphene has promising applications in food packaging, water purification, and detective sensors for contamination monitoring. However, the biological effects of graphene are not fully understood. It is necessary to clarify the potential risks of graphene exposure to humans through diverse routes, such as foods. In the present study, graphene, as the model nanomaterial, was used to test its potential effects on the cell proliferation based on multiple representative cell lines, including HepG2, A549, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. Graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, particle size analysis, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The cellular responses to graphene exposure were evaluated using flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and alamarBlue assays. Rat cerebral astrocyte cultures, as the non-cancer cells, were used to assess the potential cytotoxicity of graphene as well. The results showed that graphene stimulation enhanced cell proliferation in all tested cell cultures and the highest elevation in cell growth was up to 60%. A western blot assay showed that the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was upregulated upon graphene treatment. The phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and the downstream proteins, ShC and extracellular regulating kinase (ERK), were remarkably induced, indicating that the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway was triggered. The activation of PI3 kinase p85 and AKT showed that the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was also involved in graphene-induced cell proliferation, causing the increase of cell ratios in the G2/M phase. No influences on cell apoptosis were observed in graphene-treated cells when compared to the negative controls, proving the low cytotoxicity of this emerging nanomaterial. The findings in this study revealed the potential cellular biological effect of graphene, which may give useful hints on its biosafety

  15. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  16. Phosphorylation and Activation of RhoA by ERK in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, cell motility, and cytokinesis. In addition to the canonical GTPase cycle, recent findings have suggested that phosphorylation further contributes to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Indeed, RhoA is phosphorylated on serine 188 (188S) by a number of protein kinases. We have recently reported that Rac1 is phosphorylated on threonine 108 (108T) by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we provide evidence that RhoA is phosphorylated by ERK on 88S and 100T in response to EGF stimulation. We show that ERK interacts with RhoA and that this interaction is dependent on the ERK docking site (D-site) at the C-terminus of RhoA. EGF stimulation enhanced the activation of the endogenous RhoA. The phosphomimetic mutant, GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E, when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, displayed higher GTP-binding than wild type RhoA. Moreover, the expression of GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E increased actin stress fiber formation in COS-7 cells, which is consistent with its higher activity. In contrast to Rac1, phosphorylation of RhoA by ERK does not target RhoA to the nucleus. Finally, we show that regardless of the phosphorylation status of RhoA and Rac1, substitution of the RhoA PBR with the Rac1 PBR targets RhoA to the nucleus and substitution of Rac1 PBR with RhoA PBR significantly reduces the nuclear localization of Rac1. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylates RhoA on 88S and 100T in response to EGF, which upregulates RhoA activity. PMID:26816343

  17. Phosphorylation and Activation of RhoA by ERK in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, cell motility, and cytokinesis. In addition to the canonical GTPase cycle, recent findings have suggested that phosphorylation further contributes to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Indeed, RhoA is phosphorylated on serine 188 (188S) by a number of protein kinases. We have recently reported that Rac1 is phosphorylated on threonine 108 (108T) by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we provide evidence that RhoA is phosphorylated by ERK on 88S and 100T in response to EGF stimulation. We show that ERK interacts with RhoA and that this interaction is dependent on the ERK docking site (D-site) at the C-terminus of RhoA. EGF stimulation enhanced the activation of the endogenous RhoA. The phosphomimetic mutant, GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E, when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, displayed higher GTP-binding than wild type RhoA. Moreover, the expression of GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E increased actin stress fiber formation in COS-7 cells, which is consistent with its higher activity. In contrast to Rac1, phosphorylation of RhoA by ERK does not target RhoA to the nucleus. Finally, we show that regardless of the phosphorylation status of RhoA and Rac1, substitution of the RhoA PBR with the Rac1 PBR targets RhoA to the nucleus and substitution of Rac1 PBR with RhoA PBR significantly reduces the nuclear localization of Rac1. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylates RhoA on 88S and 100T in response to EGF, which upregulates RhoA activity. PMID:26816343

  18. Rapidly activated epidermal growth factor receptor mediates lipopolysaccharide-triggered migration of microglia.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yu; Li, Xiao; Xie, Min-Jie; Wang, Wei; Tian, Dai-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have suggested that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in microglia activation characterized by cell morphology changes, cytokine production and cell migration; and the biochemical regulation of the microglia migration is a potential therapeutic target following CNS inflammatory damages. However, the role of EGFR in microglia motility after inflammatory stimulation remains unknown. In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to trigger rapid EGFR phosphorylation within 10 min, which was sustained during long-term stimulation in both primary microglial cells and the cultured BV2 microglial cells, furthermore, blocking EGFR phosphorylation by AG1478 significantly attenuated the LPS-induced chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia. In addition, LPS could initiate calcium oscillation in microglia during live-cell recording, however, an intracellular calcium chelator and a selective inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, but not an extracellular calcium chelator, remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced EGFR phosphorylation in BV2 microglia cells. As EGFR is not a traditional receptor for LPS, these findings suggest that the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR is attributed to the LPS-triggered intracellular calcium mobilization. By examining the downstream signals of EGFR, we further proved that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is essential for EGFR-mediated microglia migration, because ERK inhibition attenuated the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of microglia that had been induced by either LPS or EGF. Collectively, these results suggest that LPS could trigger the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent ERK activation through mobilizing calcium activity, which underlies the microglia migration in an inflammatory condition. PMID:26209152

  19. Co-Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and c-MET Defines a Distinct Subset of Lung Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Shumpei; Sachiko, Oguni; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Niki, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MET are molecular targets for lung cancer treatment. The relationships between expression, activation, and gene abnormalities of these two targets are currently unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a panel of 40 lung cancer cell lines could be classified into two groups. Group I was characterized by (1) high phosphorylations of MET and EGFR, (2) frequent mutation or amplification of EGFR, MET, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), (3) high expressions of bronchial epithelial markers (thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), MUC1, and Cytokeratin 7 (CK7)); and (4) high expressions of MET, human epidermal growth factor receptor-3, E-cadherin, cyclooxygenase-2, and laminin gamma2. In contrast, Group II exhibited little or no phosphorylation of MET and EGFR; no mutation or amplification of EGFR, MET, and HER2; were triple-negative for TTF-1, MUC1, and CK7; and showed high expressions of vimentin, fibroblast growth factor receptor-1, and transcription factor 8. Importantly, Group I was more sensitive to gefitinib and more resistant to cisplatin and paclitaxel than Group II. The clinical relevance was confirmed in publicly available data on 442 primary lung adenocarcinoma patients; survival benefits by postoperative chemotherapy were seen in only patients with tumors corresponding to Group II. Overall, co-activation of EGFR and MET defines a distinct subgroup of lung carcinoma with characteristic genetic abnormalities, gene expression pattern, and response to chemotherapeutic reagents. PMID:20934974

  20. Activation of c-fos gene expression by a kinase-deficient epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, E R; Korf, G M; Christensen, T A; Connolly, D C; Getz, M J; Maihle, N J

    1994-01-01

    The intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be responsible for many of the pleiotropic intracellular effects resulting from ligand stimulation [W.S. Chen, C.S. Lazar, M. Poenie, R.Y. Tsien, G.N. Gill, and M.G. Rosenfeld, Nature (London) 328:820-823, 1987; A.M. Honegger, D. Szapary, A. Schmidt, R. Lyall, E. Van Obberghen, T.J. Dull, A. Ulrich, and J. Schlessinger, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:4568-4571, 1987]. Recently, however, it has been shown that addition of ligand to cells expressing kinase-defective EGFR mutants can result in the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (R. Campos-González and J.R. Glenney, Jr., J. Biol. Chem. 267:14535-14538, 1992; E. Selva, D.L. Raden, and R.J. Davis, J. Biol. Chem. 268:2250-2254, 1993), as well as stimulation of DNA synthesis (K.J. Coker, J.V. Staros, and C.A. Guyer, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:6967-6971, 1994). Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase has been shown to phosphorylate the transcription factor p62TCF in vitro, leading to enhanced ternary complex formation between p62TCF, p67SRF, and the c-fos serum response element (SRE) [H. Gille, A.D. Sharrocks, and P.E. Shaw, Nature (London) 358:414-417, 1992]. On the basis of these observations, we have investigated the possibility that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the EGFR may not be necessary for transcriptional activation mediated via p62TCF. Here, we demonstrate that a kinase-defective EGFR mutant can signal ligand-induced expression of c-fos protein and that a significant component of this induction appears to be mediated at the transcriptional level. Investigation of transcriptional activation mediated by the c-fos SRE shows that this response is impaired by mutations in the SRE which eliminate binding of p62(TCF). These data indicate that information inherent in the structure of the EGFR can be accessed by ligand stimulation independent of the receptor's catalytic kinase function

  1. In vivo toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and anticancer activity of Genistein linked to recombinant human epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Uckun, F M; Narla, R K; Zeren, T; Yanishevski, Y; Myers, D E; Waurzyniak, B; Ek, O; Schneider, E; Messinger, Y; Chelstrom, L M; Gunther, R; Evans, W

    1998-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-associated protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) complexes have vital anti-apoptotic functions in human breast cancer cells. We have shown previously that targeting the naturally occurring PTK inhibitor genistein to the EGFR-associated PTK complexes using the EGF-Genistein (Gen) conjugate triggers rapid apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells and abrogates their in vitro clonogenic growth. In the present study, we examined the in vivo toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics, and anticancer activity of EGF-Gen. No toxicities were observed in mice treated with EGF-Gen at dose levels as high as 40 mg/kg administered i.p. as a single dose or 140 mg/kg administered i.p. over 28 consecutive days. EGF-Gen significantly improved tumor-free survival in a severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer, when it was administered 24 h after inoculation of tumor cells. At 100 microg/kg/day x 10 days (1 mg/kg total dose), which is >100-fold less than the highest tested and nontoxic cumulative dose (ie., 140 mg/kg) in mice, EGF-Gen was more effective than cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg/day x 2 days), Adriamycin (2.5 mg/kg x 1 day), or methotrexate (0.5 mg/kg x 1 day), the most widely used standard chemotherapeutic drugs for breast cancer, and resulted in 60% long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, treating SCID mice with established s.c. human breast cancer xenografts of 0.5-cm diameter with EGF-Gen at this dose level resulted in disappearance of the tumors in two of five mice and >50% shrinkage in three of five mice within 10 days, whereas all of the control tumors in five PBS-treated mice as well as five mice treated with unconjugated Gen (1 mg/kg/day x 10 days) showed >200% increase in diameter during the same observation period. EGF-Gen treatment reduced the growth rate of breast cancer xenografts of 1.0-cm diameter, but unlike with tumors of 0.5-cm diameter, it failed to cause shrinkage or

  2. Gefitinib in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation

    PubMed Central

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with most patients present with advanced disease and poor long-term prognosis. The aim of lung cancer treatment is to slow down the progression of the disease, to relieve the patients from the lung cancer symptoms and whenever possible, to increase the overall survival. The discovery of small molecule targeting tyrosine kinase of epidermal growth factor receptor opens a new way in the management of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This review will discuss several Phase II and III trials evaluated the clinical efficacy of gefitinib as monotherapy in pretreated patients with advanced NSCLC, as well as both monotherapy and combined with chemotherapy in chemotherapy-naive patients. PMID:27433059

  3. Activation of AMP-activated kinase modulates sensitivity of glioma cells against epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hartel, Ines; Ronellenfitsch, Michael; Wanka, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Steinbach, Joachim P; Rieger, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in glioblastoma but the clinical efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in malignant glioma has been disappointing. The reasons for the failure of the mechanisms of resistance of these inhibitors are unclear, but may involve factors of the tumor microenvironment such as limited glucose availability and hypoxia. It was therefore examined whether glucose and oxygen influenced the response of glioma cells to EGFR inhibition. Decreased levels of glucose and oxygen led to resistance against the EGFR inhibitor PD153035, whereas high glucose amounts and normoxia sensitised glioma cells towards the inhibitor. Low levels of glucose and oxygen stimulated AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in glioma cells. 2DG, an inhibitor of glycolysis, and the AMPK activator A769662 reduced glucose consumption, induced phosphorylation of AMPK and mimicked the effects of low glucose availability on the toxicity of PD153035. Similarly, 2DG reduced toxicity of imatinib in K562 leukemia cells. In contrast, inhibition of AMPK by compound C or by short-hairpin (sh)-mediated gene suppression increased cell death induced by the EGFR inhibitor and reverted the protective effects of 2DG and A769662. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of EGFR inhibition can be diminished by AMPK activation in glioma cells. These results may provide one explanation for the low activity of EGFR inhibitors in clinical trials and suggest antagonism of AMPK or of AMPK-regulated metabolic alterations as a promising approach to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27121290

  4. pH dependence of ligand-induced human epidermal growth factor receptor activation investigated by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    The activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR) involves a large conformational change in its soluble extracellular domains (sECD, residues 1-620), from a tethered to an extended conformation upon binding of ligands, such as EGF. It has been reported that this dynamic process is pH-dependent, that is, hEGFR can be activated by EGF at high pH to form an extended dimer but remains as an inactive monomer at low pH. In this paper, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations starting from the tethered conformation of sECD:EGF complex, at pH 5.0 and 8.5, respectively. Simulation results indicate that sECD:EGF shows different dynamic properties between the two pHs, and the complex may have a higher tendency of activation at pH 8.5. Twenty residues, including 13 histidines, in sECD:EGF have different protonation states between the two pHs (calculated by the H++ server). The charge distribution at pH 8.5 is more favorable for forming an extended conformation toward the active state of sECD than that at pH 5.0. Our study may shed light on the mechanism of pH dependence of hEGFR activation. Graphical abstract pH dependence of ligand-induced human epidermal growth factor receptor activation. PMID:27179806

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng; Fang, Rejun

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  7. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is modulated by oleic acid via an epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Carine; Augé, Nathalie; Frisach, Marie-Françoise; Casteilla, Louis; Salvayre, Robert; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Mitochondria generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various pathophysiological conditions. In isolated mitochondria, fatty acids (FA) exhibit an uncoupling effect of the respiratory activity and modulate ROS generation. The effect of FA on intact cultured cells remains to be elucidated. The present study reports that FA (buffered by BSA) decrease the level of cellular ROS generated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cultured cells incubated with antimycin A. Both saturated and unsaturated FA are effective. This fatty acid-induced antioxidant effect does not result from a decrease in ROS production, but is subsequent to cellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activation and enhanced ROS degradation. This fatty acid-induced GPx activation is mediated through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling, since this response is (i) abrogated by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 or by a defect in EGFR (in EGFR-deficient B82L fibroblasts), (ii) restored in B82LK+ cells expressing EGFR and (iii) mimicked by epidermal growth factor. These findings indicate that FA contribute to enhance cellular antioxidant defences against mitochondrial oxidative stress through EGFR-dependent GPx activation. PMID:12153397

  8. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody cetuximab inhibits EGFR/HER-2 heterodimerization and activation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipa; Bassi, Rajiv; Hooper, Andrea; Prewett, Marie; Hicklin, Daniel J; Kang, Xiaoqiang

    2009-01-01

    Human carcinomas frequently express one or more members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family. Two family members, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erbB2/neu (HER2), homodimerize or heterodimerize upon activation with ligand and trigger potent mechanisms of cellular proliferation, differentiation and migration. In this study, we examined the effect of the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody Erbitux (cetuximab) on human tumor cells expressing both EGFR and HER2. Investigation of the effect of cetuximab on the activation of EGFR-EGFR, EGFR-HER2 and HER2-HER2 homodimers and heterodimers was conducted using the NCI-N87 human gastric carcinoma cell line. Treatment of NCI-N87 cells with cetuximab completely inhibited formation of EGFR-EGFR homodimers and EGFR-HER2 heterodimers. Activation of HER2-HER2 homodimers was not appreciably stimulated by exogenous ligand and was not inhibited by cetuximab treatment. Furthermore, cetuximab inhibited EGF-induced EGFR and HER2 phosphorylation in CAL27, NCI-H226 and NCI-N87 cells. The activation of downstream signaling molecules such as AKT, MAPK and STAT-3 were also inhibited by cetuximab in these cells. To examine the effect of cetuximab on the growth of tumors in vivo, athymic mice bearing established NCI-N87 or CAL27 xenografts were treated with cetuximab (1 mg, i.p., q3d). The growth of NCI-N87 and CAL27 tumors was significantly inhibited with cetuximab therapy compared to the control groups (p<0.0001 in both cases). In the CAL27 xenograft model, tumor growth inhibition by cetuximab treatment was similar to that by cetuximab and trastuzumab combination treatment. Immunohistological analysis of cetuximab-treated tumors showed a decrease in EGFR-HER2 signaling and reduced tumor cell proliferation. These results suggest that cetuximab may be useful in the treatment of carcinomas co-expressing EGFR and HER2. PMID:19082474

  9. Prediction of Inhibitory Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Using Grid Search-Projection Pursuit Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongying; Hu, Zhide; Bazzoli, Andrea; Zhang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important protein target for anti-tumor drug discovery. To identify potential EGFR inhibitors, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitory activity of a series of quinazoline derivatives against EGFR tyrosine kinase. Two 2D-QSAR models were developed based on the best multi-linear regression (BMLR) and grid-search assisted projection pursuit regression (GS-PPR) methods. The results demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of quinazoline derivatives is strongly correlated with their polarizability, activation energy, mass distribution, connectivity, and branching information. Although the present investigation focused on EGFR, the approach provides a general avenue in the structure-based drug development of different protein receptor inhibitors. PMID:21811593

  10. Hepatitis C Virus Induces Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation via CD81 Binding for Viral Internalization and Entry

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jingyu; Pantua, Homer; Ngu, Hai; Komuves, Laszlo; Diehl, Lauri; Schaefer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    While epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to be important in the entry process for multiple viruses, including hepatitis C virus (HCV), the molecular mechanisms by which EGFR facilitates HCV entry are not well understood. Using the infectious cell culture HCV model (HCVcc), we demonstrate that the binding of HCVcc particles to human hepatocyte cells induces EGFR activation that is dependent on interactions between HCV and CD81 but not claudin 1. EGFR activation can also be induced by antibody mediated cross-linking of CD81. In addition, EGFR ligands that enhance the kinetics of HCV entry induce EGFR internalization and colocalization with CD81. While EGFR kinase inhibitors inhibit HCV infection primarily by preventing EGFR endocytosis, antibodies that block EGFR ligand binding or inhibitors of EGFR downstream signaling have no effect on HCV entry. These data demonstrate that EGFR internalization is critical for HCV entry and identify a hitherto-unknown association between CD81 and EGFR. PMID:22855500

  11. Structural features that specify tyrosine kinase activity deduced from homology modeling of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Knighton, D R; Cadena, D L; Zheng, J; Ten Eyck, L F; Taylor, S S; Sowadski, J M; Gill, G N

    1993-01-01

    To identify structural features that distinguish protein-tyrosine kinases from protein-serine kinases, a molecular model of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor was constructed by substituting its amino acid sequence for the amino acid sequence of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a 2.7-A refined crystallographic model. General folding was conserved as was the configuration of invariant residues at the active site. Two sequence motifs that distinguish the two families correspond to loops that converge at the active site of the enzyme. A conserved arginine in the catalytic loop is proposed to interact with the gamma phosphate of ATP. The second loop provides a binding surface that positions the tyrosine of the substrate. A positively charged surface provides additional sites for substrate recognition. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8389462

  12. Epiderstatin, a new inhibitor of the mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Osada, H; Sonoda, T; Kusakabe, H; Isono, K

    1989-11-01

    Inhibitors of mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) were screened from culture broths of soil microorganisms. A strain of actinomycetes has been found to produce a new glutarimide antibiotic named epiderstatin which inhibits the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent animal cells stimulated by EGF. Taxonomic studies have revealed that the producing strain belongs to a subspecies of Streptomyces pulveraceus, thus the name, Streptomyces pulveraceus subsp. epiderstagenes was given to this strain. The molecular formula (C15H20N2O4) and UV profile (lambda max 295 nm) of the antibiotic are distinct from other known antibiotics. It inhibited the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent cells stronger than into growing cells. PMID:2584144

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III mediates head and neck cancer cell invasion via STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Morgan, Sarah E.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Sen, Malabika; Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Bigner, Darrell; Gooding, William E.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is frequently over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) where aberrant signaling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumor growth. EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most commonly altered form of EGFR and contains a truncated ligand-binding domain. We previously reported that EGFRvIII is expressed in up to 40% of HNSCC tumors where it is associated with increased proliferation, tumor growth and chemoresistance to anti-tumor drugs including the EGFR targeting monoclonal antibody cetuximab. Cetuximab was FDA-approved in 2006 for HNSCC but has not been shown to prevent invasion or metastasis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanisms of EGFRvIII-mediated cell motility and invasion in HNSCC. We found that EGFRvIII induced HNSCC cell migration and invasion in conjunction with increased STAT3 activation, which was not abrogated by cetuximab treatment. Further investigation demonstrated that EGF-induced expression of the STAT3 target gene HIF1-α, was abolished by cetuximab in HNSCC cells expressing wild-type EGFR under hypoxic conditions, but not in EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC cells. These results suggest that EGFRvIII mediates HNSCC cell migration and invasion via increased STAT3 activation and induction of HIF1-α, which contribute to cetuximab resistance in EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC tumors. PMID:20622897

  14. Regulation of thyroid peroxidase activity by thyrotropin, epidermal growth factor and phorbol ester in porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Kikuo; Hiraiwa, Masaki; Emoto, Tatsushi; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Shin-Ichi ); Ohmori, Takeshi; Koizumi, Narumi; Hosoya, Toichiro )

    1989-01-01

    The activity of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in porcine follicles cultured for 96 h in suspension with five hormones (5H) still attained over 50% of that in the freshly isolated follicles. On the other hand, the activity in those cultured with 5H + TSH (6H) was several times higher than that cultured with 5H after 96 h, although an initial decrease of TPO activity during the first 24 h of culture was observed in both conditions. The ability of follicles to metabolize iodide when cultured with 6H for 96 h was also several times higher than that of those cultured with 5H. The half-maximal dose of TSH for stimulation of TPO activity and iodide metabolism was 0.03 - 0.04 mU/ml and the effect was mediated by cAMP. These results indicate that in porcine thyroid follicles in primary suspension culture, TPO activity as well as the ability of iodide metabolism is induced by chronic TSH stimulation. In addition, epidermal growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate completely inhibited TSH stimulation on both activities and also basal (5H) activity of iodide metabolism.

  15. SRC-DEPENDENT PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 IS REQUIRED FOR ZINC-INDUCED RAS ACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Src-dependent Phosphorylation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor on Tyrosine 845 Is Required for Zinc-induced Ras Activation
    Weidong Wu 1 , Lee M. Graves 2 , Gordon N. Gill 3 , Sarah J. Parsons 4 , and James M. Samet 5
    1 Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biolo...

  16. MEK-ERK Pathway Modulation Ameliorates Pulmonary Fibrosis Associated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Madala, Satish K.; Schmidt, Stephanie; Davidson, Cynthia; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis remains a significant public health burden with no proven therapies. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade is a major pathway controlling cellular processes associated with fibrogenesis, including growth, proliferation, and survival. Activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway is detected in the lungs of human fibrosis samples; however, the effect of modulating the pathway in vivo is unknown. Overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-α in the lung epithelium of transgenic mice causes a progressive pulmonary fibrosis associated with increased MEK/ERK activation localized primarily in mesenchymal cells. To determine the role of the MEK pathway in the induction of TGF-α–induced lung fibrosis, TGF-α was overexpressed for 4 weeks while mice were simultaneously treated with the specific MEK inhibitor, ARRY-142886 (ARRY). Treatment with ARRY prevented increases in lung cell proliferation and total lung collagen, attenuated production of extracellular matrix genes, and protected mice from changes in lung function. ARRY administered as a rescue treatment after fibrosis was already established inhibited fibrosis progression, as assessed by lung histology, changes in body weights, extracellular matrix gene expression, and lung mechanics. These findings demonstrate that MEK inhibition prevents progression of established fibrosis in the TGF-α model, and provides proof of concept of targeting the MEK pathway in fibrotic lung disease. PMID:22021337

  17. The constitutive activity of epidermal growth factor receptor vIII leads to activation and differential trafficking of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and erbB2.

    PubMed

    Zeineldin, Reema; Ning, Yan; Hudson, Laurie G

    2010-06-01

    A constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant, EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), has been detected at high frequencies in certain human cancers. This study evaluated transactivation and trafficking of erbB family members as a result of constitutive EGFR activity in a cancer cell line. Expression of EGFRvIII modulated erbB family members through different mechanisms; the erbB3 mRNA level was reduced, whereas wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) and erbB2 protein levels were diminished, with no change in their mRNA levels, and there was no change in the erbB4 expression level. Both EGFR and erbB2 were internalized as a result of EGFRvIII's activity and redistributed to the cell surface upon addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of wtEGFR/EGFRvIII catalytic activity. Acute activation of EGFRvIII by removing AG1478 from cells increased phosphorylation of both wtEGFR and erbB2 and caused differential trafficking of EGFRvIII's activation partners; wtEGFR was directed primarily to lysosomal compartments and partially to recycling compartments, whereas erbB2 was directed primarily to recycling compartments and partially to lysosomal compartments. Our data demonstrate that the constitutive activity of EGFRvIII is sufficient to trigger endocytosis and trafficking of wtEGFR and erbB2, which may play a role in activating signaling pathways that are triggered during receptor endocytosis. PMID:20159766

  18. Epidermal-growth-factor receptor and metalloproteinases mediate thromboxane A2-dependent extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Gallet, Carole; Blaie, Stéphanie; Lévy-Toledano, Sylviane; Habib, Aïda

    2003-01-01

    The signalling pathways that link G-protein-coupled receptors to mitogen-activated protein kinases involve receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C (PKC). We explored the pathways that are implicated in the thromboxane (TX) A(2)-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the role of the two TX receptor (TP) isoforms, TP alpha and TP beta. ERK activation by IBOP, a TX analogue, was dependent on epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) in TP alpha- or TP beta-transfected cells and in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hASMCs), since AG1478, a selective inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, strongly blocked ERK and EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, EGFR transactivation leading to ERK activation involved matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), since BB2516, an inhibitor of MMP, decreased ERK and EGFR phosphorylation in TP alpha- or TP beta-transfected cells. Moreover, we showed that both isoforms activate ERK phosphorylation in an Src-kinase-dependent manner, whereas PKC was mainly implicated in ERK activation and EGFR phosphorylation by TP beta. In hASMCs, we showed that ERK activation depended on both pertussis-sensitive and -insensitive G alpha-proteins. We demonstrated further that EGFRs, PKC, Src kinase and MMPs are involved in ERK activation by TX. The results of the present study highlight a role for MMPs and PKC in EGFR transactivation triggered by the TPs and demonstrate this mechanism for the first time in primary cells, i.e. hASMCs. PMID:12534349

  19. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  20. Synthetic Lethality Screen Identifies RPS6KA2 as Modifier of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Milosevic, Nada; Kühnemuth, Benjamin; Mühlberg, Leonie; Ripka, Stefanie; Griesmann, Heidi; Lölkes, Carolin; Buchholz, Malte; Aust, Daniela; Pilarsky, Christian; Krug, Sebastian; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a high degree of resistance to chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition using the small-molecule inhibitor erlotinib was shown to provide a small survival benefit in a subgroup of patients. To identify kinases whose inhibition acts synergistically with erlotinib, we employed a kinome-wide small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based loss-of-function screen in the presence of erlotinib. Of 779 tested kinases, we identified several targets whose inhibition acted synergistically lethal with EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, among them the S6 kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2)/ribosomal S6 kinase 3. Activated RPS6KA2 was expressed in approximately 40% of 123 human pancreatic cancer tissues. RPS6KA2 was shown to act downstream of EGFR/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and was activated by EGF independently of the presence of KRAS mutations. Knockdown of RPS6KA2 by siRNA led to increased apoptosis only in the presence of erlotinib, whereas RPS6KA2 activation or overexpression rescued from erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This effect was at least in part mediated by downstream activation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic as well as pharmacological inhibition of RPS6KA2 by the inhibitor BI-D1870 acted synergistically with erlotinib. By applying this synergistic lethality screen using a kinome-wide RNA interference-library approach, we identified RPS6KA2 as potential drug target whose inhibition synergistically enhanced the effect of erlotinib on tumor cell survival. This kinase therefore represents a promising drug candidate suitable for the development of novel inhibitors for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:24403857

  1. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Dimerization and Activation Require Ligand-Induced Conformational Changes in the Dimer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jessica P.; Berger, Mitchell B.; Lin, Chun-Chi; Schlessinger, Joseph; Lemmon, Mark A.; Ferguson, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural studies have shown that ligand-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) dimerization involves major domain rearrangements that expose a critical dimerization arm. However, simply exposing this arm is not sufficient for receptor dimerization, suggesting that additional ligand-induced dimer contacts are required. To map these contributions to the dimer interface, we individually mutated each contact suggested by crystallographic studies and analyzed the effects on receptor dimerization, activation, and ligand binding. We find that domain II contributes >90% of the driving energy for dimerization of the extracellular region, with domain IV adding little. Within domain II, the dimerization arm forms much of the dimer interface, as expected. However, a loop from the sixth disulfide-bonded module (immediately C-terminal to the dimerization arm) also makes a critical contribution. Specific ligand-induced conformational changes in domain II are required for this loop to contribute to receptor dimerization, and we identify a set of ligand-induced intramolecular interactions that appear to be important in driving these changes, effectively “buttressing” the dimer interface. Our data also suggest that similar conformational changes may determine the specificity of ErbB receptor homo- versus heterodimerization. PMID:16107719

  2. Screening and discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole compounds activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sakanyan, Vehary; Angelini, Marie; Le Béchec, Mickael; Lecocq, Michèle Françoise; Benaiteau, Florence; Rousseau, Bénédicte; Gyulkhandanyan, Aram; Gyulkhandanyan, Lusine; Logé, Cédric; Reiter, Eric; Roussakis, Christos; Fleury, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Peptide ligand-induced dimerization of the extracellular region of the epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR) is central to the signal transduction of many cellular processes. A small molecule microarray screen has been developed to search for non-peptide compounds able to bind to sEGFR. We describe the discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD) compounds that enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and thereby trigger downstream signaling pathways and other receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells. The protein phosphorylation profile in cells exposed to NBD compounds is to some extent reminiscent of the profile induced by the cognate ligand. Experimental studies indicate that the small compounds bind to the dimerization domain of sEGFR, and generate stable dimers providing allosteric activation of the receptor. Moreover, receptor phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of PTP-1B phosphatase. Our data offer a promising paradigm for investigating new aspects of signal transduction mediated by EGFR in cancer cells exposed to electrophilic NBD compounds. PMID:24496106

  3. Screening and discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole compounds activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakanyan, Vehary; Angelini, Marie; Le Béchec, Mickael; Lecocq, Michèle Françoise; Benaiteau, Florence; Rousseau, Bénédicte; Gyulkhandanyan, Aram; Gyulkhandanyan, Lusine; Logé, Cédric; Reiter, Eric; Roussakis, Christos; Fleury, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Peptide ligand-induced dimerization of the extracellular region of the epidermal growth factor receptor (sEGFR) is central to the signal transduction of many cellular processes. A small molecule microarray screen has been developed to search for non-peptide compounds able to bind to sEGFR. We describe the discovery of nitro-benzoxadiazole (NBD) compounds that enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR and thereby trigger downstream signaling pathways and other receptor tyrosine kinases in cancer cells. The protein phosphorylation profile in cells exposed to NBD compounds is to some extent reminiscent of the profile induced by the cognate ligand. Experimental studies indicate that the small compounds bind to the dimerization domain of sEGFR, and generate stable dimers providing allosteric activation of the receptor. Moreover, receptor phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of PTP-1B phosphatase. Our data offer a promising paradigm for investigating new aspects of signal transduction mediated by EGFR in cancer cells exposed to electrophilic NBD compounds. PMID:24496106

  4. Anticancer activity of pristimerin in epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive SKBR3 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Sun; Yoon, In Sang; Lee, Myung Sun; Cha, Eun Young; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Diep, Trinh Thi; Kim, Je Ryong

    2013-01-01

    Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that causes cytotoxicity in several cancer cell lines. However, the mechanism of action for the cytotoxic effect of pristimerin has not been unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pristimerin on cytotoxicity using the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. Pristimerin inhibited proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners in cells. We found it to be effective for suppressing HER2 protein and mRNA expression. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression and FASN activity were downregulated by pristimerin. Adding of exogenous palmitate, the end product of de novo fatty acid synthesis, reduced the proliferation activity of pristimerin. The changes in HER2 and FASN expression induced by pristimerin altered the levels of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation (Erk1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)). Pristimerin lowered the levels of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and its downstream targets such as phosphoprotein 70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase and 4E binding protein1. Pristimerin inhibited migration and invasion of cells, and co-treatment with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin additionally suppressed these activities. Pristimerin-induced apoptosis was evaluated using Western blotting for caspase-3, -8, -9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase expression and flow cytometric analysis for propidium iodide labeling. These results suggest that pristimerin is a novel HER2-downregulated compound that is able to decrease fatty acid synthase and modulate the Akt, MAPK, and mTOR signaling pathways to influence metastasis and apoptosis. Pristimerin may be further evaluated as a chemotherapeutic agent for HER2-positive breast cancers. PMID:23370361

  5. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by diesel particles is mediated by tyrosine phosphatase inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tamara L.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kim, Yumee; Samet, James M.

    2008-12-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of ambient PM and may contribute to PM-induced pulmonary inflammation. Proinflammatory signaling is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways whose activation is opposed by the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) which thereby function to maintain signaling quiescence. PTPases contain an invariant catalytic cysteine that is susceptible to electrophilic attack. DEP contain electrophilic oxy-organic compounds that may contribute to the oxidant effects of PM. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to DEP impairs PTPase activity allowing for unopposed basal kinase activity. Here we report that exposure to 30 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} DEP for 4 h induces differential activation of signaling in primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEC), a primary target cell in PM inhalation. In-gel kinase activity assay of HAEC exposed to DEPs of low (L-DEP), intermediate (I-DEP) or high (H-DEP) organic content showed differential activation of intracellular kinases. Exposure to these DEP also induced varying levels of phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in a manner that requires EGFR kinase activity but does not involve receptor dimerization. We demonstrate that treatment with DEP results in an impairment of total and EGFR-directed PTPase activity in HAEC with a potency that is independent of the organic content of these particles. These data show that DEP-induced EGFR phosphorylation in HAEC is the result of a loss of PTPase activities which normally function to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity.

  7. Ligand-mediated autophosphorylation activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor during internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W.H.; Cameron, P.H.; Doherty, J.J. II; Posner, B.I.; Bergeron, J.J. )

    1989-12-01

    The association of EGF with its receptor in endosomes isolated from rat liver homogenates was assessed biochemically by polyethylene glycol precipitation and morphologically by electron microscope radioautography. The proportion of receptor-bound ligand in endosomes at 15 min after the injection of doses of 0.1 and 1 microgram EGF/100 g body weight was 57%. This value increased to 77% for the dose of 10 micrograms EGF injected. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography carried out on endosomes isolated at 15 min after the injection of 10 micrograms 125I-EGF demonstrated that most radiolabel was over the endosomal periphery thereby indicating that ligand-receptor complexes were in the bounding membrane but not in intraluminal vesicles of the content. EGF receptor autophosphorylation activity during internalization was evaluated in plasmalemma and endosome fractions. This activity was markedly but transiently reduced on the cell surface shortly after the administration of saturating doses of EGF. The same activity, however, was augmented and prolonged in endosomes for up to 30 min after EGF injection. The transient desensitization of cell surface activity was not due to prior in vivo phosphorylation since receptor dephosphorylation in vitro failed to restore autophosphorylation activity. Transient desensitization of cell surface autophosphorylation activity coincided with a diminished capacity for endocytosis of 125I-EGF with endocytosis returning to normal after the restoration of cell surface autophosphorylation activity. The inhibition of cell surface autophosphorylation activity and the activation of endosomal autophosphorylation activity coincident with downregulation suggest that EGF receptor traffic is governed by ligand-regulated phosphorylation activity.

  8. Intercalated chemotherapy and erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations.

    PubMed

    Zwitter, Matjaz; Rajer, Mirjana; Stanic, Karmen; Vrankar, Martina; Doma, Andrej; Cuderman, Anka; Grmek, Marko; Kern, Izidor; Kovac, Viljem

    2016-08-01

    Among attempts to delay development of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), intercalated therapy has not been properly evaluated. In a phase II trial, 38 patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC in advanced stage were treated with 4 to 6 3-weekly cycles of intercalated schedule with gemcitabine (1250 mg/m2, days 1 and 4), cisplatin (75 mg/m2, day 2) and erlotinib (150 mg, days 5 - 15), followed by continuous erlotinib as maintenance. In addition to standard radiologic evaluation according to RECIST, PET/CT was done prior to treatment and at 6 months, using PERCIST as a method for assessment of response. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). In general, tolerance to treatment was good, even among 8 patients with performance status 2-3 and 13 patients with brain metastases; grade 4 toxicity included 2 cases of neutropenia and 4 thrombo-embolic events. Complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were seen in 15 (39.5%) and 17 (44.7%) cases, respectively. All cases of CR were confirmed also by PET/CT. Median PFS was 23.4 months and median overall survival (OS) was 38.3  months. After a median follow-up of 35 months, 8 patients are still in CR and on maintenance erlotinib. In conclusion, intercalated treatment for treatment-naive patients with EGFR activating mutations leads to excellent response rate and prolonged PFS and survival. Comparison of the intercalated schedule to monotherapy with TKIs in a randomized trial is warranted. PMID:27261103

  9. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Biliary Epithelial Cell NRas Activation Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)

    PubMed Central

    Trussoni, Christy E.; Tabibian, James H.; Splinter, Patrick L.; O’Hara, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocytes (biliary epithelial cells) actively participate in microbe-induced proinflammatory responses in the liver and contribute to inflammatory and infectious cholangiopathies. We previously demonstrated that cholangiocyte TLR-dependent NRas activation contributes to proinflammatory/ proliferative responses. We test the hypothesis that LPS-induced activation of NRas requires the EGFR. SV40-transformed human cholangiocytes (H69 cells), or low passage normal human cholangiocytes (NHC), were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of EGFR or ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (TACE) inhibitors. Ras activation assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and proliferation assays were performed in cells cultured with or without inhibitors or an siRNA to Grb2. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR was performed on LPS-treated mouse samples and specimens from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatitis C, and normal livers. LPS-treatment induced an association between the TLR/MyD88 and EGFR/Grb2 signaling apparatus, NRas activation, and EGFR phosphorylation. NRas activation was sensitive to EGFR and TACE inhibitors and correlated with EGFR phosphorylation. The TACE inhibitor and Grb2 depletion prevented LPS-induced IL6 expression (p<0.05) and proliferation (p<0.01). Additionally, cholangiocytes from LPS-treated mouse livers and human primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) livers exhibited increased phospho-EGFR (p<0.01). Moreover, LPS-induced mouse cholangiocyte proliferation was inhibited by concurrent treatment with the EGFR inhibitor, Erlotinib. Our results suggest that EGFR is essential for LPS-induced, TLR4/MyD88-mediated NRas activation and induction of a robust proinflammatory cholangiocyte response. These findings have implications not only for revealing the signaling potential of TLRs, but also implicate EGFR as an integral component of cholangiocyte TLR-induced proinflammatory processes. PMID:25915403

  10. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Biliary Epithelial Cell NRas Activation Requires Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR).

    PubMed

    Trussoni, Christy E; Tabibian, James H; Splinter, Patrick L; O'Hara, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocytes (biliary epithelial cells) actively participate in microbe-induced proinflammatory responses in the liver and contribute to inflammatory and infectious cholangiopathies. We previously demonstrated that cholangiocyte TLR-dependent NRas activation contributes to proinflammatory/ proliferative responses. We test the hypothesis that LPS-induced activation of NRas requires the EGFR. SV40-transformed human cholangiocytes (H69 cells), or low passage normal human cholangiocytes (NHC), were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of EGFR or ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (TACE) inhibitors. Ras activation assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and proliferation assays were performed in cells cultured with or without inhibitors or an siRNA to Grb2. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR was performed on LPS-treated mouse samples and specimens from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, hepatitis C, and normal livers. LPS-treatment induced an association between the TLR/MyD88 and EGFR/Grb2 signaling apparatus, NRas activation, and EGFR phosphorylation. NRas activation was sensitive to EGFR and TACE inhibitors and correlated with EGFR phosphorylation. The TACE inhibitor and Grb2 depletion prevented LPS-induced IL6 expression (p<0.05) and proliferation (p<0.01). Additionally, cholangiocytes from LPS-treated mouse livers and human primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) livers exhibited increased phospho-EGFR (p<0.01). Moreover, LPS-induced mouse cholangiocyte proliferation was inhibited by concurrent treatment with the EGFR inhibitor, Erlotinib. Our results suggest that EGFR is essential for LPS-induced, TLR4/MyD88-mediated NRas activation and induction of a robust proinflammatory cholangiocyte response. These findings have implications not only for revealing the signaling potential of TLRs, but also implicate EGFR as an integral component of cholangiocyte TLR-induced proinflammatory processes. PMID:25915403

  11. Epidermal growth factor and growth in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes a dose-dependent thickening of the epidermis in suckling mice. The cellular mechanisms underlying this thickening were analyzed by measuring the effect of EGF on the cell-cycle. Neonatal mice were given daily injections of either 2ug EGF/g body weight/day or an equivalent volume of saline, and on the seventh day received a single injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine. At various times the mice were perfused with fixative; 1um sections of skin were stained with a modification of Harris' hematoxylin and were autoradiographed. The sections were analyzed using three methods based on the dependence on time after injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine of: frequency of labelled mitoses, labelling index, and reciprocal grains/nucleus. It was found that EGF caused a two-fold increase in the cell production rate. The effect of exogenous EGF on the morphology of gastric mucosa and incisors of suckling mice was also studied. The gastric mucosa appeared thicker in EGF-treated animals, but the effect was not statistically significant. In contrast to its effect on epidermis and gastric mucosa, EGF caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in the size of the incisors. Because the mouse submandibular salivary gland is the major source of EGF the effect of sialoadenectomy on female reproductive functions was examined. Ablation of the submandibular gland had no effect on: length of estrus cycle, ability of the female to produce litters, length of the gestation period, litter size, and weight of the litter at birth. There was also no effect on survival of the offspring or on age at which the eyelids separated.

  12. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  13. Fluorogen Activating Protein–Affibody Probes: Modular, No-Wash Measurement of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence is essential for dynamic live cell imaging, and affinity reagents are required for quantification of endogenous proteins. Various fluorescent dyes can report on different aspects of biological trafficking, but must be independently conjugated to affinity reagents and characterized for specific biological readouts. Here we present the characterization of a new modular platform for small anti-EGFR affinity probes for studying rapid changes in receptor pools. A protein domain (FAP dL5**) that binds to malachite-green (MG) derivatives for fluorescence activation was expressed as a recombinant fusion to one or two copies of the compact EGFR binding affibody ZEGFR:1907. This is a recombinant and fluorogenic labeling reagent for native EGFR molecules. In vitro fluorescence assays demonstrated that the binding of these dyes to the FAP–affibody fusions produced thousand-fold fluorescence enhancements, with high binding affinity and fast association rates. Flow cytometry assays and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these probes label endogenous EGFR on A431 cells without disruption of EGFR function, and low nanomolar surface Kd values were observed with the double-ZEGFR:1907 constructs. The application of light-harvesting fluorogens (dyedrons) significantly improved the detected fluorescence signal. Altering the order of addition of the ligand, probe, and dyes allowed differentiation between surface and endocytotic pools of receptors to reveal the rapid dynamics of endocytic trafficking. Therefore, FAP/affibody coupling provides a new approach to construct compact and modular affinity probes that label endogenous proteins on living cells and can be used for studying rapid changes in receptor pools involved in trafficking. PMID:25490520

  14. Fluorogen activating protein-affibody probes: modular, no-wash measurement of epidermal growth factor receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Telmer, Cheryl A; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Franke, Josef D; Ort, Stephan; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2015-01-21

    Fluorescence is essential for dynamic live cell imaging, and affinity reagents are required for quantification of endogenous proteins. Various fluorescent dyes can report on different aspects of biological trafficking, but must be independently conjugated to affinity reagents and characterized for specific biological readouts. Here we present the characterization of a new modular platform for small anti-EGFR affinity probes for studying rapid changes in receptor pools. A protein domain (FAP dL5**) that binds to malachite-green (MG) derivatives for fluorescence activation was expressed as a recombinant fusion to one or two copies of the compact EGFR binding affibody ZEGFR:1907. This is a recombinant and fluorogenic labeling reagent for native EGFR molecules. In vitro fluorescence assays demonstrated that the binding of these dyes to the FAP-affibody fusions produced thousand-fold fluorescence enhancements, with high binding affinity and fast association rates. Flow cytometry assays and fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that these probes label endogenous EGFR on A431 cells without disruption of EGFR function, and low nanomolar surface Kd values were observed with the double-ZEGFR:1907 constructs. The application of light-harvesting fluorogens (dyedrons) significantly improved the detected fluorescence signal. Altering the order of addition of the ligand, probe, and dyes allowed differentiation between surface and endocytotic pools of receptors to reveal the rapid dynamics of endocytic trafficking. Therefore, FAP/affibody coupling provides a new approach to construct compact and modular affinity probes that label endogenous proteins on living cells and can be used for studying rapid changes in receptor pools involved in trafficking. PMID:25490520

  15. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  16. The biology of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Sundaresan, S; Penuel, E; Sliwkowski, M X

    1999-09-01

    Our understanding of the normal signaling mechanisms and functions of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and other members of the HER family, namely epidermal growth factor receptor, HER3, and HER4, is growing rapidly. Activation of these receptors results in a diverse array of signals through the formation of homodimeric and heterodimeric receptor complexes; HER2 is the preferred dimerization partner for the other HERs. These oligomeric receptor complexes activate distinct signaling pathways, such as the Ras-MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways. These, in turn, affect various cellular processes. Recent gene deletion experiments in mice point to an important role for HER2 in cardiac and neural development, and evidence from other studies indicates that HER2 is involved in normal breast growth and development. Thus, HER2 is a key component of a complex signaling network that plays a critical role in the regulation of tissue development, growth, and differentiation. PMID:11122793

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates epidermal growth factor-induced activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, S K; Falasca, M; Hu, P; Schlessinger, J

    1997-01-01

    The signaling events which mediate activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are not yet well characterized. To broaden our understanding of upstream mediators which link extracellular signals to the JNK pathway, we investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated JNK activation. In this report we demonstrate that a dominant negative form of PI 3-kinase as well as the inhibitor wortmannin blocks EGF-induced JNK activation dramatically. However, wortmannin does not have an effect on JNK activation induced by UV irradiation or osmotic shock. In addition, a membrane-targeted, constitutively active PI 3-kinase (p110beta) was shown to produce in vivo products and to activate JNK, while a kinase-mutated form of this protein showed no activation. On the basis of these experiments, we propose that PI 3-kinase activity plays a role in EGF-induced JNK activation in these cells. PMID:9315636

  18. Angiocidin Inhibits Breast Cancer Proliferation Through Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Nuclear Factor κB (Nf-κB)

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Jessica; Sargiannidou, Irene; Patel, Sneha; Hurd, Lauren; Rothman, Vicki L.; Tuszynski, George P.

    2011-01-01

    Angiocidin, a tumor-associated peptide, has been previously shown to inhibit tumor progression by blocking angiogenesis. We now show that angiocidin has a direct inhibitory effect on tumor cell proliferation. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were inhibited from proliferating in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and angiocidin. Angiocidin transfected breast cancer cells also displayed growth inhibition in vitro and failed to develop significant tumors in mice as compared to vector controls. The anti-proliferative effect of angiocidin was reversed by treating the cells with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor 4557W, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Consistent with these results, we found that treatment of breast cancer cells with angiocidin induced a 2.3 fold increase in EGFR tyrosine 845 phosphorylation while no change in phosphorylation was observed in the remaining 16 phosphorylation sites of EGFR and those of its family members as measured by a human EGFR phosphorylation array. Treatment of breast cancer cells with angiocidin also resulted in the activation of nuclear factor κB (Nf-κB) and the de novo up-regulation of many down-stream genes transcribed by Nf-κB, including cytokines, inflammatory mediators and the cell cycle inhibitor p21waf1. Therefore, angiocidin is a peptide that not only inhibits tumor angiogenesis but directly induces inhibition of tumor growth progression through the activation of EGFR and down-stream genes transcribed by Nf-κB. PMID:21241690

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation Is Required for Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activation by Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors in HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Kühne, Sina; Bocksberger, Simone; Banning, Antje; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Non-neuronal acetylcholine plays a substantial role in the human skin by influencing adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. These processes are regulated by the Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade. Here we show that in HaCaT keratinocytes all five muscarinic receptor subtypes are expressed, but M1 and M3 are the subtypes involved in mitogenic signaling. Stimulation with the cholinergic agonist carbachol leads to activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal regulated kinase, together with the protein kinase Akt. The activation is fully dependent on the transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which even appears to be the sole pathway for the muscarinic receptors to facilitate MAP kinase activation in HaCaT cells. The transactivation pathway involves a triple-membrane-passing process, based on activation of matrix metalloproteases, and extracellular ligand release; whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Src family kinases or protein kinase C do not appear to be involved in MAP kinase activation. Furthermore, phosphorylation, ubiquitination and endocytosis of the EGF receptor after cholinergic transactivation are different from that induced by a direct stimulation with EGF, suggesting that ligands other than EGF itself mediate the cholinergic transactivation. PMID:25421240

  20. Striatal but not frontal cortical up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in rats exposed to immune activation in utero and cannabinoid treatment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Idrizi, Rejhan; Malcolm, Peter; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Suresh Sundram

    2016-06-30

    In utero maternal immune activation (MIA) and cannabinoid exposure during adolescence constitute environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated these risk factors alone and in combination ("two-hit") on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and neuregulin-1 receptor (ErbB4) levels in the rat brain. EGFR but not ErbB4 receptor protein levels were significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of "two-hit" rats only, with no changes seen at the mRNA level. These findings support region specific EGF-system dysregulation as a plausible mechanism in this animal model of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:27138815

  1. Integrin alpha1beta1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor activation by controlling peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent caveolin-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiwu; Whiting, Carrie; Borza, Corina; Hu, Wen; Mont, Stacey; Bulus, Nada; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Harris, Raymond C; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-06-01

    Integrin alpha1beta1 negatively regulates the generation of profibrotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation; however, the mechanism by which it does this is unknown. In this study, we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a scaffolding protein that binds integrins and controls growth factor receptor signaling, participates in integrin alpha1beta1-mediated EGFR activation. Integrin alpha1-null mesangial cells (MCs) have reduced Cav-1 levels, and reexpression of the integrin alpha1 subunit increases Cav-1 levels, decreases EGFR activation, and reduces ROS production. Downregulation of Cav-1 in wild-type MCs increases EGFR phosphorylation and ROS synthesis, while overexpression of Cav-1 in the integrin alpha1-null MCs decreases EGFR-mediated ROS production. We further show that integrin alpha1-null MCs have increased levels of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which leads to reduced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a transcription factor that positively regulates Cav-1 expression. Moreover, activation of PPARgamma or inhibition of ERK increases Cav-1 levels in the integrin alpha1-null MCs. Finally, we show that glomeruli of integrin alpha1-null mice have reduced levels of Cav-1 and activated PPARgamma but increased levels of phosphorylated EGFR both at baseline and following injury. Thus, integrin alpha1beta1 negatively regulates EGFR activation by positively controlling Cav-1 levels, and the ERK/PPARgamma axis plays a key role in regulating integrin alpha1beta1-dependent Cav-1 expression and consequent EGFR-mediated ROS production. PMID:20368353

  2. Integrin α1β1 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activation by Controlling Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Dependent Caveolin-1 Expression ▿ # ‖

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiwu; Whiting, Carrie; Borza, Corina; Hu, Wen; Mont, Stacey; Bulus, Nada; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Harris, Raymond C.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2010-01-01

    Integrin α1β1 negatively regulates the generation of profibrotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation; however, the mechanism by which it does this is unknown. In this study, we show that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a scaffolding protein that binds integrins and controls growth factor receptor signaling, participates in integrin α1β1-mediated EGFR activation. Integrin α1-null mesangial cells (MCs) have reduced Cav-1 levels, and reexpression of the integrin α1 subunit increases Cav-1 levels, decreases EGFR activation, and reduces ROS production. Downregulation of Cav-1 in wild-type MCs increases EGFR phosphorylation and ROS synthesis, while overexpression of Cav-1 in the integrin α1-null MCs decreases EGFR-mediated ROS production. We further show that integrin α1-null MCs have increased levels of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which leads to reduced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a transcription factor that positively regulates Cav-1 expression. Moreover, activation of PPARγ or inhibition of ERK increases Cav-1 levels in the integrin α1-null MCs. Finally, we show that glomeruli of integrin α1-null mice have reduced levels of Cav-1 and activated PPARγ but increased levels of phosphorylated EGFR both at baseline and following injury. Thus, integrin α1β1 negatively regulates EGFR activation by positively controlling Cav-1 levels, and the ERK/PPARγ axis plays a key role in regulating integrin α1β1-dependent Cav-1 expression and consequent EGFR-mediated ROS production. PMID:20368353

  3. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator-like Proteases in Teleosts Lack Genuine Receptor-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Bager, René; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jensen, Jan K.; Szczur, Agnieszka; Christensen, Anni; Andersen, Lisbeth M.; Johansen, Jesper S.; Larsen, Niels; Baatrup, Erik; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activation catalyzed by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling processes. Since its discovery in the mid-1980s, the cell membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been believed to be central to the functions of uPA, as uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation activity appeared to be confined to cell surfaces through the binding of uPA to uPAR. However, a functional uPAR has so far only been identified in mammals. We have now cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized two zebrafish proteases, zfuPA-a and zfuPA-b, which by several criteria are the fish orthologs of mammalian uPA. Thus, both proteases catalyze the activation of fish plasminogen efficiently and both proteases are inhibited rapidly by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). But zfuPA-a differs from mammalian uPA by lacking the exon encoding the uPAR-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain; zfuPA-b differs from mammalian uPA by lacking two cysteines of the epidermal growth factor-like domain and a uPAR-binding sequence comparable with that found in mammalian uPA. Accordingly, no zfuPA-b binding activity could be found in fish white blood cells or fish cell lines. We therefore propose that the current consensus of uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation taking place on cell surfaces, derived from observations with mammals, is too narrow. Fish uPAs appear incapable of receptor binding in the manner known from mammals and uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in fish may occur mainly in solution. Studies with nonmammalian vertebrate species are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of plasminogen activation. PMID:22733817

  4. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and PTEN Modulate Tissue Factor Expression in Glioblastoma through JunD/Activator Protein-1 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yuan; Belozerov, Vladimir E.; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Chen, Gang; Durden, Donald L.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Mackman, Nigel; Brat, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Hypoxia and necrosis are fundamental features of glioblastoma (GBM) and their emergence is critical for the rapid biological progression of this fatal tumor; yet, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We have suggested that vaso-occlusion following intravascular thrombosis could initiate or propagate hypoxia and necrosis in GBM. Tissue factor (TF), the main cellular initiator of coagulation, is overexpressed in GBMs and likely favors a thrombotic microenvironment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification and PTEN loss are two common genetic alterations seen in GBM but not in lower-grade astrocytomas that could be responsible for TF up-regulation. The most frequent EGFR mutation in GBM involves deletion of exons 2 to 7, resulting in the expression of a constitutively active receptor, EGFRvIII. Here, we show that overexpression of EGFR or EGFRvIII in human glioma cells causes increased basal TF expression and that stimulation of EGFR by its ligand, EGF, leads to a marked dose-dependent up-regulation of TF. In all cases, increased TF expression led to accelerated plasma coagulation in vitro. EGFR-mediated TF expression depended most strongly on activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcriptional activity and was associated with c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and JunD activation. Restoration of PTEN expression in PTEN-deficient GBM cells diminished EGFR-induced TF expression by inhibiting JunD/AP-1 transcriptional activity. PTEN mediated this effect by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, which in turn attenuated both Akt and JNK activities. These mechanisms are likely at work in vivo, as EGFR expression was highly correlated with TF expression in human high-grade astrocytoma specimens. PMID:19276385

  6. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) withdrawal masks gene expression differences in the study of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) activation of primary neural stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Sievertzon, Maria; Wirta, Valtteri; Mercer, Alex; Frisén, Jonas; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2005-01-01

    Background The recently discovered adult neural stem cells, which maintain continuous generation of new neuronal and glial cells throughout adulthood, are a promising and expandable source of cells for use in cell replacement therapies within the central nervous system. These cells could either be induced to proliferate and differentiate endogenously, or expanded and differentiated in culture before being transplanted into the damaged site of the brain. In order to achieve these goals effective strategies to isolate, expand and differentiate neural stem cells into the desired specific phenotypes must be developed. However, little is known as yet about the factors and mechanisms influencing these processes. It has recently been reported that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) promotes neural stem cell proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Results We used cDNA microarrays with the aim of analysing the transcriptional changes underlying PACAP induced proliferation of neural stem cells. The primary neural stem/progenitor cells used were neurospheres, generated from the lateral ventricle wall of the adult mouse brain. The results were compared to both differentiation and proliferation controls, which revealed an unexpected and significant differential expression relating to withdrawal of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the neurosphere growth medium. The effect of EGF removal was so pronounced that it masked the changes in gene expression patterns produced by the addition of PACAP. Conclusion Experimental models aiming at transcriptional analysis of induced proliferation in primary neural stem cells need to take into consideration the significant effect on transcription caused by removal of EGF. Alternatively, EGF-free culture conditions need to be developed. PMID:16124881

  7. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt. PMID:15525798

  8. MEK Kinase 2 and the Adaptor Protein Lad Regulate Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation by Epidermal Growth Factor via Src

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyong; Wei, Xudong; Kesavan, Kamala; Garrington, Timothy P.; Fan, Ruihua; Mei, Junjie; Anderson, Steven M.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Lad is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that binds MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and JNK pathways. Lad and MEKK2 are in a complex in resting cells. Antisense knockdown of Lad expression and targeted gene disruption of MEKK2 expression results in loss of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and stress stimuli-induced activation of ERK5. Activation of MEKK2 and the ERK5 pathway by EGF and stress stimuli is dependent on Src kinase activity. The Lad-binding motif is encoded within amino acids 228 to 282 in the N terminus of MEKK2, and expression of this motif blocks Lad-MEKK2 interaction, resulting in inhibition of Src-dependent activation of MEKK2 and ERK5. JNK activation by EGF is similarly inhibited by loss of Lad or MEKK2 expression and by blocking the interaction of MEKK2 and Lad. Our studies demonstrate that Src kinase activity is required for ERK5 activation in response to EGF, MEKK2 expression is required for ERK5 activation by Src, Lad and MEKK2 association is required for Src activation of ERK5, and EGF and Src stimulation of ERK5-regulated MEF2-dependent promoter activity requires a functional Lad-MEKK2 signaling complex. PMID:12640115

  9. 8-Prenylnaringenin inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Elisa; Pinton, Giulia; Chianale, Federica; Graziani, Andrea; Appendino, Giovanni; Moro, Laura

    2009-02-01

    8-Prenylnaringenin (8PN), one of the strongest plant-derived oestrogen receptors (ERs) ligand, has been suggested to have potential cancer chemo-preventive activities and anti-angiogenic properties. Because published data suggest that ERs serve as nodal point that allows interactions between hormones and growth factors mediated pathways, we decided to investigate the effects exerted by 8PN on Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-elicited pathways in breast cancer cells. Here we show that in ER positive MCF-7 cells, 8PN interferes with EGF induced cell proliferation by strongly inhibiting activation of PI(3)K/Akt pathway, without affecting EGFR expression or tyrosine phosphorylation, and exerting a synergistic activation of Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, we demonstrate that 8PN is a direct inhibitor of PI(3)K activity as it is shown by in vitro experiments with the purified enzyme and by its inability to impair serine phosphorylation of a constitutive active form of Akt. These findings suggest that inhibition of PI(3)K is a novel mechanism which contributes to 8PN activity to inhibit cancer cell survival and EGF induced proliferation. PMID:19103290

  10. Discovery and Evaluation of Clinical Candidate AZD3759, a Potent, Oral Active, Central Nervous System-Penetrant, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qingbei; Wang, Jiabing; Cheng, Ziqiang; Chen, Kan; Johnström, Peter; Varnäs, Katarina; Li, David Yunzhi; Yang, Zhen Fan; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2015-10-22

    Recent reports suggest that an increasing number of patients with lung cancer, especially those with activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), also present with brain metastases and leptomeningeal metastases. These patients have poor prognosis as there are no approved drugs for these indications. Available agents have poor efficacy for these patients even at well above their standard dose. Herein, we report the discovery of (4-[(3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino]-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl (2R)-2,4-dimethylpiperazine-1-carboxylate 1m (AZD3759), an investigational drug currently in Phase 1 clinical trial, which has excellent central nervous system penetration and which induces profound regression of brain metastases in a mouse model. PMID:26313252

  11. Biphasic activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Joo, Donghyun; Woo, Jong Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Han, Seung Hyun; Min, Tae Sun; Yang, Deok-Chun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-04-01

    Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the biphasic activation of ERK1/2 plays a role in cancer cell survival; thus, regulation of ERK1/2 activation may improve the efficacy of cancer therapies that target ERK signaling. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 220-225]. PMID:26879318

  12. Biphasic activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Donghyun; Woo, Jong Soo; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Han, Seung Hyun; Min, Tae Sun; Yang, Deok-Chun; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells have different characteristics due to the genetic differences where these unique features may strongly influence the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that the spontaneous reactivation of extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK), distinct from conventional ERK activation, represents a potent mechanism for cancer cell survival. We studied ERK1/2 activation in vitro in SW480 colorectal cancer cells. Although ERK signaling tends to be transiently activated, we observed the delayed reactivation of ERK1/2 in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated SW480 cells. This effect was observed even after EGF withdrawal. While phosphorylated ERK1/2 translocated into the nucleus following its primary activation, it remained in the cytoplasm during late-phase activation. The inhibition of primary ERK1/2 activation or protein trafficking, blocked reactivation and concurrently increased caspase 3 activity. Our results suggest that the biphasic activation of ERK1/2 plays a role in cancer cell survival; thus, regulation of ERK1/2 activation may improve the efficacy of cancer therapies that target ERK signaling. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 220-225] PMID:26879318

  13. Oral administration recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor enhances the jejunal digestive enzyme genes expression and activity of early-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Lee, D N; Chuang, Y S; Chiou, H Y; Wu, F Y; Yen, H T; Weng, C F

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to determine ingested porcine epidermal growth factor (pEGF) on the gastrointestinal tract development of early-weaned piglets. Thirty-two piglets (14-day weaned) were randomly allotted to supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 mg pEGF/kg diet. Each treatment consisted of four replicates with two pigs per pen for a 14 days experimental period. Piglets were sacrificed and gastrointestinal tract samples were collected to measure mucosa morphology, mRNA expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets at the end of the experiment. Diets supplemented with pEGF failed to influence growth performance but tended to increase jejunal mucosa weight (p < 0.09) and protein content (p < 0.07). Piglets supplemental pEGF induced incrementally the gastric pepsin activity (p < 0.05) and stimulated jejunal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactase activities accompanied with the increase of jejunal ALP and maltase mRNA expression. No effect of pEGF on the activities of all enzymes in ileum except the stimulation of ileal aminopeptide N mRNA expression. These results reveal that dietary pEGF supplementation might enhance gene expression and activities of digestive enzymes in the stomach and jejunum of piglets. PMID:18662356

  14. Fluence Rate Differences in Photodynamic Therapy Efficacy and Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor after Treatment of the Tumor-Involved Murine Thoracic Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Craig E.; Carter, Shirron L.; Czupryna, Julie; Wang, Le; Putt, Mary E.; Busch, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the thoracic cavity can be performed in conjunction with surgery to treat cancers of the lung and its pleura. However, illumination of the cavity results in tissue exposure to a broad range of fluence rates. In a murine model of intrathoracic PDT, we studied the efficacy of 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH; Photochlor®)-mediated PDT in reducing the burden of non-small cell lung cancer for treatments performed at different incident fluence rates (75 versus 150 mW/cm). To better understand a role for growth factor signaling in disease progression after intrathoracic PDT, the expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was evaluated in areas of post-treatment proliferation. The low fluence rate of 75 mW/cm produced the largest reductions in tumor burden. Bioluminescent imaging and histological staining for cell proliferation (anti-Ki-67) identified areas of disease progression at both fluence rates after PDT. However, increased EGFR activation in proliferative areas was detected only after treatment at the higher fluence rate of 150 mW/cm. These data suggest that fluence rate may affect the activation of survival factors, such as EGFR, and weaker activation at lower fluence rate could contribute to a smaller tumor burden after PDT at 75 mW/cm. PMID:26784170

  15. The Tumor Suppressor Activity of the Transmembrane Protein with Epidermal Growth Factor and Two Follistatin Motifs 2 (TMEFF2) Correlates with Its Ability to Modulate Sarcosine Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaofei; Overcash, Ryan; Green, Thomas; Hoffman, Donald; Asch, Adam S.; Ruiz-Echevarría, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is expressed in brain and prostate and overexpressed in prostate cancer, but its role in this disease is unclear. Several studies have suggested that TMEFF2 plays a role in suppressing the growth and invasive potential of human cancer cells, whereas others suggest that the shed portion of TMEFF2, which lacks the cytoplasmic region, has a growth-promoting activity. Here we show that TMEFF2 has a dual mode of action. Ectopic expression of wild-type full-length TMEFF2 inhibits soft agar colony formation, cellular invasion, and migration and increases cellular sensitivity to apoptosis. However, expression of the ectodomain portion of TMEFF2 increases cell proliferation. Using affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identify sarcosine dehydrogenase (SARDH), the enzyme that converts sarcosine to glycine, as a TMEFF2-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analysis confirms the interaction of SARDH with full-length TMEFF2. The ectodomain does not bind to SARDH. Moreover, expression of the full-length TMEFF2 but not the ectodomain results in a decreased level of sarcosine in the cells. These results suggest that the tumor suppressor activity of TMEFF2 requires the cytoplasmic/transmembrane portion of the protein and correlates with its ability to bind to SARDH and to modulate the level of sarcosine. PMID:21393249

  16. Epidermal growth factor signaling in transformed cells

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB) family play a critical role in normal cell growth and development. However, many ErbB family members, especially EGFR, are aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and are thought to play crucial roles in cancer development and metastatic progression. In this chapter, we provide an overview of key mechanisms contributing to aberrant EGFR/ErbB signaling in transformed cells which results in many phenotypic changes associated with the earliest stages of tumor formation, including several hallmarks of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These changes often occur through interaction with other major signaling pathways important to tumor progression resulting in a multitude of transcriptional changes that ultimately impact cell morphology, proliferation and adhesion, all of which are crucial for tumor progression. The resulting mesh of signaling networks will need to be taken into account as new regimens are designed for targeting EGFR for therapeutic intervention. As new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the cross-talk of EGFR signaling with other signaling pathways and their role in therapeutic resistance to anti-EGFR therapies are gained a continual reassessment of clinical therapeutic regimes and strategies will be required. Understanding the consequences and complexity of EGF signaling and how it relates to tumor progression is critical for the development of clinical compounds and establishing clinical protocols for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25619714

  17. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} in epidermal growth factor-induced HaCaT cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Pengfei; Jiang Bimei; Yang Xinghua; Xiao Xianzhong Huang Xu; Long Jianhong; Zhang Pihong; Zhang Minghua; Xiao Muzhang; Xie Tinghong; Huang Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent mitogen for epidermal cells both in vitro and in vivo, thus contributing to the development of an organism. It has recently become clear that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) expression and activation is involved in the cell proliferation. However, little is known about the role of PPAR{beta}/{delta} in EGF-induced proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes. In this study, HaCaT cells were cultured in the presence and absence of EGF and we identified that EGF induced an increase of PPAR{beta}/{delta} mRNA and protein level expression in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, and AG1487, an EGF receptor (EGFR) special inhibitor, caused attenuation of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that EGF significantly increased PPAR{beta}/{delta} binding activity in HaCaT keratinocytes. Antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (asODNs) against PPAR{beta}/{delta} caused selectively inhibition of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein content induced by EGF and significantly attenuated EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Treatment of the cells with L165041, a specific synthetic ligand for PPAR{beta}/{delta}, significantly enhanced EGF-mediated cell proliferation. Finally, c-Jun ablation inhibited PPAR{beta}/{delta} up-regulation induced by EGF, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that c-Jun bound to the PPAR{beta}/{delta} promoter and the binding increased in EGF-stimulated cells. These results demonstrate that EGF induces PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression in a c-Jun-dependent manner and PPAR{beta}/{delta} plays a vital role in EGF-stimulated proliferation of HaCaT cells.

  18. Squamosamide derivative FLZ protects retinal pigment epithelium cells from oxidative stress through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Bo; Chen, Chun-Ming; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Li-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell apoptosis is attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. FLZ, a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative from a Chinese herb, Annona glabra, has displayed significant cyto-protective activity. In the current study, we explored the pro-survival effect of FLZ in oxidative stressed-RPE cells and studied the underlying signaling mechanisms. Our results showed that FLZ attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced viability decrease and apoptosis in the RPE cell line (ARPE-19 cells) and in primary mouse RPE cells. Western blotting results showed that FLZ activated AKT signaling in RPE cells. The AKT-specific inhibitor, MK-2206, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pan inhibitor, wortmannin, and AKT1-shRNA (short hairpin RNA) depletion almost abolished FLZ-mediated pro-survival/anti-apoptosis activity. We discovered that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation mediated FLZ-induced AKT activation and the pro-survival effect in RPE cells, and the anti-apoptosis effect of FLZ against H2O2 was inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor, PD153035, or by EGFR shRNA-knockdown. In conclusion, FLZ protects RPE cells from oxidative stress through activation of EGFR-AKT signaling, and our results suggest that FLZ might have therapeutic values for AMD. PMID:25329617

  19. Graphene Nanoribbons Elicit Cell Specific Uptake and Delivery Via Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Enhanced by Human PapillomaVirus E5 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Mannepalli, Prady; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Ligands such as peptides, antibodies or other epitopes bind and activate specific cell receptors, and are employed for targeted cellular delivery of pharmaceuticals such as drugs, genes and imaging agents. Herein, we show that oxidized graphene nanoribbons, non-covalently functionalized with PEG-DSPE (1, 2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N[amino(polyethyleneglycol)]) (O-GNR-PEG-DSPE) activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). This activation generates predominantly dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like response, and results in significant O-GNR-PEG-DSPE uptake into cells with high EGFR expression. Cells with an integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) genome also show increased uptake due to the modulation of the activated EFGR by the viral protein E5. We demonstrate that this cell specific uptake of O-GNR-PEG-DSPE can be exploited to achieve significantly enhanced drug efficacies even in drug resistant cells. These results have implications towards the development of active targeting and delivery agents without ligand functionalization for use in the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies that overexpress EGFR or mediated by HPV. PMID:24980059

  20. [Epidermal growth factor, innovation and safety].

    PubMed

    Esquirol Caussa, Jordi; Herrero Vila, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    Bioidentical recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) is available in concentrations and purity suitable for therapeutic use in long time stable formulations. Beneficial effects in several skin pathologies and lesions have been reported (traumatic and surgical wound healing, laser induced wounds, abnormal scars, keloids, radiation or chemotherapy induced dermatitis, post inflammatory hyperpigmentation or for skin aging damage repairing) and also may be considered for the treatment of several oropharingeal and high gastroesophageal tract mucosa diseases (mouth sores, pharyngeal fistulas, ulcers), and several corneal or conjunctive mucosa lesions. rhEGF has not shown any important side or collateral effects in humans or in laboratory experimentation animals, showing optimal tolerability and safety with continuous use for months. Compounding gives advantages of versatility, individualization, personalization, molecular stability, safety and effectiveness in ideal conditions, showing good tissue penetration, both on intact skin and skin lesions that expose the lower planes to the surface. rhEGF compounds can be considered for prevention or as a treatment of diverse skin and mucosa diseases and conditions through compounding preparations. PMID:25433777

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  2. Improved biological activity of a single chain antibody fragment against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressed in the periplasm of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Vajihe; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Abedi, Daryoush; Chou, C Perry

    2015-12-01

    A novel monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), i.e., pertuzumab (Perjeta®) developed by Genentech, has been verified to be effective in treating metastatic HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. The fact that the presence of the Fc region of the anti-HER2 is uncritical for growth inhibition of tumor cells suggests the potential biological activity of the associated antibody fragments. In the present study, we report functional expression of anti-HER2his-scFv, a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from pertuzumab, in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and its purification. Biological activity of the soluble scFv produced in this manner was characterized using immunofluorescent staining, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assay. The effect of anti-HER2his-scFv on HER2 dimerization was also assessed by tyrosine kinase assay. It was observed that the purified scFv had a high specificity and affinity to HER2 receptors expressed on the surface of tumor cells with a selective cytotoxic effect on HER2-overexpressing SK-OV-3 cells. In addition, anti-HER2his-scFv was able to suppress phosphorylation of HER2 in the presence of heregulin. The results suggest that anti-HER2his-scFv can be a potential candidate for various therapeutic and diagnosis applications. PMID:26166178

  3. Small activating ribonucleic acid reverses tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in epidermal growth factor receptor‐mutant lung cancer by increasing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Peng, Zhongmin; Ren, Wangang

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI‐EGFRs) present a new prospect for the treatment of lung cancer. However, in clinical application, the majority of patients become TKI resistant within a year. More and more studies have shown that a loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression is associated with TKI resistance. An alternative method of upregulating PTEN expression may reverse TKI resistance. Methods We designed five candidate small activating ribonucleic acids (saRNAs) to target PTEN, and transfected them into H‐157 cells to screen out functional saRNA. We used reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to evaluate the effect of saRNA to PTEN expression. We then analyzed the growth and apoptosis of cells transfected with saRNA under the treatment of TKI to investigate whether saRNAs can reverse TKI resistance by upregulating PTEN expression. Results The functional saRNA we designed could upregulate PTEN expression. The H‐157 cells transfected with saRNA grew slower in the presence of TKI drugs than the cells that were not transfected with saRNA. The apoptosis rate was also obviously higher. Conclusions Our study proves that loss of PTEN expression is an important mechanism of TKI resistance. It is possible to control TKI resistance by upregulating PTEN expression using RNA activation technology. PMID:27385992

  4. Stimulation of casein kinase II by epidermal growth factor: Relationship between the physiological activity of the kinase and the phosphorylation state of its beta subunit

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, P.; Osheroff, N. ); Glover, C.V.C. )

    1990-01-01

    To determine relationships between the hormonal activation of casein kinase II and its phosphorylation state, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated and EGF-naive human A-431 carcinoma cells were cultured in the presence of ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that casein kinase II in the cytosol of EGF-treated cells contained approximately 3-fold more incorporated ({sup 32}P)phosphate than did its counterpart in untreated cells. Levels of kinase phosphorylation paralleled levels of kinase activity over a wide range of EGF concentrations as well as over a time course of hormone action. Approximately 97% of the incorporated ({sup 32}P)phosphate was found in the {beta} subunit of casein kinase II. Both activated and hormone-naive kinase contained radioactive phosphoserine and phosphothreonine but no phosphotyronsine. On the basis of proteolytic mapping experiments, EGF treatment of A-431 cells led to an increase in the average ({sup 32}P)phosphate content (i.e., hyperphosphorylation) of casein kinase II {beta} subunit peptides which were modified prior to hormone treatment. Finally, the effect of alkaline phosphatase on the reaction kinetics of activated casein kinase II indicated that hormonal stimulation of the kinase resulted from the increase in its phosphorylation state.

  5. Hinokitiol inhibits vasculogenic mimicry activity of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells through proteasome-mediated degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    TU, DOM-GENE; YU, YUN; LEE, CHE-HSIN; KUO, YU-LIANG; LU, YIN-CHE; TU, CHI-WEN; CHANG, WEN-WEI

    2016-01-01

    Hinokitiol, alternatively known as β-thujaplicin, is a tropolone-associated natural compound with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity. Breast cancer stem/progenitor cells (BCSCs) are a subpopulation of breast cancer cells associated with tumor initiation, chemoresistance and metastatic behavior, and may be enriched by mammosphere cultivation. Previous studies have demonstrated that BCSCs exhibit vasculogenic mimicry (VM) activity via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. The present study investigated the anti-VM activity of hinokitiol in BCSCs. At a concentration below the half maximal inhibitory concentration, hinokitiol inhibited VM formation of mammosphere cells derived from two human breast cancer cell lines. Hinokitiol was additionally indicated to downregulate EGFR protein expression in mammosphere-forming BCSCs without affecting the expression of messenger RNA. The protein stability of EGFR in BCSCs was also decreased by hinokitiol. The EGFR protein expression and VM formation capability of hinokitiol-treated BCSCs were restored by co-treatment with MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. In conclusion, the present study indicated that hinokitiol may inhibit the VM activity of BCSCs through stimulating proteasome-mediated EGFR degradation. Hinokitiol may act as an anti-VM agent, and may be useful for the development of novel breast cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:27073579

  6. Production of human epidermal growth factor using adenoviral based system

    PubMed Central

    Negahdari, Babak; Shahosseini, Zahra; Baniasadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a growth factor involved in cell growth and differentiation, is a small polypeptide with molecular weight of approximately 6 kDa known to be present in a number of different mammalian species. Experimental studies in animals and humans have demonstrated that the topical application of EGF accelerates the rate of epidermal regeneration of partial-thickness wounds and second-degree burns. Due to its commercial applications, Human EGF (hEGF) has been cloned in several forms. In the present study, adenoviral based expression system was used to produce biologically active recombinant hEGF. The presence of secreted recombinant hEGF was confirmed by a dot blot and its expression level was determined by enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Moreover, biological activity of secreted hEGF was evaluated by a proliferation assay performed on A549 cells. For production of hEGF in a secretory form, a chimeric gene coding for the hEGF fused to the signal peptide was expressed using adenoviral based method. This method enables the production of hEGF at the site of interest and moreover it could be used for cell proliferation and differentiation assays in tissue engineering research experiments instead of using commercially available EGF. PMID:27051431

  7. Epidermal Micrografts Produced via an Automated and Minimally Invasive Tool Form at the Dermal/Epidermal Junction and Contain Proliferative Cells That Secrete Wound Healing Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Sandra N.; Schmidt, Marisa A.; Derrick, Kathleen; Harper, John R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scientific study was to assess epidermal micrografts for formation at the dermal-epidermal (DE) junction, cellular outgrowth, and growth factor secretion. Epidermal harvesting is an autologous option that removes only the superficial epidermal layer of the skin, considerably limiting donor site damage and scarring. Use of epidermal grafting in wound healing has been limited because of tedious, time-consuming, and inconsistent methodologies. Recently, a simplified, automated epidermal harvesting tool (CelluTome Epidermal Harvesting System; Kinetic Concepts Inc, San Antonio, Texas) that applies heat and suction concurrently to produce epidermal micrografts has become commercially available. The new technique of epidermal harvesting was shown to create viable micrografts with minimal patient discomfort and no donor-site scarring. DESIGN: This study was a prospective institutional review board–approved healthy human study. SETTING: This study was conducted at the multispecialty research facility, Clinical Trials of Texas, Inc, in San Antonio, Texas. PATIENTS: The participants were 15 healthy human volunteers. RESULTS: Epidermal micrografts formed at the DE junction, and migratory basal layer keratinocytes and melanocytes were proliferative in culture. Basement membrane–specific collagen type IV was also found to be present in the grafts, suggesting that the combination of heat and vacuum might cause partial delamination of the basement membrane. Viable basal cells actively secreted key growth factors important for modulating wound healing responses, including vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor α. CONCLUSIONS: Harvested epidermal micrografts retained their original keratinocyte structure, which is critical for potential re-epithelialization and repigmentation of a wound environment. PMID:26258460

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor coexpression modulates susceptibility to Herceptin in HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells via specific erbB-receptor interaction and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Diermeier, Simone; Horvath, Gabor; Knuechel-Clarke, Ruth; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Szoellosi, Janos; Brockhoff, Gero . E-mail: Gero.Brockhoff@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    2005-04-01

    Background: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. Methods: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. Results: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and

  9. Breast milk protects against the development of necrotizing enterocolitis through inhibition of Toll Like Receptor 4 in the intestinal epithelium via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Good, Misty; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Egan, Charlotte E.; Afrazi, Amin; Jia, Hongpeng; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Lu, Peng; Branca, Maria F.; Ma, Congrong; Prindle, Thomas; Mielo, Samantha; Pompa, Anthony; Hodzic, Zerina; Ozolek, John A.; Hackam, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the most effective strategy to protect infants against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a devastating disease which is characterized by severe intestinal necrosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in NEC development via deleterious effects on mucosal injury and repair. We now hypothesize that breast milk protects against NEC by inhibiting TLR4 within the intestinal epithelium, and sought to determine the mechanisms involved. Breast milk protected against NEC and reduced TLR4 signaling in wild-type neonatal mice, but not in mice lacking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), while selective removal of EGF from breast milk reduced its protective properties, indicating that breast milk inhibits NEC and attenuates TLR4 signaling via EGF/EGFR activation. Over-expression of TLR4 in the intestinal epithelium reversed the protective effects of breast milk. The protective effects of breast milk occurred via inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis and restoration of enterocyte proliferation. Importantly, in IEC-6 enterocytes, breast milk inhibited TLR4 signaling via inhibition of GSK3β. Taken together, these findings offer mechanistic insights into the protective role for breast milk in NEC, and support a link between growth factor and innate immune receptors in NEC pathogenesis. PMID:25899687

  10. Identical M sub r 70,000 S6 kinase is activated biphasically by epidermal growth factor: A phosphopeptide that characterizes the late phase

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, M.; Thomas, G. )

    1990-09-01

    Mitogenic stimulation of quiescent mouse 3T3 cells with epidermal growth factor leads to biphasic S6 kinase activation. The kinases present in both phases of the response have been purified from {sup 32}P-labeled cells and shown to contain a phosphoprotein of equivalent M{sub r} 70,000. Chromatographic analysis of the purified S6 kinases on a Mono Q column reveals that (1) all {sup 32}P-labeled protein coelutes with S6 kinase activity, (2) only those fractions containing S6 kinase autophosphorylate, (3) autophosphorylation is restricted to a single M{sub r} 70,000 protein, and (4) the extent of autophosphorylation directly parallels the degree of S6 kinase activation. Analysis of the two autophosphorylated S6 kinases by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping indicates that they are the same protein. Both in vivo {sup 32}P-labeled S6 kinase contain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine but no detectable phosphotyrosine. Two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps of the in vivo {sup 32}P-labeled S6 kinases are essentially identical, except for a single qualitative change in the late-phase S6 kinase.

  11. Epidermal growth factor, from gene organization to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fenghua; Harris, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    In 1962, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was discovered by Dr. Stanley Cohen while studying nerve growth factor (NGF). It was soon recognized that EGF is the prototypical member of a family of peptide growth factors that activate the EGF receptors, and that the EGF/EGF receptor signaling pathway plays important roles in proliferation, differentiation and migration of a variety of cell types, especially in epithelial cells. After the basic characterization of EGF function in the first decade or so after its discovery, the studies related to EGF and its signaling pathway have extended to a broad range of investigations concerning its biological and pathophysiological roles in development and in human diseases. In this review, we briefly describe the gene organization and tissue distribution of EGF, with emphasis on its biological and pathological roles in human diseases. PMID:24513230

  12. Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptors by human alpha interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Zoon, K C; Karasaki, Y; zur Nedden, D L; Hu, R Q; Arnheiter, H

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells with human interferon (IFN)-alpha 2 at 37 degrees C results in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and a reduction of the subsequent binding of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 4 degrees C. Human IFN-beta and -gamma, which exhibit little antiviral and antiproliferative activities on MDBK cells, have little effect on cell growth or the binding of 125I-labeled EGF to these cells. The binding of EGF is decreased after exposure to IFN-alpha for greater than 8 hr. Scatchard analyses of the EGF binding data indicate that a 20-hr exposure period results in a decrease in the apparent number of cell-surface EGF receptors and a reduction in the affinity of EGF for its receptor. The rate of internalization of EGF by MDBK cells does not appear to be affected by IFN treatment. PMID:3095830

  13. Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptors by human alpha interferon.

    PubMed

    Zoon, K C; Karasaki, Y; zur Nedden, D L; Hu, R Q; Arnheiter, H

    1986-11-01

    Treatment of Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells with human interferon (IFN)-alpha 2 at 37 degrees C results in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and a reduction of the subsequent binding of 125I-labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 4 degrees C. Human IFN-beta and -gamma, which exhibit little antiviral and antiproliferative activities on MDBK cells, have little effect on cell growth or the binding of 125I-labeled EGF to these cells. The binding of EGF is decreased after exposure to IFN-alpha for greater than 8 hr. Scatchard analyses of the EGF binding data indicate that a 20-hr exposure period results in a decrease in the apparent number of cell-surface EGF receptors and a reduction in the affinity of EGF for its receptor. The rate of internalization of EGF by MDBK cells does not appear to be affected by IFN treatment. PMID:3095830

  14. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  15. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder. PMID:22736441

  16. From pure compounds to complex exposure: Effects of dietary cadmium and lignans on estrogen, epidermal growth factor receptor, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Hurmerinta, Teija; Nurmi, Tarja; Berglund, Marika; Rüegg, Joelle; Poutanen, Matti; Halldin, Krister; Mäkelä, Sari; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina

    2016-06-24

    Exposure to environmental endocrine active compounds correlates with altered susceptibility to disease in human populations. Chemical risk assessment is single compound based, although exposure often takes place as heterogeneous mixtures of man-made and natural substances within complex matrices like diet. Here we studied whether the effects of cadmium and enterolactone on endocrine endpoints in dietary exposure can be predicted based on pure compound effects. Ovariectomized estrogen reporter ERE-luciferase (ERE-luc) mice were maintained on diets that intrinsically contain increasing concentrations of cadmium and enterolactone precursors for three and 21 days. The activation of the ERE-luc, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2, and classical estrogen responses were measured. Interactions between the diets and endogenous hormone were evaluated by challenging the animals with 17β-estradiol. Compared to animals on basal purified diet, mice consuming experimental diets were exposed to significantly higher levels of cadmium and enterolactone, yet the exposure remained comparable to typical human dietary intake. Surprisingly, we could not detect effects on endpoints regulated by pure enterolactone, such as ERE-luc activation. However, cadmium accumulation in the liver was accompanied with activation of EGFR and MAPK-ERK1/2 in line with our earlier CdCl2 studies. Further, attenuation of 17β-estradiol-induced ERE-luc response in liver by experimental diets was observed. Our findings indicate that the exposure context can have substantial effects on the activity of endocrine active compounds in vivo. Thus, whenever possible, a context that mimics human exposure should be tested along with pure compounds. PMID:27108949

  17. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (<32 weeks gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments1,2. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI3. In a previous study, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in oligodendrocyte development4. Here, we examine whether enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioral recovery in the developing brain. Using an established model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human (h)EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells (OPCs) and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioral deficits on white matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signaling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in OPCs at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and applicable for the treatment of premature children with white matter injury. PMID:24390343

  18. Epidermal growth factor and perlecan fragments produced by apoptotic endothelial cells co-ordinately activate ERK1/2-dependent antiapoptotic pathways in mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soulez, Mathilde; Sirois, Isabelle; Brassard, Nathalie; Raymond, Marc-André; Nicodème, Frédéric; Noiseux, Nicolas; Durocher, Yves; Pshezhetsky, Alexei V; Hébert, Marie-Josée

    2010-04-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are pivotal to vascular repair and neointima formation in various forms of vascular disease. Yet, the mechanisms that allow MSC to resist apoptosis at sites where other cell types, such as endothelial cells (EC), are dying are not well defined. In the present work, we demonstrate that apoptotic EC actively release paracrine mediators which, in turn, inhibit apoptosis of MSC. Serum-free medium conditioned by apoptotic EC increases extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation and inhibits apoptosis (evaluated by Bcl-xL protein levels and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage) of human MSC. A C-terminal fragment of perlecan (LG3) released by apoptotic EC is one of the mediators activating this antiapoptotic response in MSC. LG3 interacts with beta1-integrins, which triggers downstream ERK1/2 activation in MSC, albeit to a lesser degree than medium conditioned by apoptotic EC. Hence, other mediators released by apoptotic EC are probably required for induction of the full antiapoptotic phenotype in MSC. Adopting a comparative proteomic strategy, we identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) as a novel mediator of the paracrine component of the endothelial apoptotic program. LG3 and EGF cooperate in triggering beta1-integrin and EGF receptor-dependent antiapoptotic signals in MSC centering on ERK1/2 activation. The present work, providing novel insights into the mechanisms facilitating the survival of MSC in a hostile environment, identifies EGF and LG3 released by apoptotic EC as central antiapoptotic mediators involved in this paracrine response. PMID:20201065

  19. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 antibodies enhance the specificity and anticancer activity of light-sensitive doxorubicin-labeled liposomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingpo; Tang, Qin; Zhang, Peizun; Wang, Zuhua; Zhao, Tiantian; Zhou, Jialin; Li, Hongrui; Ding, Qian; Li, Wei; Hu, Fuqiang; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Shuqing; Gao, Jianqing; Zhan, Jinbiao; You, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Antibody-mediated targeting therapy has been successful in treating patients with cancers by improving the specificity and clinical efficacy. In this study, we developed a human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) antibody-conjugated drug delivery system, using near-infrared (NIR) light-sensitive liposomes containing doxorubicin (DOX) and hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS). We demonstrated the specific binding and selective toxicity of the system to HER2-positive tumor cells in co-cultures of HER2-positive and -negative cells. Furthermore, the HER2-antibody-mediated delivery of targeted liposomes was confirmed in a double-tumor model in nude mice simultaneously bearing HER2-positive and -negative tumors. This induced a >2-fold increased accumulation in the tumors with positive expression of HER2 than that with non-targeted liposomes (no HER2-antibody conjugation). The combination of targeted liposomes with NIR laser irradiation had significant antitumor activity in vivo with the tumor inhibition efficiency up to 92.7%, attributed to the increased accumulation in tumors and the double efficacy of photothermal-chemotherapy. Moreover, targeted liposomes did not cause systemic toxicity during the experiment period, attributable to the reduced dose of DOX, the decreased accumulation of liposomes in normal tissues, and the low irradiation power. The targeted liposomes provide a multifunctional nanotechnology platform for antibody-mediated delivery, light-trigged drug release, and combined photothermal-chemotherapy, which may have potential in the clinical treatment of cancer. PMID:25956192

  20. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the bovine oviduct in vitro: Alteration by heat stress

    PubMed Central

    WIJAYAGUNAWARDANE, Missaka P. B.; HAMBRUCH, Nina; HAEGER, Jan-Dirk; PFARRER, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be involved in control of the oviductal microenvironment. To elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the detrimental effect of heat stress and to identify the relation with the endocrine status, the effects of EGF on the level of phosphorylated mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) and proliferation of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) exposed to different cyclic ovarian steroidal environments (luteal phase (LP), follicular phase (FP) and postovulatory phase (PO)) and temperatures (mild heat stress (40 C) and severe heat stress (43 C)) were investigated. Western blot was performed to evaluate phosphorylated MAPK, while proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. Stimulation of OECs with EGF alone or with EGF in the PO and FP environments significantly increased the amount of phosphorylated MAPK, with MAPK 44 phosphorylation being highest during exposure to PO conditions. These effects were not observed in the LP. Heat treatment completely blocked effects of EGF on phosphorylated MAPK. Additionally, severe heat stress led to a significantly lower basal level of phosphorylated MAPK. PD98059 (MAPK inhibitor) completely abolished EGF-stimulated MAPK phosphorylation and OECs proliferation. Overall the results indicate that EGF has the potential to increase the amount of phosphorylated MAPK in OECs and therefore could be involved in regulation of the bovine oviductal microenvironment. However, these regulatory mechanisms may be compromised in the presence of heat stress (high ambient temperature), leading to low fertility rates and impaired embryo survival. PMID:26050642

  1. Interdependent epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sylwia; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signalling regulates diverse cellular functions, promoting cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, cell growth and survival. EGFR signalling is critical during embryogenesis, in particular in epithelial development, and disruption of the EGFR gene results in epithelial immaturity and perinatal death. EGFR signalling also functions during wound healing responses through accelerating wound re-epithelialisation, inducing cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. Upregulation of EGFR signalling is often observed in carcinomas and has been shown to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore aberrant EGFR signalling is a common target for anticancer therapies. Various reports indicate that EGFR signalling primarily occurs at the plasma membrane and EGFR degradation following endocytosis greatly attenuates signalling. Other studies argue that EGFR internalisation is essential for complete activation of downstream signalling cascades and that endosomes can serve as signalling platforms. The aim of this review is to discuss current understanding of intersection between EGFR signalling and trafficking. PMID:24681003

  2. Constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor promotes tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells through decreased reactive oxygen species and apoptosis resistance development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Yao, Hua; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Kondo, Kazuya; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-23

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are well-established lung carcinogens. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor that regulates cell survival, tumor invasion, and angiogenesis. Our results show that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant cell transformation. These transformed cells exhibit apoptosis resistance with reduced poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage (C-PARP) and Bax expression and enhanced expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. These transformed cells also exhibit reduced capacity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation along with elevated expression of antioxidant manganese superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). The expression of this antioxidant was also elevated in lung tumor tissue from a worker exposed to Cr(VI) for 19 years. EGFR was activated in Cr(VI)-transformed BEAS-2B cells, lung tissue from animals exposed to Cr(VI) particles, and human lung tumor tissue. Further study indicates that constitutive activation of EGFR in Cr(VI)-transformed cells was due to increased binding to its ligand amphiregulin (AREG). Inhibition of EGFR or AREG increased Bax expression and reduced Bcl-2 expression, resulting in reduced apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, inhibition of AREG or EGFR restored capacity of ROS generation and decreased SOD2 expression. PI3K/AKT was activated, which depended on EGFR in Cr(VI)-transformed BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT increased ROS generation and reduced SOD2 expression, resulting in reduced apoptosis resistance with commitment increase in Bax expression and reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Xenograft mouse tumor study further demonstrates the essential role of EGFR in tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. In summary, the present study suggests that ligand-dependent constitutive activation of EGFR causes reduced ROS generation and increased antioxidant expression, leading to development of apoptosis resistance, contributing

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Antitumor Activity of 3-Aminopropanamide Irreversible Inhibitors of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer1 2

    PubMed Central

    Galvani, Elena; Giovannetti, Elisa; Saccani, Francesca; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Leon, Leticia G; Dekker, Henk; Alfieri, Roberta; Carmi, Caterina; Mor, Marco; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Petronini, Pier Giorgio; Peters, Godefridus J

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming the emergence of acquired resistance to clinically approved epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors is a major challenge in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a series of novel compounds affecting viability of NSCLC NCI-H1975 cells (carrying the EGFR T790M mutation). The inhibition of the autophosphorylation of EGFR occurred at nanomolar concentrations and both UPR1282 and UPR1268 caused a significant induction of apoptosis. Targeting of EGFR and downstream pathways was confirmed by a peptide substrate array, which highlighted the inhibition of other kinases involved in NSCLC cell aggressive behavior. Accordingly, the drugs inhibited migration (about 30% vs. control), which could be, in part, explained also by the increase of E-cadherin expression. Additionally, we observed a contraction of the volume of H1975 spheroids, associated with the reduction of the cancer stem-like cell hallmark CD133. The activity of UPR1282 was retained in H1975 xenograft models where it determined tumor shrinkage (P < .05) and resulted well tolerated compared to canertinib. Of note, the kinase activity profile of UPR1282 on xenograft tumor tissues showed overlapping results with respect to the activity in H1975 cells, unraveling the inhibition of kinases involved in pivotal proliferation and invasive signaling pathways. In conclusion, UPR1282 and UPR1268 are effective against various processes involved in malignancy transformation and progression and may be promising compounds for the future treatment of gefitinib-resistant NSCLCs. PMID:23359111

  4. Active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are necessary for trenbolone acetate-induced alterations in protein turnover rate of fused bovine satellite cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Thornton, K J; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2016-06-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA), a testosterone analog, increases protein synthesis and decreases protein degradation in fused bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures. However, the mechanism through which TBA alters these processes remains unknown. Recent studies indicate that androgens improve rate and extent of muscle growth through a nongenomic mechanism involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (hbEGF), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erbB2, and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R). We hypothesized that TBA activates GPCR, resulting in activation of MMP2/9 that releases hbEGF, which activates the EGFR and/or erbB2. To determine whether the proposed nongenomic pathway is involved in TBA-mediated alterations in protein turnover, fused BSC cultures were treated with TBA in the presence or absence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R, and resultant protein synthesis and degradation rates were analyzed. Assays were replicated at least 9 times for each inhibitor experiment utilizing BSC cultures obtained from at least 3 different steers that had no previous exposure to steroid compounds. As expected, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n TBA exhibited increased ( < 0.05) protein synthesis rates and decreased ( < 0.05) protein degradation rates when compared to control cultures. Treatment of fused BSC cultures with 10 n TBA in the presence of inhibitors for GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R suppressed ( < 0.05) TBA-mediated increases in protein synthesis rate. Alternatively, inhibition of GPCR, MMP2/9, hbEGF, EGFR, erbB2, or IGF-1R in the presence of 10 n TBA each had no ( > 0.05) effect on TBA-mediated decreases in protein degradation. However, inhibition of both EGFR and erbB2 in the presence of 10 n TBA resulted in decreased ( < 0.05) ability of TBA to decrease protein degradation rate. Additionally, fused BSC cultures treated with 10 n

  5. INHIBITION OF PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads t...

  6. Elevated thymidine phosphorylase activity in psoriatic lesions accounts for the apparent presence of an epidermal growth inhibitor, but is not in itself growth inhibitory

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, C.; Fisher, G.J.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    An apparent tissue-specific growth inhibitor, or chalone, obtained from psoriatic lesions was tentatively identified in the 100-kDa fraction based upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, as measured by (3H)-thymidine uptake by a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC 38. This fraction, however, failed to inhibit SCC 38 cell growth when assessed directly in a neutral red uptake assay. Characterization of the inhibitor of (3H)-thymidine uptake revealed it to have biochemical properties identical to thymidine phosphorylase: (1) molecular weight close to 100 kDa, (2) isoelectric point of 4.2, and (3) thymidine phosphorylase enzyme activity. Thus, the authors conclude that its ability to inhibit (3H)-thymidine uptake was due to thymidine catabolism rather than inhibition of DNA synthesis or growth inhibition. Examination of thymidine phosphorylase activity in keratome biopsies from psoriatic and normal skin demonstrated a twentyfold increase in activity in psoriatic lesions relative to non-lesional or normal skin. This increase in metabolism of thymidine was due to thymidine phosphorylase rather than uridine phosphorylase activity. The correlation between increased thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased keratinocyte proliferation in vitro (cultured) and in vivo (psoriasis), suggests that this enzyme may play a critical role in providing the thymidine necessary for keratinocyte proliferation.

  7. Activation of the human keratinocyte B1 bradykinin receptor induces expression and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 by transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Matus, Carola E; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Pavicic, Francisca; González, Carlos B; Concha, Miguel; Bhoola, Kanti D; Burgos, Rafael A; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2016-09-01

    The B1 bradykinin receptor (BDKRB1) is a component of the kinin cascade localized in the human skin. Some of the effects produced by stimulation of BDKRB1 depend on transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but the mechanisms involved in this process have not been clarified yet. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a BDKRB1 agonist on wound healing in a mouse model and the migration and secretion of metalloproteases 2 and 9 from human HaCaT keratinocytes and delineate the signalling pathways that triggered their secretion. Although stimulation of BDKRB1 induces weak chemotactic migration of keratinocytes and wound closure in an in vitro scratch-wound assay, the BDKRB1 agonist improved wound closure in a mouse model. BDKRB1 stimulation triggers synthesis and secretion of both metalloproteases, effects that depend on the activity of EGFR and subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and PI3K/Akt. In the mouse model, immunoreactivity for both gelatinases was concentrated around wound borders. EGFR transactivation by BDKRB1 agonist involves Src kinases family and ADAM17. In addition to extracellular matrix degradation, metalloproteases 2 and 9 regulate cell migration and differentiation, cell functions that are associated with the role of BDKRB1 in keratinocyte differentiation. Considering that BDKRB1 is up-regulated by inflammation and/or by cytokines that are abundant in the inflammatory milieu, more stable BDKRB1 agonists may be of therapeutic value to modulate wound healing. PMID:27093919

  8. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-PI3K Signaling Controls Cofilin Activity To Facilitate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry into Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Xiang, Yangfei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhong, Meigong; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jianglin; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons and can cause severe disseminated infection with neurological impairment and high mortality. This neurodegeneration is thought to be tightly associated with virus-induced cytoskeleton disruption. Currently, the regulation pattern of the actin cytoskeleton and the involved molecular mechanisms during HSV-1 entry into neurons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an initial inactivation followed by the subsequent activation of cofilin, a member of the actin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization. The disruption of F-actin dynamics or the modulation of cofilin activity by mutation, knockdown, or overexpression affects HSV-1 entry efficacy and virus-mediated cell ruffle formation. Binding of the HSV-1 envelope initiates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which leads to virus-induced early cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK) are recruited as downstream mediators of the HSV-1-induced cofilin inactivation pathway. Inhibitors specific for those kinases significantly reduce the virus infectivity without affecting virus binding to the target cells. Additionally, lipid rafts are clustered to promote EGFR-associated signaling cascade transduction. We propose that HSV-1 hijacks cofilin to initiate infection. These results could promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HSV-1-induced neurological diseases. PMID:24425731

  9. JAK2-related pathway induces acquired erlotinib resistance in lung cancer cells harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor-activating mutation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Daijiro; Takigawa, Nagio; Ochi, Nobuaki; Ninomiya, Takashi; Yasugi, Masayuki; Kubo, Toshio; Takeda, Hiromasa; Ichihara, Eiki; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Takata, Saburo; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2012-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, are effective for non-small cell lung cancer with activating EGFR mutations. However, even in patients with an initial dramatic response to such a drug, acquired resistance develops after 6-12 months. A secondary mutation of T790M in EGFR and amplification of the MET gene account for this resistance; however, the mechanism(s) of approximately 30% of acquired resistance cases remain unknown. We established an erlotinib-resistant lung cancer cell line named PC-9/ER3 that harbors an EGFR mutation after continuously exposing PC-9 cells to erlotinib. PC-9/ER3 cells were 136-fold more resistant to erlotinib than the parental cells. Although the PC-9/ER3 cells did not carry the T790M mutation or MET amplification and had similar levels of phosphorylated (p) STAT3, pJAK2 increased in the resistant cells. It was found in the present study that 3-12 h of exposure to erlotinib in both cell lines did not affect pJAK2 expression, but did result in increased pSTAT3 expression. pAkt in PC-9/ER3 cells was less suppressed than in PC-9 cells, although pEGFR and pMAPK were markedly suppressed in both cell lines. The combined treatment of erlotinib plus a JAK2 inhibitor (JSI-124) suppressed pAkt in PC-9/ER3 cells. Similarly, the combination of erlotinib plus JSI-124 or siRNA against JAK2 restored sensitivity to erlotinib in PC-9/ER3 cells. The combination of erlotinib plus JSI-124 was also effective for reducing PC-9/ER3 tumors in a murine xenograft model. Our results suggest that the activation of JAK2 partially accounts for acquired erlotinib resistance. PMID:22712764

  10. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  11. Parsing ERK Activation Reveals Quantitatively Equivalent Contributions From Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and HER2 In Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Orr, Galya; Wells, Alan H.; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2005-02-18

    HER2, a member of the EGFR tyrosine kinase family, functions as an accessory EGFR signaling component and alters EGFR trafficking by heterodimerization. HER2 overexpression leads to aberrant cell behavior including enhanced proliferation and motility. Here we apply a combination of computational modeling and quantitative experimental studies of the dynamic interactions between EGFR and HER2, and their downstream activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) to understand this complex signaling system. Using cells expressing different levels of HER2 relative to the EGFR, we can separate relative contributions of EGFR and HER2 to signaling amplitude and duration. Based on our model calculations, we demonstrate that, in contrast with previous suggestions in the literature, the intrinsic capabilities of EGFR and HER2 to activated ERK are quantitatively equivalent . We find that HER2-mediated effects on EGFR dimerization and trafficking are sufficient to explain the detected HER2-mediated amplification of EGF-induced ERK signaling. Our model suggests that transient amplification of ERK activity by HER2 arises predominantly from the 2-to-1 stoichiometry of receptor kinase to bound ligand in EGFR/HER2 heterodimers compared to the 1-to-1 stoichiometry of the EGFR homodimer, but alterations in receptor trafficking, with resultant EGFR sparing, cause the sustained HER2-mediated enhancement of ERK signaling.

  12. The epidermal growth factor receptor regulates cofilin activity and promotes transmissible gastroenteritis virus entry into intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Xing; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a coronavirus, causes severe diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets. The porcine intestinal epithelium is the target of TGEV infection, but the mechanisms that TGEV disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and invades the host epithelium remain largely unknown. We not only found that TGEV infection stimulates F-actin to gather at the cell membrane but the disruption of F-actin inhibits TGEV entry as well. Cofilin is involved in F-actin reorganization and TGEV entry. The TGEV spike protein is capable of binding with EGFR, activating the downstream phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), then causing the phosphorylation of cofilin and F-actin polymerization via Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases. Inhibition of EGFR and PI3K decreases the entry of TGEV. EGFR is also the upstream activator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways that is involved in F-actin reorganization. Additionally, lipid rafts act as signal platforms for the EGFR-associated signaling cascade and correlate with the adhesion of TGEV. In conlusion, these results provide valuable data of the mechanisms which are responsible for the TGEV pathogenesis and may lead to the development of new methods about controlling TGEV. PMID:26933809

  13. Urine acidification has no effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling or epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in rat urinary bladder urothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Achanzar, William E. Moyer, Carolyn F.; Marthaler, Laura T.; Gullo, Russell; Chen, Shen-Jue; French, Michele H.; Watson, Linda M.; Rhodes, James W.; Kozlosky, John C.; White, Melvin R.; Foster, William R.; Burgun, James J.; Car, Bruce D.; Cosma, Gregory N.; Dominick, Mark A.

    2007-09-15

    We previously reported prevention of urolithiasis and associated rat urinary bladder tumors by urine acidification (via diet acidification) in male rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}/{gamma} agonist muraglitazar. Because urine acidification could potentially alter PPAR signaling and/or cellular proliferation in urothelium, we evaluated urothelial cell PPAR{alpha}, PPAR{delta}, PPAR{gamma}, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, PPAR signaling, and urothelial cell proliferation in rats fed either a normal or an acidified diet for 5, 18, or 33 days. A subset of rats in the 18-day study also received 63 mg/kg of the PPAR{gamma} agonist pioglitazone daily for the final 3 days to directly assess the effects of diet acidification on responsiveness to PPAR{gamma} agonism. Urothelial cell PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} expression and signaling were evaluated in the 18- and 33-day studies by immunohistochemical assessment of PPAR protein (33-day study only) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurement of PPAR-regulated gene expression. In the 5-day study, EGFR expression and phosphorylation status were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and egfr and akt2 mRNA levels were assessed by qRT-PCR. Diet acidification did not alter PPAR{alpha}, {delta}, or {gamma} mRNA or protein expression, PPAR{alpha}- or {gamma}-regulated gene expression, total or phosphorylated EGFR protein, egfr or akt2 gene expression, or proliferation in urothelium. Moreover, diet acidification had no effect on pioglitazone-induced changes in urothelial PPAR{gamma}-regulated gene expression. These results support the contention that urine acidification does not prevent PPAR{gamma} agonist-induced bladder tumors by altering PPAR{alpha}, {gamma}, or EGFR expression or PPAR signaling in rat bladder urothelium.

  14. Direct interaction between surface β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibits EGFR activation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenqing; Weng, Shuqiang; Zhang, Si; Wu, Weibing; Dong, Ling; Shen, Xizhong; Zhang, Songwen; Gu, Jianxin; Xue, Ruyi

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •β1,4GT1 interacts with EGFR both in vitro and in vivo. •β1,4GT1 co-localizes with EGFR on the cell surface. •β1,4GT1 inhibits {sup 125}I-EGF binding to EGFR. •β1,4GT1 inhibits EGF induced EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that cell surface β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1,4GT1) negatively regulated cell survival through inhibition and modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SMMC-7721 cells. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (β1,4GT1) interacted with EGFR in vitro by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that β1,4GT1 bound to EGFR in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation and determined the co-localization of β1,4GT1 and EGFR on the cell surface via confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis. Finally, using {sup 125}I-EGF binding experiments and Western blot analysis, we found that overexpression of β1,4GT1 inhibited {sup 125}I-EGF binding to EGFR, and consequently reduced the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. In contrast, RNAi-mediated knockdown of β1,4GT1 increased the levels of EGFR dimerization and phosphorylation. These data suggest that cell surface β1,4GT1 interacts with EGFR and inhibits EGFR activation.

  15. CD166-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation promotes the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guodong; Wang, Xu; Yan, Ming; Chen, Wantao; Zhang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    CD166 has been considered a relatively specific marker of stem cells and cancer stem cells, and the altered expression of CD166 has also been reported as a prognostic marker of several other types of cancer. However, the molecular functions of CD166 in these cancer cells are largely unknown. In this study, we found that CD166 significantly enhanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation and prolonged epidermal growth factor (EGF)/EGFR signalling activation. In addition, EGF stimulation in CD166-overexpressing oral squamous carcinoma cells led to enhanced colony formation, invasion capacity and cytoskeletal re-organization in vitro and elevated tumourigenesis in vivo. Taken together, the results of our study identify CD166 as an intriguing therapeutic target for patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:27424177

  16. β-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Transactivation Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Decreases Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Through Differential Subcellular Activation of ERK1/2 and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Grisanti, Laurel A.; Talarico, Jennifer A.; Carter, Rhonda L.; Yu, Justine E.; Repas, Ashley A.; Radcliffe, Scott W.; Tang, Hoang-ai; Makarewich, Catherine A.; Houser, Steven R.; Tilley, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-mediated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to relay pro-survival effects via unknown mechanisms. Objective We hypothesized that acute βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation in the heart promotes differential subcellular activation of ERK1/2 and Akt, promoting cell survival through modulation of apoptosis. Methods and Results C57BL/6 mice underwent acute i.p. injection with isoproterenol (ISO) ± AG 1478 (EGFR antagonist) to assess the impact of βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation on phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2) and Akt (P-Akt) in distinct cardiac subcellular fractions. Increased P-ERK1/2 and P-Akt were observed in cytosolic, plasma membrane and nuclear fractions following ISO stimulation. Whereas the P-ERK1/2 response was EGFR-sensitive in all fractions, the P-Akt response was EGFR-sensitive only in the plasma membrane and nucleus, results confirmed in primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes (RNCM). βAR-mediated EGFR-transactivation also decreased apoptosis in serum-depleted RNCM, as measured via TUNEL as well as caspase 3 activity/cleavage, which were sensitive to inhibition of either ERK1/2 (PD184352) or Akt (LY-294002) signaling. Caspase 3 activity/cleavage was also sensitive to inhibition of transcription, which, with an increase in nuclear P-ERK1/2 and P-Akt in response to ISO, suggested that βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation may regulate apoptotic gene transcription. An Apoptosis PCR Array identified tnfsf10 (TRAIL) to be altered by ISO in an EGFR-sensitive manner, results confirmed via RT-PCR and ELISA measurement of both membrane-bound and soluble cardiomyocyte TRAIL levels. Conclusions βAR-mediated EGFR transactivation induces differential subcellular activation of ERK1/2 and Akt leading to increased cell survival through the modulation of caspase 3 activity and apoptotic gene expression in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24566221

  17. Quantitative measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor-mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction using a nine-plex, peptide-based immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rauh-Adelmann, Christine; Moskow, John M; Graham, James R; Yen, Lucy G; Boucher, Jeffrey I; Murphy, Cheryl E; Nadler, Timothy K; Gordon, Neal F; Radding, Jeffrey A

    2008-04-15

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1) signaling is implicated in cell transformation, motility, and invasion in a variety of cell types, and EGFR is the target of several anticancer drugs. However, the kinetics of EGFR signaling and the individual contributions of site-specific phosphorylation events remain largely unknown. A peptide-based, multiplex immunoassay approach was developed to simultaneously measure both total and phosphorylated protein in a single sample. The approach involves the proteolytic digestion of proteins prior to the isolation and quantitation of site-specific phosphorylation events within an individual protein. Quantitation of phosphorylated and total proteins, in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations, were interpolated from standard curves generated with synthetic peptides that correspond to the peptide targets used in the immunoassays. In this study, a bead-based, nine-plex immunoassay measuring total and phosphorylated protein was constructed to measure temporal, site-specific phosphorylation of key members of the EGFR pathway (ErbB1 receptor, MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, and ERK2) in A431 cells stimulated with epidermal growth factor. The effect of MEK inhibition on this pathway was determined using a known MEK kinase inhibitor, SL327. The results reported herein are the first quantitative measurements of site-specific phosphorylation events and total proteins in a single sample, at the same time representing a new paradigm for standardized protein and phosphorylation analysis using multiplexed, peptide-based, sandwich immunoassays. PMID:18275835

  18. Role of the Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Complex and Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Synergistic Activation of the Glycoprotein Hormone α Subunit Gene by Epidermal Growth Factor and Forskolin

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, Mark S.; Ban, Makiko; Zhang, Tong; Mulvaney, Jennifer M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to elucidate a role for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in the transcriptional regulation of the glycoprotein hormone α subunit gene, a subunit of chorionic gonadotropin. Studies examined the effects of EGF and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin on the expression of a transfected α subunit reporter gene in a human choriocarcinoma cell line (JEG3). At maximal doses, administration of EGF resulted in a 50% increase in a subunit reporter activity; forskolin administration induced a fivefold activation; the combined actions of EGF and forskolin resulted in synergistic activation (greater than eightfold) of the α subunit reporter. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the cyclic AMP response elements (CRE) were required and sufficient to mediate EGF-forskolin-induced synergistic activation. The combined actions of EGF and forskolin resulted in potentiated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) enzyme activity compared with EGF alone. Specific blockade of ERK activation was sufficient to block EGF-forskolin-induced synergistic activation of the α subunit reporter. Pretreatment of JEG3 cells with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor did not influence activation of the α reporter. However, overexpression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein 1 as a dominant interfering molecule abolished the synergistic effects of EGF and forskolin on the α subunit reporter. CRE binding studies suggested that the CRE complex consisted of CRE binding protein and EGF-ERK-dependent recruitment of c-Jun–c-Fos (AP-1) to the CRE. A dominant negative form of c-Fos (A-Fos) that specifically disrupts c-Jun–c-Fos DNA binding inhibited synergistic activation of the α subunit. Thus, synergistic activation of the α subunit gene induced by EGF-forskolin requires the ERK and JNK cascades and the recruitment of AP-1 to the CRE binding complex. PMID:10779323

  19. Orthovanadate-induced vasocontraction is mediated by the activation of Rho-kinase through Src-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yayama, Katsutoshi; Sasahara, Tomoya; Ohba, Hisaaki; Funasaka, Ayaka; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Orthovanadate (OVA), a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor, exerts contractile effects on smooth muscle in a Rho-kinase-dependent manner, but the precise mechanisms are not elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the potential roles of Src and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the OVA-induced contraction of rat aortas and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1; an index of Rho-kinase activity) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Aortic contraction by OVA was significantly blocked not only by Rho kinase inhibitors Y-27632 [R-[+]-trans-N-[4-pyridyl]-4-[1-aminoethyl]-cyclohexanecarboxamide] and hydroxyfasudil [1-(1-hydroxy-5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)homopiperazine] but also by Src inhibitors PP2 [4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] and Src inhibitor No. 5 [4-(3′-methoxy-6′-chloro-anilino)-6-methoxy-7(morpholino-3-propoxy)-quinazoline], and the EGFR inhibitors AG1478 [4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline] and EGFR inhibitor 1 [cyclopropanecarboxylic acid-(3-(6-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenylamino)-pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-phenyl)-amide]. OVA induced rapid increases in the phosphorylation of MYPT1 (Thr-853), Src (Tyr-416), and EGFR (Tyr-1173) in VSMCs, and Src inhibitors abolished these effects. OVA-induced Src phosphorylation was abrogated by Src inhibitors, but not affected by inhibitors of EGFR and Rho-kinase. Inhibitors of Src and EGFR, but not Rho-kinase, also blocked OVA-induced EGFR phosphorylation. Furthermore, a metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-0 [N-(R)-[2-(hydroxyaminocarbonyl) methyl]-4-methylpentanoyl-l-naphthylalanyl-l-alanine amide] and an inhibitor of heparin-binding EGF (CRM 197) not only abrogated the OVA-induced aortic contraction, but also OVA-induced EGFR and MYPT1 phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of EGFR transactivation. OVA also induced EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr-845, one of residues phosphorylated by Src. These results suggest that OVA

  20. Epidermal growth factor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase3/1 pathway is conducive to in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Hemin; Sheng, Xihui; Cui, Xu; Gu, Meichao; Liu, Yunhai; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to facilitate the in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes, and enhance embryo's capability for further development. However, such kind of molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EGF-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases 3 and 1 (MAPK3/1) pathway on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes. U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK (MAPK kinase), was added into the maturation culture medium to block the EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 pathway with different doses. Then, the nuclear maturation of sheep oocytes was examined. Additionally, the effect of EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 on cytoplasmic maturation was examined though in vitro fertilization and embryonic development. The rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after 6 h of culture with 10⁻⁴ mol/l of U0126 (50.4%) was significantly decreased compared with control (67.2%, p < 0.05), and the first polation body (PB1) extrusion rate after 22 h of culture in drug treatment was also significantly inhibited compared with control (28.6% vs. 48.4%, p < 0.05). However, 10-6 mol/l U0126 had slight effect on oocyte nuclear maturation. The normal distribution rate of α-tubulin in the oocytes after 22 h of in vitro maturation was significantly decreased in the 10⁻⁴ mol/l U0126 group (54%) compared with control (68%, p < 0.05). After in vitro fertilization, the cleavage rate in drug treatments (56.8% in 10⁻⁶ mol/l U0126 group and 42.6% in 10⁻⁴ mol/l U0126 group) was significantly decreased compared with control (72.3%, p < 0.01). The blastocyst rate in 10⁻⁴ mol/l U0126 group (17.6%) was also significantly decreased compared with control (29.9%, p < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 pathway is conducive to in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes. PMID:25799554

  1. Superior antitumor activity of trastuzumab combined with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin in a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive human gastric cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, SUGURU; YANAGISAWA, MIEKO; KANEKO, SAORI; YOROZU, KEIGO; YAMAMOTO, KANAME; MORIYA, YOICHIRO; HARADA, NAOKI

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer, it has been reported that the combination of trastuzumab with capecitabine plus cisplatin, or with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin, significantly increased overall survival compared with chemotherapy alone (ToGA trial). In addition, adjuvant therapy with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) improved the survival of patients who received curative D2 gastrectomy (CLASSIC trial). However, the efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab with XELOX for patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study, was to investigate the efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab with XELOX in a HER2-positive human gastric cancer xenograft model. Combination treatment with these three agents (trastuzumab 20 mg/kg, capecitabine 359 mg/kg and oxaliplatin 10 mg/kg), was found to exhibit a significantly stronger antitumor activity in NCI-N87 xenografts compared with either trastuzumab or XELOX alone. In this model, treatment with trastuzumab alone or trastuzumab plus oxaliplatin enhanced the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP), a key enzyme in the generation of 5-FU from capecitabine in tumor tissues. In in vitro experiments, trastuzumab induced TP mRNA expression in NCI-N87 cells. In addition, NCI-N87 cells co-cultured with the natural killer (NK) cell line CD16(158V)/NK-92 exhibited increased expression of TP mRNA. When NCI-N87 cells were cultured with CD16(158V)/NK-92 cells in the presence of trastuzumab, the mRNA expression of cytokines reported to have the ability to induce TP was upregulated in tumor cells. Furthermore, a medium conditioned by CD16(158V)/NK-92 cells also upregulated the expression of TP mRNA in NCI-N87 cells. These results suggest that trastuzumab promotes TP expression, either by acting directly on NCI-N87 cells, or indirectly via a mechanism that includes trastuzumab-mediated interactions

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor-Mediated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase3/1 Pathway Is Conducive to In Vitro Maturation of Sheep Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xu; Gu, Meichao; Liu, Yunhai; Qi, Xiaolong; Xing, Shuhan; Guo, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to facilitate the in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes, and enhance embryo’s capability for further development. However, such kind of molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of EGF-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases 3 and 1 (MAPK3/1) pathway on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes. U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK (MAPK kinase), was added into the maturation culture medium to block the EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 pathway with different doses. Then, the nuclear maturation of sheep oocytes was examined. Additionally, the effect of EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 on cytoplasmic maturation was examined though in vitro fertilization and embryonic development. The rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after 6 h of culture with 10−4 mol/l of U0126 (50.4%) was significantly decreased compared with control (67.2%, p < 0.05), and the first polation body (PB1) extrusion rate after 22 h of culture in drug treatment was also significantly inhibited compared with control (28.6% vs. 48.4%, p < 0.05). However, 10−6 mol/l U0126 had slight effect on oocyte nuclear maturation. The normal distribution rate of α-tubulin in the oocytes after 22 h of in vitro maturation was significantly decreased in the 10−4 mol/l U0126 group (54%) compared with control (68%, p < 0.05). After in vitro fertilization, the cleavage rate in drug treatments (56.8% in 10−6 mol/l U0126 group and 42.6% in 10−4 mol/l U0126 group) was significantly decreased compared with control (72.3%, p < 0.01). The blastocyst rate in 10−4 mol/l U0126 group (17.6%) was also significantly decreased compared with control (29.9%, p < 0.05). Collectively, these results suggest that EGF-mediated MAPK3/1 pathway is conducive to in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes. PMID:25799554

  3. Transgenic Soybean Production of Bioactive Human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghua; Schmidt, Monica A.; Erwin, Christopher; Guo, Jun; Sun, Raphael; Pendarvis, Ken; Warner, Brad W.; Herman, Eliot M.

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating condition of premature infants that results from the gut microbiome invading immature intestinal tissues. This results in a life-threatening disease that is frequently treated with the surgical removal of diseased and dead tissues. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), typically found in bodily fluids, such as amniotic fluid, salvia and mother’s breast milk, is an intestinotrophic growth factor and may reduce the onset of NEC in premature infants. We have produced human EGF in soybean seeds to levels biologically relevant and demonstrated its comparable activity to commercially available EGF. Transgenic soybean seeds expressing a seed-specific codon optimized gene encoding of the human EGF protein with an added ER signal tag at the N’ terminal were produced. Seven independent lines were grown to homozygous and found to accumulate a range of 6.7 +/- 3.1 to 129.0 +/- 36.7 μg EGF/g of dry soybean seed. Proteomic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the inserted EGF is the same as the human EGF protein. Phosphorylation and immunohistochemical assays on the EGF receptor in HeLa cells indicate the EGF protein produced in soybean seed is bioactive and comparable to commercially available human EGF. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using soybean seeds as a biofactory to produce therapeutic agents in a soymilk delivery platform. PMID:27314851

  4. Transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor levels in bladder cancer and their relationship to epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, J. K.; Cook, S.; Chambers, P.; Neal, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) in neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder tissue using a standard radioimmunoassay technique. Tumour samples had much higher TGF-alpha levels compared with EGF and TGF-alpha levels in malignant tissue were significantly higher than in benign bladder samples. There was, in addition, a difference in mean EGF levels from 'normal' bladder samples from non-tumour bearing areas of bladder in patients with bladder cancer compared with 'normal' bladder tissue obtained at the time of organ retrieval surgery. Levels of EGF and TGF-alpha did not correlate with levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) as determined by a radioligand binding method but levels of TGF-alpha > 10 ng gm-1 of tumour tissue did correlate with EGFR positivity defined using immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that TGF-alpha is the likely ligand for EGFR in bladder tumours. PMID:8605103

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in lung cancer: status 2012.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Fred R; Jänne, Pasi A; Eberhardt, Wilfried E; Cappuzzo, Federico; Thatcher, Nick; Pirker, Robert; Choy, Hak; Kim, Edward S; Paz-Ares, Luis; Gandara, David R; Wu, Yi-Long; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Shepherd, Frances A; Mok, Tony S

    2013-03-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths. Most patients present with advanced-stage disease, and the prognosis is generally poor. However, with the understanding of lung cancer biology, and development of molecular targeted agents, there have been improvements in treatment outcomes for selected subsets of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have demonstrated significantly improved tumor responses and progression-free survival in subsets of patients with advanced NSCLC, particularly those with tumors harboring activating EGFR mutations. Testing for EGFR mutations is a standard procedure for identification of patients who will benefit from first-line EGFR TKIs. For patients with advanced NSCLC and no activating EGFR mutations (EGFR wild-type) or no other driving oncogenes such as ALK-gene rearrangement, chemotherapy is still the standard of care. A new generation of EGFR TKIs, targeting multiple receptors and with irreversible bindings to the receptors, are in clinical trials and have shown encouraging effects. Research on primary and acquired resistant mechanisms to EGFR TKIs are ongoing. Monoclonal antibodies (e.g. cetuximab), in combination with chemotherapy, have demonstrated improved outcomes, particularly for subsets of NSCLC patients, but further validations are needed. Novel monoclonal antibodies are combined with chemotherapy, and randomized comparative studies are ongoing. This review summarizes the current status of EGFR inhibitors in NSCLC in 2012 and some of the major challenges we are facing. PMID:23370315

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor-induced Vacuolar (H+)-ATPase Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanqing; Parmar, Amanda; Roux, Emmanuelle; Balbis, Alejandro; Dumas, Victor; Chevalier, Stephanie; Posner, Barry I.

    2012-01-01

    Using proteomics and immunofluorescence, we demonstrated epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced recruitment of extrinsic V1 subunits of the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) to rat liver endosomes. This was accompanied by reduced vacuolar pH. Bafilomycin, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, inhibited EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation as indicated by a decrease in eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding 1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K) phosphorylation and kinase activity. There was no corresponding inhibition of EGF-induced Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation. Chloroquine, a neutralizer of vacuolar pH, mimicked bafilomycin effects. Bafilomycin did not inhibit the association of mTORC1 with Raptor nor did it affect AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Rather, the intracellular concentrations of essential but not non-essential amino acids were decreased by bafilomycin in EGF-treated primary rat hepatocytes. Cycloheximide, a translation elongation inhibitor known to augment intracellular amino acid levels, prevented the effect of bafilomycin on amino acids levels and completely reversed its inhibition of EGF-induced mTORC1 activation. In vivo administration of EGF stimulated the recruitment of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) but not mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to endosomes and lysosomes. This was inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Our results suggest a role for vacuolar acidification in EGF signaling to mTORC1. PMID:22689575

  7. AZD8931, an equipotent, reversible inhibitor of signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, and HER3: preclinical activity in HER2 non-amplified inflammatory breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression has been associated with prognostic and predictive value in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is observed at a higher rate in IBC compared with noninflammatory breast cancer. Current clinically available anti-HER2 therapies are effective only in patients with HER2 amplified breast cancer, including IBC. AZD8931 is a novel small-molecule equipotent inhibitor of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 signaling. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of AZD8931 alone or in combination with paclitaxel using preclinical models of EGFR-overexpressed and HER2 non-amplified IBC cells. Methods Two IBC cell lines SUM149 and FC-IBC-02 derived from pleural effusion of an IBC patient were used in this study. Cell growth and apoptotic cell death were examined in vitro. For the in vivo tumor growth studies, IBC cells were orthotopically transplanted into the mammary fat pads of immunodeficient mice. AZD8931 was given by daily oral gavage at doses of 25 mg/kg, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Paclitaxel was subcutaneously injected twice weekly. Results AZD8931 significantly suppressed cell growth of IBC cells and induced apoptosis of human IBC cells in vitro. Significantly, we showed that AZD8931 monotherapy inhibited xenograft growth and the combination of paclitaxel + AZD8931 was demonstrably more effective than paclitaxel or AZD8931 alone treatment at delaying tumor growth in vivo in orthotopic IBC models. Conclusion AZD8931 single agent and in combination with paclitaxel demonstrated signal inhibition and antitumor activity in EGFR-overexpressed and HER2 non-amplified IBC models. These results suggest that AZD8931 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of IBC patients with HER2 non-amplified tumors. PMID:24886365

  8. Intranasal epidermal growth factor treatment rescues neonatal brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafidi, Joseph; Hammond, Timothy R.; Scafidi, Susanna; Ritter, Jonathan; Jablonska, Beata; Roncal, Maria; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Coman, Daniel; Huang, Yuegao; McCarter, Robert J.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    There are no clinically relevant treatments available that improve function in the growing population of very preterm infants (less than 32 weeks' gestation) with neonatal brain injury. Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI) is a common finding in these children and results in chronic neurodevelopmental impairments. As shown recently, failure in oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation contributes to DWMI. We demonstrated previously that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has an important role in oligodendrocyte development. Here we examine whether enhanced EGFR signalling stimulates the endogenous response of EGFR-expressing progenitor cells during a critical period after brain injury, and promotes cellular and behavioural recovery in the developing brain. Using an established mouse model of very preterm brain injury, we demonstrate that selective overexpression of human EGFR in oligodendrocyte lineage cells or the administration of intranasal heparin-binding EGF immediately after injury decreases oligodendroglia death, enhances generation of new oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells and promotes functional recovery. Furthermore, these interventions diminish ultrastructural abnormalities and alleviate behavioural deficits on white-matter-specific paradigms. Inhibition of EGFR signalling with a molecularly targeted agent used for cancer therapy demonstrates that EGFR activation is an important contributor to oligodendrocyte regeneration and functional recovery after DWMI. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that targeting EGFR in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells at a specific time after injury is clinically feasible and potentially applicable to the treatment of premature children with white matter injury.

  9. The epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Harskamp, Laura R; Gansevoort, Ron T; van Goor, Harry; Meijer, Esther

    2016-08-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has a critical role in renal development, tissue repair and electrolyte handling. Numerous studies have reported an association between dysregulation of this pathway and the initiation and progression of various chronic kidney diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, chronic allograft nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease through the promotion of renal cell proliferation, fibrosis and inflammation. In the oncological setting, compounds that target the EGFR pathway are already in clinical use or have been evaluated in clinical trials; in the renal setting, therapeutic interventions targeting this pathway by decreasing ligand availability with disintegrin and metalloproteinase inhibitors or with ligand-neutralizing antibodies, or by inhibiting receptor activation with tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies are only just starting to be explored in animal models of chronic kidney disease and in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. In this Review we focus on the role of the EGFR signalling pathway in the kidney under physiological conditions and during the pathophysiology of chronic kidney diseases and explore the clinical potential of interventions in this pathway to treat chronic renal diseases. PMID:27374915

  10. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  11. Coregulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Levels and Locations: Quantitative Analysis of HER2 Overexpression Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Opresko, Lee; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2003-03-01

    Elevated expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is know to alter cell signalilng and behavioral responses implicated in tumor progression. However, multiple diverse mechanisms may be involved in these overall effects, including signaling by HER2 itself, modulation of signalilng by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and modification of trafficking dynamics for both EGFR and HER2. Continued....

  12. The cell-penetrating peptide domain from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) has anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jue-Yeon; Seo, Yoo-Na; Park, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Chung, Chong-Pyoung

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP sequence identified from HB-EGF has cell penetration activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits the NF-{kappa}B dependent inflammatory responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP directly blocks phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBP inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit. -- Abstract: A heparin-binding peptide (HBP) sequence from human heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) was identified and was shown to exhibit cell penetration activity. This cell penetration induced an anti-inflammatory reaction in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. HBP penetrated the cell membrane during the 10 min treatment and reduced the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cytokines (TNF-{alpha} and IL-6) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, HBP inhibited the LPS-induced upregulation of cytokines, including TNF-{alpha} and IL-6, and decreased the interstitial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a lung inflammation model. HBP inhibited NF-{kappa}B-dependent inflammatory responses by directly blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and by subsequently inhibiting the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B. Taken together, this novel HBP may be potentially useful candidate for anti-inflammatory treatments and can be combined with other drugs of interest to transport attached molecules into cells.

  13. Epidermal growth in the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B.D.; St. Aubin, D.J.; Geraci, J.R.; Brown, W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Epidermal growth in two mature female bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, was investigated by following the movement of a cohort of tritiated thymidine-labeled epidermal cells for 59 days. The majority of the cells migrated in a cluster which was estimated to reach the skin surface in 73 days. The authors calculate that the outermost cell layer is sloughed 12 times per day. Turnover time and sloughing rate are estimated to be 1.7 times longer and 8.5 times faster than the respective values for epidermal cell kinetics in humans. This apparent inconsistency of slow transit time and rapid sloughing rate is reconciled by the convoluted structure of the stratum germinativum in the dolphin which results in a ratio of germinatival to superficial cells of 876:1. The stratum germinativum of dolphin epidermis appears to lack morphologically distinct, spatially segregated subpopulations of anchoring and stem cells. Dolphin epidermis has a large capacity for cell population, relatively long turnover time, and rapid sloughing rate. The adaptive advantages of these characteristics are discussed.

  14. Angiotensin II-Induced Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Mediated by p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-Activated c-Src Through Spleen Tyrosine Kinase and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mugabe, Benon E.; Yaghini, Fariborz A.; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 ± 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 μM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 μM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 μM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c-Src through

  15. Angiotensin II-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated c-Src through spleen tyrosine kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Mugabe, Benon E; Yaghini, Fariborz A; Song, Chi Young; Buharalioglu, Cuneyt K; Waters, Christopher M; Malik, Kafait U

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates protein synthesis by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and DNA synthesis through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study was conducted to determine whether Syk mediates Ang II-induced migration of aortic VSMCs using a scratch wound approach. Treatment with Ang II (200 nM) for 24 h increased VSMC migration by 1.56 +/- 0.14-fold. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis were minimized by the Syk inhibitor piceatannol (10 microM) and by transfecting VSMCs with dominant-negative but not wild-type Syk plasmid. Ang II-induced VSMC migration and Syk phosphorylation were attenuated by inhibitors of c-Src [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2)], p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB202190)], and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(2-aminophenylthio) butadiene (U0126)]. SB202190 attenuated p38 MAPK and c-Src but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation, indicating that p38 MAPK acts upstream of c-Src and Syk. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 attenuated Syk and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that c-Src acts upstream of Syk and ERK1/2. Ang II- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced VSMC migration and EGFR phosphorylation were inhibited by the EGFR blocker 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (AG1478) (2 microM). Neither the Syk inhibitor piceatannol nor the dominant-negative Syk mutant altered EGF-induced cell migration or Ang II- and EGF-induced EGFR phosphorylation. The c-Src inhibitor PP2 diminished EGF-induced VSMC migration and EGFR, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 microM) attenuated EGF-induced cell migration and ERK1/2 but not EGFR phosphorylation. These data suggest that Ang II stimulates VSMC migration via p38 MAPK-activated c

  16. Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling networks in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Furnari, Frank B.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Mischel, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    As tumours evolve, the daughter cells of the initiating cell often become molecularly heterogeneous and develop different functional properties and therapeutic vulnerabilities. In glioblastoma (GBM), a lethal form of brain cancer, the heterogeneous expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) poses a substantial challenge for the effective use of EGFR-targeted therapies. Understanding the mechanisms that cause EGFR heterogeneity in GBM should provide better insights into how they, and possibly other amplified receptor tyrosine kinases, affect cellular signalling, metabolism and drug resistance. PMID:25855404

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor family in lung cancer and premalignancy.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Wilbur A; Veve, Robert; Hirsch, Fred R; Helfrich, Barbara A; Bunn, Paul A

    2002-02-01

    Lung cancer, like many other epithelial malignancies, is thought to be the outcome of genetic and epigenetic changes that result in a constellation of phenotypic abnormalities in bronchial epithelium. These include morphologic epithelial dysplasia, angiogenesis, increased proliferative rate, and changes in expression of cell surface proteins, particularly overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family proteins. The EFGR family is a group of four structurally similar tyrosine kinases (EGFR, HER2/neu, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4) that dimerize on binding with a number of ligands, including EGF and transforming growth factor alpha. Epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression is pronounced in virtually all squamous carcinomas and is also found in > or = 65% of large cell and adenocarcinomas. It is not expressed in situ by small cell lung carcinoma. Overexpression of EGFR is one of the earliest and most consistent abnormalities in bronchial epithelium of high-risk smokers. It is present at the stage of basal cell hyperplasia and persists through squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ. Recent studies of the effect of inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinases suggest that patterns of coexpression of multiple members of the EGFR family could be important in determining response. Intermediate endpoints of such trials could include monitoring of phosphorylation levels in signal transduction molecules downstream of the receptor dimers. These trials represent a new targeted approach to lung cancer treatment and chemoprevention that will require greater attention to molecular endpoints than required in past trials. PMID:11894009

  18. [The basic and applied study on the epidermal growth factor].

    PubMed

    Huang, B R; Cai, L W; Xiang, X Z

    2001-04-01

    This article reviews the results of the basic research about epidermal growth factor and its receptor, and the development of the novel drug, EGF eyedrop, that containing chemically synthesized EGF gene, the construction of EGF expression vector, the transformation of the host cells, the purification of the recombinant protein EGF, the preparation of three batches of the EGF product and identification, the preclinical and clinical trials. Relevant studies show that recombinant EGF consisting of 51 amino acids can be secreted into the medium under the control of the alpha factor leading sequence in the yeast cells. The EGF can accelerate the growth of corneal-limbal epithelial cells and the healing of an alkali burned corneal. The EGF can be used in curing oral cavity ulcer and skin burned wound. And it has the preventive effects on experimental duodenal ulcer of rat. The antiserum was made for test of the concentration of blood EGF and urine EGF by RIA. Data from studies demonstrate the inhibition effect of EGF on the growth of tumor cells, such as A431 and BT325 cells in the presence of high EGF concentration (> 10 ng/ml). The expression of EGFR and DNA ploidy in renal carcinoma has clinical significance. Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of the EGF has been made. The MW of the EGF product is 6000, and the pI is about 4.6 and it has correct N-terminal amino acids sequences, immunogenicity and biological activity. There is no vestige of the DNA of the yeast cells. Animal experiments reveal that there is no cumulation of the EGF in the body, and EGF can promote corneal epithelial healing. There is no toxicological effect during cornea wound healing of rabbit. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center clinical trial was conducted in four hospitals to assess safety, ocular tolerance and efficacy of an ophthalmic solution of EGF for 200 cases of cornea transplantation and 247 cases of nebulae. Unequivocal results were obtained

  19. Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kumagai, Kenichi; Gotoh, Akito; Eguchi, Takanori; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the expression profile of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, which comprises EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3 and HER4/ErbB4 in oral leukoplakia (LP). The expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family genes and their ligands were measured in LP tissues from 14 patients and compared with levels in 10 patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and normal oral mucosa (NOM) from 14 healthy donors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Synchronous mRNA coexpression of ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 was detected in LP lesions. Out of the receptors, only ErbB4 mRNA and protein was more highly expressed in LP compared with NOM tissues. These were strongly expressed by epithelial keratinocytes in LP lesions, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Regarding the ligands, the mRNA of Neuregulin2 and 4 were more highly expressed in OLP compared with NOM tissues. Therefore, enhanced ErbB4 on the keratinocytes and synchronous modulation of EGFR family genes may contribute to the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of LP. PMID:23492901

  20. Expression of an Exogenous Growth Hormone Gene by Transplantable Human Epidermal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jeffrey R.; Barrandon, Yann; Green, Howard; Mulligan, Richard C.

    1987-09-01

    Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to introduce a recombinant human growth hormone gene into cultured human keratinocytes. The transduced keratinocytes secreted biologically active growth hormone into the culture medium. When grafted as an epithelial sheet onto athymic mice, these cultured keratinocytes reconstituted an epidermis that was similar in appearance to that resulting from normal cells, but from which human growth hormone could be extracted. Transduced epidermal cells may prove to be a general vehicle for the delivery of gene products by means of grafting.

  1. Retraction: "Concurrent inhibition of NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor leads to greater anti-tumor activity in pancreatic cancer" by Ali et al.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The above article, published online on March 8, 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figures 2A, 4, 6A, and 6C to be inappropriately manipulated. REFERENCE Ali S, Banerjee S, Schaffert JM, El-Rayes BF, Philip PA, Sarkar FH. 2010. Concurrent inhibition of NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor leads to greater anti-tumor activity in pancreatic cancer. J Cell Biochem 110:171-181; doi: 10.1002/jcb.22523. PMID:27301888

  2. Chemical synthesis of a gene for human epidermal growth factor urogastrone and its expression in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Urdea, M S; Merryweather, J P; Mullenbach, G T; Coit, D; Heberlein, U; Valenzuela, P; Barr, P J

    1983-01-01

    We have chemically synthesized and expressed in yeast a gene coding for human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone), a 53-amino-acid polypeptide that has been shown to promote epithelial cell proliferation and to inhibit gastric acid secretion. The synthetic gene, consisting of 170 base pairs, was designed with yeast-preferred codons and assembled by enzymatic ligation of synthetic fragments produced by phosphoramidite chemistry. The DNA synthesis protocol used allows for facile synthesis of oligonucleotides larger than 50 bases. Yeast cells were transformed with plasmids containing the synthetic gene under control of a yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter and were shown to synthesize a biologically active human epidermal growth factor. Images PMID:6369317

  3. Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) in Cancers: Overexpression and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nida; Iqbal, Naveed

    2014-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family having tyrosine kinase activity. Dimerization of the receptor results in the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of the receptors and initiates a variety of signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Amplification or overexpression of HER2 occurs in approximately 15–30% of breast cancers and 10–30% of gastric/gastroesophageal cancers and serves as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. HER2 overexpression has also been seen in other cancers like ovary, endometrium, bladder, lung, colon, and head and neck. The introduction of HER2 directed therapies has dramatically influenced the outcome of patients with HER2 positive breast and gastric/gastroesophageal cancers; however, the results have been proved disappointing in other HER2 overexpressing cancers. This review discusses the role of HER2 in various cancers and therapeutic modalities available targeting HER2. PMID:25276427

  4. Growth of melanocytes in human epidermal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Staiano-Coico, L.; Hefton, J.M.; Amadeo, C.; Pagan-Charry, I.; Madden, M.R.; Cardon-Cardo, C. )

    1990-08-01

    Epidermal cell cultures were grown in keratinocyte-conditioned medium for use as burn wound grafts; the melanocyte composition of the grafts was studied under a variety of conditions. Melanocytes were identified by immunohistochemistry based on a monoclonal antibody (MEL-5) that has previously been shown to react specifically with melanocytes. During the first 7 days of growth in primary culture, the total number of melanocytes in the epidermal cultures decreased to 10% of the number present in normal skin. Beginning on day 2 of culture, bipolar melanocytes were present at a mean cell density of 116 +/- 2/mm2; the keratinocyte to melanocyte ratio was preserved during further primary culture and through three subpassages. Moreover, exposure of cultures to mild UVB irradiation stimulated the melanocytes to proliferate, suggesting that the melanocytes growing in culture maintained their responsiveness to external stimuli. When the sheets of cultured cells were enzymatically detached from the plastic culture flasks before grafting, melanocytes remained in the basal layer of cells as part of the graft applied to the patient.

  5. Redox-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Heppner, David E; van der Vliet, Albert

    2016-08-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling represents a unique feature of multicellular organisms, and is important in regulation of cell differentiation and specialized cell functions. Multicellular organisms also contain a diverse family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) that have been closely linked with tyrosine kinase-based cell signaling and regulate tyrosine phosphorylation via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues that are highly conserved within many proteins involved in this signaling pathway. An example of redox-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a widely studied receptor system with diverse functions in normal cell biology as well as pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as cancer. The purpose of this Graphical Redox Review is to highlight recently emerged concepts with respect to NOX-dependent regulation of this important signaling pathway. PMID:26722841

  6. Redox-dependent regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, David E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent cell signaling represents a unique feature of multicellular organisms, and is important in regulation of cell differentiation and specialized cell functions. Multicellular organisms also contain a diverse family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs) that have been closely linked with tyrosine kinase-based cell signaling and regulate tyrosine phosphorylation via reversible oxidation of cysteine residues that are highly conserved within many proteins involved in this signaling pathway. An example of redox-regulated tyrosine kinase signaling involves the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a widely studied receptor system with diverse functions in normal cell biology as well as pathologies associated with oxidative stress such as cancer. The purpose of this Graphical Redox Review is to highlight recently emerged concepts with respect to NOX-dependent regulation of this important signaling pathway. PMID:26722841

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: The Yin and Yang in the Treatment of Cutaneous Wounds and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Significance Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) play an essential role in wound healing through stimulating epidermal and dermal regeneration. The development of new therapies for enhancing wound healing has included the use of EGF. In addition, EGFR inhibitors (EGFRis) have become a therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. Thus, therapies targeting EGF/EGFR are useful for the treatment of both cutaneous wounds and cancer. Recent Advances Identification of EGFR as a regulator of normal and pathological cell function has allowed for the development of EGFRis for the treatment of cancer and topical administration of EGF to enhance wound healing. Critical Issues The use of EGFRi has emerged as an option for metastatic cancers. These drugs induce dermatological toxicity, a papulopustular rash that is pruritic and painful; chronic use may negatively impact wound healing. Currently, there is no standard therapy to alleviate the side effects caused by EGFRi administration except to reduce or eliminate EGFRi usage. Therefore, side effects from these drugs should be taken into consideration on patients prone to develop chronic wounds and with cutaneous injuries. Future Directions There is a need for adjunctive treatment to eliminate dermatological toxicity from EGFRi use. The development of new downstream targets of EGFR may be a rational strategy to reduce potential cutaneous side effects and provide a better strategy for the treatment of cancer. Until then, the topical use of EGF could be used to ameliorate dermatological lesions caused by EGFRi. PMID:24527320

  8. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian D.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B.; Gatza, Michael L.; Morrison, Meghan M.; Moore, Preston D.; Whitwell, Corbin A.; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E.; Silva, Grace O.; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A.; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J.; Perou, Charles M.; Weaver, Alissa M.; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A.; Chang, Jenny C.; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  9. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Christian D; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B; Gatza, Michael L; Morrison, Meghan M; Moore, Preston D; Whitwell, Corbin A; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E; Silva, Grace O; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J; Perou, Charles M; Weaver, Alissa M; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Chang, Jenny C; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  10. Layer-by-layer assembly of epidermal growth factors on polyurethane films for wound closure.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Abhilash; Diehl-Jones, William; Ghanbar, Sadegh; Liu, Song

    2014-02-13

    To facilitate the healing of chronic wounds, growth factors such as epidermal growth factor need to be safely encapsulated for their sustained and effective delivery to the wound bed. Using a layer-by-layer assembly technique, epidermal growth factor is successfully encapsulated on the surface of poly(acrylic acid)-modified polyurethane film. The amount of encapsulated epidermal growth factor is controlled by adjusting the number of chitosan/epidermal growth factor bilayers. A controlled release of epidermal growth factor from the surface of polyurethane film for a period of five days is achieved with well-retained bioactivity (over 90%) as evidenced by a cell proliferation assay. In an in vitro cellular wounding assay, the cell gap covered with the epidermal growth factor-loaded polyurethane film closes at a rate more than twice as fast as that covered with a control polyurethane film. Fluorescent staining of F-actin reveals that the released epidermal growth factor induces differences in cytoskeletal organization, suggesting that stimulated cell migration also contributes to the close of the cell gap. PMID:24525716

  11. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  12. Heparin Binding Epidermal Growth Factor Like Growth Factor Heals Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations With Advantage Over Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Epidermal Growth Factor in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Santa Maria, Peter Luke; Weierich, Kendall; Kim, Sungwoo; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis That heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF) heals chronic tympanic membrane (TM) perforations at higher rates than fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an animal model. Background A non-surgical treatment for chronic TM perforation would benefit those unable to access surgery or those unable to have surgery, as well as reducing the cost of tympanoplasty. Growth factor (GF) treatments have been reported in the literature with variable success with the lack of a suitable animal providing a major obstacle. Methods The GFs were tested in a validated mouse model of chronic TM perforation. A bio absorbable hydrogel polymer was used to deliver the GF at a steady concentration as it dissolved over four weeks. A control (polymer only, n=18) was compared to polymer loaded with HB-EGF (5ug/ml, n=18), FGF2 (100ug/ml, n=19) and EGF (250ug/ml, n=19). Perforations were inspected at four weeks. Results The healing rates, as defined as one hundred percent perforation closure, were control (5/18, 27.8%), HB-EGF (15/18, 83.3%), FGF2 (6/19, 31.6%) and EGF (3/19, 15.8%). There were no differences between FGF2 (p=0.80) and EGF (p=0.31) with control healing rates. HB-EGF (p= 0.000001) showed a significant difference for healing. The HB-EGF healed TMs showed layers similar to a normal TM, whilst the other groups showed a lack of epithelial migration. Conclusion This study confirms the advantage of HB-EGF over two other commonly used growth factors and is a promising non-surgical treatment of chronic TM perforations. PMID:26075672

  13. The cutaneous epidermal growth factor network: Can it be translated clinically to stimulate hair growth?

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2009-01-01

    The influences exerted by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the skin act at multiple levels, which involve compartments that normally express EGFR. These include the basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis, sebaceous glands, and the outer root sheath of the hair follicles. The physiological roles of EGFR ensure epidermal renewal and integrity, along with a gatekeeping and function and hair growth stimulation functions. Important cellular functions that are altered during EGF receptor blocking therapy consist of epidermal differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and migration, with an overall dominating effect of inducing growth arrest and terminal differentiation of the keratinocytes in the basal layers. The effects of EGFR blockage on the hair cycle include terminal differentiation of the hair follicle, which in certain cases may be associated with trichomegaly. Trichomegaly of the eyelashes may occur as an isolated occurrence or, frequently, as part of a generalized phenomenon that may be associated with the use of the EGFR inhibitors. Molecular changes associated with EGFR blockage are discussed, relevant to their association with hair growth. Modulation of Akt, AP2alpha, CDK4, Notch-1, p27KIP1, and Hedgehog expression are involved in the initiation of the hair cycle and inducement of the anagen phase, followed by proliferation and differentiation of the hair follicles. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors have been developed as therapeutic molecules directed against cancer; in these regimens the knowledge of EGF receptor signaling functions has been translated into significant clinical results. However, among their various collateral effects on the skin, hair growth is observed to occur in certain patients. A particular "wavy" hair phenotype is observed during the pharmacological EGFR receptor blockade, just as in murine transgenic models that carry loss of function of TGF-alpha or EGFR genes. A better characterization of the

  14. The Role of Endogenous Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands in Mediating Corneal Epithelial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Joanne L.; Phelps, Eric D.; Doll, Mark A.; Schaal, Shlomit; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To provide a comprehensive study of the biological role and therapeutic potential of six endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in corneal epithelial homeostasis. Methods. Kinetic analysis and dose response curves were performed by using in vitro and in vivo wound-healing assays. Biochemical assays were used to determine receptor expression and activity. Human tears were collected and quantitatively analyzed by multianalyte profiling for endogenous EGFR ligands. Results. Epidermal growth factor receptor ligands improved wound closure and activated EGFR, but betacellulin (BTC) was the most efficacious promoter of wound healing in vitro. In contrast, only epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted wound healing in vivo. Human tears from 25 healthy individuals showed EGFR ligands at these average concentrations: EGF at 2053 ± 312.4 pg/mL, BTC at 207 ± 39.4 pg/mL, heparin-binding EGF at 44 ± 5.8 pg/mL, amphiregulin at 509 ± 28.8 pg/mL, transforming growth factor-α at 84 ± 19 pg/mL, and epiregulin at 52 ± 15 pg/mL. Conclusions. Under unwounded conditions, only EGF was present at concentrations near the ligand's Kd for the receptor, indicating it is the primary mediator of corneal epithelial homeostasis. Other ligands were present but at concentrations 11- to 7500-fold less their Kd, preventing significant ligand binding. Further, the high levels of EGF and its predicted binding preclude receptor occupancy by exogenous ligand and can explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo data. Therefore, therapeutic use of EGFR ligands may be unpredictable and impractical. PMID:24722692

  15. Epidermal growth factor and kidney disease: a long-lasting story.

    PubMed

    Klein, Julie; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Schanstra, Joost P

    2016-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor has been previously associated with kidney disease. In this issue of Kidney International, Betz et al. (2016) link urinary epidermal growth factor abundance with an increased risk of the development of diabetic nephropathy in a novel animal model of diabetic nephropathy and in a large cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the clinical value of these observations needs to be confirmed in further studies, these observations further strengthen the tight link between epidermal growth factor and kidney disease. PMID:27083276

  16. Adverse Reaction to Cetuximab, an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Štulhofer Buzina, Daška; Martinac, Ivana; Ledić Drvar, Daniela; Čeović, Romana; Bilić, Ivan; Marinović, Branka

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a new strategy in treatment of a variety of solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and pancreatic cancer (1). Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse reactions occurring during epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) therapy. Papulopustular rash (acne like rash) develop with 80-86% patients receiving cetuximab, while xerosis, eczema, fissures, teleangiectasiae, hyperpigmentations, and nail and hair changes occur less frequently (2). The mechanism underlying these skin changes has not been established and understood. It seems EGFRI alter cell growth and differentiation, leading to impaired stratum corneum and cell apoptosis (3-5). An abdominoperineal resection of the rectal adenocarcinoma (Dukes C) was performed on a 43-year-old female patient. Following surgery, adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was applied. After two years, the patient suffered a metastatic relapse. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was detected on multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) images, with an increased value of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor marker (maximal value 57 ng/mL). Hematological and biochemical tests were within normal limits, so first-line chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and a 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX4) protocol was introduced. A wild type of the KRAS gene was confirmed in tumor tissue (diagnostic prerequisite for the introduction of EGFRI) and cetuximab (250 mg per m2 of body surface) was added to the treatment protocol. The patient responded well to the treatment with confirmed partial regression of the tumor formations. Three months after the patient started using cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, the patient presented with a papulopustular eruption in the seborrhoeic areas (Figure 1) and eczematoid reactions on the extremities

  17. The ontogeny of epidermal growth factor receptors during mouse development

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E.D.; Meek, J.

    1984-05-01

    In an attempt to understand the role(s) of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in vivo during murine development, we have examined the /sup 125/I-EGF binding characteristics of EGF-receptors in membrane preparations of tissues from the 12th day of gestation to parturition. Using autoradiography, the earliest time that we could detect EGF-receptors was on trophoblast cells cultured for 3 days as blastocyst outgrowths. Trophoblast eventually forms a large portion of the placenta, where EGF-receptors have long been recognized. We measured the number and affinity of EGF-receptors on tissues dissected from conceptuses from the 12th day of gestation in order to identify a stage when tissues may be most sensitive to EGF. Whereas the number of EGF receptors increases during gestation for all tissues examined, the affinity of the receptors declines for carcass and placenta and remains relatively unchanged for brain and liver. This suggests that EGF may function differently throughout development. Our hypothesis is that EGF (or its embryonic equivalent) initially stimulates proliferation in embryonic cells and then stimulates differentiation as the tissues mature. In the adult, its main role could be to stimulate tissue repair after damage.

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Prostate Cancer Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Kharmate, Geetanjali; Hosseini-Beheshti, Elham; Caradec, Josselin; Chin, Mei Yieng; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes proteins and microRNAs have gained much attention as diagnostic tools and biomarker potential in various malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of exosomes and membrane-associated receptors, particularly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as mediators of cell proliferation and invasion in PCa progression remains unexplored. EGFR is frequently overexpressed and has been associated with aggressive forms of PCa. While PCa cells and tissues express EGFR, it is unknown whether exosomes derived from PCa cells or PCa patient serum contains EGFR. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize EGFR in exosomes derived from PCa cells, LNCaP xenograft and PCa patient serum. Exosomes were isolated from conditioned media of different PCa cell lines; LNCaP xenograft serum as well as patient plasma/serum by differential centrifugation and ultracentrifugation on a sucrose density gradient. Exosomes were confirmed by electron microscopy, expression of exosomal markers and NanoSight™ analysis. EGFR expression was determined by western blot analysis and ELISA. This study demonstrates that exosomes may easily be derived from PCa cell lines, serum obtained from PCa xenograft bearing mice and clinical samples derived from PCa patients. Presence of exosomal EGFR in PCa patient exosomes may present a novel approach for measuring of the disease state. Our work will allow to build on this finding for future understanding of PCa exosomes and their potential role in PCa progression and as minimal invasive biomarkers for PCa. PMID:27152724

  19. Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor status in glioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui-Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Masahiko; Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Namba, Hiroki; Sakahara, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Our previous study showed that a newly designed tracer radioiodinated 6-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-7-ethoxy-4-(3’-iodophenoxy)quinazoline ([125I]PYK) is promising for the evaluation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status and prediction of gefitinib treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. EGFR is over-expressed and mutated also in glioblastoma. In the present study, the expressions and mutation of EGFR were tested with [125I] PYK in glioblastoma in vitro and in vivo to determine whether this could be used to predict the sensitivity of glioblastoma to gefitinib treatment. Methods: Glioblastoma cell lines with different expression of EGFR were tested. Growth inhibition of cell lines by gefitinib was assessed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Uptake levels of [125I]PYK were evaluated in cell lines in vitro. Tumor targeting of [125I]PYK was examined by a biodistribution study and imaging by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Results: High concentrations of gefitinib were needed to suppress EGFR-mediated proliferation. The uptake of [125I] PYK in cell lines in vitro was low, and showed no correlation with EGFR expression or mutation status. Biodistribution study and SPECT imaging with [125I]PYK for xenografts showed no [125I]PYK uptake. Conclusion: The results showed prediction of gefitinib effectiveness was difficult in glioblastoma by [125I]PYK, which might be due to the complicated expression of EGFR status in glioblastoma. Thus, new tracers for sites downstream of the mutant EGFR should be investigated in further studies.

  20. Epidermal growth factor system regulates mucin production in airways

    PubMed Central

    Takeyama, Kiyoshi; Dabbagh, Karim; Lee, Heung-Man; Agustí, Carlos; Lausier, James A.; Ueki, Iris F.; Grattan, Kathleen M.; Nadel, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    Goblet-cell hyperplasia is a critical pathological feature in hypersecretory diseases of airways. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown, and no effective therapy exists. Here we show that stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) by its ligands, EGF and transforming growth factor α (TGFα), causes MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells both in in vitro and in vivo. We found that a MUC5AC-inducing epithelial cell line, NCI-H292, expresses EGF-R constitutively; EGF-R gene expression was stimulated further by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). EGF-R ligands increased the expression of MUC5AC at both gene and protein levels, and this effect was potentiated by TNFα. Selective EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitors blocked MUC5AC expression induced by EGF-R ligands. Pathogen-free rats expressed little EGF-R protein in airway epithelial cells; intratracheal instillation of TNFα induced EGF-R in airway epithelial cells, and subsequent instillation of EGF-R ligands increased the number of goblet cells, Alcian blue–periodic acid–Schiff staining (reflecting mucous glycoconjugates), and MUC5AC gene expression, whereas TNFα, EGF, or TGFα alone was without effect. In sensitized rats, three intratracheal instillations of ovalbumin resulted in EGF-R expression and goblet-cell production in airway epithelium. Pretreatment with EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, BIBX1522, prevented goblet-cell production both in rats stimulated by TNFα-EGF-R ligands and in an asthma model. These findings suggest potential roles for inhibitors of the EGF-R cascade in hypersecretory diseases of airways. PMID:10077640

  1. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberger, Beate M.; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  2. Epidermal β-catenin activation remodels the dermis via paracrine signalling to distinct fibroblast lineages.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, Beate M; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Sustained epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling expands the stem cell compartment and induces ectopic hair follicles (EFs). This is accompanied by extensive fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the underlying dermis. Here we show that epidermal Hedgehog (Hh) and Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signalling mediate the dermal changes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of these pathways prevents β-catenin-induced dermal reprogramming and EF formation. Epidermal Shh stimulates proliferation of the papillary fibroblast lineage, whereas TGF-β2 controls proliferation, differentiation and ECM production by reticular fibroblasts. Hh inhibitors do not affect TGF-β target gene expression in reticular fibroblasts, and TGF-β inhibition does not prevent Hh target gene induction in papillary fibroblasts. However, when Hh signalling is inhibited the reticular dermis does not respond to epidermal β-catenin activation. We conclude that the dermal response to epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signalling depends on distinct fibroblast lineages responding to different paracrine signals. PMID:26837596

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in metastatic anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jane E; Ohinata, Aki; Silva, Ninoska N; Mehdizadeh, Amir; Eng, Cathy

    2016-09-01

    Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) anal cancer is relatively rare. With limited data, cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil has traditionally been utilized in the first-line setting. Treatment beyond front-line cisplatin progression is not well defined. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly overexpressed in SCCA anal cancer and EGFR inhibition may represent a potential treatment target for this population in need. Our case series evaluated metastatic SCCA anal cancer patients who received an EGFR monoclonal antibody as second-line or third-line therapy. Data collected consisted of demographics, previous treatment, metastatic disease sites, localized therapy received, regimen received, first radiographic result, progression-free survival, and overall survival. A total of 17 patients were included, with most (76%) patients receiving an EGFR monoclonal antibody in the second-line setting. Common regimens identified combined cetuximab or panitumumab with a fluoropyrimidine plus platinum (35%), carboplatin plus paclitaxel (29%), or cisplatin plus vinorelbine (18%). Thirty-five percent of patients achieved a response and 24% had stable disease. The overall median progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.3 and 24.7 months, respectively. Compared with our large retrospective study in the front-line metastatic anal cancer setting, our study suggests that anti-EGFR therapy in combination with certain chemotherapy derived additional benefit in the refractory setting. In the metastatic setting, there is a need to discover effective therapies. We present a diverse metastatic SCCA anal cancer patient population who received cetuximab or panitumumab with chemotherapy in the second-line or third-line setting. Our case series strengthens the concept of EGFR inhibition in metastatic SCCA anal cancer. PMID:27272412

  4. Altered (/sup 125/I)epidermal growth factor binding and receptor distribution in psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Nanney, L.B.; Stoscheck, C.M.; Magid, M.; King, L.E. Jr.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of growth and differentiation of human epidermis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) is mediated by its binding to specific receptors. Whether EGF receptors primarily mediate cell division or differentiation in hyperproliferative disease such as psoriasis vulgaris is unclear. To study the pathogenesis of psoriasis, 4-mm2 punch biopsy specimens of normal, uninvolved, and involved psoriatic skin were assayed for EGF receptors by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. Using autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods, basal keratinocytes were found to contain the greatest number of EGF binding sites and immunoreactive receptors as compared to the upper layers of the epidermis in both normal epidermis and psoriatic skin. No EGF receptor differences between normal and psoriatic epidermis were observed in this layer. In the upper layers of the epidermis, a 2-fold increase in EGF binding capacity was observed in psoriatic skin as compared with normal thin or thick skin. Biochemical methods indicated that (/sup 125/I)EGF binding was increased in psoriatic epidermis as compared with similar thickness normal epidermis when measured on a protein basis. Epidermal growth factor was shown to increase phosphorylation of the EGF receptor in skin. EGF receptors retained in the nonmitotic stratum spinosum and parakeratotic stratum corneum may reflect the incomplete, abnormal differentiation that occurs in active psoriatic lesions. Alternatively, retained EGF receptors may play a direct role in inhibiting cellular differentiation in the suprabasal layers.

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene.

    PubMed Central

    Plowman, G D; Whitney, G S; Neubauer, M G; Green, J M; McDonald, V L; Todaro, G J; Shoyab, M

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), and amphiregulin are structurally and functionally related growth regulatory proteins. These secreted polypeptides all bind to the 170-kDa cell-surface EGF receptor, activating its intrinsic kinase activity. However, amphiregulin exhibits different activities than EGF and TGF-alpha in a number of biological assays. Amphiregulin only partially competes with EGF for binding EGF receptor, and amphiregulin does not induce anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney cells (NRK) in the presence of TGF-beta. Amphiregulin also appears to abrogate the stimulatory effect of TGF-alpha on the growth of several aggressive epithelial carcinomas that overexpress EGF receptor. These findings suggest that amphiregulin may interact with a separate receptor in certain cell types. Here we report the cloning of another member of the human EGF receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which we have named "HER3/ERRB3." The cDNA was isolated from a human carcinoma cell line, and its 6-kilobase transcript was identified in various human tissues. We have generated peptide-specific antisera that recognizes the 160-kDa HER3 protein when transiently expressed in COS cells. These reagents will allow us to determine whether HER3 binds amphiregulin or other growth regulatory proteins and what role HER3 protein plays in the regulation of cell growth. Images PMID:2164210

  6. INHIBITION OF PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY MEDIATES EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR) SIGNALING IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS (HAEC) EXPOSED TO ZN2+

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of studies have implicated zinc in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden particulate matter inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in HAEC and leads to Src-dependent activation of EGFR sign...

  7. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase activity mediates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in human airway epithelial cells exposed to Zn{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, T.L.; Graves, L.M.; Silbajoris, R.; Bromberg, P.A.; Wu, W.; Samet, J.M. . E-mail: samet.james@epa.gov

    2006-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated zinc (Zn{sup 2+}) in the toxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) inhalation. We previously showed that exposure to metal-laden PM inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HAEC) and leads to Src-dependent activation of EGFR signaling in B82 and A431 cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism of Zn{sup 2+}-induced EGFR activation in HAEC, we treated HAEC with 500 {mu}M ZnSO{sub 4} for 5-20 min and measured the state of activation of EGFR, c-Src and PTPs. Western blots revealed that exposure to Zn{sup 2+} results in increased phosphorylation at both trans- and autophosphorylation sites in the EGFR. Zn{sup 2+}-mediated EGFR phosphorylation did not require ligand binding and was ablated by the EGFR kinase inhibitor PD153035, but not by the Src kinase inhibitor PP2. Src activity was inhibited by Zn{sup 2+} treatment of HAEC, consistent with Src-independent EGFR transactivation in HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+}. The rate of exogenous EGFR dephosphorylation in lysates of HAEC exposed to Zn{sup 2+} or V{sup 4+} was significantly diminished. Moreover, exposure of HAEC to Zn{sup 2+} also resulted in a significant impairment of dephosphorylation of endogenous EGFR. These data show that Zn{sup 2+}-induced activation of EGFR in HAEC involves a loss of PTP activities whose function is to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity. These findings also suggest that there are marked cell-type-specific differences in the mechanism of EGFR activation induced by Zn{sup 2+} exposure.

  8. Early events elicited by Bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. I. Activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of bombesin to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an M/sub r/ 80,000 cellular protein (designated 80k). The effect was both concentration and time dependent. The 80k phosphoproteins generated in response to bombesin and to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate were identical as judged by one- and two-dimensional PAGE and by peptide mapping after partial proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In addition, prolonged pretreatment of 3T3 cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which leads to the disappearance of protein kinase C activity, blocked the ability of bombesin to stimulate 80k. Bombesin also caused a rapid (1 min) inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled epidermal growth factor (/sup 125/I-EGF) binding to Swiss 3T3 cells. The inhibition was both concentration and temperature dependent and resulted from a marked decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptor for its ligand. These results strongly suggest that these responses are mediated by specific high-affinity receptors that recognize the peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells. While an increase in cytosolic Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration does not mediate the bombesin inhibition of /sup 125/I-EGF binding, the activation of protein kinase C in intact Swiss 3T3 cells by peptides of the bombesin family may lead to rapid inhibition of the binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to its cellular receptor.

  9. Stepwise Progress in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Radiation Studies for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harari, Paul M.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of four new epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors for cancer therapy (cetuximab, panitumumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib) over the last 3 years is a remarkable milestone in oncology. Indeed, molecular inhibition of EGFR signaling represents one of the most promising current arenas for the development of molecular-targeted cancer therapies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors from both the monoclonal antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibitor class have demonstrated clinical activity in the treatment of a broad spectrum of common human malignancies. For the discipline of radiation oncology, the 2006 report of a phase III trial demonstrating a survival advantage for advanced head and neck cancer patients with the addition of weekly cetuximab during a 7-week course of radiation is particularly gratifying. Indeed, this is the first phase III trial to confirm a survival advantage with the addition of a molecular-targeted agent to radiation. Furthermore, this result seems to have been achieved with only a modest increment in overall treatment toxicity and with very high compliance to the prescribed treatment regimen. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned regarding the rational integration of EGFR inhibitors into cancer treatment regimens, as well as methods to optimize the selection of patients most likely to benefit from EGFR inhibitor strategies.

  10. Lewisy Promotes Migration of Oral Cancer Cells by Glycosylation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Shi, Guey-Yueh; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Wu, Hua-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation changes normal cellular functions and represents a specific hallmark of cancer. Lewisy (Ley) carbohydrate upregulation has been reported in a variety of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A high level of Ley expression is related to poor prognosis of patients with oral cancer. However, it is unclear how Ley mediates oral cancer progression. In this study, the role of Ley in OSCC was explored. Our data showed that Ley was upregulated in HSC-3 and OC-2 OSCC cell lines. Particularly, glycosylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with Ley was found in OC-2 cells, and this modification was absent upon inhibition of Ley synthesis. The absence of Ley glycosylation of EGFR weakened phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Additionally, EGF-triggered cell migration was reduced, but cell proliferation was not affected. Ley modification stabilized EGFR upon ligand activation. Conversely, absence of Ley glycosylation accelerated EGFR degradation. In summary, these results indicate that increased expression of Ley in OSCC cells is able to promote cell migration by modifying EGFR which in turn stabilizes EGFR expression and downstream signaling. Targeting Ley on EGFR could have a potential therapeutic effect on oral cancer. PMID:25799278

  11. Evaluation of emulsion electrospun polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor nanofibrous scaffolds for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenbei; Qian, Yuna; Li, Linhao; Pan, Lianhong; Njunge, Lucy W; Dong, Lili; Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing scaffolds provide cells with structural integrity and can also deliver biological agents to establish a skin tissue-specific microenvironment to regulate cell functions and to accelerate the healing process. In this study, we fabricated biodegradable nanofibrous scaffolds with an emulsion electrospinning technique. The scaffolds were composed of polycaprolactone, hyaluronan and encapsulating epidermal growth factor. The morphology and core-sheath structure of the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The scaffolds were also characterized for chemical composition and hydrophilicity with a Fourier-transform infrared analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy and the water contact angle. An in vitro model protein bovine serum albumin and epidermal growth factor release study was conducted to evaluate the sustained release potential of the core-sheath structured nanofibers with and without the hyaluronan component. Additionally, an in vitro cultivation of human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and fibroblasts on polycaprolactone/hyaluronan and polycaprolactone/hyaluronan-epidermal growth factor scaffolds showed a significant synergistic effect of hyaluronan and epidermal growth factor on cell proliferation and infiltration. Furthermore, there was an up-regulation of the wound-healing-related genes collagen I, collagen III and TGF-β in polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor scaffolds compared with control groups. In the full-thickness wound model, the enhanced regeneration of fully functional skin was facilitated by epidermal regeneration in the polycaprolactone/hyaluronan/epidermal growth factor treatment group. Our findings suggest that bioactivity and hemostasis of the hyaluronan-based nanofibrous scaffolds have the capability to encapsulate and control the release of growth factors that can serve as skin tissue engineering scaffolds for wound healing. PMID:26012354

  12. Cloning of human epidermal growth factor as a bacterial secretory protein, its properties and mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, D.A.; Matsunami, R.K.; Campion, S.R.; Foote, R.S.; Mural, R.J.; Larimer, F.W.; Stevens, A.; Niyogi, S.K.

    1987-05-01

    A chimeric gene, containing the DNA coding for the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that for the signal peptide of E. coli alkaline phosphatase, was constructed by the annealing and subsequent ligation of appropriate DNA oligonucleotides synthesized in an automated DNA synthesizer. The gene was then cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the transcriptional control of the E. coli trp-lac (tac) promoter, and then transformed into E. coli. Following induction with isopropylthiogalactoside, the secretion of EGF into the E. coli periplasmic space and some into the growth medium was confirmed by its specific binding to the EGF receptor and stimulation of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The size and physicochemical properties of the purified protein mimicked those of authentic human EGF. Studies of structure/function relationships by specific alterations of targeted amino acid residues in the EGF molecule have been initiated by utilizing site-directed mutagenesis.

  13. Design, synthesis, anti-tumor activity, and molecular modeling of quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives targeting epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ju; Wan, Shanhe; Wang, Guangfa; Zhang, Tingting; Li, Zhonghuang; Tian, Yuanxin; Yu, Yonghuan; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jiajie

    2016-08-01

    Three series of novel quinazoline and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinase and a panel of five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549, BT-474, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231). Bioassay results indicated that five of these prepared compounds (12c-12e and 13c-13d) exhibited remarkably higher inhibitory activities against EGFR and SK-BR-3 cell line. Compounds 12c and 12e displayed the most potent EGFR inhibitory activity (IC50 = 2.97 nM and 3.58 nM, respectively) and good anti-proliferative effect against SK-BR-3 cell with the IC50 values of 3.10 μM and 5.87 μM, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies verified that compound 12c and 12e shared similar binding pattern with gefitinib in the binding pocket of EGFR. MM-GBSA binding free energy revealed that the compound 12c and 12e have almost the same inhibitory activity against EGFR as gefitinib, and that the dominating effect of van der Waals interactions drives the binding process. PMID:27132165

  14. The F-BAR Protein PACSIN2 Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Internalization

    PubMed Central

    de Kreuk, Bart-Jan; Anthony, Eloise C.; Geerts, Dirk; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2012-01-01

    Signaling via growth factor receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, is key to various cellular processes, such as proliferation, cell survival, and cell migration. In a variety of human diseases such as cancer, aberrant expression and activation of growth factor receptors can lead to disturbed signaling. Intracellular trafficking is crucial for proper signaling of growth factor receptors. As a result, the level of cell surface expression of growth factor receptors is an important determinant for the outcome of downstream signaling. BAR domain-containing proteins represent an important family of proteins that regulate membrane dynamics. In this study, we identify a novel role for the F-BAR protein PACSIN2 in the regulation of EGF receptor signaling. We show that internalized EGF as well as the (activated) EGF receptor translocated to PACSIN2-positive endosomes. Furthermore, loss of PACSIN2 increased plasma membrane expression of the EGF receptor in resting cells and increased EGF-induced phosphorylation of the EGF receptor. As a consequence, EGF-induced activation of Erk and Akt as well as cell proliferation were enhanced in PACSIN2-depleted cells. In conclusion, this study identifies a novel role for the F-BAR-domain protein PACSIN2 in regulating EGF receptor surface levels and EGF-induced downstream signaling. PMID:23129763

  15. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM. PMID:18419129

  16. Impact of palbociclib plus letrozole on pain severity and pain interference with daily activities in patients with estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer as first-line treatment.

    PubMed

    Bell, T; Crown, J P; Lang, I; Bhattacharyya, H; Zanotti, G; Randolph, S; Kim, S; Huang, X; Huang Bartlett, C; Finn, R S; Slamon, D

    2016-05-01

    Background Palbociclib is a recently approved drug for use in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (ER+/HER2-) breast cancer. This report assesses the impact of palbociclib in combination with letrozole versus letrozole alone on patient-reported outcomes of pain. Methods Palbociclib was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, phase II study (PALOMA-1/TRIO-18) among postmenopausal women with advanced ER+/HER2- breast cancer who had not received prior systemic treatment for their advanced disease. Patients received continuous oral letrozole 2.5 mg daily alone or the same letrozole dose and schedule plus oral palbociclib 125 mg, given once daily for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off over repeated 28-day cycles. The primary study endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival in the intent-to-treat population, and these results have recently been published (Finn et al., Lancet Oncol 2015;16:25-35). One of the key secondary endpoints was the evaluation of pain, as measured using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) patient-reported outcome tool. The BPI was administered at baseline and on day 1 of every cycle thereafter until disease progression and/or treatment discontinuation. Clinical trial registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00721409). Results There were no statistically significant differences in Pain Severity or Pain Interference scores of the BPI between the two treatment groups for the overall population or among those with any bone disease at baseline. A limitation of the study is that results were not adjusted for the concomitant use of opioids or other medications used to control pain. Conclusions The addition of palbociclib to letrozole was associated with increased efficacy without negatively impacting pain severity or pain interference with daily activities

  17. Niclosamide inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Chen, Xiaosong; Ward, Toby; Mao, Yan; Bockhorn, Jessica; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Gen; Pegram, Mark; Shen, Kunwei

    2016-02-01

    Acquired resistance to lapatinib, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 kinase inhibitor, remains a clinical problem for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer, as metastasis is commonly observed in these patients. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic agent, has recently been shown to exhibit cytotoxicity to tumor cells with stem-like characteristics. This study was designed to identify the mechanisms underlying lapatinib resistance and to determine whether niclosamide inhibits lapatinib resistance by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, two human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3 and BT474, were exposed to increasing concentrations of lapatinib to establish lapatinib-resistant cultures. Lapatinib-resistant SKBR3 and BT474 cells exhibited up-regulation of the phenotypic epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers Snail, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, accompanied by activation of nuclear factor-кB and Src and a concomitant increase in stem cell marker expression (CD44(high)/CD24(low)), compared to naive lapatinib-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Interestingly, niclosamide reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell growth by perturbing aberrant signaling pathway activation in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cells. The ability of niclosamide to alleviate stem-like phenotype development and invasion was confirmed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that lapatinib resistance correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that niclosamide inhibits lapatinib-resistant cell viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings suggest a role of niclosamide or derivatives optimized for more favorable bioavailability not only in reversing lapatinib resistance but also in reducing metastatic potential during the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor

  18. Arsenite and insulin exhibit opposing effects on epidermal growth factor receptor and keratinocyte proliferative potential

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy J.; Rice, Robert H. . E-mail: rhrice@ucdavis.edu

    2007-05-15

    Previous work has suggested that arsenic exposure contributes to skin carcinogenesis by preserving the proliferative potential of human epidermal keratinocytes, thereby slowing the exit of putative target stem cells into the differentiation pathway. To find a molecular basis for this action, present work has explored the influence of arsenite on keratinocyte responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The ability of cultured keratinocytes to found colonies upon passaging several days after confluence was preserved by arsenite and EGF in an additive fashion, but neither was effective when the receptor tyrosine kinase activity was inhibited. Arsenite prevented the loss of EGF receptor protein and phosphorylation of tyrosine 1173, preserving its capability to signal. The level of nuclear {beta}-catenin was higher in cells treated with arsenite and EGF in parallel to elevated colony forming ability, and expression of a dominant negative {beta}-catenin suppressed the increase in both colony forming ability and yield of putative stem cells induced by arsenite and EGF. As judged by expression of three genes regulated by {beta}-catenin, this transcription factor had substantially higher activity in the arsenite/EGF-treated cells. Trivalent antimony exhibited the same effects as arsenite. A novel finding is that insulin in the medium induced the loss of EGF receptor protein, which was largely prevented by arsenite exposure.

  19. Emodin Suppresses Maintenance of Stemness by Augmenting Proteosomal Degradation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III in Glioma Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongyub; Lee, Jong-Seon; Jung, Jieun; Lim, Inhye; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that small subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like characteristics within most solid tumors are responsible for the malignancy of aggressive cancer cells and that targeting these cells might be a good therapeutic strategy to reduce the risk of tumor relapse after therapy. Here, we examined the effects of emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone), an active component of the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum that has several biological activities, including antitumor effects, on primary cultured glioma stem cells (GSCs). Emodin inhibited the self-renewal activity of GSCs in vitro as evidenced by neurosphere formation, limiting dilution, and soft agar clonogenic assays. Emodin inhibited the maintenance of stemness by suppressing the expression of Notch intracellular domain, nonphosphorylated β-catenin, and phosphorylated STAT3 proteins. In addition, treatment with emodin partially induced apoptosis, reduced cell invasiveness, and sensitized GSCs to ionizing radiation. Intriguingly, emodin induced proteosomal degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) by interfering with the association of EGFR/EGFRvIII with heat shock protein 90, resulting in the suppression of stemness pathways. Based on these data, we propose that emodin could be considered as a potent therapeutic adjuvant that targets GSCs. PMID:25229646

  20. Construction of an immunotoxin by linking a monoclonal antibody against the human epidermal growth factor receptor and a hemolytic toxin.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ana D; Calderón, Carlos F; Pérez, Rita M; Pons, Carmen; Pereda, Celia M; Ortiz, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid molecules obtained through conjugation of monoclonal antibodies and toxins constitute an approach under exploration to generate potential agents for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. A frequently employed toxic component in the construction of such immunotoxins is ricin, a plant toxin which inhibits protein synthesis at ribosomal level and so requires to be internalized by the cell. A hemolytic toxin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, which is active at the cell membrane level, was linked through a disulfide bond to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody ior egf/r3. The resulting immunotoxin did not exhibit hemolytic activity except under reducing conditions. It was toxic for H125 cells that express the human epidermal growth factor receptor, but non-toxic for U1906 cells that do not express this receptor. PMID:18064354

  1. Increased Serum Levels of Epidermal Growth Factor in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iseri, Elvan; Guney, Esra; Ceylan, Mehmet F.; Yucel, Aysegul; Aral, Arzu; Bodur, Sahin; Sener, Sahnur

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of autism is unclear, however autism is considered as a multifactorial disorder that is influenced by neurological, environmental, immunological and genetic factors. Growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), play an important role in the celluler proliferation and the differentiation of the central and peripheral…

  2. Problem-Solving Test: The Role of Ubiquitination in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: growth factor signaling, epidermal growth factor, tyrosine protein kinase, tyrosine phosphorylation, ubiquitin, monoubiquitination, polyubiquitination, site-directed mutagenesis, transfection, expression vector, cDNA, immunoprecipitation, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western…

  3. Anti-epidermal-cell-surface pemphigus antibody detaches viable epidermal cells from culture plates by activation of proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Farb, R M; Dykes, R; Lazarus, G S

    1978-01-01

    Immunoglobulin from pemphigus patients binds to the surface of mouse epidermal cells in culture. Cells incubated with the pemphigus antibody are easily detached from culture plates whereas cells incubated with serum from normal patients remain on the plate. Pemphigus antibody-mediated cell detachment is blocked by the addition of the proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and alpha2-macroglobulin to the culture media. Detachable cells are viable, and activation of the complement cascade is not necessary for cell detachment. The anti-cell-surface antibody of pemphigus appears to disrupt adhesion between viable epidermal cells by activation of proteinase. Images PMID:272663

  4. USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jakub; de la Vega, Michelle; Fletcher, Sarah J.; McFarlane, Cheryl; Greene, Michelle K.; Smyth, Andrew W.; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Johnston, James A.; Scott, Christopher J.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Burrows, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of ‘CaaX’ motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of transferrin, an archetypal substrate for clathrin mediated endocytosis, and that USP17 depletion impedes plasma membrane recruitment of the machinery required for clathrin mediated endocytosis. Thus, our data reveal that USP17 is necessary for epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin endocytosis via clathrin coated pits, indicate this is mediated via the regulation of the recruitment of the components of the endocytosis machinery and suggest USP17 may play a general role in receptor endocytosis. PMID:25026282

  5. Phase II trial of carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib as first-line triplet chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Akihiro; Tamiya, Motohiro; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Saijo, Nobuhiko; Nakatani, Takeshi; Minomo, Shojiro; Tsuji, Taisuke; Takeuchi, Naoko; Omachi, Naoki; Kurata, Kanako; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Okamoto, Norio; Okishio, Kyoichi; Hirashima, Tomonori; Atagi, Shinji

    2015-03-01

    Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), is an effective treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with activating EGFR mutations. However, there have been little evidence-based studies of gefitinib in combination with platinum-doublet therapy in these patients. We performed a phase II trial to determine the efficacy and safety of triplet chemotherapy with gefitinib, carboplatin, and S-1 as a first-line treatment. This was a multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial of carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations. Patients received four courses of these drugs in 3-4 week cycles. In each cycle, carboplatin (area under curve = 5) was administered on day 1, S-1 (80 mg/m(2)) on days 1-14, and gefitinib (250 mg) every day. Subsequently, the same regimen without carboplatin was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint, while response rate (RR), PFS, overall survival (OS), and safety were secondary endpoints. Thirty-five patients were enrolled into this study. The 1-year PFS was 74.3% and the overall RR was 85.7%. The median PFS for all patients was 17.6 months (95% confidence interval 15.5-∞), but the median OS was not reached, because 28 patients were still alive after a median follow-up time of 21.4 months. Haematological adverse events (grade 3 or higher) included neutropaenia (17.1%), thrombocytopenia (14.3%), and anaemia (5.7%), while non-haematological adverse events (grade 3 or higher) included elevated aminotransferase (20.0%), diarrhoea (14.3%), and febrile neutropaenia (2.9%). No interstitial lung disease or treatment-related deaths occurred. Combination chemotherapy with carboplatin, S-1, and gefitinib is efficacious and well tolerated as a first-line treatment in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations. PMID:25616723

  6. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  7. Role of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 in osteoimmunology.

    PubMed

    Sinningen, Kathrin; Thiele, Sylvia; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a glycoprotein that is abundantly expressed in various tissues and has a pivotal role in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells. However, MFG-E8 has also gained significant attention because of its wide range of functions in autoimmunity, inflammation and tissue homeostasis. More recently, MFG-E8 has been identified as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis, being expressed in both, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, it was shown that MFG-E8 fulfils an active role in modulating inflammatory processes, suggesting an anti-inflammatory role of MFG-E8 and proposing it as a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases. This concise review focusses on the expression and regulation of MFG-E8 in the context of inflammatory bone diseases, highlights its role in the pathophysiology of osteoimmune diseases and discusses the therapeutic potential of MFG-E8. PMID:27579162

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asami, Kazuhiro; Atagi, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    First-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), including gefitinib and erlotinib, have proven to be highly effective agents for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients harboring an activating EGFR mutation such as the exon 19 deletion mutation and L858R. Although those reversible small molecular targeted agents provide a significant response and survival benefit, all responders eventually acquire resistance. Second-generation EGFR-targeting agents, such as irreversible EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors and pan-HER TKIs, may improve survival further and be useful for patients who acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKIs. This review discusses novel therapeutic strategies for EGFR-mutated advanced NSCLC using first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs. PMID:25302168

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain mutations are rare in salivary gland carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Dahse, R; Driemel, O; Schwarz, S; Dahse, J; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Berndt, A; Kosmehl, H

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase domain identify non-small cell lung cancer patients with improved clinical response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Recently, we identified two EGFR mutations in a cohort of 25 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs) by screening the tumour samples for the both most common hotspot mutations in exons 19 and 21 by allele-specific PCR. Here, we present a comprehensive sequencing analysis of the entire critical EGFR tyrosine kinase domain in 65 SGC of the main histopathological types. We found EGFR mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain to be a rare event in SGCs. No additional mutations other than the two known exon 19 deletions (c.2235_2249del15) in a mucoepidermoid carcinoma and an adenoid cystic carcinoma have been detected. Other putative predictive markers for EGFR-targeted therapy in SGCs might be relevant and should be investigated. PMID:19174819

  10. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside suppresses epidermal growth factor-induced migration by inhibiting EGFR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungwhoi; Han, Song-I; Yun, Jeong-Hun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most dangerous cancers and is associated with a grave prognosis. Despite increased knowledge of the complex signaling networks responsible for progression of pancreatic cancer, many challenging therapies have fallen short of expectations. In this study, we examined the anti-migratory effect of quercetin 3-O-glucoside in epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration by inhibiting EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in several human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Treatment with quercetin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 7-O-glucoside differentially suppressed epidermal growth factor-induced migration activity of human pancreatic cancer cells. In particular, quercetin 3-O-glucoside strongly inhibited the infiltration activity of pancreatic cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, quercetin 3-O-glucoside exerted the anti-migratory effect even at a relatively low dose compared with other forms of quercetin. The anti-tumor effects of quercetin 3-O-glucoside were mediated by selectively inhibiting the EGFR-mediated FAK, AKT, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Combinatorial treatment with quercetin 3-O-glucoside plus gemcitabine showed the synergistic anti-migratory effect on epidermal growth factor-induced cell migration in human pancreatic cancer cell lines. These results suggest that quercetin 3-O-glucoside has potential for anti-metastatic therapy in human pancreatic cancer. PMID:26109002

  11. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  12. Early signaling dynamics of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Raven J; Gajadhar, Aaron S; Swenson, Eric J; Rothenberg, Daniel A; Curran, Timothy G; White, Forest M

    2016-03-15

    Despite extensive study of the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling network, the immediate posttranslational changes that occur in response to growth factor stimulation remain poorly characterized; as a result, the biological mechanisms underlying signaling initiation remain obscured. To address this deficiency, we have used a mass spectrometry-based approach to measure system-wide phosphorylation changes throughout the network with 10-s resolution in the 80 s after stimulation in response to a range of eight growth factor concentrations. Significant changes were observed on proteins far downstream in the network as early as 10 s after stimulation, indicating a system capable of transmitting information quickly. Meanwhile, canonical members of the EGFR signaling network fall into clusters with distinct activation patterns. Src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein (Shc) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylation levels increase rapidly, but equilibrate within 20 s, whereas proteins such as Grb2-associated binder-1 (Gab1) and SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2) show slower, sustained increases. Proximity ligation assays reveal that Shc and Gab1 phosphorylation patterns are representative of separate timescales for physical association with the receptor. Inhibition of phosphatases with vanadate reveals site-specific regulatory mechanisms and also uncovers primed activating components in the network, including Src family kinases, whose inhibition affects only a subset of proteins within the network. The results presented highlight the complexity of signaling initiation and provide a window into exploring mechanistic hypotheses about receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) biology. PMID:26929352

  13. Esterase Activity and Intracellular Localization in Reconstructed Human Epidermal Cultured Skin Models

    PubMed Central

    Katayanagi, Mishina; Hashimoto, Fumie

    2015-01-01

    Background Reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models have been developed for cosmetic and pharmaceutical research. Objective This study evaluated the total and carboxyl esterase activities (i.e., Km and Vmax, respectively) and localization in two reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models (LabCyte EPI-MODEL [Japan Tissue Engineering] and EpiDerm [MatTek/Kurabo]). The usefulness of the reconstruction cultured epidermis was also verified by comparison with human and rat epidermis. Methods Homogenized epidermal samples were fractioned by centrifugation. p-nitrophenyl acetate and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate were used as substrates of total esterase and carboxyl esterase, respectively. Results Total and carboxyl esterase activities were present in the reconstructed human epidermal culture skin models and were localized in the cytosol. Moreover, the activities and localization were the same as those in human and rat epidermis. Conclusion LabCyte EPI-MODEL and EpiDerm are potentially useful for esterase activity prediction in human epidermis. PMID:26082583

  14. Growth and differentiation in cultured human thyroid cells: effects of epidermal growth factor and thyrotropin.

    PubMed

    Errick, J E; Ing, K W; Eggo, M C; Burrow, G N

    1986-01-01

    Human thyroid cells were grown and subcultured in vitro to examine their responses to known hormones and growth factors, and to serum. The cells were obtained from surgical specimens and were either neoplastic or nonneoplastic. The effects of culture conditions on cell growth were measured by changes in cell numbers and by stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation. The results showed that serum (0.5%) was essential for cell proliferation, and that a mixture of insulin (10 micrograms/ml), transferrin (5 micrograms/ml), hydrocortisone (10 micrograms/ml), somatostatin (10 ng/ml), and glycyl-histidyl-lysine (10 ng/ml) enhanced the effect of serum. Maximum growth of the cells was obtained when epidermal growth factor was present at 10(-9) M. Differentiation was measured by production of thyroglobulin, which was found to be stimulated by thyrotropin. This system provides a means to study the hormonal control of growth and differentiation in human thyroid cells. PMID:3511027

  15. Relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutations with histologic subtyping according to International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society 2011 adenocarcinoma classification and their impact on overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Maturu, Venkata Nagarjuna; Singh, Navneet; Bal, Amanjit; Gupta, Nalini; Das, Ashim; Behera, Digambar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited Indian data on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene activating mutations (AMs) prevalence and their clinicopathologic associations. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between EGFR AM and histologic subtypes and their impact on overall survival (OS) in a North Indian cohort. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who underwent EGFR mutation testing (n = 186) over 3 years period (2012–2014). EGFR mutations were tested using polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Patients were classified as EGFR AM, EGFR wild type (WT) or EGFR unknown (UKN). Histologically adenocarcinomas (ADC) were further categorized as per the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society-2011 classification. Results: Overall EGFR AM prevalence was 16.6%. The ratio of exon 19 deletions to exon 21 L858R mutations was 3.17:1. Female sex (P = 0.002), never smoking status (P = 0.002), metastatic disease (P = 0.032), and nonsolid subtype of ADC (P = 0.001) were associated with EGFR AM on univariate logistic regression analysis (LRA). On multivariate LRA, solid ADC was negatively associated with EGFR AM. Median OS was higher in patients with EGFR AM (750 days) as compared to EGFR-WT (459 days) or EGFR-UKN (291 days) for the overall population and in patients with Stage IV disease (750 days vs. 278 days for EGFR-WT, P = 0.024). On univariate Cox proportional hazard (CPH) analysis, smoking, poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 2), EGFR-UKN status, and solid ADC were associated with worse OS while female sex and lepidic ADC had better OS. On multivariate CPH analysis, lepidic ADC (hazard ratio [HR] =0.12) and EGFR-WT/EGFR-UKN (HR = 2.39 and HR = 3.30 respectively) were independently associated with OS in separate analyses. Conclusions: Histologic subtyping of ADC performed on small biopsies is

  16. Multiple requirements for SHPTP2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A M; Hausdorff, S F; O'Reilly, A M; Freeman, R M; Neel, B G

    1996-01-01

    Using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined SHPTP2's function in growth factor signaling. Overexpression of catalytically inactive SHPTP2 (PTP2CS) but not catalytically inactive SHPTP1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and Elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of 293 cells. An SHPTP2 mutant with both C-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (PTP2YF) was also without effect; moreover, PTP2YF rescued PTP2CS-induced inhibition of EGF-induced Elk-1 transactivation. PTP2CS did not inhibit transactivation by activated Ras, suggesting that SHPTP2 acts upstream of or parallel to Ras. Neither PTP2CS nor PTP2YF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Elk-1 transactivation. Thus, protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity, but not tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHPTP2, is required for the immediate-early responses to EGF but not to PDGF. To determine whether SHPTP2 is required later in the cell cycle, we assessed S-phase entry in NIH 3T3 cells microinjected with anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein encoding both SH2 domains (GST-SH2). Microinjection of anti-SHPTP2 antibodies prior to stimulation inhibited EGF- but no PDGF- or serum-induced S-phase entry. Anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or GST-SH2 fusion protein could inhibit EGF-induced S-phase entry for up to 8 h after EGF addition. Although MAP kinase activation was detected shortly after EGF stimulation, no MAP kinase activation was detected around the restriction point. Therefore, SHPTP2 is absolutely required for immediate-early and late events induced by some, but not all, growth factors, and the immediate-early and late signal transduction pathways regulated by SHPTP2 are distinguishable. PMID:8622663

  17. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  18. Characterization of PXK as a Protein Involved in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking ▿

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Takako; Gao, Jing; Cantley, Lewis C.; Hirata, Masato

    2010-01-01

    The phox homology (PX) domain is a phosphoinositide-binding module that typically binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Out of 47 mammalian proteins containing PX domains, more than 30 are denoted sorting nexins and several of these have been implicated in internalization of cell surface proteins to the endosome, where phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate is concentrated. Here we investigated a multimodular protein termed PXK, composed of a PX domain, a protein kinase-like domain, and a WASP homology 2 domain. We show that the PX domain of PXK localizes this protein to the endosomal membrane via binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. PXK expression in COS7 cells accelerated the ligand-induced internalization and degradation of epidermal growth factor receptors by a mechanism requiring phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding but not involving the WASP homology 2 domain. Conversely, depletion of PXK using RNA interference decreased the rate of epidermal growth factor receptor internalization and degradation. Ubiquitination of epidermal growth factor receptor by the ligand stimulation was enhanced in PXK-expressing cells. These results indicate that PXK plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking through modulating ligand-induced ubiquitination of the receptor. PMID:20086096

  19. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  20. Expression and localization of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α and epidermal growth factor receptor in the canine testis

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; TAKEMOTO, Kohei; TOMINAGA, Masato; KAWATE, Noritoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HATOYA, Shingo; MATSUYAMA, Satoshi; INABA, Toshio; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and EGF receptor (EGF-R) and the localization of the corresponding proteins in the canine testis were studied. Levels of mRNA expressions were determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the testes of the peripubertal (4–6 months), young adult (3–4 years), advanced adult (7–8 years) and senescent (11–16 years) groups. The EGF-R mRNA level in the testes of the peripubertal group was significantly higher than those in the other groups, whereas there was no difference in EGF and TGF-α mRNA levels among groups. Immunohistochemical stainings for EGF, TGF-α and EGF-R in the testis revealed that immunoreactivity in the seminiferous epithelium and Sertoli cell was weak and nonspecific for the stage of spermatogenesis, and distinct staining was found in Leydig cells. These results suggest that the EGF family of growth factors may be involved in testicular maturation and function in the dog. PMID:26498203

  1. Sensitivity of human granulosa cell tumor cells to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Noora; Anttonen, Mikko; Färkkilä, Anniina; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in the progression of many human cancers, but its significance in ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) pathobiology remains poorly understood. We assessed the EGFR gene copy number, surveyed the mRNA and protein expression patterns of EGFR in 90 adult GCTs, and assessed the in vitro sensitivity of GCT cells to EGFR inhibition. Low-level amplification of EGFR gene was observed in five GCTs and high-level amplification in one sample. EGFR mRNA was robustly expressed in GCTs. Most tumors expressed both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated EGFR protein, but the protein expression did not correlate with clinical parameters, including the risk of recurrence. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors reduced the EGF-induced activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules at nanomolar doses, but cell viability was reduced, and caspase-3/7 was activated in GCT cells only at micromolar doses. Based on the present results, EGFR is active and abundantly expressed in the majority of GCTs, but probably has only minor contribution to GCT cell growth. Given the high doses of EGFR inhibitors required to reduce GCT cell viability in vitro, they are not likely to be effective for GCT treatment as single agents; they should rather be tested as part of combination therapies for these malignancies. PMID:24463098

  2. Epidermal growth factor receptor cooperates with Src family kinases in acquired resistance to cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Deric L; Iida, Mari; Kruser, Tim J; Nechrebecki, Meghan M; Dunn, Emily F; Armstrong, Eric A; Huang, Shyhmin; Harari, Paul M

    2009-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a major role in oncogenesis. Cetuximab is an EGFR-blocking antibody that is FDA approved for use in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Although cetuximab has shown strong clinical benefit for a subset of cancer patients, most become refractory to cetuximab therapy. We reported that cetuximab-resistant NSCLC line NCI-H226 cells have increased steady-state expression and activity of EGFR secondary to altered trafficking/degradation and this increase in EGFR expression and activity lead to hyper-activation of HER3 and down stream signals to survival. We now present data that Src family kinases (SFKs) are highly activated in cetuximab-resistant cells and enhance EGFR activation of HER3 and PI(3)K/Akt. Studies using the Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib decreased HER3 and PI(3)K/Akt activity. In addition, cetuximab-resistant cells were resensitized to cetuximab when treated with dasatinib. These results indicate that SFKs and EGFR cooperate in acquired resistance to cetuximab and suggest a rationale for clinical strategies that investigate combinatorial therapy directed at both the EGFR and SFKs in patients with acquired resistance to cetuximab. PMID:19276677

  3. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Xu, F.; Reinhard, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex.It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF

  4. Kinetics of growth and differentiation of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the interrelationship between replication and differentiation in cultures of human epidermal keratinocytes. Measures of both parameters were made using newly developed methods to quantify the rate at which keratinocytes replicate and the rate at which they withdraw from the cell cycle. Keratinocyte replication was measured by determining the cell doubling time, labeling index, and cell cycle duration. Cell cycle length was measured using a double label assay that determines the length of time between two successive phases of DNA synthesis. The first DNA synthesis phase was marked by labeling keratinocytes with /sup 14/C-thymidine. At the next round of DNA synthesis, cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, a heavy analog of thymidine. The cell cycle length is given by the time required for the /sup 14/C-labeled DNA to become double labeled. To measure keratinocyte differentiation, the rate at which cells withdraw from the cell cycle was determined. To measure withdrawal, the percentage of cells labeled by a pulse of /sup 14/C-thymidine that failed to undergo a second cycle of DNA synthesis, as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was determined. Cells which failed to undergo a second cycle of synthesis were considered to have differentiated and withdrawn from the cell cycle.

  5. Characterization of insulin-like growth factor I and epidermal growth factor receptors in meningioma

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, M.; Tokunaga, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Shigematsu, K.; Niwa, M.; Mori, K. )

    1989-10-01

    Receptors for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were localized and characterized in eight samples of human meningioma (four fibrous, two meningothelial, and two angioblastic types), using quantitative autoradiographic techniques. Effects of both growth factors on deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in the cultured meningioma cells were examined. High numbers of specific binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF were homogeneously present in tissue sections derived from fibrous and meningothelial types of meningiomas, whereas binding sites for these growth factors were not detectable in adjacent leptomeninges. While relatively large numbers of IGF-I binding sites were located in the wall of the intratumoral vasculature, the number of binding sites in the stromal component was lower in angioblastic-type meningiomas, including a low number of EGF binding sites detected only in the stromal portion. Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites for both IGF-I and EGF in the meningiomas examined (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.6 to 2.9 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) = 16 to 80 fmol/mg for IGF-I; and Kd = 0.6 to 4.0 nM, Bmax = 3 to 39 fmol/mg for EGF). Both growth factors increased the synthesis of DNA, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The combination of IGF-I and EGF synergistically stimulated the synthesis of DNA, and the effects seen with 10% fetal bovine serum could be reproduced at a concentration of 10(-10) M. These observations can be interpreted to mean that both IGF-I and EGF may be involved in the growth modulation of meningiomas, possibly through paracrine or autocrine mechanisms.

  6. Effect of protein kinase P on phosphorylations catalyzed by the epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghany, M; Kole, H K; Racker, E

    1987-01-01

    Protein kinase P (PK-P) activated by histones or certain other basic compounds has been purified previously from yeast [Yanagita, Y., Abdel-Ghany, M., Raden, D., Nelson, N. & Racker, E. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 925-929]. It is shown here that PK-P is present in solubilized membranes of A-431 carcinoma cells where it changes the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase activity. Polylysine, a weak PK-P activator, inhibited the autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor both in the absence and presence of EGF. Increased PK-P activity induced by histone 1, a potent activator, gave rise to increased autophosphorylation of the EGF receptor as well as phosphorylation at tyrosine residues of numerous other endogenous membrane components. The stimulation by histone was particularly striking in the presence of EGF. A similar stimulation was achieved with polylysine and EGF on addition of yeast PK-P. However, addition of yeast PK-P in the presence of histone 1 markedly inhibited the EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of endogenous membrane proteins. We conclude from these results that the effect of PK-P on the EGF receptor takes place in three phases: at low levels PK-P inhibits the autophosphorylation, at intermediate levels it stimulates the autophosphorylation as well as the EGF-dependent phosphorylation of numerous other membrane proteins, and at high levels it inhibits the phosphorylation of these proteins. Images PMID:3501120

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling mediates aldosterone-induced profibrotic responses in kidney.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lili; Yang, Min; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Minmin; Niu, Jianying; Qiao, Zhongdong; Gu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Aldosterone has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Studies have indicated that enhanced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with the development and progression of renal fibrosis. But if EGFR is involved in aldosterone-induced renal fibrosis is less investigated. In the present study, we examined the effect of erlotinib, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, on the progression of aldosterone-induced renal profibrotic responses in a murine model underwent uninephrectomy. Erlotinib-treated rats exhibited relieved structural lesion comparing with rats treated with aldosterone alone, as characterized by glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial cell proliferation and expansion. Also, erlotinib inhibited the expression of TGF-β, α-SMA and mesangial matrix proteins such as collagen Ⅳ and fibronectin. In cultured mesangial cells, inhibition of EGFR also abrogated aldosterone-induced expression of extracellular matrix proteins, cell proliferation and migration. We also demonstrated that aldosterone induced the phosphorylation of EGFR through generation of ROS. And the activation of EGFR resulted in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, leading to the activation of profibrotic pathways. Taken together, we concluded that aldosterone-mediated tissue fibrosis relies on ROS induced EGFR/ERK activation, highlighting EGFR as a potential therapeutic target for modulating renal fibrosis. PMID:27317889

  8. Reformulating Tylocrebrine in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeted Polymeric Nanoparticles Improves Its Therapeutic Index

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Several promising anticancer drug candidates have been sidelined owing to their poor physicochemical properties or unfavorable pharmacokinetics, resulting in high overall cost of drug discovery and development. Use of alternative formulation strategies that alleviate these issues can help advance new molecules to the clinic at a significantly lower cost. Tylocrebrine is a natural product with potent anticancer activity. Its clinical trial was discontinued following the discovery of severe central nervous system toxicities. To improve the safety and potency of tylocrebrine, we formulated the drug in polymeric nanoparticles targeted to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed on several types of tumors. Through in vitro studies in different cancer cell lines, we found that EGFR targeted nanoparticles were significantly more effective in killing tumor cells than the free drug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies revealed that encapsulation in nanoparticles resulted in lower brain penetration and enhanced tumor accumulation of the drug. Further, targeted nanoparticles were characterized by significantly enhanced tumor growth inhibitory activity in a mouse xenograft model of epidermoid cancer. These results suggest that the therapeutic index of drugs that were previously considered unusable could be significantly improved by reformulation. Application of novel formulation strategies to previously abandoned drugs provides an opportunity to advance new molecules to the clinic at a lower cost. This can significantly increase the repertoire of treatment options available to cancer patients. PMID:26065924

  9. Protein kinase C is differentially regulated by thrombin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor in human mammary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.L.; Tellez-Inon, M.T. ); Medrano, E.E.; Cafferatta, E.G.A. )

    1988-03-01

    The exposure of serum-deprived mammary tumor cells MCF-7 and T-47D to insulin, thrombin, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in dramatic modifications in the activity and in the translocation capacity of protein kinase C from cytosol to membrane fractions. Insulin induces a 600% activation of the enzyme after 5 h of exposure to the hormone in MCF-7 cells; thrombin either activates (200% in MCF-7) or down-regulates (in T-47D), and EGF exerts only a moderate effect. Thus, the growth factors studied modulate differentially the protein kinase C activity in human mammary tumor cells. The physiological significance of the results obtained are discussed in terms of the growth response elicited by insulin, thrombin, and EGF.

  10. MAP kinase mediates epidermal growth factor- and phorbol ester-induced prostacyclin formation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Braconi Quintaje, S; Rebsamen, M; Church, D J; Vallotton, M B; Lang, U

    1998-05-01

    We studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in cultured, spontaneously-beating neonatal ventricular rat cardiomyocytes. To this purpose, the effect of EGF on cardiomyocyte MAPK phosphorylation, MAPK activity and PGI2-production were investigated, and compared to those induced by the PKC activator 4 beta phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Both EGF (0.1 microM) and PMA (0.1 microM) induced the rapid and reversible phosphorylation of 42 KDa-MAPK in ventricular cardiomyocytes, responses that were accompanied by transient increases in MAPK activity (190-230% of control values within 5 min), and two- to three-fold increases in PGI2 formation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors lavendustin (1 microM) and genistein (10 microM) strongly inhibited EGF-induced MAPK activation and PGI2-formation, but had no effect on PMA-stimulated responses. Experiments with the PKC inhibitor CGP 41251 (1 microM) or with PKC-downregulated cells demonstrated that in contrast to the PMA-stimulated responses, EGF-induced MAPK activation and PGI2-production were PKC-independent processes. Investigating the role of MAPK in EGF- and in PMA-promoted PGI2-formation, we found that the MAPK-inhibitor 6-thioguanine (500 microM), as well as the MAPK-kinase-inhibitor PD98059 (50 microM) abolished both EGF- and PMA-stimulated PGI2-production in cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate that MAPK-activation is at the basis of both growth factor receptor and PKC-dependent eicosanoid-formation in ventricular cardiomyocytes, where EGF-induced prostaglandin-production takes place via a PKC-independent pathway. PMID:9618234

  11. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Increases Cytokine Production and Cutaneous Inflammation in Response to Ultraviolet Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    El-Abaseri, Taghrid Bahig; Repertinger, Susan K.; Hansen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated in cutaneous keratinocytes upon ultraviolet (UV) exposure and has been implicated in ultraviolet-(UV-)induced inflammation and skin tumorigenesis. Egfr mutant mice and EGFR inhibitors were used to investigate the hypothesis that EGFR activation augments inflammation following UV irradiation. Topical treatment of mouse skin with the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 before UV exposure suppressed UV-induced erythema, edema, mast cell infiltration, and neutrophil infiltration. Genetic ablation of Egfr and EGFR inhibition by AG1478 also suppressed the increase in the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α, KC (murine IL-8), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) after UV exposure of cultured keratinocytes. Finally, genetic ablation of inhibition of EGFR in cultured keratinocytes decreased p38 activation after UV, while inhibition of p38 kinase reduced COX-2 expression after UV. These data demonstrate that EGFR regulates multiple aspects of UV-induced inflammation and suggest activation of p38 kinase leading to increased COX-2 and cytokine expression as one mechanism through which it acts. PMID:23878744

  12. Direct interaction of avermectin with epidermal growth factor receptor mediates the penetration resistance in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Ping; Wang, Pan; Sun, Ying-Jian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    With the widespread use of avermectins (AVMs) for managing parasitic and agricultural pests, the resistance of worms and insects to AVMs has emerged as a serious threat to human health and agriculture worldwide. The reduced penetration of AVMs is one of the main reasons for the development of the resistance to the chemicals. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we use the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as the model organism to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to AVMs. We clearly show that the chitin layer is thickened and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is overexpressed in the AVM-resistant larvae epidermis. We reveal that the activation of the transcription factor Relish by the over-activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/AKT/ERK pathway induces the overexpression of the chitin synthases DmeCHS1/2 and P-gp in the resistant larvae. Interestingly, we discover for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that AVM directly interacts with EGFR and leads to the activation of the EGFR/AKT/ERK pathway, which activates the transcription factor Relish and induces the overexpression of DmeCHS1/2 and P-gp. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of penetration resistance to drugs. PMID:27249340

  13. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: A Review of Cutaneous Adverse Events and Management

    PubMed Central

    Chanprapaph, K.; Vachiramon, V.; Rattanakaemakorn, P.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor inhibitors (EGFRI), the first targeted cancer therapy, are currently an essential treatment for many advance-stage epithelial cancers. These agents have the superior ability to target cancers cells and better safety profile compared to conventional chemotherapies. However, cutaneous adverse events are common due to the interference of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in the skin. Cutaneous toxicities lead to poor compliance, drug cessation, and psychosocial discomfort. This paper summarizes the current knowledge concerning the presentation and management of skin toxicity from EGFRI. The common dermatologic adverse events are papulopustules and xerosis. Less common findings are paronychia, regulatory abnormalities of hair growth, maculopapular rash, mucositis, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Radiation enhances EGFRI rash due to synergistic toxicity. There is a positive correlation between the occurrence and severity of cutaneous adverse effects and tumor response. To date, prophylactic systemic tetracycline and tetracycline class antibiotics have proven to be the most effective treatment regime. PMID:24723942

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor in normal human tissues.

    PubMed

    Damjanov, I; Mildner, B; Knowles, B B

    1986-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope of the external domain of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor was used to localize this protein in selected normal human tissues. Two patterns of reactivity were recognized: strong linear or granular cell surface staining, and granular cytoplasmic staining. In one tissue, the endometrium, a change in the reaction pattern associated with changes in hormonal stimulation was observed. In some tissues such as epididymis and skin, the antibody showed surface reactivity with cells considered to represent part of the proliferating cell compartment, whereas in liver, pancreas, and prostate, all cells were reactive with the antibody, though the predominant reactivity was localized in the cytoplasm. The differential distribution of the epidermal growth factor receptor to specific cell types and cellular compartments may signify adaptations that permit growth factor responsiveness in a milieu of available ligand. PMID:3534450

  15. Dyskeratosis Congenita Dermal Fibroblasts are Defective in Supporting the Clonogenic Growth of Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Erin M.; Goldman, Frederick D.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2012-01-01

    Telomere shortening is associated with cellular senescence and aging. Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a premature aging syndrome caused by mutations in genes for telomerase components or telomere proteins. DC patients have very short telomeres and exhibit aging-associated pathologies including epidermal abnormalities and bone marrow failure. Here, we show that DC skin fibroblasts are defective in their ability to support the clonogenic growth of epidermal keratinocytes. Conditioned media transfer experiments demonstrated that this defect was largely due to lack of a factor or factors secreted from the DC fibroblasts. Compared to early passage normal fibroblasts, DC fibroblasts express significantly lower transcript levels of several genes that code for secreted proteins, including Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). Aged normal fibroblasts with short telomeres also had reduced levels of IGF1 and HGF, similar to early passage DC fibroblasts. Knockdown of IGF1 or HGF in normal fibroblasts caused a reduction in the capacity of conditioned media from these fibroblasts to support keratinocyte clonogenic growth. Surprisingly, reconstitution of telomerase in DC fibroblasts did not significantly increase transcript levels of IGF1 or HGF or substantially increase the ability of the fibroblasts to support keratinocyte growth, indicating that the gene expression defect is not readily reversible. Our results suggest that telomere shortening in dermal fibroblasts leads to reduction in expression of genes such as IGF1 and HGF and that this may cause a defect in supporting normal epidermal proliferation. PMID:23251848

  16. Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligand Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shawn; Yuan, Chaoshen; Tagmount, Abderrahmane; Rudel, Ruthann A.; Ackerman, Janet M.; Yaswen, Paul; Vulpe, Chris D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xenoestrogens are synthetic compounds that mimic endogenous estrogens by binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Exposure to estrogens and to some xenoestrogens has been associated with cell proliferation and an increased risk of breast cancer. Despite evidence of estrogenicity, parabens are among the most widely used xenoestrogens in cosmetics and personal-care products and are generally considered safe. However, previous cell-based studies with parabens do not take into account the signaling cross-talk between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family. Objectives: We investigated the hypothesis that the potency of parabens can be increased with HER ligands, such as heregulin (HRG). Methods: The effects of HER ligands on paraben activation of c-Myc expression and cell proliferation were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in ERα- and HER2-positive human BT-474 breast cancer cells. Results: Butylparaben (BP) and HRG produced a synergistic increase in c-Myc mRNA and protein levels in BT-474 cells. Estrogen receptor antagonists blocked the synergistic increase in c-Myc protein levels. The combination of BP and HRG also stimulated proliferation of BT-474 cells compared with the effects of BP alone. HRG decreased the dose required for BP-mediated stimulation of c-Myc mRNA expression and cell proliferation. HRG caused the phosphorylation of serine 167 in ERα. BP and HRG produced a synergistic increase in ERα recruitment to the c-Myc gene. Conclusion: Our results show that HER ligands enhanced the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. Citation: Pan S, Yuan C, Tagmount A, Rudel RA, Ackerman JM

  17. Cutaneous reactions to anticancer agents targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor: a dermatology-oncology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lacouture, M E; Melosky, B L

    2007-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed or dysregulated in solid tumors. Targeting the EGFR-mediated signaling pathway has become routine practice in the treatment of lung, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon carcinomas. Available agents with selected activity towards the EGFR include low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g., erlotinib (Tarceva, Genentech BioOncology/ OSI Pharmaceuticals/ F. Hoffmann-La Roche) and monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab (Erbitux, Bristol-Myers Squibb/ ImClone Systems/ Merck) and panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen). Their use is anticipated to increase for treating other solid tumors that are dependent on this pathway for growth and proliferation. Health Canada and the US FDA have approved erlotinib for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). It has also been approved in the US for use against pancreatic cancer in combination with gemcitabine (Gemzar, Eli Lilly). Cetuximab and most recently panitumumab (Vectibix, Amgen/ Abgenix) were approved by the US FDA for metastatic colorectal carcinoma. Cetuximab is also approved in the US for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The safety profile for this class of drugs is unique, with virtually no hematological toxicity, but frequent cutaneous and gastrointestinal side-effects. Although there is a dearth of randomized trials addressing treatment of the dermatological side-effects, some basic principles of management have been agreed upon and can likely improve patient compliance and decrease inappropriate dose reduction, which may negatively influence the antitumor effect. PMID:17762902

  18. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  19. Soluble Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors (sEGFRs) in Cancer: Biological Aspects and Clinical Relevance.

    PubMed

    Maramotti, Sally; Paci, Massimiliano; Manzotti, Gloria; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gugnoni, Mila; Galeone, Carla; Cesario, Alfredo; Lococo, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The identification of molecules that can reliably detect the presence of a tumor or predict its behavior is one of the biggest challenges of research in cancer biology. Biological fluids are intriguing mediums, containing many molecules that express the individual health status and, accordingly, may be useful in establishing the potential risk of cancer, defining differential diagnosis and prognosis, predicting the response to treatment, and monitoring the disease progression. The existence of circulating soluble growth factor receptors (sGFRs) deriving from their membrane counterparts has stimulated the interest of researchers to investigate the use of such molecules as potential cancer biomarkers. But what are the origins of circulating sGFRs? Are they naturally occurring molecules or tumor-derived products? Among these, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface molecule significantly involved in cancer development and progression; it can be processed into biological active soluble isoforms (sEGFR). We have carried out an extensive review of the currently available literature on the sEGFRs and their mechanisms of regulation and biological function, with the intent to clarify the role of these molecules in cancer (and other pathological conditions) and, on the basis of the retrieved evidences, speculate about their potential use in the clinical setting. PMID:27104520

  20. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  1. Analysis of corkscrew signaling in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during myogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson Hamlet, M R; Perkins, L A

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (Csw), functions positively in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, including signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detailed phenotypic analyses of csw mutations have revealed that Csw activity is required in many of the same developmental processes that require EGFR function. However, it is still unclear where in the signaling hierarchy Csw functions relative to other proteins whose activities are also required downstream of the receptor. To address this issue, genetic interaction experiments were performed to place csw gene activity relative to the EGFR, spitz (spi), rhomboid (rho), daughter of sevenless (DOS), kinase-suppressor of ras (ksr), ras1, D-raf, pointed (pnt), and moleskin. We followed the EGFR-dependent formation of VA2 muscle precursor cells as a sensitive assay for these genetic interaction studies. First, we established that Csw has a positive function during mesoderm development. Second, we found that tissue-specific expression of a gain-of-function csw construct rescues loss-of-function mutations in other positive signaling genes upstream of rolled (rl)/MAPK in the EGFR pathway. Third, we were able to infer levels of EGFR signaling in various mutant backgrounds during myogenesis. This work extends previous studies of Csw during Torso and Sevenless RTK signaling to include an in-depth analysis of the role of Csw in the EGFR signaling pathway. PMID:11729154

  2. Hormonal regulation of epidermal growth factor and protease in the submandibular gland of the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Gresik, E W; Schenkein, I; van der Noen, H; Barka, T

    1981-09-01

    The structure of the granular convoluted tubules of the mouse submandibular gland is influenced by androgens, adrenal steroids, and thyroid hormones. We wished to investigate the effects of variations in hormonal status on the quantitative and qualitative distribution of two secretory products of these tubules, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and protease. The effects of the thyroid and adrenal glands on EGF content and protease activity of the submandibular glands of adult female mice were studied by RIAs (EGF), enzyme assays (protease), and immunocytochemical methods. In animals rendered chronically hypothyroid by propylthiouracil (4 months) or in animals which were adrenalectomized and ovariectomized (3 weeks), protease activity and EGF levels were reduced by 81-97%. The administration of testosterone induced these polypeptides even in hypothyroid animals. Daily administration of L-T4 (T4; 1 micrograms/g BW) for 7 days increased EGF and protease activity 3.6-fold in intact mice and reversed the effect of hypothyroidism. EGF and protease were also induced by T4 in adrenalectomized and ovariectomized mice, although to a lesser degree than in intact animals. Immunocytochemical stainings of submandibular glands indicated that the number of granular convoluted tubule cells immunoreactive for EGF correlated with the levels of EGF determined by RIAs. With respect to immunostaining for protease, such a correlation was not observed. The data indicate multihormonal regulation of EGF and protease in the mouse submandibular gland. PMID:7021131

  3. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lanciotti, Angela; Brignone, Maria Stefania; Visentin, Sergio; De Nuccio, Chiara; Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Petrini, Stefania; Caramia, Martino; Veroni, Caterina; Minnone, Gaetana; Bernardo, Antonietta; Franciolini, Fabio; Pessia, Mauro; Bertini, Enrico; Petrucci, Tamara Corinna; Ambrosini, Elena

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in the MLC1 gene, which encodes a protein expressed in brain astrocytes, are the leading cause of MLC, a rare leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema, subcortical cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation. Although recent studies indicate that MLC1 protein is implicated in the regulation of cell volume changes, the exact role of MLC1 in brain physiology and in the pathogenesis of MLC disease remains to be clarified. In preliminary experiments, we observed that MLC1 was poorly expressed in highly proliferating astrocytoma cells when compared with primary astrocytes, and that modulation of MLC1 expression influenced astrocyte growth. Because volume changes are key events in cell proliferation and during brain development MLC1 expression is inversely correlated to astrocyte progenitor proliferation levels, we investigated the possible role for MLC1 in the control of astrocyte proliferation. We found that overexpression of wild type but not mutant MLC1 in human astrocytoma cells hampered cell growth by favoring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation and by inhibiting EGF-induced Ca(+) entry, ERK1/2 and PLCγ1 activation, and calcium-activated KCa3.1 potassium channel function, all molecular pathways involved in astrocyte proliferation stimulation. Interestingly, MLC1 did not influence AKT, an EGFR-stimulated kinase involved in cell survival. Moreover, EGFR expression was higher in macrophages derived from MLC patients than from healthy individuals. Since reactive astrocytes proliferate and re-express EGFR in response to different pathological stimuli, the present findings provide new information on MLC pathogenesis and unravel an important role for MLC1 in other brain pathological conditions where astrocyte activation occurs. PMID:26908604

  4. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

  5. Redox regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling during the development of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rafikova, Olga; Rafikov, Ruslan; Kangath, Archana; Qu, Ning; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Sharma, Shruti; Desai, Julin; Fields, Taylor; Ludewig, Britta; Yuan, Jason X-Y; Jonigk, Danny; Black, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) involves the uncontrolled proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells via increased growth factor receptor signaling. However, the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is controversial, as humans with advanced PH exhibit no changes in EGFR protein levels and purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are post-translational mechanisms that enhance EGFR signaling in PH. The EGFR inhibitor, gefinitib, significantly attenuated EGFR signaling and prevented the development of PH in monocrotaline (MCT)-exposed rats, confirming the contribution of EGFR activation in MCT induced PH. There was an early MCT-mediated increase in hydrogen peroxide, which correlated with the binding of the active metabolite of MCT, monocrotaline pyrrole, to catalase Cys377, disrupting its multimeric structure. This early oxidative stress was responsible for the oxidation of EGFR and the formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stable EGFR dimers through dityrosine cross-linking. These cross-linked dimers exhibited increased EGFR autophosphorylation and signaling. The activation of EGFR signaling did not correlate with pp60(src) dependent Y845 phosphorylation or EGFR ligand expression. Importantly, the analysis of patients with advanced PH revealed the same enhancement of EGFR autophosphorylation and covalent dimer formation in pulmonary arteries, while total EGFR protein levels were unchanged. As in the MCT exposed rat model, the activation of EGFR in human samples was independent of pp60(src) phosphorylation site and ligand expression. This study provides a novel molecular mechanism of oxidative stress stimulated covalent EGFR dimerization via tyrosine dimerization that contributes into development of PH. PMID:26928584

  6. Positive and negative tissue-specific signaling by a nematode epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Lesa, G M; Sternberg, P W

    1997-01-01

    The major determinants of receptor tissue tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling specificity have been proposed to be Src homology 2 (SH2) binding sites, phosphotyrosine-containing oligopeptides in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. The Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor homologue LET-23 has multiple functions during development and has eight potential SH2-binding sites in a region carboxyl terminal to its kinase domain. By analyzing transgenic nematodes for three distinct LET-23 functions, we show that six of eight potential sites function in vivo and that they are required for most, but not all, of LET-23 activity. A single site is necessary and sufficient to promote wild-type fertility. Three other sites activate the RAS pathway and are involved only in viability and vulval differentiation. A fifth site is promiscuous and can mediate all three LET-23 functions. An additional site mediates tissue-specific negative regulation. Putative SH2 binding sites are thus key effectors of both cell-specific and negative regulation in an intact organism. We suggest two distinct mechanisms for tissue-specific RTK-mediated signaling. A positive mechanism would promote RTK function through effectors present only in certain cell types. A negative mechanism would inhibit RTK function through tissue-specific negative regulators. Images PMID:9168466

  7. Slow release of ions from internalized silver nanoparticles modifies the epidermal growth factor signaling response.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Kristen K; Maurer, Elizabeth I; Hussain, Saber M

    2014-11-01

    Due to their distinctive physiochemical properties, including a robust antibacterial activity and plasmonic capability, hundreds of consumer and medical products contain colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, even at sub-toxic dosages, AgNPs are able to disrupt cell functionality, through a yet unknown mechanism. Moreover, internalized AgNPs have the potential to prolong this disruption, even after the removal of excess particles. In the present study, we evaluated the impact, mechanism of action, and continual effects of 50 nm AgNP exposure on epidermal growth factor (EGF) signal transduction within a human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. After AgNP expose, EGF signaling was initially obstructed due to the dissolution of particles into silver ions. However, at longer durations, the internalized AgNPs increased EGF signaling activity. This latter behavior correlated to sustained HaCaT stress, believed to be maintained through the continual dissolution of internalized AgNPs. This study raises concerns that even after exposure ceases, the retained nanomaterials are capable of acting as a slow-release mechanism for metallic ions; continually stressing and modifying normal cellular functionality. PMID:25260222

  8. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Xu, F; Reinhard, B M

    2016-07-14

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex. PMID:27378391

  9. Noncovalent Mutant Selective Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: A Lead Optimization Case Study.

    PubMed

    Heald, Robert; Bowman, Krista K; Bryan, Marian C; Burdick, Daniel; Chan, Bryan; Chan, Emily; Chen, Yuan; Clausen, Saundra; Dominguez-Fernandez, Belen; Eigenbrot, Charles; Elliott, Richard; Hanan, Emily J; Jackson, Philip; Knight, Jamie; La, Hank; Lainchbury, Michael; Malek, Shiva; Mann, Sam; Merchant, Mark; Mortara, Kyle; Purkey, Hans; Schaefer, Gabriele; Schmidt, Stephen; Seward, Eileen; Sideris, Steve; Shao, Lily; Wang, Shumei; Yeap, Kuen; Yen, Ivana; Yu, Christine; Heffron, Timothy P

    2015-11-25

    Because of their increased activity against activating mutants, first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors have had remarkable success in treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but acquired resistance, through a secondary mutation of the gatekeeper residue, means that clinical responses only last for 8-14 months. Addressing this unmet medical need requires agents that can target both of the most common double mutants: T790M/L858R (TMLR) and T790M/del(746-750) (TMdel). Herein we describe how a noncovalent double mutant selective lead compound was optimized using a strategy focused on the structure-guided increase in potency without added lipophilicity or reduction of three-dimensional character. Following successive rounds of design and synthesis it was discovered that cis-fluoro substitution on 4-hydroxy- and 4-methoxypiperidinyl groups provided synergistic, substantial, and specific potency gain through direct interaction with the enzyme and/or effects on the proximal ligand oxygen atom. Further development of the fluorohydroxypiperidine series resulted in the identification of a pair of diastereomers that showed 50-fold enzyme and cell based selectivity for T790M mutants over wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) in vitro and pathway knock-down in an in vivo xenograft model. PMID:26455919

  10. Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Related Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Philip, Philip A; Lutz, Manfred P

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is aggressive, chemoresistant, and characterized by complex and poorly understood molecular biology. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is frequently activated in pancreatic cancer; therefore, it is a rational target for new treatments. However, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib is currently the only targeted therapy to demonstrate a very modest survival benefit when added to gemcitabine in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. There is no molecular biomarker to predict the outcome of erlotinib treatment, although rash may be predictive of improved survival; EGFR expression does not predict the biologic activity of anti-EGFR drugs in pancreatic cancer, and no EGFR mutations are identified as enabling the selection of patients likely to benefit from treatment. Here, we review clinical studies of EGFR-targeted therapies in combination with conventional cytotoxic regimens or multitargeted strategies in advanced pancreatic cancer, as well as research directed at molecules downstream of EGFR as alternatives or adjuncts to receptor targeting. Limitations of preclinical models, patient selection, and trial design, as well as the complex mechanisms underlying resistance to EGFR-targeted agents, are discussed. Future clinical trials must incorporate translational research end points to aid patient selection and circumvent resistance to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26355547

  11. Successful human epidermal growth receptor 2-targeted therapy beyond disease progression for extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satomi; Takeda, Masayuki; Takahama, Takayuki; Iwasa, Tsutomu; Tsurutani, Junji; Tanizaki, Junko; Shimizu, Toshio; Sakai, Kazuko; Wada, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Noritaka; Nishio, Kazuto; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Extramammary Paget's disease is a malignant intraepithelial carcinoma, which constitutes less than 1 % of all vulvar malignancies. Surgical resection is the first treatment of choice and standard chemotherapy has not been established for advanced or recurrent disease. Experimental and clinical studies have identified human epidermal growth receptor 2 as a potential therapeutic target. A 63-year-old male was referred for recurrent extramammary Paget's disease after surgery. Human epidermal growth receptor 2 was shown to be overexpressed and amplified by immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, respectively. After two cycles of trastuzumab monotherapy, all lymph node metastases decreased in size. However, he experienced recurrence in the lymph nodes during the seven courses of trastuzumab. As a subsequent treatment, trastuzumab was administered in combination with docetaxel and pertuzumab; clinical response was sustained for 12 months without significant adverse events. PMID:26856856

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in small cell lung cancers: Two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Siegele, Bradford J; Shilo, Konstantin; Chao, Bo H; Carbone, David P; Zhao, Weiqiang; Ioffe, Olga; Franklin, Wilbur A; Edelman, Martin J; Aisner, Dara L

    2016-05-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are exceedingly rare in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We present two cases of SCLC harboring EGFR mutations, one in an 82 year-old male smoker with a combined SCLC and adenocarcinoma with a novel D855H point mutation in exon 21, and the second in a 68 year-old female never smoker with the L858R point mutation in exon 21. The cases, accompanied by a review of the literature, highlight the importance of integration of clinicopathologic considerations and adherence to recently promulgated Guideline recommendations for molecular testing in lung cancer. PMID:27040854

  13. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets. PMID:24445174

  14. Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Korc, M; Haussler, C A; Trookman, N S

    1987-09-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), at concentrations ranging from 0.83 to 4.98 nM, markedly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at low plating densities (4.7 X 10(3) cells/cm2). Under the same incubation conditions, 16.6 pM EGF enhanced cell proliferation. At high plating densities (2.5 X 10(4) cells/cm2) 0.83 nM EGF also stimulated cell proliferation. Both the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of EGF were mimicked by transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). However, the inhibitory action of TGF-alpha was always greater that of EGF. Binding studies with 125I-labeled TGF-alpha indicated that maximal cell surface binding of TGF-alpha occurred at 15 min, whereas maximal internalization occurred at 45 min. Both cell surface and internalized radioactivity declined sharply thereafter. Analysis of radioactivity released into the incubation medium during pulse-chase experiments indicated that RL95-2 cells extensively degraded both TGF-alpha and EGF. The lysosomotropic compound methylamine arrested the generation of low-molecular-weight degradation products of EGF, but not of TGF-alpha. In contrast to EGF and TGF-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at either low or high plating densities. Further, transforming growth factor-beta induced the appearance of large cuboidal cells that were readily distinguished from cells treated with either EGF or TGF-alpha. These findings point to complex regulatory actions of growth factors on the proliferation of RL95-2 cells and suggest that the processing of TGF-alpha following EGF receptor activation is distinct from the processing of EGF. PMID:3497713

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Following the identification of a group of patients in the initial tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) trials for lung cancer, there has been detailed focus on which patients may benefit from inhibitor therapy. This article reviews the background, genetics and prevalence of epidermal growth factor mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Additionally, the prevalence in unselected patients is compared against various other reviews. PMID:25870793

  16. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor-signaling platform and its targeted translation in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Alanna M; Abdulkhalek, Samar; Cheng, Timothy S W; Alghamdi, Farah; Jayanth, Preethi; O'Shea, Leah K; Geen, Olivia; Arvizu, Luis A; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2013-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor activation in cancer cell survival responses has become a strategic molecular-targeting clinical therapeutic intent, but the failures of these targeted approaches in the clinical setting demand alternate strategies. Here, we uncover a novel neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) cross-talk in alliance with GPCR neuromedin B, which is essential for EGF-induced receptor activation and cellular signaling. Neu1 and MMP-9 form a complex with EGFR on the cell surface. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate), anti-Neu1 antibodies, broad range MMP inhibitor galardin (GM6001), neuromedin B GPCR specific antagonist BIM-23127, the selective inhibitor of whole heterotrimeric G-protein complex BIM-46174 and MMP-9 specific inhibitor dose-dependently inhibited Neu1 activity associated with EGF stimulated 3T3-hEGFR cells. Tamiflu, anti-Neu1 antibodies and MMP9i attenuated EGFR phosphorylation associated with EGF-stimulated cells. Preclinical data provide the proof-of-evidence for a therapeutic targeting of Neu1 with Tamiflu in impeding human pancreatic cancer growth and metastatic spread in heterotopic xenografts of eGFP-MiaPaCa-2 tumors growing in RAGxCγ double mutant mice. Tamiflu-treated cohort exhibited a reduction of phosphorylation of EGFR-Tyr1173, Stat1-Tyr701, Akt-Thr308, PDGFRα-Tyr754 and NFκBp65-Ser311 but an increase in phospho-Smad2-Ser465/467 and -VEGFR2-Tyr1175 in the tumor lysates from the xenografts of human eGFP-MiaPaCa-2 tumor-bearing mice. The findings identify a novel promising alternate therapeutic treatment of human pancreatic cancer. PMID:23993964

  17. Colorimetric growth assay for epidermal cell cultures by their crystal violet binding capacity.

    PubMed

    Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Jugert, F; Merk, H; Mahrle, G

    1989-01-01

    The application of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive colorimetric growth assay was tested for human epidermal cells subcultured in uncoated plastic dishes. Cell layers were incubated with a crystal violet (CV) solution (0.2% with ethanol 2% in 0.5 M Tris-Cl buffer, pH 7.8) for 10 min at room temperature. After rinsing with 0.5 M Tris-Cl (pH 7.8) the cell layer was dried and decolorized with a sodium-dodecylsulfate solution (0.5% with ethanol 50% in 0.5 M Tris-Cl, pH 7.8) for 60 min at 37 degrees C. The extinction of the supernatant was read at the absorption maximum of 586 nm. The protein content of attached cells as classical parameter for quantifying cell growth was strongly related to CV extinction with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.98. Furthermore, the subcellular protein binding qualities of CV were analyzed. The water-soluble protein fraction of cultured epidermal cells was separated by sodium-dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with CV. We found a staining pattern which was qualitatively very similar to that of Coomassie blue, however less intense. Keratin electrophoresis revealed an affinity of CV to the 48, 50, and 56 kD cytokeratins. In conclusion, this CV assay is a reliable and simple method for the monitoring of epidermal cell growth in cultures. PMID:2482013

  18. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages. PMID:26883518

  19. Granzyme B inhibits keratinocyte migration by disrupting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Merkulova, Yulia; Shen, Yue; Parkinson, Leigh G; Raithatha, Sheetal A; Zhao, Hongyan; Westendorf, Kathryn; Sharma, Mehul; Bleackley, Robert Chris; Granville, David J

    2016-09-01

    Chronic non-healing wounds including diabetic, venous, and decubitus skin ulcers are currently lacking effective therapies. Non-healing diabetic ulcers can lead to amputations as progress into a highly chronic state before detection and existing treatments for these wounds often fail. Granzyme B (GzmB) is a serine protease that was, until recently, believed to function exclusively in cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated apoptosis. However, during excessive or chronic inflammation, GzmB can accumulate in the extracellular milieu, retain its activity, and cleave a number of important extracellular proteins. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor involved in cellular processes such as proliferation and migration. EGFR signaling is integral to the wound healing process. The present study investigated the effects of GzmB on keratinocyte cell migration using HaCaT cell line. Using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing and scratch assays, the present study demonstrates that GzmB inhibits keratinocyte migration by interfering with the EGFR pathway. GzmB limited cell transition into a migratory morphology and was found to reduce ligand-induced EGFR phosphorylation. Inhibition of GzmB reversed the aforementioned effects. In summary, data from the present study suggest key role for GzmB in the pathogenesis of impaired wound healing through the impairment of EGFR signaling and cell migration. PMID:27060743

  20. The influence of adnectin binding on the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the tenth type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:25223306

  1. Phthalocyanine-Peptide Conjugates for Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Targeting1

    PubMed Central

    Ongarora, Benson G.; Fontenot, Krystal R.; Hu, Xiaoke; Sehgal, Inder; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama D.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2012-01-01

    Four phthalocyanine (Pc)-peptide conjugates designed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro using four cell lines: human carcinoma A431 and HEp2, human colorectal HT-29, and kidney Vero (negative control) cells. Two peptide ligands for EGFR were investigated: EGFR-L1 and -L2, bearing 6 and 13 amino acid residues, respectively. The peptides and Pc-conjugates were shown to bind to EGFR using both theoretical (Autodock) and experimental (SPR) investigations. The Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates 5a and 5b efficiently targeted EGFR and were internalized, in part due to their cationic charge, whereas the uncharged Pc-EGFR-L2 conjugates 4b and 6a poorly targeted EGFR maybe due to their low aqueous solubility. All conjugates were non-toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) to HT-29 cells, both in the dark and upon light activation (1 J/cm2). Intravenous (iv) administration of conjugate 5b into nude mice bearing A431 and HT-29 human tumor xenografts resulted in a near-IR fluorescence signal at ca. 700 nm, 24 h after administration. Our studies show that Pc-EGFR-L1 conjugates are promising near-IR fluorescent contrast agents for CRC, and potentially other EGFR over-expressing cancers. PMID:22468711

  2. Recombinant modular transporters on the basis of epidermal growth factor for targeted intracellular delivery of photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilyazova, Dinara G.; Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Gulak, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Sergienko, Olga V.; Grin, Mikhail A.; Mironov, Andrey F.; Rubin, Andrey B.; Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2005-08-01

    The search for new pharmaceuticals has raised interest in locally-acting drugs which act over short distances within the cell, and for which different cell compartments have different sensitivities. Thus, photosensitizers used in anti-cancer therapy should be transported to the most sensitive subcellular compartments where their action is most pronounced. Earlier, we described the effects of bacterially expressed modular recombinant transporters for photosensitizers comprising a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone as an internalizable, cell-specific ligand, an optimized nuclear localization sequence, an Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein as a carrier, and an endosomolytic amphipathic polypeptide. These transporters delivered photosensitizers into the murine melanoma cells nuclei to result in cytotoxic effects 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. Here we describe new transporters possessing the same modules except for a ligand that is replaced with epidermal growth factor specific for other cancer cell types. The new transporter modules retained their functional activities within the chimera, this transporter delivered photosensitizers into the human carcinoma cells nuclei to result in photocytotoxic effects almost 3 orders of magnitude greater than those of nonmodified photosensitizers. The obtained results show that ligand modules of such transporters are interchangeable, meaning that they can be tailored for particular applications.

  3. Characterization of Differential Protein Tethering at the Plasma Membrane in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Looyenga, Brendan D.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    Physical tethering of membrane proteins to the cortical actin cytoskeleton provides functional organization to the plasma membrane and contributes to diverse cellular processes including cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, endocytosis, and migration. For these processes to occur, membrane protein tethering must be dynamically regulated in response to environmental cues. In this study, we describe a novel biochemical scheme for isolating the complement of plasma membrane proteins that are physically tethered to the actin cytoskeleton. We utilized this method in combination with tandem liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) to demonstrate that cytoskeletal tethering of membrane proteins is acutely regulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in normal human kidney (HK2) cells. Our results indicate that several proteins known to be involved in EGF signaling, as well as other proteins not traditionally associated with this pathway, are tethered to the cytoskeleton in dynamic fashion. Further analysis of one hit from our proteomic survey, the receptor phosphotyrosine phosphatase PTPRS, revealed a correlation between cytoskeletal tethering and endosomal trafficking in response to EGF. This finding parallels previous indications that PTPRS is involved in the desensitization of EGFR and provides a potential mechanism to coordinate localization of these two membrane proteins in the same compartment upon EGFR activation. PMID:22559174

  4. Two domains of the epidermal growth factor receptor are involved in cytoskeletal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Wu Jing; Ge Gaoxiang; Lin Qishui

    2008-06-13

    Epidermal growth factor receptor can interact directly with F-actin through an actin-binding domain. In the present study, a mutant EGFR, lacking a previously identified actin-binding domain (ABD 1), was still able to bind elements of the cytoskeleton. A second EGFR actin-binding domain (ABD 2) was identified in the region of the receptor that includes Tyr-1148 by a yeast two-hybrid assay. GST fusion proteins comprising ABD 1 or ABD 2 bound actin in vitro and competed for actin-binding with the full-length EGFR. EGFR binding to actin was also studied in intact cells using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The localization of the EGFR/actin-binding complex changed after EGF stimulation. Fusion proteins containing mutations in ABD1 or ABD2 did not display a FRET signal. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction between ABD1 and ABD2 and actin during EGF-induced signal transduction, and thus between EGFR and actin, are important in cell activation.

  5. Effect of epidermal growth factor against radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-wook; Jung, Kwon Il; Kim, Yeun Wha B.S.; Jung, Heun Don; Kim, Hyun Sook; Hong, Joon Pio . E-mail: joonphong@amc.seoul.kr

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: We tested the efficacy of oral recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) against radiation-induced oral mucositis in a rat model. Methods and Materials: Each of 35 Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 8 weeks of age and weighing 178 {+-} 5 grams, was irradiated once in the head region with 25 Gy, using a 4-MV therapeutic linear accelerator at a rate of 2 Gy/min. The irradiated rats were randomly divided into four groups: those receiving no treatment (Group 1), those treated with vehicle only three times per day (Group 2), and those treated with 50 {mu}g/mL (Group 3), or 100 {mu}g/mL (Group 4) rhEGF three times per day. Results: Rats were monitored for survival rate and daily activity, including hair loss, sensitivity, and anorexia. We found that survival rate and oral intake were significantly increased and histologic changes were significantly decreased in the rhEGF-treated rats. There was no difference, however, between rats treated with 50 {mu}g/mL or 100 {mu}g/mL rhEGF. Conclusion: These findings suggest that orally administered rhEGF decreased radiation-induced oral mucositis in rats.

  6. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Jerusa A Q A; de Andrade, Carolina; Goes, Alfredo M; Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A

    2016-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. PMID:27462018

  7. Drosophila Vps4 promotes Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling independently of its role in receptor degradation

    PubMed Central

    Legent, Kevin; Liu, Hui Hua; Treisman, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking of signaling receptors is an important mechanism for limiting signal duration. Components of the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT), which target ubiquitylated receptors to intra-lumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies, are thought to terminate signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and direct it for lysosomal degradation. In a genetic screen for mutations that affect Drosophila eye development, we identified an allele of Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4), which encodes an AAA ATPase that interacts with the ESCRT-III complex to drive the final step of ILV formation. Photoreceptors are largely absent from Vps4 mutant clones in the eye disc, and even when cell death is genetically prevented, the mutant R8 photoreceptors that develop fail to recruit surrounding cells to differentiate as R1-R7 photoreceptors. This recruitment requires EGFR signaling, suggesting that loss of Vps4 disrupts the EGFR pathway. In imaginal disc cells mutant for Vps4, EGFR and other receptors accumulate in endosomes and EGFR target genes are not expressed; epistasis experiments place the function of Vps4 at the level of the receptor. Surprisingly, Vps4 is required for EGFR signaling even in the absence of Shibire, the Dynamin that internalizes EGFR from the plasma membrane. In ovarian follicle cells, in contrast, Vps4 does not affect EGFR signaling, although it is still essential for receptor degradation. Taken together, these findings indicate that Vps4 can promote EGFR activity through an endocytosis-independent mechanism. PMID:25790850

  8. The Influence of Adnectin Binding on the Extracellular Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacob, Roxana E.; Chen, Guodong; Ahn, Joomi; Houel, Stephane; Wei, Hui; Mo, Jingjie; Tao, Li; Cohen, Daniel; Xie, Dianlin; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul E.; Doyle, Michael L.; Tymiak, Adrienne A.; Engen, John R.

    2014-12-01

    The precise and unambiguous elucidation and characterization of interactions between a high affinity recognition entity and its cognate protein provides important insights for the design and development of drugs with optimized properties and efficacy. In oncology, one important target protein has been shown to be the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through the development of therapeutic anticancer antibodies that are selective inhibitors of EGFR activity. More recently, smaller protein derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin termed an adnectin has also been shown to inhibit EGFR in clinical studies. The mechanism of EGFR inhibition by either an adnectin or an antibody results from specific binding of the high affinity protein to the extracellular portion of EGFR (exEGFR) in a manner that prevents phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain of the receptor and thereby blocks intracellular signaling. Here, the structural changes induced upon binding were studied by probing the solution conformations of full length exEGFR alone and bound to a cognate adnectin through hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS). The effects of binding in solution were identified and compared with the structure of a bound complex determined by X-ray crystallography.

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Jorge, S E D C; Kobayashi, S S; Costa, D B

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC. PMID:25211582

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in lung cancer: preclinical and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Jorge, S E D C; Kobayashi, S S; Costa, D B

    2014-11-01

    Lung cancer leads cancer-related mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most prevalent subtype of this recalcitrant cancer, is usually diagnosed at advanced stages, and available systemic therapies are mostly palliative. The probing of the NSCLC kinome has identified numerous nonoverlapping driver genomic events, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations. This review provides a synopsis of preclinical and clinical data on EGFR mutated NSCLC and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Classic somatic EGFR kinase domain mutations (such as L858R and exon 19 deletions) make tumors addicted to their signaling cascades and generate a therapeutic window for the use of ATP-mimetic EGFR TKIs. The latter inhibit these kinases and their downstream effectors, and induce apoptosis in preclinical models. The aforementioned EGFR mutations are stout predictors of response and augmentation of progression-free survival when gefitinib, erlotinib, and afatinib are used for patients with advanced NSCLC. The benefits associated with these EGFR TKIs are limited by the mechanisms of tumor resistance, such as the gatekeeper EGFR-T790M mutation, and bypass activation of signaling cascades. Ongoing preclinical efforts for treating resistance have started to translate into patient care (including clinical trials of the covalent EGFR-T790M TKIs AZD9291 and CO-1686) and hold promise to further boost the median survival of patients with EGFR mutated NSCLC. PMID:25296354

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III mutations in lung tumorigenesis and sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongbin; Zhao, Xiaojun; Yuza, Yuki; Shimamura, Takeshi; Li, Danan; Protopopov, Alexei; Jung, Boonim L; McNamara, Kate; Xia, Huili; Glatt, Karen A; Thomas, Roman K; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Horner, James W; Eck, Michael; Mitchell, Albert; Sun, Yangping; Al-Hashem, Ruqayyah; Bronson, Roderick T; Rabindran, Sridhar K; Discafani, Carolyn M; Maher, Elizabeth; Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Meyerson, Matthew; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2006-05-16

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva) have shown anti-tumor activity in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Dramatic and durable responses have occurred in NSCLC tumors with mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In contrast, these inhibitors have shown limited efficacy in glioblastoma, where a distinct EGFR mutation, the variant III (vIII) in-frame deletion of exons 2-7, is commonly found. In this study, we determined that EGFRvIII mutation was present in 5% (3/56) of analyzed human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but was not present in human lung adenocarcinoma (0/123). We analyzed the role of the EGFRvIII mutation in lung tumorigenesis and its response to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Tissue-specific expression of EGFRvIII in the murine lung led to the development of NSCLC. Most importantly, these lung tumors depend on EGFRvIII expression for maintenance. Treatment with an irreversible EGFR inhibitor, HKI-272, dramatically reduced the size of these EGFRvIII-driven murine tumors in 1 week. Similarly, Ba/F3 cells transformed with the EGFRvIII mutant were relatively resistant to gefitinib and erlotinib in vitro but proved sensitive to HKI-272. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for cancers harboring the EGFRvIII mutation. PMID:16672372

  12. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Enhances Expression of Cadherin-5 in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lung, Jr-Hau; Lin, Paul-Yann; Li, Ya-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation has been shown to play a critical role in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between EGFR mutations and cadherin-5 (CDH5), which is an angiogenic factor, in lung cancer cells. Increased expression CDH5 is observed in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations. Stable lung cancer cell lines expressing mutant (exon 19 deletion E746-A750, and exon 21 missense mutation L858R) and wild type EGFR genes are established. A significantly higher expression of CDH5 is observed in exon 19 deletion stable lung cancer cells and mouse xenografts. Further studies show that expression of CDH5 is decreased after the inhibition of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutation. In addition, mutant EGFR genes potentiates angiogenesis in lung cancer cells, which is inhibited by CDH5 siRNA, and potentiates migration and invasion in lung cancer cells. Our study shows that mutant EGFR genes are associated with overexpression of CDH5 through increased phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream Akt pathways. Our result may provide an insight into the association of mutant EGFR and CDH5 expression in lung cancer and aid further development of target therapy for NSCLC in the future. PMID:27362942

  13. The epidermal growth factor receptor decreases Stathmin 1 and triggers catagen entry in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Hammiller, Brianna; Trempus, Carol S; Li, Yanhua; Hansen, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is necessary for normal involution of hair follicles after the growth phase of anagen, although the mechanisms through which it acts are not well understood. In this report, we used transcriptional profiling of microdissected hair follicles from mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr to investigate how EGFR activation triggers catagen. Immunofluorescence for phospho-EGFR in mouse skin revealed increased activation of EGFR in follicular keratinocytes at catagen onset. Consistent with other models of EGFR deficiency, mice with skin-targeted deletion of Egfr (Krt14-Cre(+) /Egfr(fl/fl) ) exhibited a delayed and asynchronous catagen entry. Transcriptional profiling at the time of normal catagen onset at post-natal day (P) 17 revealed increased expression of the mitotic regulator Rcc2 in hair follicles lacking EGFR. Rcc2 protein was strongly immunopositive in the nuclei of control follicular keratinocytes at P16 then rapidly decreased until it was undetectable between P18 and 21. In contrast, Rcc2 expression continued in Egfr mutant follicles throughout this period. Proliferation, measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was also significantly increased in Egfr mutant follicular keratinocytes compared to controls at P18-21. Similarly, Rcc2-regulated mitotic regulator Stathmin 1 was strikingly reduced in control but not Egfr mutant follicles between P17 and P19. Deletion of Stmn1, in turn, accelerated catagen entry associated with premature cessation of proliferation in the hair follicles. These data reveal EGFR suppression of mitotic regulators including Rcc2 and Stathmin 1 as a mechanism for catagen induction in mouse skin. PMID:26661905

  14. Hepatocyte uptake and nuclear binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF)

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarity, D.M.; Underwood, T.

    1987-05-01

    The internalization of /sup 125/I-EGF and its cell-membrane receptor by target cells suggests a possible intracellular role for EGF and/or its receptor. They have examined the uptake of /sup 125/I-EGF by primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes after 1, 24 and 48 hours of incubation in the presence of the growth factor. A significant increase in the association of radioactivity with various nuclear fractions was observed between 1 and 24 hours incubation. After 1 hour approximately 2% of the total specific binding was associated with both the nuclear sap proteins extractable with 0.14 M NaCl and with the residual nucleoplasm, while about 1% or less was associated with the nuclear membrane and the chromatin fractions. After 24 hours the percentage associated with the nuclear membrane and chromatin fractions increased 2-4 fold. Binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to isolated nuclei from intact livers of adult rats followed by fractionation of the nuclei after incubation with /sup 125/I-EGF indicated that after 60 min at 37/sup 0/C there was a substantial amount of specific binding associated with the nucleoplasm, nuclear membranes and chromatin fractions. These data indicate that specific interactions of EGF with nuclear components occur in both intact normal hepatocytes and in isolated nuclei from intact liver.

  15. Sym004: a novel synergistic anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody mixture with superior anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mikkel Wandahl; Jacobsen, Helle Jane; Koefoed, Klaus; Hey, Adam; Pyke, Charles; Haurum, John Sørensen; Kragh, Michael

    2010-01-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated therapeutic target in cancer and EGFR antagonists with greater effectiveness than existing clinical agents remain of interest. Here, we report a novel approach based on Sym004, a mixture of two anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies directed against distinct nonoverlapping epitopes in EGFR extracellular domain III. Like anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in current clinical use, Sym004 inhibits cancer cell growth and survival by blocking ligand-binding receptor activation and phosphorylation and downstream receptor signaling. However, unlike the other antibodies, Sym004 induces rapid and efficient removal of the receptor from the cancer cell surface by triggering EGFR internalization and degradation. Compared with reference anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies, Sym004 exhibited more pronounced growth inhibition in vitro and superior efficacy in vivo. Together, these findings illustrate a strategy to target EGFR more effectively than existing clinical antibodies. PMID:20068188

  16. Crosstalk between Src and major vault protein in epidermal growth factor-dependent cell signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Euikyung; Lee, Seunghwan; Mian, Md Firoz; Yun, Sang Uk; Song, Minseok; Yi, Kye-Sook; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-02-01

    Vaults are highly conserved, ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles with an unidentified function. For the three protein species (TEP1, VPARP, and MVP) and a small RNA that comprises vault, expression of the unique 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to form the basic vault structure. To identify and characterize proteins that interact with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Src and potentially regulate Src activity, we used a pull-down assay using GST-Src-SH2 fusion proteins. We found MVP as a Src-SH2 binding protein in human stomach tissue. Interaction of Src and MVP was also observed in 253J stomach cancer cells. A subcellular localization study using immunofluorescence microscopy shows that epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation triggers MVP translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol and perinuclear region where it colocalizes with Src. We found that the interaction between Src and MVP is critically dependent on Src activity and protein (MVP) tyrosyl phosphorylation, which are induced by EGF stimulation. Our results also indicate MVP to be a novel substrate of Src and phosphorylated in an EGF-dependent manner. Interestingly, purified MVP inhibited the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of Src in a concentration-dependent manner. MVP overexpression downregulates EGF-dependent ERK activation in Src overexpressing cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of MVP interacting with a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a distinct cell signalling pathway. It appears that MVP is a novel regulator of Src-mediated signalling cascades. PMID:16441665

  17. Effects of epidermal growth factor on neural crest cells in tissue culture

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, C.A.; Turley, E.A.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates the release of hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) from quail trunk neural crest cultures in a dose-dependent fashion. It also promotes the expression of cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as detected by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of the /sup 3/H-labeled proteoglycan. Furthermore, EGF stimulates (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into total cell DNA. These results raise the possibility that EGF or an analogous growth factor is involved in regulation of neural crest cell morphogenesis.

  18. Is there a role for epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Arriola, Edurne; Taus, Álvaro; Casadevall, David

    2015-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a world-wide annual incidence of around 1.3 million. The majority of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease and survival remains poor. However, relevant advances have occurred in recent years through the identification of biomarkers that predict for benefit of therapeutic agents. This is exemplified by the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of EGFR mutant patients. These drugs have also shown efficacy in unselected populations but this point remains controversial. Here we have reviewed the clinical data that demonstrate a small but consistent subgroup of EGFR wild-type patients with NSCLC that obtain a clinical benefit from these drugs. Moreover, we review the biological rationale that may explain this benefit observed in the clinical setting. PMID:26266101

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor is required for estradiol-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Reiter, B C; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in estradiol-17β (E2)-stimulated proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSCs). Treatment of BSC cultures with AG1478 (a specific inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity) suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.05). In addition, E2-stimulated proliferation is completely suppressed (P < 0.05) in BSCs in which EGFR expression is silenced by treatment with EGFR small interfering RNA (siRNA). These results indicate that EGFR is required for E2 to stimulate proliferation in BSC cultures. Both AG1478 treatment and EGFR silencing also suppress proliferation stimulated by LR3-IGF-1 (an IGF1 analogue that binds normally to the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR)-1 but has little or no affinity for IGF binding proteins) in cultured BSCs (P < 0.05). Even though EGFR siRNA treatment has no effect on IGFR-1β mRNA expression in cultured BSCs, IGFR-1β protein level is substantially reduced in BSCs treated with EGFR siRNA. These data suggest that EGFR silencing results in post-transcriptional modifications that result in decreased IGFR-1β protein levels. Although it is clear that functional EGFR is necessary for E2-stimulated proliferation of BSCs, the role of EGFR is not clear. Transactivation of EGFR may directly stimulate proliferation, or EGFR may function to maintain the level of IGFR-1β which is necessary for E2-stimulated proliferation. It also is possible that the role of EGFR in E2-stimulated BSC proliferation may involve both of these mechanisms. PMID:24906928

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Domain Mutations in Esophageal and Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eunice L.; Jankowski, Janusz; Thayer, Sarah P.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Harris, Patricia L.; Okimoto, Ross A.; Haserlat, Sara M.; Dris coll, David R.; Ferry, David; Muir, Beth; Settleman, Jeff; Fuchs, Charles S.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Ryan, David P.; Clark, Jeff W.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Haber, Daniel A.; Bell, Daphne W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Specific activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) identify a subset of non – small cell lung cancers with dramatic sensitivity to the specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib. Despite the abundant expression of EGFR protein in a broad range of epithelial cancers, EGFR mutations have not been reported in a substantial fraction of other cancers. Given recent reports of TKI-responsive cases of esophageal and pancreatic cancer, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of EGFR mutations in these gastrointestinal cancers. Experimental Design We sequenced exons 18 to 21 of EGFR from 21cases of Barrett's esophagus, 5 cases of high-grade esophageal dysplasia, 17 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and 55 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subsets of esophageal (n = 7) and pancreatic cancer cases (n = 5) were obtained from patients who were subsequently treated with gefitinib or erlotinib-capecitabine, respectively. Results Mutations of EGFR were identified in two esophageal cancers (11.7%), three cases of Barrett's esophagus (14.2%), and two pancreatic cancers (3.6%). The mutations consisted of the recurrent missense L858R and in-frame deletion delE746-A750, previously characterized as activating EGFR mutations in non – small cell lung cancer. We also identified the TKI drug resistance – associated EGFR T790M mutation in an untreated case of Barrett's esophagus and the corresponding adenocarcinoma. Conclusion The presence of activating mutations within EGFR in both esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas defines a previously unrecognized subset of gastrointestinal tumors in which EGFR signaling may play an important biological role. EGFR mutations in premalignant lesions of Barrett's esophagus also point to these as an early event in transformation of the esophageal epithelium. The role of genotype-directed TKI therapy should be tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:16857803

  1. Molecular determinants of epidermal growth factor binding: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jeffrey M; Wampole, Matthew E; Thakur, Mathew L; Wickstrom, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family that plays a role in multiple cellular processes. Activation of EGFR requires binding of a ligand on the extracellular domain to promote conformational changes leading to dimerization and transphosphorylation of intracellular kinase domains. Seven ligands are known to bind EGFR with affinities ranging from sub-nanomolar to near micromolar dissociation constants. In the case of EGFR, distinct conformational states assumed upon binding a ligand is thought to be a determining factor in activation of a downstream signaling network. Previous biochemical studies suggest the existence of both low affinity and high affinity EGFR ligands. While these studies have identified functional effects of ligand binding, high-resolution structural data are lacking. To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis of EGFR binding affinities, we docked each EGFR ligand to the putative active state extracellular domain dimer and 25.0 ns molecular dynamics simulations were performed. MM-PBSA/GBSA are efficient computational approaches to approximate free energies of protein-protein interactions and decompose the free energy at the amino acid level. We applied these methods to the last 6.0 ns of each ligand-receptor simulation. MM-PBSA calculations were able to successfully rank all seven of the EGFR ligands based on the two affinity classes: EGF>HB-EGF>TGF-α>BTC>EPR>EPG>AR. Results from energy decomposition identified several interactions that are common among binding ligands. These findings reveal that while several residues are conserved among the EGFR ligand family, no single set of residues determines the affinity class. Instead we found heterogeneous sets of interactions that were driven primarily by electrostatic and Van der Waals forces. These results not only illustrate the complexity of EGFR dynamics but also pave the way for structure-based design of therapeutics targeting EGF

  2. Fetuin-A promotes primary keratinocyte migration: independent of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Hung, Betsy S; Kempf, Margit; Liu, Pei-Yun; Dalley, Andrew J; Saunders, Nicholas A; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-08-01

    Previously, we reported that fetuin-A is a major component of ovine foetal skin and significantly enhances 'wound closure' in primary keratinocyte cultures. In this study, we found that in human newborn foreskin, a high level of fetuin-A protein is detected throughout the dermis. However, in adult skin a low level of fetuin-A is observed throughout the epidermal and dermal layers, except at regions surrounding hair follicles and at the epidermal-dermal junction where the level of fetuin-A is relatively high. Fetuin-A significantly induces actin-rich protrusions in human primary keratinocytes. Interestingly, blockade of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signalling has a limited effect on fetuin-A promoted 'wound closure' on primary human keratinocytes, but significantly inhibits fetuin-A's effect on HaCaT cells. These results indicate that high levels of fetuin-A may partially contribute to less scar formation in newborn foreskin and that the effect of fetuin-A on primary keratinocyte migration is independent of EGF receptor signalling. PMID:19758338

  3. AZD9291 in epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor—resistant non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer have an objective response rate (ORR) of approximately 60–70% and a median progression free-survival (PFS) of approximately 10-13 months. Studies of tumor biopsies performed after progression on EGFR TKI revealed that 50-60% of EGFR mutant NSCLC developed an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation as a mechanism of acquired resistance. AZD9291 is a third generation irreversible EGFR TKI with activity against the activating EGFR mutation, the T790M acquired resistance mutation, and relative sparing of the wild-type EGFR. AZD9291 was investigated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts in patients with disease progression after EGFR TKI. Patients with and without detectable T790M mutations were enrolled in the trial. The ORR in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 61% (95% CI, 52–70%) and 21% (95% CI, 12–34%), respectively. The PFS observed in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 9.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not reached) and 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.1–4.3 months), respectively. At the dose for further investigation, 80 mg daily, the rate of all grade 3-5 drug related adverse events was 11%, and the rates of grade 3 diarrhea and rash were 1% and 0%, respectively. The identification of the T790M resistance mutation and the subsequent development of an agent against the mechanism of resistance provide a template for future drug development for acquired resistance to targeted therapy. PMID:26958499

  4. Nitric oxide stimulates the proliferation of neural stem cells bypassing the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Bruno Pereira; Morte, Maria Inês; Inácio, Angela; Costa, Gabriel; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Agasse, Fabienne; Carmo, Anália; Couceiro, Patrícia; Brundin, Patrik; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Carvalho, Caetana Monteiro; Araújo, Inês Maria

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) was described to inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells. Some evidence suggests that NO, under certain conditions, can also promote cell proliferation, although the mechanisms responsible for a potential proliferative effect of NO in neural stem cells have remained unaddressed. In this work, we investigated and characterized the proliferative effect of NO in cell cultures obtained from the mouse subventricular zone. We found that the NO donor NOC-18 (10 microM) increased cell proliferation, whereas higher concentrations (100 microM) inhibited cell proliferation. Increased cell proliferation was detected rapidly following exposure to NO and was prevented by blocking the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway, independently of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Downstream of the EGF receptor, NO activated p21Ras and the MAPK pathway, resulting in a decrease in the nuclear presence of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, p27(KIP1), allowing for cell cycle progression. Furthermore, in a mouse model that shows increased proliferation of neural stem cells in the hippocampus following seizure injury, we observed that the absence of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS(-/-) mice) prevented the increase in cell proliferation observed following seizures in wild-type mice, showing that NO from iNOS origin is important for increased cell proliferation following a brain insult. Overall, we show that NO is able to stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells bypassing the EGF receptor and promoting cell division. Moreover, under pathophysiological conditions in vivo, NO from iNOS origin also promotes proliferation in the hippocampus. PMID:20506358

  5. Conformational nanobodies reveal tethered epidermal growth factor receptor involved in EGFR/ErbB2 predimers.

    PubMed

    Nevoltris, Damien; Lombard, Benjamin; Dupuis, Elodie; Mathis, Gérard; Chames, Patrick; Baty, Daniel

    2015-02-24

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a cell-surface receptor with a single transmembrane domain and tyrosine kinase activity carried by the intracellular domain. This receptor is one of the four members of the ErbB family including ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4. Ligand binding, like EGF binding, induces a conformational rearrangement of the receptor and induces a homo/hetero dimerization essentially with ErbB family receptors that leads to the phosphorylation of the kinase domain, triggering a signaling cascade. EGFR can also form inactive dimers in a ligand-independent way through interactions between cytoplasmic domains. To date, the conformation of EGFR extracellular domain engaged in these inactive dimers remains unclear. In this study, we describe the successful selection and characterization of llama anti-EGFR nanobodies and their use as innovative conformational sensors. We isolated three different specific anti-EGFR clones binding to three distinct epitopes. Interestingly, the binding of all three nanobodies was found highly sensitive to ligand stimulation. Two nanobodies, D10 and E10, can only bind the ligand-free EGFR conformation characterized by an intramolecular tether between domains II and IV, whereas nanobody G10 binds both ligand-free and ligand activated EGFR, with an 8-fold higher affinity for the extended conformation in the presence of ligand. Here we took advantage of these conformational probes to reveal the existence of tethered EGFR in EGFR/ErbB2 predimers. These biosensors represent important tools allowing the determination of EGFR conformations and should help the design of relevant inhibitors. PMID:25603171

  6. AZD9291 in epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in advanced EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer have an objective response rate (ORR) of approximately 60-70% and a median progression free-survival (PFS) of approximately 10-13 months. Studies of tumor biopsies performed after progression on EGFR TKI revealed that 50-60% of EGFR mutant NSCLC developed an EGFR exon 20 T790M mutation as a mechanism of acquired resistance. AZD9291 is a third generation irreversible EGFR TKI with activity against the activating EGFR mutation, the T790M acquired resistance mutation, and relative sparing of the wild-type EGFR. AZD9291 was investigated in a phase I trial with expansion cohorts in patients with disease progression after EGFR TKI. Patients with and without detectable T790M mutations were enrolled in the trial. The ORR in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 61% (95% CI, 52-70%) and 21% (95% CI, 12-34%), respectively. The PFS observed in patients with centrally confirmed and without detectable T790M mutations was 9.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to not reached) and 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.1-4.3 months), respectively. At the dose for further investigation, 80 mg daily, the rate of all grade 3-5 drug related adverse events was 11%, and the rates of grade 3 diarrhea and rash were 1% and 0%, respectively. The identification of the T790M resistance mutation and the subsequent development of an agent against the mechanism of resistance provide a template for future drug development for acquired resistance to targeted therapy. PMID:26958499

  7. Interaction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-associated p85 with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, P; Margolis, B; Skolnik, E Y; Lammers, R; Ullrich, A; Schlessinger, J

    1992-01-01

    One of the immediate cellular responses to stimulation by various growth factors is the activation of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase. We recently cloned the 85-kDa subunit of PI 3-kinase (p85) from a lambda gt11 expression library, using the tyrosine-phosphorylated carboxy terminus of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor as a probe (E. Y. Skolnik, B. Margolis, M. Mohammadi, E. Lowenstein, R. Fischer, A. Drepps, A. Ullrich, and J. Schlessinger, Cell 65:83-90, 1991). In this study, we have examined the association of p85 with EGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors and the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85 in 3T3 (HER14) cells in response to EGF and PDGF treatment. Treatment of cells with EGF or PDGF markedly increased the amount of p85 associated with EGF and PDGF receptors. Binding assays with glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins demonstrated that either Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain of p85 is sufficient for binding to EGF and PDGF receptors and that receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation is required for binding. Binding of a GST fusion protein expressing the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85 (GST-N-SH2) to EGF and PDGF receptors was half-maximally inhibited by 2 and 24 mM phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr), respectively, suggesting that the N-SH2 domain interacts more stably with PDGF receptors than with EGF receptors. The amount of receptor-p85 complex detected in HER14 cells treated with EGF or PDGF. Growth factor treatment also increased the amount of p85 found in anti-PDGF-treated HER14 cells, suggesting that the vast majority of p85 in the anti-P-Tyr fraction is receptor associated but not phosphorylated on tyrosine residues. Only upon transient overexpression of p85 and PDGF receptor did p85 become tyrosine phosphorylated. These are consistent with the hypothesis that p85 functions as an adaptor molecule that targets PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372091

  8. Label-free and dynamic evaluation of cell-surface epidermal growth factor receptor expression via an electrochemiluminescence cytosensor.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Youyi; Wen, Qingqing; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Peihui

    2016-04-01

    A label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) cytosensor was developed for dynamically evaluating of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression on MCF-7 cancer cells based on the specific recognition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) with its receptor (EGFR). EGF-cytosensor was fabricated by in-situ electro-polymerization of polyaniline as substrate, using CdS quantum dots (CdS QDs) as ECL probe and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a carrier for loading of EGF. AuNPs and CdS QDs were jointly attached on polyaniline surface to provide a sensitive and stable sensing interface, as well as a simple and label-free mode for ECL assay. Electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the multilayer construction process of the sensing interface. The proposed EGF-cytosensor exhibited excellent analytical performance for MCF-7 cancer cells, ranging from 12 to 1.2 × 10(6) cells mL(-1), with a low detection limit of 12 cells mL(-1). Also, it was successfully applied in evaluating EGFR expression of cells surface, which was stimulated by some inhibitors or activator, and the results were confirmed by using flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy analysis. The proposed ECL cytosensor has potential applications in monitoring the dynamic variation of receptor molecules expression on cell surfaces in response to external stimulation by drugs and screening anti-cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:26838410

  9. Proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and of the regenerating liver of rats with epidermal growth factor deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Ivashchenko, Yu.D.; Gut, I.T.; Osipova, L.A.; Garmanchuk, L.V.; Khranovskaya, L.N.; Bykorez, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The presence of specific receptors for epidermal growth factor (EGF) in hepatocytes and enterocytes, changes in their number during the period of postresection regeneration of the liver, and also the inexplicably high concentrations of this powerful growth factor in the saliva determined the main purpose of this investigation, which was to study the effect of EGF deficiency, produced by submandibular sialadenectomy, on proliferation of the intestinal and hepatic epithelium during postresection regeneration of these organs. The experiments were carried out on rats that received an intraperitoneal injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The specific activity of /sup 125/I-EGF was 12,000 cpm/ng. The EGF concentration in the rats' blood serum, saliva, and urine was determined by radioimmunoassay. Bound /sup 125/I-EGF was precipitated. Results indicate that EGF is a regulatory factor which modifies proliferation.

  10. Cytoplasmic domains determine signal specificity, cellular routing characteristics and influence ligand binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, H; Dull, T J; Honegger, A M; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1989-01-01

    The cell surface receptors for insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both employ a tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity to fulfil their distinct biological roles. To identify the structural domains responsible for various receptor activities, we have generated chimeric receptor polypeptides consisting of major EGF and insulin receptor structural domains and examined their biochemical properties and cellular signalling activities. The EGF-insulin receptor hybrids are properly synthesized and transported to the cell surface, where they form binding competent structures that are defined by the origin of their extracellular domains. While their ligand binding affinities are altered, we find that these chimeric receptors are fully functional in transmitting signals across the plasma membrane and into the cell. Thus, EGF receptor and insulin receptor cytoplasmic domain signalling capabilities are independent of their new heterotetrameric or monomeric environments respectively. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domains carry the structural determinants that define kinase specificity, mitogenic and transforming potential, and receptor routing. Images PMID:2583088

  11. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: still lost in translation?

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Christopher H.; Saba, Nabil F.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is preferentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a promising therapeutic target. Yet other than cetuximab, no agent targeting EGFR has been approved for this disease, and none has shown benefit over the standard of care. Several randomized trials of antibody and small molecule agents have found no new indication for these agents, despite their initial promise. In this review, we examine the major clinical evidence and discuss potential future developments of translational science in this area, including use of these agents in risk-stratified subgroups, inhibition of downstream/parallel targets, and combination with immunotherapy. PMID:27004227

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor and glioblastoma multiforme: molecular basis for a new approach.

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; de Castro Carpeño, Javier; Sereno, María; González-Barón, Manuel; Perona, Rosario

    2008-02-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumours. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the cornerstone of actual treatment. In spite of large therapeutic efforts, overall survival is still poor. New molecular data allow a new molecular classification for high-grade gliomas and open a therapeutic window for targeted therapy. Molecular diagnostic tools may provide a basis for receptor-based therapies and enough information to personalise future treatments. In this regard, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target that will play a critical role in the management of glioma patients. This review summarises basic and preclinical data that support future use of therapies against EGFR. PMID:18258505

  13. Nanostructured materials detect epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase and carcinoembryonic antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Surdu-Bob, Carmen Cristina; Badulescu, Marius

    2015-09-01

    New nanostructured materials based on thin films of Cu and Ni deposited on textile material (veil), as well as gold nanostructured microspheres were used for the design of new stochastic sensors. The stochastic sensors were able to detect simultaneously a panel of biomarkers comprising epidermal growth factor receptor, neuron specific enolase, and carcinoembryonic antigen from whole blood samples with high reliabilities - recovery tests higher than 97.00%, with a RSD (%) lower than 0.1%. The stochastic sensors had shown high sensitivities and low determination levels for the detection of the proposed panel of biomarkers making early detection of lung cancer possible by fast screening of whole blood.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptors in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Veale, D.; Ashcroft, T.; Marsh, C.; Gibson, G. J.; Harris, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor is homologous to the oncogene erb-beta and is the receptor for a class of tumour growth factors (TGF-alpha). The clinical correlations with its expression were studied in 77 non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). They were stained for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) by means of an indirect immunoperoxidase technique using a monoclonal antibody against the receptor. Normal lung tissue and normal bronchus were stained for comparison. Cancer tissue showed significantly increased staining compared to normal lung (P less than 0.05). Staining for EGFr in 40 squamous carcinomas was significantly stronger than in 37 specimens of other types of NSCLC (P less than 0.05), and staining in stage three NSCLC was stronger than in stage 1 and 2 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that the presence of a high intensity of staining for EGF receptor is associated with spread of human non-small cell lung cancer and this receptor may be a suitable target for therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3038157

  15. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; Della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-07-28

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them. PMID:27605871

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Mutual Amplification between Netrin-1 and the Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Plissonnier, Marie-Laure; Lahlali, Thomas; Michelet, Maud; Lebossé, Fanny; Cottarel, Jessica; Beer, Melanie; Neveu, Grégory; Durantel, David; Bartosch, Birke; Accardi, Rosita; Clément, Sophie; Paradisi, Andrea; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Einav, Shirit; Mehlen, Patrick; Zoulim, Fabien; Parent, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the possible link between HCV infection and Netrin-1, a ligand for dependence receptors that sustains tumorigenesis, in particular in inflammation-associated tumors. We show that Netrin-1 expression is significantly elevated in HCV+ liver biopsies compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV+) and uninfected samples. Furthermore, Netrin-1 was upregulated in all histological stages of HCV+ hepatic lesions, from minimal liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and HCC, compared to histologically matched HCV- tissues. Both cirrhosis and HCV contributed to the induction of Netrin-1 expression, whereas anti-HCV treatment resulted in a reduction of Netrin-1 expression. In vitro, HCV increased the level and translation of Netrin-1 in a NS5A-La-related protein 1 (LARP1)-dependent fashion. Knockdown and forced expression experiments identified the receptor uncoordinated receptor-5 (UNC5A) as an antagonist of the Netrin-1 signal, though it did not affect the death of HCV-infected cells. Netrin-1 enhanced infectivity of HCV particles and promoted viral entry by increasing the activation and decreasing the recycling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a protein that is dysregulated in HCC. Netrin-1 and HCV are, therefore, reciprocal inducers in vitro and in patients, as seen from the increase in viral morphogenesis and viral entry, both phenomena converging toward an increase in the level of infectivity of HCV virions. This functional association involving a cancer-related virus and Netrin-1 argues for evaluating the implication of UNC5 receptor ligands in other oncogenic microbial species. PMID:27031829

  17. Polyethylene glycol-mediated colorectal cancer chemoprevention: roles of epidermal growth factor receptor and Snail.

    PubMed

    Wali, Ramesh K; Kunte, Dhananjay P; Koetsier, Jennifer L; Bissonnette, Marc; Roy, Hemant K

    2008-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a clinically widely used agent with profound chemopreventive properties in experimental colon carcinogenesis. We reported previously that Snail/beta-catenin signaling may mediate the suppression of epithelial proliferation by PEG, although the upstream events remain unclear. We report herein the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a known mediator of Snail and overexpressed in approximately 80% of human colorectal cancers, on PEG-mediated antiproliferative and hence antineoplastic effects in azoxymethane (AOM) rats and HT-29 colon cancer cells. AOM rats were randomized to either standard diet or one with 10% PEG-3350 and euthanized 8 weeks later. The colonic samples were subjected to immunohistochemical or Western blot analyses. PEG decreased mucosal EGFR by 60% (P < 0.001). Similar PEG effects were obtained in HT-29 cells. PEG suppressed EGFR protein via lysosmal degradation with no change in mRNA levels. To show that EGFR antagonism per se was responsible for the antiproliferative effect, we inhibited EGFR by either pretreating cells with gefitinib or stably transfecting with EGFR-short hairpin RNA and measured the effect of PEG on proliferation. In either case, PEG effect was blunted, suggesting a vital role of EGFR. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that EGFR-short hairpin RNA cells, besides having reduced membrane EGFR, also expressed low Snail levels (40%), corroborating a strong association. Furthermore, in EGFR silenced cells, PEG effect on EGFR or Snail was muted, similar to that on proliferation. In conclusion, we show that EGFR is the proximate membrane signaling molecule through which PEG initiates antiproliferative activity with Snail/beta-catenin pathway playing the central intermediary function. PMID:18790788

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Mutual Amplification between Netrin-1 and the Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Plissonnier, Marie-Laure; Lahlali, Thomas; Michelet, Maud; Lebossé, Fanny; Cottarel, Jessica; Beer, Melanie; Neveu, Grégory; Durantel, David; Bartosch, Birke; Accardi, Rosita; Clément, Sophie; Paradisi, Andrea; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Einav, Shirit; Mehlen, Patrick; Zoulim, Fabien; Parent, Romain

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus associated with the onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study investigated the possible link between HCV infection and Netrin-1, a ligand for dependence receptors that sustains tumorigenesis, in particular in inflammation-associated tumors. We show that Netrin-1 expression is significantly elevated in HCV+ liver biopsies compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV+) and uninfected samples. Furthermore, Netrin-1 was upregulated in all histological stages of HCV+ hepatic lesions, from minimal liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and HCC, compared to histologically matched HCV- tissues. Both cirrhosis and HCV contributed to the induction of Netrin-1 expression, whereas anti-HCV treatment resulted in a reduction of Netrin-1 expression. In vitro, HCV increased the level and translation of Netrin-1 in a NS5A-La-related protein 1 (LARP1)-dependent fashion. Knockdown and forced expression experiments identified the receptor uncoordinated receptor-5 (UNC5A) as an antagonist of the Netrin-1 signal, though it did not affect the death of HCV-infected cells. Netrin-1 enhanced infectivity of HCV particles and promoted viral entry by increasing the activation and decreasing the recycling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a protein that is dysregulated in HCC. Netrin-1 and HCV are, therefore, reciprocal inducers in vitro and in patients, as seen from the increase in viral morphogenesis and viral entry, both phenomena converging toward an increase in the level of infectivity of HCV virions. This functional association involving a cancer-related virus and Netrin-1 argues for evaluating the implication of UNC5 receptor ligands in other oncogenic microbial species. PMID:27031829

  19. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor in chordoma pathogenesis: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Asem; Presneau, Nadège; Ye, Hongtao; Halai, Dina; Berisha, Fitim; Idowu, Bernadine; Leithner, Andreas; Liegl, Bernadette; Briggs, Timothy R W; Bacsi, Krisztian; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Athanasou, Nicholas; Amary, Maria Fernanda; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Tirabosco, Roberto; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2011-02-01

    Chordoma, the molecular hallmark of which is T (brachyury), is a rare malignant bone tumour with a high risk of local recurrence and a tumour from which metastatic disease is a common late event. Currently, there is no effective drug therapy for treating chordomas, although there is evidence that some patients respond to the empirical use of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonists. The aim of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of chordoma. Paraffin-embedded material from 173 chordomas from 160 patients [sacro-coccygeal (n = 94), skull-based (n = 50), and mobile spine (n = 16)] was analysed by immunohistochemistry and revealed total EGFR expression in 69% of cases analysed. Of 147 informative chordomas analysed by FISH, 38% revealed high-level EGFR polysomy, 4% high-level polysomy with focal amplification, 18% low-level polysomy, and 39% disomy. Phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array membranes showed EGFR activation in the chordoma cell line U-CH1 and all of the three chordomas analysed. Direct sequencing of EGFR (exons 18-21), KRAS, NRAS, HRAS (exons 2, 3), and BRAF (exons 11, 15) using DNA from 62 chordomas failed to reveal mutations. PTEN expression was absent by immunohistochemistry in 19 of 147 (13%) analysed chordomas, only one of which revealed high-level polysomy of EGFR. The EGFR inhibitor tyrphostin (AG 1478) markedly inhibited proliferation of the chordoma cell line U-CH1 in vitro and diminished EGFR phosphorylation in a dose-dependant manner, a finding supported by inhibition of phosphorylated Erk1/2. p-Akt was suppressed to a much lesser degree in these experiments. There was no reduction of T as assessed by western blotting. These data implicate aberrant EGFR signalling in the pathogenesis of chordoma. This study provides a strategy for patient stratification for treatment with EGFR antagonists. PMID:21171079

  20. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them. PMID:27605871

  1. Lapatinib plus capecitabine resolved human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Glück, Stefan; Castrellon, Aurelio

    2009-01-01

    Brain metastases affect 25%-30% of women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer and are associated with a high burden of disease and poor prognosis. A 55-year-old woman presented with HER2-positive, hormone receptor-positive, locally advanced infiltrating ductal carcinoma. She received 4 cycles of neoadjuvant docetaxel (75 mg/m) plus trastuzumab (6 mg/kg) on a 21-day cycle, resulting in complete pathologic response at the time of surgery. Trastuzumab (6 mg/kg every 21 days) plus anastrozole (1 mg/d) was continued for 1 year. Two years later, the patient progressed with pulmonary nodules and a large pleural effusion. Computed tomography and positron emission tomography revealed multiple lesions in the liver and thoracic spine but no evidence of brain metastases. The patient received weekly trastuzumab (2 mg/kg), paclitaxel (80 mg/m), and carboplatin (area under the curve 2) for 6 months; her symptoms resolved and her disease stabilized. Seven months later, she developed diplopia and gait difficulties, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple brain lesions. Whole-brain radiotherapy (30 Gy in 10 fractions) was delivered with excellent clinical results. The patient remained progression free without symptoms for approximately 3 months. When she developed central nervous system symptoms, she was treated with lapatinib (1250 mg/d continuously) plus capecitabine (2000 mg/m given on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle). Four months later, a brain computed tomography performed shortly before her death from progressive systemic disease revealed near complete resolution of brain metastases. Lapatinib plus capecitabine seems to have clinical activity in HER2-positive brain metastases. PMID:19287304

  2. Combined Inhibition of c-Src and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Abrogates Growth and Invasion of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koppikar, Priya; Choi, Seung-Ho; Egloff, Ann Marie; Cai, Quan; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Freilino, Maria; Nozawa, Hiroshi; Thomas, Sufi M.; Gooding, William E.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Increased expression and/or activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Src family kinases, including c-Src, mediate a variety of intra- or extracellular signals that contribute to tumor formation and progression. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of c-Src in the growth and invasion of HNSCC and to determine the effects of combined targeting of EGFR and Src kinases in HNSCC cell lines. Experimental design HNSCC cells were engineered to stably express a dominant-active (DA) form of c-Src and investigated in cell growth and invasion assays. The biochemical effects of combined treatment with the Src inhibitor, AZD0530, a potent, orally active Src inhibitor with Bcr/Abl activity and the EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, were examined as well as the consequences of dual Src/EGFR targeting on the growth and invasion of a panel of HNSCC cell lines. Results HNSCC cells expressing DA c-Src demonstrated increased growth and invasion compared with vector-transfected controls. Combined treatment with AZD0530 and gefitinib resulted in greater inhibition of HNSCC cell growth and invasion compared with either agent alone. Conclusions These results suggest that increased expression and activation of c-Src promotes HNSCC progression where combined targeting of EGFR and c-Src may be an efficacious treatment approach. PMID:18594011

  3. Althaea rosea Cavanil and Plantago major L. suppress neoplastic cell transformation through the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Sun; Cho, Sung-Dae; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Shim, Jung-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    For thousands of years in Asia, Althaea rosea Cavanil (ARC) and Plantago major L. (PML) have been used as powerful non-toxic therapeutic agents that inhibit inflammation. However, the anticancer mechanisms and molecular targets of ARC and PML are poorly understood, particularly in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects and mechanisms of the methanol extracts from ARC (MARC) and PML (MPML) in EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells using an MTS assay, anchorage-independent cell transformation assay and western blotting. Our results showed that MARC and MPML significantly suppressed neoplastic cell transformation by inhibiting the kinase activity of the EGF receptor (EGFR). The activation of EGFR by EGF was suppressed by MARC and MPML treatment in EGFR(+/+) cells, but not in EGFR(-/-) cells. In addition, MARC and MPML inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation in EGFR-expressing murine embryonic fibroblasts (EGFR(+/+)). These results strongly indicate that EGFR targeting by MARC and MPML may be a good strategy for chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic applications. PMID:22767187

  4. Design and Synthesis of Novel Schiff Base-Benzothiazole Hybrids as Potential Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Thakur, Bhushan; Ray, Pritha; Singh, Sushil K

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel Schiff bases -benzothiazole hybrids was designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity by MTT assay and western blot method. Antiproliferative screening indicated that compound containing dihydroxy substituents had potent inhibitory activity with IC50 value 34µg/ml against SKOV3, A2780-S and A2780-CR cell lines. It showed more potent cytotoxicity in combination with cisplatin and paclitaxel than alone in the selected cell lines (SKOV3, A2780 and A2780-CR models). The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds on IOSE 364 cell line was evaluated to establish the selectivity. Molecular docking study exhibited good binding against epidermal growth factor receptor, which was further ascertained by immunoblot assay using specific antibody against phosphorylated EGFR, and thus unravelling the targeted anticancer mechanism. PMID:26443027

  5. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C

    2012-04-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals--compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings grown in the presence of cress allelochemical(s) had longer, thinner hypocotyls and shorter, thicker roots--effects previously attributed to lepidimoide. The active principle was more abundant in cress seed exudate than in seedling (root) exudates. It was present in non-imbibed seeds and releasable from heat-killed seeds. Release from live seeds was biphasic, starting rapidly but then continuing gradually for 24 h. The active principle was generated by aseptic cress tissue and was not a microbial digestion product or seed-treatment chemical. Crude seed exudate affected hypocotyl and root growth at ~25 and ~450 μg ml(-1) respectively. The exudate slightly (28%) increased epidermal cell number along the length of the Amaranthus hypocotyl but increased total hypocotyl elongation by 129%; it resulted in a 26% smaller hypocotyl circumference but a 55% greater epidermal cell number counted round the circumference. Therefore, the effect of the allelochemical(s) on organ morphology was imposed primarily by regulation of cell expansion, not cell division. It is concluded that cress seeds exude endogenous substances, probably including lepidimoide, that principally regulate cell expansion in receiver plants. PMID:22268144

  6. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor skin toxicity: a matter of topical hydration.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Daris; Codecà, Carla; Bocci, Barbara; Crepaldi, Francesca; Violati, Martina; Viale, Giulia; Careri, Carmela; Caldiera, Sarah; Bordin, Veronica; Luciani, Andrea; Zonato, Sabrina; Cassinelli, Gabriela; Foa, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Skin toxicity is a frequent complication of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy, which can be an obstacle in maintaining the dose intensity and may negatively impact on the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Skin lesions depend on the disruption of the keratinocyte development pathways and no treatment is clearly effective in resolving the cutaneous alterations frequently found during anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. Among systemic treatments, oral tetracycline proved to be useful in preventing skin manifestations. We describe the case of a patient affected by metastatic colorectal cancer, for whom a combination of chemotherapy and cetuximab was used as second-line treatment. The patient developed a symptomatic papulopustular skin rash that disappeared completely after a twice-daily application of a hydrating and moisturizing cream, mainly consisting of a mixture of paraffin, silicone compounds, and macrogol. The marked cutaneous amelioration allowed the patient to continue cetuximab without any further symptoms and was associated with a partial radiological response. PMID:26469836

  7. Epidermal growth factor modulation of prostaglandins and nitrite biosynthesis in rat fetal membranes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, M L; Ogando, D; Farina, M; Franchi, A

    2004-01-01

    The production of prostaglandins (PGs) and nitric oxide (NO) by amnion tissue may play a significant role in parturition. It is thought that epidermal growth factor (EGF) may be one of the fetal signals that governs the initiation of labor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EGF in vivo on the PGs and nitrite production of rat fetal membranes. We have evaluated the regulation of PGs and nitrite production in rat fetal membranes ex vivo. The intra-uterine administration of EGF 500 ng in day 21 of pregnancy induced increases in PGE(2) (P<0.001) and PGF(2alpha) (P<0.01) compared to the control fetal membranes from pregnant rats on day 22. Also, this dose of EGF diminished nitrate production significantly (P<0.01). We found that fetal membranes at term (days 18-22 of gestation) expressed EGF-R. The NO donor, nitroprussiate 300 and 600 microM, elicited an inhibitory effect on the PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) stimulated synthesis. On the other hand, indomethacin 10(-6) and 10(-7)M, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, reverted the inhibitory effect exerted by EGF. Hence, rat fetal membranes were found to express epidermal growth factor receptors and, under the effect of EGF, PGs and nitrites production pathways interact probably to prevent a toxic effect caused by an exacerbated synthesis of these mediators. PMID:14643177

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and its receptor during odontogenesis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cobo, J; Hernández, L C; del Valle, M E; Vijande, M; Vega, J A

    1992-10-01

    The expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in developing teeth has been immunohistochemically studied in rat embryos (E-16 to E-21). Both EGF and EGFr showed a similar pattern of distribution. A very weak immunostaining was observed in the dental germ cells during the bud, cap, and bell teeth stages, as well as in few ectomesenchymal cells. In developed, but not erupted teeth, a moderate immunoreactivity for EGF and EGFr was present in the odontoblasts, in the ameloblasts and in the internal epithelial cells, but it was stronger in the dentine. In addition, the presence of EGF/EGFr was also observed in the intercalated ducts of salivary glands, primarily the submaxillary gland, in the maxillary bone cells, and in the cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. These results suggest that EGF has little or no effect during the early periods of tooth differentiation, whereas it is probably involved in the production of dentine. Moreover, EGF/EGFr seem to participate in the maturation and differentiation of other embryonic tissues such as tissues of the nervous system and bone. PMID:1397071

  9. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui

    2015-06-30

    A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4×10(6)cellsmL(-1) with a detection limit of 40cellsmL(-1) was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35×10(5) with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening. PMID:26041531

  10. Epidermal growth factor promotes proliferation of dermal papilla cells via Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Nan, Weixiao; Wang, Shiyong; Zhang, Tietao; Si, Huazhe; Wang, Datao; Yang, Fuhe; Li, Guangyu

    2016-08-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the development and growth of hair follicle is controversial. In the present study, 2-20 ng/ml EGF promoted the growth of mink hair follicles in vitro, whereas 200 ng/ml EGF inhibited follicle growth. Further, dermal papilla (DP) cells, a group of mesenchymal cells that govern hair follicle development and growth, were isolated and cultured in vitro. Treatment with or forced expression of EGF accelerated proliferation and induced G1/S transition in DP cells. Moreover, EGF upregulated the expression of DP mesenchymal genes, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as the Notch pathway molecules including Notch1, Jagged1, Hes1 and Hes5. In addition, inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by DAPT significantly reduced the basal and EGF-enhanced proliferation rate, and also suppressed cell cycle progression. We also show that the expression of several follicle-regulatory genes, such as Survivin and Msx2, were upregulated by EGF, and was inhibited by DAPT. In summary, our study demonstrates that the concentration of EGF is critical for the switch between hair follicle growth and inhibition, and EGF promotes DP cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27109378

  11. Recombinant porcine epidermal growth factor-secreting Lactococcus lactis promotes the growth performance of early-weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is an important growth factor in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Studies showed that food-grade Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) and NICE expression system have superior performance in exogenous protein expression. This study aimed to construct and express porcine EGF (pEGF), and use L. lactis as vehicle for producing and delivering pEGF. Furthermore, investigating biological activity of pEGF and exploring applications feasibility of combination effects of L. lactis and pEGF on early weaned piglets’ production. Results A recombinant Lactococcus lactis which produced and secreted pEGF at 1000 ng/ml in culture supernatant was generated. Secreted pEGF was a fully biologically active protein, as demonstrated by its capacity to stimulate L929 mouse fibroblast cell line proliferation in vitro. For in vivo study, forty piglets were randomly allocated to control, antibiotic control, empty vector-expressing L. lactis (LL-EV) and pEGF-secreting L. lactis (LL-pEGF). After 14 d of rearing, final body weight and average daily gain in LL-pEGF were greater (P < 0.05, 8.95 vs. 8.37 kg, 206.1 vs. 157.7 g/day, respectively) than those in control, but no significant differences between LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control. Overall period average daily feed intake was higher in LL-pEGF, LL-EV and antibiotic control than in control (P < 0.05, 252.9, 255.6, 250.0, 207.3 g/day, respectively). No significant difference was observed on ADFI/ADG. LL-pEGF increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum than in control and LL-EV (P < 0.05). Sucrase in the 3 intestinal segments, aminopeptidase A in the duodenum and Jejunum, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidase IV in the duodenum in LL-pEGF were higher than those in control (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus counts decreased in the ileum and Lactobacillus increased in the ileum and cecum digesta in LL-pEGF compare with the

  12. Epidermal growth factor-nonresponsive 3T3 variants do not contain epidermal growth factor receptor-related antigens or mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.A.; Lim, R.W.; Terwilliger, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously isolated three independent variants of Swiss 3T3 cells that are unable to generate a mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Each of the variants is unable to bind /sup 125/I-labeled EGF; each lacks a functional EGF receptor. They used an antiserum to murine EGF receptor to look for an EGF-receptor gene product in wild-type 3T3 cells and in the three EGF-nonresponsive variants. No cross-reactive material could be detected in any of the three variants, either in /sup 125/I-labeled cell extracts or in (/sup 35/S)methionine metabolically labeled cells. 3T3 cells contained mRNA molecules homologous to a cDNA probe for the human EGF-receptor coding region. In contrast, no homologous RNA could be detected in any of the three variants. Analysis of genomic Southern blots of the DNA from 3T3 cells and the three EGF-nonresponsive variants indicated sequences from the EGF-receptor gene are present in the DNA of all four cell lines. These EGF-nonresponsive lines, which demonstrate proliferative responses to a variety of mitogens, will be ideal recipients for structure-function studies of the EGF receptor by transfection of the cloned gene.

  13. Involvement of membrane-type bile acid receptor M-BAR/TGR5 in bile acid-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinases in gastric carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Hiroshi . E-mail: hiroshi-yasuda@showa-university-fujigaoka.gr.jp; Hirata, Shuko; Inoue, Kazuaki; Mashima, Hirosato; Ohnishi, Hirohide; Yoshiba, Makoto

    2007-03-02

    Bile acids, which have been implicated in gastrointestinal-tract cell carcinogenesis, share properties with tumor promoters in that both affect signal transduction pathways responsible for cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrate that EGFR-ERK1/2 is activated following treatment of AGS human gastric carcinoma cells with bile acids. EGFR phosphoactivation is ligand-dependent, since treatment of cells with HB-EGF antisera or CM197 (a selective inhibitor of HB-EGF) markedly inhibits deoxycholate (DC)-promoted activation. Membrane-type bile acid receptor (M-BAR)/TGR5 is a recently identified G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). In AGS cells, siRNAs that target M-BAR suppress DC-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. Furthermore, introduction of siRNAs targeting ADAM17 transcripts resulted in suppression of DC-induced activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. These results suggest that in AGS cells, DC transactivates EGFR through M-BAR- and ADAM/HB-EGF-dependent mechanisms.

  14. Amphiregulin enhances regulatory T cell-suppressive function via the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Zaiss, Dietmar M W; van Loosdregt, Jorg; Gorlani, Andrea; Bekker, Cornelis P J; Gröne, Andrea; Sibilia, Maria; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Roovers, Rob C; Coffer, Paul J; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2013-02-21

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is known to be critically involved in tissue development and homeostasis as well as in the pathogenesis of cancer. Here we showed that Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells express EGFR under inflammatory conditions. Stimulation with the EGF-like growth factor Amphiregulin (AREG) markedly enhanced Treg cell function in vitro, and in a colitis and tumor vaccination model we showed that AREG was critical for efficient Treg cell function in vivo. In addition, mast cell-derived AREG fully restored optimal Treg cell function. These findings reveal EGFR as a component in the regulation of local immune responses and establish a link between mast cells and Treg cells. Targeting of this immune regulatory mechanism may contribute to the therapeutic successes of EGFR-targeting treatments in cancer patients. PMID:23333074

  15. Cowden disease: gene marker studies and measurements of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, H E; Burns, T W; Davenport, S L; Luger, A M; Spence, M A; Sparkes, R S; Orth, D N

    1986-01-01

    Cowden disease (CD) is a familial syndrome characterized by tumors of the skin, oral mucosa, breast, thyroid, and intestinal epithelium. Since the syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant, we examined a battery of gene markers in a family with CD to detect linkage between the CD gene and known marker genes. There was no positive evidence for linkage of a CD locus with any of the markers; other investigators can add to our data to confirm and extend these findings. Additionally, we measured epidermal growth factor (EGF) in body fluids from CD patients and controls to determine if elevated EGF levels might be responsible for the widespread epithelial proliferation in CD. EGF levels in saliva, serum, plasma, and urine were similar in CD patients and control subjects. Although alterations in growth factors or their receptors may play a role in CD, excess circulating EGF is not responsible for the manifestations of the syndrome. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3487976

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Tumor Cell Invasion and Metastasis Initiated by Dephosphorylation and Downregulation of Focal Adhesion Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Jiang, Guoqiang; Blume-Jensen, Peter; Hunter, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Upregulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) expression and EGFR-induced signaling have been correlated with progression to invasion and metastasis in a wide variety of carcinomas, but the mechanism behind this is not well understood. We show here that, in various human carcinoma cells that overexpress EGFR, EGF treatment induced rapid tyrosine dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) associated with downregulation of its kinase activity. The downregulation of FAK activity was both required and sufficient for EGF-induced refractile morphological changes, detachment of cells from the extracellular matrix, and increased tumor cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor cells with downregulated FAK activity became less adherent to the extracellular matrix. However, once cells started reattaching, FAK activity was restored by activated integrin signaling. Moreover, this process of readhesion and spreading could not be abrogated by further EGF stimulation. Interruption of transforming growth factor alpha-EGFR autocrine regulation with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor led to a substantial increase in FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Consistent with this, FAK tyrosine phosphorylation was reduced in cells from tumors growing in transplanted, athymic, nude mice, which have an intact autocrine regulation of the EGFR. We suggest that the dynamic regulation of FAK activity, initiated by EGF-induced downregulation of FAK leading to cell detachment and increased motility and invasion, followed by integrin-dependent reactivation during readhesion, plays a role in EGF-associated tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:11359909

  17. The Microtubule-associated Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Endocytic Trafficking and Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ya-sheng; Hubbert, Charlotte C.; Yao, Tso-Pang

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a microtubule-associated deacetylase with tubulin deacetylase activity, and it binds dynein motors. Recent studies revealed that microtubule acetylation affects the affinity and processivity of microtubule motors. These unique properties implicate a role for HDAC6 in intracellular organelle transport. Here, we show that HDAC6 associates with the endosomal compartments and controls epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trafficking and degradation. We found that loss of HDAC6 promoted EGFR degradation. Mechanistically, HDAC6 deficiency did not cause aberrant EGFR internalization and recycling. Rather, it resulted in accelerated segregation of EGFR from early endosomes and premature delivery of EGFR to the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. The deregulated EGFR endocytic trafficking was accompanied by an increase in microtubule-dependent movement of EGFR-bearing vesicles, revealing a novel regulation of EGFR vesicular trafficking and degradation by the microtubule deacetylase HDAC6. PMID:20133936

  18. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptors and their ligands (epidermal growth factor, neuregulin, amphiregulin) in the bitch uterus during the estrus cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, Hakan; Liman, Narin; Saruhan, Berna Güney; Küçükaslan, İbrahim

    2014-06-30

    In order to study the possible role of EGFR receptors in the bitch reproductive process, we have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of EGFR receptors and some of their ligands epidermal growth factor (EGF), neuregulin (NRG), amphiregulin (AREG), in the uterus during the estrus cycle using immunohistochemistry. The immunostaining for receptors and ligands of EGFR/ligand system was confined to membrane and cytoplasm of the target cells. Variations were observed, not only at the different stages of the estrous cycle, but also in the different tissue compartments of the uterus. However, it was detected that the immunostainings for NRG and AREG in the different cells do not show important differences at stages of the estrus cycle. In the luminal epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB4/HER4 and EGF was found at estrus. In the glandular epithelium, strong immunostaining for ErbB4/HER4 was observed at diestrus, while strong immunostaining for EGF was detected in both of estrus and diestrus. ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity in the stromal cells was higher at diestrus and anestrus, while ErbB4/HER4 immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus. In the myometrium, the highest levels of immunoreactivity of ErbB2/HER2 were found at estrus, while ErbB3/HER3 immunoreactivity was higher at anestrus. EGF immunoreactivity was lower at anestrus compared to other stage of cycle. Altered EGFR/ligand system expression during the estrus cycle suggests this growth factor system is a potent regulator of proliferation and differentiation events during preparation for implantation of bitch uterus. PMID:24813021

  19. Cetuximab-oxaliplatin-liposomes for epidermal growth factor receptor targeted chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sara; Contreras, Ana M; Haeri, Azadeh; Ten Hagen, Timo L M; Navarro, Iñigo; Koning, Gerben; Garrido, María J

    2015-07-28

    Oxaliplatin (L-OH), a platinum derivative with good tolerability is currently combined with Cetuximab (CTX), a monoclonal antibody (mAb), for the treatment of certain (wild-type KRAS) metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) expressing epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Improvement of L-OH pharmacokinetics (PK) can be provided by its encapsulation into liposomes, allowing a more selective accumulation and delivery to the tumor. Here, we aim to associate both agents in a novel liposomal targeted therapy by linking CTX to the drug-loaded liposomes. These EGFR-targeted liposomes potentially combine the therapeutic activity and selectivity of CTX with tumor-cell delivery of L-OH in a single therapeutic approach. L-OH liposomes carrying whole CTX or CTX-Fab' fragments on their surface were designed and characterized. Their functionality was tested in vitro using four human CRC cell lines, expressing different levels of EGFR to investigate the role of CTX-EGFR interactions in the cellular binding and uptake of the nanocarriers and encapsulated drug. Next, those formulations were evaluated in vivo in a colorectal cancer xenograft model with regard to tumor drug accumulation, toxicity and therapeutic activity. In EGFR-overexpressing cell lines, intracellular drug delivery by targeted liposomes increased with receptor density reaching up to 3-fold higher levels than with non-targeted liposomes. Receptor specific uptake was demonstrated by competition with free CTX, which reduced internalization to levels similar to non-targeted liposomes. In a CRC xenograft model, drug delivery was strongly enhanced upon treatment with targeted formulations. Liposomes conjugated with monovalent CTX-Fab' fragments showed superior drug accumulation in tumor tissue (2916.0±507.84ng/g) compared to CTX liposomes (1546.02±362.41ng/g) or non-targeted liposomes (891.06±155.1ng/g). Concomitantly, CTX-Fab' targeted L-OH liposomes outperformed CTX-liposomes, which on its turn was still more

  20. Epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles retain self-assembled nanostructures and provide high specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jiali; Scoble, Judith A.; Li, Nan; Lovrecz, George; Waddington, Lynne J.; Tran, Nhiem; Muir, Benjamin W.; Coia, Gregory; Kirby, Nigel; Drummond, Calum J.; Mulet, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles were demonstrated to have high affinity for an EGFR target in a ligand binding assay.Next generation drug delivery utilising nanoparticles incorporates active targeting to specific sites. In this work, we combined targeting with the inherent advantages of self-assembled lipid nanoparticles containing internal nano-structures. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting, PEGylated lipid nanoparticles using phytantriol and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-PEG-maleimide amphiphiles were created. The self-assembled lipid nanoparticles presented here have internal lyotropic liquid crystalline nano-structures, verified by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and cryo-transmission electron microscopy, that offer the potential of high drug loading and enhanced cell penetration. Anti-EGFR Fab' fragments were conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via a maleimide-thiol reaction at a high conjugation efficiency and retained specificity following conjugation to the nanoparticles. The conjugated nanoparticles

  1. Altered growth, differentiation, and responsiveness to epidermal growth factor of human embryonic mesenchymal cells of palate by persistent rubella virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoneda, T.; Urade, M.; Sakuda, M.; Miyazaki, T.

    1986-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that human embryonic mesenchymal cells derived from the palate (HEMP cells) retain alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content and capacity for collagen synthesis after long-term culture, and their growth is markedly stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). There was a dramatic decrease in ALP content and capacity to synthesize collagen in HEMP cells (HEMP-RV cells) persistently infected with rubella virus (RV). EGF increased ALP activity and decreased collagen synthesis in HEMP cells, whereas EGF showed no effect on these activities in HEMP-RV cells. Growth of HEMP-RV cells was slightly reduced compared with that of HEMP cells. EGF stimulated growth of HEMP cells and to a lesser extent of HEMP-RV cells. Binding of /sup 125/I-EGF to cell-surface receptors in HEMP-RV cells was, to our surprise, twice as much as that in HEMP cells. However, internalization of bound /sup 125/I-EGF in HEMP-RV cells was profoundly diminished. Thus, persistent RV infection causes not only changes in HEMP cell growth and differentiation but a decrease in or loss of HEMP cell responsiveness to EGF. The effects of persistent RV infection on palatal cell differentiation as well as growth may be responsible for the pathogenesis of congenital rubella. Furthermore, since HEMP cells appear to be closely related to osteoblasts, these results suggest a mechanism for RV-induced osseous abnormalities manifested in congenital rubella patients.

  2. Discovery of Novel Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitors by Structure-based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Yu, Tian; Sun, Rong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Li-Jia; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is a trans-membrane receptor like protein, and aberrant signaling of HER2 is implicated in many human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, most notably breast cancer. Moreover, it has been in the spotlight in the recent years as a promising new target for therapy of breast cancer. Objective: Since virtual screening has become an integral part of the drug discovery process, it is of great significant to identify novel HER2 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening. Materials and Methods: In this study, we carried out a series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, such as virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify HER2 inhibitors from Food and Drug Administration-approved small molecule drug as potential “new use” drugs. Results: Molecular docking identified top 10 potential drugs which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Moreover, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) might exert potential inhibitory effects against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Conclusion: Together, our findings may provide successful application of virtual screening studies in the lead discovery process, and suggest that our discovered small molecules could be effective HER2 inhibitor candidates for further study. SUMMARY A series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, including virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were took advantage to identify human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors. Molecular docking recognized top 10 candidate compounds, which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Further, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) in candidate compounds were identified as potential “new use” drugs against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Abbreviations used: HER2: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2

  3. Inverse regulation of human ERBB2 and epidermal growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kalthoff, H; Roeder, C; Gieseking, J; Humburg, I; Schmiegel, W

    1993-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha decreased the expression of ERBB2 mRNA by stimulating p55 TNF receptors of pancreatic tumor cells. This decrease contrasts with an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. Both effects were selectively achieved by TNF-alpha or -beta, whereas interferon alpha or gamma or transforming growth factor beta showed no such effects. The inverse regulatory effects of TNF on ERBB2 and EGFR mRNA levels were evoked by different signaling pathways of p55 TNF receptors. The TNF-mediated ERBB2 mRNA decrease was followed by a reduction in protein. Four of five pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibited this down-regulation. This decrease of ERBB2 is a singular example of a modulation of this growth factor receptor by TNF. Overexpression of ERBB2 has been reported to cause resistance to TNF and other cytotoxic cytokines. In our study we show that the TNF-mediated down-regulation of ERBB2 in pancreatic tumor cells is accompanied by an increase in growth inhibition at low doses of TNF. The simultaneous alteration of the ERBB2/EGFR balance by TNF represents a striking model of cytokine receptor transregulation in the growth control of malignant pancreatic epithelial cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8105469

  4. CT Features Associated with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Status in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Kim, Jongphil; Qu, Fangyuan; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Hua; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Ye, Zhaoxiang; Gillies, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To retrospectively identify the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, predominant histologic subtype, and computed tomographic (CT) characteristics in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in a cohort of Asian patients. materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative chest CT findings were retrospectively evaluated in 385 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 30 CT descriptors were assessed. EGFR mutations at exons 18-21 were determined by using the amplification refractory mutation system. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent factors of harboring EGFR mutation status. The final model was selected by using the backward elimination method, and two areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were compared with the nonparametric approach of DeLong, DeLong, and Clarke-Pearson. Results EGFR mutations were found in 168 (43.6%) of 385 patients. Mutations were found more frequently in (a) female patients (P < .001); (b)those who had never smoked (P < .001); (c)those with lepidic predominant adenocarcinomas (P = .001) or intermediate pathologic grade (P < .001); (e) smaller tumors (P < .001); (f)tumors with spiculation (P = .019), ground-glass opacity (GGO) or mixed GGO (P < .001), air bronchogram (P = .006), bubblelike lucency (P < .001), vascular convergence (P = .024), thickened adjacent bronchovascular bundles (P = .027), or pleural retraction (P < .001); and (g) tumors without pleural attachment (P = .004), a well-defined margin (P = .010), marked heterogeneous enhancement (P = .001), severe peripheral emphysema (P = .002), severe peripheral fibrosis (P = .013), or lymphadenopathy (P = .028). The most important and significantly independent prognostic factors of harboring EGFR-activating mutation for the model with both clinical variables and CT features were those who

  5. Evidence for glomerular actions of epidermal growth factor in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R C; Hoover, R L; Jacobson, H R; Badr, K F

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), an endogenous mitogenic peptide, has recently been shown to be a potent vasoconstrictor of vascular smooth muscle. In view of its potential role in proliferative and inflammatory renal glomerular diseases, we examined the effects of EGF both on cultured rat mesangial cells and on in vivo glomerular hemodynamics. Mesangial cells possess specific, saturable EGF receptors of differing affinities, with Kd's of 0.1 and 1.7 nM, respectively. EGF produced a rapid increase in intracellular pH of 0.12 +/- 0.01 pH U, which was sodium dependent and amiloride inhibitable. The addition of EGF to mesangial cells cultured on either glass or dimethylpolysiloxane substratum induced reproducible cell contraction. Intrarenal EGF infusion did not affect systemic blood pressure or hematocrit but reversibly decreased GFR and renal blood flow from 4.19 +/- 0.33 to 3.33 +/- 0.26 and from 1.17 +/- 0.09 to 0.69 +/- 0.07 ml/min, respectively. Glomerular micropuncture confirmed decreases in single nephron plasma flow and in single nephron GFR (from 142 +/- 9 to 98 +/- 8 and from 51.6 +/- 11.7 to 28.5 +/- 3.5 nl/min, respectively) which were due to significant increases in both pre- and postglomerular arteriolar resistances (from 1.97 +/- 0.31 to 2.65 +/- 0.36 and from 1.19 +/- 0.11 to 2.00 +/- 0.15 10(10) dyn.s.cm-5 respectively) and to a significant decrease in the ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf, which fell from 0.100 +/- 0.019 to 0.031 +/- 0.007 nl/(s.mmHg). These studies demonstrate that mesangial cells possess specific receptors for EGF, and exposure of these cells to physiologic concentrations of EGF results in an in vitro functional response characterized by activation of Na+/H+ exchange and by resultant intracellular alkalinization, as well as by cell contraction. EGF administration in vivo significantly reduces the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf, which, in combination with EGF-induced constriction of both preglomerular and

  6. Sensitivities to various epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors of uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor mutations L861Q and S768I: What is the optimal epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor?

    PubMed

    Banno, Eri; Togashi, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yu; Chiba, Masato; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Hidetoshi; Terashima, Masato; de Velasco, Marco A; Sakai, Kazuko; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Nishio, Kazuto

    2016-08-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, such as deletions in exon 19 or the L858R mutation in exon 21, respond dramatically to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI), and their sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI have been well characterized. Our previous article showed the in vitro sensitivities of EGFR exon 18 mutations to EGFR-TKI, but little information regarding the sensitivities of other uncommon EGFR mutations is available. First, stable transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines harboring EGFR L858R (Ba/F3-L858R), L861Q (Ba/F3-L861Q) or S768I (Ba/F3-S768I) mutations were created and their drug sensitivities to various EGFR-TKI were examined. Both the Ba/F3-L861Q and Ba/F3-S768I cell lines were less sensitive to erlotinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line, but their sensitivities to afatinib were similar to that of the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The Ba/F3-L861Q cell line was similarly sensitive and the Ba/F3-S768I cell line was less sensitive to osimertinib, compared with the Ba/F3-L858R cell line. The results of western blot analyses were consistent with these sensitivities. Next, similar experiments were also performed using the KYSE270 (L861Q) and KYSE 450 (S768I) cell lines, and their results were compatible with those of the transfectant Ba/F3 cell lines. Our findings suggest that NSCLC harboring the EGFR L861Q mutation might be sensitive to afatinib or osimertinib and that NSCLC harboring the EGFR S768I mutation might be sensitive to afatinib. Overall, afatinib might be the optimal EGFR-TKI against these uncommon EGFR mutations. PMID:27240419

  7. Salinity Stiffens the Epidermal Cell Walls of Salt-Stressed Maize Leaves: Is the Epidermis Growth-Restricting?

    PubMed Central

    Zörb, Christian; Mühling, Karl H.; Kutschera, Ulrich; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2015-01-01

    As a result of salt (NaCl)-stress, sensitive varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) respond with a strong inhibition of organ growth. The reduction of leaf elongation investigated here has several causes, including a modification of the mechanical properties of the cell wall. Among the various tissues that form the leaf, the epidermis plays a special role in controlling organ growth, because it is thought to form a rigid outer leaf coat that can restrict elongation by interacting with the inner cell layers. This study was designed to determine whether growth-related changes in the leaf epidermis and its cell wall correspond to the overall reduction in cell expansion of maize leaves during an osmotic stress-phase induced by salt treatment. Two different maize varieties contrasting in their degree of salt resistance (i.e., the hybrids Lector vs. SR03) were compared in order to identify physiological features contributing to resistance towards salinity. Wall loosening-related parameters, such as the capacity of the epidermal cell wall to expand, β-expansin abundance and apoplastic pH values, were analysed. Our data demonstrate that, in the salt-tolerant maize hybrid which maintained leaf growth under salinity, the epidermal cell wall was more extensible under salt stress. This was associated with a shift of the epidermal apoplastic pH into a range more favourable for acid growth. The more sensitive hybrid that displayed a pronounced leaf growth-reduction was shown to have stiffer epidermal cell walls under stress. This may be attributable to the reduced abundance of cell wall-loosening β-expansin proteins following a high salinity-treatment in the nutrient solution (100 mM NaCl, 8 days). This study clearly documents that salt stress impairs epidermal wall-loosening in growth-reduced maize leaves. PMID:25760715

  8. The metalloendopeptidase nardilysin (NRDc) is potently inhibited by heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF).

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Véronique; Nishi, Eiichiro; Klagsbrun, Michael; Cohen, Paul; Seidah, Nabil G; Prat, Annik

    2002-01-01

    Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase, or NRDc) is a cytosolic and cell-surface metalloendopeptidase that, in vitro, cleaves substrates upstream of Arg or Lys in basic pairs. NRDc differs from most of the other members of the M16 family of metalloendopeptidases by a 90 amino acid acidic domain (DAC) inserted close to its active site. At the cell surface, NRDc binds heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and enhances HB-EGF-induced cell migration. An active-site mutant of NRDc fulfills this function as well as wild-type NRDc, indicating that the enzyme activity is not required for this process. We now demonstrate that NRDc starts at Met(49). Furthermore, we show that HB-EGF not only binds to NRDc but also potently inhibits its enzymic activity. NRDc-HB-EGF interaction involves the 21 amino acid heparin-binding domain (P21) of the growth factor, the DAC of NRDc and most probably its active site. Only disulphide-bonded P21 dimers are inhibitory. We also show that Ca(2+), via the DAC, regulates both NRDc activity and HB-EGF binding. We conclude that the DAC is thus a key regulatory element for the two distinct functions that NRDc fulfills, i.e. as an HB-EGF modulator and a peptidase. PMID:12095415

  9. Chitosan gel formulations containing egg yolk oil and epidermal growth factor for dermal burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Yenilmez, E; Başaran, E; Arslan, R; Berkman, M S; Güven, U M; Bayçu, C; Yazan, Y

    2015-02-01

    In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples. PMID:25997244

  10. In vivo modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation in mice expressing different gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Daniotti, Jose L; Crespo, Pilar M; Yamashita, Tadashi

    2006-12-01

    We studied in this work the in vivo phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) in skin from knockout mice lacking different ganglioside glycosyltransferases. Results show an enhancement of EGFr phosphorylation, after EGF stimulation, in skin from Sial-T2 knockout and Sial-T2/GalNAc-T double knockout mice as compared with wild-type and Sial-T1 knockout mice. Qualitative analysis of ganglioside composition in mice skin suggest that the increase of EGFr phosphorylation observed in skin from Sial-T2 knockout and Sial-T2/GalNAc-T double knockout mice in response to EGF might not be primary attributed to the expression of GD3 or a-series gangliosides in mice skin. These studies provide, for the first time, an approach for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the in vivo regulation of EGFr function by gangliosides. PMID:16817235

  11. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  12. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. PMID:21640721

  13. Characterization of epidermal growth factor receptors on plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, R.; Nomura, H.; Iwakawa, S.; Okumura, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The binding of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), beta-urogastrone, to plasma membranes isolated from rat gastric mucosa was studied to characterize gastric EGF receptors. The binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF was temperature dependent, reversible, and saturable. A single class of binding sites for EGF with a dissociation constant of 0.42 nM and maximal binding capacity of 42 fmol/mg protein was suggested. There was little change in the binding of ({sup 125}I)hEGF upon addition of peptide hormones (secretin, insulin), antiulcer drugs (cimetidine), or an ulcer-inducing reagent (aspirin). Cross-linking of ({sup 125}I)hEGF to gastric plasma membranes with the use of disuccinimidyl suberate resulted in the labeling of a protein of 150 kDa. These results indicate the presence of EGF receptors on plasma membranes of rat gastric mucosa.

  14. Layer-by-layer polysaccharide-coated liposomes for sustained delivery of epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Gabriel A T; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Pontarolo, Roberto; Santos, Larissa Antoniacomi Dos; de Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2016-04-20

    A three-dimensional layer-by-layer (LbL) structure composed by xanthan and galactomannan biopolymers over dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) liposome template was proposed and characterized for protein drug delivery. The polymers and the surfactant interaction were sufficiently strong to create a LbL structure up to 8 layers, evaluated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and zeta potential analysis. The polymer-liposome binding enthalpy was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The bilayer of biopolymer-coated liposomes with diameters of 165 (±15)nm, measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ζ-potential of -4 (±13)mV. These bilayer-coated nanoparticles increased up to 5 times the sustained release of epidermal growth factor (EGF) at a first order rate of 0.005min(-1). This system could be useful for improving the release profile of low-stability drugs like EGF. PMID:26876836

  15. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Ahren, B.

    1987-07-01

    It is known that epidermal growth factor (EGF) inhibits iodide uptake in the thyroid follicular cells and lowers plasma levels of thyroid hormones upon infusion into sheep and ewes. In this study, the effects of EGF on basal and stimulated thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in the mouse. Mice were pretreated with /sup 125/I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of /sup 125/I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was not altered by intravenous injection of EGF (5 micrograms/animal). However, the radioiodine secretion stimulated by both TSH (120 microU/animal) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP; 5 micrograms/animal) were inhibited by EGF (5 micrograms/animal). At a lower dose level (0.5 microgram/animal), EGF had no influence on stimulated radioiodine secretion. In conclusion, EGF inhibits stimulated thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse.

  16. A Mutation-Sensitive Switch Assay to Detect Five Clinically Significant Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations can affect the therapeutic efficacy of drugs used to treat nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to develop methods to detect five common EGFR somatic mutations in tumor tissues from NSCLC patients by using a nanoscale mutation-sensitive switch consisting of a high-fidelity polymerase and phosphorothioate-modified allele-specific primers. The five clinically significant EGFR mutations examined here are S768I, T790M, L858R, and 15- and 18-bp deletion mutations in exon 19. Our assays showed sensitivities of 100 copies and specificities of more than three log scales for matched templates relative to mismatched templates by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, and multiplex PCR. This assay would be superior to DNA sequencing in situations where mutant DNA is not abundant. PMID:25918867

  17. Effective Delivery of Doxycycline and Epidermal Growth Factor for Expedited Healing of Chronic Wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Abhilash

    The problems and high medical costs associated with chronic wounds necessitate an economical bioactive wound dressing. A new strategy was investigated to inhibit MMP-9 proteases and to release epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance healing. Doxycycline (DOX) and EGF were encapsulated on polyacrylic acid modified polyurethane film (PAA-PU) using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly. The number of bilayers tuned the concentration of DOX and EGF released over time with over 94% bioactivity of EGF retained over 4 days. A simple wound model in which MMP-9 proteases were added to cell culture containing fibroblast cells demonstrated that DOX inhibited the proteases providing a protective environment for the released EGF to stimulate cell migration and proliferation at a faster healing rate. In the presence of DOX, only small amounts of the highly bioactive EGF are sufficient to close the wound. Results show that this is new and promising bioactive dressing for effective wound management.

  18. Recurrent bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhui; Lin, Yingxiang; Yu, Yanxia; Wei, Ping; Dai, Huaping

    2016-03-01

    A 42-year-old female patient was admitted for recurrent bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. High resolution computed tomography showed bilateral pneumothorax and numerous round and oval, thin-walled lung cysts. Microscopically, each small cyst was composed of distended subpleural alveolar spaces. Tumor cells, characteristic of acinar adenocarcinoma, obstructed and narrowed the terminal bronchioles. There was no tumor necrosis or mucin production. This suggested check-valve as a possible mechanism of the thin-walled cysts and pneumothorax. Genetic analysis suggested that the tumors were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation L858R in exon 21. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and thin-walled cysts in association with lung cancer is rarely reported and may be confused with cystic benign lung lesions. PMID:27042232

  19. [Neoadjuvant treatment in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinhua; Liu, Shiwei; Zhang, Hong; Xu, Ling; Li, Ting; Duan, Xuening

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among females worldwide. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer represents a subtype with aggressive behavior, poor response to treatment and unfavorable prognosis. Anti-HER2-based neoadjuvant treatment has improved clinical outcomes of patients with HER2-positive disease. Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant treatment indicates a favorable prognosis. With the development of HER2-targeted therapy and neoadjuvant treatment, numerous studies focus on the predictive factors of pCR or therapeutic resistance of anti-HER2 therapy. Identification of novel predictive factors in HER2-positive breast cancer, such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, will be helpful for clinical decision. PMID:26850663

  20. Surface tethered epidermal growth factor protects proliferating and differentiating multipotential stromal cells from FasL induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Melanie; Blair, Harry; Stockdale, Linda; Griffith, Linda; Wells, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Multipotential stromal cells, or mesenchymal stem cells, (MSC) have ben proposed as aids in regenerating bone and adipose tissues, as these cells form osteoblasts and adipocytes. A major obstacle to this use of MSC is the initial loss of cells post-implantation. This cell death in part, is due to ubiquitous non-specific inflammatory cytokines such as FasL generated in the implant site. Our group previously found that soluble epidermal growth factor (sEGF) promotes MSC expansion. Further, tethering EGF onto a two-dimensional surface (tEGF) altered MSC responses, by restricting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the cell surface, causing sustained activation of EGFR, and promoting survival from FasL-induced death. sEGF by causing internalization of EGFR does not support MSC survival. However, for tEGF to be useful in bone regeneration, it needs to allow for MSC differentiation into osteoblasts while also protecting emerging osteoblasts from apoptosis. tEGF did not block induced differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts, or adipocytes, a common default MSC-differentiation pathway. MSC-derived pre-osteoblasts showed increased Fas levels and became more susceptible to FasL induced death, which tEGF prevented. Differentiating adipocytes underwent a reduction in Fas expression and became resistant to FasL-induced death, with tEGF having no further survival effect. tEGF protected undifferentiated MSC from combined insults of FasL, serum deprivation and physiologic hypoxia. Additionally, tEGF was dominant in the face of sEGF to protect MSC from FasL-induced death. Our results suggest that MSCs and differentiating osteoblasts need protective signals to survive in the inflammatory wound milieu and that tEGF can serve this function. PMID:22948863

  1. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant human and murine milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Erick R; Ciferri, Claudio; Phung, Wilson; Sandoval, Wendy; Matsumoto, Marissa L

    2016-08-01

    Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), as its name suggests, is a major glycoprotein component of milk fat globules secreted by the mammary epithelium. Although its role in milk fat production is unclear, MFG-E8 has been shown to act as a bridge linking apoptotic cells to phagocytes for removal of these dying cells. MFG-E8 is capable of bridging these two very different cell types via interactions through both its epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain(s) and its lectin-type C domains. The EGF-like domain interacts with αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins on the surface of phagocytes, whereas the C domains bind phosphatidylserine found on the surface of apoptotic cells. In an attempt to purify full-length, recombinant MFG-E8 expressed in either insect cells or CHO cells, we find that it is highly aggregated. Systematic truncation of the domain architecture of MFG-E8 indicates that the C domains are mainly responsible for the aggregation propensity. Addition of Triton X-100 to the conditioned cell culture media allowed partial recovery of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. A more comprehensive detergent screen identified CHAPS as a stabilizer of MFG-E8 and allowed purification of a significant portion of non-aggregated, full-length protein. The CHAPS-stabilized recombinant MFG-E8 retained its natural ability to bind both αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and phosphatidylserine suggesting that it is properly folded and active. Herein we describe an efficient purification method for production of non-aggregated, full-length MFG-E8. PMID:27102803

  2. Nanobiophotonics for molecular imaging of cancer: Au- and Ag-based Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFR) specific nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Hewitt, Kevin C.

    2012-03-01

    Our aim is to create and validate a novel SERS-based nanoprobe for optical imaging of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/AgNPs) of various sizes were synthesized and coupled to epidermal growth factor (EGF) via a short ligand, α-lipoic acid (206 g/mol), which binds strongly to both Au and Ag nanoparticles via its disulfide end group. We used carbodiimide chemistry to couple EGF to α-lipoic acid. These nanoprobes were tested for binding affinity using Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) and, in-vitro, using EGFRoverexpressing A431 cells. The nanoprobes show excellent EGFR-specific binding. Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry demonstrate the carbodiimide based linking of the carboxylic acid end-group of α-lipoic acid to one or more of the three (terminal, or 2 lysine) amine groups on EGF. ELISA confirms that the linked EGF is active by itself, and following conjugation with gold or silver nanoparticles. Compared with bare nanoparticles, UV-Vis spectroscopy of Ag-based nanoprobes exhibit significant plasmon red-shift, while there was no discernable shift for Au-based ones. Dark field microscopy shows abundant uptake by EGFR overexpressing A431 cells, and serves to further confirm the excellent binding affinity. Nanoprobe internalization and consequent aggregation is thought to be the basis of enhanced light scattering in the dark field images, supporting the notion that these nanoprobes should provide excellent SERS signals at all nanoprobe sizes. In summary, novel EGFR-specific nanoprobes have been synthesized and validated by standard assay and in cell culture for use as SERS optical imaging probes.

  3. Epidermal growth factor treatment decreases mortality and is associated with improved gut integrity in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jessica A; Clark, Andrew T; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2008-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a cytoprotective peptide that has healing effects on the intestinal mucosa. We sought to determine whether systemic administration of EGF after the onset of sepsis improved intestinal integrity and decreased mortality. FVB/N mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or 2 x 23 cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Septic mice were further randomized to receive injection of either 150 microg kg(-1) d(-1) (i.p.) EGF or 0.9% saline (i.p.). Circulating EGF levels were decreased after CLP compared with sham animals but were unaffected by giving exogenous EGF treatment. In contrast, intestinal EGF levels increased after CLP and were further augmented by exogenous EGF treatment. Intestinal EGF receptor was increased after CLP, whether assayed by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, or Western blot, and exogenous EGF treatment decreased intestinal EGF receptor. Villus length decreased 2-fold between sham and septic animals, and EGF treatment resulted in near total restitution of villus length. Sepsis decreased intestinal proliferation and increased intestinal apoptosis. This was accompanied by increased expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Fas-associated death domain, as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 cip1/waf Epidermal growth factor treatment after the onset of sepsis restored both proliferation and apoptosis to levels seen in sham animals and normalized expression of Bid, Fas-associated death domain, and p21 cip1/waf . To determine whether improvements in gut homeostasis were associated with a decrease in sepsis-induced mortality, septic mice with or without EGF treatment after CLP were followed 7 days for survival. Mortality decreased from 60% to 30% in mice treated with EGF after the onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Thus, EGF may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis in part due to its ability to protect intestinal integrity. PMID:18004230

  4. Effects of radiation on the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Sharma, Sunil K.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter M.; Tripathi, Preeti; Lieblong, Benjamin J.; Guha, Chandan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Boerma, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a serious side effect of thoracic radiotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is essential for the function and survival of cardiomyocytes. Hence, agents that target the EGFR pathway are cardiotoxic. Tocotrienols protect from radiation injury, but may also enhance the therapeutic effects of EGFR pathway inhibitors in cancer treatment. This study investigates the effects of local irradiation on the EGFR pathway in the heart and tests whether tocotrienols may modify radiation-induced changes in this pathway. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats received image-guided localized heart irradiation with 21 Gy. Twenty four hours before irradiation, rats received a single dose of tocotrienol-enriched formulation or vehicle by oral gavage. At time points from 2 hours to 9 months after irradiation, left ventricular expression of EGFR pathway mediators was studied. Results Irradiation caused a decrease in the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) mRNA from 6 hours up to 10 weeks, followed by an upregulation of these ligands and the receptor erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB)4 at 6 months. In addition, the upregulation of Nrg-1 was statistically significant up to 9 months after irradiation. A long-term upregulation of ErbB2 protein did not coincide with changes in transcription or post-translational interaction with the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Pretreatment with tocotrienols prevented radiation-induced changes at 2 weeks. Conclusions Local heart irradiation causes long-term changes in the EGFR pathway. Studies have to address how radiation may interact with cardiotoxic effects of EGFR inhibitors. PMID:23488537

  5. ZD6474, a Multitargeted Inhibitor for Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, Suppresses Growth of Gliomas Expressing an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutant, EGFRvIII, in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Yiin, Jia-Jean; Hu, Bo; Schornack, Paul A.; Sengar, Raghvendra S.; Liu, Kun-wei; Feng, Haizhong; Lieberman, Frank S.; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Wiener, Erik C.; Ma, Hsin-I; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) vIII is a mutated EGFR that is frequently overexpressed in glioblastomas and implicated in response to receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we investigate the effect of ZD6474 (ZACTIMA, vandetanib), a dual inhibitor for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and EGFR on growth and angiogenesis of gliomas expressing EGFRvIII. We used two glioma xenograft models, U87MG cells overexpressing EGFRvIII and short-term cultured primary glioma GBM8 cells with EGFRvIII. ZD6474 inhibited tumor growth and angiogenesis and induced cell apoptosis in various brain gliomas. Moreover, significant inhibition of EGFRvIII-expressing U87MG and GBM8 gliomas was observed compared with their controls. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis using the apparent diffusion coefficient and three-dimensional T2*weighed measurements validated ZD6474 inhibition on tumor growth and angiogenesis in EGFRvIII-expressing GBM8 gliomas. Mechanistically, ZD6474 shows better inhibition of cell growth and survival of U87MG/EGFRvIII, GBM6, and GBM8 cells that express EGFRvIII than U87MG or GBM14 cells that have nondetectable EGFRvIII through attenuation of activated phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, Akt, and Bcl-XL expression. Albeit in lesser extent, ZD6474 also displays suppressions of U87MG/EGFR and GBM12 cells that overexpress wild-type EGFR. Additionally, ZD6474 inhibits activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in both types of cells, and expression of a constitutively active phosphoinositide 3-kinases partially rescued ZD6474 inhibition in U87MG/EGFRvIII cells. Taken together, these data show that ZD6474 significantly inhibited growth and angiogenesis of gliomas expressing EGFRvIII by specifically blocking EGFRvIII-activated signaling mediators, suggesting a potential application of ZD6474 in treatments for glioblastomas that overexpress EGFRvIII. PMID:20371720

  6. PROLINE IS REQUIRED FOR THE STIMULATION OF DNA SYNTHESIS IN HEPATOCYTE CULTURES BY EGF (EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat parenchymal hepatocytes both in vivo and in vitro (4,9). The authors report here that this response in vitro is dependent on the amino acids present in the media. Of all the amino acids, proline has th...

  7. Amplification of Coronary Arteriogenic Capacity of Multipotent Stromal Cells by Epidermal Growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Belmadani, Souad; Matrougui, Khalid; Kolz, Chris; Pung, Yuh Fen; Palen, Desiree; Prockop, Darwin J; Chilian, William M

    2009-01-01

    Objective We determined if increasing adherence of multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) would amplify their effects on coronary collateral growth (CCG). Methods and Results Adhesion was established in cultured coronary endothelials cells (CECS) or MSCs treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF). EGF increased MSCs adhesion to CECs, and increased intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) or vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. Increased adherence was blocked by EGF receptor antagonism or antibodies to the adhesion molecules. To determine if adherent MSCs, treated with EGF, would augment CCG, repetitive episodes of myocardial ischemia (RI) were introduced and CCG was measured from the ratio of collateral-dependent (CZ) and normal zone (NZ) flows. CZ/NZ was increased by MSCs without treatment vs RI-control and was further increased by EGF-treated MSCs. EGF-treated MSCs significantly improved myocardial function vs RI or RI+ MSCs demonstrating that the increase in collateral flow was functionally significant. Engraftment of MSCs into myocardium was also increased by EGF treatment. Conclusions These results reveal the importance of EGF in MSCs adhesion to endothelium and suggest that MSCs may be effective therapies for the stimulation of coronary collateral growth when interventions are employed to increase their adhesion and homing (in vitro EGF treatment) to the jeopardized myocardium. PMID:19342596

  8. Intracellular processing of epidermal growth factor by early wound healing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfer, A.E.; Nassaux, P.; Emory, R.; Wray, H.L.; Schaudies, R.P. )

    1990-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a potent 53-amino-acid residue polypeptide that has been implicated in normal wound healing. Although past studies have shown that locally applied EGF accelerates wound healing, these studies have not examined intracellular events related to the processing of the growth factor. The objective of this study was to characterize both initial and later postbinding intracellular processing of EGF by a responsive cell line (osteoblasts) that is important in the healing of wounds. Cloned mouse calvarial osteoblasts (MC-3TC-E1) were incubated with radiolabeled EGF, with and without preincubation with nonlabeled EGF, for specific time intervals. Cell-associated radioactivity was characterized by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results showed that EGF is processed as three distinct species and that the relative proportions of these species are altered at later time periods when compared with initial processing. The patterns, similar to those reported for human fibroblasts, indicate a possible common pathway for the mitogenic signal in cells associated with the early events of wound healing. In addition, these data represent the first direct evidence that preexposure of cells to nonlabeled EGF alters the processing of radiolabeled EGF. This is significant, because cells must be exposed to EGF for 5 to 8 hours to elicit a growth response. Such data may help to explain the lag phase of wound healing.

  9. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-08-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ((/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites (dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM). Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in primary cultured human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, W. M.; Ellinger, A.; Sheinin, Y.; Cross, H. S.

    1998-01-01

    In situ hybridization on human colon tissue demonstrates that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA expression is strongly increased during tumour progression. To obtain test systems to evaluate the relevance of growth factor action during carcinogenesis, primary cultures from human colorectal carcinomas were established. EGFR distribution was determined in 2 of the 27 primary cultures and was compared with that in well-defined subclones derived from the Caco-2 cell line, which has the unique property to differentiate spontaneously in vitro in a manner similar to normal enterocytes. The primary carcinoma-derived cells had up to three-fold higher total EGFR levels than the Caco-2 subclones and a basal mitotic rate at least fourfold higher. The EGFR affinity constant is 0.26 nmol l(-1), which is similar to that reported in Caco-2 cells. The proliferation rate of Caco-2 cells is mainly induced by EGF from the basolateral cell surface where the majority of receptors are located, whereas primary cultures are strongly stimulated from the apical side also. This corresponds to a three- to fivefold higher level of EGFR at the apical cell surface. This redistribution of EGFR to apical plasma membranes in advanced colon carcinoma cells suggests that autocrine growth factors in the colon lumen may play a significant role during tumour progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9667648

  11. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  12. Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Bollinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2005-08-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca2+o). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca2+]o, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca2+o. Further, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G-protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca2+o-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca2+o. This is consistent with the known expression of TGFa by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR mediated response to increased Ca2+o in Rat-1 fibroblasts, and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

  13. Epidermal growth factor-induced cyclooxygenase-2 enhances head and neck squamous cell carcinoma metastasis through fibronectin up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jinn-Yuan; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Chen, Shang-Hung; Lee, Chung-Ta; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Chang, Wen-Chang; Chen, Ben-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation is a major cause of metastasis in many cancers, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, whether the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mediates EGF-enhanced HNSCC metastasis remains unclear. Interestingly, we found that EGF induced COX-2 expression mainly in HNSCC. The tumor cell transformation induced by EGF was repressed by COX-2 knockdown, and this repression was reversed by simultaneously treating the cells with EGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The down-regulation of COX-2 expression or inhibition of COX-2 activity significantly blocked EGF enhancement of cell migration and invasion, but the addition of PGE2 compensated for this inhibitory effect in COX-2-knockdown cells. COX-2 depletion inhibited EGF-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and fibronectin expression and Rac1/cdc42 activation. The inhibitory effect of COX-2 depletion on MMPs and the fibronectin/Rac1/cdc42 axis were reversed by co-treatment with PGE2. Furthermore, depletion of fibronectin impeded the COX-2-enhanced binding of HNSCC cells to endothelial cells and tumor cells metastatic seeding of the lungs. These results demonstrate that EGF-induced COX-2 expression enhances HNSCC metastasis via activation of the fibronectin signaling pathway. The inhibition of COX-2 expression and activation may be a potential strategy for the treatment of EGFR-mediated HNSCC metastasis. PMID:25595899

  14. T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor vIII Status

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Perez, J.; Thomas, A.A.; Kaley, T.; Lyo, J.; Peck, K.K.; Holodny, A.I.; Mellinghoff, I.K.; Shi, W.; Zhang, Z.; Young, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III is a common mutation in glioblastoma, found in approximately 25% of tumors. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III may accelerate angiogenesis in malignant gliomas. We correlated T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging perfusion parameters with epidermal growth factor receptor variant III status. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty-two consecutive patients with glioblastoma and known epidermal growth factor receptor variant III status who had dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging before surgery were evaluated. Volumes of interest were drawn around the entire enhancing tumor on contrast T1-weighted images and then were transferred onto coregistered dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging perfusion maps. Histogram analysis with normalization was performed to determine the relative mean, 75th percentile, and 90th percentile values for plasma volume and contrast transfer coefficient. A Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to assess the relationship between baseline perfusion parameters and positive epidermal growth factor receptor variant III status. The receiver operating characteristic method was used to select the cutoffs of the dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging perfusion parameters. RESULTS Increased relative plasma volume and increased relative contrast transfer coefficient parameters were both significantly associated with positive epidermal growth factor receptor variant III status. For epidermal growth factor receptor variant III–positive tumors, relative plasma volume mean was 9.3 and relative contrast transfer coefficient mean was 6.5; for epidermal growth factor receptor variant III–negative tumors, relative plasma volume mean was 3.6 and relative contrast transfer coefficient mean was 3.7 (relative plasma volume mean, P < .001, and relative contrast transfer coefficient mean, P = .008). The predictive powers of relative plasma volume histogram metrics outperformed those of the

  15. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) antagonizes transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced collagen lattice contraction by human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Park, J S; Kim, J Y; Cho, J Y; Kang, J S; Yu, Y H

    2000-12-01

    Wound contraction plays an important role in healing, but in extreme conditions, it may lead to excessive scar formation and pathological wound contracture. To date, the key regulator of excessive contracture is known to be transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1). In this study, we have evaluated epidermal growth factor (EGF) antagonism in fibroblast-populated collagen lattice (FPCL) gel contraction, which has been generally used as an in vitro model thought to mimic wound contraction in vivo. As expected, TGF-beta1 treatment enhanced normal fibroblast-induced collagen gel contraction in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, EGF did not affect normal gel formation, but significantly antagonized TGF-beta1-induced gel formation (p<0.05 at 100 ng/ml), whereas the other growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), did not altered either normal or TGF-beta1-induced gel contractions. Similarly, EGF treatment, but not PDGF, also significantly suppressed TGF-beta1 release that was autologously elicited by TGF-beta1 treatment (p<0.01 at 100 ng/ml). Therefore, the results suggest that EGF may negatively regulate the role of TGF-beta1 through attenuating autologous release of TGF-beta1. PMID:11145189

  16. BAG-1 enhances cell-cell adhesion, reduces proliferation and induces chaperone-independent suppression of hepatocyte growth factor-induced epidermal keratinocyte migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.

    2010-08-01

    Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.

  17. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in stimuli-induced shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical growth factor for a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and cancer proliferation. HB-EGF is synthesized as a membrane form (proHB-EGF), and is shedded at the cell surface to yield soluble HB-EGF, resulting in making it active. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF was investigated using monkey kidney Vero cells overexpressing HB-EGF (Vero-H cells). 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a ligand for seventransmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and sorbitol as stress induced shedding of HB-EGF mediated protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38MAPK, respectively. These stimuli-induced sheddings of HB-EGF were inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS. As specific inhibitors of these protein kinases inhibited the shedding of HB-EGF, these signaling pathways seem to be independent, respectively. In contrast, γ-ray irradiation did not induce shedding although it did increase intracellular ROS levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the synergistic generation of ROS and the activation of protein kinase are required to promote stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF. PMID:24930874

  18. Analysis of the Role of the C-Terminal Tail in the Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Erika; Das, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Collier, Timothy S; Cantor, Aaron; Huang, Yongjian; Wong, Kathryn; Mirza, Amar; Barros, Tiago; Grob, Patricia; Jura, Natalia; Bose, Ron; Kuriyan, John

    2015-09-01

    The ∼230-residue C-terminal tail of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is phosphorylated upon activation. We examined whether this phosphorylation is affected by deletions within the tail and whether the two tails in the asymmetric active EGFR dimer are phosphorylated differently. We monitored autophosphorylation in cells using flow cytometry and found that the first ∼80 residues of the tail are inhibitory, as demonstrated previously. The entire ∼80-residue span is important for autoinhibition and needs to be released from both kinases that form the dimer. These results are interpreted in terms of crystal structures of the inactive kinase domain, including two new ones presented here. Deletions in the remaining portion of the tail do not affect autophosphorylation, except for a six-residue segment spanning Tyr 1086 that is critical for activation loop phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the two tails in the dimer is asymmetric, with the activator tail being phosphorylated somewhat more strongly. Unexpectedly, we found that reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of EGFR in vesicles leads to a peculiar phenomenon in which kinase domains appear to be trapped between stacks of lipid bilayers. This artifactual trapping of kinases between membranes enhances an intrinsic functional asymmetry in the two tails in a dimer. PMID:26124280

  19. Conformational Transition Pathways of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Domain from Multiple Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Bayesian Clustering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is aberrantly activated in various cancer cells and an important target for cancer treatment. Deep understanding of EGFR conformational changes between the active and inactive states is of pharmaceutical interest. Here we present a strategy combining multiply targeted molecular dynamics simulations, unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, and Bayesian clustering to investigate transition pathways during the activation/inactivation process of EGFR kinase domain. Two distinct pathways between the active and inactive forms are designed, explored, and compared. Based on Bayesian clustering and rough two-dimensional free energy surfaces, the energy-favorable pathway is recognized, though DFG-flip happens in both pathways. In addition, another pathway with different intermediate states appears in our simulations. Comparison of distinct pathways also indicates that disruption of the Lys745-Glu762 interaction is critically important in DFG-flip while movement of the A-loop significantly facilitates the conformational change. Our simulations yield new insights into EGFR conformational transitions. Moreover, our results verify that this approach is valid and efficient in sampling of protein conformational changes and comparison of distinct pathways. PMID:25136273

  20. Effects of inorganic iodide, epidermal growth factor and phorbol ester on hormone synthesis by porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Kikuo; Ichimura, Kenichi; Banba, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Tatsushi; Hiraiwa, Masaki; Hishinuma, Akira; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Shinichi ); Yamaguchi, Fumihiko; Hosoya, Toichiro )

    1992-01-01

    Porcine thyroid follicles cultured in suspension for 96 h synthesized and secreted thyroid hormones in the presence of thyrotropin (TSH). The secretion of newly synthesized hormones was assessed by determining in the contents of thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) in the media and by paperchromatographic analysis of {sup 125}I-labeled hormones in the media where the follicles were cultured in the presence and absence of inhibitors of hormone synthesis. The hormone synthesis and secretion was modified by exogenously added NaI. The maximal response was obtained at 1 {mu}M. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity in the cultured follicles with TSH for 96 h was dose-dependently inhibited by NaI. One hundred {mu}M and NaI completely inhibited TSH-induced TPO activity. Moreover, both epidermal growth factor and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate inhibited de novo hormone synthesis. An induction of TPO activity by TSH was also inhibited by either agent. These data provide direct evidences that thyroid hormone synthesis is regulated by NaI as well as TSH at least in part via regulation of TPO activity and also that both EGF and PMA are inhibitory on thyroid hormone formation.

  1. Analysis of the Role of the C-Terminal Tail in the Regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Erika; Das, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Collier, Timothy S.; Cantor, Aaron; Huang, Yongjian; Wong, Kathryn; Mirza, Amar; Barros, Tiago; Grob, Patricia; Jura, Natalia; Bose, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The ∼230-residue C-terminal tail of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is phosphorylated upon activation. We examined whether this phosphorylation is affected by deletions within the tail and whether the two tails in the asymmetric active EGFR dimer are phosphorylated differently. We monitored autophosphorylation in cells using flow cytometry and found that the first ∼80 residues of the tail are inhibitory, as demonstrated previously. The entire ∼80-residue span is important for autoinhibition and needs to be released from both kinases that form the dimer. These results are interpreted in terms of crystal structures of the inactive kinase domain, including two new ones presented here. Deletions in the remaining portion of the tail do not affect autophosphorylation, except for a six-residue segment spanning Tyr 1086 that is critical for activation loop phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the two tails in the dimer is asymmetric, with the activator tail being phosphorylated somewhat more strongly. Unexpectedly, we found that reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of EGFR in vesicles leads to a peculiar phenomenon in which kinase domains appear to be trapped between stacks of lipid bilayers. This artifactual trapping of kinases between membranes enhances an intrinsic functional asymmetry in the two tails in a dimer. PMID:26124280

  2. Role of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on the epidermal growth factor dependent survival in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grinman, Diego Y; Romorini, Leonardo; Presman, Diego M; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Coso, Omar A; Davio, Carlos; Pecci, Adali

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been suggested to play a key role in the maintenance of epithelial cell survival during lactation. Previously, we demonstrated that EGF dependent activation of PI3K pathway prevents apoptosis in confluent murine HC11 cells cultured under low nutrient conditions. The EGF protective effect is associated with increased levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Here, we identify the EGF-dependent mechanism involved in cell survival that converges in the regulation of bcl-X expression by activated CREB. EGF induces Bcl-XL expression through activation of a unique bcl-X promoter, the P1; being not only the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway but also the increase in cAMP levels and the concomitant PKA/CREB activation necessary for both bcl-XL upregulation and apoptosis avoidance. Results presented in this work suggest the existence of a novel connection between the EGF receptor and the adenylate cyclase that would have an impact in preventing apoptosis under low nutrient conditions. PMID:26522133

  3. [Relationship between PTEN mutations and protein kinase B phosphorylation caused by insulin or recombinant human epidermal growth factor stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hailan; Hu, Xianfu; Lin, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations on protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation of CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. Methods CNE-1 cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 100 mL/L fetal calf serum, and then transfected with wild-type PTEN (wtPTEN), mutant PTEN C124S and mutant PTEN G129E plasmid separately. After overnight serum starvation, the cells were stimulated with 0.15 IU/mL insulin or 0.3 μg/mL recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). At last, Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting. Results Insulin or rhEGF stimulation led to Akt activation in CNE-1 cells. The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN C124S mutant activated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, but not rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN G129E mutant inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusion The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, while PTEN C124S and G129E mutants failed to activate the phosphorylation of Akt consistently. This suggested PTEN mutations might not be correlated with activated Akt. PMID:27412938

  4. Novel MEK1 Mutation Identified by Mutational Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway Genes in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jenifer L.; Gong, Yixuan; Chitale, Dhananjay; Golas, Ben; McLellan, Michael D.; Kasai, Yumi; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Solit, David; Levine, Ross; Michel, Kathrin; Thomas, Roman K.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Ladanyi, Marc; Pao, William

    2008-01-01

    Genetic lesions affecting a number of kinases and other elements within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed mutational profiling of a large cohort of lung adenocarcinomas to uncover other potential somatic mutations in genes of this pathway that could contribute to lung tumorigenesis. We have identified in 2 of 207 primary lung tumors a somatic activating mutation in exon 2 of MEK1 (i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 or MAP2K1) that substitutes asparagine for lysine at amino acid 57 (K57N) in the nonkinase portion of the kinase. Neither of these two tumors harbored known mutations in other genes encoding components of the EGFR signaling pathway (i.e., EGFR, HER2, KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF). Expression of mutant, but not wild-type, MEK1 leads to constitutive activity of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2 in human 293T cells and to growth factor–independent proliferation of murine Ba/F3 cells. A selective MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, inhibits mutant-induced ERK activity in 293T cells and growth of mutant-bearing Ba/F3 cells. We also screened 85 NSCLC cell lines for MEK1 exon 2 mutations; one line (NCI-H1437) harbors a Q56P substitution, a known transformation-competent allele of MEK1 originally identified in rat fibroblasts, and is sensitive to treatment with AZD6244. MEK1 mutants have not previously been reported in lung cancer and may provide a target for effective therapy in a small subset of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:18632602

  5. Loss of BRCA1 leads to an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor expression in mammary epithelial cells, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition prevents estrogen receptor-negative cancers in BRCA1-mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Women who carry a BRCA1 mutation typically develop "triple-negative" breast cancers (TNBC), defined by the absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor and Her2/neu. In contrast to ER-positive tumors, TNBCs frequently express high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Previously, we found a disproportionate fraction of progenitor cells in BRCA1 mutation carriers with EGFR overexpression. Here we examine the role of EGFR in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in the emergence of BRCA1-related tumors and as a potential target for the prevention of TNBC. Methods Cultures of MECs were used to examine EGFR protein levels and promoter activity in response to BRCA1 suppression with inhibitory RNA. EGFR was assessed by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to subpopulations of MECs was examined by Scatchard analysis. The responsiveness of MECs to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib was assessed in vitro in three-dimensional cultures and in vivo. Mouse mammary tumor virus-Cre recombinase (MMTV-Cre) BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- mice were treated daily with erlotinib or vehicle control, and breast cancer-free survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Inhibition of BRCA1 in MECs led to upregulation of EGFR with an inverse correlation of BRCA1 with cellular EGFR protein levels (r2 = 0.87) and to an increase in cell surface-expressed EGFR. EGFR upregulation in response to BRCA1 suppression was mediated by transcriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)-positive MECs expressed higher levels of EGFR than ALDH1-negative MECs and were expanded two- to threefold in the BRCA1-inhibited MEC population. All MECs were exquisitely sensitive to EGFR inhibition with erlotinib in vitro. EGFR inhibition in MMTV-Cre BRCA1flox/flox p53+/- female mice starting at age 3 months increased

  6. Taurine and Epidermal Growth Factor Belong to the Signature of First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Koido, Kati; Innos, Jürgen; Haring, Liina; Zilmer, Mihkel; Ottas, Aigar; Vasar, Eero

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of two amino acid derivatives taurine and spermine in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and their response to antipsychotic treatment. The levels of taurine and spermine were significantly up-regulated in antipsychotic-naïve FEP patients compared to control subjects (CS). Treatment of FEP patients with antipsychotic drugs significantly reduced the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This positive effect was accompanied by a significant reduction of taurine and spermine to the levels measured in CS. General linear model was used to establish associations of taurine and spermine with the levels of cytokines and growth factors, measured in our previous experiments using the same study sample. There was a strong association between taurine and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Both biomarkers significantly correlated with the disease symptoms as well as with the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatment. Accordingly one can conclude that taurine and EGF belong to the signature of FEP. Most probably they reflect altered oxidative stress and corrupted function of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in FEP. PMID:27471446

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in combination with expression of MIG6 alters gefitinib sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, metastasis, and invasion in various tumors. Earlier studies showed that the EGFR is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and EGFR mutations at specific amino acid residues in the kinase domain induce altered responsiveness to gefitinib, a small molecule EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, the mechanism underlying the drug response modulated by EGFR mutation is still largely unknown. To elucidate drug response in EGFR signal transduction pathway in which complex dynamics of multiple molecules involved, a systematic approach is necessary. In this paper, we performed experimental and computational analyses to clarify the underlying mechanism of EGFR signaling and cell-specific gefitinib responsiveness in three H1299-derived NSCLC cell lines; H1299 wild type (H1299WT), H1299 with an overexpressed wild type EGFR (H1299EGFR-WT), and H1299 with an overexpressed mutant EGFR L858R (H1299L858R; gefitinib sensitive mutant). Results We predicted and experimentally verified that Mig6, which is a known negative regulator of EGFR and specifically expressed in H1299L858R cells, synergized with gefitinib to suppress cellular growth. Computational analyses indicated that this inhibitory effect is amplified at the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation steps of MEK and ERK. Conclusions Thus, we showed that L858R receptor mutation in combination with expression of its negative regulator, Mig6, alters signaling outcomes and results in variable drug sensitivity. PMID:21333004

  8. ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Diego; Klein, Daryl E.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2009-09-25

    The orphan receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB2 (also known as HER2 or Neu) transforms cells when overexpressed, and it is an important therapeutic target in human cancer. Structural studies have suggested that the oncogenic (and ligand-independent) signalling properties of ErbB2 result from the absence of a key intramolecular 'tether' in the extracellular region that autoinhibits other human ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Although ErbB2 is unique among the four human ErbB receptors, here we show that it is the closest structural relative of the single EGF receptor family member in Drosophila melanogaster (dEGFR). Genetic and biochemical data show that dEGFR is tightly regulated by growth factor ligands, yet a crystal structure shows that it, too, lacks the intramolecular tether seen in human EGFR, ErbB3 and ErbB4. Instead, a distinct set of autoinhibitory interdomain interactions hold unliganded dEGFR in an inactive state. All of these interactions are maintained (and even extended) in ErbB2, arguing against the suggestion that ErbB2 lacks autoinhibition. We therefore suggest that normal and pathogenic ErbB2 signalling may be regulated by ligands in the same way as dEGFR. Our findings have important implications for ErbB2 regulation in human cancer, and for developing therapeutic approaches that target novel aspects of this orphan receptor.

  9. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  10. Targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy with epidermal growth factor receptor-specific peptide linked nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Narsireddy, Amreddy; Vijayashree, Kurra; Irudayaraj, Joseph; Manorama, Sunkara V; Rao, Nalam M

    2014-08-25

    In targeted photodynamic therapy (tPDT), photosensitizers (PS) are targeted to disease tissue to reduce the dosage of PS and in addition to reduce the photo damage to the non-target tissue. We synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) armored with tumor targeting peptide and PS for targeted PDT. Chitosan covered Fe3O4 NPs (30 nm) were deposited with gold NPs to generate two distinct chemical surfaces. To the gold particles PS was attached with a lipoic acid linker. Human epidermal growth factor receptor (hEGFR)-specific peptide was also attached to the same particles via a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid linker attached to the chitosan. Using these nanoparticles, peptide specific uptake and PDT mediated cell death of the SK-OV-3 cells (Her2(+) positive cells) were demonstrated by confocal microscopy, T2 imaging and viability assays. Peptide mediated preferential distribution of these NPs into tumor tissue was also shown in a xenograft tumor model. After one intravenous injection and one PDT dose, peptide bound NPs retarded tumor growth significantly compared to dark controls or treatments with NPs without peptide. The tumor retardation by targeted NPs was achieved at a PS concentration of 3.9 nmol/animal, whereas similar effect was seen with free PS at 220 nmol/animal. Therapeutic potential of these peptide containing NPs would be a useful in targeted PDT and in imaging the target tissue. PMID:24939618

  11. Epidermal development, growth control, and homeostasis in the face of centrosome amplification

    PubMed Central

    Kulukian, Anita; Holland, Andrew J.; Vitre, Benjamin; Naik, Shruti; Cleveland, Don W.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    As nucleators of the mitotic spindle and primary cilium, centrosomes play crucial roles in equal segregation of DNA content to daughter cells, coordination of growth and differentiation, and transduction of homeostatic cues. Whereas the majority of mammalian cells carry no more than two centrosomes per cell, exceptions to this rule apply in certain specialized tissues and in select disease states, including cancer. Centrosome amplification, or the condition of having more than two centrosomes per cell, has been suggested to contribute to instability of chromosomes, imbalance in asymmetric divisions, and reorganization of tissue architecture; however, the degree to which these conditions are a direct cause of or simply a consequence of human disease is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by generating a mouse model inducing centrosome amplification in a naturally proliferative epithelial tissue by elevating Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) expression in the skin epidermis. By altering centrosome numbers, we observed multiciliated cells, spindle orientation errors, and chromosome segregation defects within developing epidermis. None of these defects was sufficient to impart a proliferative advantage within the tissue, however. Rather, impaired mitoses led to p53-mediated cell death and contributed to defective growth and stratification. Despite these abnormalities, mice remained viable and healthy, although epidermal cells with centrosome amplification were still appreciable. Moreover, these abnormalities were insufficient to disrupt homeostasis and initiate or enhance tumorigenesis, underscoring the powerful surveillance mechanisms in the skin. PMID:26578791

  12. Differential regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by hydrogen peroxide and flagellin in cultured lung alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Noriko; Izumi, Shunsuke; Higa-Nakamine, Sayomi; Toku, Seikichi; Kakinohana, Manabu; Sugahara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideyuki

    2015-02-01

    In previous studies, we found that stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) by flagellin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) through activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in cultured alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Our studies strongly suggested that MAPKAPK-2 phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Ser1047. It has been reported that phosphorylation of Ser1047 after treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced the internalization of EGFR. In the present study, we first found that treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide induced the activation of MAPKAPK-2 and phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 within 30 min. This was different from flagellin treatment because hydrogen peroxide treatment induced the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1173 as well as Ser1047, indicating the activation of EGFR. We also found that KN93, an inhibitor of CaM kinase II, inhibited the hydrogen peroxide-induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Ser1047 through inhibition of the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we examined the internalization of EGFR by three different methods. Flow cytometry with an antibody against the extracellular domain of EGFR and biotinylation of cell surface proteins revealed that flagellin, but not hydrogen peroxide, decreased the amount of cell-surface EGFR. In addition, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by EGF treatment was reduced by flagellin pre-treatment. These results strongly suggested that hydrogen peroxide activated the p38 MAPK pathway via activation of CaM kinase II and that flagellin and hydrogen peroxide regulate the functions of EGFR by different mechanisms. PMID:25542757

  13. Amlexanox Blocks the Interaction between S100A4 and Epidermal Growth Factor and Inhibits Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-01-01

    The human S100A4 protein binds calcium, resulting in a change in its conformation to promote the interaction with its target protein. Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is the target protein of S100A4 and a critical ligand of the receptor EGFR. The EGF/EGFR system promotes cell survival, differentiation, and growth by activating several signaling pathways. Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug that is used to treat recurrent aphthous ulcers. In the present study, we determined that amlexanox interacts with S100A4 using heteronuclear single quantum correlation titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A4 with EGF and amlexanox using fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We generated two binary models (for the S100A4-EGF and S100A4-amlexanox complexes) and observed that amlexanox and EGF share a similar binding region in mS100A4. We also used a WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A4, EGF, and amlexanox, and found that amlexanox blocks the binding between S100A4 and EGF, and is therefore useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. PMID:27559743

  14. Amlexanox Blocks the Interaction between S100A4 and Epidermal Growth Factor and Inhibits Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ching Chang; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-01-01

    The human S100A4 protein binds calcium, resulting in a change in its conformation to promote the interaction with its target protein. Human epidermal growth factor (EGF) is the target protein of S100A4 and a critical ligand of the receptor EGFR. The EGF/EGFR system promotes cell survival, differentiation, and growth by activating several signaling pathways. Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug that is used to treat recurrent aphthous ulcers. In the present study, we determined that amlexanox interacts with S100A4 using heteronuclear single quantum correlation titration. We elucidated the interactions of S100A4 with EGF and amlexanox using fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We generated two binary models (for the S100A4-EGF and S100A4-amlexanox complexes) and observed that amlexanox and EGF share a similar binding region in mS100A4. We also used a WST-1 assay to investigate the bioactivity of S100A4, EGF, and amlexanox, and found that amlexanox blocks the binding between S100A4 and EGF, and is therefore useful for the development of new anti-proliferation drugs. PMID:27559743

  15. Plumbagin Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats via the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si; Chen, Yi; Chen, Bi; Cai, Yi-jing; Zou, Zhuo-lin; Wang, Jin-guo; Lin, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-dong; Fu, Li-yun; Hu, Yao-ren; Chen, Yong-ping; Chen, Da-zhi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its signaling molecules, EGFreceptor (EGFR) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3), have been considered to play a role in liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Plumbagin (PL) is an extracted component from the plant and has been used to treat different kinds of cancer. However, its role in regulation of EGFR and STAT3 during liver fibrosis has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of PL on the regulation of EGFR and STAT3 were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). PL significantly attenuated liver injury and fibrosis in CCl4 treated rats. At concentrations of 2 to 6 μM, PL did not induce significant cytotoxicity of HSC-T6 cells. Moreover, PL reduced phosphorylation of EGFR and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) treated HSC-T6 cells. Furthermore, PL reduced the expression of α-SMA, EGFR, and STAT3 in both fibrotic liver and HB-EGF treated HSC-T6 cells. In conclusion, plumbagin could ameliorate the development of hepatic fibrosis through its downregulation of EGFR and STAT3 in the liver, especially in hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26550019

  16. Both epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor receptors are dispensable for structural intestinal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Raphael C.; Diaz-Miron, Jose L.; Choi, Pamela M.; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal adaptation structurally represents increases in crypt depth and villus height in response to small bowel resection (SBR). Previously, we found that neither epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nor insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) function was individually required for normal adaptation. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of disrupting both EGFR and IGF1R expression on resection-induced adaptation. Methods Intestinal-specific EGFR and IGF1R double knockout mice (EGFR/IGF1R-IKO) (n=6) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n=7) underwent 50% proximal SBR. On postoperative day (POD) 7, structural adaptation was scored by measuring crypt depth and villus height. Rates of crypt cell proliferation, apoptosis, and submucosal capillary density were also compared. Results After 50% SBR, normal adaptation occurred in both WT and EGFR/IGF1R-IKO. Rates of proliferation and apoptosis were no different between the two groups. The angiogenic response was less in the EGFR/IGF1R-IKO compared to WT mice. Conclusion Disrupted expression of EGFR and IGF1R in the intestinal epithelial cells does not affect resection-induced structural adaptation but attenuates angiogenesis after SBR. These findings suggest that villus growth is driven by receptors and pathways that occur outside the epithelial cell component, while angiogenic responses may be influenced by epithelial-endothelial crosstalk. PMID:25818318

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    SciTech Connect

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-11-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-{alpha}) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-{alpha} protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-{alpha}. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-{alpha} also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-{alpha} were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Membrane-anchoring Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Dictates Their Ability to Operate in Juxtacrine Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jianying; Opresko, Lee; Chrisler, William B.; Orr, Galya; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H S.

    2005-06-01

    All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors. Previous work has suggested that some ligands, such as EGF, must be proteolytically released to be active, whereas others, such as heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can function while still anchored to the membrane (i.e., juxtacrine signaling). To explore the structural basis for these differences in ligand activity, we engineered a series of membrane-anchored ligands in which the core, receptor-binding domain of EGF was combined with different domains of both EGF and HB-EGF. We found that ligands having the N-terminal extension of EGF could not bind to the EGFR, even when released from the membrane. Ligands lacking an N-terminal extension, but possessing the membrane-anchoring domain of EGF still required proteolytic release for activity, whereas ligands with the membrane anchoring domain of HB-EGF could elicit full biological activity while still membrane anchored. Ligands containing the HB-EGF membrane anchor, but lacking an N-terminal extension, activated EGFR during their transit through the Golgi apparatus . However, cell-mixing experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies showed that juxtacrine signaling typically occurred in trans at the cell surface, at points of cell-cell contact. Our data suggest that the membrane-anchoring domain of ligands selectively controls their ability to participate in juxtacrine signaling and thus, only a subclass of EGFR ligands can act in a juxtacrine mode.

  19. Role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in estradiol-17β-stimulated bovine satellite cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Thornton, K J; White, M E; Dayton, W R

    2014-10-01

    In feedlot steers, estradiol-17β (E2) and combined E2 and trenbolone acetate (a testosterone analog) implants enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth; and, consequently, these compounds are widely used as growth promoters. Although the positive effects of E2 on rate and efficiency of bovine muscle growth are well established, the mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Combined E2 and trenbolone acetate implants result in significantly increased muscle satellite cell number in feedlot steers. Additionally, E2 treatment stimulates proliferation of cultured bovine satellite cells (BSC). Studies in nonmuscle cells have shown that binding of E2 to G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER)-1 results in activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2/9) resulting in proteolytic release of heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (hbEGF) from the cell surface. Released hbEGF binds to and activates the epidermal growth factor receptor resulting in increased proliferation. To assess if GPER-1, MMP2/9, and/or hbEGF are involved in the mechanism of E2-stimulated BSC proliferation, we have examined the effects of G36 (a specific inhibitor of GPER-1), CRM197 (a specific inhibitor of hbEGF), and MMP-2/MMP-9 Inhibitor II (an inhibitor of MMP2/9 activity) on E2-stimulated BSC proliferation. Inhibition of GPER-1, MMP2/9, or hbEGF suppresses E2-stimulated BSC proliferation (P < 0.001) suggesting that all these are required in order for E2 to stimulate BSC proliferation. These results strongly suggest that E2 may stimulate BSC proliferation by binding to GPER-1 resulting in MMP2/9-catalyzed release of cell membrane-bound hbEGF and subsequent activation of epidermal growth factor receptor by binding of released hbEGF. PMID:25010024

  20. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  1. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  2. Recent advances in drug design of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Warnault, P; Yasri, A; Coisy-Quivy, M; Chevé, G; Boriès, C; Fauvel, B; Benhida, R

    2013-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has emerged in recent years as a key and validated target of targeted therapies for solid tumors. It plays a central role in oncology since it is involved in many steps of tumor progression such as proliferation, angiogenesis, invasiveness, decreased apoptosis, and loss of differentiation. Recent advances in targeted therapies have demonstrated that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), have provided a marked benefit to subsets of patients whose tumors harbor specific genetic abnormalities. However, resistance phenomenon appears rapidly and patients with EGFR mutations acquire resistance to TKI inhibitors decreasing therefore the median time to disease progression to few months. Several strategies were envisioned to overcome this resistance, such as dual-target inhibitors, multitarget and combined therapy. This review summarizes recent advances in TKIs development with special focus on rational strategies for the design of potent EGFR inhibitors including molecular modeling studies based on crystallographic data. Such advances open the way for new research possibilities in modern medicinal chemistry combined to structure-based drug design. PMID:23410174

  3. Exclusion of epidermal growth factor and high-resolution physical mapping across the Rieger syndrome locus.

    PubMed Central

    Semina, E. V.; Datson, N. A.; Leysens, N. J.; Zabel, B. U.; Carey, J. C.; Bell, G. I.; Bitoun, P.; Lindgren, C.; Stevenson, T.; Frants, R. R.; van Ommen, G.; Murray, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    We have evaluated the 4q25-4q26 region where the autosomal dominant disorder Rieger syndrome has been previously mapped by linkage. We first excluded epidermal growth factor as a candidate gene by carrying out SSCP analysis of each of its 24 exons using a panel of seven unrelated individuals with Rieger syndrome. No evidence for etiologic mutations was detected in these individuals, although four polymorphic variants were identified, including three that resulted in amino acid changes. We next made use of two apparently balanced translocations, one familial and one sporadic, to identify a narrow physical localization likely to contain the gene or to be involved in regulation of gene function. Somatic cell hybrids were established from individuals with these balanced translocations, and these hybrids were used as a physical mapping resource for, first, preliminary mapping of the translocation breakpoints using known sequence tagged sites from chromosome 4 and then, after creating YAC and cosmids contigs encompassing the region, for fine mapping of those breakpoints. A cosmid contig spanning these breakpoints was identified and localized the gene to within approximately 150 kb of D4S193 on chromosome 4. The interval between the two independent translocations is approximately 50 kb in length and provides a powerful resource for gene identification. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8940274

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation mediates cross-resistance to panitumumab and cetuximab in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braig, Friederike; März, Manuela; Schieferdecker, Aneta; Schulte, Alexander; Voigt, Mareike; Stein, Alexander; Grob, Tobias; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Kriegs, Malte; Engel, Erik; Vanhoefer, Udo; Grundhoff, Adam; Loges, Sonja; Riecken, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Binder, Mascha

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted antibodies represents a clinical challenge in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors such as metastatic colorectal cancer, but its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We scanned KRAS exon 2/3/4, NRAS exon 2/3/4 and the overlapping epitopes of the EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab for mutations in pre- and post-treatment tumor tissue of 21 patients with gastrointestinal cancer treated with chemotherapy +/− EGFR antibodies by next-generation sequencing (“tumor tissue” cohort). We describe a novel EGFR exon 12 mutation acquired in tumors of 1 out of 3 patients treated with panitumumab. The EGFR G465R mutation introduces a positive charge within the overlap of the panitumumab and cetuximab epitopes. It abrogates antibody binding and mediates cross-resistance to both antibodies in EGFR G465R-transfected Ba/F3 cells. In circulating tumor DNA from an independent “liquid biopsy” cohort of 27 patients, we found this novel mutation in 1 out of 6 panitumumab-treated cases while about one third of patients show acquired RAS mutations. We show that acquired resistance by epitope-changing mutations also emerges during panitumumab treatment, which can be easily detected by a liquid biopsy approach even before clinical resistance occurs and this may help in tailoring EGFR-targeted therapies. PMID:26059438

  5. The Prognostic and Predictive Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Surgical Resected Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Meng; Luo, Guopei; Liu, Chen; Cheng, He; Lu, Yu; Jin, Kaizhou; Liu, Zuqiang; Long, Jiang; Liu, Liang; Xu, Jin; Huang, Dan; Ni, Quanxing; Yu, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    The data regarding the prognostic significance of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) expression and adjuvant therapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer are insufficient. We retrospectively investigated EGFR status in 357 resected PDAC (pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma) patients using tissue immunohistochemistry and validated the possible role of EGFR expression in predicting prognosis. The analysis was based on excluding the multiple confounding parameters. A negative association was found between overall EGFR status and postoperative survival (p = 0.986). Remarkably, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with favorable postoperative survival, which prolonged median overall survival (OS) for 5.8 and 10.2 months (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy correlated with an obvious survival benefit in the EGFR-positive subgroup rather than in the EGFR-negative subgroup. In the subgroup analyses, chemotherapy was highly associated with increased postoperative survival in the EGFR-negative subgroup (p = 0.002), and radiotherapy had a significant survival benefit in the EGFR-positive subgroup (p = 0.029). This study demonstrated that EGFR expression is not correlated with outcome in resected pancreatic cancer patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with improved survival in contrary EGFR expressing subgroup. Further studies of EGFR as a potential target for pancreatic cancer treatment are warranted. PMID:27399694

  6. N-Glycosylation as determinant of epidermal growth factor receptor conformation in membranes

    PubMed Central

    Kaszuba, Karol; Grzybek, Michał; Orłowski, Adam; Danne, Reinis; Róg, Tomasz; Simons, Kai; Coskun, Ünal; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates several critical cellular processes and is an important target for cancer therapy. In lieu of a crystallographic structure of the complete receptor, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have recently shown that they can excel in studies of the full-length receptor. Here we present atomistic MD simulations of the monomeric N-glycosylated human EGFR in biomimetic lipid bilayers that are, in parallel, also used for the reconstitution of full-length receptors. This combination enabled us to experimentally validate our simulations, using ligand binding assays and antibodies to monitor the conformational properties of the receptor reconstituted into membranes. We find that N-glycosylation is a critical determinant of EGFR conformation, and specifically the orientation of the EGFR ectodomain relative to the membrane. In the absence of a structure for full-length, posttranslationally modified membrane receptors, our approach offers new means to structurally define and experimentally validate functional properties of cell surface receptors in biomimetic membrane environments. PMID:25805821

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in different subtypes of oral lichenoid disease

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Ramírez, Dionisio A.; Rodríguez-Tojo, María J.; Coca-Meneses, Juan C.; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    The oral lichenoid disease (OLD) includes different chronic inflammatory processes such as oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), both entities with controversial diagnosis and malignant potential. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EFGR) is an important oral carcinogenesis biomarker and overexpressed in several oral potentially malignant disorders. Objectives: To analyze the EGFR expression in the OLD to find differences between OLP and OLL, and to correlate it with the main clinical and pathological features. Material and Methods: Forty-four OLD cases were studied and classified according to their clinical (Group C1: only papular lesions / Group C2: papular and other lesions) and histopathological features (Group HT: OLP-typical / Group HC: OLP-compatible) based in previous published criteria. Standard immunohistochemical identification of EGFR protein was performed. Comparative and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirty-five cases (79.5%) showed EGFR overexpression without significant differences between clinical and histopathological groups (p<0.05). Histological groups showed significant differences in the EGFR expression pattern (p=0.016). Conlusions: All OLD samples showed high EGFR expression. The type of clinical lesion was not related with EGFR expression; however, there are differences in the EGFR expression pattern between histological groups that may be related with a different biological profile and malignant risk. Key words:Oral lichenoid disease, oral lichen planus, oral lichenoid lesion, oral carcinogenesis, EGFR. PMID:24880441

  8. Clinical efficacy and drug resistance of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kocoglu, Hakan; Velibeyoglu, Fatih Mehmet; Karaca, Mustafa; Tural, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranked third in cancer related death and its incidence has been increasing worldwide. In recent decades important therapeutic advances have been developed in treatment of metastatic CRC (mCRC), such as monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR), which provided additional clinical benefits in mCRC. However, anti-EGFR therapies have limited usage due to approximately 95% of patients with KRAS mutated mCRC do not response to anti-EGFR treatment. Thus, KRAS mutation is predictive of nonresponse to anti-EGFR therapies but it alone is not a sufficient basis to decide who should not be received such therapies because; approximately fifty percent (40%-60%) of CRC patients with wild-type KRAS mutation also have poor response to anti-EGFR based treatment. This fact leads us to suspect that there must be other molecular determinants of response to anti-EGFR therapies which have not been identified yet. Current article summarizes the clinical efficacy of anti-EGFR therapies and also evaluates its resistance mechanisms. PMID:26798432

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptors destined for the nucleus are internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    De Angelis Campos, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Michele Angela; Andrade, Carolina de; Miranda de Goes, Alfredo; Nathanson, Michael H.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} EGF and its receptor translocates to the nucleus in liver cells. {yields} Real time imaging shows that EGF moves to the nucleus. {yields} EGF moves with its receptor to the nucleus. {yields} Dynamin and clathrin are necessary for EGFR nuclear translocation. -- Abstract: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) transduces its actions via the EGF receptor (EGFR), which can traffic from the plasma membrane to either the cytoplasm or the nucleus. However, the mechanism by which EGFR reaches the nucleus is unclear. To investigate these questions, liver cells were analyzed by immunoblot of cell fractions, confocal immunofluorescence and real time confocal imaging. Cell fractionation studies showed that EGFR was detectable in the nucleus after EGF stimulation with a peak in nuclear receptor after 10 min. Movement of EGFR to the nucleus was confirmed by confocal immunofluorescence and labeled EGF moved with the receptor to the nucleus. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown clathrin in order to assess the first endocytic steps of EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells. A mutant dynamin (dynamin K44A) was also used to determine the pathways for this traffic. Movement of labeled EGF or EGFR to the nucleus depended upon dynamin and clathrin. This identifies the pathway that mediates the first steps for EGFR nuclear translocation in liver cells.

  10. Tumor cells can follow distinct evolutionary paths to become resistant to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hata, Aaron N; Niederst, Matthew J; Archibald, Hannah L; Gomez-Caraballo, Maria; Siddiqui, Faria M; Mulvey, Hillary E; Maruvka, Yosef E; Ji, Fei; Bhang, Hyo-eun C; Krishnamurthy Radhakrishna, Viveksagar; Siravegna, Giulia; Hu, Haichuan; Raoof, Sana; Lockerman, Elizabeth; Kalsy, Anuj; Lee, Dana; Keating, Celina L; Ruddy, David A; Damon, Leah J; Crystal, Adam S; Costa, Carlotta; Piotrowska, Zofia; Bardelli, Alberto; Iafrate, Anthony J; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Stegmeier, Frank; Getz, Gad; Sequist, Lecia V; Faber, Anthony C; Engelman, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Although mechanisms of acquired resistance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancers to EGFR inhibitors have been identified, little is known about how resistant clones evolve during drug therapy. Here we observe that acquired resistance caused by the EGFR(T790M) gatekeeper mutation can occur either by selection of pre-existing EGFR(T790M)-positive clones or via genetic evolution of initially EGFR(T790M)-negative drug-tolerant cells. The path to resistance impacts the biology of the resistant clone, as those that evolved from drug-tolerant cells had a diminished apoptotic response to third-generation EGFR inhibitors that target EGFR(T790M); treatment with navitoclax, an inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic factors BCL-xL and BCL-2 restored sensitivity. We corroborated these findings using cultures derived directly from EGFR inhibitor-resistant patient tumors. These findings provide evidence that clinically relevant drug-resistant cancer cells can both pre-exist and evolve from drug-tolerant cells, and they point to therapeutic opportunities to prevent or overcome resistance in the clinic. PMID:26828195

  11. Trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhuminder; Coffey, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A largely unilamellar epithelial layer lines body cavities and organ ducts such as the digestive tract and kidney tubules. This polarized epithelium is composed of biochemically and functionally separate apical and basolateral surfaces. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis and is perturbed in a number of epithelial disorders. It is underappreciated that in vivo EGFR signaling is most often initiated by cell-surface delivery and processing of one of seven transmembrane ligands, resulting in release of the soluble form that binds EGFR. In polarized epithelial cells, EGFR is restricted largely to the basolateral surface, and apical or basolateral ligand delivery therefore has important biological consequences. In vitro approaches have been used to study the biosynthesis, cell-surface delivery, proteolytic processing, and release of soluble EGFR ligands in polarized epithelial cells. We review these results, discuss their relevance to normal physiology, and demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences of aberrant trafficking. These studies have uncovered a rich diversity of apico-basolateral trafficking mechanisms among the EGFR ligands, provided insights into the pathogenesis of an inherited magnesium-wasting disorder of the kidney (isolated renal hypomagnesemia), and identified a new mode of EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes. PMID:24215440

  12. Trafficking of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Coffey, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A largely unilamellar epithelial layer lines body cavities and organ ducts such as the digestive tract and kidney tubules. This polarized epithelium is composed of biochemically and functionally separate apical and basolateral surfaces. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis and is perturbed in a number of epithelial disorders. It is underappreciated that in vivo EGFR signaling is most often initiated by cell-surface delivery and processing of one of seven transmembrane ligands, resulting in release of the soluble form that binds EGFR. In polarized epithelial cells, EGFR is restricted largely to the basolateral surface, and apical or basolateral ligand delivery therefore has important biological consequences. In vitro approaches have been used to study the biosynthesis, cell-surface delivery, proteolytic processing, and release of soluble EGFR ligands in polarized epithelial cells. We review these results, discuss their relevance to normal physiology, and demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences of aberrant trafficking. These studies have uncovered a rich diversity of apico-basolateral trafficking mechanisms among the EGFR ligands, provided insights into the pathogenesis of an inherited magnesium-wasting disorder of the kidney (isolated renal hypomagnesemia), and identified a new mode of EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes. PMID:24215440

  13. Molecular imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with epidermal growth factor receptor targeted affibody probes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Xiaoyang; Qi, Shibo; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Hoppmann, Susan; Cao, Qizhen; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel K; Cheng, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive and lethal cancer. It is typically asymptomatic at the early stage, with only 10%-20% of HCC patients being diagnosed early enough for appropriate surgical treatment. The delayed diagnosis of HCC is associated with limited treatment options and much lower survival rates. Therefore, the early and accurate detection of HCC is crucial to improve its currently dismal prognosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be involved in HCC tumorigenesis and to represent an attractive target for HCC imaging and therapy. In this study, an affibody molecule, Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907, targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR, was used for the first time to assess its potential to detect HCC xenografts. By evaluating radio- or fluorescent-labeled Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 as a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) or optical imaging of HCC, subcutaneous EGFR-positive HCC xenografts were found to be successfully imaged by the PET probe. Thus, affibody-based PET imaging of EGFR provides a promising approach for detecting HCC in vivo. PMID:23710458

  14. Quantitative in vivo immunohistochemistry of epidermal growth factor receptor using a receptor concentration imaging approach

    PubMed Central

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Gunn, Jason R.; Wells, Wendy A.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    As receptor-targeted therapeutics become increasingly used in clinical oncology, the ability to quantify protein expression and pharmacokinetics in vivo is imperative to ensure successful individualized treatment plans. Current standards for receptor analysis are performed on extracted tissues. These measurements are static and often physiologically irrelevant, therefore, only a partial picture of available receptors for drug targeting in vivo is provided. Until recently, in vivo measurements were limited by the inability to separate delivery, binding, and retention effects but this can be circumvented by a dual-tracer approach for referencing the detected signal. We hypothesized that in vivo receptor concentration imaging (RCI) would be superior to ex vivo immunohistochemistry. Using multiple xenograft tumor models with varying epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, we determined the EGFR concentration in each model using a novel targeted agent (anti-EGFR affibody-IRDye800CW conjugate) along with a simultaneously delivered reference agent (control affibody-IRDye680RD conjugate). The RCI-calculated in vivo receptor concentration was strongly correlated with ex vivo pathologist-scored immunohistochemistry and computer-quantified ex vivo immunofluorescence. In contrast, no correlation was observed with ex vivo Western blot or in vitro flow cytometry assays. Overall, our results argue that in vivo RCI provides a robust measure of receptor expression equivalent to ex vivo immuno-staining, with implications for use in non-invasive monitoring of therapy or therapeutic guidance during surgery. PMID:25344226

  15. Galectin-3 regulates intracellular trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor through Alix and promotes keratinocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Daniel K.; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Yang, Ri-Yao; Carraway, Kermit L.; Isseroff, Roslyn R.; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling pathways are important in a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and wound re-epithelialization. Intracellular trafficking of EGFR is critical for maintaining EGFR surface expression. Galectin-3, a member of an animal lectin family, has been implicated in a number of physiological and pathological processes. Through studies of galectin-3-deficient mice and cells isolated from these mice, we demonstrated that absence of galectin-3 impairs keratinocyte migration and skin wound re-epithelialization. We have linked this pro-migratory function to a crucial role of cytosolic galectin-3 in controlling intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of EGFR after EGF stimulation. Without galectin-3, the surface levels of EGFR are dramatically reduced and the receptor accumulates diffusely in the cytoplasm. This is associated with reduced rates of both endocytosis and recycling of the receptor. We have provided evidence that this novel function of galectin-3 may be mediated through interaction with its binding partner Alix, which is a protein component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Our results suggest that galectin-3 is potentially a critical regulator of a number of important cellular responses through its intracellular control of trafficking of cell surface receptors. PMID:22785133

  16. The Under-Appreciated Promiscuity of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Sean P; Hastings, Jordan F; Han, Jeremy Z R; Croucher, David R

    2016-01-01

    Each member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a key role in normal development, homeostasis, and a variety of pathophysiological conditions, most notably in cancer. According to the prevailing dogma, these four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4) function exclusively through the formation of homodimers and heterodimers within the EGFR family. These combinatorial receptor interactions are known to generate increased interactome diversity and therefore influence signaling output, subcellular localization and function of the heterodimer. This molecular plasticity is also thought to play a role in the development of resistance toward targeted cancer therapies aimed at these known oncogenes. Interestingly, many studies now challenge this dogma and suggest that the potential for EGFR family receptors to interact with more distantly related RTKs is much greater than currently appreciated. Here we discuss how the promiscuity of these oncogenic receptors may lead to the formation of many unexpected receptor pairings and the significant implications for the efficiency of many targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27597943

  17. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  18. The Under-Appreciated Promiscuity of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sean P.; Hastings, Jordan F.; Han, Jeremy Z. R.; Croucher, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Each member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a key role in normal development, homeostasis, and a variety of pathophysiological conditions, most notably in cancer. According to the prevailing dogma, these four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs; EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, and ERBB4) function exclusively through the formation of homodimers and heterodimers within the EGFR family. These combinatorial receptor interactions are known to generate increased interactome diversity and therefore influence signaling output, subcellular localization and function of the heterodimer. This molecular plasticity is also thought to play a role in the development of resistance toward targeted cancer therapies aimed at these known oncogenes. Interestingly, many studies now challenge this dogma and suggest that the potential for EGFR family receptors to interact with more distantly related RTKs is much greater than currently appreciated. Here we discuss how the promiscuity of these oncogenic receptors may lead to the formation of many unexpected receptor pairings and the significant implications for the efficiency of many targeted cancer therapies. PMID:27597943

  19. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF) for targeting brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shevtsov, Maxim A; Nikolaev, Boris P; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V; Mikhrina, Anastasiya L; Martynova, Marina G; Bystrova, Olga A; Yakovenko, Igor V; Ischenko, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF) were studied as a potential agent for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement of malignant brain tumors. Synthesized conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry. The interaction of SPION–EGF conjugates with cells was analyzed in a C6 glioma cell culture. The distribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in an orthotopic model of C6 gliomas. SPION–EGF nanosuspensions had the properties of a negative contrast agent with high coefficients of relaxation efficiency. In vitro studies of SPION–EGF nanoparticles showed high intracellular incorporation and the absence of a toxic influence on C6 cell viability and proliferation. Intravenous administration of SPION–EGF conjugates in animals provided receptor-mediated targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier and tumor retention of the nanoparticles; this was more efficient than with unconjugated SPIONs. The accumulation of conjugates in the glioma was revealed as hypotensive zones on T2-weighted images with a twofold reduction in T2 relaxation time in comparison to unconjugated SPIONs (P<0.001). SPION–EGF conjugates provide targeted delivery and efficient magnetic resonance contrast enhancement of EGFR-overexpressing C6 gliomas. PMID:24421639

  20. Effect of photo-immobilization of epidermal growth factor on the cellular behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Ogiwara, Kazutaka; Nagaoka, Masato; Cho, Chong-Su; Akaike, Toshihiro . E-mail: takaike@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-06-23

    We constructed photo-reactive epidermal growth factor (EGF) bearing p-azido phenylalanine at the C-terminal (HEGFP) by genetic engineering to investigate the possibility of immobilized EGF as a novel artificial extracellular matrix (ECM). The constructed recombinant protein was immobilized to glass surface by ultraviolet irradiation. A431 cells adhered both to HEGFP-immobilized and collagen-coated surfaces. Interaction between immobilized HEGFP and EGF receptors in the A431 cells was independent of Mg{sup 2+} although integrin-mediated cell adhesion to natural ECMs is dependent on Mg{sup 2+}. Phosphorylation of EGF receptors in A431 cells was induced by immobilized HEGFP as same as soluble EGF. DNA uptake of hepatocytes decreased by immobilized HEGFP whereas it increased by soluble EGF. Liver-specific functions of hepatocytes were maintained for 3 days by immobilized HEGFP whereas they were not maintained by soluble EGF, indicating that immobilized HEGFP follows different signal transduction pathway from soluble EGF.

  1. WT1 suppresses synthesis of the epidermal growth factor receptor and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Englert, C; Hou, X; Maheswaran, S; Bennett, P; Ngwu, C; Re, G G; Garvin, A J; Rosner, M R; Haber, D A

    1995-01-01

    The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 encodes a developmentally regulated transcription factor that is mutated in a subset of embryonal tumors. To test its functional properties, we developed osteosarcoma cell lines expressing WT1 under an inducible tetracycline-regulated promoter. Induction of WT1 resulted in programmed cell death. This effect, which was differentially mediated by the alternative splicing variants of WT1, was independent of p53. WT1-mediated apoptosis was associated with reduced synthesis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), but not of other postulated WT1-target genes, and it was abrogated by constitutive expression of EGFR. WT1 repressed transcription from the EGFR promoter, binding to two TC-rich repeat sequences. In the developing kidney, EGFR expression in renal precursor cells declined with the onset of WT1 expression. Repression of EGFR and induction of apoptosis by mechanism that may contribute to its critical role in normal kidney development and to the immortalization of tumor cells with inactivated WT1 alleles. Images PMID:7588596

  2. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  3. Network Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling using Integrated Genomic, Proteomic and Phosphorylation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Liu, Tao; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Willse, Alan R.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Kathmann, Loel E.; Weber, Thomas J.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2012-03-29

    To understand how integration of multiple data types can help decipher cellular responses at the systems level, we analyzed the mitogenic response of human mammary epithelial cells to epidermal growth factor (EGF) using whole genome microarrays, mass spectrometry-based proteomics and large-scale western blots with over 1000 antibodies. A time course analysis revealed significant differences in the expression of 3172 genes and 596 proteins, including protein phosphorylation changes measured by western blot. Integration of these disparate data types showed that each contributed qualitatively different components to the observed cell response to EGF and that varying degrees of concordance in gene expression and protein abundance measurements could be linked to specific biological processes. Networks inferred from individual data types were relatively limited, whereas networks derived from the integrated data recapitulated the known major cellular responses to EGF and exhibited more highly connected signaling nodes than networks derived from any individual dataset. While cell cycle regulatory pathways were altered as anticipated, we found the most robust response to mitogenic concentrations of EGF was induction of matrix metalloprotease cascades, highlighting the importance of the EGFR system as a regulator of the extracellular environment. These results demonstrate the value of integrating multiple levels of biological information to more accurately reconstruct networks of cellular response.

  4. Non-canonical signaling mode of the epidermal growth factor receptor family

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heng-Huan; Wang, Ying-Nai; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its family members are key players in both physiological and pathological settings for which they are well recognized as models for investigating the functions and regulations of other membrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and serve as therapeutic targets critical to clinical need and fundamental research. The canonical view of the pivotal functions in the EGFR family has been well documented as being an initiator of signaling amplification cascades from the plasma membrane to different subcellular compartments via receptor endocytic trafficking, intermolecular interaction, and kinase-substrate reaction in a temporalspatial manner. However, several lines of evidence have identified non-canonical roles of the EGFR family, acting as a transcriptional factor and a chromatin regulator in the nucleus to regulate gene expression, DNA replication, and DNA damage repair. Moreover, the EGFR family can even exert its impact outside the host cell through exosomal vesicle secretion. The emerging concept of the non-canonical roles of the EGFR family reveals an astonishing and elaborate scheme on the molecular functions of membrane RTKs, offering new insights into the receptor biology as well as the development of comprehensive therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:26693051

  5. The Prognostic and Predictive Role of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Surgical Resected Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Meng; Luo, Guopei; Liu, Chen; Cheng, He; Lu, Yu; Jin, Kaizhou; Liu, Zuqiang; Long, Jiang; Liu, Liang; Xu, Jin; Huang, Dan; Ni, Quanxing; Yu, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    The data regarding the prognostic significance of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) expression and adjuvant therapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer are insufficient. We retrospectively investigated EGFR status in 357 resected PDAC (pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma) patients using tissue immunohistochemistry and validated the possible role of EGFR expression in predicting prognosis. The analysis was based on excluding the multiple confounding parameters. A negative association was found between overall EGFR status and postoperative survival (p = 0.986). Remarkably, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with favorable postoperative survival, which prolonged median overall survival (OS) for 5.8 and 10.2 months (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006, respectively). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that adjuvant chemotherapy correlated with an obvious survival benefit in the EGFR-positive subgroup rather than in the EGFR-negative subgroup. In the subgroup analyses, chemotherapy was highly associated with increased postoperative survival in the EGFR-positive subgroup (p = 0.002), and radiotherapy had a significant survival benefit in the EGFR-negative subgroup (p = 0.029). This study demonstrated that EGFR expression is not correlated with outcome in resected pancreatic cancer patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy were significantly associated with improved survival in contrary EGFR expressing subgroup. Further studies of EGFR as a potential target for pancreatic cancer treatment are warranted. PMID:27399694

  6. Plasma epidermal growth factor decreased in the early stage of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian-Wen; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Hou, Miao-Miao; Wang, Xi; Tang, Hui-Dong; Wu, Yi-Wen; Ma, Jian-Fang; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a neurotrophic factor that plays an important role in Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured plasma EGF level in PD, essential tremor (ET) and normal controls to investigate whether it changes in PD and whether it is associated with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. 100 patients with PD, 40 patients with ET as disease control and 76 healthy persons were enrolled in the present study. Motor and non-motor symptoms were assessed by different scales. Plasma EGF levels of three groups were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Spearman test and linear logistics regression model were used to test the correlation of EGF with motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Plasma EGF level was significantly decreased in early PD patients compared with normal control, but not in advanced PD patients. Interestingly, plasma EGF level was significantly increased in advanced PD and total PD patients compared with ET patients, but not in early PD patients. In addition, plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores in PD. Also plasma EGF level was correlated with UPDRS-III scores and NMS scores in early PD. Our results suggested that plasma EGF decreased in the early stage of PD and increased later on in the PD disease course. Also, plasma EGF level was increased significantly in PD compared with ET patients and correlated with motor and non-motor symptoms in early PD. PMID:26029474

  7. Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Bichsel, Kyle J; Gogia, Navdeep; Malouff, Timothy; Pena, Zachary; Forney, Eric; Hammiller, Brianna; Watson, Patrice; Hansen, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapeutics like cyclophosphamide often causes alopecia as a result of premature and aberrant catagen. Because the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signals anagen hair follicles to enter catagen, we hypothesized that EGFR signaling may be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. To test this hypothesis, skin-targeted Egfr mutant mice were generated by crossing floxed Egfr and Keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice. Cyclophosphamide treatment of control mice resulted in alopecia while Egfr mutant skin was resistant to cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Egfr mutant skin entered catagen normally, as indicated by dermal papilla condensation and decreased follicular proliferation, but did not progress to telogen as did Egfr wild type follicles. Egfr mutant follicles responded with less proliferation, apoptosis, and fewer p53-positive cells after cyclophosphamide. Treatment of control mice with the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or gefitinib similarly suppressed alopecia and catagen progression by cyclophosphamide. Secondary analysis of clinical trials utilizing EGFR-targeted therapies and alopecia-inducing chemotherapy also revealed evidence for involvement of EGFR in chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Taken together, our results demonstrated the involvement of EGFR signaling in chemotherapy-induced alopecia, which will help in the design of novel therapeutic regimens to minimize chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:23894460

  8. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout.

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10(-3)). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations. PMID:27506295

  9. Epidermal growth factor gene is a newly identified candidate gene for gout

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lin; Cao, Chunwei; Jia, Zhaotong; Liu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhen; Xin, Ruosai; Wang, Can; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Li, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been identified as a genomic region associated with gout. However, the associations of gout with the genes in this region have not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed two-stage analysis to determine whether variations in candidate genes in the 4q25 region are associated with gout in a male Chinese Han population. We first evaluated 96 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight inflammatory/immune pathway- or glucose/lipid metabolism-related genes in the 4q25 region in 480 male gout patients and 480 controls. The SNP rs12504538, located in the elongation of very-long-chain-fatty-acid-like family member 6 gene (Elovl6), was found to be associated with gout susceptibility (Padjusted = 0.00595). In the second stage of analysis, we performed fine mapping analysis of 93 tag SNPs in Elovl6 and in the epidermal growth factor gene (EGF) and its flanking regions in 1017 male patients gout and 1897 healthy male controls. We observed a significant association between the T allele of EGF rs2298999 and gout (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.67–0.88, Padjusted = 6.42 × 10−3). These results provide the first evidence for an association between the EGF rs2298999 C/T polymorphism and gout. Our findings should be validated in additional populations. PMID:27506295

  10. System theoretical investigation of human epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yi; Shankaran, Harish; Opresko, Lee; Resat, Haluk

    2008-09-01

    The partitioning of biological networks into coupled functional modules is gaining increasing attention in the biological sciences. This approach has the advantage that predicting a system level response does not require a mechanistic description of the internal dynamics of each module. Identification of the input-output characteristics of the network modules and the connectivity between the modules provide the necessary quantitative representation of system dynamics. However, determination of the input-output relationships of the modules is not trivial; it requires the controlled perturbation of module inputs and systematic analysis of experimental data. In this report, we apply a system theoretical analysis approach to derive the causal input-output relationships of the functional module for the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) mediated Erk and Akt signaling pathways. Using a library of cell lines expressing varying levels of EGFR and HER2, we show that a transfer function-based representation can be successfully applied to quantitatively characterize information transfer in this system.

  11. Attenuation of internal organ damages by exogenously administered epidermal growth factor (EGF) in burned rodents.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Jorge; Lodos, Jorge; López-Saura, Pedro

    2002-08-01

    Major burns are associated with multiple internal organ damages, including necrosis of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Failure of the intestinal barrier is a serious complication in burned patients. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a mitogenic polypeptide that stimulates wound repair and affords protection to the gastric mucosa. We examined whether a single systemic intervention with EGF prevents organ systems damages, following full-thickness scalds (25-30%) in rodents. Animals were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of EGF (30 microg/kg in mice, 10 microg/kg in rats) or saline solution, 30 min prior thermal injury in mice or after the cutaneous injury in rats. General clinical condition and mortality during 24h were recorded. Animals were autopsied and histopathological and histomorphometric studies were conducted. Mice treated with EGF exhibited a milder clinical evolution and acute lethality was significantly reduced as compared to saline counterparts (P<0.01). Histopathological and morphometric analysis showed that EGF significantly reduced intestinal necrosis and contributed to preserve jejunoileal architecture in mice (P<0.05) and rats (P<0.01). The onset of renal hemorrhagic foci was significantly reduced in EGF-treated groups (P<0.01). Lung damages appeared attenuated in EGF-treated animals. These data indicate the salutary effects of EGF by attenuating internal complications associated to thermal injuries. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the usefulness of this therapy. PMID:12163282

  12. Foam dressing with epidermal growth factor for severe radiation dermatitis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyo; Lee, Sang-Wook; Hong, Joon Pio; Shon, Myeong Wha; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Ahn, Seung Do

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of foam dressing with human recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on the healing process in head and neck cancer patients who experience radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Seven patients, including three with oropharyngeal, two with nasopharyngeal and one each with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma, who underwent radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer at the Asan Medical Center from March to December 2008 were prospectively included in this study. Patients who showed severe RID (more than wet desquamation) on the supraclavicular fossa or neck areas were treated by wound cleaning and debridement of granulation tissue, followed by daily rhEGF spray and foam dressing. Median time to stop exudates and reepithelialisation was 4 days. Within 14 days (median 8 days), all patients showed complete healing of RID and no longer required dressings. This new method of treatment with dressing containing rhEGF may have the potential to accelerate the healing process in patients with RID. A case-control study is needed to confirm this finding. PMID:24947011

  13. Impact of age on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155

  14. Epidermal growth factor loaded heparin-based hydrogel sheet for skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Goh, MeeiChyn; Hwang, Youngmin; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-20

    A heparin-based hydrogel sheet composed of thiolated heparin and diacrylated poly (ethylene glycol) was prepared via photo polymerization and human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) were loaded into it for the purpose of wound healing. It showed a sustained release profile of hEGF in vitro. In order to evaluate its function on wound healing in vivo, full thickness wounds were created on the dorsal surface of mice. Application of hEGF loaded heparin-based hydrogel sheet accelerated the wound closure compared to the non-treated control group, hEGF solution, and hEGF loaded PEG hydrogel sheet. Histological and immunohistological examinations also demonstrated an advanced granulation tissue formation, capillary formation, and epithelialization in wounds treated by hEGF loaded heparin-based hydrogel compared to other groups, and no biocompatibility issue was observed. In conclusion, the delivery of hEGF using the heparin-based hydrogel could accelerate the skin wound healing process. PMID:27178931

  15. Controlled-release of epidermal growth factor from cationized gelatin hydrogel enhances corneal epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kuniko; Sotozono, Chie; Hamuro, Junji; Yamasaki, Kenta; Kimura, Yu; Ozeki, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2007-04-01

    We designed a new ophthalmic drug-delivery system for epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the biodegradable hydrogel of cationized gelatin. We placed a cationized gelatin hydrogel (CGH) with incorporated (125)I-labelled EGF in the conjunctival sac of mice and measured the residual radioactivity at different times to evaluate the in vivo profile of EGF release. Approximately 60-67% and 10-12% of EGF applied initially remained 1 and 7 days after application, respectively; whereas EGF delivered in topically applied solution or via EGF impregnation of soft contact lenses disappeared within the first day. We also placed CGH films with 5.0 mug of incorporated EGF on round corneal defects in rabbits to evaluate the healing process using image analysis software and to assess epithelial proliferation immunohistochemically by counting the number of Ki67-positive cells. The application of a CGH film with incorporated EGF resulted in a reduction in the epithelial defect in rabbit corneas accompanied by significantly enhanced epithelial proliferation compared with the reduction seen after the topical application of EGF solution or the placement of an EGF-free CGH film. The controlled release of EGF from a CGH placed over a corneal epithelial defect accelerated ocular surface wound healing. PMID:17289206

  16. Immunotoxin Therapies for the Treatment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Dependent Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Nathan; FitzGerald, David

    2016-01-01

    Many epithelial cancers rely on enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to drive proliferation and survival pathways. Development of therapeutics to target EGFR signaling has been of high importance, and multiple examples have been approved for human use. However, many of the current small molecule or antibody-based therapeutics are of limited effectiveness due to the inevitable development of resistance and toxicity to normal tissues. Recombinant immunotoxins are therapeutic molecules consisting of an antibody or receptor ligand joined to a protein cytotoxin, combining the specific targeting of a cancer-expressed receptor with the potent cell killing of cytotoxic enzymes. Over the decades, many bacterial- or plant-based immunotoxins have been developed with the goal of targeting the broad range of cancers reliant upon EGFR overexpression. Many examples demonstrate excellent anti-cancer properties in preclinical development, and several EGFR-targeted immunotoxins have progressed to human trials. This review summarizes much of the past and current work in the development of immunotoxins for targeting EGFR-driven cancers. PMID:27153091

  17. Modulation of influenza vaccine immune responses using an epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Pulit-Penaloza, Joanna A.; Sapkota, Bishu; Stein Esser, E.; Compans, Richard W.; Pollack, Brian P.; Skountzou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Systemic use of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) has been shown to alter MHC expression and that of several chemokines, and to enhance immune cell recruitment into human skin. We hypothesized that EGFRIs may have value as cutaneous immune response modifiers, and determined the effects of topical application of an irreversible EGFRI on a well-established murine model of influenza vaccination. We found that a single topical application of an EGFRI led to increased levels of antibodies that inhibit influenza mediated hemagglutination and viral cytopathic effects. The topically applied EGFRI significantly enhanced the generation of vaccine-specific IL-4 and IFN-γ producing cells within skin-draining lymph nodes as early as one week following vaccination. The EGFRI/vaccine group showed a twelve-fold reduction in detectable pulmonary viral load four days after infection as compared to the vaccine alone control group. The reduction in the lung viral titers correlated with the survival rate, which demonstrated 100% protection in the EGFRI/vaccine immunized group but only 65% protection in the mice immunized with vaccine alone. These findings are significant because they demonstrate that inhibition of defined signaling pathways within the skin using small molecule kinase inhibitors provides a novel approach to enhance immune responses to vaccines. PMID:26227481

  18. Pertuzumab in human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: clinical and economic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lamond, Nathan WD; Younis, Tallal

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of specific therapy, the 15%–20% of breast cancers demonstrating human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein overexpression and/or gene amplification are characterized by a more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis compared to their HER2-negative counterparts. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), the first anti-HER2-targeted therapy, has been associated with improved survival outcomes in HER2-positive breast cancer. However, many patients with early stage disease continue to relapse, and metastatic disease remains incurable. In order to further improve these outcomes, several novel HER2-targeted agents have recently been developed. Pertuzumab (Perjeta), a monoclonal antibody against the HER2 dimerization domain, has also been associated with improved patient outcomes in clinical trials, and has recently been approved in combination with chemotherapy and trastuzumab for neoadjuvant therapy of early stage, HER2-positive breast cancer and first-line treatment of metastatic disease. This review briefly summarizes pertuzumab’s clinical development as well as the published evidence supporting its use, and highlights some of the currently unanswered questions that will influence pertuzumab’s incorporation into clinical practice. PMID:24876795

  19. Brain metastasis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: from biology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents. PMID:27104161

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Specific Nanoprobe Biodistribution in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher L D; Fashir, Samia B; Castilho, Maiara L; Hupman, Michael A; Raniero, Leandro J; Alwayn, Ian; Hewitt, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers a targeted approach to both imaging and treatment of cancer, the leading cause of death worldwide. Previous studies have found that nanoparticles with a wide variety of coatings initiate an immune response leading to sequestration in the liver and spleen. In an effort to find a nanoparticle platform which does not elicit an immune response, we created 43 nm and 44 nm of gold and silver nanoparticles coated with biomolecules normally produced by the body, α-lipoic acid and the epidermal growth factor (EGF), and have used mass spectroscopy to determine their biodistribution in mouse models, 24 h after tail vein injection. Relative to controls, mouse EGF (mEGF)-coated silver and gold nanoprobes are found at background levels in all organs including the liver and spleen. The lack of sequestration of mEGF-coated nanoprobes in the liver and spleen and the corresponding uptake of control nanoprobes at elevated levels in these organs suggest that the former are not recognized by the immune system. Further studies of cytokine and interleukin levels in the blood are required to confirm avoidance of an immune response. PMID:26852838

  1. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Is Involved in Angiotensin II But Not Aldosterone/Salt-Induced Cardiac Remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Griol-Charhbili, Violaine; Escoubet, Brigitte; Sadoshima, Junichi; Farman, Nicolette; Jaisser, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have shown that aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation has deleterious effects in the cardiovascular system; however, the signalling pathways involved in the pathophysiological effects of aldosterone/MR in vivo are not fully understood. Several in vitro studies suggest that Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a role in the cardiovascular effects of aldosterone. This hypothesis remains to be demonstrated in vivo. To investigate this question, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of aldosterone exposure in a transgenic mouse model with constitutive cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of a mutant EGFR acting as a dominant negative protein (DN-EGFR). As previously reported, Angiotensin II-mediated cardiac remodelling was prevented in DN-EGFR mice. However, when chronic MR activation was induced by aldosterone-salt-uninephrectomy, cardiac hypertrophy was similar between control littermates and DN-EGFR. In the same way, mRNA expression of markers of cardiac remodelling such as ANF, BNF or β-Myosin Heavy Chain as well as Collagen 1a and 3a was similarly induced in DN-EGFR mice and their CT littermates. Our findings confirm the role of EGFR in AngII mediated cardiac hypertrophy, and highlight that EGFR is not involved in vivo in the damaging effects of aldosterone on cardiac function and remodelling. PMID:22291909

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Signalling Controls Myosin II Planar Polarity to Orchestrate Convergent Extension Movements during Drosophila Tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bunt, Stephanie; Bischoff, Marcus; VijayRaghavan, Krishnaswamy; Skaer, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Most epithelial tubes arise as small buds and elongate by regulated morphogenetic processes including oriented cell division, cell rearrangements, and changes in cell shape. Through live analysis of Drosophila renal tubule morphogenesis we show that tissue elongation results from polarised cell intercalations around the tubule circumference, producing convergent-extension tissue movements. Using genetic techniques, we demonstrate that the vector of cell movement is regulated by localised epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling from the distally placed tip cell lineage, which sets up a distal-to-proximal gradient of pathway activation to planar polarise cells, without the involvement for PCP gene activity. Time-lapse imaging at subcellular resolution shows that the acquisition of planar polarity leads to asymmetric pulsatile Myosin II accumulation in the basal, proximal cortex of tubule cells, resulting in repeated, transient shortening of their circumferential length. This repeated bias in the polarity of cell contraction allows cells to move relative to each other, leading to a reduction in cell number around the lumen and an increase in tubule length. Physiological analysis demonstrates that animals whose tubules fail to elongate exhibit abnormal excretory function, defective osmoregulation, and lethality. PMID:25460353

  3. Local Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Mediates the Systemic Pathogenic Effects of Staphylococcus aureus Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Aaron N.; Stach, Christopher S.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Secreted factors of Staphylococcus aureus can activate host signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) contributes to mucosal cytokine production through a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands and subsequent EGFR activation. The secreted hemolysin, α-toxin, can also induce EGFR signaling and directly interacts with ADAM10, a sheddase of EGFR ligands. The current work explores the role of EGFR signaling in menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS), a disease mediated by TSST-1. The data presented show that TSST-1 and α-toxin induce ADAM- and EGFR-dependent cytokine production from human vaginal epithelial cells. TSST-1 and α-toxin also induce cytokine production from an ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa (PVM) model. EGFR signaling is responsible for the majority of IL-8 production from PVM in response to secreted toxins and live S. aureus. Finally, data are presented demonstrating that inhibition of EGFR signaling with the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 significantly increases survival in a rabbit model of mTSS. These data indicate that EGFR signaling is critical for progression of an S. aureus exotoxin-mediated disease and may represent an attractive host target for therapeutics. PMID:27414801

  4. The next generation of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Conor E; Khuri, Fadlo R; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2015-04-15

    The discovery of "driver" genomic alterations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically changed the field of thoracic oncology in recent years. The best understood of these molecular drivers are those involving the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which when aberrantly activated are integral to the development of a subset of NSCLC tumors. First-generation and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specific to the activated EGFR have shown significant efficacy and have brought about the era of targeted therapy for NSCLC. The most common resistance mechanism is a threonine-to-methionine substitution (T790M) in exon 20 of the EGFR gene. Although the previous standard of care in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that progressed on initial TKI therapy was chemotherapy, third-generation EGFR TKIs have now been developed and have yielded promising results for this population of patients with NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:25521095

  5. Phorbol ester and interferon-gamma modulation of epidermal growth factor receptors on human amniotic (WISH) cells.

    PubMed

    Karasaki, Y; Jaken, S; Komoriya, A; Zoon, K C

    1989-04-15

    In this study we report that pretreatment of human amniotic (WISH) cells with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) resulted in the down-modulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors with respect to both receptor number and affinity. Scatchard analysis of EGF binding in the absence of both IFN-gamma and TPA indicated biphasic binding whereas addition of TPA resulted in the loss of the higher affinity class of sites. Pretreatment with IFN-gamma for 24 h enhanced the TPA-induced inhibition of EGF binding whereas IFN-gamma alone had no effect on binding. Protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) was examined as a possible mediator of IFN-induced EGF-receptor modulation; pretreatment of cells with IFN-gamma affected neither the binding of [3H]phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate to membrane or cytosolic fractions nor the protein kinase C activity, suggesting that IFN-gamma pretreatment did not result in translocation or activation of protein kinase C. PMID:2495278

  6. Regulation of human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication by E2, glucocorticoid hormone and epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed

    Piccini, A; Storey, A; Romanos, M; Banks, L

    1997-08-01

    The E1 and E2 proteins are the only human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins required for transient replication of plasmids containing the viral origin. The E2 gene products play key roles in both viral transcription and replication. In this study we have analysed in further detail the nature of the association between E1 and E2 using a series of E2 proteins mutated in conserved regions of the N-terminal domain. These proteins were tested for their ability to activate transcription and to stimulate viral DNA replication. Several of these mutants revealed that the two functions of E2 can be separated, and that they define three widely spaced regions of the N-terminal domain which are important for DNA replication, two of which retain E1-binding activity. This suggests that E2 may have a role in viral DNA replication other than simply localizing E1 to the origin of replication. Additional important elements for regulating viral gene expression have been shown to be glucocorticoid hormones and epidermal growth factor (EGF). We show here that they may also be involved in regulating viral DNA replication. Our studies show that the addition of glucocorticoid hormone significantly stimulates viral DNA replication. In contrast, addition of EGF results in modest repression of viral DNA replication. These results have important implications for the pathogenesis of HPV infection and suggest that the relative levels of E2, glucocorticoid hormone and EGF may significantly affect the outcome of an HPV infection. PMID:9266995

  7. NEU1 Sialidase Expressed in Human Airway Epithelia Regulates Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and MUC1 Protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Lillehoj, Erik P.; Hyun, Sang Won; Feng, Chiguang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Anguo; Guang, Wei; Nguyen, Chinh; Luzina, Irina G.; Atamas, Sergei P.; Passaniti, Antonino; Twaddell, William S.; Puché, Adam C.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Cross, Alan S.; Goldblum, Simeon E.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cells (ECs) lining the airways provide a protective barrier between the external environment and the internal host milieu. These same airway epithelia express receptors that respond to danger signals and initiate repair programs. Because the sialylation state of a receptor can influence its function and is dictated in part by sialidase activity, we asked whether airway epithelia express catalytically active sialidase(s). Human primary small airway and A549 ECs expressed NEU1 sialidase at the mRNA and protein levels, and NEU1 accounted for >70% of EC sialidase activity. Blotting with Maackia amurensis and peanut agglutinin lectins established epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MUC1 as in vivo substrates for NEU1. NEU1 associated with EGFR and MUC1, and NEU1-EGFR association was regulated by EGF stimulation. NEU1 overexpression diminished EGF-stimulated EGFR Tyr-1068 autophosphorylation by up to 44% but enhanced MUC1-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by 1.6–1.7-fold and flagellin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation by 1.7–1.9-fold. In contrast, NEU1 depletion increased EGFR activation (1.5-fold) and diminished MUC1-mediated bacterial adhesion (38–56%) and signaling (73%). These data indicate for the first time that human airway epithelia express catalytically active NEU1 sialidase that regulates EGFR- and MUC1-dependent signaling and bacterial adhesion. NEU1 catalytic activity may offer an additional level of regulation over the airway epithelial response to ligands, pathogens, and injurious stimuli. PMID:22247545

  8. Heparin Binding–Epidermal Growth Factor-Like Growth Factor for the Regeneration of Chronic Tympanic Membrane Perforations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungwoo; Varsak, Yasin Kursad; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2015-01-01

    We aim to explore the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand shedding in tympanic membrane wound healing and to investigate the translation of its modulation in tissue engineering of chronic tympanic membrane perforations. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an infected chronic tympanic membrane perforation. Up to 200 million suffer from its associated hearing loss and it is the most common cause of pediatric hearing loss in developing countries. There is a need for nonsurgical treatment due to a worldwide lack of resources. In this study, we show that EGF ligand shedding is essential for tympanic membrane healing as it's inhibition, with KB-R7785, leads to chronic perforation in 87.9% (n=58) compared with 0% (n=20) of controls. We then show that heparin binding–EGF-like growth factor (5 μg/mL), which acts to shed EGF ligands, can regenerate chronic perforations in mouse models with 92% (22 of 24) compared with 38% (10 of 26), also with eustachian tube occlusion with 94% (18 of 19) compared with 9% (2 of 23) and with CSOM 100% (16 of 16) compared with 41% (7 of 17). We also show the nonototoxicity of this treatment and its hydrogel delivery vehicle. This provides preliminary data for a clinical trial where it could be delivered by nonspecialist trained healthcare workers and fulfill the clinical need for a nonsurgical treatment for chronic tympanic membrane perforation and CSOM. PMID:25567607

  9. Angiotensins processing activities in the venom and epidermic mucus of Scorpaena plumieri.

    PubMed

    Tenório, Humberto de Araújo; Costa, Ricardo Bezerra; Costa Marques, Maria Elizabeth; Victor Dos Santos, Claudio Wilian; Gomes, Francis Soares; Vieira Pereira, Hugo Juarez

    2016-09-01

    The venom of marine animals is a rich source of compounds with remarkable selectivity and functional diversity. Scorpaena plumieri is the most venomous fish in the Brazilian fauna and is responsible for relatively frequent accidents involving anglers and bathers. In humans, its venom causes edema, erythema, ecchymoses, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and syncope. The venom is chemically characterized by Sp-CTx, a enzyme able to generate an initial endothelium-dependent relaxation response, followed by a contraction response. This study sought to investigate the proteolytic activities regarding vasopeptides angiotensin I and II. Both the venom and the epidermal mucus presented angiotensin conversion activity for angiotensin I, as well as a capacity to form Ang 1-7 directly via Ang I and II. Captopril (10 μM) and EDTA (1 mM) were able to abolish the converting activity of the venom and the epidermal mucus, representing the first description of a converting activity in S. plumieri venom and epidermal mucus. PMID:27215174

  10. Clinical approaches to treat patients with non-small cell lung cancer and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor acquired resistance.

    PubMed

    Tartarone, Alfredo; Lerose, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutations (EGFR Mut+) has determined a paradigm shift in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In several phase III studies, patients with NSCLC EGFR Mut+ achieved a significantly better progression-free survival when treated with a first- (gefitinib, erlotinib) or second-generation (afatinib) EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) compared with standard chemotherapy. However, despite these impressive results, most patients with NSCLC EGFR Mut+ develop acquired resistance to TKIs. This review will discuss both the mechanisms of resistance to TKIs and the therapeutic strategies to overcome resistance, including emerging data on third-generation TKIs. PMID:26016841

  11. The prognostic value of epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA expression in primary ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J. M.; Langdon, S. P.; Simpson, B. J.; Stewart, M.; Katsaros, D.; Sismondi, P.; Love, S.; Scott, W. N.; Williams, A. R.; Lessells, A. M.; Macleod, K. G.; Smyth, J. F.; Miller, W. R.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 31% (23/75) expressed EGF mRNA and 35% (26/75) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. For the borderline tumours, four of six (67%) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 1/6 (17%) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA and none expressed EGF mRNA. Finally, 33% (5/15) of the benign tumours expressed EGF receptor mRNA, whereas 40% (6/15) expressed EGF mRNA and 7% (1/15) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. The presence of the EGF receptor in malignant tumours was associated with that of TGF-alpha (P = 0.0015) but not with EGF (P = 1.00), whereas there was no relationship between the presence of EGF and TGF-alpha (P = 1.00). EGF receptor mRNA expression was significantly and positively associated with serous histology (P = 0.006) but not with stage or grade. Neither EGF nor TGF-alpha showed any link with histological subtype or stage. The survival of patients with malignant tumours possessing EGF receptor mRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of patients whose tumours were negative (P = 0.030 for all malignant tumours; P = 0.007 for malignant epithelial tumours only). In contrast, neither the expression of TGF-alpha nor EGF was related to survival. These data suggest that the presence of EGF receptor mRNA is associated with poor prognosis in primary ovarian cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8562334

  12. Effects of epidermal growth factor-loaded mucoadhesive films on wounded oral tissue rafts.

    PubMed

    Ramineni, Sandeep K; Fowler, Craig B; Fisher, Paul D; Cunningham, Larry L; Puleo, David A

    2015-02-01

    Current treatments for traumatic oral mucosal wounds include the gold standard of autologous tissue and alternative tissue-engineered grafts. While use of autografts has disadvantages of minimal availability of oral keratinized tissue, second surgery, and donor site discomfort, tissue-engineered grafts are limited by their unavailability as off-the-shelf products owing to their fabrication time of 4-8 weeks. Hence, the current work aimed to develop a potentially cost-effective, readily available device capable of enhancing native mucosal regeneration. Considering the key role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promoting mucosal wound regeneration and the advantages of mucoadhesive delivery systems, mucoadhesive films composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone and carboxymethylcellulose were developed to provide sustained release of EGF for a minimum of 6 h. Bioactivity of released EGF supernatants was then confirmed by its ability to promote proliferation of BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Efficacy of the developed system was then investigated in vitro using buccal tissues (ORL 300-FT) as a potential replacement for small animal studies. Although the mucoadhesive films achieved their desired role of delivering bioactive EGF in a sustained manner, treatment with EGF, irrespective of its release from the films or solubilized in medium, caused a hyperparakeratotic response from in vitro tissues with distinguishable histological features including thickening of the spinous layer, intra- and intercellular edema, and pyknotic nuclei. These significant morphological changes were associated with no improvements in wound closure. These observations raise questions about the potential of using in vitro tissues as a wound healing model and substitute for small animal studies. The mucoadhesive delivery system developed, however, with its potential for sustained release of bioactive growth factors and small molecules, may be loaded with other desired compounds, with or without EGF, to accelerate

  13. Dysregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in premalignant lesions during head and neck tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, D M; Ro, J Y; Hong, W K; Hittelman, W N

    1994-06-15

    The development of head and neck cancer, believed to result from field cancerization and a multistep process of tumorigenesis, is often associated with an accumulation of genotypic and phenotypic alterations. The phenotypic changes could be the result of dysregulation of growth control genes such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). With the goal of identifying a potential biomarker of the multistep process of tumorigensis, we studied specimens of 36 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas from 5 different sites that contained normal epithelia and/or premalignant lesions adjacent to the tumors. Almost all of the individuals from whom these specimens were obtained had been exposed to first-hand smoking and/or alcohol consumption. Using a monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody for immunohistochemical analysis on paraffin-embedded sections with attached 886 cells for internal control, the levels of EGFR expression were assessed by image analysis. The relative staining intensity of EGFR in normal epithelia adjacent to tumors was 2-fold higher than that in normal control epithelium (P = 0.021), suggesting that, even in histologically normal epithelium, EGFR was already up-regulated in tissues surrounding tumors. These findings supported the theory of field cancerization in head and neck tumorigenesis. As tissue progressed from normal tissue adjacent to tumor to hyperplasia and to dysplasia, EGFR expression remained elevated. However, in the step from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma, EGFR expression was further and dramatically up-regulated (P = 0.01). Therefore, these results indicate that EGFR dysregulation happens in two steps, the moderate up-regulation of EGFR expression in normal epithelium adjacent to tumor and the further up-regulation of EGFR expression in the change from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. In summary, the studies presented here indicate that EGFR dysregulation might be a useful marker for identifying individuals at risk of tumor development

  14. Effects of Epidermal Growth Factor-Loaded Mucoadhesive Films on Wounded Oral Tissue Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Ramineni, Sandeep K.; Fowler, Craig B.; Fisher, Paul D.; Cunningham, Larry L.; Puleo, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments for traumatic oral mucosal wounds include the gold standard of autologous tissue and alternative tissue engineered grafts. While use of autografts has disadvantages of minimal availability of oral keratinized tissue, second surgery, and donor site discomfort, tissue engineered grafts are limited by their unavailability as off-the-shelf products owing to their fabrication time of 4–8 weeks. Hence, the current work aimed to develop a potentially cost-effective, readily available device capable of enhancing native mucosal regeneration. Considering the key role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promoting mucosal wound regeneration and the advantages of mucoadhesive delivery systems, mucoadhesive films composed of polyvinylpyrrolidone and carboxymethylcellulose were developed to provide sustained release of EGF for minimum of 6 hours. Bioactivity of released EGF supernatants was then confirmed by its ability to promote proliferation of BALB/3T3 fibroblasts. Efficacy of the developed system was then investigated in vitro using buccal tissues (ORL 300-FT) as a potential replacement for small animal studies. Although the mucoadhesive films achieved their desired role of delivering bioactive EGF in a sustained manner, treatment with EGF, irrespective of its release from the films or solubilized in medium, caused a hyperparakeratotic response from in vitro tissues with distinguishable histological features including thickening of the spinous layer, intra- and intercellular edema, and pyknotic nuclei. These significant morphological changes were associated with no improvements in wound closure. These observations raise questions about the potential of using in vitro tissues as a wound healing model and substitute for small animal studies. The mucoadhesive delivery system developed, however, with its potential for sustained release of bioactive growth factors and small molecules, may be loaded with other desired compounds, with or without EGF, to

  15. Axl mediates acquired resistance of head and neck cancer cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Giles, Keith M; Kalinowski, Felicity C; Candy, Patrick A; Epis, Michael R; Zhang, Priscilla M; Redfern, Andrew D; Stuart, Lisa M; Goodall, Gregory J; Leedman, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Elevated expression and activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development and progression of head and neck cancer (HNC) and a poor prognosis. Clinical trials with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., erlotinib) have been disappointing in HNC. To investigate the mechanisms mediating resistance to these agents, we developed an HNC cell line (HN5-ER) with acquired erlotinib resistance. In contrast to parental HN5 HNC cells, HN5-ER cells exhibited an epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) phenotype with increased migratory potential, reduced E-cadherin and epithelial-associated microRNAs (miRNA), and elevated vimentin expression. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase profiling identified Axl activation in HN5-ER cells. Growth and migration of HN5-ER cells were blocked with a specific Axl inhibitor, R428, and R428 resensitized HN5-ER cells to erlotinib. Microarray analysis of HN5-ER cells confirmed the EMT phenotype associated with acquired erlotinib resistance, and identified activation of gene expression associated with cell migration and inflammation pathways. Moreover, increased expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in HN5-ER cells suggested a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in EMT and erlotinib resistance. Expression of the tumor suppressor miR-34a was reduced in HN5-ER cells and increasing its expression abrogated Axl expression and reversed erlotinib resistance. Finally, analysis of 302 HNC patients revealed that high tumor Axl mRNA expression was associated with poorer survival (HR = 1.66, P = 0.007). In summary, our results identify Axl as a key mediator of acquired erlotinib resistance in HNC and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Axl by small molecule drugs or specific miRNAs might overcome anti-EGFR therapy resistance. PMID:24026012

  16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor mediated cellular and subcellular targeted delivery of Iron oxide core-Titanium dioxide shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye

    TiO2 nanomaterials can carry a multitude of therapeutic and diagnostic agents and the semiconductor properties of TiO2 allow for the production of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species following photoactivation. However, the delivery of these nanomaterials to specific cancer cells and specific subcellular organelles within these cells can have a substantial impact on the efficacy and safety of TiO2 nanoparticle therapeutics. Targeting cell surface receptors that are overexpressed by cancer cells is one strategy to improve the specificity of nanoparticle delivery. Therefore we decided to target the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) because ligand- binding induces rapid receptor endocytosis and ligand-bound EGFR can translocate to the nucleus of cancer cells. To create NPs that can bind EGFR, we identified a peptide derived from the B-loop of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) that has been shown to bind and activate EGFR and conjugated it to the surface of Fe3O4 core-TiO2 shell NPs to produce B-loop NCs. We then devised a pulldown assay to show that B-loop NCs, but not bare NPs or NCs carrying a scrambled B-loop peptide, can bind and extract EGFR from HeLa cell protein extracts. Interestingly, B-loop NCs can also pulldown importin-beta, a protein that can transport EGFR to the nucleus. Furthermore, we used flow cytometry and fluorescently labeled NPs to show that B-loop peptides can significantly improve the internalization of NPs by EGFR-expressing HeLa cells. We determined that B-loop NCs can bind EGFR on the membrane of HeLa cells and that these NCs can be transported to the nucleus, by using a combination of confocal microscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy (XFM) to indirectly and directly track the subcellular distribution of NCs. Finally, we demonstrate how the Bionanoprobe, a novel high-resolution XFM apparatus that can scan whole-mounted, frozen-hydrated cells at multiple angles can be used to verify the subcellular distribution of B-loop NCs.

  17. Combined Stimulation with the Tumor Necrosis Factor α and the Epidermal Growth Factor Promotes the Proliferation of Hepatocytes in Rat Liver Cultured Slices.

    PubMed

    Finot, Francis; Masson, Régis; Desmots, Fabienne; Ribault, Catherine; Bichet, Nicole; Vericat, Joan A; Lafouge, Patricia; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Loyer, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The culture liver slices are mainly used to investigate drug metabolism and xenobiotic-mediated liver injuries while apoptosis and proliferation remain unexplored in this culture model. Here, we show a transient increase in LDH release and caspase activities indicating an ischemic injury during the slicing procedure. Then, caspase activities decrease and remain low in cultured slices demonstrating a low level of apoptosis. The slicing procedure is also associated with the G0/G1 transition of hepatocytes demonstrated by the activation of stress and proliferation signalling pathways including the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 MAPKinases and the transient upregulation of c-fos. The cells further progress up to mid-G1 phase as indicated by the sequential induction of c-myc and p53 mRNA levels after the slicing procedure and at 24 h of culture, respectively. The stimulation by epidermal growth factor induces the ERK1/2 phosphorylation but fails to activate expression of late G1 and S phase markers such as cyclin D1 and Cdk1 indicating that hepatocytes are arrested in mid-G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, we found that combined stimulation by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and the epidermal growth factor promotes the commitment to DNA replication as observed in vivo during the liver regeneration. PMID:23119170

  18. Combined Stimulation with the Tumor Necrosis Factor α and the Epidermal Growth Factor Promotes the Proliferation of Hepatocytes in Rat Liver Cultured Slices

    PubMed Central

    Finot, Francis; Masson, Régis; Desmots, Fabienne; Ribault, Catherine; Bichet, Nicole; Vericat, Joan A.; Lafouge, Patricia; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Loyer, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The culture liver slices are mainly used to investigate drug metabolism and xenobiotic-mediated liver injuries while apoptosis and proliferation remain unexplored in this culture model. Here, we show a transient increase in LDH release and caspase activities indicating an ischemic injury during the slicing procedure. Then, caspase activities decrease and remain low in cultured slices demonstrating a low level of apoptosis. The slicing procedure is also associated with the G0/G1 transition of hepatocytes demonstrated by the activation of stress and proliferation signalling pathways including the ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 MAPKinases and the transient upregulation of c-fos. The cells further progress up to mid-G1 phase as indicated by the sequential induction of c-myc and p53 mRNA levels after the slicing procedure and at 24 h of culture, respectively. The stimulation by epidermal growth factor induces the ERK1/2 phosphorylation but fails to activate expression of late G1 and S phase markers such as cyclin D1 and Cdk1 indicating that hepatocytes are arrested in mid-G1 phase of the cell cycle. However, we found that combined stimulation by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α and the epidermal growth factor promotes the commitment to DNA replication as observed in vivo during the liver regeneration. PMID:23119170

  19. Does salinity reduce growth in maize root epidermal cells by inhibiting their capacity for cell wall acidification?

    PubMed

    Zidan, I; Azaizeh, H; Neumann, P M

    1990-05-01

    The reduction in growth of maize (Zea mays L.) seedling primary roots induced by salinization of the nutrient medium with 100 millimolar NaCl was accompanied by reductions in the length of the root tip elongation zone, the length of fully elongated epidermal cells, and the apparent rate of cell production: Each was partially restored when calcium levels in the salinized growth medium were increased from 0.5 to 10.0 millimolar. We investigated the possibility that the inhibition of elongation growth by salinity might be associated with an inhibition of cell wall acidification, such as that which occurs when root growth is inhibited by IAA. A qualitative assay of root surface acidification, using bromocresol purple pH indicator in agar, showed that salinized roots, with and without extra calcium, produced a zone of surface acidification which was similar to that produced by control roots. The zone of acidification began 1 to 2 millimeters behind the tip and coincided with the zone of cell elongation. The remainder of the root alkalinized its surface. Kinetics of surface acidification were assayed quantitatively by placing a flat tipped pH electrode in contact with the elongation zone. The pH at the epidermal surfaces of roots grown either with 100 millimolar NaCl (growth inhibitory), or with 10 millimolar calcium +/- NaCl (little growth inhibition), declined from 6.0 to 5.1 over 30 minutes. We conclude that NaCl did not inhibit growth by reducing the capacity of epidermal cells to acidify their walls. PMID:16667468

  20. Cross-talk between the calcium-sensing receptor and the epidermal growth factor receptor in Rat-1 fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlins, Scott A.; Bolllinger, Nikki; Creim, Jeffrey; Rodland, Karin D. . E-mail: Karin.rodland@pnl.gov

    2005-08-15

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is activated by extracellular calcium (Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}). Rat-1 fibroblasts have been shown to proliferate and increase ERK activity in response to elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub o}, and these responses are dependent on functional CaR expression. In this report, we examined the role of cross-talk between the CaR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mediating these responses in Rat-1 cells. This report shows that AG1478, a specific inhibitor of the EGFR kinase, significantly inhibits the increase in proliferation induced by elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. Furthermore, we show that AG1478 acts downstream or separately from G protein subunit activation of phospholipase C. AG1478 significantly inhibits Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}-stimulated ERK phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity. A similar inhibition of ERK phosphorylation was observed in response to the inhibitor AG494. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of metalloproteases involved in shedding of membrane anchored EGF family ligands substantially inhibited the increase in ERK activation in response to elevated Ca {sub o} {sup 2+}. This is consistent with the known expression of TGF{alpha} by Rat-1 cells. These results indicate that EGFR transactivation is an important component of the CaR-mediated response to increased Ca {sub o} {sup 2+} in Rat-1 fibroblasts and most likely involves CaR-mediated induction of regulated proteolysis and ligand shedding.

  1. Cytogenetic evaluation of human glial tumors: correlation of overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFB) with abnormalities of chromosome 7

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome banding analysis of human glial tumors were performed using G- and Q-banding techniques in an attempt to establish recurring sites of chromosome change. Results revealed a nonrandom karyotypic profile including aneuploidy and considerable variation in chromosome number (range 40 ..-->.. 200). All tumors examined displayed numerical abnormalities, with the most common numeric change being a gain of chromosome 7. An attempt was then made to correlate the observed chromosome 7 changes with activation of the cellular proto-oncogene c-erb-B, whose produce is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Six human glial tumors were analyzed for /sup 125/I-EGF binding, EGFR gene copy number, EGFR gene rearrangement, mRNA expression, and karyotypic profile. Saturation analysis at 4/sup 0/C revealed significant numbers of EGFR's in all 6 tumors. Southern blotting analysis utilizing cDNA probes for the EGFR failed to demonstrate significant amplification or structural rearrangement of the EFGR gene. The results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR may be related to an alternative mechanism, other than gene amplification and elevated mRNA levels, such as the regulation of receptor biosynthesis and degradation. In summary, findings indicate that alterations of chromosome 7 are the most prevalent chromosomal change in human glial tumors, and that these alterations may lead to overexpression of the protooncogene c-erb-B.

  2. Targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-expressing tumor cells with sterically stabilized affibody liposomes (SAL).

    PubMed

    Beuttler, Julia; Rothdiener, Miriam; Müller, Dafne; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Kontermann, Roland E

    2009-06-01

    Affibody molecules are small and stable antigen-binding molecules derived from the B domain of protein A. We applied a bivalent, high-affinity epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific affibody molecule for the generation of targeted PEGylated liposomes. These sterically stabilized affibody liposomes (SAL) were produced by chemical coupling of the cysteine-modified affibody molecule to maleimide-PEG(2000)-DSPE and subsequent insertion into PEGylated liposomes. These SAL showed strong and selective binding to EGFR-expressing tumor cell lines. Binding was dependent on the amount of inserted affibody molecule-lipid conjugates and could be blocked by soluble EGF. Approximately 30% of binding activity was still retained after 6 days of incubation in human plasma at 37 degrees C. Binding of SAL to cells led to efficient internalization of the liposomes. Using mitoxantrone-loaded liposomes, we observed for SAL, compared to untargeted liposomes, an enhanced cytotoxicity toward EGFR-expressing cells. In summary, we show that SAL can be easily prepared from affibody molecules and thus may be suitable for the development of carrier systems for targeted delivery of drugs. PMID:19435362

  3. Epidermal growth factor–stimulated Akt phosphorylation requires clathrin or ErbB2 but not receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Camilo; Judge, Gurjeet; Lucarelli, Stefanie; Bautista, Stephen; Pandey, Rohan; Singh, Tanveer; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to its receptor (EGFR) activates several signaling intermediates, including Akt, leading to control of cell survival and metabolism. Concomitantly, ligand-bound EGFR is incorporated into clathrin-coated pits—membrane structures containing clathrin and other proteins—eventually leading to receptor internalization. Whether clathrin might regulate EGFR signaling at the plasma membrane before vesicle scission is poorly understood. We compared the effect of clathrin perturbation (preventing formation of, or receptor recruitment to, clathrin structures) to that of dynamin2 (allowing formation of clathrin structures but preventing EGFR internalization) under conditions in which EGFR endocytosis is clathrin dependent. Clathrin perturbation by siRNA gene silencing, with the clathrin inhibitor pitstop2, or knocksideways silencing inhibited EGF-simulated Gab1 and Akt phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. In contrast, perturbation of dynamin2 with inhibitors or by siRNA gene silencing did not affect EGF-stimulated Gab1 or Akt phosphorylation. EGF stimulation enriched Gab1 and phospho-Gab1 within clathrin structures. ARPE-19 cells have low ErbB2 expression, and overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that robust ErbB2 expression bypassed the requirement for clathrin for EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Thus clathrin scaffolds may represent unique plasma membrane signaling microdomains required for signaling by certain receptors, a function that can be separated from vesicle formation. PMID:26246598

  4. Effects of epidermal growth factor on atrophic enteritis in piglets induced by experimental porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwonil; Kang, Bo-Kyu; Kim, Jeom-Yong; Shin, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Chul-Seung; Song, Dae-Sub

    2008-08-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes gastrointestinal mucosal recovery by stimulating the mitogenic activity of intestinal crypt epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EGF on atrophic enteritis induced in piglets by experimental infection with porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strain Dr13. Two groups of 12 conventional, colostrum-deprived, 1-day-old, large White-Duroc cross breed piglets were inoculated orally with PEDV (3 x 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses), with or without EGF (10 microg/kg/day, intraperitoneally once daily for 4 days after infection) and compared to 12 uninfected, untreated control piglets. PEDV+EGF piglets had less severe clinical signs than PEDV only piglets at 48 and 60 h post-infection (hpi). Histologically, the ratio of villous height:crypt depth of PEDV+EGF piglets was significantly higher than PEDV only piglets at 36 and 48 hpi. Immunohistochemistry for Ki67 demonstrated increased proliferation in intestinal crypt epithelial cells of PEDV+EGF piglets compared to PEDV only piglets at 36, 48 and 60 hpi. EGF stimulates proliferation of intestinal crypt epithelial cells and promotes recovery from atrophic enteritis in PEDV-infected piglets. PMID:17574457

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Status in the Treatment of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Ho; Srimuninnimit, Vichien; Cheng, Rebecca; Wang, Xin; Orlando, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Advances in oncology research have led to identification of tumor-specific biomarkers, some of which are important predictive indicators and ideal targets for novel therapeutics. One such biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Patients with NSCLC who harbor an activating EGFR mutation show a more favorable response to treatment with an EGFR inhibitor, such as gefitinib, erlotinib, or afatinib, than to chemotherapy. The prevalence of EGFR mutations in East Asian patients is higher than that in other populations, and in some clinical settings, patients have been treated with EGFR inhibitors based on clinicopathologic characteristics with no information on EGFR status. However, based on results from a series of studies in which East Asian patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC were treated with EGFR inhibitors alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy, this may not be the best practice because EGFR mutation status was found to be a key predictor of outcome. Data from these studies highlight the necessity of EGFR testing in determining the most suitable treatment for patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC. PMID:25943319

  6. Management of hyperglycemia from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting T790M-mediated resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ersek, Jennifer L.; Fong, Mei Ka; Sirianno, Lindsey; Story, Ellen S.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. Although studies show an increased progression free survival (PFS) with use of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting, most patients will develop resistance to therapy after the first 8-16 months. T790M is an acquired resistance mutation reported in 60-70% of patients who initially responded to a prior EGFR TKI. Recently, EGFR TKIs targeting T790M have been developed to overcome resistance with positive results in PFS and objective response rate in patients who have had disease progression on at least one TKI. Two EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are new active treatment options for NSCLC but differ in adverse effect profiles. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been reported with rociletinib and has required dose reduction, an oral antihyperglycemic, or both, without discontinuation of therapy. This suggests that patients may be effectively treated chronically for hyperglycemia associated with EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, however, guidelines for treatment of hyperglycemia in this setting have not been published. We discuss mechanisms of hyperglycemia associated with TKIs and initial management of hyperglycemia, including benefits and limitations of oral antihyperglycemic options, adjustment of therapy based on grade of hyperglycemia, and recommendations for follow-up glucose monitoring. PMID:26629426

  7. Management of hyperglycemia from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting T790M-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Villadolid, Jeryl; Ersek, Jennifer L; Fong, Mei Ka; Sirianno, Lindsey; Story, Ellen S

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are associated with sensitivity to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as erlotinib, gefitinib, and afatinib. Although studies show an increased progression free survival (PFS) with use of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting, most patients will develop resistance to therapy after the first 8-16 months. T790M is an acquired resistance mutation reported in 60-70% of patients who initially responded to a prior EGFR TKI. Recently, EGFR TKIs targeting T790M have been developed to overcome resistance with positive results in PFS and objective response rate in patients who have had disease progression on at least one TKI. Two EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, AZD9291 and rociletinib, are new active treatment options for NSCLC but differ in adverse effect profiles. Dose-limiting hyperglycemia has been reported with rociletinib and has required dose reduction, an oral antihyperglycemic, or both, without discontinuation of therapy. This suggests that patients may be effectively treated chronically for hyperglycemia associated with EGFR TKIs targeting T790M, however, guidelines for treatment of hyperglycemia in this setting have not been published. We discuss mechanisms of hyperglycemia associated with TKIs and initial management of hyperglycemia, including benefits and limitations of oral antihyperglycemic options, adjustment of therapy based on grade of hyperglycemia, and recommendations for follow-up glucose monitoring. PMID:26629426

  8. Epidermal growth factor inhibits the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin in the isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubule.

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, M D; Jacobson, H R; Breyer, J A

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid polypeptide which is a potent mitogen for cultured cells. The kidney has recently been shown to be a major site of synthesis for the EGF precursor. EGF infusions in sheep result in a diuresis and natriuresis despite a fall in GFR, suggesting a direct tubular effect. Using in vitro microperfusion of rabbit cortical collecting tubules (CCTs) at 37 degrees C, we examined the effect of EGF on the transepithelial voltage (Vt) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated hydraulic conductivity (Lp). Pretreatment with peritubular EGF at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-12) M resulted in a 50% inhibition of both AVP- and 8-chlorophenythio-cyclic AMP-stimulated peak Lp. This effect was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine, but unaffected by indomethacin. CCTs with an initially negative Vt, depolarized after exposure to bath EGF. 10(-8) M EGF applied from the lumen had no effect on either Lp or Vt. Specific binding of 20 nM 125I-EGF to microdissected CCTs was also demonstrated. These results suggest that EGF can modulate both salt and water transport in the CCT via a receptor linked to protein kinase C activation. Images PMID:2844852

  9. MIIP accelerates epidermal growth factor receptor protein turnover and attenuates proliferation in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Fu, Jianhua; Ling, Yihong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) has been discovered recently to have inhibitory functions in cell proliferation and migration. Overexpression of MIIP reduced the intracellular steady-state level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein in lung cancer cells with no effect on EGFR mRNA expression compared to that in the control cells. This MIIP-promoted EGFR protein degradation was reversed by proteasome and lysosome inhibitors, suggesting the involvement of both proteasomal and lysosomal pathways in this degradation. This finding was further validated by pulse-chase experiments using 35S-methionine metabolic labeling. We found that MIIP accelerates EGFR protein turnover via proteasomal degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum and then via the lysosomal pathway after its entry into endocytic trafficking. MIIP-stimulated downregulation of EGFR inhibits downstream activation of Ras and blocks the MEK signal transduction pathway, resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. The negative correlation between MIIP and EGFR protein expression was validated in lung adenocarcinoma samples. Furthermore, the higher MIIP protein expression predicts a better overall survival of Stage IA-IIIA lung adenocarcinoma patients who underwent radical surgery. These findings reveal a new mechanism by which MIIP inhibits cell proliferation. PMID:26824318

  10. LINC01225 promotes occurrence and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in an epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Zhang, W; Tang, J; Huang, R; Li, J; Xu, D; Xie, Y; Jiang, R; Deng, L; Zhang, X; Chai, Y; Qin, X; Sun, B

    2016-01-01

    The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have long been clarified to participate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as a biomarker. We carried out the present study in order to identify HCC-related lncRNAs and elucidate the functional roles in the development and progression of HCC. Our previous study has provided that LINC01225 may be an HCC-related gene. Here, we verified that LINC01225 was upregulated in HCC. Knockdown of LINC01225 resulted in inhibited cell proliferation and invasion with activated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro. Overexpression of LINC01225 in LINC01225 knockdown cells presented that attenuated cell proliferation and invasion were restored and enhanced. Subcutaneous and tail vein/intraperitoneal injection xenotransplantation model in vivo validated reduced tumor progression and metastasis. Investigation of mechanism found that LINC01225 could bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and increase the protein level of EGFR, and subsequently fine tune the EGFR/Ras/Raf-1/MEK/MAPK signaling pathway. Analysis with clinicopathological information suggested a high expression of LINC01225 is positively associated with poor prognosis. We also proved that LINC01225 was stably expressed in serum and can act as a novel biomarker in predicting the diagnosis of HCC. As a conclusion, LINC01225 plays a crucial role in HCC and can act as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. PMID:26938303

  11. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 mediates epidermal growth factor signaling to promote cell migration in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Genbao; Wang, Jie; Li, Yuanxia; Liu, Xiuwen; Xie, Xiaodong; Wan, Xiaolei; Yan, Meina; Jin, Jie; Lin, Qiong; Zhu, Haitao; Zhang, Liuping; Gong, Aihua; Shao, Qixiang; Wu, Chaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic abnormalities play a vital role in the progression of ovarian cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) acts as an epigenetic regulator and is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. However, the upstream regulator of LSD1 expression in this cancer remains elusive. Here, we show that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling upregulates LSD1 protein levels in SKOV3 and HO8910 ovarian cancer cells overexpressing both LSD1 and the EGF receptor. This effect is correlated with a decrease in the dimethylation of H3K4, a major substrate of LSD1, in an LSD1-dependent manner. We also show that inhibition of PI3K/AKT, but not MEK, abolishes the EGF-induced upregulation of LSD1 and cell migration, indicating that the PI3K/PDK1/AKT pathway mediates the EGF-induced expression of LSD1 and cell migration. Significantly, LSD1 knockdown or inhibition of LSD1 activity impairs both intrinsic and EGF-induced cell migration in SKOV3 and HO8910 cells. These results highlight a novel mechanism regulating LSD1 expression and identify LSD1 as a promising therapeutic target for treating metastatic ovarian cancer driven by EGF signaling. PMID:26489763

  12. Stimulation of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production by phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor in porcine thyroid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, K.; Hiraiwa, M.; Emoto, T.; Akimoto, K.; Takaoka, T.; Shimoda, S.I.

    1987-07-13

    Effects of phorbol esters and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production by cultured porcine thyroid cells were examined. Both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and EGF stimulated prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production by the cells in dose related fashion. PMA stimulated prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production over fifty-fold with the dose of 10/sup -7/ M compared with control. EGF (10/sup -7/ M) also stimulated it about ten-fold. The ED/sub 50/ values of PMA and EGF were respectively around 1 x 10/sup -9/ M and 5 x 10/sup -10/ M. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), however, did not stimulate prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production from 1 to 24-h incubation. The release of radioactivity from (/sup 3/H)-arachidonic acid prelabeled cells was also stimulated by PMA and EGF, but not by TSH. These results indicate that both PMA and EGF are potent stimulators of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ production, associated with the activity to stimulate arachidonic acid release in porcine thyroid cells. 36 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  13. Heparin-Binding Epidermal Growth Factor and Its Receptors Mediate Decidualization and Potentiate Survival of Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chobotova, Katya; Karpovich, Natalia; Carver, Janet; Manek, Sanjiv; Gullick, William J.; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) has pleiotropic biological functions in many tissues, including those of the female reproductive tract. It facilitates embryo development and mediates implantation and is thought to have a function in endometrial receptivity and maturation. The mature HB-EGF molecule manifests its activity as either a soluble factor (sol-HB-EGF) or a transmembrane precursor (tm-HB-EGF) and can bind two receptors, EGFR and ErbB4/HER4. In this study, we identify factors that modulate expression of HB-EGF, EGFR, and ErbB4 in endometrial stromal cells in vitro. We demonstrate that levels of sol- and tm-HB-EGF, EGFR, and ErbB4 are increased by cAMP, a potent inducer of decidualization of the endometrial stroma. We also show that production of sol- and tm-HB-EGF is differentially modulated by TNFα and TGFβ. Our data suggest that HB-EGF has a function in endometrial maturation in mediating decidualization and attenuating TNFα- and TGFβ-induced apoptosis of endometrial stromal cells. PMID:15562026

  14. Membrane contacts between endosomes and ER provide sites for PTP1B-epidermal growth factor receptor interaction.

    PubMed

    Eden, Emily R; White, Ian J; Tsapara, Anna; Futter, Clare E

    2010-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a critical determinator of cell fate. Signalling from this receptor tyrosine kinase is spatially regulated by progression through the endocytic pathway, governing receptor half-life and accessibility to signalling proteins and phosphatases. Endocytosis of EGFR is required for interaction with the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B (ref. 1), which localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising the question of how PTP1B comes into contact with endosomal EGFR. We show that EGFR-PTP1B interaction occurs by means of direct membrane contacts between the perimeter membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and the ER. The population of EGFR interacting with PTP1B is the same population that undergo ESCRT-mediated (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) sorting within MVBs, and PTP1B activity promotes the sequestration of EGFR on to MVB internal vesicles. Membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER form in both the presence and absence of stimulation by EGF. Thus membrane contacts between endosomes and the ER may represent a global mechanism for direct interaction between proteins on these two organelles. PMID:20118922

  15. Diphtheria Toxin-Epidermal Growth Factor Fusion Protein DAB389EGF for the treatment of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Kessler, Elizabeth; Su, Lih-Jen; Thorburn, Andrew; Frankel, Arthur E.; Li, Yuan; La Rosa, Francisco G.; Shen, Jingping; Li, Chuan-Yuan; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Glodé, L. Michael; Flaig, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The novel fusion protein, DAB389EGF, is comprised of both the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin that are fused to the human epidermal growth factor, providing a targeting and a toxicity component. We tested DAB389EGF for anti-tumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo urinary bladder cancer models. Experimental Design Human bladder cancer lines were treated with DAB389EGF and assessed for growth inhibition and clonogenic suppression. Using 6–8 week old female athymic nude mice implanted orthotopically with HTB9 cells, DAB389EGF was administered intravesically twice weekly for two weeks. The response of the luciferase expressing HTB9 cells was monitored via bioluminescence as the primary endpoint.. Results Treatment response with DAB389EGF was specific and robust, with an IC50 ranging from 0.5 to 15ng/ml in 8 tested bladder cancer cell lines, but greater than 50ng/ml in the EGFR-negative H520 control cell line. Simulating short duration intravesical therapy used clinically, a 2 hour treatment exposure of DAB389EGF (10ng/ml) produced clonogenic suppression in three selected bladder cancer cell lines. In vivo, luciferase activity was suppressed in 5 of 6 mice treated with DAB389EGF (70 μl (1ng/μL) per mouse), as compared to only 1 of 6 mice treated with a control DT fusion protein. Histologic assessment of tumor clearance correlated with the bioluminescent changes observed with DAB389EGF treatment. Immunocompetent mice treated with intravesical DAB389EGF did not demonstrate any non-specific systemic toxicity. Conclusions The intravesical delivery of targeted-toxin fusion proteins is a novel treatment approach for non-muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer. With appropriate targeting, the treatments are effective and well tolerated in vivo. PMID:23172881

  16. Antiestrogen fulvestrant enhances the antiproliferative effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garon, Edward B.; Pietras, Richard J.; Finn, Richard S.; Kamranpour, Naeimeh; Pitts, Sharon; Márquez-Garbán, Diana C.; Desai, Amrita J.; Dering, Judy; Hosmer, Wylie; von Euw, Erika M.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and its interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a potential therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To explore cross-communication between ER and EGFR, we have correlated ER pathway gene and protein expression profiles and examined effects of antiestrogens with or without EGFR inhibitors in preclinical models of human NSCLC. Methods We evaluated 54 NSCLC cell lines for growth inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, antiestrogen treatment or the combination. Each line was evaluated for baseline ER pathway protein expression. The majority were also evaluated for baseline ER pathway gene expression. Human NSCLC xenografts were evaluated for effects of inhibition of each pathway either individually or in combination. Results The specific antiestrogen fulvestrant has modest single agent activity in vitro, but in many lines fulvestrant adds to effects of EGFR inhibitors, including synergy in the EGFR mutant, erlotinib-resistant H1975 line. ERα, ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR)-A, PR-B and aromatase proteins are expressed in all lines to varying degrees, with trends towards lower aromatase in more sensitive cell lines. Sensitivity to fulvestrant correlates with greater baseline ERα gene expression. Tumor stability is achieved in human tumor xenografts with either fulvestrant or EGFR inhibitors, but tumors regress significantly when both pathways are inhibited. Conclusions These data provide a rationale for further investigation of the antitumor activity of combined therapy with antiestrogen and anti-EGFR agents in the clinic. Future work should also evaluate dual ER and EGFR inhibition in the setting of secondary resistance to EGFR inhibition. PMID:23399957

  17. Development of novel epidermal growth receptor-basedradiopharmaceuticals: Imaging agents for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Van Brocklin, Henry F.

    2001-09-25

    The goal of this research was to develop epidermal growthfactor receptor (EGFR) nuclear medicine breast cancer imaging agents. Ourapproach was to synthesize small molecule inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosinekinase (tk) suitable for labeling with single photon or positron-emittingradioisotopes and evaluate the imaging potential of these new molecules.We have synthesized and fully characterized 22 quinazoline compounds. Allcompounds inhibit EGFR tk phosphorylation activity in the nanomolarrange. All compounds tested exhibited specificity for the EGFR tk versusthe ErbB2 and ErbB4 tyrosine kinases. A radiometric binding assay usingan iodine-125 labeled quinazoline was developed to determine the affinityof the quinazolines for the EGFR tk ATP binding site. The affinitiesranged from 0.4-51 nM. The octanol/water partition coefficients (Log P;lipophilicity) of the new compounds ranged from 2.2-5.5. Six compoundshave been labeled with fluorine-18. Biodistribution in EGFRoverexpressing tumor bearing mice demonstrated tumor uptake buthighlighted delivery and metabolism issues. The 2-fluoro quinazoline wasnot metabolized in an in vitro hepatocyte study. From this work a breadthof agent characteristics was created establishing the foundation forfuture research toward the optimal EGFR imaging agent.

  18. GRHL3/GET1 and Trithorax Group Members Collaborate to Activate the Epidermal Progenitor Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Gordon, William; Klein, Rachel Herndon; Espitia, Francisco; Daily, Kenneth; Zeller, Michael; Baldi, Pierre; Andersen, Bogi

    2012-01-01

    The antagonistic actions of Polycomb and Trithorax are responsible for proper cell fate determination in mammalian tissues. In the epidermis, a self-renewing epithelium, previous work has shown that release from Polycomb repression only partially explains differentiation gene activation. We now show that Trithorax is also a key regulator of epidermal differentiation, not only through activation of genes repressed by Polycomb in progenitor cells, but also through activation of genes independent of regulation by Polycomb. The differentiation associated transcription factor GRHL3/GET1 recruits the ubiquitously expressed Trithorax complex to a subset of differentiation genes. PMID:22829784

  19. Deposition of bioactive human epidermal growth factor in the egg white of transgenic hens using an oviduct-specific minisynthetic promoter.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Sub; Lee, Hyo Gun; Moon, Jong Kook; Lee, Hong Jo; Yoon, Jong Won; Yun, Bit Na Rae; Kang, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jiho; Kim, Hyunil; Han, Jae Yong; Han, Beom Ku

    2015-06-01

    Currently, transgenic animals have found a wide range of industrial applications and are invaluable in various fields of basic research. Notably, deposition of transgene-encoded proteins in the egg white (EW) of hens affords optimal production of genetically engineered biomaterials. In the present study, we developed a minisynthetic promoter modulating transgene transcription specifically in the hen's oviduct, and assayed the bioactivity of human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) driven by that promoter, after partial purification of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from transgenic hen eggs. Our minisynthetic promoter driving expression of chicken codon-optimized human epidermal growth factor (cEGF) features 2 consecutive estrogen response elements of the ovalbumin (OV) promoter, ligated with a 3.0 kb OV promoter region carrying OV regulatory elements, and a 5'-UTR. Subsequently, a 3'-UTR carrying the poly-A tail sequence of the OV gene was added after incorporation of the cEGF transgene. Finally, we partially purified cEGF from transgenic hen eggs and evaluated the biofunctional activities thereof in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro assay, EW-derived hEGF exhibited a proliferative effect on HeLa cells similar to that of commercial hEGF. In the in vivo assay, compared to the nontreated control, transgenic hen egg-derived EGF afforded slightly higher levels of re-epithelialization (via fibroplasia) and neovascularization of wounded skin of miniature pigs than did the commercial material. In conclusion, transgenic hens may be used to produce genetically engineered bioactive biomaterials driven by an oviduct-specific minisynthetic promoter. PMID:25690652

  20. A fibronectin scaffold approach to bispecific inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Stuart L; Engle, Linda J; Chao, Ginger; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Cao, Carolyn; Lin, Zheng; Yamniuk, Aaron; Hosbach, Jennifer; Brown, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Gokemeijer, Jochem; Morin, Paul; Morse, Brent; Carvajal, Irvith M; Fabrizio, David; Wright, Martin C; Das Gupta, Ruchira; Gosselin, Michael; Cataldo, Daniel; Ryseck, Rolf P; Doyle, Michael L; Wong, Tai W; Camphausen, Raymond T; Cload, Sharon T; Marsh, H Nicholas; Gottardis, Marco M

    2011-01-01

    Engineered domains of human fibronectin (Adnectins™) were used to generate a bispecific Adnectin targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), two transmembrane receptors that mediate proliferative and survival cell signaling in cancer. Single-domain Adnectins that specifically bind EGFR or IGF-IR were generated using mRNA display with a library containing as many as 1013 Adnectin variants. mRNA display was also used to optimize lead Adnectin affinities, resulting in clones that inhibited EGFR phosphorylation at 7 to 38 nM compared to 2.6 µM for the parental clone. Individual optimized Adnectins specific for blocking either EGFR or IGF-IR signaling were engineered into a single protein (EI-Tandem Adnectin). The EI-Tandems inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR and IGF-IR, induced receptor degradation and inhibited down-stream cell signaling and proliferation of human cancer cell lines (A431, H292, BxPC3 and RH41) with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 113 nM. Although Adnectins bound to EGFR at a site distinct from those of anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab, panitumumab and nimotuzumab, like the antibodies, the anti-EGFR Adnectins blocked the binding of EGF to EGFR. PEGylated EI-Tandem inhibited the growth of both EGFR and IGF-IR driven human tumor xenografts, induced degradation of EGFR and reduced EGFR phosphorylation in tumors. These results demonstrate efficient engineering of bispecific Adnectins with high potency and desired specificity. The bispecificity may improve biological activity compared to monospecific biologics as tumor growth is driven by multiple growth factors. Our results illustrate a technological advancement for constructing multi-specific biologics in cancer therapy. PMID:21099371

  1. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Signaling is Necessary for Epidermal Growth Factor Mediated Proliferation of SVZ Neural Precursors in vitro Following Neonatal Hypoxia–Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Alagappan, Dhivyaa; Ziegler, Amber N.; Chidambaram, Shravanthi; Min, Jungsoo; Wood, Teresa L.; Levison, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the importance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor co-signaling for rat neural precursor (NP) cell proliferation and self-renewal in the context of a developmental brain injury that is associated with cerebral palsy. Consistent with previous studies, we found that there is an increase in the in vitro growth of subventricular zone NPs isolated acutely after cerebral hypoxia–ischemia; however, when cultured in medium that is insufficient to stimulate the IGF type 1 receptor, neurosphere formation and the proliferative capacity of those NPs was severely curtailed. This reduced growth capacity could not be attributed simply to failure to survive. The growth and self-renewal of the NPs could be restored by addition of both IGF-I and IGF-II. Since the size of the neurosphere is predominantly due to cell proliferation we hypothesized that the IGFs were regulating progression through the cell cycle. Analyses of cell cycle progression revealed that IGF-1R activation together with EGFR co-signaling decreased the percentage of cells in G1 and enhanced cell progression into S and G2. This was accompanied by increases in expression of cyclin D1, phosphorylated histone 3, and phosphorylated Rb. Based on these data, we conclude that coordinate signaling between the EGF receptor and the IGF type 1 receptor is necessary for the normal proliferation of NPs as well as for their reactive expansion after injury. These data indicate that manipulations that maintain or amplify IGF signaling in the brain during recovery from developmental brain injuries will enhance the production of new brain cells to improve neurological function in children who are at risk for developing cerebral palsy. PMID:24904523

  2. Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor mediates muscarinic stimulation of focal adhesion kinase in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Calandrella, Sean O; Barrett, Kim E; Keely, Stephen J

    2005-04-01

    We have previously shown that the Gq protein coupled receptor (GqPCR) agonist, carbachol (CCh), transactivates and recruits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr)-dependent signaling mechanisms in intestinal epithelial cells. Increasing evidence suggests that GqPCR agonists can also recruit focal adhesion-dependent signaling pathways in some cell types. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if CCh stimulates activation of the focal adhesion-associated protein, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), in intestinal epithelia and, if so, to examine the signaling mechanisms involved. Experiments were carried out on monolayers of T84 cells grown on permeable supports. CCh rapidly induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in T84 cells. This effect was accompanied by phosphorylation of another focal adhesion-associated protein, paxillin, and association of FAK with paxillin. CCh-stimulated FAK phosphorylation was inhibited by a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, BAPTA/AM (20 microM), and was mimicked by thapsigargin (2 microM), which mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ in a receptor-independent fashion. CCh also induced association of FAK with the EGFr and FAK phosphorylation was attenuated by an EGFr inhibitor, tyrphostin AG1478, and an inhibitor of Src family kinases, PP2. The actin cytoskeleton disruptor, cytochalasin D (20 microM), abolished FAK phosphorylation in response to CCh but did not alter CCh-induced EGFr or ERK MAPK activation. In summary, these data demonstrate that agonists of GqPCRs have the ability to induce FAK activation in intestinal epithelial cells. GqPCR-induced FAK activation is mediated by via a pathway involving transactivation of the EGFr and alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:15389641

  3. Epidermal growth factor does not act as a primary cue for inducing developmental changes in suckling mouse jejunum.

    PubMed

    Ménard, D; Arsenault, P; Gallo-Payet, N

    1986-01-01

    The direct influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the differentiation and proliferation of small intestine was studied in organ culture. Eight-day-old mouse small intestine was cultured during 2 days in serum-free Leibovitz L-15 medium alone or supplemented with EGF (50, 100, and 500 ng/ml) either at room temperature or at 37 degrees C. Brush border membrane hydrolytic activities, namely, sucrase, lactase, glucoamylase, trehalase, maltase, and alkaline phosphatase, were assayed in the intestinal tissue as well as in the culture medium. None of the brush border enzymic activities was affected by the addition of EGF to the culture medium. This lack of effect is not temperature dependent since it occurred both at room temperature and at 37 degrees C. The addition of hydrocortisone (10(-6) M) to the culture medium induced the appearance of sucrase activity and increased the activity of the other brush border enzymes. The simultaneous addition of EGF with hydrocortisone did not influence the response of the intestinal explants to hydrocortisone. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content was determined while DNA synthesis was evaluated by the incorporation of (3H)-thymidine. The addition of EGF did not affect DNA content or (3H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA either at room temperature or at 37 degrees C. The EGF binding to epithelial cells did not significantly vary throughout the culture period and a down-regulation process occurred in presence of EGF. These observations strongly suggest that EGF does not act as a primary cue for inducing developmental changes in suckling mouse small intestine. It is proposed that EGF induces a systemic reaction in vivo that then influences the neonatal small intestine. PMID:3491891

  4. Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and endoplasmic reticulum stress in vascular remodeling induced by angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Takehiko; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Yamato; Elliott, Katherine J; Tilley, Douglas G; Davisson, Robin L; Park, Joon-Young; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms by which angiotensin II (AngII) elevates blood pressure and enhances end-organ damage seem to be distinct. However, the signal transduction cascade by which AngII specifically mediates vascular remodeling such as medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis remains incomplete. We have previously shown that AngII-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), and that this signaling is required for vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy but not for contractile signaling in response to AngII. Recent studies have implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in hypertension. Interestingly, EGFR is capable of inducing ER stress. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of EGFR and ER stress are critical components required for vascular remodeling but not hypertension induced by AngII. Mice were infused with AngII for 2 weeks with or without treatment of EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib, or ER chaperone, 4-phenylbutyrate. AngII infusion induced vascular medial hypertrophy in the heart, kidney and aorta, and perivascular fibrosis in heart and kidney, cardiac hypertrophy, and hypertension. Treatment with erlotinib as well as 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated vascular remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy but not hypertension. In addition, AngII infusion enhanced ADAM17 expression, EGFR activation, and ER/oxidative stress in the vasculature, which were diminished in both erlotinib-treated and 4-phenylbutyrate-treated mice. ADAM17 induction and EGFR activation by AngII in vascular cells were also prevented by inhibition of EGFR or ER stress. In conclusion, AngII induces vascular remodeling by EGFR activation and ER stress via a signaling mechanism involving ADAM17 induction independent of hypertension. PMID:25916723

  5. Inhibitory effects of tetrandrine on epidermal growth factor-induced invasion and migration in HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine has been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation and to inhibit metastatic effects in multiple cancer models in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of tetrandrine on the underlying mechanism of HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was focused on tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells following epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment, and Transwell, gelatin zymography, gene expression and immunoblotting assays were performed to investigate metastatic effects in vitro. Tetrandrine was observed to dose‑dependently inhibit EGF‑induced HT29 cell invasion and migration, however, no effect on cell viability occurred following exposure to tetradrine between 0.5 and 2 µM. Tetrandrine treatment inhibited the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 in a concentration‑dependent manner. The present study also found a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9 in the tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells. Tetrandrine also suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathway, including phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase and phosphorylated AKT, suppressing the gene expression of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9. Furthermore, tetrandrine triggered mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling through the suppressing the activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase. These data suggested that targeting EGFR signaling and its downstream molecules contributed to the inhibition of EGF‑induced HT29 cell metastasis caused by tetrandrine, eventually leading to a reduction in the mRNA and gelatinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. PMID:26648313

  6. Surfactant protein D suppresses lung cancer progression by downregulation of epidermal growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Takahashi, M; Ariki, S; Asakawa, D; Tajiri, M; Wada, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Nishitani, C; Takamiya, R; Saito, A; Uehara, Y; Hashimoto, J; Kurimura, Y; Takahashi, H; Kuroki, Y

    2015-02-12

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a member of the collectin family that has an important role in maintaining pulmonary homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that SP-D inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. We found that SP-D suppressed epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling in A549 cells, H441 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and human EGF receptor (EGFR) stable expression CHO-K1 cells. A binding study using (125)I-EGF demonstrated that SP-D downregulated the binding of EGF to EGFR. A ligand blot indicate